Eagleburger, Lawrence (Sidney) (b. Aug. 1, 1930, Milwaukee, Wis. - d. June 4, 2011, Charlottesville, Va.), U.S. secretary of state (1992-93). He was also ambassador to Yugoslavia (1977-81).
Eanes, António dos Santos Ramalho (b. Jan. 25, 1935, Alcains, Portugal), president of Portugal (1976-86). An army officer, he fought in the colonial wars in Africa. He became army chief of staff in December 1975. On June 27, 1976, General Eanes was elected president. A nonparty candidate supported by the Socialists, Popular Democrats, and Social Democrats, he won 61.5% of the vote. He was reelected on Dec. 7, 1980, with 56.4% of the vote. Legally barred from a third term, he was succeeded in 1986 by his former prime minister Mário Soares.
Eardley, Richard R(oy) (b. Dec. 23, 1928, Denver, Colo. - d. June 30, 2012, Boise, Idaho), mayor of Boise (1974-86).
Earle, George H(oward, III) (b. Dec. 5, 1890, Devon, Pa. - d. Dec. 30, 1974, Bryn Mawr, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1935-39). He was also U.S. minister to Austria (1933-34) and Bulgaria (1940-41).
Easley, Mike, byname of Michael Francis Easley (b. March 23, 1950, Nash County, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (2001-09).
East (Treviño), Julio L. (b. 1876, Lima, Peru - d. 19...), finance minister (1942-45) and prime minister (1944-45) of Peru.
Eastland, James O(liver) (b. Nov. 28, 1904, Doddsville, Miss. - d. Feb. 19, 1986, Greenwood, Miss.), U.S. politician. He was a member (1928-32) of the state House of Representatives but entered national politics when he was appointed (1941) to fill a vacant Senate seat after the death of Sen. Pat Harrison. He won election to the seat in 1942. During his long tenure as Democratic senator, he was notable for his staunch opposition to desegregation and became one of the most powerful men on Capitol Hill as chairman of the Judiciary Committee for 22 years, a position he used in killing 127 civil rights bills. He also served on the Agriculture and Forestry Committee, chaired the Immigration and Naturalization Subcommittee, was adviser to the Senate Appropriations Committee, and in 1972 was elected president pro tempore of the Senate. A staunch anti-Communist, Eastland maintained that Communists had infiltrated civil rights organizations, and he was ardently in favour of U.S. involvement in Vietnam to "rattle the teeth of the Reds." When it became apparent that he could not rally the black vote for his reelection to the Senate, Eastland retired in 1978.
Eastman, (Theophilus) Ernest (b. March 27, 1927 - d. Feb. 28, 2011, Monrovia, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (1983-86).
Eaton, John H(enry) (b. June 18, 1790, near Scotland Neck, Halifax county, N.C. - d. Nov. 17, 1856, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of war (1829-31) and governor of Florida (1834-36). He was also minister to Spain (1836-40).
Eaton, Theophilus (b. August 1591, Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England - d. Jan. 7, 1658, New Haven [now in Connecticut]), governor of New Haven colony (1639-58). He was sent by King Charles I as an agent to the court of Denmark, where he remained several years. When he returned to London from his residence in Copenhagen, he became interested in the settlement of New England. He was one of the original patentees of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Having adopted firm Puritan beliefs, he joined his boyhood friend John Davenport and several Puritan followers in migrating to New England in early 1637. The group arrived in Boston in June, and he was chosen to be a magistrate. But instead of settling in Massachusetts Bay, they determined to establish an independent colony. Accordingly they selected a place called Quinnipiac in April 1638, bought the land from the Indians for thirteen English coats, and named it New Haven. The next year Eaton was elected governor of the colony, and he was reelected annually until his death. In 1643 he became an original commissioner in the New England Confederation, and 12 years later he and Davenport drew up a new legal code for New Haven colony. As governor, Eaton also became involved in various mercantile endeavours, some of which provoked tensions with the Dutch in neighbouring New Netherlands, but he soon abandoned them for agriculture.
Eban, Abba, original name Aubrey Solomon Meir (b. Feb. 2, 1915, Cape Town, South Africa - d. Nov. 17, 2002, Petah Tikva, near Tel Aviv, Israel), foreign minister of Israel (1966-74). Brought up in England, he used the surname of his mother's second husband Isaac Eban. In 1946 he worked with the Jewish Agency as a political information officer to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. He also served as the liaison officer with the UN Special Committee on Palestine in 1947 and as a member of the delegation to the General Assembly that played a critical role in the passage of the UN resolution to partition Palestine. He adopted his Hebrew name Abba soon after Israel's independence in 1948. When the new state was admitted to membership in the UN in 1949, he became its permanent representative, and from 1950 he served concurrently as ambassador to the United States. He held both posts until 1959 when he was first elected to the Knesset. He was minister of education and culture in 1960-63 and deputy prime minister in 1964-65. As foreign minister, he sought to strengthen relations with the U.S. and to bring about Israeli association with the European Economic Community. When Israel was threatened with an Arab blockade in May 1967, he traveled to Paris, London, and Washington to seek a peaceful solution. When diplomacy proved fruitless, he supported the military decisions in the Six-Day War. His eloquent defense of Israel's actions before the UN Security Council and General Assembly was widely admired. He sat in the Knesset as a member of the Labour Party until 1988. He came out in favour of the establishment of a Palestinian state and berated right-wing Israeli politicians for believing they could hold onto the lands occupied in the 1967 war.
Ebeial, Tegi (b. 1939? - d. Dec. 16, 2003, Port Moresby), premier of Southern Highlands (1980-85).
Ebeid, Atef, Arabic in full `Atif Muhammad `Ubayd (b. April 14, 1932, Tanta, Gharbiya governorate, Egypt - d. Sept. 12, 2014), prime minister of Egypt (1999-2004). From 1993 to 1997, he held the posts of minister of cabinet affairs and minister of state for administrative development, as well as minister of public enterprise. He kept the latter portfolio, in which he spearheaded Egypt's privatization program, until 1999 when Pres. Hosni Mubarak, on beginning a new six-year term, appointed him prime minister.
Ebels, Edzo Hommes (b. June 20, 1889, Nieuw Beerta, Groningen - d. Feb. 4, 1970, Groningen), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1945-54).
Eberlein, Werner (b. Nov. 9, 1919, Berlin - d. Oct. 11, 2002, Berlin), first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Magdeburg (1983-89). He was best known to East Germans as the chief interpreter and adviser during the rule of Walter Ulbricht, under whose government the Berlin Wall was built. He served on the Politburo in the 1980s, and was accused after German reunification in 1990 of manslaughter for failing to act against the "shoot to kill orders" issued to border guards. Eberlein, seriously ill and wheelchair-bound for 11 years, was never prosecuted.
Ebert, Friedrich (b. Feb. 4, 1871, Heidelberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. Feb. 28, 1925, Berlin), president of Germany (1919-25). In 1905 he became secretary general of the German Social Democratic Party, and he succeeded August Bebel as party chairman in 1913. On the day of the revolution when Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated (Nov. 9, 1918), Prince Max of Baden asked Ebert to replace him as chancellor. Ebert, who still hoped to establish a regency for the Emperor, actually held office as chancellor for one day. On November 10 he set up an entirely Socialist government. Calling itself the Council of People's Representatives, the government derived its authority from the Workers and Soldiers Council, which claimed to speak for Germany and the German Republic but had been elected rather arbitrarily by the factories and regiments of Berlin alone. Ebert was determined to place power in the hands of a freely elected German parliament as soon as possible. Following the elections of January 1919, he was elected the first president of the republic. When, in January 1923, Germany was declared in default of coal deliveries under the reparations provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, France, wishing to settle the reparations question decisively, occupied the Ruhr territory. Ebert, like nearly all Germans, supported national resistance and the general strike in the Ruhr, which was directed toward ending foreign military control. But Germany suffered as a result of the strike. Inflation assumed staggering proportions, and the country experienced its most severe social and political crisis. Adolf Hitler nearly succeeded in seizing power in Bavaria. Chancellor Gustav Stresemann brought the crisis under control, yet much of the German right persisted in its defamation of Ebert. He died in office.
Ebert, Friedrich (b. Sept. 12, 1894, Bremen - d. Dec. 4, 1979, East Berlin), lord mayor of East Berlin (1948-67) and acting chairman of the Council of State of East Germany (1973); son of Friedrich Ebert (1871-1925).
Éboué, (Adolphe) Félix (Sylvestre) (b. Dec. 26, 1884, Cayenne, French Guiana - d. May 17, 1944, Cairo, Egypt), French colonial administrator. He was first sent to Oubangui-Chari (now the Central African Republic), where he spent most of his career. During an extended leave in the early 1920s, he broadened his contacts with leaders in France, including Blaise Diagne, the first African deputy to the French National Assembly. Although he eventually reached the rank of administrator in chief in 1930, his promotions were slow - not because of his being black, he believed, but because of the low status of Africa and its administrators in the French colonial empire. He served as acting governor of Martinique (1933-34) and of French Sudan (1935) and finally in 1936 he was made a full governor in Guadeloupe, becoming the first black man to reach the highest level of the French colonial administrative system. In Guadeloupe he introduced many reforms associated with the Popular Front government in France, but he also made enemies there who probably influenced his transfer in 1938 to Chad, one of the poorest countries in Africa. As chef de territoire there (1939-40) he became the key figure in rallying to Gen. Charles de Gaulle that strategically located colony as well as all of French Equatorial Africa. This step enabled a French army to be formed under Gen. Jacques Leclerc, who later led it across 1,600 km of desert to make contact with the British 8th Army in Libya. In return, de Gaulle named Éboué governor-general over the entire federation (1940) and further honoured him in 1944 by holding the Brazzaville Conference (to discuss postwar colonial reforms) in his capital; he died a few months later. In 1949 he became the only black to be buried in France's Panthéon of heroes in Paris.
Ebrahim, Fakhruddin (G.) (b. February 1928, Dhrol [now in Gujarat], India), governor of Sindh (1989-90).
Ebrard Casaubón, Marcelo Luis (b. Oct. 10, 1959, Mexico City, Mexico), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (2006-12).
Ebri, Clement (David) (b. Dec. 11, 1952, Ugep [now in Cross River state], Nigeria), governor of Cross River (1992-93).
Ebzeyev, Boris (Safarovich) (b. Feb. 25, 1950, Dzhangi-Dzher village, Frunze oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), president of Karachayevo-Cherkessia (2008-11).
Eccles, Marriner S(toddard) (b. Sept. 9, 1890, Logan, Utah - d. Dec. 18, 1977, Salt Lake City, Utah), chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (1934-48).
Ecevit, (Mustafa) Bülent (b. May 28, 1925, Constantinople [now Istanbul], Turkey - d. Nov. 5, 2006, Ankara, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1974, 1977, 1978-79, 1999-2002). He was elected to Parliament as a Republican People's Party (RPP) member for Ankara (1957, 1961) and Zonguldak (1965, 1969). He was minister of labour in 1961-65 and in 1966 he became secretary-general of the RPP under Ismet Inönü, whose cooperation with the country's military government he opposed. He became RPP chairman in 1972 and prime minister in 1974. He declared an amnesty for all political prisoners and authorized (July 20, 1974) Turkey's military intervention in Cyprus after the Greek-led coup on that island. His request for a vote of confidence from the Parliament in September 1974 failed. After further crises in 1977, during which he briefly formed a government, he was again prime minister in 1978, but acute economic and social difficulties led to the fall of this government in 1979. After a military coup in 1980 he was in detention and charged with "acts of treason" for failing to prevent nationwide street violence between the left and the right that led to the military intervention. He was imprisoned three times for continuing his political activities despite the ban, mainly through his wife Rahsan, a political force in her own right, who formed the Democratic Left Party (DSP) in 1985 and led it until 1987 reforms allowed him back into politics. In June 1997 he became deputy prime minister under Mesut Yilmaz and after the Yilmaz government was overturned on corruption allegations, Ecevit became prime minister again. His popularity was boosted in 1999 by the capture of Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Öcalan. In 2002 he became ill but resisted calls for his resignation, and his party was obliterated in elections. He resigned as party leader in July 2004.
Echandi Jiménez, Mario (José) (b. June 17, 1915, San José, Costa Rica - d. July 30, 2011), foreign minister (1950-52) and president (1958-62) of Costa Rica. He was also ambassador to the United States (1950).
Echarte, Roberto (Pedro), public works minister of Argentina (1989).
Echegoyen (Machicote), Martín R(ecaredo) (b. April 3, 1891 - d. 1974), president of the National Council of Government of Uruguay (1959-60).
Echeverría Álvarez, Luis (b. Jan. 17, 1922, Mexico City), president of Mexico (1970-76). He became the private secretary of the president of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1940. He rose rapidly in political circles and held several important posts in government and the PRI, including director of press and propaganda and president of the Federal Electoral Commission. In 1957 he became minister of education, in 1958 subsecretary of the interior, and in 1964 Pres. Gustavo Díaz Ordaz appointed him secretary of the interior, a post he held until November 1969. He was severely criticized for his harsh handling of the 1968 student demonstrations that culminated in the "Tlatelolco massacre," in which more than 300 demonstrators were killed or wounded and thousands arrested. After becoming president, he moved sharply to the left, releasing most of the prisoners arrested in 1968, redistributing millions of acres among the landless peasantry, expanding social security, housing, and transportation programs, and pouring huge sums of money into public works. Reversing an earlier stand, he introduced a national family planning program to reduce population growth. His administration was plagued by runaway inflation, high unemployment, and illiteracy, and his leftist economic proposals alienated business interests, causing reduced domestic investment. A declining balance of trade forced the devaluation of the peso by 50% in 1976, producing insecurity and antagonism among his middle-class supporters. In foreign policy, he opened diplomatic relations with China and supported Latin American solidarity. He served as ambassador to Australia and New Zealand (1977-80) under his successor, Pres. José López Portillo. In 2004 a judge rejected a request for Echeverría's arrest on charges of genocide for allegedly ordering the killing of student demonstrators on June 10, 1971. On June 30, 2006, however, he was placed under house arrest on charges relating to his involvement in the 1968 massacre.
Eck, Lubbert Jan baron van (b. March 26, 1719, Velp, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. April 1, 1765, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), governor of the Coromandel Coast (1758-61) and Ceylon (1762-65).
Eddé, Émile, Arabic Imil (Ibrahim) Iddi (b. 1886 - d. Sept. 28, 1949, Beirut), prime minister (1929-30) and president (1936-41, 1943) of Lebanon. A leading Maronite advocate, he became a senator in 1926 and as president it fell to him to sign the treaty with France ending the mandate. At the time of his death he was head of the National Bloc.
Eddé, Raymond (Émile), Arabic Raymun (Imil) Iddi (b. March 15, 1913, Alexandria, Egypt - d. May 10, 2000, Paris, France), Lebanese politician; son of Émile Eddé. His family had fled to Egypt after being condemned to death by the Ottoman authorities in the waning years of the empire. The family returned to Beirut in 1920. He succeeded his father as head of the National Bloc. A Christian, Eddé was a moderate who advocated coexistence with other political and religious groups in Lebanon. Eddé represented the Byblos district north of Beirut in the Lebanese parliament from 1953 to 1976, except for a one-year absence in 1964. He ran unsuccessful presidential campaigns in 1958 and 1976 and held various cabinet positions, including minister of interior, social affairs, and posts and telegraphs (1958-60) and of public works and agriculture (1968-69). Eddé went into self-imposed exile in 1976 after surviving three assassination attempts. He opposed all foreign interference in Lebanon, and said he would not return unless Israel and Syria withdrew their soldiers from southern Lebanon.
Edelgeriyev, Abubakar (Said-Khusainovich) (b. 1974), prime minister of Chechnya (2012- ).
Eden, Sir Anthony: see Avon, Anthony Eden, Earl of.
Eden, Charles (b. 1673, England - d. March 17, 1722, Eden House, North Carolina), governor of North Carolina (1714-22). He spent most of his appointed term as governor attempting to curb the threat of pirates, the most powerful of which at this time was Edward Teach ("Blackbeard"). Eden offered him the royal pardon if he would give himself up, whereupon he surrendered with twenty of his followers, but he soon returned to his old habits. Eden was rumoured to have a close personal relationship with Blackbeard and to have shared in his loot. Edward Mosely, a prominent colonist, declared that the governor could raise an armed posse to arrest honest men, but could not raise a similar force to apprehend Teach. For his accusations, Mosely was arrested, fined £100, and debarred from holding office for three years. Teach took over an island on the Carolina coast and set himself up as almost a prince, taxing the traders throughout his realm. The Carolinians despaired of help from their own governor, and got a small army from the governor of Virginia which killed Blackbeard in 1718. In 1719 Eden gave to the council a full account of his dealings with the pirate, which was approved by them. In 1718 Eden had been made landgrave of Carolina, a hereditary nobility provided for in the Fundamental Constitutions, written for the colony by John Locke.
Edgar, Jim, byname of James Edgar (b. July 22, 1946, Vinita, Okla.), governor of Illinois (1991-99). The Republican won a seat in the state legislature in 1976, and in 1981, Gov. James Thompson appointed him secretary of state, where he garnered attention by pushing through an anti-drunk-driving law. In 1990, Edgar ran to succeed Thompson, with strong opposition from Democratic Attorney General Neil Hartigan. Ironically, Hartigan talked of cutting taxes and running government like a business; Edgar promised to make permanent the 1989 tax surcharge for education. Both favored an initiative requiring a 60% state House and Senate vote for a tax increase. Edgar narrowly won, 51%-48%. The first governor since the 1920s to have served in the legislature, he helped Republicans capture the state Senate in 1992. Entering 1994, Edgar did not seem invulnerable. But he won with a record margin, in part because of the issue stands of his opponent, Comptroller Dawn Clark Netsch. A lakefront liberal state senator for 18 years, Netsch proposed a big increase in state income taxes, together with property tax reductions, to finance education. Edgar bragged of increased education funding and a lower-than-national unemployment rate. Edgar won overwhelmingly, carrying 101 of 102 counties (losing one southern Downstate county by 3 votes), and saw Republicans sweep all the statewide offices and capture control of the state House. He entered 1995 in a position of political strength not equalled in the last three generations, hoping to cut state government employment further, implement tort reform, and try further reforms of the welfare system. In March 1995, he signed legislation that eliminated the AFDC program by 1999 and capped other welfare benefits.
Edge, Walter E(vans) (b. Nov. 20, 1873, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Oct. 29, 1956, New York City), governor of New Jersey (1917-19, 1944-47). He was also U.S. ambassador to France (1929-33).
Edgerton, Glen E(dgar) (b. April 17, 1887, Parkerville, Kan. - d. 1976), administrator of the Panama Canal Zone (1940-44). Graduated from the Military Academy at West Point in 1908 and from the U.S. Army engineering school in 1910, he advanced through the grades to major general in 1942. Edgerton was assistant engineer of the Panama Canal from 1908 to 1909, then he was chief engineer of Alaska Road from 1910 to 1915, director of the War Department Sales from 1921 to 1923, chief of the Federal Power Commission from 1925 to 1929, and assistant professor of the Engineering School of the U.S. Military Academy in 1930. He returned to Panama as Panama Canal maintenance engineer from 1936 to 1940, then he was appointed governor of the Panama Canal Zone. During his tenure, several administrative changes occurred: the organization formerly known as the Bureau of Clubs and Playgrounds was designated the Panama Canal clubhouses; the special construction division and the special engineering division were consolidated under the title of the special engineer division. During his administration, also, the highway and railroad bridge across the canal at the existing Miraflores locks was officially opened to vehicular traffic in 1942, thus providing the first permanent bridge connection between the east and west banks of the canal since the canal was opened in 1914, and the excavation for the third locks project was initiated. Edgerton retired on April 30, 1949.
Edis, Richard (John Smale) (b. Sept. 1, 1943 - d. April 10, 2002), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1988-91). He was also ambassador to Mozambique (1992-95), Tunisia (1995-98), and Algeria (2001-02).
Edison, Charles (b. Aug. 3, 1890, West Orange, N.J. - d. July 31, 1969, New York City), U.S. secretary of the Navy (1940) and governor of New Jersey (1941-44). He was a son of inventor Thomas Alva Edison.
Edström, J(ohannes) Sigfrid (b. Nov. 21, 1870, Morlanda village, Västra Götaland county, western Sweden - d. March 18, 1964), president of the International Olympic Committee (1942-52). In 1903 he organized the Swedish national union of sports in which all the associations of different branches are united. He led all Swedish Olympic teams from 1906 to 1936 and organized the Olympic Games in Stockholm in 1912. He was also known as an industrialist, being a director (1903-33) and president of the board (1934-49) of the ASEA company.
Edusei, Krobo (b. 1915 - d. Feb. 13, 1984), Ghanaian politician. He belonged to a leading Ashanti family and joined Kwame Nkrumah's Convention People's Party when it was founded in 1949. Imprisoned by the British authorities, he became the party propaganda secretary; then, when Ghana gained independence in 1957, Edusei was appointed minister of the interior. He later became minister of transport and, in 1961, minister of industries. Nkrumah dismissed him in 1962 (when a scandal involving his wife's purchase of a £3,000 bed threatened his reputation) but later in the year brought him back into the government as minister of agriculture, a post he held until 1965, when he became chief of state protocol. After the fall of Nkrumah in 1966, Edusei lost office and in 1968 was sentenced to 18 months' imprisonment. After his release he played some part in political affairs through the People's National Party until the fall of Pres. Hilla Limann in 1981 led to a further term of imprisonment. He was released shortly before his death.
Edward VII, in full Albert Edward (b. Nov. 9, 1841, London - d. May 6, 1910, London), king of the United Kingdom (1901-10). The second child and eldest son of Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, he was soon after his birth created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (Dec. 4, 1841). In November 1858 he was made a knight of the garter and a colonel in the army. On March 10, 1863, he married Alexandra, eldest daughter of Prince Christian (later King Christian IX) of Denmark. Five children of this union survived to maturity (George, Duke of York, subsequently King George V, was the second son). The prince became a familiar figure in the sporting world. He was particularly given to racing, yachting, and game-bird shooting. His social activities involved him in several scandals. He succeeded to the throne as Edward VII following Victoria's death on Jan. 22, 1901, and was crowned on Aug. 9, 1902. His reign did much to restore lustre to a monarchy that had shone somewhat dimly during Victoria's long seclusion as a widow. In 1902 he resumed his tours of Europe. His geniality and felicitously worded addresses (conducted in French) during a state visit to Paris in 1903 helped pave the way, by winning popularity among French citizens of all ranks, for the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of 1904. Relations with his nephew the German emperor Wilhelm II were not always easy, either officially or personally. Although incapable of prolonged mental exertion, Edward was fortunate in his judgment of men. His support for the great military reforms of the secretary of state for war, Richard Burdon (later Viscount) Haldane, and for First Sea Lord Sir John Fisher in his naval reforms did much to avert British unpreparedness when World War I started.
Edward VIII, also called (from 1936) Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, in full Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David (b. June 23, 1894, Richmond, Surrey, England - d. May 28, 1972, Paris), king of the United Kingdom (1936). The eldest child of George, Duke of York (later King George V), and Princess Mary of Teck (later Queen Mary), he became heir to the throne on the accession of his father (May 6, 1910), being created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on June 23, 1910. In 1930 the prince's friendship with Mrs. Wallis Warfield Simpson of the United States began. By 1934 he was deeply in love with her. George V died Jan. 20, 1936, and Edward was proclaimed king. His attempts to gain the royal family's acceptance of Mrs. Simpson, who obtained a preliminary decree of divorce on Oct. 27, 1936, met with firm opposition, backed by the Church of England (of which he was the head) and most politicians in both Britain and the Commonwealth. Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin attempted to impress upon the king the peril to the integrity of the monarchy caused by the private friendship with a divorcée. Discussions of a morganatic marriage were pursued, but on December 2 Baldwin assured him that this was impracticable. It was doomed by being somewhat hurriedly and forcibly put to the dominions and by the explosion of the whole matter in the press and Parliament on December 3. The king submitted his abdication on Dec. 10, 1936, the only British sovereign ever voluntarily to resign the crown. The instrument of abdication was endorsed by Parliament on December 11. The new king, George VI, created his older brother Duke of Windsor (effective March 8, 1937). On June 3, 1937, Edward was married to Mrs. Simpson by a clergyman of the Church of England at the Château de Candé, Monts, France. He was governor of the Bahamas in 1940-45. After 1945 he lived in Paris.
Edward Mutesa II, also called Sir Edward (Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula) Mutesa (b. Nov. 19, 1924, Kampala, Uganda - d. Nov. 21, 1969, London), kabaka (ruler) of Buganda (1939-53, 1955-66) and president of Uganda (1963-66). He was the only son of Daudi Cwa II, 35th kabaka of Buganda, by his Christian wife, Irene Drusila Namaganda. During the 1940s Mutesa, called "King Freddie" by the Western press, was essentially controlled by the British resident and his katikkiro (prime minister) and was personally rather unpopular. In the "Kabaka crisis" of 1953, when loss of the privileged position of the kingdom of Buganda within the protectorate of Uganda seemed imminent, he took an unyielding stand in meetings with the governor of Uganda so as not to alienate his increasingly suspicious and anti-British subjects. His key demands were for separation of Buganda from the rest of Uganda and a promise of independence. When he refused to communicate British formal recommendations to his Lukiko (parliament), he was arrested and deported. Buganda leaders engineered his return in 1955, ostensibly as a constitutional monarch, but one with a great deal of influence in the Buganda government. When Uganda became independent, Prime Minister Milton Obote first hoped to placate the Ganda by encouraging Mutesa's election as president (a nonexecutive post) in 1963. A conflict over the role and over the continued integrity of the Buganda kingdom within Uganda followed. When he tried to foment discontent between the traditionally stateless northerners and the southern "kingdom" members, Obote suspended the constitution. The conflict escalated rapidly, and Mutesa was forced to flee to Britain in 1966, where he died in exile.
Edwards, Edwin W(ashington) (b. Aug. 7, 1927, Marksville, La.), governor of Louisiana (1972-80, 1984-88, 1992-96). The Democrat was first elected to Congress after the incumbent was killed in a car accident. A charismatic populist, he was first elected governor in 1972 by a narrow margin over Bennett Johnston and David Treen. Treen succeeded Edwards in 1979, but Edwards came back and beat Treen in 1983, then spent much of 1986 and 1987 under trial for bribery charges. He was acquitted, but suffered significant political damage. In 1987 he was able to win only 28% against Buddy Roemer, and withdrew and left Roemer to win without a runoff. In 1991, he improved only slightly, winning 34% in the primary; both times his platform was vintage Edwards - a state lottery, casino gambling in New Orleans, one-man state budgeting. But the political misfortunes of Roemer and the rally against David Duke returned Edwards to the governorship. In his last term Edwards got the legislature to approve casino gambling in New Orleans, after it already allowed riverboat gambling and video poker. He switched from a flat rate to a percentage tax on oil and gas, started two new Mississippi River bridges, and attracted new business that helped the state grow economically in the early 1990s. He got a larger share of state spending dedicated to education. In June 1994 he announced he was not running again in 1995. He was indicted in November 1998 and convicted in May 2000 of racketeering, extortion, mail and wire fraud, and conspiracy for demanding hundreds of thousands of dollars from applicants for riverboat casino licenses. In January 2001 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison and given a $250,000 fine; his son Stephen Edwards was sentenced to 7 years and fined $60,000.
Edwards, James B(urrows) (b. June 24, 1927, Hawthorne, Fla.), governor of South Carolina (1975-79) and U.S. secretary of energy (1981-82).
Edwards, John(ny Reid) (b. June 10, 1953, Seneca, S.C.), U.S. Democratic vice-presidential candidate (2004). He ran for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2004 and 2008.
Eechoud, J(an) P(ieter) K(arel) van (b. 1904 - d. 1958), acting governor of Netherlands New Guinea (1949-50).
Eede, Edouard van den (b. April 11, 1888 - d. March 7, 1947), Belgian resident of Urundi (191.-18) and Ruanda (1919-22).
Eekelen, Wim van, byname of Willem Frederik van Eekelen (b. Feb. 5, 1931, Utrecht, Netherlands), defense minister of the Netherlands (1986-88) and secretary-general of the Western European Union (1989-94).
Eekelers, Willem (b. Sept. 2, 1883, Berg, Belgium - d. May 18, 1954, Brussels, Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1939).
Eenpalu, Kaarel, until 1935 Karl August Einbund (b. May 28, 1888, Vesneri rural municipality, Estonia - d. Jan. 27/28, 1942, Vyatka prison camp, Kirov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), state elder (1932) and prime minister (1938-39) of Estonia.
Effiong, (Obong) Philip (b. Nov. 18, 1924 - d. Nov. 7, 2003, Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria), acting president of Biafra (1970).
Efi, Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese, earlier called Tupuola Taisi Tufuga Efi (b. March 1, 1938), prime minister and foreign minister (1976-82, 1982) and deputy prime minister (1985-88) of Western Samoa and head of state of Samoa (2007- ); son of Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole. He entered parliament in 1972 under the tulafale title of Tupuola and in 1976 defeated his first cousin and rival for the tama'aiga title of Tupua Tamasese, to become prime minister. In 1982, he was toppled by the newly created Human Rights Protection Party after mishandling a Public Service Association strike for better terms and conditions. He was elevated to the tama'aiga rank in 1986 and to Tuiatua honours in 1987. In 2004 he was appointed to the Council of Deputies, the members of which perform state functions if the head of state is unavailable. After the death of Malietoa Tanumafili II, who held the post for life, he was elected to succeed him as head of state for a five-year term. Although he was a member of the Samoa National Development Party, he won the support of the ruling Human Rights Protection Party. In 2012 he was reappointed without opposition for another five years.
Efon, Vincent (b. Aug. 28, 1927, Santchou, French Cameroons [now in Western province, Cameroon] - d. Nov. 4, 2003), foreign minister of Cameroon (1972-75). He was also minister of commerce and industry (1967-68), planning and development (1968-70), and transport (1970-72).
Ega, Manuel de Saldanha e Albuquerque, conde da (b. 1712 - d. Dec. 6, 1771), captain-general of Madeira (1754-56) and viceroy of Portuguese India (1756-65).
Egal, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim, Somali Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal (b. Aug. 15, 1928, Odweina, British Somaliland [now Oodweyne, Republic of Somaliland] - d. May 3, 2002, Pretoria, South Africa), prime minister and foreign minister of Somalia (1967-69) and president of Somaliland (1993-2002). He became the second president of the self-styled Republic of Somaliland in the northwestern corner of Somalia. He and his administration managed to keep Somaliland relatively peaceful and stable as the rest of the Horn of Africa nation descended into chaos while clan-based political factions battled for power. But he never managed to secure international recognition for the republic.
Egan, Ted, byname of Edward Joseph Egan (b. July 6, 1932, Melbourne, Australia), administrator of the Northern Territory (2003-07).
Egeresi, Sandor (b. June 25, 1964, Backa Topola, Vojvodina, Serbia), president of the Assembly of Vojvodina (2008-12).
Egger-Jenzer, Barbara, née Jenzer (b. Sept. 22, 1956, Steffisburg, Bern, Switzerland), president of the government of Bern (2004-05, 2008-09, 2014- ).
Eggerath, Werner (Karl Jakob) (b. March 16, 1900, Elberfeld [now part of Wuppertal], Germany - d. June 16, 1977, Berlin), minister-president of Thüringen (1947-52).
Eggers, Frank H(ague) (b. Feb. 22, 1901, Jersey City, N.J. - d. July 8, 1954, Jersey City), mayor of Jersey City (1947-49); nephew of Frank Hague.
Eggerz, Sigurdur (Pétursson) (b. Feb. 28/March 1, 1875, Bordeyri, Iceland - d. Nov. 16, 1945, Reykjavík, Iceland), minister (1914-15), finance minister (1917-20), and prime minister (1922-24) of Iceland.
Eggleton, Art(hur C.) (b. Sept. 29, 1943, Toronto, Ont.), mayor of Toronto (1980-91) and defense minister of Canada (1997-2002). He was also president of the Treasury Board and minister responsible for infrastructure (1993-96) and minister for international trade (1996-97).
Egídio, (Nuno Viriato Tavares de) Melo (b. Feb. 18, 1922 - d. Dec. 7, 2011, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Macau (1979-81). He was the first governor to visit mainland China in 1980, about a year after Portugal and Beijing had resumed diplomatic relations. Back in Portugal he became head of the armed forces (1981-84).
Egli, Alphons (b. Oct. 8, 1924, Luzern, Switzerland), interior minister (1983-86) and president (1986) of Switzerland.
Egmont, John Perceval, (2nd) Earl of, (2nd) Viscount Perceval, of Kanturk in the County of Cork, (2nd) Baron Perceval, of Burton in the County of Cork, (1st) Baron Lovel and
Holland, of Enmore in the County of Somerset, (6th) Baronet (b. Feb. 24, 1711, Westminster, England - d. Dec. 4, 1770, London, England), British politician; first lord of the Admiralty (1763-66).
Egwu, Sam (Ominyi) (b. June 20, 1954, Ohaukwu [now in Ebonyi state], Nigeria), governor of Ebonyi (1999-2007). He was also Nigerian minister of education (2008-10).
Ehate Tomi, Vicente (b. 1968, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea), prime minister of Equatorial Guinea (2012- ).
Ehlers (Zurita), Freddy (Arturo) (b. Nov. 30, 1945, Quito, Ecuador), secretary-general of the Andean Community (2007-10). He was a presidential candidate in Ecuador in 1996 and 1998 and tourism minister in 2010-13.
Ehouzou, Jean-Marie (b. September 1950), foreign minister of Benin (2008-11). He was ambassador to Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, and Djibouti in 2003-06 and permanent representative to the United Nations in 2006-08.
Ehrensvärd, Albert (Carl August Lars greve) (b. Jan. 10, 1821, Rödjenäs - d. Jan. 31, 1901, Tosterup), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1864-85) and foreign minister of Sweden (1885-89).
Ehrlich, S(aul) Paul, Jr. (b. May 4, 1932, Minneapolis, Minn. - d. Jan. 6, 2005, Delray Beach, Fla.), acting U.S. surgeon general (1973-77).
Ehrlich, Simcha (b. Dec. 15, 1915, Lublin, Poland - d. June 19, 1983, Jerusalem), Israeli politician. He immigrated to Israel in 1934 and entered politics in 1969 as a Liberal member of the Knesset (parliament). He was a personal friend of Menachem Begin and, after the Likud victory in 1977, was appointed finance minister. Ehrlich implemented policies to encourage private enterprise and reduce government subsidies, but he was blamed for failing to control inflation. In 1979 he became deputy prime minister, and in 1981 he became minister of agriculture as well and took over responsibility for settlement on the West Bank. But in most respects he was considered a moderate, and it was Ehrlich who led the attacks on former defense minister Ariel Sharon over the latter's conduct of the invasion of Lebanon in 1982.
Ehrlichman, John D(aniel) (b. March 20, 1925, Tacoma, Wash. - d. Feb. 14, 1999, Atlanta, Ga.), U.S. political figure. He worked on two unsuccessful campaigns of Richard M. Nixon - the 1960 presidential and 1962 California gubernatorial races - and was a strategist in the successful 1968 presidential campaign, and in 1969 he went to the White House, first as counsel and then as domestic affairs adviser. Along with H.R. Haldeman, Ehrlichman became ensconced as one of Nixon's top advisers; the two became known as the "Berlin Wall" because they so successfully shielded the president from unwelcome intrusion. Ehrlichman also formed a group known as the "plumbers," charged with the task of plugging information leaks and obtaining political intelligence. When the plumbers were caught in a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, the White House immediately engaged in a cover-up. The scandal that ensued when the involvement of Nixon and a number of his aides was uncovered eventually led to the resignation from government of several officials, including Ehrlichman and Haldeman (1973), Nixon's resignation from the presidency (1974), and the conviction (1975) and imprisonment of Ehrlichman and others. He was convicted of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury, also on charges stemming from another break-in. He spent 18 months in prison until being released in April 1978.
Ehsa, John (b. Aug. 20, 1958, Madolenihmw, Pohnpei [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), finance secretary of the Federated States of Micronesia (1996-2003) and governor of Pohnpei (2008- ).
Eichel, Hans (b. Dec. 24, 1941, Kassel, Hessen, Germany), minister-president of Hessen (1991-99) and finance minister of Germany (1999-2005).
Eichler, Stanislav (b. April 18, 1960, Turnov, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Liberecký kraj (2008-12).
Eichmann, (Otto) Adolf (b. March 19, 1906, Solingen [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. May 31, 1962, Tel Aviv, Israel), German Nazi official. In November 1932 he became a member of Heinrich Himmler's SS elite organization and from January to October 1934 he was attached to an SS unit at Dachau and then was appointed to the SD central office in Berlin, where he was attached to the section that dealt with Jewish affairs. He advanced steadily in the SS hierarchy and, after the annexation of Austria (March 1938), was sent to Vienna with the mission of ridding the city of Jews. One year later, with a similar mission, he was sent to Prague. When in 1939 Himmler formed the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, Eichmann was transferred to its Jewish section in Berlin. In January 1942, at Wannsee, near Berlin, a conference of Nazi high officials was convened to organize schedules and logistics arrangements necessary to implement the "final solution" of the Jewish problem. Eichmann was to coordinate these arrangements; thus, although the fact that the "final solution" was mass execution had not become generally known, Eichmann had in effect been named chief executioner. Thereupon he organized the identification, assembly, and transportation of Jews from all over occupied Europe to their final destinations at Auschwitz and other death camps. Following the war, Eichmann was captured by U.S. troops, but in 1946 he escaped from the prison camp. Assuming the name Ricardo Klement, he moved to Argentina in 1950. He was arrested by Israeli secret service agents near Buenos Aires on May 11, 1960; nine days later he was smuggled out of the country and taken to Israel. The Israeli government arranged his trial before a special three-judge court in Jerusalem (April 11-Dec. 15, 1961), and he was sentenced to be hanged.
Eide, Espen Barth (b. May 1, 1964, Oslo, Norway), defense minister (2011-12) and foreign minister (2012-13) of Norway.
Eidesgaard, Jóannes (Dan) (b. April 19, 1951, Tvøroyri, Faeroe Islands), prime minister (2004-08) and finance minister (2008-11) of the Faeroe Islands.
Eigenmann, Guido (b. May 3, 1910, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland - d. Sept. 1, 2003, Sankt Gallen), Landammann of Sankt Gallen (1964-65).
Eijlbracht, Johannes Philippus (d. Feb. 2, 1756), commander of Bonaire (1750-56).
Einaudi, Luigi (Numa Lorenzo) (b. March 24, 1874, Carrù, Piemonte, Italy - d. Oct. 30, 1961, Rome, Italy), president of Italy (1948-55). His career was almost entirely literary and academic until 1919, when he was nominated to the Italian Senate, an honorary body, in which he urged a liberal economic policy, free from protectionism. A staunch anti-Fascist, he fled to Switzerland in 1943, where, along with other exiled Italians, he advocated the idea of a European federation. Returning to Italy in 1945, he was appointed governor of the Bank of Italy. He was a member of the Constituent Assembly (1946-48) and in 1947 became deputy prime minister and minister of the budget, a new post in which he successfully curbed inflation and stabilized the currency. He was totally devoted to his cause during those strenuous times, so much that he would refuse to leave a cabinet meeting for any reason lest in his absence, even for a few minutes, some other minister might suggest a new expenditure which the treasury could not cover. In 1948 he became a member of the Senate of the Italian republic and on May 11 was elected president of the republic. His seven-year term ended in 1955 but, though 81 years of age, he offered himself for reelection. In the event he was overwhelmingly defeated by Giovanni Gronchi. He was then appointed senator for life, although he retired to private life.
Einaudi, Luigi R(oberto) (b. March 1, 1936, Cambridge, Mass.), acting secretary-general of the Organization of American States (2004-05); grandson of Luigi Einaudi. He was also permanent representative of the U.S. to the OAS (1989-93).
Eisenhower, Dwight D(avid)1, byname Ike (b. Oct. 14, 1890, Denison, Texas - d. March 28, 1969, Washington, D.C.), president of the United States (1953-61). He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1915. In 1933 he became an aide to Douglas MacArthur, army chief of staff. Eisenhower was made chief of staff of the 3rd Army in 1941. During World War II, he became commander of the Allied forces in Europe (June 1942) and directed the Allied invasions of North Africa (1942) and Italy (1943). As supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, he planned the invasion of Europe that began when he ordered the landing in Normandy (June 1944) and ended after the Allies crossed the Rhine (March 1945), and Germany surrendered in May. He was named chief of staff in November 1945. He directed the demobilization of the wartime army and worked to unify the armed services. In May 1948 he left active duty. In the fall of 1950 Pres. Harry Truman asked him to become supreme commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and in early 1951 he flew to Paris to assume his new position. In June 1952 he retired from the army, returned to the United States, and began his presidential campaign actively. At the Republican convention in July, he won the nomination on the first ballot. His running mate was Sen. Richard M. Nixon of California. Democrats nominated Gov. Adlai E. Stevenson. The Eisenhower-Nixon ticket won handily, carrying 39 states and winning the electoral vote 442-89. In 1956, the Republican convention unanimously endorsed the Eisenhower-Nixon ticket on the first ballot, and Democrats again selected Stevenson. Eisenhower's great personal popularity brought about an even more decisive victory (457-73).
1 Eisenhower's given name at birth was David Dwight, but his mother insisted that he be referred to as Dwight. When Eisenhower registered at West Point on June 14, 1911, as Dwight David Eisenhower the revised order of names had been long in use and may be regarded at that point as having become official.
Eitan, Rafael, byname Raful Eitan (b. Jan. 11, 1929, Moshav Tel Adashim, Palestine [now in Israel] - d. Nov. 23, 2004, Ashdod, Israel), Israeli politician. He served in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) since its establishment in 1948. A graduate of the National Defense College, he served as a paratrooper officer in 1956 Sinai campaign and the 1967 Six-Day War, and was a divisional commander on the Golan Heights in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. His tenure as IDF chief of staff (1978-83) was tainted by Israel's 1982 invasion of Lebanon, during which Christian militiamen slaughtered hundreds of Palestinian refugees in camps surrounded by Israeli soldiers. Although censured for indirect responsibility in the incident, he was allowed to serve out his term before retiring from the army. He turned to politics in 1983, founding the Tzomet Party, and was elected to the Knesset in 1984. Known for his bluntness, he once said Arabs should be placed in a bottle like drugged cockroaches. He was agriculture minister in 1990-91, and deputy prime minister and agriculture and environment minister in 1996-99. Thereafter he left politics. Eitan, who was supervising construction of a breakwater at the Ashdod port, drowned after a wave apparently knocked him over.
Ejoor, David (Akpode) (b. Jan. 10, 1932, Ovu [now in Delta state], Nigeria), governor of Midwest (1966-67). He was also Nigerian chief of army staff (1972-75).
Ek Yi Oun (b. 1910, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), prime minister of Cambodia (1958).
Ekangaki, (Joseph) Nzo (b. March 22, 1934, Nguti, British Cameroons [now in South West province, Cameroon] - d. June 3, 2005, Yaoundé, Cameroon), secretary-general of the Organization of African Unity (1972-74). Previously, he served as public health and population minister (1964-65) and labour and social welfare minister (1965-72) in the government of Pres. Ahmadou Ahidjo. His tenure at the OAU ended in disgrace after he named a British mining firm, the London and Rhodesian Mining and Land Company, which had links to the apartheid regimes in Rhodesia and South Africa, as a consultant to the organization in 1974. The resulting scandal cost him his post. After his resignation from the OAU, he retired from politics.
Eketebi (Moyidiba Mondjolomba), Laurent (Gabriel) (b. May 13, 1936, Coquilhatville, Belgian Congo [now Mbandaka, Congo (Kinshasa)]), president of the provinces of Équateur (1960-62) and Moyen-Congo (1963-64).
Ekila Liyonda, (Adrienne) (b. Oct. 16, 1948, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 22, 2006, Uccle, Brussels-Capital region, Belgium), foreign minister of Zaire (1987-88). She also served as minister of social affairs and the status of women (1983-85), ambassador to the Benelux countries (1985-87), and minister of information and press (1988-90).
Eklund, Sigvard (b. June 19, 1911, Kiruna, Sweden - d. Jan. 30, 2000, Vienna, Austria), director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (1961-81).
El Fassi, Abbas, Arabic `Abbas al-Fasi (b. Sept. 18, 1940, Berkane, Morocco), prime minister of Morocco (2007-11). Earlier he was minister of housing (1977-81), minister of handicraft and social affairs (1981-85), ambassador to Tunisia and to the Arab League (1985-90), ambassador to France (1990-94), and minister of employment, professional training, social development, and solidarity (2000-02).
El Othmani, Saadeddine, Arabic Sa`d al-Din al-`Uthmani (b. Jan. 16, 1956, Inzeggane, near Agadir, Morocco), foreign minister of Morocco (2012-13).
El Waghef, Yahya Ould Ahmed, Arabic Yahya walad Ahmad al-Waqaf (b. 1960, Moudjeria, Mauritania), prime minister of Mauritania (2008).
El-Yachroutu (Mohamed), Caabi (b. 1948?), prime minister (1995-96), interim president (1995-96), vice president (2002-06), and finance minister (2002-04) of the Comoros. He resigned in 2006 to make a bid for the presidency, but he only came fourth in the election.
Elahi, Chaudhry Pervaiz (b. Nov. 1, 1945, Gujrat, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), chief minister of Punjab (Pakistan) (2002-07).
Elbegdorj, Tsakhiagiyn (b. March 30, 1963, Zereg, Hovd province, Mongolia), prime minister (1998, 2004-06) and president (2009- ) of Mongolia. He set up the Mongolian Democratic Union, the first non-party democratic group set up in 1989 to nurture change. Mongolians remember him as a young political radical standing on a chair to address pro-democracy crowds and hunger strikers in Ulaanbaatar's main square in 1990. He was elected to parliament in 1990 and 1992, but resigned his seat in protest in 1994 after being cleared of charges that he had stolen and publicized state secrets. He became chairman of the National Democratic Party (NDP) in April 1996. A public opinion poll conducted at the beginning of June 1996 showed 40% of respondents regarded Elbegdorj as the public official they approved of most. He was again elected to parliament in 1996. He was barred from joining the government under laws that prevented members of parliament from being elected to the cabinet. Those laws were changed in 1998, and in April the Democratic Union Coalition, of which the NDP was the largest party, decided that the head of its majority party should be prime minister. His term was cut short by a banking scandal, which resulted in a no-confidence motion. When in 2004 neither the incumbent Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) nor the opposition Motherland Democratic Coalition won enough seats to form a government on their own, both sides agreed to form a "grand coalition government" with Elbegdorj as prime minister and MPRP chairman Nambaryn Enkhbayar as parliament speaker. The MPRP ended this coalition in 2006 and formed a government with the support of smaller parties. He was elected president in 2009 on promises to distribute the country's mining wealth more fairly and crack down on graft.
Elchibey, Abulfez, Azeri Äbülfez Elçibäy, pseudonym of Äbülfez Qadirqulu oglu Äliyev (b. June 7, 1938, Nakhichevan - d. Aug. 22, 2000, Ankara, Turkey), president of Azerbaijan (1992-93). He was elected the Caspian Sea oil state's second president in 1992. His rule saw massive battleground defeats in the war with the breakaway region of Nagorno-Karabakh, which ended with Karabakh Armenians controlling both the province and huge swathes of Azerbaijan proper. Around a million people were made homeless by the conflict and 35,000 people died. Elchibey fled a military revolt in which rogue units marched on Baku in 1993. Heydar Aliyev, then parliamentary speaker, took over as interim leader under the constitution and was then voted in as leader; he soon signed a ceasefire with Karabakh. Elchibey, who spent four years in internal exile in his native village in the country's remote Nakhichevan region before returning to Baku in late 1997, accused Aliyev of usurping power. He and his pro-nationalist Popular Front political movement never recognized his rule. In 1999 Elchibey went on trial for accusing Aliyev of helping found the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), but charges were dropped.
Elders, Joycelyn, original name Minnie Lee Jones (b. Aug. 13, 1933, Schaal, Ark.), U.S. surgeon general (1993-94). She was fired in December 1994 after saying at a United Nations AIDS conference that discussion of masturbation should be part of sex education in schools.
Eldjárn, Kristján (Thórarinsson) (b. Dec. 6, 1916, Tjörn, Iceland - d. Sept. 13, 1982, Cleveland, Ohio), president of Iceland (1968-80). He was elected by a large majority to the presidency in 1968 and was returned unopposed in 1972 and 1976.
Eleta Almarán, Fernando (b. Aug. 10, 1921, Panama City, Panama - d. Aug. 13, 2011, Panama City), finance minister (1958-60) and foreign minister (1964-68) of Panama.
Elguera (Delgado), César A. (b. March 28, 1874, Lima, Peru - d. 1936), foreign minister of Peru (1925-26). He was also ambassador to Chile (1928-30).
Eliás, Alois (b. Sept. 29, 1890, Prague, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. [executed] June 19, 1942, Prague), prime minister of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-41).
Elias, Burchard Joan (b. July 12, 1799, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. May 1, 1871, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of the Dutch West Indies (1842-45).
Elias, Edna (Ekhivalak) (b. 1955?), commissioner of Nunavut (2010- ).
Elías, Francisco S(uárez) (b. 1882, Tecoripa, Sonora, Mexico - d. 1963, Hermosillo?, Sonora), governor of Sonora (1929-31). He was also interim governor of Sonora three times during the nominal term of office of Adolfo de la Huerta (July 4, 1921-May 3, 1922; June 4, 1922-Jan. 17, 1923; Feb. 19-April 3, 1923). He was secretary of agriculture and development of Mexico from Oct. 21, 1931, to Nov. 30, 1934.
Elias, Dame Sian (Seerpoohi) (b. March 12, 1949, London, England), acting governor-general of New Zealand (2001, 2006, 2011). Appointed a Queen's Counsel in 1988, she became a judge of the High Court in 1995 and the first female chief justice in 1999. She was knighted (GNZM) in 1999.
Elías Calles, Plutarco: see Calles, Plutarco Elías.
Elías Calles (Chacón), Rodolfo (b. May 1900, Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico - d. June 1965, Rochester, Minn., U.S.), governor of Sonora (1931-35); son of Plutarco Elías Calles.
Eliasson, Jan (Kenneth) (b. Sept. 17, 1940, Göteborg, Sweden), president of the United Nations General Assembly (2005-06) and foreign minister of Sweden (2006). He earlier served as Sweden's permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-92) and ambassador to the United States (2000-05).
Elifas, Filemon, in full Filemon Shuumbwa yElifas lyaShindondola (b. Oct. 10, 1932 - d. [shot] Aug. 16, 1975, Onamagongwa, Ondangwa area, Namibia), chief of Ondonga and chief minister of Ovamboland (1972-75).
Eliot, Sir Charles (Norton Edgecumbe) (b. Jan. 8, 1862, Sibford Gower, Oxfordshire, England - d. March 16, 1931, on board the Hakone Maru, in the Strait of Malacca), British colonial administrator. He served in diplomatic posts in Russia (1885), Morocco (1892), Turkey (1893), and Washington, D.C. (1899). In 1899 he was selected for the post of high commissioner and consul-general for the international commission which the three protecting powers (Britain, the U.S., and Germany) appointed to report upon the existing troubles and future administration of the Samoan Islands. In 1900 he was knighted (K.C.M.G.) and appointed commissioner for the East African Protectorate (now Kenya) and consul-general for Zanzibar. He initiated a policy of white supremacy, collaborating with the farmers there (notably Lord Delamere, to whom he ceded 100,000 acres [40,500 ha] of land) and encouraging European immigration by the wholesale award of land concessions to European settlers. By 1903 he was encountering opposition from the Colonial Office, which felt he was proceeding too rapidly. In 1904, after being criticized for granting a concession on land previously reserved for the Masai, he resigned his position. In 1918 he reentered the service of the Foreign Office when he accepted the post of high commissioner and consul-general in Siberia, when Adm. Aleksandr Kolchak was making his fruitless effort to stem the Soviet march eastwards. In 1920 he became ambassador in Tokyo. He retired in 1926 but continued to live in Japan.
Elizabeth II, in full Elizabeth Alexandra Mary (b. April 21, 1926, London, England), queen of the United Kingdom (1952- ). She was the elder daughter of Albert, Duke of York, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. As the child of a younger son of King George V, the young Elizabeth had little prospect of acceding to the throne until her uncle, Edward VIII, abdicated in her father's favour on Dec. 11, 1936, at which time her father became King George VI and she became heir presumptive. She married Philip Mountbatten on Nov. 20, 1947. Their first child, Prince Charles, was born Nov. 14, 1948. King George VI died on Feb. 6, 1952, and Elizabeth, who was on an official visit to Kenya at the time, flew back to London to be greeted as the new queen. Her coronation was held at Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, her son Prince Charles became heir apparent. The queen's other children were Princess Anne (Elizabeth Alice Louise), b. Aug. 15, 1950; Prince Andrew (Albert Christian Edward), b. Feb. 19, 1960, and created Duke of York in 1986; and Prince Edward (Anthony Richard Louis), b. March 10, 1964. All these children have the surname "of Windsor," but in 1960 Elizabeth decided to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for other descendants not styled prince or princess and royal highness. Elizabeth's first grandchild (Princess Anne's son) was born on Nov. 15, 1977. The queen seemed increasingly aware of the modern role of the monarchy, allowing, for example, the televising of the royal family's domestic life in 1970 and condoning the formal dissolution of her sister's marriage in 1978. Celebrating her golden jubilee in 2002, she succeeded in retaining public confidence in an era of rapid social change and intense media scrutiny. Many British colonies achieved independence during her reign, and several of them retained her as queen, so that she is today queen of 16 independent countries.1
1 Namely, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom.
Elizalde, Joaquin Miguel (b. Aug. 2, 1896, Manila, Philippines - d. Feb. 9, 1965, Washington, D.C.), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1952-53). He was also ambassador to the United States (1946-52).
Elizondo, Eduardo A., in full Eduardo Ángel Elizondo Lozano (b. Dec. 7, 1922, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Feb. 24, 2005, San Pedro Garza García, Nuevo León), governor of Nuevo León (1967-71).
Elizondo Barragán, Fernando (b. Jan. 6, 1949, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (2003); son of Eduardo A. Elizondo.
Ellauri (Obes), José Eugenio (b. Nov. 15, 1834, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. 1894, Montevideo), foreign minister (1868-72) and president (1873-75) of Uruguay.
Ellawala, Mohan Saliya (b. Nov. 9, 1948 - d. May 12, 2009, Colombo, Sri Lanka), chief minister (2001-04) and governor (2008-09) of Sabaragamuwa.
Ellefsen, (Joen) Pauli (Højgaard) (b. April 20, 1936, Midvágur, Faeroe Islands - d. Aug. 24, 2012), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (1981-85).
Ellemann, Karen (b. Aug. 26, 1969, Charlottenlund, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (2009-10); daughter of Uffe Ellemann-Jensen.
Ellemann-Jensen, Uffe (b. Nov. 1, 1941, Haarby, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (1982-93).
Ellenberger, Jules (b. Jan. 16, 1871 - d. Aug. 20, 1973), resident commissioner of Bechuanaland (1923-27).
Elliott, Andrew Charles (b. 1828, Ireland - d. April 9, 1889, San Franciso, Calif.), premier of British Columbia (1876-78). In 1860 he was appointed county court judge for the district of Yale and Hope. The following year he was given the prestigious position of "gold commissioner" in the prominent mining town of Lillooet, and fulfilled a variety of the town's municipal duties. After the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia united in 1866, he became high sherriff, then police magistrate in Victoria. In 1875 he decided to run for a seat in the provincial legislature, and was elected in the key Victoria riding. Though his initial year in government was mired with controversy, his fellow MLAs saw potential in his leadership, and appointed him leader of the opposition. When Premier George Anthony Walkem lost a vote of confidence in 1876, Lieutenant Governor Sir Joseph William Trutch asked Elliott and his opposition party to form a government. As premier, he inherited a province that was becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the federal government. While not a fevered separatist himself, Elliott found himself "guilty by association" in the eyes of the prime minister and governor-general, and received little help in calming his rebellious province. He tried to satisfy the B.C. isolationists by suspending construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, but this move was not popular, and further enforced the image of Elliott as a "traitor" to the Canadian dominion. In 1878 he was soundly defeated by Walkem's opposition forces, and failed to even win his own seat. He sought reelection in 1884, but was once again unsuccessful.
Elliott, Sir Hugh (Francis Ivo), (3rd) Baronet (b. March 10, 1913 - d. Dec. 21, 1989), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (1950-52). He succeeded his father as baronet in 1961.
Elliott, John C. (b. Jan. 30, 1919, Los Angeles, Calif. - d. April 13, 2001, San Marino, Calif.), governor of American Samoa (1952).
Elliott, Roger (b. c. 1665, London, England, or Tangier, Morocco - d. May 15, 1714, Barnes, Surrey, England), governor of Gibraltar (1707-11); half-brother of Alexander Spotswood.
Ellis, Abraham George (b. Aug. 26, 1846, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana - d. Nov. 29, 1916, Amsterdam), acting foreign minister of the Netherlands (1905).
Ellsworth, Oliver (b. April 29, 1745, Windsor, Conn. - d. Nov. 26, 1807, Windsor), U.S. politician. In 1777 he was chosen as one of Connecticut's representatives in the Continental Congress. He served on various committees during six annual terms until 1783. As a member of the Committee of the Pay Table, he was one of the five men who supervised Connecticut's war expenditures. In 1779 he assumed greater duties as a member of the Council of Safety, which, with the governor, controlled all military measures for the state. Thereafter he served on the state Superior Court (1784-89). When the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia in 1787 he once again represented Connecticut and took an active part in the proceedings. In 1789 he became one of Connecticut's first two U.S. senators and the acknowledged Federalist leader in the Senate. He was a principal draftsman of the conference report on the first 12 proposed amendments to the Constitution (accepted by Congress in September 1789; 10 amendments - the Bill of Rights - were ratified by the states and became effective in December 1791). Ellsworth was commissioned as U.S. chief justice on March 4, 1796, and sworn in on March 8. While presiding over the U.S. Circuit Court for Connecticut, he ruled, in United States v. Isaac Williams (1799), that a U.S. citizen could not expatriate himself without the consent of the government. He resigned late in 1800 because his health had been permanently impaired on an arduous trip to France to negotiate a treaty.
Elorduy Walther, Eugenio (b. Nov. 21, 1940, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico), governor of Baja California (2001-07).
Elrington, Wilfred (Peter), byname Sedi Elrington (b. Nov. 20, 1948, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize City, Belize]) foreign minister of Belize (2008- ).
Elslande, Renaat (Antoon Joseph Cornelis) van (b. Jan. 21, 1916, Boekhoute, Belgium - d. Dec. 21, 2000, Ukkel, Brussels-Capital region, Belgium), Belgian politician. Although a member of the Christian People's Party (CVP) and not of one of the traditional Flemish nationalist parties, he was a major advocate of the Flemish cause in Francophone-dominated Belgium in the 1960s and '70s. He was minister-undersecretary of state for cultural affairs (1960-61), assistant minister for national education and culture (1961-62), minister of culture and assistant minister of national education (1962-65), minister of European affairs and Dutch culture (1966-68), minister of home affairs (1972), minister of foreign affairs (1973-77; after more than 140 years of Belgian independence the first member of the Flemish majority to hold this post), minister of justice (1977-80), and minister of state (a honorific title; 1992-2000).
Elvidge, Ford Quint (b. Nov. 30, 1892, Oakland, Calif. - d. 1980), governor of Guam (1953-56).
Elvir Sierra, César (b. March 23, 1935, Potrerillos, Cortés department, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (1980-82).
Ély, Paul (Henri Romuald) (b. Dec. 17, 1897, Salonika, Greece - d. Jan. 16, 1975, Paris, France), commissioner-general of French Indochina (1954-55).
Eman, Henny, byname of Jan Hendrik Albert Eman (b. March 20, 1948), prime minister of Aruba (1986-89, 1994-2001).
Eman, Mike, byname of Michiel Godfried Eman (b. Sept. 1, 1961, Oranjestad, Aruba), prime minister of Aruba (2009- ); brother of Henny Eman.
Emanuel, Rahm (Israel) (b. Nov. 29, 1959, Chicago, Ill.), White House chief of staff (2009-10) and mayor of Chicago (2011- ).
Emanuels, Severinus Désiré (b. Feb. 27, 1910, Rotterdam, Netherlands), finance minister (1952-55) and prime minister (1958-63) of Suriname.
Emein, Cletus (Komena), administrator of Niger state, Nigeria (1993-96).
Emerencia, Lydia (Angela) (b. Oct. 2, 1954, Aruba), administrator of Bonaire (2012-14).
Emerson, Craig (Anthony) (b. Nov. 15, 1954, Baradine, N.S.W.), trade minister (2010- ) and acting foreign minister (2012) of Australia.
Emerson, David (Lee) (b. Sept. 17, 1945, Montreal, Quebec), foreign minister of Canada (2008).
Emilson (b. Jan. 27, 1952), governor of Fianarantsoa (2001-02). He was sentenced to five years in prison on March 25, 2003, for "setting up economic blockades and attacking the interior safety of the state." On Dec. 15, 2003, he was further sentenced to three years in prison for proclaiming the independence of his province during the 2002 political crisis.
Emmerová, Milada (b. Nov. 4, 1944, Plzen, Bohemia and Moravia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Plzenský kraj (2008-10). She was health minister of the Czech Republic in 2004-05.
Empey, Reg(inald Norman Morgan) Empey, Baron (b. Oct. 26, 1947, Belfast, Northern Ireland), Northern Irish politician. A Belfast city councillor from 1985, he was lord mayor in 1989-90 and 1993-94. In the Northern Ireland Executive he became minister for enterprise, trade and investment in 1999 and was acting first minister in 2001. In 2005-10 he was leader of the Ulster Unionist Party. He was knighted in 1999 and made a life peer in 2011.
Emsis, Indulis (b. Jan. 2, 1952, Salacgriva, Limbazi district, Latvian S.S.R.), prime minister of Latvia (2004). He was speaker of the Saeima in 2006-07.
Encinas Johnson, Luis (b. Oct. 23, 1912, Hermosillo, Mexico - d. April 27, 1992), governor of Sonora (1961-67).
Endalkachew Makonnen (b. 1927, Addis Ababa - d. [executed] Nov. 24, 1974), prime minister of Ethiopia (1974); son of Makonnen Endalkachew. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-69).
Endara (Galimany), Guillermo (David) (b. May 12, 1936, Panama City, Panama - d. Sept. 28, 2009, Panama City), president of Panama (1989-94). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2004 and 2009.
Endecott, John, also spelled Endicott (b. 1588?, Drewston, Chagford, Devonshire, England - d. March 15, 1665, Boston), governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1628 Endecott, as one of the six grantees of the New England Company for a Plantation in Massachusetts, was chosen manager and governor of their settlement. In that year Endecott and about 30 settlers left on the ship Abigail from the port of Weymouth near Dorchester on June 20, 1628, and landed on Sept. 6, 1628, at Naumkeag, a location already occupied by a group of seceders from Plymouth who were led by Roger Conant. According to tradition, the establishment of good relations between the two groups prompted the change of the name of the settlement to Salem (from the Hebrew word shalom, "peace"). When the jurisdiction of the New England Company was supplanted by that of the Massachusetts Bay Company (1629), Endecott briefly served as the local governor (April 1629-June 1630) of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was succeeded in 1630 by John Winthrop, with whom he worked in harmony despite strong religious differences. In 1636 Endecott led a punitive expedition against the Algonquin in Connecticut which led to the Pequot War. Endecott almost continuously occupied prominent official positions in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He again served as governor in 1644-45, 1649-50, 1651-54, and 1655-64 and was deputy governor in 1641-44, 1650-51, and 1654-55.
Endeley, Emmanuel (Mbela Liffafe) (b. April 10, 1916, Buea, Cameroon - d. June 1988), premier of British Cameroons (1954-59).
Ender, Otto (b. Dec. 24, 1875, Altach, Vorarlberg, Austria - d. June 25, 1960, Bregenz, Vorarlberg), chancellor of Austria (1930-31). A member of the Christian Social Party, he served (1918-30, 1931-34) as Landeshauptmann (governor) of the state of Vorarlberg, on the Swiss border, and after World War I he negotiated unsuccessfully for the incorporation of Vorarlberg in the Swiss confederation. Despite his leadership of the Vorarlberg Heimwehr (rightist paramilitary defense force), his allegiances were considered to be democratic and anti-Fascist. He was appointed chancellor of Austria in December 1930 and held office through six months of economic depression, marked notably by the collapse of the Creditanstalt, the most important Austrian banking house. Later, as minister without portfolio in the government of Engelbert Dollfuss, he supervised the drafting of a new corporative constitution for Austria (1933-34). He headed the Austrian Rechnungshof (audit office) in 1934-38. Imprisoned by the Nazis after the Anschluss (Austria's incorporation into Germany in 1938), he was later confined at Dachau, Germany, and finally released during the Allied liberation (1945).
Eneme Ovono, Santiago (b. Feb. 17, 1958, Acoacam, Equatorial Guinea), foreign minister of Equatorial Guinea (1990-92).
Engelbrecht, Willem Bernard (b. Aug. 11, 1881, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia] - d. Jan. 7, 1955, Utrecht, Netherlands), commissioner of Utrecht (1941-45).
Engels, Alphonse (b. Jan. 7, 1880, Schaerbeek, Belgium - d. Aug. 31, 1962, Uccle, Belgium), deputy governor-general of Équateur (1919-21) and deputy governor-general (1922-29) and governor (1925-29) of Congo-Kasaï.
Engels, Friedrich (b. Nov. 28, 1820, Barmen, Rhine Province, Prussia - d. Aug. 5, 1895, London), German socialist. He attempted to convert various émigré German worker groups - among them a socialist secret society, the League of the Just - as well as leading French socialists to his and Karl Marx's views. When the league held its first congress in London in June 1847, Engels helped bring about its transformation into the Communist League. Marx and he together persuaded a second Communist Congress in London to adopt their views. The two men were authorized to draft a statement of communist principles and policies, which appeared in 1848 as the Manifest der kommunistischen Partei (Communist Manifesto). The Revolution of 1848, precipitated by the attempt of the German states to replace an authoritarian political system with a constitutional, representative form of government, was a momentous event in the lives of Marx and Engels. It was their only opportunity to participate directly in a revolution and to demonstrate their flexibility as revolutionary tacticians with the aim of turning the revolution into a communist victory. After the failure of the revolution, Engels and Marx reorganized the Communist League and drafted tactical directives for the communists in the belief that another revolution would soon take place. Engels wrote Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft (1878; Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science), the book that probably did most to promote Marxian thought. It destroyed the influence of Eugen Dühring, a Berlin professor who threatened to supplant Marx's position among German Social Democrats. After Marx's death (1883), Engels served as the foremost authority on Marx and Marxism.
Engholm, Björn (b. Nov. 9, 1939, Lübeck, Germany), German politician. He joined the Social Democratic Party in 1962, and he was first elected to the National Assembly (Bundestag) in 1969, winning reelection successively thereafter. In 1981-82 he was minister of education and science in the government of his mentor, the Social Democratic leader Helmut Schmidt. After the Schmidt government fell from power in 1982, Engholm ran unsuccessfully for minister-president of his home state of Schleswig-Holstein in 1983 and 1987. Revelations about dirty campaign methods employed by the Christian Democrats in the latter election led to new elections in 1988, and Engholm became minister-president. In 1990 Engholm was chosen to succeed Hans-Jochen Vogel as chairman of the Social Democratic Party, and his appointment as its leader was confirmed in a party conference in 1991. In May 1993 he resigned all his political positions when it turned out he was informed of the activities directed against him before the 1987 state election.
Engler, John (Mathias) (b. Oct. 12, 1948, Mount Pleasant, Mich.), governor of Michigan (1991-2003). The Republican was elected to the state legislature in 1970, at 22, and remained there 20 years till he was elected governor. Most of that time he was in the minority. Even as Senate majority leader after 1983, when Republicans used recalls to seize control of the state Senate, Engler operated in a climate where liberals controlled most institutions. In 1990 he ran for governor and lagged behind Democrat James Blanchard in polls all though November. But his call for increasing education spending and cutting property taxes 20% was popular, and when Blanchard came forward with his own property tax cut, Engler effectively ridiculed it as saving a nickel a week per taxpayer. He won 50%-49%. Engler cut general assistance (welfare for non-parents) and aid to the arts; he privatized services and started seeking federal waivers for welfare reform. In 1994, Howard Wolpe won the Democratic primary and spent much on ads attacking Engler for approving a nuclear power plant and closing a mental health clinic. Engler's attacks on Wolpe's liberal House voting record were not diminished by Wolpe's attacks on Engler for a September 1994 prison break at Detroit's Ryan Correctional Facility, in which 10 prisoners escaped. Engler won 61%-38%, carrying all but two counties. He continued to pursue tax cuts and welfare reform. He stood clearly in command of state politics, and his experiments in Michigan's laboratory of reform made him a national political and governmental figure as well, one who became a close adviser and role model to Speaker Newt Gingrich and the new Republican majority. In 1998 he defeated his Democratic opponent Geoffrey Fieger by 62%-38%.
Engler, Stefan (b. May 30, 1960), president of the government of Graubünden (2003, 2008).
English, Bill, byname of Simon William English (b. December 1961, Dipton, New Zealand), finance minister (1999, 2008- ) and treasurer (1999) of New Zealand. He was leader of the National Party in 2001-03.
Engulu Banga Mpongo Bakokele Lokanga, until 1972 Léon Engulu, president (1962-65) and governor (1965-66) of Cuvette Centrale and governor of Équateur (1966-67), Kivu (1967-68), and Katanga (1968-70).
Enkhbayar, Nambaryn (b. June 1, 1958, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), prime minister (2000-04) and president (2005-09) of Mongolia. In 2004-05 he was chairman of the State Great Khural. In 2012 he was detained on corruption charges and sentenced to four years in prison.
Enkhbold, Miyeegombo (b. July 19, 1964, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), prime minister of Mongolia (2006-07). He joined the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) in 1990 and served as the chairman of the MPRP's council in Ulaanbaatar from 1997. He was elected mayor of Ulaanbaatar in 1999. In 2005 he was elected MPRP chairman, replacing Nambaryn Enkhbayar who was elected president of Mongolia. He resigned as prime minister when he lost his position as party chairman to Sanj Bayar.
Enkhbold, Nyamaa (b. Jan. 6, 1957, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister of Mongolia (2006-07).
Enkhsaikhan, Mendsaikhany (b. June 4, 1955, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), prime minister (1996-98) and foreign minister (1996-97) of Mongolia. Two years as a department head in the Ministry of Economy and Foreign Trade (1987-89) convinced the young communist that Mongolia's ailing economy was in desperate need of a dose of the free market if it was to revive. He joined a group of young economists who met to discuss radical new reforms. When Mongolians took to the streets in 1990 in demonstrations for more democracy that heralded the end of communist rule, he took charge of the new Research Centre on Market Economy. When the opposition Democratic Party was formed, he found a job as one of its main architects of economic policy. In July 1990, he was elected on a Democratic Party ticket to the Little Khural (upper house of parliament) in Mongolia's first free general elections. There he headed the standing committee on economics where the first radical plans for Mongolia's transition from decades of Stalinist central planning to the free market were laid. He soon won fame through his pressure for privatization, new banking systems and drastic economic reforms. In 1992 elections for a new unicameral parliament, or Great Khural, he was one of just six democrats who made it to the 76-seat house. The former communists (MPRP) swept all 70 other seats. However, he resigned the following year to become head of the president's office. When the National Democratic Party (NDP) and the Social Democratic Party (SDP) agreed to bury their differences and to join forces against the former communists for the 1996 elections, he was chosen as the leader most able to narrow their differences. The Democratic Union Coalition captured 50 seats in a shock victory over the MPRP, and he became prime minister. In 2005 he was a presidential candidate. In 2006-07 he was deputy prime minister; in 2014 he became a minister without portfolio.
Ennery, Victor Thérèse Charpentier, comte d' (b. March 24, 1732, Paris - d. [assassinated] Dec. 13, 1776, Port-au-Prince, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti]), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1775-76).
Enoksen, Hans (b. 1956, Sisimiut region, Greenland), prime minister of Greenland (2002-09).
Enraght-Moony, Francis (Herbert Greenock) (b. April 9, 1865 - d. Dec. 14, 1943, Jersey), resident commissioner of Swaziland (1902-07).
Enrile, Juan Ponce,1 original name Juanito Furagganan (b. Feb. 14, 1924, Gonzaga, Cagayan province, Philippines), Philippine politician. He joined the Ferdinand Marcos government in the mid-1960s as acting commissioner of customs, later becoming secretary of justice (1968-70) and secretary of defense (1970-71, 1972-86). In the defense post, he administered martial law between 1972 and 1981. At the same time, he, like other Marcos ministers, accumulated great wealth. His ambition grew, but before he could become a competitor for the presidency, Marcos reduced his power. Enrile was more complicated than the average politician in authoritarian government. Although he had presided over the 1972 arrest and eight-year detention of opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., Enrile reportedly cried upon seeing the assassinated man's body in August 1983. Among the Marcos inner circle, he was the only one who tried to attend Aquino's funeral. On Feb. 22, 1986, he left the people of the Philippines rubbing their eyes when he barricaded himself and his military supporters inside defense headquarters and announced he was abandoning the Marcos government to support Corazon Aquino, Benigno's widow, who, just weeks before, had lost to Marcos in an apparently rigged election. By February 25 Enrile's rebellion and Aquino-inspired street demonstrations had broken Marcos's 20-year stranglehold on the presidency. He was retained as defense minister by new president Aquino, but just weeks after helping her come to power, he began scorning her policies, particularly that of negotiating with the country's Communist insurgents. By late 1986 Manila was buzzing with rumours of an impending, Enrile-led coup, but it was not Aquino who blinked. On November 23 she removed him from her cabinet. In 2008-13 he was president of the Senate.
1 Technically the family name is Ponce Enrile (inherited from his father when legitimized), but in short he is just known as Enrile.
Ensour, Abdullah, Ensour also spelled Nsur (b. 1939, Salt, Transjordan [now Jordan]), foreign minister (1991) and prime minister and defense minister (2012- ) of Jordan. He was also minister of planning (1984-88), industry and commerce (1991-93), higher education (1996-97), administrative development (1997-98), and information (1998).
Entezam, Nasrollah (b. Feb. 16, 1900, Tehran, Iran - d. Dec. 19, 1980), Iranian politician. He began his career in the ministry of foreign affairs in 1918. Between 1926 and 1929 he was secretary to the Iranian legations in Paris, Warsaw, and London. He represented his country at the World Economic Conference in London in 1933. From 1934 to 1938 he was chargé d'affaires at Bern, Switzerland. On his return to Iran he became director of the political department of the ministry of foreign affairs. In 1942 he was appointed grand master of ceremonies at the shah's palace and the following year became minister of health. Subsequently he held office as minister of posts and telegraphs, minister of transport, and, in 1944-45, minister of foreign affairs. Entezam represented Iran at the San Francisco conference in 1945 and from 1947 was permanent Iranian representative to the United Nations. On Sept. 19, 1950, he was elected president of the UN General Assembly by 32 votes of the 59 valid ballots.
Entrecasteaux, Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni, chevalier d' (b. Nov. 8, 1737, Aix-en-Provence, France - d. July 20, 1793, aboard La Recherche, near Hermit Islands [now in Papua New Guinea]), governor-general of Île de France (1787-89).
Enwerem, Evan (b. Oct. 29, 1935 - d. Aug. 2, 2007, Abuja, Nigeria), governor of Imo (1992-93). He also served as president of the Nigerian Senate (1999).
Epine, Charles, baron de l' (b. Nov. 24, 1887 - d. 19...), interim resident of Urundi (1930).
Epp, Dominik (b. Dec. 23, 1776, Altdorf, Uri, Switzerland - d. June 11, 1848, Altdorf), Landammann of Uri (1815-17).
Epp, Dominik (b. Feb. 8, 1810, Altdorf, Uri, Switzerland - d. April 9, 1885, Altdorf), Landammann of Uri (1870-74); son of Dominik Epp (1776-1848).
Erasmus, F(rançois) C(hristiaan) (b. Jan. 19, 1896, Merweville, Cape Colony [now in Western Cape province, South Africa] - d. Jan. 7, 1967, Bredasdorp, Cape province [now in Western Cape], South Africa), defense minister (1948-59) and justice minister (1959-61) of South Africa. In 1961-65 he was ambassador to Italy.
Erbakan, Necmettin (b. Oct. 29, 1926, Sinop, northern Turkey - d. Feb. 27, 2011, Ankara, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1996-97). Elected to the legislature as an independent in 1969, the next year he formed an Islamic party, but it was banned by the military government in 1971. He re-formed the party in 1972 and twice during the 1970s served as a deputy prime minister. In 1980 the military again banned his party and briefly put him in prison. He was prohibited from engaging in politics from 1980 to 1987. His third attempt to form a political party was more successful, and the Welfare (Refah) Party became especially well organized on the local level, where it opposed what many saw as the arrogant corruption of the leaders of the established parties. In the 1995 campaign Erbakan advocated withdrawing from NATO, abrogating agreements with Israel, and developing closer ties with Middle Eastern nations like Syria and Iran. His proposals were particularly unsettling to Western leaders, who had long depended on a friendly secular government in Turkey as a basis for their Middle East policy. Welfare won the December 1995 elections, becoming the first Islamic party ever to win a general election in Turkey. Early in 1996 Erbakan tried but failed to form a coalition government. A centre-right coalition of the True Path and Motherland parties was brought down by internal disagreements in June. Erbakan was again asked to try to form a coalition, and this time, when Tansu Çiller agreed to join him, he succeeded. He was forced out of office in 1997 after months of wrangling with the strictly secularist military after attempting to introduce mild religious reforms into public life. In February 1998 he lost his seat in Parliament as the Welfare Party was disbanded. He was barred from political leadership until 2003.
Erckert, Karl (b. June 2, 1894, Meran, Tirol, Austria [now Merano, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy] - d. Dec. 15, 1955, Bolzano, Trentino-Alto Adige), president of Bolzano-Alto Adige (1948-55).
Erdenechuluun, Luvsangiyn (b. Oct. 10, 1948, Ulaanbaatar), foreign minister of Mongolia (2000-04).
Erdogan, Recep Tayyip (b. Feb. 26, 1954, Istanbul, Turkey), prime minister (2003-14) and president (2014- ) of Turkey. His political career began in 1984, when he was elected chairman of the Welfare Party's office in Beyoglu; in 1985 he was elected head of the party's Istanbul branch, and a member of the party's executive board. Elected mayor of Istanbul in 1994, he was credited for improving sanitation and the environment in the city, and working to prevent crime. He banned the sale of alcohol in cafés, however, an act which displeased secularists. His devout adherence to Islamic values led to his conviction in 1998 for inciting religious hatred. He had read a poem in 1997 that included the lines, "the mosques are our barracks, the domes our helmets, the minarets our bayonets, and the faithful our soldiers." He served four months in prison and was barred from running for, or holding, political office. He became leader of the reformist wing of the Virtue Party after the banning of the Welfare Party in 1998. When the Virtue Party was outlawed in July 2001, he was involved in founding the Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi; AKP) in August of that year and was elected its leader. The AK swept the parliamentary elections of November 2002, winning 363 of 550 seats. Erdogan, still unable to stand for office, remained leader of the AK while Abdullah Gül was named prime minister. In February 2003, parliament amended the constitution, allowing Erdogan to be a candidate in parliamentary by-elections. He was elected MP from Siirt on March 9 and became prime minister on March 14. Erdogan, who had moderated his advocacy for Islamic values since his founding of the AKP, kept religion largely off the agenda as prime minister and campaigned to get his country admitted to the European Union, which he had formerly characterized as a "Christian club." He reduced the influence of the military and won strong victories in the 2007 and 2011 elections but the increasingly authoritarian character of his government led to widespread protests in 2013. In 2014 he won Turkey's first direct presidential elections.
Ereaut, Sir (Herbert) Frank (Cobbold) (b. May 6, 1919 - d. Sept. 11, 1998), bailiff of Jersey (1975-85); knighted 1976. He was earlier solicitor general (1958-62), attorney general (1962-69), and deputy bailiff (1969-74).
Erhard, Ludwig (Wilhelm) (b. Feb. 4, 1897, Fürth, Bavaria, Germany - d. May 5, 1977, Bonn, West Germany), chancellor of West Germany (1963-66). After World War II, he was entrusted by the Allied occupation authorities with the reconstruction of industry in the Nürnberg-Fürth area, and successively served as economics adviser in Middle and Upper Franconia, economics minister for Bavaria (1945-46), director of the Advisory Committee for Money and Credit (1947-48), and director of the economic council for the joint Anglo-U.S. occupation zone (1948-49). By the end of 1948 the currency reforms that he had instituted the preceding summer, coupled with the abolition of rationing and of other commercial restrictions, had already somewhat buoyed the prostrate German economy. As economy minister (1949-63) of the new Federal Republic of Germany under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Erhard continued his policies of reconstruction with phenomenal results, achieving what has often been called the German "economic miracle." He had an unbounding faith in his economic ideas which he called "social market economy." It was largely based on a free market, and the opposition taunted him at first with charges that there was nothing very much social about it. In 1957 Erhard was appointed vice-chancellor and was regarded as Adenauer's heir apparent. He succeeded Adenauer in 1963, but the great hopes set in him at the outset of his chancellorship soon evaporated under the impact of domestic confusion and blunders. Although he won the election of 1965, his call for tax increases in response to a slight recession in the summer of 1966 caused the Free Democratic Party to defect, and in December he resigned. In 1967 he was named honorary chairman of the Christian Democratic Union.
Eri, Sir (Vincent) Serei (b. Sept. 12, 1936, Moveave village, Papua [now in Gulf province, Papua New Guinea] - d. May 25, 1993, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (1990-91); knighted 1990. In 1976-79 he was high commissioner to Australia. He founded the People's Action Party in 1986 with Ted Diro, then a member of parliament, who later became deputy prime minister. Eri resigned in 1991 after refusing to dismiss Diro, who had been convicted of corruption.
Ériau, Gabriel (Marie Jean) (b. Sept. 15, 1914, Couëron, Loire-Inférieure [now Loire-Atlantique], France - d. Jan. 22, 2008), governor of New Caledonia (1974-78).
Eriksen, Erik (b. Nov. 20, 1902, Brangstrup, Fyn island, Denmark - d. Oct. 7, 1972, Esbjerg, Denmark), prime minister of Denmark (1950-53). From 1927 he took an active part in the Liberal (Venstre) party's youth organization and was national chairman from 1929 to 1932. He was elected a member of the Folketing (lower chamber) in 1935 and was afterward repeatedly reelected. In 1941 he was elected deputy speaker. In May 1945 he joined the Vilhelm Buhl coalition cabinet as minister of agriculture and fisheries and retained this portfolio in Knud Kristensen's Liberal cabinet (November 1945-November 1947). When Hans Hedtoft's Socialist cabinet was in power (November 1947-October 1950) Eriksen led the Liberal opposition in the Folketing. Following the elections of Sept. 5, 1950, he formed a Liberal-Conservative coalition cabinet. He led a party which had always been a farmers' party but under his leadership began for the first time to seek support in towns. His greatest achievement was the Danish constitutional reform of 1953 in which the upper chamber (Landsting) was abolished, the voting age reduced to 21 years, and female throne succession introduced, paving the way for Queen Margrethe II to succeed to the throne. His political career ended in 1965 when the party rejected his long-held dream of uniting with the Conservatives to form a strong liberal alternative to the Social Democrats. The bride was willing at the time but his own party was not and he resigned as party leader in disappointment. Like many other Scandinavian politicians he favoured Nordic cooperation and from 1964 to 1971 was chairman of the Nordic Association in Denmark. He reemerged on the public scene in 1972 to support the campaign for EEC membership.
Eriksson, Björn (b. Dec. 7, 1945, Stockholm, Sweden), president of the International Criminal Police Organization (1994-96) and governor of Östergötland (1996-2009).
Eriksson, Viveka (b. Aug. 18, 1956), lantråd of the Åland Islands (2007-11).
Erim, (Ismail) Nihat (b. 1912, Kandira, Turkey - d. July 19, 1980, Istanbul, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1971-72). In 1942 he was appointed as legal adviser to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He became a member of Parliament in 1945 and served as minister of public works and deputy prime minister from 1948 to 1950. A member of the Republican People's Party, he agreed in 1971 to lead a government independent of party loyalties, while the country was under martial law. Erim imposed strict policies of law and order and acceded to U.S. requests to ban poppy cultivation in an attempt to halt the drug traffic. His later identification with right-wing policies may have provided the motive for his assassination.
Erjavec, Karl (Viktor) (b. June 21, 1960, Aiseau, Belgium), defense minister (2004-08) and foreign minister (2012- ) of Slovenia.
Erk, Kutlay (b. 1952, Nicosia, Cyprus), foreign minister of North Cyprus (2013- ).
Erkmen, Hayrettin (b. April 19, 1915, Giresun, Turkey - d. May 18, 1999, Istanbul, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (1979-80). He was also minister of labour (1953-55, 1957-58) and commerce (1958-60).
Erlander, Tage Fritiof (b. June 13, 1901, Ransäter, Sweden - d. June 21, 1985, Huddinge, near Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister of Sweden (1946-69). He was elected to the Lund city council in 1930 and entered national politics in 1933, sitting in the Riksdag's (parliament's) lower chamber (1933-44 and 1949-70) and in its second chamber (1945-48). After working on the Employment Commission in the mid-1930s, he became an assistant at the Ministry of Social Welfare (1937) and its under secretary of state (1938). He was minister without portfolio (1944) and minister of education (1945), became prime minister and chairman of the Social Democratic Party following the sudden death of Per Albin Hansson in 1946 and remained in both posts until October 1969. He headed a series of coalition governments, but in 1968 his party won an overall majority in the Riksdag's lower house. From 1971 to 1973 he sat in the new single-chamber Riksdag that his government had championed since 1955. Over the course of Erlander's long tenure, Sweden increased its social-welfare legislation with the passage of greater old-age benefits, child allowances, and rent subsidies. His educational reforms included extending compulsory education to nine years and increasing higher-educational opportunities. In foreign policy he promoted Sweden's traditional stance of neutrality; his keeping the country out of NATO resulted in heavy expenditures on defense. Erlander encouraged active participation in the UN, and Sweden was a member of various non-military European institutions.
Ernouf, Jean Augustin (Manuel), (from 1816) baron (b. Aug. 29, 1753, Alençon [now in Orne département], France - d. 1827, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1803-10).
Eroglu, Dervis (b. 1938, Ergazi village, Famagusta district, Cyprus), prime minister (1985-94, 1996-2004, 2009-10) and president (2010- ) of North Cyprus.
Errázuriz (Correa), Hernán Felipe (b. Nov. 8, 1945, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1988-90). He was also minister of mines (1981-82), president of the Central Bank (1983-84), and ambassador to the United States (1984-88).
Ershad, Hossain Mohammad (b. Feb. 1, 1930, Rangpur district, Bengal, India [now in northern Bangladesh]), president of Bangladesh (1983-90). He was commissioned into the Pakistan Army in 1952. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel in 1969. During the Bangladesh war for independence in 1971, he was in Pakistan. He later returned to Bangladesh, where he was taken into the new Army as an adjutant general. In 1975 he was made a major general and appointed deputy Army chief of staff by Ziaur Rahman, who was then Army chief. He was picked by Rahman to succeed him in his post as chief of the Army staff when the latter became chief martial law administrator and then president in 1977. Ershad built up some popular goodwill when he stood by Pres. Abdus Sattar and the constitution during the crisis-ridden days that followed the assassination of Rahman in May 1981. But he fell out with the aging Sattar soon after the latter's election in November 1981. The cause of the disagreement was the role of the armed forces. Although he was snubbed by Sattar, who insisted that the armed forces had only one role to play - to look after the defense and security of the country - he waited to strike until the Sattar administration showed signs of cracking up, with the president himself openly admitting that the political and economic situation was verging on collapse. Ershad seized power in a bloodless coup and proclaimed himself chief martial law administrator in March 1982. In 1983 he made himself president. After nationwide protests he resigned in 1990 and was arrested. He was freed on bail on Jan. 9, 1997, to fight the last of 17 cases of corruption and misuse of power but was sent back to jail on Nov. 20, 2000, to finish a 5-year sentence over a graft charge after he exhausted the appeal process.
Ertborn, Florent Joseph ridder van (b. April 1784, Antwerp [now in Belgium] - d. June 16, 1850, Sint-Joost-ten-Node [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), governor of Utrecht (1828-31).
Ertekün, (Mehmet) Necati Münir (b. 1923 - d. Dec. 25, 2009, Nicosia, Cyprus), foreign and defense minister of North Cyprus (1983-85).
Ertugruloglu, Tahsin (b. 1953, Nicosia), foreign minister of North Cyprus (1998-2004).
Erzer, Hans, byname of Johann Josef Erzer (b. March 8, 1915, Basel, Switzerland - d. Dec. 4, 2009, Solothurn, Switzerland), Landammann of Solothurn (1965, 1969, 1974, 1979).
Es-Saad, Habib Pacha, Arabic Habib Basha as-Sa`d (b. 1867 - d. 1942), prime minister (1928-29) and president (1934-36) of Lebanon.
Esaw, Koffi, foreign minister of Togo (2008-10). He has also been ambassador to Ethiopia (2004-08) and justice minister (2013- ).
Escalier (Villegas), José María (b. 1863 - d. 1934), member of the Government Junta of Bolivia (1920-21).
Escheikh, Abdelhamid, Arabic `Abd al-Hamid al-Shaykh (b. March 10, 1935, Tunis, Tunisia - d. Nov. 4, 1999, Tunis), Tunisian politician. He held several senior government positions including those of minister of youth and sports (1988), foreign minister (1988-90), and interior minister (1990-91), and was ambassador to Algeria (1988) and France (1991-96). For his last couple of years, he headed the special committee in charge of organizing the Mediterranean Games scheduled in Tunis for the year 2001.
Escobar, Jorge (Alberto) (b. 1952, San Juan, San Juan), governor of San Juan (1991-92, 1994-99).
Escobar, José Bernardo (b. Oct. 20, 1797, Jocotan, Guatemala - d. 1849, Guatemala City), interim president of Guatemala (1848-49).
Escovar Salom, Ramón (b. July 23, 1926, Barquisimeto, Venezuela - d. Sept. 9, 2008, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1975-77). He was also justice minister (1964-66), ambassador to France (1986-89), attorney general (1989-94), interior minister (1994-96), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-98).
Escudé Ferrero, Francesc (d. July 1996), first syndic of Andorra (1966-72).
Escudero Moscoso, Gonzalo (b. Sept. 28, 1903, Quito, Ecuador - d. Dec. 10, 1971, Brussels, Belgium), foreign minister of Ecuador (1964-65). He was also chargé d'affaires in Argentina (1938), minister to Chile (1941), Uruguay (1942-45), and France (1948-51), and ambassador to Peru (1945-48, 1956), France (1951-52), Argentina (1960-61), Colombia (1963-64), and Brazil (1965-66).
Esdras, Marcel (b. May 21, 1927, Pointe-Noire, Guadeloupe - d. Nov. 13, 1988, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine, France), president of the Regional Council of Guadeloupe (1981-82).
Eshkol, Levi, original name Levi Shkolnik (b. Oct. 25, 1895, Oratovo, near Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Feb. 26, 1969, Jerusalem), prime minister of Israel (1963-69). In 1914 he emigrated to Palestine and when the British army entered Palestine during World War I, he enlisted in the 40th Royal Fusiliers of the Jewish Legion, where he began his association with David Ben-Gurion and other future leaders of Israel. Active in Hapoel Hazair, a Zionist labour party which later merged into Mapai, he was a delegate to the founding conference of the Jewish labour federation Histadrut. In 1944 Ben-Gurion appointed him to the high command of the Haganah, the underground Jewish defense force. After Israel's independence in 1948 his family name was Hebraized. He first entered the cabinet as agriculture minister in 1951, and in 1952 became finance minister. His popularity, personal charm, and conciliatory talents were often used by Prime Minister Ben-Gurion to smooth over domestic political troubles, and Eshkol gradually evolved as the number two man in the government. He accepted the prime minister's post in 1963 with reluctance, and followed the basic policies of his illustrious predecessor. However, by making concessions to political rivals which Ben-Gurion had firmly declined to consider, he enraged Ben-Gurion to the point where he publicly declared Eshkol unfit to govern. The outstanding event of his six-year tenure was the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, which ended with Israel ruling over more territory than ever before. The mellow and affable Eshkol appeared so unseemly as a war leader that in the critical days before the 1967 eruption his closest associates compelled him to turn over his defense portfolio to his political archfoe Gen. Moshe Dayan.
Espada, (José) Rafael (b. Jan. 14, 1944, Guatemala City, Guatemala), vice president of Guatemala (2008-12); half-brother of Carlos Vielmann.
Esparbès de Lussan, Jean Jacques Pierre d' (b. Dec. 1, 1720, Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France - d. March 13, 1810), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1792).
Espartero (y Álvarez de Toro), (Joaquín) Baldomero (Fernández), príncipe de Vergara, also called (from 1837) conde de Luchana, vizconde de Banderas, (from 1839) duque de la Victoria, (from 1840) duque de Morella, byname El Pacificador de España (the Peacemaker of Spain) (b. Feb. 27, 1793, Granátula de Calatrava, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain - d. Jan. 8, 1879, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain), Spanish statesman. He entered the army at age 15 and fought with Spanish forces in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars and in the rebellious Americas. On the death of Fernando VII he showed himself a strong supporter of the queen regent María Cristina and enthusiastically joined the forces opposed to Don Carlos (Carlos María Isidro de Borbón). He was made commander in chief and, for his victory over the Carlists at the Battle of Luchana (December 1836), was created conde de Luchana. Later he opened up the negotiations that led to the Convention of Vergara (1839) and ended the civil war. This success earned Espartero the popular sobriquet "the Peacemaker of Spain" and the title duque de la Victoria. He had begun to dabble in politics in 1836; on his return to Madrid (1840) he became head of the government. María Cristina preferred to resign the regency (October 1840) rather than accept his program of reforms. He was then (May 1841) himself appointed regent by the Cortes (parliament). In 1843 Generals Ramón Narváez and Francisco Serrano rose against him and obliged him to flee to England, where he lived until 1849, when he returned to Spain and lived in retirement at Logroño. He made his reappearance as prime minister in 1854-56, sharing control of the government with Gen. Leopoldo O'Donnell during the so-called bienio progresista. He retired in 1864. In 1875 King Amadeo awarded him the title príncipe de Vergara, together with the style of royal highness.
Espersen, Lene (Feltmann) (Feltmann is her husband's name) (b. Sept. 26, 1965, Hirtshals, Denmark), justice minister (2001-08) and foreign minister (2010-11) of Denmark. In 2008-11 she was leader of the Conservative People's Party.
Espiet de Pensens, Jacques d' (d. 1737, France), governor of St. John's Island (1726-32, 1733-37).
Espina Salguero, Gustavo Adolfo (b. Nov. 26, 1946, Horcones, Jutiapa department, Guatemala), vice president of Guatemala (1991-93). After Pres. Jorge Serrano Elías attempted a "self-coup" in May 1993, both Serrano and Espina were ousted on June 1, the defense minister announcing that Serrano had "abandoned" the presidency and that Espina had resigned. On June 2, with Serrano leaving the country, Espina proclaimed himself president but was prevented from taking office. On June 4, the Court of Constitutionality ruled that Espina was not eligible for the presidency due to his support for Serrano's coup. On June 5, the Congress, which had been dissolved by Serrano, reconvened and officially declared the presidential and vice presidential offices vacant.
Espinosa (Garces), María Fernanda (b. Sept. 7, 1964, Salamanca, Spain), foreign minister (2007) and defense minister (2012- ) of Ecuador. In 2008-09 she was permanent representative to the United Nations.
Espinosa (Cantellano), Patricia (b. Oct. 21, 1958, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (2006-12). She has been ambassador to Germany (2001-02, 2013- ) and Austria (2002-06).
Espinosa (Ramírez), Rodolfo (b. Nov. 11, 1876, Managua, Nicaragua - d. Dec. 1, 1944, Managua), foreign minister (1908) and vice president (1933-36) of Nicaragua. He was also mayor of Managua (1908-09).
Espinosa (Ayala), (Aníbal) Solón (b. Nov. 26, 1929, Quito, Ecuador), defense minister of Ecuador (2005).
Espot Miró, Xavier (b. Feb. 14, 1953, Escaldes-Engordany, Andorra), foreign minister of Andorra (2009-11). He was minister of tourism and sports (1992-93), ambassador to France (1994-95), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-09).
Espriella (Toral), Ricardo de la (b. Sept. 5, 1934, Panama City), president of Panama (1982-84).
Esquivel, Sir Manuel (b. May 2, 1940, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize City, Belize]), prime minister of Belize (1984-89, 1993-98); knighted 2009.
Esquivel Arguedas, Mario A(lberto) (b. July 30, 1916, San José, Costa Rica - d. Dec. 6, 1980, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1953-56); grandson of Aniceto Esquivel Sáenz. He was also ambassador to the United States (1948-50).
Esquivel Sáenz, Aniceto (b. April 18, 1824, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Oct. 22, 1898, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister (1868-69) and president (1876) of Costa Rica. He was also president of Congress (1886-89, 1891).
Essebsi, Béji Caïd, Arabic al-Baji Qa´id al-Sabsi (b. Nov. 29, 1926, Tunis, Tunisia), interior minister (1965-69), defense minister (1969-70), foreign minister (1981-86), and prime minister (2011) of Tunisia. He was also ambassador to France (1970-71) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1990-91).
Esso, Laurent (b. Aug. 10, 1942, Douala, Cameroon), defense minister (2001-04) and foreign minister (2004-06) of Cameroon.
Essy, Amara (b. Dec. 20, 1944, Bouaké, Ivory Coast), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (1990-2000), secretary-general of the Organization of African Unity (2001-02), and interim chairman of the Commission of the African Union (2002-03). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (1978-81) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1981-90).
Estabillo, José (Arturo) (b. 1949, Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (1992-2000).
Estaing, (Jean Baptiste) Charles Henri, comte d' (b. Nov. 20, 1729, Ravel, Puy-de-Dôme, France - d. [executed] April 28, 1794, Paris), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1764-66).
Estèbe, Frédéric (b. April 3, 1863, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. April 18, 1936, Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France), administrator of Mayotte (1911), lieutenant governor of Oubangui-Chari (1911-13), acting governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1913-14, 1917-18), and governor of Réunion (1920-22).
Esterházy, Franjo, Hungarian Ferenc gróf Esterházy de Galántha, byname Quinquin (b. Sept. 19, 1715 - d. Nov. 7, 1785), ban of Croatia (1783-85).
Esteva, Jean-Pierre (b. Sept. 14, 1880, Reims, France - d. Jan. 11, 1951, Reims), resident-general of Tunisia (1940-43).
Estigarribia (Insaurralde), José Félix (b. Feb. 21, 1888, Caraguatay, Paraguay - d. [plane crash] Sept. 7, 1940, Aguai'y, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1939-40). He was minister to the United States in 1938-39.
Estimé, (Léon) Dumarsais (b. April 21, 1900, Verrettes, Haiti - d. July 20, 1953, New York City), president of Haiti (1946-50). He was also minister of education (1937-41).
Estimé, (Léon) Jean Robert (b. Oct. 17, 1941, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1982-85); son of Dumarsais Estimé.
Estrac, Jean-Claude (Gervais Raoul) de l' (b. 1948), foreign minister of Mauritius (1982-83, 1990-91).
Estrada, José María (b. 1802, Granada, Nicaragua - d. Aug. 13, 1856, Ocotal, Nicaragua), acting president of Nicaragua (1855).
Estrada, Joseph (Marcelo Ejercito), original name Joseph Marcelo Ejercito (b. April 19, 1937, Manila, Philippines), president of the Philippines (1998-2001). When he decided to become an actor, his parents, displeased with his decision to drop out of college, forbade him to use his family name, which forced him to adopt Estrada (Spanish for "street") as a screen name. As he won one acting award after another, people began calling him Erap - for pare spelled backwards, meaning "pal." He entered politics when he ran for mayor of Manila's San Juan town in 1968. He was only proclaimed mayor in 1969, after he won an electoral protest against Braulio Sto. He kept the post until 1986. He was elected senator in 1987 and, in 1992, ran for vice president on the National People's Coalition ticket. Although the party's presidential candidate, Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr., lost the election, Estrada won the vice presidential contest. On May 11, 1998, he was elected president in generally peaceful elections. But he reeled from one controversy after another soon after taking office and in October 2000 a former political ally, provincial governor Luis "Chavit" Singson, stunned the nation with revelations that he had handed Estrada more than 400 million pesos in bribes from illegal gambling syndicates. Impeachment proceedings collapsed after the prosecution walked out in disgust when pro-Estrada senators voted to keep out of the trial bank records which prosecutors said would show the fortune Estrada had been keeping in banks using aliases. On Jan. 20, 2001, at the peak of a "people power" revolt in which hundreds of thousands of Filipinos surged into the streets demanding his head, Estrada left the presidential palace for the last time. In September 2007 he was found guilty of corruption and given a life sentence, but in October he was pardoned by Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. In 2010 he unsuccessfully ran again for president. In 2013 he was elected mayor of Manila.
Estrada (Morales), Juan José (b. Jan. 1, 1872, Managua, Nicaragua - d. July 11, 1967, Managua), provisional president of Nicaragua (1910-11).
Estrada Cajigal Ramírez, Sergio Alberto (b. Aug. 23, 1961, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico), governor of Morelos (2000-06). Accusations that Morelos, a popular weekend retreat for the rich near Mexico City, was a haven for drug smuggling, embarrassed Pres. Vicente Fox, who distanced himself from the governor (both are members of the National Action Party). In October 2004 the state congress voted to remove Estrada from his post on allegations he knowingly appointed a state police chief with ties to drug trafficking. He challenged the decision in the courts, however, and was able to complete his term.
Estrées, Victor Marie, duc d', marquis de Coeuvres (b. Nov. 30, 1660, Paris, France - d. Dec. 27, 1737, Paris), joint president of the Council of Marine of France (1715-18).
Estrup, Jacob Brønnum Scavenius (b. April 16, 1825, Sorø, Denmark - d. Dec. 24, 1913, Copenhagen), prime minister of Denmark (1875-94). In 1854-55 he sat in the Folketing, the lower house of the Rigsdag. In 1864 he entered the Landsting (upper house) and, as a member of the National Landowners' Party, played a prominent part in the revision of the constitution (July 1866), giving landowners extensive power in the Landsting. He then became the leader of a powerful group in the Landsting. As interior minister (1865-69) he made major improvements in the railways and in Esbjerg harbour. The salient feature of Danish politics during subsequent years was the struggle between the two houses, beginning in 1872 when a combination of all the radical parties rejected the budget. In 1875, when Estrup became prime minister, the crisis became acute. The right demanded large appropriations for defense, but the Folketing rejected Estrup's motion on fortifications. From 1885 his government maintained itself in power by letting the king declare provisional budgets. The Liberals considered the measures unconstitutional; Estrup counteracted public unrest with police action and a stricter penal code. Faced with a strong Conservative Party, the Liberal Party broke into factions, and the Conservatives, under Estrup's leadership, controlled the government for nearly two decades. He carried through some social reforms with the help of the moderate Liberals, whose majority also supported the Financial Act of April 1894, the first time a budget was once more regularly adopted by both houses. The act contained grants for temporary military installations but repealed his earlier police and press measures. He resigned in August 1894, remaining a prominent critic of Liberal governments.
Étcheber, (Salvador) Jean (b. June 22, 1901 - d. Nov. 23, 1967), acting governor of French Sudan (1952-53) and governor of Upper Volta (1953-56).
Eteki (Mboumoua), William (Aurélien) (b. Oct. 20, 1933, Bonadibong [now part of Douala], Cameroon), secretary-general of the Organization of African Unity (1974-78) and foreign minister of Cameroon (1984-87). He was also minister of education, youth, and culture (1961-68).
Etemadi, Mohammad Nur Ahmad (b. Feb. 22, 1921, Kandahar, Afghanistan - d. [executed] August 1979), foreign minister (1965-71) and prime minister (1967-71) of Afghanistan. He was also ambassador to Pakistan (1964-65, 1976-78), Italy (1971-73), and the Soviet Union (1973-76).
Ethell, Donald (Stewart) (b. July 23, 1937, Vancouver, B.C.), lieutenant governor of Alberta (2010- ).
Etiang, Paul (Orono) (b. Aug. 15, 1938, Tororo, Uganda), acting foreign minister of Uganda (1973).
Etiebet, Donald (Dick) (b. 1934, Ikot Ekpuk [now in Cross River state], Nigeria), governor of Cross River (1983).
Etier, Paul (b. May 19, 1863, Founex, Vaud - d. Aug. 19, 1919, Saint-Cergue, Vaud), president of the Council of State of Vaud (1907, 1913, 1919).
Etkin, Taner (b. Dec. 10, 1943, Polis, western Cyprus), foreign minister of North Cyprus (1996-98).
Etoungou, Simon Nko'o (b. Feb. 14, 1932, Messok, French Cameroons [now in East province, Cameroon], or Sangmelima, French Cameroons [now in South province, Cameroon] - d. Aug. 12, 2002, Paris), foreign minister (1965-66, 1968-70) and finance minister (1966-68) of Cameroon.
Etpison, Ngiratkel (b. May 3, 1925 - d. Aug. 1, 1997, San Diego, Calif.), president of Palau (1989-92).
Eulálio, Kleber (b. Aug. 20, 1954, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil), acting governor of Piauí (2001).
Eustace, Arnhim (Ulric) (b. 1944), finance minister (1998-2000) and prime minister (2000-01) of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
Eustis, William (b. June 10, 1753, Cambridge, Massachusetts - d. Feb. 6, 1825, Boston, Mass.), U.S. secretary of war (1809-13) and governor of Massachusetts (1823-25). He was also minister to the Netherlands (1815-18).
Eutrope, Eugène Henri Roger (b. March 31, 1881 - d. Feb. 12, 1953), resident-superior of Laos (1934-38).
Evans, Don(ald Louis) (b. July 27, 1946, Houston, Texas), U.S. secretary of commerce (2001-05).
Evans, Gareth (John) (b. Sept. 5, 1944, Melbourne), foreign minister of Australia (1988-96). He was also attorney general (1983-84) and minister of resources and energy (1984-87) and transport and communications (1987-88).
Evans, John V(ictor, Sr.) (b. Jan. 18, 1925, Malad City, Idaho - d. July 8, 2014, Boise, Idaho), governor of Idaho (1977-87).
Evatt, Herbert Vere, byname Doc Evatt (b. April 30, 1894, Maitland, N.S.W. - d. Nov. 2, 1965, Canberra), Australian politician. He was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly for the seat of Balmain in 1925. In 1930 the federal Labor government of James Scullin appointed him as the youngest-ever member of the High Court of Australia. There he served with distinction until 1940, when he resigned to enter federal politics. Elected MP for the Sydney seat of Barton, he became minister for external affairs and attorney-general in the Labor government of John Curtin in 1941. He was an Australian delegate to the San Francisco conference in April 1945 which founded the United Nations, and played a leading role in resolving the Palestine dispute in 1947; in 1948-49 he was president of the General Assembly. In 1946 he became deputy prime minister. When Labor lost office in December 1949 he remained deputy leader of the Labor Party, and was elected leader when Joseph Benedict Chifley died in June 1951. As opposition leader to Robert Menzies's Liberal government he defended civil liberties in the Cold War context, notably in successfully campaigning to defeat a proposal to ban the Communist Party. He led the Labor Party to three successive election defeats in 1954, 1955, and 1958. His judgement grew increasingly erratic and in 1955 he caused a split in his party when he attacked its conservative Catholic wing. There were many plots against his leadership, but such was his prestige in the Labor movement that he survived until February 1960, when ill-health caused him to resign. He was appointed chief justice of New South Wales, but suffered a mental breakdown in 1962 and retired from public life. The Australian Labor Party's Evatt Foundation is named in his honour.
Even, Auguste (Léon Valentin) (b. Aug. 17, 1897 - d. Oct. 28, 1980), acting governor of Chad (1945) and Oubangui-Chari (1948-49, 1950).
Everard, Henry (Breedon) (b. Feb. 21, 1897, England - d. Aug. 7, 1980, Zimbabwe), acting president of Rhodesia (1976, 1978, 1979).
Everard, Mathias (b. 17... - d. April 20, 1857, Southsea, England), lieutenant governor of Saint Lucia (1839-41).
Everett, Edward (b. April 11, 1794, Dorchester, Mass. - d. Jan. 15, 1865, Boston, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1836-40) and U.S. secretary of state (1852-53). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1841-45).
Everingham, Paul (Anthony Edward) (b. Feb. 4, 1943, Brisbane), chief minister of the Northern Territory (1978-84).
Evertsz, Juan Miguel Gregorio, byname Juancho Evertsz (b. March 8, 1923, Curaçao [now in Netherlands Antilles] - d. April 30, 2008, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1973-77).
Eves, Ernie, byname of Ernest Larry Eves (b. June 17, 1946, Windsor, Ontario), premier of Ontario (2002-03). As Premier Mike Harris's finance minister, Eves presided over the unprecedented tax and spending cuts that characterized the Progressive Conservative Party's time in power, but after Harris resigned Eves was unable to find his own niche as premier. Voters rejected his right-wing platform in 2003, when he ran on promises of more tax cuts, a ban on teacher strikes, and a pledge to scoop the homeless from the streets.
Evren, (Ahmet) Kenan (b. July 17, 1917, Alasehir [now in Manisa province], Turkey), president of Turkey (1980-89). In 2012, after a constitutional amendment ended his immunity from prosecution, he went on trial for his role in leading the 1980 coup. In 2014, at age 96, he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
Ewang, Sam(son) (b. Nov. 24, 1952), governor of Ogun (1996-98) and Rivers (1998-99).
Ewart-Biggs, Christopher (Thomas Ewart) (b. Aug. 5, 1921 - d. July 21, 1976, Sandyford, County Dublin, Ireland), British political officer in Qatar (1951-53). In 1976 he became ambassador to Ireland; 12 days after his arrival in Dublin he was killed when his car was blown up by an IRA landmine.
Ewing, Rufus (Washington) (b. 1967?, Blue Hills, Providenciales island, Turks and Caicos Islands), premier of the Turks and Caicos Islands (2012- ).
Exon, J(ohn) James, byname Jim Exon (b. Aug. 9, 1921, Geddes, S.D. - d. June 10, 2005, Lincoln, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1971-79). He started in the Democratic Party as a precinct worker and was chairman of the state party when he made his first bid for public office, winning the governor's seat in 1970, defeating incumbent Republican Norbert Tiemann. His perennial rallying cry as governor was "hold the line" on taxes and he regularly criticized the legislature, sometimes referring to lawmakers as "wild-eyed spenders." He was reelected in 1974 by a landslide and became the first Nebraska governor to serve eight years (the term of office changed from two to four years the year he was elected). In 1978 he rode his popularity to the U.S. Senate, being elected with 68% of the vote. In 1984, however, he came within 25,000 votes of defeat. He won a third term in 1990, fending off rumours he was a heavy drinker. Serving on the Senate Armed Services Committee, Exon helped shape U.S. military policy during the final years of the Cold War. He was also a stalwart defender of the controversial B-2 stealth bomber. He said his proudest achievement was helping to author and secure passage of a spending reduction of $13 billion in 1994. Two years later, his Communication Decency Act was Congress' first attempt at protecting children from Internet pornography. It later was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court. He did not run for reelection in 1996.
Eyadéma, Gnassingbé (b. Dec. 26, 1937 [other sources say 1935], Pya, northern Togo - d. Feb. 5, 2005, in plane 250 km south of Tunis, Tunisia), president of Togo (1967-2005). Born Étienne Eyadéma Gnassingbé, he enlisted in the French army (1953) as Étienne Eyadéma, his two given names. He recovered the name Gnassingbé only in 1974, when he dropped the "Étienne" as part of a campaign of "authenticity." Gnassingbé became his first name. He served in Indochina, Dahomey (now Benin), Niger, and Algeria (1953-61), and attained the rank of staff sergeant when he returned to Togo in 1962. When Pres. Sylvanus Olympio refused to take 626 Togolese veterans of French wars into Togo's tiny army, a group of them, including Eyadéma, attacked the presidential palace on the night of Jan. 13, 1963, and killed Olympio the following dawn in an otherwise almost bloodless coup. They installed a civilian, Nicolas Grunitzky, as president. Grunitzky appointed Eyadéma to head the army in 1965. On Jan. 13, 1967, Eyadéma went on national radio to say the army had peacefully seized power "with no intention of holding on to it." In April he declared himself president and minister of national defense. He invited past political exiles to return, and in 1969 he set up a new unity party (the Rally of the Togolese People) and became its president. He won a plebiscite in 1972 and one-party presidential elections in 1979 and 1986. His long rule brought a measure of stability to Togo, but economic gains achieved in the 1970s were largely negated in the 1980s by mismanagement and corruption. He won a 1993 poll which was boycotted by the opposition after the candidacy of the late president's son, Gilchrist Olympio, was rejected. Elections in 1998 were the first to threaten his reign. He officially won 52.1% of the vote; Olympio was announced as having come second in the poll, but claimed he actually won. In 2003 Eyadéma's reelection was made possible only after the modification of the constitution, which limited the presidential terms, and after the candidacy of Olympio was again rejected. He was also chairman of the Economic Community of West African States (1977-78, 1980-81, 1999) and of the Organization of African Unity (2000-01).
Eydoux, Pierre (Alfred Henri) (b. Dec. 17, 1921, Marseille, France - d. April 7, 2011, Sanary-sur-Mer, Var, France), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1977-79).
Eyeghe Ndong, Jean (b. Feb. 12, 1946, Libreville, Gabon), prime minister of Gabon (2006-09); nephew of Léon M'ba.
Eymann, Christoph (b. Jan. 15, 1951, Basel), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (2003-04).
Eyre, Dean Jack (b. May 8, 1914, Westport, New Zealand - d. May 18, 2007, Ottawa, Ont.), defense minister of New Zealand (1957, 1960-66). He was also minister of industries, commerce, and customs (1954-56), social security (1956-57), tourism (1956-57, 1961-66), housing (1957), and police (1957, 1960-63) and high commissioner to Canada (1968-73, 1976-80).
Eyskens, Gaston (François Marie), (from 1973) burggraaf/vicomte (b. April 1, 1905, Lier, Belgium - d. Jan. 3, 1988, Leuven, Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1949-50, 1958-61, 1968-73). In 1939 he entered parliament as a member of the Catholic (later Social Christian) Party, serving as minister of finance in 1945 and 1947-49, then being chosen to head a new coalition government. This government fell in 1950 during the controversy over the possible restoration of exiled King Léopold III. Eyskens returned to the Finance Ministry, but he was recalled as prime minister in 1958. He successfully negotiated an end to a complicated dispute involving the right of students to attend either state or parochial schools without undue financial burdens, but economic problems, coupled with the high cost of the Congo's independence, forced him to institute new austerity measures. He was defeated in the 1961 election but continued in the Finance Ministry until 1968, when he was again named prime minister. In the early 1970s he lessened tensions between the Flemish-speaking population in the north and the French-speaking Walloons in the south by granting each group cultural autonomy. In 1971 he presided over constitutional reforms that granted greater autonomy to Flanders and Wallonia, but friction resurfaced over the issue of regionalization. Eyskens failed to solve the dispute and resigned in November 1972.
Eyskens, Mark, byname of Marc Maria Frans, burggraaf/vicomte Eyskens (b. April 29, 1933, Leuven, Belgium), prime minister (1981) and foreign minister (1989-92) of Belgium; son of Gaston Eyskens.
Ezeife, (Pius) Chukwuemeka, byname Okwadike (b. Nov. 20, 1939, Igbo-Ukwu village [now in Anambra state], Nigeria), governor of Anambra (1992-93).
Ezpeleta (Galdeano Dicastillo y Prado), José (Manuel Ignacio Timoteo) de, conde de Ezpeleta de Beire (b. Jan. 24, 1741, Barcelona, Spain - d. Nov. 20, 1823, Pamplona, Spain), governor of Cuba (1785-89) and viceroy of New Granada (1789-97).
Ezzat Pasha, Abdel Aziz, Arabic `Abd al-`Aziz `Izzat Basha (b. June 24, 1869 - d. April 12, 1961), foreign minister of Egypt (1935-36). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1924-28).