Rulers

Countries An-Az

Contents of this page:
Andorra - Angola - Anguilla - Antigua and Barbuda - Argentina - Armenia - Aruba - Australia - Austria - Azerbaijan

Andorra

 8 Sep 1278                sovereignty shared between the count of Foix (France) and
                           the bishop of Urgel (Spain)
       1589                the county of Foix becomes part of the crown lands; the
                           corresponding title of Andorran coprince is since held by
                           the French head of state
       1793 - 27 Mar 1806  France renounces position of coprince
26 Jan 1812 -  1 Dec 1813  annexed by France (part of Sègre [from 7 Mar 1813,
                           Sègre-Ter] département)

Coprinces (French heads of state)
       1589 -        1793  see France
27 Mar 1806 -              see France
Coprinces (bishops of Urgel)
 4 Jul 1695 - 17 Jan 1714  Julià Cano i Thebar                (b. 1646 - d. 1719)
17 Sep 1714 - 27 Aug 1737  Simeó de Guinda y Apéztegui        (b. 1669 - d. 1737)
 5 May 1738 - 12 May 1747  Jordi Curado y Torreblanca         (b. 1682 - d. 1749)
15 May 1747 -  2 Oct 1756  Sebastià Josep de Victoria de
                           Emparán y de Loyola                (b. 1683 - d. 1756)
 6 May 1757 -  8 Sep 1762  Francesc Josep Catalán de Ocón     (b. 1701 - d. 1762)
10 May 1763 - 22 Apr 1771  Francesc Fernández de Xátiva y
                           Contreras                          (b. 1704 - d. 1771)
 7 Jan 1772 - 15 May 1779  Joaquín de Santiyán y Valdivielso  (b. 1733 - d. 1783)
27 Nov 1780 - 23 May 1783  Joan de García y Montenegro        (b. 1716 - d. 1783)
31 Mar 1785 -  8 Dec 1795  Josep de Boltas i Vélez            (b. 1738 - d. 1795)
29 Oct 1797 - 23 Sep 1816  Francesc Antoni de la Dueña y
                           Cisneros                           (b. 1753 - d. 1821)
28 Jul 1817 - 27 Sep 1824  Bernat Francés y Caballero         (b. 1774 - d. 1843)
20 Dec 1824 - 22 May 1827  Isidor Bonifaci López y Pulido     (b. 1774 - d. 1827)
 4 Nov 1828 - 22 Aug 1851  Simó Rojas de Guardiola i
                           Hortoneda                          (b. 1773 - d. 1851)
10 Mar 1853 - 26 Aug 1879  Josep Caixal i Estradé             (b. 1803 - d. 1879)
26 Aug 1879 - 24 Sep 1901  Salvador Casañas i Pagès           (b. 1834 - d. 1908)
                           (acting to 22 Sep 1879 and from 27 Jul 1901)
24 Sep 1901 - 27 Dec 1901  Ramon Riu i Cabanes                (b. 1853 - d. 1901)
 2 Jan 1902 - 10 Sep 1902  Toribio Martín (acting)            (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
10 Sep 1902 -  6 Dec 1906  Joan Josep Laguarda i Fenollera    (b. 1866 - d. 1913)
30 Apr 1907 - 11 Jul 1907  Josep Pujargimon Camardons
                           (acting)
11 Jul 1907 -  7 Jan 1919  Joan Baptista Benlloch i Vivó      (b. 1864 - d. 1926)
 2 Jul 1919 -  1 Jun 1920  Jaume Viladrich i Gaspa (acting)   (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
 1 Jun 1920 - 31 Jan 1940  Justí Guitart i Vilardebò          (b. 1875 - d. 1940)
 2 Feb 1940 - 15 Apr 1943  Ricard Fornesa i Puigdemasa
                           (acting)
15 Apr 1943 - 19 Jun 1969  Ramon Iglésias Navarri             (b. 1889 - d. 1972)
19 Jun 1969 - 31 Jan 1971  Ramon Malla Call (acting)          (b. 1922 - d. 2014)
31 Jan 1971 - 12 May 2003  Joan Martí Alanís                  (b. 1928 - d. 2009)
12 May 2003 -              Joan Enric Vives Sicília           (b. 1949)
Personal representatives of the French coprince
   Sep 1993 -    Feb 1997  Jean-Yves Caullet                  (b. 1957)
   Feb 1997 -    May 1999  Pierre de Bousquet de Florian      (b. 1954)
   May 1999 -    Jul 2002  Frédéric de Saint-Sernin           (b. 1958)
   Jul 2002 -    Jun 2007  Philippe Massoni                   (b. 1936)
   Jun 2007 -    Sep 2008  Emmanuelle Mignon (f)              (b. 1968)
   Sep 2008 -    May 2012  Christian Frémont                  (b. 1942 - d. 2014)
   May 2012 -              Sylvie Hubac (f)                   (b. 1956)
Personal representatives of the episcopal coprince
       1993 - 20 Jul 2012  Nemesi Marquès Oste                (b. 1935)
20 Jul 2012 -              Josep Maria Mauri Prior            (b. 1941)

First syndics (from 4 May 1993, general syndics) 1841 - 1847 Josep Picart 1847 - 1858 Bonaventura Riba (acting) 1858 - 1861 Gil Areny 1861 - 1865 Francesc Duran (1st time) 1865 - 1866 Joaquim de Riba 1866 - 1868 Guillem Areny de Plandolit 1868 - 1875 Nicolau Duedra 1875 - 1878 Guillem Mora 1878 - 1880 Bonaventura Moles 1880 - 1881 Joan Pla Calvo 1881 Josep Palmitjavila (1st time) 1881 - 1883 Francesc Duran (2nd time) 1884 - 1885 Josep Palmitjavila (2nd time) 1886 Francesc Duran (3rd time) 1886 - 1888 Francesc Maestre 1888 - 1897 Antoni Moles (jointly with following) 1893 - 1898 Bonaventura Maestre (1st time) 1899 - 1901 Josep Calva 1902 - 1905 Bonaventura Maestre (2nd time) 1906 - 1911 Pere Moles 1911 - 1912 Bonaventura Maestre (3rd time) 1912 - 1915 Bonaventura Moles 1915 - 1917 Pere Font (1st time) 1918 - 1920 Josep Vilanova 1920 Josep Grepa (acting) 1920 - 1923 Bonaventura Villarubia 1924 - 1927 Pere Font (2nd time) 1928 - 19 Aug 1933 Roc Pallares Sep 1933 - 1936 Pere Torres 1936 - 1937 Francesc Molné 1937 - 1 Jan 1961 Francesc Cairat Freixes (b. 1880? - d. 19...) 1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1966 Julià Reig-Ribó (1st time) (b. 1911 - d. 1996) 31 Dec 1966 - 29 Dec 1972 Francesc Escudé Ferrero (b. ... - d. 1996) 29 Dec 1972 - 30 Dec 1978 Julià Reig-Ribó (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Dec 1978 - 4 Jan 1982 Estanislau Sangrà Font (b. 1946) 4 Jan 1982 - 12 Jan 1990 Francesc Cerqueda Pascuet (b. 1942) 12 Jan 1990 - 15 Feb 1991 Josep Maria Beal Benedico 15 Feb 1991 - 12 Apr 1992 Albert Gelabert 12 Apr 1992 - 19 Jan 1994 Jordi Farràs Forné 19 Jan 1994 - 10 Mar 1997 Josep Dallerès Codina (1st time) (b. 1949) 10 Mar 1997 - 17 May 2005 Francesc Areny Casal (b. 1959) 17 May 2005 - 19 May 2009 Joan Gabriel Estany (b. 1963) 19 May 2009 - 28 Apr 2011 Josep Dallerès Codina (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Apr 2011 - Vicenç Mateu Zamora (b. 1961) Heads of government 8 Jan 1982 - 21 May 1984 Òscar Ribas Reig (1st time) (b. 1936) 21 May 1984 - 12 Jan 1990 Josep Pintat-Solans (b. 1925 - d. 2007) 12 Jan 1990 - 7 Dec 1994 Òscar Ribas Reig (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Dec 1994 - 27 May 2005 Marc Forné Molné (b. 1946) 27 May 2005 - 5 Jun 2009 Albert Pintat Santolària (b. 1943) 5 Jun 2009 - 28 Apr 2011 Jaume Bartumeu Cassany (b. 1954) 28 Apr 2011 - 12 May 2011 Pere López Agràs (acting) 12 May 2011 - Antoni Martí Petit (b. 1963)

Angola

 1 Feb 1575                Portuguese colony
11 Jun 1951                Portuguese overseas province
11 Nov 1975                independence (People's Republic of Angola)
27 Aug 1992                Republic of Angola

Governors
       1698 -        1701  Luís César de Meneses              (b. 1653 - d. 1720)
       1701 -        1702  Bernardino de Tavora de Sousa
                           Tavares                            (b. 16... - d. 1702)
       1705 -        1709  Lourenço de Almada                 (b. c.1650 - d. 1729)
       1709 -        1713  António de Saldanha de Albuquerque
                           Castro e Ribafria
       1713 -        1717  João Manuel de Noronha
       1717 -        1722  Henrique de Figueiredo e Alarcão
       1722 -        1725  António de Albuquerque Coelho
                           de Carvalho
       1725 -        1726  José Carvalho da Costa (acting)
       1726 -        1732  Paulo Caetano de Albuquerque       (b. ... - d. 1732)
       1732 -        1738  Rodrigo César de Meneses
       1738 -        1748  Joaquim Jacques de Magalhães       (b. ... - d. 1748)
       1748 -        1749  Fonseca Coutinho (acting)
       1749 -        1753  António de Almeida Soares e
                           Portugal, conde do Lavradio        (b. 1699 - d. 1761)
       1753 -        1758  António Alvares da Cunha
       1758 -        1764  António de Vasconcelos
       1764 -        1772  Francisco Inocéncio de Sousa
                           Coutinho
       1772 -        1779  António de Lencastre               (b. 1721 - d. ...)
       1779 -        1782  José Gonçalo da Gama
       1784 -        1790  José de Almeida e Vasconcelos,
                           barão de Moçâmedes                 (b. 1737 - d. 18...)
       1790 -        1797  Manuel de Almeida e Vasconcelos,
                           visconde da Lapa
       1797 -        1802  Miguel António de Melo
       1802 -        1806  Fernão António de Noronha
       1807 -        1810  António de Saldanha da Gama        (b. 1778 - d. 1839)
       1810 -        1815  José de Oliveira Barbosa
       1816 -        1819  Luís da Motta Fêo e Torres         (b. 1769 - d. 1823)
       1819 -        1821  Manoel Vieira Tovar de Albuquerque
       1821 -        1822  Joaquim Inácio de Lima
       1822 -        1823  Junta
       1823                Cristóvão Avelino Dias
       1823 -        1829  Nicolau de Abreu Castelo-Branco    (b. 1781 - d. 18...)
       1829 -        1834  José Maria de Sousa Macedo Almeida
                           e Vasconcelos, barão de Santa
                           Comba Dão                          (b. 1787 - d. 1872)
       1834 -        1836  Junta
       1836                Domingos de Saldanha Oliveira e
                           Daun                               (b. 1800 - d. 1836)
Governors-general
       1837 -        1839  Bernardo Vidal
       1839                António Manuel de Noronha          (b. 1772 - d. 18...)
       1839 -        1842  Manuel Eleutério Malheiro (acting)
       1842 -        1843  José Xavier Bressane Leite         (b. 1780 - d. 1843)
       1843 -        1845  Lourenço Germack Possolo           (b. 1779 - d. 18...)
       1845 -        1848  Pedro Alexandrino da Cunha         (b. 1801 - d. 1850)
       1848 -        1851  Adrião de Silveiro Pinto
       1851 -        1853  António Sérgio de Sousa            (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
       1853                António Ricardo Graça
       1853 -        1854  Miguel Ximenes Rodrigues Sandoval
                           de Castro e Viegas, visconde de
                           Pinheiro                           (b. 1806 - d. 1884)
       1854 -        1860  José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
       1860 -        1861  Carlos Augusto Franco
       1861 -        1862  Sebastião Lopes de Calheiros e
                           Meneses                            (b. 1816 - d. 1899)
       1862 -        1865  José Baptista de Andrade
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1819 - d. 1902)
       1865 -        1868  Francisco António Gonçalves
                           Cardoso                            (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
       1868 -        1870  José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1870 -        1873  José Maria da Ponte e Horta
       1873 -        1876  José Baptista de Andrade
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1876 -        1878  Caetano Alexandre de Almeida
                           e Albuquerque                      (b. 1824 - d. 1916)
       1878 -        1880  Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
       1880 -        1882  António Eleutério Dantas
       1882 -        1886  Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do
                           Amaral                             (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
       1886 -        1892  Gilherme Auguste de Brito Capelo
                           (1st time)
25 Aug 1892 -    Sep 1893  Jaime Lôbo de Brito Godins (acting)
       1893 -        1896  Álvaro Ferreira
       1896 -        1897  Gilherme Auguste de Brito Capelo
                           (2nd time)
       1897 -        1900  António Duarte Ramada Curto
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1849 - d. 19...)
       1900 -        1903  Francisco Xavier Cabral de
                           Oliveira Moncada
       1903 -        1904  Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da Costa
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1865 - d. 1907)
       1904                Custódio Miguel de Borja           (b. 1849 - d. 19...)
       1904 -        1905  António Duarte Ramada Curto
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
       1905 -        1906  Caminho de Ferro de Mossámedes
       1906 -        1907  Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da Costa
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Jun 1907 -    Jun 1909  Henrique Mitchell de Paiva
                           Couceiro                           (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
       1909                Álvaro António da Costa Ferreira   (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
                           (acting)
       1909 -        1910  José Augusto Alves Roçadas         (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
       1910 -        1911  Caetano Francisco Cláudio Eugénio
                           Gonçalves (acting)
       1911 -        1912  Manuel Maria Coelho                (b. 1857 - d. 1943)
       1912 -        1915  José Mendes Ribeiro Norton de
                           Matos                              (b. 1867 - d. 1955)
       1915 -        1916  António Júlio da Costa Pereira de
                           Eça
       1916 -        1917  Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
       1917 -        1918  Jaime Alberto de Castro Morais     (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
       1918 -        1919  Filomeno da Câmara Melo Cabral     (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
       1919 -        1920  António Nogueira Mimoso Guerra     (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
                           (acting)
       1920 -        1921  Francisco Coelho do Amaral Reis,
                           visconde de Pedralva               (b. 1873 - d. 1938)
High commissioners and governors-general
       1921 -        1924  José Mendes Ribeiro Norton de
                           Matos                              (s.a.)
       1924                João Augusto Crispiniano Soares
       1924 -        1926  Francisco Cunha Rêgo Cháves
       1926 -        1928  António Vicente Ferreira
       1928 -        1929  António Damas Mora (acting)
       1929 -        1931  Filomeno da Câmara
       1931 -        1933  José Dionisio Carneiro de Sousa
                           e Faro
       1933 -        1935  Eduardo Ferreira Viana
       1936 -        1940  António Lopes Matheus
       1940 -        1942  Manoel da Cunha e Costa Marques
                           Mano
       1942 -        1943  Álvaro de Freitas Morna
       1943 -        1947  Vasco Lopes Alves                  (b. 1898 - d. 1976)
       1948 -        1955  José Agapito de Silva Carvalho
       1955 -        1956  Manoel de Gusmão Mascarenhas
                           Gaivão                             (b. 1901 - d. ...)
       1957 -    Jan 1960  Horácio José de Sá Viana Rebelo    (b. 1910 - d. 1995)
15 Jan 1960 -    Jun 1961  Álvaro Rodrigues da Silva Tavares  (b. 1915)
23 Jun 1961 - 26 Sep 1962  Venâncio Augusto Deslandes         (b. 1909 - d. 1985)
   Sep 1962 -        1966  Silvino Silvério Marques
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
25 Nov 1966 - 12 Sep 1972  Camilo Augusto de Miranda Rebocho
                           Vaz                                (b. 1920 - d. 1998)
   Oct 1972 -    May 1974  Fernando Augusto Santos e Castro   (b. 1922 - d. 1983)
   May 1974 - 15 Jun 1974  Joaquim Franco Pinheiro (acting)
15 Jun 1974 - 24 Jul 1974  Silvino Silvério Marques
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Jul 1974 - 28 Jan 1975  António Alva Rosa Coutinho         (b. 1926 - d. 2010)
                           (acting to 29 Nov 1974)
28 Jan 1975 -  2 Aug 1975  António Silva Cardoso              (b. 1928)
 2 Aug 1975 - 26 Aug 1975  Ernesto Ferreira de Macedo
                           (acting)
26 Aug 1975 - 10 Nov 1975  Leonel Cardoso                     (b. 1919 - d. 1988)
Presidents
11 Nov 1975 - 10 Sep 1979  Agostinho Neto                     (b. 1922 - d. 1979)
10 Sep 1979 -              José Eduardo dos Santos            (b. 1942)
                           (acting to 21 Sep 1979)

Prime ministers 11 Nov 1975 - 9 Dec 1978 Lopo do Nascimento (b. 1942) 19 Jul 1991 - 2 Dec 1992 Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem (1st time) (b. 1934) 2 Dec 1992 - 3 Jun 1996 Marcolino Moco (b. 1953) 3 Jun 1996 - 29 Jan 1999 Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Dec 2002 - 30 Sep 2008 Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos (b. 1952) 30 Sep 2008 - 5 Feb 2010 Paulo Kassoma (b. 1951)

Democratic People's Republic of Angola (counter-government, at Huambo)

Presidents of the Joint National Council for the Revolution
11 Nov 1975 -    Feb 1976  Holden Roberto                     (b. 1923 - d. 2007)
                           + Jonas Savimbi                    (b. 1934 - d. 2002)

Prime ministers 23 Nov 1975 - Feb 1976 José Ndele (b. 1940) + Johnny Eduardo Pinnock (b. 1942 - d. 2000)

Anguilla

       1882                part of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
                           (see Saint Kitts and Nevis)
12 Jul 1967                independence proclaimed (not recognized by U.K.)
 6 Feb 1969                Republic of Anguilla proclaimed
19 Dec 1980                Anguilla becomes a separate dependency de jure

Presidents
12 Jul 1967 -  4 Aug 1967  Peter Adams                        (b. ... - d. ...)
 4 Aug 1967 -        1967  Ronald Webster                     (b. 1926)
Chief Executive and Chairman of the Anguilla Council
       1967 -        1968  Ronald Webster (1st time)          (s.a.)
Commissioner
 8 Jan 1968 -    Jan 1969  Anthony Lee (1st time)             (b. 1923?)
Chief Executive and Chairman of the Anguilla Council
   Jan 1969 - 19 Mar 1969  Ronald Webster (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Commissioners
19 Mar 1969 - 20 Apr 1969  Anthony Lee (2nd time)             (s.a.)
20 Apr 1969 -        1969  John Alfred Cumber                 (b. 1920 - d. 1991)
       1969 -        1971  Willoughby Harry Thompson          (b. 1919)
       1971 -        1974  Arthur Christopher Watson          (b. 1927 - d. 2001)
       1974 -        1978  David Le Breton                    (b. 1931)
       1978 -    Apr 1982  Charles Harry Godden               (b. 1922)
Governors
   Apr 1982 -        1983  Charles Harry Godden               (s.a.)
   Nov 1983 -        1987  Alastair Turner Baillie            (b. 1932 - d. 2009)
       1987 -        1989  Geoffrey Owen Whittaker            (b. 1932)
       1989 -        1992  Brian G.J. Canty                   (b. 1931)
14 Aug 1992 -        1995  Alan W. Shave                      (b. 1936)
 3 Nov 1995 -    Dec 1996  Alan Hoole                         (b. 1942 - d. 2000)
   Dec 1996 - 27 Jan 2000  Robert Harris                      (b. 1941)
                           (acting to 29 May 1997)
27 Jan 2000 -  4 Feb 2000  Roger Cousins (acting)
 4 Feb 2000 - 29 Apr 2004  Peter Johnstone                    (b. 1944)
29 Apr 2004 - 28 May 2004  Mark Capes (1st time) (acting)     (b. 1954)
28 May 2004 -  2 Jun 2006  Alan Huckle                        (b. 1948)
 2 Jun 2006 - 10 Jul 2006  Mark Capes (2nd time) (acting)     (s.a.)
10 Jul 2006 - 11 Mar 2009  Andrew George                      (b. 1952)
11 Mar 2009 - 21 Apr 2009  Stanley Reid (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1968?)
21 Apr 2009 - 18 Jul 2013  Alistair Harrison                  (b. 1954)
18 Jul 2013 - 23 Jul 2013  Stanley Reid (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
23 Jul 2013 -              Christina Scott (f)                (b. 1974)

Chief ministers 10 Feb 1976 - 2 Feb 1977 Ronald Webster (1st time) (s.a.) 2 Feb 1977 - May 1980 Emile Gumbs (1st time) (b. 1928) May 1980 - 12 Mar 1984 Ronald Webster (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Mar 1984 - 18 Mar 1994 Emile Gumbs (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Mar 1994 - 6 Mar 2000 Hubert Hughes (1st time) (b. 1933) 6 Mar 2000 - 16 Feb 2010 Osbourne Fleming (b. 1940) 16 Feb 2010 - Hubert Hughes (2nd time) (s.a.)

Anjouan: see under Comoros.
Ankole: see under Uganda.
Annam: see under Vietnam.

Antigua and Barbuda

       1632                British colony (Antigua)
       1671 -        1816  part of Leeward Islands
       1833 -  1 Jan 1960  part of Leeward Islands (Antigua, British Virgin Islands,
                           Dominica [to 1940], Montserrat, Saint Christopher-Nevis-
                           Anguilla)
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  part of the Federation of the West Indies
                           (see under Trinidad and Tobago)
27 Feb 1967                associated state
 1 Nov 1981                independence as Antigua and Barbuda

Leeward Islands

       1871                Federal Colony of the Leeward Islands
 1 Jul 1956                Territory of the Leeward Islands
 1 Jan 1960                dissolved

Governors
   May 1699 -    Feb 1704  Christopher Codrington, Jr.        (b. 1668 - d. 1710)
   Feb 1704 -    Jul 1704  John Johnson (1st time) (acting)   (b. 16... - d. 1706)
   Jul 1704 -  4 Dec 1704  Sir William Mathew                 (b. 16... - d. 1704)
   Dec 1704 -    Jul 1706  John Johnson (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
   Jul 1706 -  7 Dec 1710  Daniel Parke                       (b. 1669 - d. 1710)
   Dec 1710 -        1711  Walter Hamilton (1st time)
                           (acting)
       1711 -        1714  Walter Douglas
       1714 -        1715  William Mathew, Jr. (1st time)     (b. 16... - d. 1752)
                           (acting)
       1715 -        1721  Walter Hamilton (2nd time)
       1721 -        1728  John Hart                          (b. ... - d. 1740)
   Aug 1728 - 12 Sep 1729  Thomas Pitt, Earl of Londonderry   (b. c.1668 - d. 1729)
       1729                William Cosby (acting)             (b. 1690 - d. 1736)
       1729 -        1752  William Mathew, Jr. (2nd time)     (s.a.)
       1753 -        1766  George Thomas                      (b. c.1695 - d. 1774)
       1766 -        1768  James Verchild
       1768 -        1771  William Woodley (1st time)         (b. 1728 - d. 1793)
       1771 -        1775  Sir Ralph Payne (1st time)         (b. 1738 - d. 1807)
       1775 -        1777  Craister Greathead
       1777 -    Jan 1781  William Mathew Burt                (b. ... - d. 1781)
       1781 -    Jun 1788  Thomas Shirley (1st time)          (b. 1727 - d. 1800)
   Jun 1788 -        1790  John Nugent (1st time) (acting)    (b. 17... - d. 1814)
       1790 -        1791  Thomas Shirley (2nd time)          (s.a.)
       1791                John Nugent (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
13 Aug 1791 -        1793  William Woodley (2nd time)         (s.a.)
       1793 -        1795  John Stanley
       1795 -  3 Jul 1796  Charles Leigh
       1796                Archibald Esdail (acting)
       1796 -    Apr 1797  John S. Thomas (acting)
       1797 -    Jan 1801  Robert Thomson (acting)
   Jan 1801 -  3 Aug 1807  Ralph Payne, Baron Lavington
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1807 -    Mar 1809  William Woodley                    (b. 17... - d. 1809)
       1809                James Tyson (acting)
       1809 -        1810  John Julius (1st time) (acting)
       1810 -        1813  Hugh Elliot                        (b. 1752 - d. 1830)
       1813 -        1814  John Julius (2nd time) (acting)
   Jun 1814 -        1815  Sir James Leith                    (b. 1763 - d. 1816)
       1815 -        1816  Henry Rawlins (acting)             (b. 1760 - d. 1823)
       1833 -        1871  the governors of Antigua
       1871 -        1873  Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
       1873 -        1874  Sir Henry Turner Irving            (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
       1874 -        1875  William Cleaver Francis Robinson   (b. 1834 - d. 1897)
       1875 -        1881  Sir George Berkeley                (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
       1881                H.J.B. Bufford-Hancock (acting)
       1881 -        1884  Sir John Hawley Glover             (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
       1884 -        1885  Sir Charles Cameron Lees           (b. 1837 - d. 1898)
       1885                Charles Monroe Eldridge (acting)   (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
       1885 -        1888  Jenico William Joseph Preston,
                           Viscount Gormanston                (b. 1837 - d. 1907)
       1888                Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell   (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
                           (acting)
       1888 -        1895  Sir William Frederick Haynes Smith (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
       1895 -        1901  Sir Francis Fleming                (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
       1901 -        1902  Sir Henry Moore Jackson            (b. 1849 - d. 1908)
       1902 -        1904  Sir Gerald Strickland              (b. 1861 - d. 1940)
       1904 -        1905  Sir Clement Courtenay Knollys      (b. 1849 - d. 1905)
       1906 -        1912  Sir Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott    (b. 1857 - d. 1941)
       1912 -        1916  Sir Hesketh Bell                   (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
       1916 -        1921  Sir Edward Marsh Merewether        (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
       1921 -        1929  Sir Eustace Edward
                           Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes          (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
       1929 -        1936  Sir Thomas Reginald St. Johnston   (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
       1936 -        1941  Sir Gordon James Lethem            (b. 1886 - d. 1962)
       1941 -        1943  Sir Douglas James Jardine          (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
       1943 -        1947  Sir Leslie Brian Freeston          (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
       1947 -        1948  William Alexander Macnie (acting)  (b. 1899 - d. ...)
       1948 - 17 Sep 1950  Oliver Ridsdale Baldwin, Earl
                           Baldwin of Bewdley                 (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
17 Sep 1950 - 18 Oct 1956  Kenneth Blackburne (from 1952,
                           Sir Kenneth Blackburne)            (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
18 Oct 1956 -  1 Jan 1960  Alexander Thomas Williams
                           (from 1958, Sir Alexander
                           Thomas Williams)                   (b. 1903 - d. 1984)

Antigua

Lieutenant governors
       1698 -        1715  John Yeamans
       1715 -  4 Dec 1741  Edward Byam                        (b. 1663 - d. 1741)
       1742 -        1747  George Lucas                       (b. ... - d. 1747)
       1747 -        1816  none
Governors
       1816 -  1 Nov 1819  George William Ramsay              (b. 1761 - d. 1819)
       1820 -        1824  Sir Benjamin D'Urban               (b. 1777 - d. 1849)
       1826 -        1833  Sir Patrick Ross                   (b. 1778 - d. 1850)
       1833 -        1836  Sir Evan John Murray MacGregor     (b. 1785 - d. 1841)
       1836 -        1837  Henry Light (acting)               (b. 1783 - d. 1870)
       1837 -        1840  Sir William MacBean George
                           Colebrooke                         (b. 1787 - d. 1870)
       1840 -    Feb 1842  John Macphail (acting)
   Feb 1842 -        1846  Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy       (b. 1796 - d. 1858)
       1847 -        1850  James Macaulay Higginson           (b. 1805 - d. 1885)
       1850 -        1855  Robert James Mackintosh
       1855 -        1863  Ker Baillie Hamilton               (b. 1804 - d. 1889)
       1863 -        1868  Sir Stephen John Hill              (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
       1869 -        1871  Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine (s.a.)
Administrators
       1936 - 10 Jul 1936  Hubert Eugène Bader                (b. 1902 - d. 1936)
       1936 -        1940  James Dundas Harford               (b. 1899 - d. 1993)
       1940 -        1944  Herbert Boon
       1944 -        1946  Frederick George Harcourt
       1946 -        1947  Leslie Stuart Greening             (b. 1895 - d. ...)
       1947 -        1954  Richard St. John Ormerod Wayne     (b. 1904 - d. 1959)
       1954 -        1958  Alec Lovelace                      (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
 3 Oct 1958 -        1964  Ian Turbott                        (b. 1922)
 6 Mar 1964 -        1966  David James Gardiner Rose          (b. 1923 - d. 1969)
Governor
27 Feb 1967 -  1 Nov 1981  Wilfred E. Jacobs (from 19 Jul
                           1967, Sir Wilfred E. Jacobs)       (b. 1919 - d. 1995)

Chief minister 1 Jan 1960 - 27 Feb 1967 Vere Cornwall Bird (b. 1910 - d. 1999) Premiers 27 Feb 1967 - 14 Feb 1971 Vere Cornwall Bird (1st time) (s.a.) 14 Feb 1971 - Feb 1976 George Walter (b. 1928 - d. 2008) Feb 1976 - 1 Nov 1981 Vere Cornwall Bird (2nd time) (s.a.)

Antigua and Barbuda

Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 1 Nov 1981 - 10 Jun 1993  Sir Wilfred E. Jacobs              (s.a.)
10 Jun 1993 - 17 Jul 2007  James Carlisle (from 9 Nov 1993,
                           Sir James Carlisle)                (b. 1937)
17 Jul 2007 - 13 Aug 2014  Louise Lake-Tack (from 17 Oct
                           2007, Dame Louise Lake-Tack) (f)   (b. 1944)
14 Aug 2014 -              Rodney Williams

Prime ministers 1 Nov 1981 - 9 Mar 1994 Vere Cornwall Bird (s.a.) 9 Mar 1994 - 24 Mar 2004 Lester Bird (b. 1938) 24 Mar 2004 - 13 Jun 2014 Baldwin Spencer (b. 1948) 13 Jun 2014 - Gaston Browne (b. 1967)

Antioquia: see under Colombia.
Araucania: see under Chile.

Argentina

Note: There was no universally accepted national government from 16 Feb 1820 until roughly 1852. Therefore, the governments of each province during that period are listed separately. Most of the time there was civil war, and the "national" authorities were acknowledged by only a partial (and varying) set of provinces. There was also a gap in national government between 1861 and 1862, for which the governments of the provinces are also listed. The Province of Buenos Aires was actually in secession between 1852 and 1862.
 1 Aug 1776                (Spanish) Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
                           (modern Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay)
                           separated from Viceroyalty of Peru
25 May 1810                first autonomous government, claiming initially to rule on
                           behalf of deposed King Fernando VII of Spain
 9 Jul 1816                independence proclaimed (United Provinces in South America)
16 Feb 1820                collapse of the national government
23 Jan 1825                United Provinces of the Río de la Plata
 4 Jan 1831                Argentine Confederation
 1 Oct 1860                Argentine Nation (also styled Argentine Republic)
12 Dec 1861                collapse of the national government
12 Apr 1862                national government restored

Viceroys
   Oct 1777 - 12 Jun 1778  Pedro Antonio de Ceballos Cortés
                           y Calderón                         (b. 1715 - d. 1778)
12 Jun 1778 -  7 Mar 1784  Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo      (b. 1719 - d. 1799)
 7 Mar 1784 -  4 Dec 1789  Nicolás Francisco Cristóbal del
                           Campo, marqués de Loreto
 4 Dec 1789 - 16 Mar 1795  Nicolás Antonio de Arredondo       (b. 1740 - d. 1802)
16 Mar 1795 - 15 Apr 1797  Pedro de Melo y Portugal y Vilhena (b. 1733 - d. 1797)
 2 May 1797 - 14 Mar 1799  Antonio Olaguer y Feliú Heredia
                           López y Donec                      (b. 1740 - d. 1807)
14 Mar 1799 - 20 May 1801  Gabriel de Avilés y del Fierro,
                           marqués de Avilés                  (b. 1730 - d. 1810)
20 May 1801 - 11 Apr 1804  Joaquín del Pino y Rozas, Romero
                           y Negrete                          (b. 1729 - d. 1804)
23 Apr 1804 - 10 Feb 1807  Rafael de Sobremonte Núñez
                           Castillo Angulo y Bullón Ramírez
                           de Arellano, marqués de Sobremonte (b. 1746 - d. 1827)
                           (acting to 6 Oct 1804)
10 Feb 1807 - 30 Jun 1809  Santiago Antonio María de Liniers
                           y Bremont (acting)                 (b. 1753 - d. 1810)
30 Jun 1809 - 25 May 1810  Baltazar Hidalgo de Cisneros y la
                           Torre                              (b. 1775 - d. 1829)
President of the First Junta
25 May 1810 - 18 Dec 1810  Cornelio Saavedra                  (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
Presidents of the Big Junta
18 Dec 1810 - 26 Aug 1811  Cornelio Saavedra                  (s.a.)
26 Aug 1811 - 23 Sep 1811  Domingo Matheu                     (b. 1765 - d. 1831)
23 Sep 1811 -  8 Oct 1812  First Triumvirate
                           - Feliciano Antonio Chiclana       (b. 1761 - d. 1826)
                           - Manuel de Sarratea               (b. 1774 - d. 1849)
                           - Juan José Paso (to 23 Mar 1812)  (b. 1758 - d. 1833)
                           - Juan Martín de Pueyrredón        (b. 1777 - d. 1850)
                             (from 23 Mar 1812)
 8 Oct 1812 - 31 Jan 1814  Second Triumvirate
                           - Juan José Paso                   (s.a.)
                           - Nicolás Rodríguez Peña           (b. 1775 - d. 1853)
                           - Antonio Álvarez Jonte            (b. 1784 - d. 1820)
                             (to 19 Aug 1813)
                           - Gervasio Antonio de Posadas      (b. 1757 - d. 1833)
                             (from 19 Aug 1813)
Supreme Directors
31 Jan 1814 -  9 Jan 1815  Gervasio Antonio de Posadas        (s.a.)
 9 Jan 1815 - 15 Apr 1815  Carlos María de Alvear             (b. 1789 - d. 1852)
18 Apr 1815 - 20 Apr 1815  Juan José Viamonte                 (b. 1774 - d. 1843)
20 Apr 1815                José Rondeau (1st time)            (b. 1775 - d. 1844)
20 Apr 1815 - 17 Apr 1816  Ignacio Álvarez Thomas             (b. 1787 - d. 1857)
17 Apr 1816 - 12 Jul 1816  Antonio González Balcarce          (b. 1774 - d. 1819)
                           (acting for Pueyrredón from 3 May 1816)
 3 May 1816 -  9 Jun 1819  Juan Martín de Pueyrredón          (s.a.)
12 Jul 1816 - 29 Jul 1816    Governmental Commission
                             (acting for Pueyrredón)
                             - Francisco Antonio de Escalada
                             - Miguel de Irigoyen             (b. 1764 - d. 1822)
 9 Jun 1819 - 11 Feb 1820  José Rondeau (2nd time)            (s.a.)
11 Feb 1820 - 16 Feb 1820  Juan Aguirre López (acting)        (b. 1781 - d. 1837)
Governor of Buenos Aires, exercising the National Executive Power
23 Jan 1825 -  8 Feb 1826  Juan Gregorio de Las Heras         (b. 1780 - d. 1866)
Presidents
 8 Feb 1826 -  9 Aug 1827  Bernardino Rivadavia               (b. 1780 - d. 1845)
 9 Aug 1827 - 17 Aug 1827  Vicente López y Planes             (b. 1785 - d. 1856)
                           (provisional)
Governors of Buenos Aires, entrusted with the Foreign Relations
17 Aug 1827 -        1829  see under Buenos Aires
Governor of Santa Fe, entrusted with the Foreign Relations
       1829                Estanislao López                   (b. 1786 - d. 1838)
Governors of Buenos Aires, entrusted with the Foreign Relations
       1829 - 20 Sep 1851  see under Buenos Aires
Supreme Chief of the Confederation
20 Sep 1851 -  3 Feb 1852  Juan Manuel de Rosas               (b. 1793 - d. 1877)
Governor of Entre Ríos, entrusted with the Foreign Relations
 3 Feb 1852 - 31 May 1852  Justo José de Urquiza              (b. 1801 - d. 1870)
Presidents
31 May 1852 -  5 Mar 1860  Justo José de Urquiza              (s.a.)
                           (Provisional Director to 5 Mar 1854)
 5 Mar 1860 -  5 Nov 1861  Santiago Derqui                    (b. 1809 - d. 1867)
 5 Nov 1861 - 12 Dec 1861  Juan Esteban Pedernera (acting)    (b. 1796 - d. 1886)
12 Apr 1862 - 12 Oct 1868  Bartolomé Mitre                    (b. 1821 - d. 1906)
                           (Governor of Buenos Aires, exercising the National
                           Executive Power, to 12 Oct 1862)
12 Oct 1868 - 12 Oct 1874  Domingo Faustino Sarmiento         (b. 1811 - d. 1888)
12 Oct 1874 - 12 Oct 1880  Nicolás Avellaneda                 (b. 1837 - d. 1885)
12 Oct 1880 - 12 Oct 1886  Julio A. Roca (1st time)           (b. 1843 - d. 1914)
12 Oct 1886 -  6 Aug 1890  Miguel Juárez Celman               (b. 1844 - d. 1909)
 6 Aug 1890 - 12 Oct 1892  Carlos Pellegrini                  (b. 1846 - d. 1906)
12 Oct 1892 - 23 Jan 1895  Luis Sáenz Peña                    (b. 1822 - d. 1907)
23 Jan 1895 - 12 Oct 1898  José Evaristo Uriburu              (b. 1831 - d. 1914)
12 Oct 1898 - 12 Oct 1904  Julio A. Roca (2nd time)           (s.a.)
12 Oct 1904 - 12 Mar 1906  Manuel Quintana                    (b. 1835 - d. 1906)
12 Mar 1906 - 12 Oct 1910  José Figueroa Alcorta              (b. 1860 - d. 1931)
12 Oct 1910 -  9 Aug 1914  Roque Sáenz Peña                   (b. 1851 - d. 1914)
   Apr 1914 - 12 Oct 1916  Victorino de la Plaza              (b. 1840 - d. 1919)
                           (acting for Sáenz to 9 Aug 1914)
12 Oct 1916 - 12 Oct 1922  Hipólito Irigoyen (1st time)       (b. 1852 - d. 1933)
12 Oct 1922 - 12 Oct 1928  Marcelo T. de Alvear               (b. 1868 - d. 1942)
12 Oct 1928 -  6 Sep 1930  Hipólito Irigoyen (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1930 - 20 Feb 1932  José Félix Uriburu                 (b. 1868 - d. 1932)
                           (president of the Provisional Government)
20 Feb 1932 - 20 Feb 1938  Agustín P. Justo                   (b. 1876 - d. 1943)
20 Feb 1938 - 27 Jun 1942  Roberto M. Ortiz                   (b. 1886 - d. 1942)
 3 Jul 1940 -  4 Jun 1943  Ramón S. Castillo                  (b. 1873 - d. 1944)
                           (acting for incapacitated Ortiz to 27 Jun 1942)
 4 Jun 1943 -  7 Jun 1943  Arturo Rawson Corvalán             (b. 1884 - d. 1952)
                           (president of the Provisional Government)
 7 Jun 1943 -  9 Mar 1944  Pedro Pablo Ramírez Machuca        (b. 1884 - d. 1962)
                           (president of the Provisional Government to 18 Jun 1943)
25 Feb 1944 -  4 Jun 1946  Edelmiro J. Farrell                (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
                           (acting for Ramírez to 9 Mar 1944)
 4 Jun 1946 - 21 Sep 1955  Juan Perón (1st time)              (b. 1895 - d. 1974)
21 Sep 1955 - 23 Sep 1955  José Domingo Molina Gómez          (b. 1896 - d. 1969)
                           (chairman of military junta)
23 Sep 1955 - 13 Nov 1955  Eduardo Lonardi (provisional)      (b. 1896 - d. 1956)
13 Nov 1955 -  1 May 1958  Pedro Eugenio Aramburu             (b. 1903 - d. 1970)
                           (provisional)
 1 May 1958 - 29 Mar 1962  Arturo Frondizi                    (b. 1908 - d. 1995)
29 Mar 1962 - 12 Oct 1963  José María Guido (acting)          (b. 1910 - d. 1975)
12 Oct 1963 - 28 Jun 1966  Arturo Umberto Illia               (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
28 Jun 1966 - 29 Jun 1966  Revolutionary Junta
                           - Pascual Pistarini                (b. 1915 - d. 1999)
                           - Benigno Ignacio Varela           (b. 1917 - d. 1996)
                           - Adolfo Teodoro Álvarez           (b. 1919 - d. 2012)
29 Jun 1966 -  8 Jun 1970  Juan Carlos Onganía                (b. 1914 - d. 1995)
 8 Jun 1970 - 18 Jun 1970  Pedro Alberto José Gnavi
                           (chairman Junta of Commanders)
18 Jun 1970 - 22 Mar 1971  Roberto Marcelo Levingston         (b. 1920)
22 Mar 1971 - 25 May 1973  Alejandro Agustín Lanusse          (b. 1918 - d. 1996)
                           (chairman Junta of Commanders to 26 Mar 1971)
25 May 1973 - 13 Jul 1973  Héctor José Cámpora                (b. 1909 - d. 1980)
13 Jul 1973 - 12 Oct 1973  Raúl Alberto Lastiri (acting)      (b. 1915 - d. 1978)
12 Oct 1973 -  1 Jul 1974  Juan Perón (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1974 - 24 Mar 1976  Isabel Perón (f)                   (b. 1931)
13 Sep 1975 - 16 Oct 1975    Italo Luder (acting for Perón)   (b. 1916 - d. 2008)
24 Mar 1976 - 29 Mar 1976  Military junta
                           - Jorge Rafael Videla              (b. 1925 - d. 2013)
                           - Emilio Eduardo Massera           (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
                           - Orlando Ramón Agosti             (b. 1924 - d. 1997)
29 Mar 1976 - 29 Mar 1981  Jorge Rafael Videla                (s.a.)
29 Mar 1981 - 11 Dec 1981  Roberto Eduardo Viola              (b. 1924 - d. 1994)
21 Nov 1981 - 11 Dec 1981    Horacio Tomás Liendo             (b. 1924 - d. 2007)
                             (acting for Viola)
11 Dec 1981 - 22 Dec 1981  Carlos Alberto Lacoste (acting)    (b. 1929 - d. 2004)
22 Dec 1981 - 18 Jun 1982  Leopoldo Galtieri                  (b. 1926 - d. 2003)
18 Jun 1982 -  1 Jul 1982  Alfredo Oscar Saint Jean (acting)  (b. 1926 - d. 1987)
 1 Jul 1982 - 10 Dec 1983  Reynaldo Bignone                   (b. 1928)
10 Dec 1983 -  8 Jul 1989  Raúl Alfonsín                      (b. 1927 - d. 2009)
 8 Jul 1989 - 10 Dec 1999  Carlos Saúl Menem                  (b. 1930)
10 Dec 1999 - 21 Dec 2001  Fernando de la Rúa                 (b. 1937)
21 Dec 2001 - 23 Dec 2001  Ramón Puerta (acting)              (b. 1951)
23 Dec 2001 -  1 Jan 2002  Adolfo Rodríguez Saá (interim)     (b. 1947)
31 Dec 2001 -  2 Jan 2002  Eduardo Camaño                     (b. 1946)
                           (acting [for Rodríguez Saá to 1 Jan 2002])
 2 Jan 2002 - 25 May 2003  Eduardo Duhalde                    (b. 1941)
25 May 2003 - 10 Dec 2007  Néstor Kirchner                    (b. 1950 - d. 2010)
10 Dec 2007 -              Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (f) (b. 1953)

Cabinet chiefs 8 Jul 1995 - 28 Mar 1996 Eduardo Bauzá (b. 1939) 28 Mar 1996 - 10 Dec 1999 Jorge Rodríguez (b. 1944) 10 Dec 1999 - 5 Oct 2000 Rodolfo Terragno (b. 1943) 5 Oct 2000 - 21 Dec 2001 Chrystian Colombo (b. 1952) 21 Dec 2001 - 23 Dec 2001 Humberto Schiavoni (b. 1958) 23 Dec 2001 - 31 Dec 2001 Luis Lusquiños (acting) (b. 1951) 31 Dec 2001 - 3 Jan 2002 Antonio Cafiero (b. 1922) 3 Jan 2002 - 3 May 2002 Jorge Capitanich (1st time) (b. 1964) 3 May 2002 - 25 May 2003 Alfredo Atanasof (b. 1949) 25 May 2003 - 24 Jul 2008 Alberto Fernández (b. 1959) 24 Jul 2008 - 8 Jul 2009 Sergio Massa (b. 1972) 8 Jul 2009 - 10 Dec 2011 Aníbal Fernández (b. 1957) 10 Dec 2011 - 20 Nov 2013 Juan Manuel Abal Medina (b. 1968) 20 Nov 2013 - Jorge Capitanich (2nd time) (s.a.)

Armenia

30 May 1918 -  2 Dec 1920  Republic of Armenia
29 Nov 1920                Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia
12 Mar 1922                part (with Azerbaijan and Georgia) of the Federative
                           Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of Transcaucasia
                           (see under Georgia)
13 Dec 1922                part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet
                           Republic (see under Georgia)
30 Dec 1922                T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Armenian S.S.R. becomes a full
                           union republic (see Soviet republics)
23 Aug 1990                Republic of Armenia
23 Sep 1991                independence declared
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)

Chairman of the National Council
30 May 1918 -  1 Aug 1918  Avetis Aharonyan                   (b. 1866 - d. 1949)
                           (not present on the territory of Armenia until 19 Jul 1918)
Chairman of the Council of Armenia
 1 Aug 1918 -  5 Aug 1919  Avetik Sahakyan
Chairman of Parliament
 5 Aug 1919 -  2 Dec 1920  Avetis Aharonyan                   (s.a.)
Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces
 2 Dec 1920 -  4 Dec 1920  Drastamat Kanayan                  (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
Chairmen of the Military Revolutionary Committee
 4 Dec 1920 -  5?May 1921  Sarkis Kasyan                      (b. 1876 - d. 1937)
18 Feb 1921 -    Jun 1921    Simeon Vratsyan                  (b. 1882 - d. 1969)
                             (chairman Committee for the Salvation of the Fatherland;
                             in Yerevan to 2 Apr 1921, then in dissidence)
 5?May 1921 - 21 May 1921  Aleksandr Myasnikyan               (b. 1886 - d. 1925)
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
21 May 1921 -  2 Feb 1922  Aleksandr Myasnikyan               (s.a.)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
 2 Feb 1922 -    Jun 1925  Sarkis Ambartsumyan                (b. 1880 - d. 19...)
Chairman of the Supreme Council
 4 Aug 1990 - 11 Nov 1991  Levon Ter-Petrosyan                (b. 1945)
Presidents
11 Nov 1991 -  3 Feb 1998  Levon Ter-Petrosyan                (s.a.)
 4 Feb 1998 -  9 Apr 2008  Robert Kocharyan                   (b. 1954)
                           (acting to 9 Apr 1998)
 9 Apr 2008 -              Serzh Sarkisyan                    (b. 1954)

Prime ministers 30 Jun 1918 - 28 May 1919 Hovhannes Kachaznuni (b. 1868 - d. 1937) (not present on the territory of Armenia until 19 Jul 1918) 28 May 1919 - 5 May 1920 Aleksandr I. Khatisyan (b. 1876 - d. 1945) 5 May 1920 - 25 Nov 1920 Hamazasp Ohandzhanyan (b. 1873 - d. 1947) 25 Nov 1920 - 2 Dec 1920 Simeon Vratsyan (s.a.) Apr 1922 - 24 Jun 1925 Sergey Lukashin (b. 1885 - d. 1937) (chairman Council of People's Commissars) 13 Aug 1990 - 26 Sep 1991 Vazgen Manukyan (b. 1946) 26 Sep 1991 - 22 Nov 1991 Hrant Bagratyan (1st time) (b. 1958) (acting) 22 Nov 1991 - 30 Jul 1992 Gagik Arutyunyan (b. 1948) 30 Jul 1992 - 2 Feb 1993 Khosrov Arutyunyan (b. 1948) 2 Feb 1993 - 4 Nov 1996 Hrant Bagratyan (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 12 Feb 1993) 4 Nov 1996 - 20 Mar 1997 Armen Sarkisyan (b. 1953) 20 Mar 1997 - 10 Apr 1998 Robert Kocharyan (1st time) (s.a.) 10 Apr 1998 - 11 Jun 1999 Armen Darbinyan (b. 1965) 11 Jun 1999 - 27 Oct 1999 Vazgen Sarkisyan (b. 1959 - d. 1999) 3 Nov 1999 - 2 May 2000 Aram Sarkisyan (b. 1961) 2 May 2000 - 12 May 2000 Robert Kocharyan (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 12 May 2000 - 25 Mar 2007 Andranik Markaryan (b. 1951 - d. 2007) 4 Apr 2007 - 9 Apr 2008 Serzh Sarkisyan (s.a.) 9 Apr 2008 - 13 Apr 2014 Tigran Sarkisyan (b. 1960) 13 Apr 2014 - Hovik Abrahamyan (b. 1958)

Aruba

       1634                Dutch colony
       1805 -        1816  British domination
       1828                part of Dutch West Indies (see Suriname)
       1848                part of Netherlands Antilles (see Curaçao)
 1 Jan 1986                separation from Netherlands Antilles

Commanders
       1681 -        1715  Joseph Flaccius
       1717 -        1719  Hermanus Koolman
       1719 -        1721  Willem Palmers
       1721 -        1722  Pieter Pieterszoon van Cempen
       1726 -        1730  Isaak Obbens
       1739?               Willem Janszoon
       1739 -        1753  Daniel Nieuwkerk
       1753 -        1756  Lourents Croes
       1756 -        1768  Jan van der Biest
       1768 -        1780  Gillis Poppe
       1780 -        1791  Harmen van der Biest
       1791 -        1792  Jacobus Pellicorne Porrier
       1792 -        1793  Borchard Specht
       1793 -        1803  ...
       1803 -        1804  Pieter Specht
       1804 -        1805  Johan Craneveldt
       1805                Bruin Govertsz Quant (1st time)
       1805                W. Doran
       1805 -        1806  Bruin Govertsz Quant (2nd time)
       1806                Samuel Bartholomeus van den Broek
                           (1st time) (commissioner)          (b. 17... - d. 1817)
       1806                Jan van der Biest (1st time)
       1806 -        18..  Samuel Bartholomeus van den Broek
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1810?               John Harrison Church Hartmann?
       1816 -        1819  Lodewijk Christoph Boyé
       1819 -        1822  Jan van der Biest (2nd time)
       1822 -        1826  Jacob Thielen (1st time)
       1826 -        1827  Simon Plats
       1827 -        1837  Johan Frederik Waters Gravenhorst
       1837                G.J. van Spall
       1839 -        1848  Jacobus Jarman, Jr.
Administrators (gezaghebbers)
       1848 -        1859  Jacobus Jarman, Jr.
       1859                Bochard Specht
       1859 -        1863  Michaël de Veer
       1863 -        1866  Edouard Dénis Ernest van den
                           Bossche                            (b. 1831 - d. 1908)
       1866 -        1871  Jan Helenus Ferguson               (b. 1826 - d. 1908)
       1871 -        1876  Willem Melanchton Bennebroek
                           Gravenhorst
       1876 -        1883  Jan Hendrik Rudeloff Beaujon       (b. 1838 - d. 1930)
       1883 -        1888  David Gäerste Willemszoon          (b. 1841 - d. 1898)
       1888 -        1897  Jacob Thielen II (1st time)        (b. 1834 - d. 1915)
       1897                J.G. Lampe (acting)
       1897 -        1899  Johannes Adriaan de Veer           (b. 1853 - d. 1899)
       1899 -        1901  Jacob Thielen II (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
       1901 -        1909  Gerard Raven Zeppenfeldt           (b. 1863 - d. 19...)
       1911 -        1920  Henrik Johannes Beaujon            (b. 1870 - d. 19...)
       1920 -        1928  Jan Frederik Quast                 (b. 1875 - d. 1953)
       1928 -        1945  Isaac Wagemaker                    (b. 1884 - d. 19...)
       1945 -        1957  Lindoro Cristoffel Kwartsz         (b. 1873 - d. 1959)
       1957 -        1958  K.H. de Boer (acting)
       1958 -        1959  E. Arends (acting)
       1959                Otto R.A. Beaujon (acting)         (b. 1915 - d. 1984)
       1959 -        1964  Frederik J.C. Beaujon              (b. 1906 - d. 1964)
       1964 -        1973  Oscar Siegfried Henriquez          (b. 1926)
       1973 -        1979  Francisco L. Jossy Tromp           (b. 1925)
       1979 -        1982  Francisco D. Figaroa               (b. 1927 - d. 1993)
       1982                Remy R. Zaandam (acting)           (b. 1936)
       1982 -        1983  Euladio D. Nicolaas (acting)       (b. 1941)
       1983 -  4 Oct 1985  Pedro Bislip                       (b. 1937 - d. 2007)
       1985 - 31 Dec 1985  Frans Wernet (acting)              (b. 1929 - d. 1995)
Governors
 1 Jan 1986 - 12 Mar 1992  Felipe Tromp                       (b. 1917 - d. 1995)
12 Mar 1992 - 11 May 2004  Olindo Koolman                     (b. 1942)
11 May 2004 -              Fredis Refunjol                    (b. 1950)

Prime ministers 1 Jan 1986 - 9 Feb 1989 Henny Eman (1st time) (b. 1948) 9 Feb 1989 - 29 Jul 1994 Nelson Oduber (1st time) (b. 1947) 29 Jul 1994 - 30 Oct 2001 Henny Eman (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Oct 2001 - 30 Oct 2009 Nelson Oduber (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Oct 2009 - Mike Eman (b. 1961)

Ascension: see under Saint Helena.
Asir: see under Saudi Arabia.
Athos: see under Greece.

Australia

 1 Jan 1901                British colonies in Australia united as a dominion
                           (Commonwealth of Australia)
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster (ratified by Australia 9 Oct 1942)
                           grants full sovereignty to the British dominions

Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 1 Jan 1901 -  9 Jan 1903  John Adrian Louis Hope,
                           Earl of Hopetoun                   (b. 1860 - d. 1908)
 9 Jan 1903 - 21 Jan 1904  Hallam Tennyson, Baron Tennyson    (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
21 Jan 1904 -  9 Sep 1908  Henry Stafford Northcote,
                           Baron Northcote                    (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
 9 Sep 1908 - 31 Jul 1911  William Humble Ward,
                           Earl of Dudley                     (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
31 Jul 1911 - 18 May 1914  Thomas Denman, Baron Denman        (b. 1874 - d. 1954)
18 May 1914 -  6 Oct 1920  Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
 6 Oct 1920 -  8 Oct 1925  Henry William Forster,
                           Baron Forster of Lepe              (b. 1866 - d. 1936)
 8 Oct 1925 - 22 Jan 1931  John Lawrence Baird,
                           Baron Stonehaven                   (b. 1874 - d. 1941)
22 Jan 1931 - 23 Jan 1936  Sir Isaac Isaacs                   (b. 1855 - d. 1948)
23 Jan 1936 -  8 Sep 1944  Alexander Gore Arkwright
                           Hore-Ruthven, Baron Gowrie         (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
 8 Sep 1944 - 30 Jan 1945  Sir Winston Dugan (1st time)       (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
                           (acting)
30 Jan 1945 - 17 Jan 1947  Henry William Frederick Albert,
                           Duke of Gloucester                 (b. 1900 - d. 1974)
19 Jan 1947 - 11 Mar 1947  Sir Winston Dugan (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
11 Mar 1947 -  8 May 1953  William John McKell (from 9 Nov
                           1951, Sir William John McKell)     (b. 1891 - d. 1985)
 8 May 1953 -  2 Feb 1960  Sir William Slim                   (b. 1891 - d. 1970)
 2 Feb 1960 -  3 Feb 1961  William Shepherd Morrison,
                           Viscount Dunrossil                 (b. 1893 - d. 1961)
 4 Feb 1961 -  3 Aug 1961  Sir Reginald Alexander Dallas
                           Brooks (acting)                    (b. 1896 - d. 1966)
 3 Aug 1961 - 22 Sep 1965  William Philip Sidney, Viscount
                           De L'Isle                          (b. 1909 - d. 1991)
22 Sep 1965 - 30 Apr 1969  Richard Gardiner Casey, Baron
                           Casey                              (b. 1890 - d. 1976)
30 Apr 1969 - 11 Jul 1974  Sir Paul Hasluck                   (b. 1905 - d. 1993)
11 Jul 1974 -  8 Dec 1977  Sir John Robert Kerr               (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
 8 Dec 1977 - 29 Jul 1982  Sir Zelman Cowen                   (b. 1919 - d. 2011)
29 Jul 1982 - 16 Feb 1989  Sir Ninian Martin Stephen          (b. 1923)
16 Feb 1989 - 16 Feb 1996  Bill Hayden                        (b. 1933)
16 Feb 1996 - 29 Jun 2001  Sir William Deane                  (b. 1931)
29 Jun 2001 - 28 May 2003  Peter Hollingworth                 (b. 1935)
15 May 2003 - 11 Aug 2003  Sir Guy Green                      (b. 1937)
                           (acting [for Hollingworth to 28 May 2003])
11 Aug 2003 -  5 Sep 2008  Michael Jeffery                    (b. 1937)
 5 Sep 2008 - 28 Mar 2014  Quentin Bryce (f)                  (b. 1942)
28 Mar 2014 -              Sir Peter Cosgrove                 (b. 1947)

Prime ministers 1 Jan 1901 - 24 Sep 1903 Edmund Barton (from 1902, Sir Edmund Barton) Pro (b. 1849 - d. 1920) 24 Sep 1903 - 26 Apr 1904 Alfred Deakin (1st time) Pro (b. 1856 - d. 1919) 26 Apr 1904 - 18 Aug 1904 John Christian Watson ALP (b. 1867 - d. 1941) 18 Aug 1904 - 5 Jul 1905 George Reid FT (b. 1845 - d. 1918) 5 Jul 1905 - 13 Nov 1908 Alfred Deakin (2nd time) Pro (s.a.) 13 Nov 1908 - 2 Jun 1909 Andrew Fisher (1st time) ALP (b. 1862 - d. 1928) 2 Jun 1909 - 29 Apr 1910 Alfred Deakin (3rd time) Pro (s.a.) 29 Apr 1910 - 24 Apr 1913 Andrew Fisher (2nd time) ALP (s.a.) 24 Apr 1913 - 17 Sep 1914 Joseph Cook Lib (b. 1860 - d. 1947) 17 Sep 1914 - 27 Oct 1915 Andrew Fisher (3rd time) ALP (s.a.) 27 Oct 1915 - 9 Feb 1923 William Morris Hughes ALP; 14 Nov 1916: NLP; 17 Feb 1917: Nat (b. 1864 - d. 1952) 9 Feb 1923 - 22 Oct 1929 Stanley Melbourne Bruce Nat (b. 1883 - d. 1967) 22 Oct 1929 - 6 Jan 1932 James Henry Scullin ALP (b. 1876 - d. 1953) 6 Jan 1932 - 7 Apr 1939 Joseph Aloysius Lyons UAP (b. 1879 - d. 1939) 7 Apr 1939 - 26 Apr 1939 Sir Earle Page (acting) Cnt (b. 1880 - d. 1961) 26 Apr 1939 - 29 Aug 1941 Robert Gordon Menzies (1st time) UAP (b. 1894 - d. 1978) 29 Aug 1941 - 7 Oct 1941 Arthur William Fadden Cnt (b. 1895 - d. 1973) 7 Oct 1941 - 5 Jul 1945 John Curtin ALP (b. 1885 - d. 1945) 6 Jul 1945 - 13 Jul 1945 Francis Michael Forde ALP (b. 1890 - d. 1983) 13 Jul 1945 - 19 Dec 1949 Joseph Benedict Chifley ALP (b. 1885 - d. 1951) 19 Dec 1949 - 22 Jan 1966 Robert Gordon Menzies (from 1963, Sir Robert Gordon Menzies) (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 22 Jan 1966 - 17 Dec 1967 Harold Holt Lib (b. 1908 - d. 1967) 18 Dec 1967 - 10 Jan 1968 John McEwen Cnt (b. 1900 - d. 1980) 10 Jan 1968 - 10 Mar 1971 John Grey Gorton Lib (b. 1911 - d. 2002) 10 Mar 1971 - 5 Dec 1972 William McMahon Lib (b. 1908 - d. 1988) 5 Dec 1972 - 11 Nov 1975 Gough Whitlam ALP (b. 1916) 11 Nov 1975 - 11 Mar 1983 Malcolm Fraser Lib (b. 1930) 11 Mar 1983 - 20 Dec 1991 Bob Hawke ALP (b. 1929) 20 Dec 1991 - 11 Mar 1996 Paul Keating ALP (b. 1944) 11 Mar 1996 - 3 Dec 2007 John Howard Lib (b. 1939) 3 Dec 2007 - 24 Jun 2010 Kevin Rudd (1st time) ALP (b. 1957) 24 Jun 2010 - 27 Jun 2013 Julia Gillard (f) ALP (b. 1961) 27 Jun 2013 - 18 Sep 2013 Kevin Rudd (2nd time) ALP (s.a.) 18 Sep 2013 - Tony Abbott Lib (b. 1957)
Party abbreviations: ALP=Australian Labor Party, Cnt=Country Party, FT=Free Trade Party, Lib=Liberal Party, Nat=Nationalist Party, NLP=National Labor Party, Pro=Protectionist Party, UAP=United Australia Party

Austria

11 Aug 1804                Kaisertum Österreich¹
21 Dec 1867                "Austrian half" of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy,
                           officially styled Die im Reichsrat vertretenen
                           Königreiche und Länder ("The Kingdoms and Lands
                           Represented in the Imperial Council")
       1916                first official use of the style Empire of Austria
12 Nov 1918                Republic of German-Austria
21 Oct 1919                Republic of Austria
 1 Jul 1934                Federal State of Austria
13 Mar 1938                annexed by Germany as a state, which is dissolved
                           into Reichsgaue 1 May 1939
27 Apr 1945                Republic of Austria

Emperors²
- Habsburg-Lothringen dynasty -
11 Aug 1804 -  2 Mar 1835  Franz I                            (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
 2 Mar 1835 -  2 Dec 1848  Ferdinand I                        (b. 1793 - d. 1875)
 2 Dec 1848 - 21 Nov 1916  Franz Joseph I                     (b. 1830 - d. 1916)
21 Nov 1916 - 11 Nov 1918  Karl I                             (b. 1887 - d. 1922)
Presidents
12 Nov 1918 -  4 Mar 1919  Directory of the Council of State
                           - Franz Dinghofer             GV   (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
                           - Johann Nepomuk Hauser       CS   (b. 1866 - d. 1927)
                           - Karl Seitz                  SDAP (b. 1869 - d. 1950)
                           (chair rotating weekly)
 5 Mar 1919 -  9 Dec 1920  Karl Seitz                    SDAP (s.a.)
                           (president of the Constituent National Assembly
                           to 10 Nov 1920, then acting president)
 9 Dec 1920 - 10 Dec 1928  Michael Hainisch              -    (b. 1858 - d. 1940)
10 Dec 1928 - 13 Mar 1938  Wilhelm Miklas                CS   (b. 1872 - d. 1956)
29 Apr 1945 - 31 Dec 1950  Karl Renner                   SPÖ  (b. 1870 - d. 1950)
                           (acting to 20 Dec 1945)
31 Dec 1950 - 21 Jun 1951  Leopold Figl (acting)         ÖVP  (b. 1902 - d. 1965)
21 Jun 1951 -  4 Jan 1957  Theodor Körner                SPÖ  (b. 1873 - d. 1957)
 4 Jan 1957 - 21 May 1957  Julius Raab (acting)          ÖVP  (b. 1891 - d. 1964)
22 May 1957 - 28 Feb 1965  Adolf Schärf                  SPÖ  (b. 1890 - d. 1965)
28 Feb 1965 -  9 Jun 1965  Josef Klaus (acting)          ÖVP  (b. 1910 - d. 2001)
 9 Jun 1965 - 24 Apr 1974  Franz Jonas                   SPÖ  (b. 1899 - d. 1974)
24 Apr 1974 -  8 Jul 1974  Bruno Kreisky (acting)        SPÖ  (b. 1911 - d. 1990)
 8 Jul 1974 -  8 Jul 1986  Rudolf Kirchschläger          -    (b. 1915 - d. 2000)
 8 Jul 1986 -  8 Jul 1992  Kurt Waldheim                 -    (b. 1918 - d. 2007)
 8 Jul 1992 -  6 Jul 2004  Thomas Klestil                ÖVP  (b. 1932 - d. 2004)
 6 Jul 2004 -  8 Jul 2004  Andreas Khol (acting)         ÖVP  (b. 1941)
 8 Jul 2004 -              Heinz Fischer                 SPÖ  (b. 1938)

Chancellor 25 May 1821 - 13 Mar 1848 Klemens Fürst von Metternich (b. 1773 - d. 1859) Prime ministers 20 Mar 1848 - 19 Apr 1848 Franz Anton Graf von Kolowrat (b. 1778 - d. 1861) 19 Apr 1848 - 19 May 1848 Karl Ludwig Graf von Ficquelmont (b. 1777 - d. 1857) (acting) 19 May 1848 - 8 Jul 1848 Franz Freiherr von Pillersdorf (b. 1786 - d. 1862) (acting) 8 Jul 1848 - 18 Jul 1848 Anton Freiherr von Doblhoff-Dier (b. 1800 - d. 1872) (acting) 18 Jul 1848 - 21 Nov 1848 Johann Freiherr von Wessenberg-Ampringen (b. 1773 - d. 1858) 21 Nov 1848 - 5 Apr 1852 Felix Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (b. 1800 - d. 1852) 11 Apr 1852 - 21 Aug 1859 Karl Ferdinand Graf von Buol-Schauenstein (b. 1797 - d. 1865) 21 Aug 1859 - 4 Feb 1861 Johann Bernhard Graf von Rechberg und Rothenlöwen (b. 1806 - d. 1899) 4 Feb 1861 - 26 Jun 1865 Rainer, Erzherzog von Österreich (b. 1827 - d. 1913) 26 Jun 1865 - 27 Jul 1865 Alexander Graf von Mensdorff-Pouilly (b. 1813 - d. 1871) 27 Jul 1865 - 7 Feb 1867 Richard Graf Belcredi (b. 1823 - d. 1902) 7 Feb 1867 - 30 Dec 1867 Friedrich Ferdinand Freiherr von Beust (b. 1809 - d. 1886) 30 Dec 1867 - 24 Sep 1868 Karl Fürst von Auersperg, Herzog von Gottschee (b. 1814 - d. 1890) 24 Sep 1868 - 15 Jan 1870 Eduard Graf Taaffe (1st time) (b. 1833 - d. 1895) 15 Jan 1870 - 1 Feb 1870 Ignaz Edler von Plener (b. 1810 - d. 1908) 1 Feb 1870 - 12 Apr 1870 Leopold Ritter Hasner von Artha (b. 1818 - d. 1891) 12 Apr 1870 - 6 Feb 1871 Alfred Graf von Potocki-Pilawa (b. 1822 - d. 1889) 6 Feb 1871 - 30 Oct 1871 Karl Siegmund Graf von Hohenwart (b. 1824 - d. 1899) 30 Oct 1871 - 25 Nov 1871 Ludwig Freiherr von Holzgethan (b. 1810 - d. 1876) (acting) 25 Nov 1871 - 15 Feb 1879 Adolf Fürst Auersperg (b. 1821 - d. 1885) 15 Feb 1879 - 12 Aug 1879 Karl von Stremayr (acting) (b. 1823 - d. 1904) 12 Aug 1879 - 11 Nov 1893 Eduard Graf Taaffe (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Nov 1893 - 19 Jun 1895 Alfred August Fürst zu Windischgrätz (b. 1851 - d. 1927) 19 Jun 1895 - 30 Sep 1895 Erich Graf von Kielmansegg (b. 1847 - d. 1923) 30 Sep 1895 - 30 Nov 1897 Kasimir Felix Graf von Badeni (b. 1846 - d. 1909) 30 Nov 1897 - 5 Mar 1898 Paul Freiherr Gautsch von Frankenthurn (1st time) (b. 1851 - d. 1918) 5 Mar 1898 - 2 Oct 1899 Franz Graf von Thun und Hohenstein (b. 1847 - d. 1916) 2 Oct 1899 - 21 Dec 1899 Manfred Graf von Clary und Aldringen (b. 1852 - d. 1928) 21 Dec 1899 - 18 Jan 1900 Heinrich Ritter von Wittek (b. 1844 - d. 1930) (acting) 19 Jan 1900 - 31 Dec 1904 Ernest von Koerber (1st time) (b. 1850 - d. 1919) 31 Dec 1904 - 2 May 1906 Paul Freiherr Gautsch von Frankenthurn (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 May 1906 - 2 Jun 1906 Konrad Prinz zu Hohenlohe- Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (b. 1863 - d. 1918) 2 Jun 1906 - 15 Nov 1908 Max Wladimir Freiherr von Beck (b. 1854 - d. 1943) 15 Nov 1908 - 28 Jun 1911 Richard Freiherr von Bienerth-Schmerling (b. 1863 - d. 1918) 28 Jun 1911 - 3 Nov 1911 Paul Freiherr Gautsch von Frankenthurn (3rd time) (s.a.) 3 Nov 1911 - 21 Oct 1916 Karl Reichsgraf von Stürgkh (b. 1859 - d. 1916) 31 Oct 1916 - 20 Dec 1916 Ernest von Koerber (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Dec 1916 - 23 Jun 1917 Heinrich Graf Clam-Martinic (b. 1863 - d. 1932) 23 Jun 1917 - 27 Jul 1918 Ernst Ritter Seidler von Feuchtenegg (b. 1862 - d. 1931) 27 Jul 1918 - 27 Oct 1918 Max Freiherr Hussarek von Heinlein (b. 1865 - d. 1935) 27 Oct 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Heinrich Lammasch (b. 1853 - d. 1920) Chancellors 12 Nov 1918 - 7 Jul 1920 Karl Renner (1st time) SDAP (s.a.) 7 Jul 1920 - 21 Jun 1921 Michael Mayr CS (b. 1864 - d. 1922) 21 Jun 1921 - 26 Jan 1922 Johann Schober (1st time) - (b. 1874 - d. 1932) 26 Jan 1922 - 27 Jan 1922 Walter Breisky - (b. 1871 - d. 1944) 27 Jan 1922 - 31 May 1922 Johann Schober (2nd time) - (s.a.) 31 May 1922 - 20 Nov 1924 Ignaz Seipel (1st time) CS (b. 1876 - d. 1932) 20 Nov 1924 - 20 Oct 1926 Rudolf Ramek CS (b. 1881 - d. 1941) 20 Oct 1926 - 4 May 1929 Ignaz Seipel (2nd time) CS (s.a.) 4 May 1929 - 26 Sep 1929 Ernst Streeruwitz CS (b. 1874 - d. 1952) 26 Sep 1929 - 30 Sep 1930 Johann Schober (3rd time) - (s.a.) 30 Sep 1930 - 4 Dec 1930 Carl Vaugoin CS (b. 1873 - d. 1949) 4 Dec 1930 - 20 Jun 1931 Otto Ender CS (b. 1875 - d. 1960) 20 Jun 1931 - 20 May 1932 Karl Buresch CS (b. 1878 - d. 1936) 20 May 1932 - 25 Jul 1934 Engelbert Dollfuss CS; 1934: VF (b. 1892 - d. 1934) 25 Jul 1934 - 26 Jul 1934 Kurt Schuschnigg (1st time) VF (b. 1897 - d. 1977) (acting) 26 Jul 1934 - 29 Jul 1934 Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg VF (b. 1899 - d. 1956) (acting) 29 Jul 1934 - 12 Mar 1938 Kurt Schuschnigg (2nd time) VF (s.a.) 12 Mar 1938 - 13 Mar 1938 Arthur Seyss-Inquart NS (b. 1892 - d. 1946) (Reichsstatthalter 13 Mar 1938 - 30 Apr 1939) 23 Apr 1938 - 31 Mar 1940 Josef Bürckel NS (b. 1895 - d. 1944) (Reichskommissar für die Wiedervereinigung Österreichs mit dem Deutschen Reich) 29 Apr 1945 - 20 Dec 1945 Karl Renner (2nd time) SPÖ (s.a.) 20 Dec 1945 - 2 Apr 1953 Leopold Figl ÖVP (s.a.) 2 Apr 1953 - 11 Apr 1961 Julius Raab ÖVP (s.a.) 11 Apr 1961 - 2 Apr 1964 Alfons Gorbach ÖVP (b. 1898 - d. 1972) 2 Apr 1964 - 21 Apr 1970 Josef Klaus ÖVP (s.a.) 21 Apr 1970 - 24 May 1983 Bruno Kreisky SPÖ (s.a.) 24 May 1983 - 16 Jun 1986 Fred Sinowatz SPÖ (b. 1929 - d. 2008) 16 Jun 1986 - 28 Jan 1997 Franz Vranitzky SPÖ (b. 1937) 28 Jan 1997 - 4 Feb 2000 Viktor Klima SPÖ (b. 1947) 4 Feb 2000 - 11 Jan 2007 Wolfgang Schüssel ÖVP (b. 1945) 11 Jan 2007 - 2 Dec 2008 Alfred Gusenbauer SPÖ (b. 1960) 2 Dec 2008 - Werner Faymann SPÖ (b. 1960)
Party abbreviations: CS=Christian Social Party, GV=Greater German People's Party, NS=National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), ÖVP=Austrian People's Party, SDAP=Social Democratic Workers' Party, SPÖ=Socialist Party of Austria (from 15 Jun 1991, Social Democratic Party of Austria), VF=Patriotic Front

Allied occupation

U.S. zone

High commissioners
 5 Jul 1945 - 16 May 1947  Mark W. Clark                      (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
17 May 1947 - 19 Sep 1950  Geoffrey Keyes                     (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
20 Sep 1950 - 17 Jul 1952  Walter J. Donnelly                 (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
17 Jul 1952 - 27 Jul 1955  Llewellyn E. Thompson, Jr.         (b. 1904 - d. 1972)

British zone

High commissioners
   Jul 1945 -    Mar 1946  Sir Richard McCreery               (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
   Mar 1946 -    Oct 1947  Sir James Stuart Steele            (b. 1894 - d. 1975)
   Oct 1947 -  1 Jan 1950  Sir Alexander Galloway             (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
 1 Jan 1950 -  1 Aug 1950  Sir John Winterton                 (b. 1898 - d. 1987)
 1 Aug 1950 -  5 Feb 1954  Sir Harold Caccia                  (b. 1905 - d. 1990)
 5 Feb 1954 - 27 Jul 1955  Sir Geoffrey Wallinger             (b. 1903 - d. 1979)

French zone

High commissioners
 8 Jul 1945 -    Sep 1950  Antoine Béthouart                  (b. 1889 - d. 1982)
   Sep 1950 -    Oct 1954  Jean Payart                        (b. 1892 - d. 1969)
   Oct 1954 -    Feb 1955  Jean Chauvel                       (b. 1897 - d. 1979)
   Feb 1955 -    Jun 1955  Roger Lalouette (acting)           (b. 1904 - d. 1980)
 3 Jun 1955 - 27 Jul 1955  François Seydoux Fornier de
                           Clausonne                          (b. 1905 - d. 1981)

Soviet zone

High commissioners
   Jul 1945 - 25 Apr 1946  Ivan Konev                         (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
10 May 1946 -  2 Apr 1949  Vladimir Kurasov                   (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
 4 May 1949 -  7 Jun 1953  Vladimir Sviridov                  (b. 1897 - d. 1963)
 7 Jun 1953 - 27 Jul 1955  Ivan Ilichev                       (b. 1905 - d. 1983)
¹The word Kaisertum was deliberately chosen not to imply Kaiserreich Österreich (Empire of Austria). The term had no constitutional status before 25 Apr 1848, and had dynastic rather than territorial import: it was intended to encompass all the hereditary possessions of the Haus Österreich, and was so defined in the Constitution of 7 Mar 1849; in the Constitution of 25 Apr 1848 it was similarly used, but excluded the "Hungarian" and "Lombardo-Venetian" possessions.
²Full official style of the ruler, including effective and titular titles, in a typical form of 1918 (variants occur): Von Gottes Gnaden Kaiser von Österreich, Apostolischer König von Ungarn, König von Böhmen, Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slavonien und Galizien, Lodomerien und Illyrien, König von Jerusalem, etc.; Erzherzog von Österreich, Grossherzog von Toskana und Krakau, Herzog von Lothringen und von Salzburg, von Steiermark, von Kärnten, Krain und der Bukovina; Grossfürst von Siebenbürgen; Markgraf von Mähren; Herzog von Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Piacenza und Guastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; Gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg und Tyrol, von Kyburg, Görz und Gradisca; Fürst von Trient und von Brixen; Markgraf von Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien; Graf von Hohenembs, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg etc.; Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der Windischen Mark; Grosswojwod der Wojwodschaft Serbien, etc.; Kaiserliche und Apostolische Majestät ("By the grace of God, Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, and Galitzia, Lodomeria and Illyria, King of Jerusalem, etc.; Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow, Duke of Lorraine and of Salzburg, of Styria, of Carinthia, Carniola and the Bukovina; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, of Auschwitz [Oswiecim] and Zator, of Teschen [Czeszyn], Friuli, Ragusa [Dubrovnik] and Zara [Zadar]; Princely Count of Habsburg and Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia and Gradisca; Prince of Trent [Trento] and Brixen [Bressanone]; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria; Count of Hohenembs, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc.; Lord of Trieste, of Cattaro [Kotor], and in the Wendish March; Grand Voivode of the Voivodina of Serbia, etc.; Imperial and Apostolic Majesty").
Awa: see Myanmar.

Azerbaijan

Baku

       172.                khanate founded
       1728 -        1735  part of Russia
       1735 -        1747  part of Iran
       1806                part of Russia

Khans
       172. -        1728  Dargah Quli Khan
       1747 -        1768  Mirza Muhammad Khan
       1768 -        1770  Fath `Ali Khan
       1770 -        1772  `Abd Allah Beg
       1772 -        1783  Malik Muhammad Khan
       1784 -        1791  Mirza Muhammad Khan
       1791 -        1792  Muhammad Quli Khan
       1792 -        1806  Husayn Quli Khan

Ganja

       1747                khanate founded
       1804                part of Russia

Khans
- Ziyad oglu Qajar dynasty -
       1747 -        1761  Shah Wardi Khan
       1761 -        1781  Muhammad Hasan Khan
- Jawanshir dynasty -
       1781 -        1784  Ibrahim Khalil Khan
- Ziyad oglu Qajar dynasty -
       1784 -        1786  Hajji Beg
       1786 -  3 Jan 1804  al-Jawad Khan

Jawad

Khan
      *1778 -        1789  Tala Hasan Khan

Nakhchiwan

       1834                part of Russia

Khans
      *1751*               Haydar Quli Khan
      *1779*               Kalb `Ali Khan
        ... -        1834  Karim Khan Kangarli

Qarabagh

     c.1554                state under the rule of an Atabeg founded
       1588                part of Ottoman Empire
       1606                khanate founded
       1822                part of Russia

Khans
- Ziyad oglu Qajar dynasty -
       1722 -    May 1728  Dawud Khan
       1728 -        1730  Makhithar
       1730 -        1738  Ughurlu II Khan Ziyad oglu
      *1743*               Khan Chemskeseka
- Jawanshir dynasty -
       1747 -        1761  Panah Khan `Ali Beg
       1761 - 14 Jun 1806  Ibrahim Khalil Khan
       1806 -    Oct 1822  Mahdi Quli Khan Muzaffar

Quba

       1680                khanate founded
       1816                part of Russia

Saytaq Khans
       1680 -    Sep 1721  Husayn Khan
       1721                Ahmad Khan
       1721 -        1722  Chulaq Surkhay Khan
       1722 -        1758  Husayn `Ali Khan
       1758 -    Mar 1789  Fath `Ali Khan
       1789 -        1791  Ahmad Khan
       1791 -        1806  Shaykh `Ali Agha
       1806 -        1816  Husayn Khan

Salyan

       1729                khanate founded
       1782                incorporated into Quba

Khans
       1729 -        17..  Hasan Beg
       1748 -        1757  Ibrahim
       1757 -        1768  Kalb `Ali Sultan
       1768 -        1782  Qubad Sultan

Shakki

     c.1500                khanate founded
       1761 -        1765  part of Qazi Qumuq (Daghestan)
       1819                part of Russia

Khans
        ... -        1743  Malik Najaf Khan
Rulers (title Bashchi)
       1743 -        1759  Chalabi Khan
       1759 -        1761  Agha Kishi Beg
       1765 -        1779  Husayn Khan
       1780 -        1783  `Abd al-Qadir Khan
21 Dec 1783 -        1795  Muhammad Hasan Wali
       1795 -        1806  Mustafa Salim Khan
10 Dec 1806 -        1815  Ja`far Quli Khan Dumbuli
       1815 -        1819  Isma`il Khan

Shamakha

       1748                Khoja Shamakha and Yeni Shamakha khanates founded
       1786                merged into Shamakha
       1820                part of Russia

Khoja Shamakha

Khan
       1748 -        1786  Muhammad Sa`id Khan

Yeni Shamakha

Khans
       1748 -        1763  Muhammad `Ali Khan
       1763 -        1768  Aghazi Khan (1st time)
       1768 -        1769  Fath `Ali Khan
       1769 -        1770  `Abd Allah Beg
       1770 -        1778  Ildar Beg
       1778 -        1786  Aghazi Khan (2nd time)

Shamakha

Khans
       1786 -        1789  Askar Khan
       1789 -        1796  Qasim Khan
       1796 -        1820  Mustafa Khan

Talish

       1747                khanate founded
       1814                part of Russia

Khans
       1747                Sa`id `Abbas
       1747 -        1786  Gara Khan
       1786 -        1814  Mir Mustafa Khan

Azerbaijan

28 May 1918                Azerbaijan People's Republic
28 Apr 1920                Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
12 Mar 1922                part (with Armenia and Georgia) of the Federative
                           Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of Transcaucasia
                           (see under Georgia)
13 Dec 1922                part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist
                           Republic (see under Georgia)
30 Dec 1922                T.S.F.S.R. founding component of the Soviet Union
 5 Dec 1936                T.S.F.S.R. dissolved; Azerbaijan S.S.R. becomes a full
                           union republic (see Soviet republics)
19 Nov 1990                Azerbaijani Republic
30 Aug 1991                independence declared
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)

Chairman of the National Council
28 May 1918 -  7 Dec 1918  Memmed Resulzade                   (b. 1884 - d. 1955)
Chairman of Parliament
 7 Dec 1918 - 27 Apr 1920  Alimardanbey Topchubashov          (b. 1862 - d. 1934)
Chairmen of the Provisional Military-Revolutionary Committee
28 Apr 1920 - 16 May 1920  Mirza Davud Husseynov              (b. 1894 - d. 1938)
16 May 1920 - 19 May 1921  Nariman Narimanov                  (b. 1870 - d. 1925)
Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
19 May 1921 -        1922  Mukhtar Hajiyev
28 Apr 1922 -    Sep 1929  Samad Aga Agamali ogly Aliyev      (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
Presidents
18 May 1990 -  6 Mar 1992  Ayaz Mutalibov (1st time)          (b. 1938)
 6 Mar 1992 - 14 May 1992  Yagub Mamedov (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1941)
14 May 1992 - 16 May 1992  Ayaz Mutalibov (2nd time)          (s.a.)
16 May 1992 - 18 May 1992  Yagub Mamedov (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
18 May 1992 - 16 Jun 1992  Isa Gambarov (acting)              (b. 1957)
16 Jun 1992 -  1 Sep 1993  Abulfez Elchibey                   (b. 1938 - d. 2000)
24 Jun 1993 - 31 Oct 2003  Heydar Aliyev                      (b. 1923 - d. 2003)
                           (acting to 10 Oct 1993 [for Elchibey to 1 Sep 1993])
31 Oct 2003 -              Ilham Aliyev                       (b. 1961)

Prime ministers 28 May 1918 - 5 Apr 1919 Fath Ali Khan Khoiski (b. 1876 - d. 1920) 5 Apr 1919 - 1 Apr 1920 Nasibbey Yusifbeyli (b. 1881 - d. 1920) Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars May 1921 - 1922 Nariman Narimanov (s.a.) 1922 - 1928 Gazanfar Musabekov (b. 1888 - d. 1938) Prime ministers 25 Jan 1990 - 7 Apr 1992 Hasan Hasanov (b. 1940) 7 Apr 1992 - 18 May 1992 Firuz Mustafayev (acting) 18 May 1992 - 26 Jan 1993 Rahim Huseynov (b. 1936) 26 Jan 1993 - 28 Apr 1993 Ali Masimov (b. 1952) 28 Apr 1993 - 27 Jun 1993 Panah Huseynov (b. 1957) 27 Jun 1993 - 6 Oct 1994 Suret Huseynov (b. 1959) 6 Oct 1994 - 20 Jul 1996 Fuad Guliyev (b. 1941) (acting to 2 May 1995) 20 Jul 1996 - 4 Aug 2003 Artur Rasizade (1st time) (b. 1935) (acting to 26 Nov 1996) 4 Aug 2003 - 4 Nov 2003 Ilham Aliyev (s.a.) 6 Aug 2003 - 4 Nov 2003 Artur Rasizade (s.a.) (acting for Aliyev) 4 Nov 2003 - Artur Rasizade (2nd time) (s.a.)

Nakhichevan autonomous republic

Chairmen of the Supreme Council
 5 Sep 1991 - 23 Jun 1993  Heydar Aliyev                      (s.a.)
 3 Jul 1993 -  4 Apr 1994  Vasif Talybov (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1960)
 4 Apr 1994 - 16 Dec 1995  Natig Hasanov
16 Dec 1995 -              Vasif Talybov (2nd time)           (s.a.)

Prime ministers 1991 - 1993 Bedzhan Farziliyev 1993 - 2000 Shamsaddin Khanbabayev (b. 1939) 2000 - Alovsat Bakhshiyev (b. 1956)

Nagorno-Karabakh

 2 Sep 1991                Armenian Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh
 6 Jan 1992                independence declared

Chairman of the Executive Council
 2 Sep 1991 -  6 Jan 1992  Leonard Petrosyan                  (b. 1953 - d. 1999)
Chairmen of Parliament
 7 Jan 1992 - 14 Apr 1992  Artur Mkrtchyan                    (b. 1959 - d. 1992)
15 Apr 1992 - 14 Jun 1993  Georgy Petrosyan (acting)          (b. 1953)
14 Jun 1993 - 29 Dec 1994  Garen Baburyan (acting)            (b. 1954 - d. 2011)
Presidents
29 Dec 1994 - 20 Mar 1997  Robert Kocharyan                   (b. 1954)
20 Mar 1997 -  8 Sep 1997  Leonard Petrosyan (acting)         (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1997 -  7 Sep 2007  Arkady Gukasyan                    (b. 1957)
 7 Sep 2007 -              Bako Sahakyan                      (b. 1960)

Prime ministers 8 Jan 1992 - Aug 1992 Oleg Yessayan (b. 1946) Aug 1992 - Dec 1994 Robert Kocharyan (s.a.) Dec 1994 - Jun 1998 Leonard Petrosyan (s.a.) Jun 1998 - 24 Jun 1999 Zhirayr Pogosyan (b. 1942) 30 Jun 1999 - 14 Sep 2007 Anushavan Danielyan (b. 1956) 14 Sep 2007 - Araik Arutyunyan (b. 1973)

Azores: see under Portugal.