Index Fo-Fy

Foccart, Jacques (Guillaume Louis Marie) (b. Aug. 31, 1913, Ambrières-le-Grand [now Ambrières-les-Vallées], Mayenne, France - d. March 19, 1997, Paris, France), French politician. He was general secretary of the Rally of the French People (1954-55), secretary-general of the French Community (1960-61), and secretary-general to the president for African and Malagasy affairs (1961-74).

Fock, Berndt Wilhelm friherre (b. Aug. 9, 1763, Åbo [now Turku], Finland - d. April 15, 1837, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Uppsala (1812-30). He was made friherre (baron) in 1815.

Fock, Cees, byname of Cornelis Laurens Willem Fock (b. Jan. 27, 1905, Den Helder, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. July 9, 1999, The Hague), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1962-70).

Fock, Cornelis (b. Nov. 29, 1828, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. May 9, 1910, The Hague, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (1868-71) and king's/queen's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (1871-1900). He was also mayor of Haarlem (1859-66) and Amsterdam (1866-68).

Fock, Dirk (b. June 19, 1858, Wijk bij Duurstede, Netherlands - d. Oct. 17, 1941, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1908-11) and the Netherlands East Indies (1921-26). He was also Dutch minister of colonies (1905-08) and chairman of the Second Chamber of the States-General (1917-20).

Fock, Gustaf friherre (b. 16... - d. March 29, 1725), governor of Älvsborg (1716-25). He was made friherre (baron) in 1719.

Fock, Jenö (b. May 17, 1916, Budapest, Hungary - d. May 22, 2001, Budapest), prime minister of Hungary (1967-75). He joined the Communist Party in 1932 and from 1940 to 1943 he was imprisoned for his Communist activities. An economist, he held several offices, including that of deputy premier (1961-67). During his premiership, his cabinet tried to add some market economy elements to the Soviet-style centrally planned economy. The initiative, however, was blocked by the Soviet-bloc trading alliance COMECON, and as a result Fock resigned in 1975.

Fockema Andreae, Joachim(us Pieter) (b. July 30, 1879, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. July 27, 1949, Utrecht, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1933-37). He was also mayor of Utrecht (1914-33).

Fofana, Abdoulaye (b. July 17, 1917, Rufisque, Senegal - d. Aug. 24, 1999, Dakar, Senegal), interior minister of Senegal (1962-65). He was also minister of transport and telecommunications (1960-61), commerce, industry, and handicrafts (1961-62), and information and tourism (1965-68) and ambassador to Italy and Yugoslavia (1968-70).

B. Fofana

I.K. Fofana
Fofana, Bakary (b. 1950, Bissikirima, French Guinea [now Guinea]), foreign minister of Guinea (2010).

Fofana, Ibrahima (b. 1927, Tougué, French Guinea [now Guinea]), Guinean politician. He was governor of Kankan (1975-...) and Boké (19...-79), permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-80), and minister of livestock and fisheries (1981-84).

Fofana, Ibrahima Kassory (b. 1954, Forécariah, French Guinea [now Guinea]), prime minister of Guinea (2018-21). He was also economy and finance minister (1997-2000), a minor presidential candidate (2010), and minister of state at the presidency with responsibility for investments and public-private partnerships (2014-18).

Fofana, Mohamed Said (b. 1952, Forécariah, French Guinea [now Guinea]), prime minister of Guinea (2010-15). He has also been ombudsman (2018- ).

Fogas, Lubomír (b. Dec. 12, 1950, Podolie, Czechoslovakia [now in Trenciansky kraj, Slovakia]), a deputy prime minister of Slovakia (1998-2002).

Fokaidis, Christoforos (b. June 5, 1974, Famagusta, Cyprus), defense minister of Cyprus (2014-18).

Fokin, Vitold (Pavlovych) (b. Oct. 25, 1932, Novonikolayevka village, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Novomykolaivka, Ukraine]), prime minister of Ukraine (1990-92). He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee and deputy premier (1987-90) and chairman of the State Committee for Economy (1990).

Foley, Sir John (Paul) (b. April 22, 1939), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (2000-05); knighted 1994.

T.S. Foley
Foley, Thomas S(tephen) (b. March 6, 1929, Spokane, Wash. - d. Oct. 18, 2013, Washington, D.C.), U.S. politician. He became assistant prosecuting attorney of Spokane county in 1958, assistant attorney general of Washington in 1960, and special counsel to the U.S. Senate's Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs in 1961. In 1964 a chance encounter with a major Democratic contributor in Spokane led him to resign as counsel and run for U.S. representative against Walt Horan, a senior incumbent Republican. Foley won an upset victory - and held a reception in Horan's honour. He continued to represent that Spokane area, where Republicans won most other elections. In 1974 he helped secure the passage of a rule allowing the Democratic caucus to remove committee chairmen. Urged to oppose W.R. Poage, the chairman of his own Committee on Agriculture, he instead nominated Poage, who lost. Poage gratefully nominated Foley, who served as chairman of the committee until 1981, when he became majority whip, responsible for obtaining the maximum possible Democratic support for the leaders' programs. He used polite persuasion effectively in a job in which predecessors had used bombast. In 1987 he became majority leader. His politeness contrasted well with Speaker Jim Wright's often imperious style. Opposed to gun control, Foley favoured most of the "liberal" federal social programs and wanted abortion to remain legal. On June 6, 1989, the Democratic majority in the House met, facing a crisis in its leadership. Wright had resigned as speaker and Tony Coelho as majority whip, both while under investigation for alleged ethical lapses. The caucus turned to Foley, who was well liked and had a spotless reputation, nominating him for speaker. Hours later, the House elected Foley to that office, which he held until 1995, after having lost his seat in the Republican sweep of 1994, making him the first sitting speaker to be defeated in his district since the Civil War. In 1997-2001 he was ambassador to Japan.

Folger, Charles J(ames) (b. April 16, 1818, Nantucket Island, Mass. - d. Sept. 4, 1884, Geneva, N.Y.), U.S. treasury secretary (1881-84).

Folk, Joseph W(ingate) (b. Oct. 28, 1869, Brownsville, Tenn. - d. May 28, 1923, New York City), governor of Missouri (1905-09).

Folsom, James E(lisha), byname Big Jim Folsom (b. Oct. 9, 1908, Coffee county, Ala. - d. Nov. 21, 1987, Cullman, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1947-51, 1955-59).

Folsom, James E(lisha), Jr. (b. May 14, 1949, Montgomery, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1993-95); son of James E. Folsom.

Fombona Pachano, Jacinto (b. May 19, 1901, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Feb. 6, 1951, Caracas), acting foreign minister of Venezuela (1948).

Fombrun, (Jean-Baptiste Joseph) Charles (b. Oct. 9, 1889 - d. July 2, 1961, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1941-43). He was also president of the Senate (1951-57).

Fombrun, (Pierre Daniel) Marcel (b. Dec. 12, 1915 - d. Dec. 22, 1986), Haitian politician; son of Charles Fombrun. He was commerce minister (1950, 1954-55) and minister to Cuba (1951-54).

Fomin, Vasily (Kuzmich) (b. 1896, Izhevsk, Vyatka province [now in Udmurtia republic], Russia - d. [executed] Feb. 10, 1938), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Votyak autonomous oblast (1921-23). He was also executive secretary of the party committee of Syrdarya province (1925-28?), first secretary of the party committee of Ob-Irtysh oblast (1934), and chairman of the Executive Committee of Yaroslavl oblast (1937).

Fonacier (y Suguitan), Santiago (Antonio) (b. May 21, 1885, Laoag, Philippines - d. Dec. 8, 1977, Mandaluyong, Metropolitan Manila, Philippines), supreme bishop of the Philippine Independent Church (1940-46). In addition to his ecclesiastical career, he was a legislator (assemblyman 1912-16 and senator 1919-25).

Foncha, John Ngu (b. June 21, 1916, Nkwen, Bamenda, North West province, Cameroon - d. April 10, 1999, Bamenda), Cameroonian politician. In 1959 he became premier of British Cameroons, which he led into a federation with Francophone Cameroon in 1961. He remained prime minister of what was then West Cameroon until 1965, and was also vice president of Cameroon in 1961-70. Later he became a champion of secessionist forces; in 1994 he led a delegation of the secessionist Southern Cameroons National Council (SNCC) to the United Nations to ask its backing for the movement's drive for greater autonomy for Cameroon's two English-speaking provinces.

Fonin, Mikhail (Mikhailovich) (b. 1905 - d. 1974), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen S.S.R. (1939-47).

Fonnesbech, Christen Andreas (b. July 7, 1817, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. May 17, 1880, Copenhagen), finance minister (1865-70, 1874-75), interior minister (1870-74), and prime minister (1874-75) of Denmark. He was also minister of education and ecclesiastical affairs (1868).

Fonseca, Aníbal Freire da (b. July 7, 1884, Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Oct. 22, 1970, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister (1925-26) and acting justice and interior minister (1925) of Brazil.

Fonseca, Antonio Augusto da (b. Feb. 9, 1830, Coimbra, Portugal - d. June 20, 1890, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Paraná (1868-69).

Fonseca, Antonio Gabriel de Paula (b. Jan. 10, 1821, Minas Gerais province [now state], Brazil - d. July 16, 1875, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1872).

Fonseca, Antonio José Victoriano Borges da (b. Feb. 16?, 1718, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. April 9, 1786, Olinda, Pernambuco), governor of Ceará (1765-81).

Fonseca, Clodoaldo da (b. March 12, 1860, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. March 24, 1936, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Alagoas (1912-15).

F. Fonseca
Fonseca, Francis (William) (b. March 11, 1967, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize City, Belize]), foreign minister of Belize (2024- ). He has also been minister of education (2004-08, 2020- ), youth and sports (2004-06), culture (2004-06, 2007-08, 2020- ), labour (2006-08), and science and technology (2020- ), attorney general (2004-08), and leader of the People's United Party (2011-16).

Fonseca, Gelson, Júnior (b. Sept. 6, 1946, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Brazilian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2003) and ambassador to Chile (2003-06).

Fonseca, Hermes Ernesto da (b. Sept. 11, 1824, Alagoas [now Marechal Deodoro], Alagoas, Brazil - d. Feb. 7, 1891, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Mato Grosso (1875-78) and governor of Bahia (1890).

Fonseca, Hermes Rodrigues da (b. May 12, 1855, São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Sept. 9, 1923, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister (1906-09) and president (1910-14) of Brazil; son of Hermes Ernesto da Fonseca; nephew of Manoel Deodoro da Fonseca.

Fonseca, Ignacio José Vicente da (b. São Paulo captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. Aug. 11, 1830), acting president of Sergipe (1828, 1828-30).

J.C. Fonseca
Fonseca, Jorge Carlos (de Almeida) (b. Oct. 20, 1950, São Vicente island, Cape Verde [now Cabo Verde]), foreign minister (1991-93) and president (2011-21) of Cape Verde/Cabo Verde.

Fonseca, Luís de Matos Monteiro da (b. May 17, 1944, Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão, Cape Verde [now Cabo Verde]), Cape Verdean diplomat. He was ambassador to the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, United Kingdom, and Nordic countries (1987-91), the Soviet Union and later Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Lithuania (1991-94), and Austria (1999-2001), permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-04), and executive secretary of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (2004-08).

Fonseca, Manoel Deodoro da (b. Aug. 5, 1827, Alagoas [now Marechal Deodoro], Alagoas, Brazil - d. Aug. 23, 1892, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Sul (1886) and head of the provisional government (1889-91) and president (1891) of Brazil; brother of Hermes Ernesto da Fonseca. As an army officer he fought in the War of the Triple Alliance (1864-70). Named field marshal in 1884, he viewed himself as the heir to the duque de Caxias as Brazil's leading military figure. Although Fonseca was not an ardent republican, he defied the emperor, insisting that his fellow officers had the right to express their political views publicly even when they opposed the empire. The imperial government, severely weakened by other problems, could not withstand the direct military challenge to its authority. Fonseca led the revolt that overthrew Emperor Pedro II and established Brazil as a republic in 1889, oversaw the promulgation of the 1891 constitution, and was elected by the constituent assembly as the country's first president. However, he lacked the capacity for political compromise; when he attempted to dissolve Congress and rule by decree, he provoked insurrection and was forced to resign.

Fonseca, Manuel Moreira da (b. April 30, 1877, Castelo de Paiva, Portugal - d. 19...), acting governor-general of Angola (1912) and Mozambique (1919-21, 1923-24).

Fonseca, Paulino Nogueira Borges da (b. Feb. 27, 1841, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil - d. June 15, 1908, Fortaleza), acting president of Ceará (1878); son-in-law of Domingos José Nogueira Jaguaribe, visconde de Jaguaribe.

Fonseca, Pedro Paulino da (b. July 6, 1829, Alagoas [now Marechal Deodoro], Alagoas, Brazil - d. Nov. 16, 1902, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Alagoas (1889-90, 1891); brother of Hermes Ernesto da Fonseca and Manoel Deodoro da Fonseca.

Fonseca Amador, Carlos (b. June 23, 1936, Matagalpa, Nicaragua - d. Nov. 8, 1976, near Matagalpa), Nicaraguan rebel leader. He became involved in student politics and began studying the writings of Augusto César Sandino. As a member of the Nicaraguan Socialist Party, he toured Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in 1957 as a delegate of the General Union of Nicaraguan Workers. After his return in 1958, the Socialist Party published the pamphlet "A Nicaraguan in Moscow," a compendium of Fonseca's impressions of the Communist world. He increased his activities in the student opposition to the Somoza regime and participated in the unsuccessful attempt, launched from El Chaparral, Honduras, to oust the dictatorship in June 1959. Recognizing the futility of agitating within the restrictive ideology of the Socialist Party, he started the New Nicaragua Movement in 1960, the basis for the creation of the Sandinista National Liberation Front in July 1961. He was the principal thinker behind the revolutionary organization, but he was not a Marxist-Leninist theorist. Rather, he carefully refined Sandino's eclectic ideology in order to build popular support for revolution. The Sandinista guerrilla army established its base on the Río Coco on the Honduras-Nicaragua border. Fonseca accepted the necessity of cooperating with diverse urban and rural social groups. The strategy of armed struggle through the gradual accumulation of forces was borrowed directly from Sandino. Fonseca was captured by the National Guard in 1964 and deported to Guatemala. He returned clandestinely and participated in the failed operation at Pancasán in 1967. Two years later he was arrested for bank robbery in Costa Rica and spent more than a year in jail. Freed after Sandinistas hijacked a jetliner, he spent the early 1970s shuttling between Nicaragua and the safety of Cuba. In 1976 he was killed by the National Guard. After the victory over Somoza in 1979, his body was reburied in the Plaza de la Revolución in Managua, where a monument was erected in his memory.

G. Fonseka
Fonseka, (Sembuge Don Shelton) Gamini (b. March 21, 1936, Dehiwala, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Sept. 30, 2004, Ja-Ela, western Sri Lanka), governor of North Eastern province, Sri Lanka (1995-98). He was a famous Sinhala cinema actor and producer. In 1989 he was invited into politics by Pres. Ranasinghe Premadasa.

Fonseka, Ignatius Benedict, Sri Lankan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-84).

Fonssagrives, Jean-Baptiste (Joseph Marie Pascal) (b. April 12, 1862, Brest, Finistère, France - d. May 13, 1910, Kati, Haut-Sénégal-Niger [now Mali]), acting governor of Dahomey (1899).

Font Rossell, Carles (b. Dec. 26, 1967, Canillo, Andorra), Andorran politician. He was minister of sport and voluntary work (2005-07), permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-09), and ambassador to the United States (2008-09).

Fontaine, Nicole (Claude Marie), née Garnier (b. Jan. 16, 1942, Grainville-Ymauville, Seine-Inférieure [now Seine-Maritime], France - d. May 17, 2018), president of the European Parliament (1999-2002).

Fontaine, (Gaspard-)Théodore-Ignace de la (b. Jan. 6, 1787, Luxembourg, Austrian Netherlands [now in Luxembourg] - d. Feb. 11, 1871, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), governor (1841-48) and prime minister, foreign minister, and justice minister (1848) of Luxembourg. He was also president of the Council of State (1857-68).

Fontanet, Nathalie (b. Jan. 8, 1965), president of the Council of State of Genève (2024- ).

Fontanini, Pietro (b. Sept. 23, 1952, Udine, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1993-94).

Fontecilla Varas, Mariano (Antonio) (b. May 3, 1893, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 31, 1987, Santiago), justice minister of Chile (1955, 1956). He was also ambassador to Brazil (1939-42) and minister of lands and colonization (1955-56).

Fonteles, Rafael Tajra (b. May 6, 1985, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Piauí (2023- ).

Fontenelle, José Freire Bezerril (b. March 9, 1850, Viçosa do Ceará, Ceará, Brazil - d. March 30, 1926, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Ceará (1892-96). He was also mayor of Fortaleza (1890).

Fontes, Geremias de Mattos (b. June 28, 1930, São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. March 2, 2010, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Rio de Janeiro (1967-71).

Fontes, Joaquim Martins (b. July 27, 1798, Itabaianinha, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Aug. 20, 1860, Laranjeiras, Sergipe), acting president of Sergipe (1839, 1840, 1841, 1841).

Fontes, José Marques de (b. May 20, 1824 - d. July 16, 1898), member of the Governing Junta of Mato Grosso (1892).

Fontes, José Martins (b. July 3, 1829, Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Jan. 9, 1895, Aracaju, Sergipe), acting president of Sergipe (1877-78).

Fontes, Menandro Rodrigues (d. April 1892, Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), acting president of Rio Grande do Sul (1883).

Fontoura, João Lopes Carneiro de (d. Feb. 23, 1892, Lambary, Minas Gerais, Brazil), president of the Municipal Intendancy of Rio de Janeiro (1891).

Fontoura, João Neves da (b. Nov. 16, 1887, Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. March 31, 1963, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1946, 1951-53). He was also ambassador to Portugal (1943-45).

Fontoura, Ubaldino do Amaral (b. Aug. 27, 1842, Lapa, São Paulo [now in Paraná], Brazil - d. Jan. 22, 1920, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of the Municipal Intendancy of Rio de Janeiro (1890) and prefect of Distrito Federal (1897-98). He was also president of the Bank of Brazil (1909-10).

Foot, Sir Dingle (Mackintosh) (b. Aug. 24, 1905, Plymouth, Devon, England - d. June 18, 1978, Hong Kong), British politician; brother of Michael Foot and Hugh Foot, Baron Caradon. He was Liberal MP for Dundee (1931-45) and parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Economic Warfare (1940-45); in 1945 he was also part of the British delegation to the San Francisco conference which framed the United Nations charter. He was defeated at Dundee in the general election that followed the war. At two subsequent elections (1950, 1951) he fought as a candidate for North Cornwall but without success. Soon afterwards he began to feel himself increasingly out of sympathy with the Liberal Party, which he thought to have lost its old radicalism, and he joined the Labour Party in 1956. He became MP for Ipswich (1957-70) and solicitor general (1964-67). He was knighted in 1964. In 1970 he lost his seat by the tiny majority of 13. As a lawyer his services were in much demand in constitutional cases in Commonwealth countries: he represented Hastings Kamuzu Banda when the then leader of the Nyasaland African Congress Party was jailed in Southern Rhodesia; he defended Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, the former chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir; and in 1962 he was ordered to leave Nigeria after having appeared in the Federal Supreme Court there on behalf of a former premier of the Western Region.

M. Foot
Foot, Michael (Mackintosh) (b. July 23, 1913, Plymouth, Devon, England - d. March 3, 2010, London, England), British politician; brother of Sir Dingle Foot and Hugh Foot, Baron Caradon. A member of a strongly Liberal family (his father had been a member of Parliament), he left the Liberals at the age of 21 to express his revulsion against the mass unemployment of the 1930s. From 1945 on, apart from a break between 1955 and 1960, he was a Labour member of Parliament. In 1974 he established himself as a leading cabinet member, first as secretary of state for employment (1974-76) in charge of complex and controversial trade-union legislation, and then (1976-79) as lord president of the council and leader of the House of Commons, a role that required him to hold the parliamentary party together. From deputy leader of the Labour Party (1976-80) he rose to become the party's chief, defeating Denis Healey, the candidate of Labour's right wing, in November 1980 by a vote of 139 to 129. This vote, as well as other leftward trends in the party, caused some right-wing Labourites to resign from the party and four months later to found the Social Democratic Party. Following a disastrous showing in the June 1983 general election, Foot announced that he would not continue as party leader; Neil Kinnock succeeded him in October 1983. Foot had acquired a reputation as a rebel of the left. For many years he was a pamphleteer and political writer fervently espousing the cause of nuclear disarmament. He was a strong ally of the British trade unions and an advocate of sharply increased public expenditures and state ownership of industries.

Foot, Samuel A(ugustus) (b. Nov. 8, 1780, Cheshire, Conn. - d. Sept. 15, 1846, Cheshire), governor of Connecticut (1834-35).

Foote, Henry S(tuart) (b. Sept. 20, 1800, Fauquier county, Va. - d. May 20, 1880, Nashville, Tenn.), governor of Mississippi (1852-54).

J. Foote
Foote, Judy (May), née Crowley (b. June 23, 1952, Grand Bank, Nfld.), lieutenant governor of Newfoundland and Labrador (2018-23). She was also Canadian minister of public services and procurement (2015-17).

Foraker, Joseph B(enson) (b. July 5, 1846, Rainsboro, Highland county, Ohio - d. May 10, 1917, Cincinnati, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1886-90).

Foray, Cyril P(atrick) (b. March 16, 1934, Baiama, Sierra Leone - d. July 31, 2003, Freetown, Sierra Leone), foreign minister of Sierra Leone (1969-71). He was also health minister (1971) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1993-94, 1998-2000).

G.W. Forbes
Forbes, George William (b. March 12, 1869, Lyttelton, N.Z. - d. May 17, 1947, Cheviot, N.Z.), prime minister of New Zealand (1930-35). He was a member of the House of Representatives for the North Canterbury constituency of Hurunui (1908-43). He was first elected as a Liberal and when his party went into opposition in 1912 he became its chief whip. As the Liberals declined further, he was elected leader of the new National Party in 1925. In 1928 the National Party was merged with other Liberal elements into the United Party, led by Sir Joseph Ward. When Ward formed a United Party government with Labour support in December 1928, Forbes became minister of lands and agriculture. A little later the illness of Ward imposed on him the additional responsibility of leading the House of Representatives, and in May 1930 he was elected to succeed Ward as leader of the United Party. Shortly afterward Ward died, and Forbes was asked to form his own ministry. At odds with the Labour Party, he formed a coalition government with the Reform Party. With the prime ministership he held the portfolio of external affairs and was also minister of finance (1930-31) and railways (1931-35) and attorney-general (1933-35). His government was confirmed in the 1931 general election. Forbes maintained only the most conservative policies to combat the deepening depression; his government allowed widespread reductions of wages by employers, and his deflationary policies further contracted an already shrinking economy, thus swelling the ranks of the unemployed. Overwhelmingly defeated by the Labour Party in elections in 1935, he became leader of the opposition for a short period and in 1936 helped to merge the defeated remnants of the United, Reform, and Democrat parties into a new National Party, led by Adam Hamilton.

Forbes, John (b. 1750 - d. June 1797, Nassau, Bahamas), governor of the Bahamas (1797).

S. Forbes

D. Ford
Forbes, Steve, byname of Malcolm Stevenson Forbes, Jr. (b. July 18, 1947, Morristown, N.J.), U.S. political figure; candidate for the Republican presidential nomination (1996, 2000).

Forbes, William Cameron (b. May 21, 1870, Milton, Mass. - d. Dec. 24, 1959, Boston, Mass.), governor-general of the Philippines (1909-13). A grandson of writer Ralph Waldo Emerson, he was also U.S. ambassador to Japan (1930-32).

Forcade La Roquette, (Jean Louis Victor) Adolphe de (b. April 8, 1820, Paris, France - d. Aug. 15, 1874, Paris), finance minister (1860-61) and interior minister (1868-70) of France; half-brother of Armand Jacques Achille Leroy de Saint-Arnaud. He was also minister of agriculture, public works, and commerce (1867-68).

Forckenbeck, Maximilian Franz August von (b. Oct. 21, 1821, Münster, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. May 26, 1892, Berlin, Germany), German politician. He was lord mayor of Breslau (1873-78) and Berlin (1878-92) and president of the Reichstag (1874-79). In 1866 he was a founder of the National Liberal Party.

Ford, Barnett (b. July 14, 1824 - d. March 7, 1907, London, England), superintendent of the Andaman Islands (1864-68).

Ford, Doug(las Robert, Jr.) (b. Nov. 20, 1964, Etobicoke [now part of Toronto], Ont.), premier of Ontario (2018- ).

G.R. Ford
Ford, Gerald R(udolph, Jr.), original name Leslie Lynch King, Jr. (b. July 14, 1913, Omaha, Neb. - d. Dec. 26, 2006, Rancho Mirage, Calif.), president of the United States (1974-77). In 1948 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican and was reelected successively thereafter, becoming House minority leader in 1965. After the resignation of Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, Pres. Richard Nixon, on Oct. 12, 1973, nominated Ford to fill the vacant vice-presidential post. He was sworn in on December 6, the first vice president to take office in the middle of an administration. Ford's succession to the presidency on Aug. 9, 1974, after Nixon's resignation, marked the first time in U.S. history that the holder of the presidential office had not been elected either as president or as vice president. On September 8 Ford granted a full pardon to Nixon "for all offenses against the United States" that he might have committed while in office. The pardon effectively squelched any criminal prosecutions that Nixon might have been liable to in connection with the Watergate scandal. Ford's relations with the Democratic-controlled Congress were perhaps typified by his more than 50 vetoes of legislation by the end of 1976; more than 40 were sustained. In the final days of the Vietnam War in April 1975, Ford ordered an airlift of anti-Communist Vietnamese refugees that totaled 237,000, most of whom were taken to the United States. Later that year two attempts were made on Ford's life. In a close contest at the Republican convention in August 1976, Ford won his party's nomination, despite a serious challenge by Ronald Reagan. Running substantially behind from the beginning of the campaign, Ford was defeated in the November election by Democrat Jimmy Carter.

Ford, Rob(ert Bruce) (b. May 28, 1969, Etobicoke, Ont. - d. March 22, 2016, Toronto, Ont.), mayor of Toronto (2010-14); brother of Doug Ford.

Ford, Sam(uel) C(larence) (b. Nov. 7, 1882, Albany, Ky. - d. Nov. 25, 1961, Helena, Mont.), governor of Montana (1941-49).

Ford, Seabury (b. Oct. 15, 1801, Cheshire, Conn. - d. May 5, 1855, Burton, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1849-50).

Ford, Thomas (b. Dec. 5, 1800, near Uniontown, Pa. - d. Nov. 3, 1850, Peoria, Ill.), governor of Illinois (1842-46).

Ford, Wendell (Hampton) (b. Sept. 8, 1924, near Owensboro, Ky. - d. Jan. 22, 2015, Owensboro), governor of Kentucky (1971-74).

F.M. Forde
Forde, Francis Michael (b. July 18, 1890, Mitchell, Qld. - d. Jan. 28, 1983, Brisbane, Qld.), prime minister of Australia (1945). Active in state politics as a young man, he was a member of the Australian House of Representatives (1922-46) and deputy leader of the Australian Labor Party (1932-46). In the cabinet he served as minister for the army (1941-46), minister for defense (1946), and deputy prime minister to John Curtin (1941-45) and Joseph Benedict Chifley (1945-46). He served as prime minister for a week, July 6-13, 1945; he automatically took over after Curtin's death but when the party met on July 12 to elect a new leader he was defeated by Chifley, making his period in office the shortest in Australia's history. From 1946 to 1953 he was Australian high commissioner to Canada.

Forde, Sir Henry (de Boulay) (b. March 20, 1933, Christ Church, Barbados), foreign minister and attorney general of Barbados (1976-81). In 1986-93 he was leader of the Barbados Labour Party. He was knighted in 1997.

L. Forde
Forde, (Mary Marguerite) Leneen, née Kavanagh (b. May 12, 1935, Ottawa, Ont.), governor of Queensland (1992-97); daughter-in-law of Francis Michael Forde.

Fordice, Kirk, byname of Daniel Kirkwood Fordice, Jr. (b. Feb. 10, 1934, Memphis, Tenn. - d. Sept. 7, 2004, Jackson, Miss.), governor of Mississippi (1992-2000). He showed political skill in the 1991 election, beating Auditor Pete Johnson, the grandson and nephew of governors, in the Republican primary, then zeroing in on Democratic incumbent Ray Mabus. Mabus's tax plan had been rejected by the legislature and a 24-hour waiting period on abortion passed over his veto; he beat former Congressman Wayne Dowdy by only 50%-41% in the Democratic primary. In the general, Fordice campaigned against welfare and racial quotas. He trailed in polls but won 51%-48%, losing the larger urban areas but carrying the white countryside solidly. He became the first Republican governor elected in Mississippi since 1874. Fordice was not entirely successful; a 1% increase in the sales tax was passed over his veto. But he did get a capital gains tax cut, tort reform and more prison cells. He wanted to make Mississippi "the capital of capital punishment," and he eliminated air conditioning and television from prisons and required prisoners to wear stripes. He claimed to have cut state spending while Mississippi's riverboat casinos were generating much new revenue. He installed an "empowerment" interactive telephone line with information on state issues and legislators' positions. Mississippi governors have been allowed to seek a second consecutive term since 1986, but scandal-tarred Bill Allain didn't run in 1987 and Mabus lost in 1991. Fordice broke the jinx in November 1995 with his 55%-45% win over Mississippi Secretary of State Dick Molpus. Both had token opposition in the August primary.

Fore, Henrietta Holsman (b. Dec. 9, 1948, Chicago, Ill.), director of the U.S. Mint (2001-05) and executive director of the United Nations Children's Fund (2018-22).

Forero (Osorio), Carlos (b. 1862?, Tacna, Peru - d. Oct. 6, 1916, Lima, Peru), finance minister of Peru (1909-10).

Forero Benavides, Abelardo (b. June 5, 1912, Facatativá, Colombia - d. Nov. 25, 2003, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1970-72). He was also governor of Cundinamarca (1942-43), minister of labour (1943), and ambassador to Argentina (1955-57).

Forestier Haensgen, Carlos (b. April 27, 1920, Concepción, Chile - d. Aug. 28, 2005, Santiago, Chile), defense minister of Chile (1980-81).

Forestier-Walker, Sir Frederick William Edward Forestier (b. April 17, 1844 - d. Aug. 30, 1910, Tenby, Wales), governor of Gibraltar (1905-10); knighted 1894.

Forfait, Pierre Alexandre (Laurent) (b. April 2, 1752, Rouen [now in Seine-Maritime département], France - d. Nov. 8, 1807, Paris, France), French minister of marine and colonies (1799-1801).

Forgács, Imre (b. April 9, 1949, Budapest, Hungary - d. Oct. 26, 2022), justice minister of Hungary (2009-10).

Forget, Amédée Emmanuel (b. Nov. 12, 1847, Marieville, Canada East [now Que.] - d. June 8, 1923, Ottawa, Ont.), lieutenant governor of the Northwest Territories (1898-1905) and Saskatchewan (1905-10).

Forlani, Arnaldo (b. Dec. 8, 1925, Pesaro, Italy - d. July 6, 2023, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1980-81). He gained extensive political experience at the local level before embarking on a career at Christian Democrat headquarters in Rome in the 1950s. Elected to the national Chamber of Deputies in 1958, Forlani received his first junior ministerial post as minister of state investments (1968-69). He then served as Christian Democrat party leader from 1969 to 1973. In 1974-76 he was defense minister under Premier Aldo Moro. A brief experience as minister in charge of relations with the UN led to his appointment for three years as Italy's foreign minister (1976-79), a post exercised with diligence but without distinction. In October 1980 he succeeded Francesco Cossiga to become head of Italy's 40th government since the end of World War II. He inherited an unstable political situation that was compounded by the breaking of a major scandal involving a government minister and some prominent public figures alleged to have helped defraud Italy of millions of dollars during the 1970s. He also had to deal with the much-criticized relief operation following the disastrous earthquake in southern Italy in November 1980 and a new bout of terrorism by the left-wing Red Brigades. Forlani's unflamboyant style and his unflappable manner stood him in good stead in dealing with this series of challenges, and the fact that he had always stood slightly apart from the factionalism that divided the Christian Democrats helped him to survive some hectic months. In 1983-87 he was deputy prime minister. He was Christian Democrat party leader again in 1989-92.

Formica, Rino, byname of Salvatore Formica (b. March 1, 1927, Bari, Italy), finance minister of Italy (1981-82, 1989-92). He was also minister of transport (1980-81), foreign trade (1986-87), and labour and social security (1987-89).

Formuzal, Mihail (b. Nov. 7, 1959, Beshgioz, Ciadir-Lunga district, Moldavian S.S.R.), governor of Gagauzia (2006-15).

Forna, Alpha George Sembu (b. April 11, 1932, Penlap, Sierra Leone - d. Oct. 12, 2018, Freetown, Sierra Leone), finance minister of Sierra Leone (1970-71). He was also minister of transport and communications (1969-70), agriculture and natural resources (1971-73), health (1973-74), tourism and cultural affairs (1974-78, 1986-87), energy and power (1981-86), and information and broadcasting (1986-87).

Fornaciari, Bruno (b. Oct. 17, 1881, Sondrio, Italy - d. June 19, 1959, Rome, Italy), interior minister of Italy (1943). He was also prefect of Trieste (1926-29) and Milano (1930-35).

Fornari, Giovanni (b. May 21, 1903, Rome, Italy - d. 2000), administrator of Somalia (1950-53). He was also Italian chargé d'affaires in the Netherlands (1943-44) and Argentina (1946-47) and ambassador to Chile (1948-49), Brazil (1953-55), Egypt/United Arab Republic (1955-61), and France (1964-69).

Forné Molné, Marc (b. Dec. 30, 1946, La Massana, Andorra), head of government of Andorra (1994-2005). He did not seek political office until 1993, when he gained election to the Executive Council. That year he also founded the centre-right Liberal Union party (UL). By 1994 Andorra was experiencing a mounting national deficit, and the government of Òscar Ribas Reig of the National Democratic Party sought to address the problem by implementing a nation's first income tax. However, Andorra enjoyed an established reputation as a low-tax haven, and Ribas Reig's government fell victim to a no-confidence vote on Nov. 25, 1994. Forné was then elected to take his place based on his long opposition to broader taxation. Forné took careful steps to improve Andorra's economic survival in an age of growing international integration. The country remained largely agricultural, but he emphasized attracting tourism, its concomitant service industry, and also financial institutions. Given Andorra's strict confidentiality laws, banking became a source of some anxiety with France and Spain, for fears that such secrecy foments criminal money laundering. In 1997 and again in 2001 he was returned to office with an absolute majority of seats in the Executive Council for the UL, which ahead of the 2001 election was renamed Liberal Party of Andorra (PLA). He was constitutionally barred from a third consecutive full term.



Fornerod, (Charles Emmanuel) Constant (b. May 30, 1819, Avenches, Vaud, Switzerland - d. Nov. 27, 1899, Bettens, Vaud), president of the Council of States (1855), trade and customs minister (1855-56, 1858), president (1857, 1863, 1867), finance minister (1859-61), and defense minister (1862, 1864-66) of Switzerland. He was also president of the Council of State of Vaud (1851).

Forni, Raymond (b. May 20, 1941, Belfort, France - d. Jan. 5, 2008, Paris, France), president of the Regional Council of Franche-Comté (2004-08). He was president of the National Assembly in 2000-02.

Forrer, (Johann) Ludwig (b. Feb. 9, 1845, Islikon, Thurgau, Switzerland - d. Sept. 28, 1921, Bern), president of the National Council (1893), trade, industry and agriculture minister (1903), interior minister (1904-05), president (1906, 1912), defense minister (1907), justice and police minister (1908), and posts and railways minister (1908-11, 1913-17) of Switzerland.

Forrest, John Forrest, Baron (b. Aug. 22, 1847, Preston Point, near Bunbury, Western Australia - d. Sept. 3, 1918, off the coast of Sierra Leone), premier of Western Australia (1890-1901) and defence minister (1901-03), home affairs minister (1903-04), and treasurer (1905-07, 1909-10, 1913-14, 1917-18) of Australia. He was knighted in 1891 and created Baron Forrest in 1918.

Forrestal, James V(incent) (b. Feb. 15, 1892, Matteawan [now part of Beacon], N.Y. - d. [suicide] May 22, 1949, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. Navy secretary (1944-47) and defense secretary (1947-49).

Forselles, Samuel af (b. Dec. 16, 1757, Lovisa [Loviisa], Finland - d. Sept. 28, 1814, Spa, Belgium), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1796-1800) and Uleåborg (1800-02).

Forssell, Hans (Ludvig) (b. Jan. 14, 1843, Gävle, Gävleborg, Sweden - d. July 31, 1901, Lostallo, Graubünden, Switzerland), finance minister of Sweden (1875-80).

Forster, Albert (b. July 26, 1902, Fürth, Bayern, Germany - d. [executed] Feb. 28, 1952, Warsaw, Poland), head of state (1939), chief of civil administration (1939), and Reichsstatthalter (1939-45) of Danzig.

Forster (of Lepe), Henry William Forster, (1st) Baron (b. Jan. 31, 1866, Southend Hall, Kent, England - d. Jan. 15, 1936, London, England), governor-general of Australia (1920-25). He was created baron in 1919.

Forstner van Dambenoy, Hendrik Frederik Christoph baron (b. Aug. 15, 1792, Maastricht, Netherlands - d. March 23, 1870, Utrecht, Netherlands), war minister of the Netherlands (1852-58). He was also acting navy minister (1854-55). He became baron in 1828.

Forsyth (Sommer), George (Patrick) (b. June 20, 1982, Caracas, Venezuela), Peruvian politician. A former footballer who played in the national team, he was mayor of the La Victoria district of Lima (2019-20) and a presidential candidate (2021).

Forsyth, John (b. Oct. 22, 1780, Fredericksburg, Va. - d. Oct. 21, 1841, Washington, D.C.), governor of Georgia (1827-29) and U.S. secretary of state (1834-41). He was also minister to Spain (1819-23).

Forsyth, William (Douglass) (b. Jan. 5, 1909, Casterton, Vic. - d. March 3, 1993, Canberra, A.C.T.), secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1948-51, 1963-66). He was also Australian permanent representative to the United Nations (1951-56), minister to Laos (1959-60), and ambassador to South Vietnam (1959-61) and Lebanon (1967-68).

Forsyth-Thompson, Aubrey Denzil (b. Oct. 3, 1897 - d. June 13, 1982), resident commissioner of Bechuanaland (1942-46) and Basutoland (1946-51).

Forsyth Thompson, Patrick Richard (b. Aug. 28, 1920 - d. July 29, 1998), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (1954-57).

Fort, George F(ranklin) (b. June 30, 1809, Pemberton, N.J. - d. April 22, 1872, New Egypt, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1851-54).

Fort, John Franklin (b. March 20, 1852, Pemberton, N.J. - d. Nov. 16, 1920, South Orange, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1908-11); nephew of George F. Fort.

Forte, Francesco (b. Feb. 11, 1929, Busto Arsizio, Varese province, Italy - d. Jan. 1, 2022, Turin, Italy), finance minister of Italy (1982-83). He was also minister without portfolio (coordination of European Community policy) (1983-85).

Fortes, Chrispim Jacques Bias (b. Oct. 25, 1847, Livramento [then part of Barbacena; now Oliveira Fortes], Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. May 14, 1917, Barbacena), president of Minas Gerais (1890-91, 1894-98).

Fortes, José Francisco Bias (b. April 3, 1891, Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. March 30, 1971, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1950-51) and governor of Minas Gerais (1956-61); son of Chrispim Jacques Bias Fortes. He was also mayor of Barbacena (1937-45).

Fortes, Márcio João de Andrade (b. Oct. 4, 1944, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), acting finance minister of Brazil (intermittently 1979-80).

Fortescue, Hugh Fortescue, (2nd) Earl, (4th) Baron Fortescue, courtesy title (1789-1839) Lord Ebrington (b. Feb. 13, 1783, London, England - d. Sept. 14, 1861, Exeter, Devon, England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1839-41); grandson of George Grenville; nephew of William Wyndham Grenville, Baron Grenville, and George Nugent-Temple-Grenville, Marquess of Buckingham. He took his father's subsidiary title of Baron Fortescue by writ in acceleration in 1839 and succeeded him as earl in 1841.

Forteza, Francisco (b. 1892 - d. 1967), defense minister of Uruguay (1947-51). He was also minister of public health (1945-46) and education (1947) and president of the state-owned Banco de la República (1955-58).

Forteza, Francisco (A.) (b. Feb. 1, 1928, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. April 11, 2005), economy and finance minister (1972) and interior minister (1989) of Uruguay; son of the above.

Forth, Frederick Henry Alexander (b. Feb. 11, 1808 - d. April 7, 1876, Leamington, Tasmania), president of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1849-54).

Forthomme, Pierre (Jean Joseph) (b. May 24, 1877, Verviers, Belgium - d. Dec. 2, 1959, Brussels, Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1923-25). He was also minister of posts and telegraphs (1929-31), communications (1932-34), and public works (1934).

Fortier, L. Yves (b. Sept. 11, 1935, Québec, Que.), Canadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-92). In 1997-2006 he was governor of Hudson's Bay Company.

Fortín (Midence), Mario (Alberto) (b. Jan. 9, 1954, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (2005-06). He was also ambassador to Taiwan (2012-13) and Guatemala (2019-21).

Fortin, Wilfred E(rnestor) (b. Aug. 17, 1941 - d. Nov. 10, 2023), administrator of Sint Eustatius (1971).

Fortín Franco, Miguel A(ntonio) (b. Sept. 11, 1863, San Antonio de Oriente, El Salvador - d. July 24, 1928, San Salvador, El Salvador), foreign minister of El Salvador (1906).

Fortín Magaña, René (b. July 24, 1931, Ahuachapán, El Salvador - d. July 17, 2020), member of the Junta of Government of El Salvador (1960-61).

Fortis, Alessandro (b. Sept. 16, 1842, Forlì, Papal State [now in Italy] - d. Dec. 4, 1909, Rome), prime minister of Italy (1905-06). He fought as a volunteer with Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1866 and 1867. After the unification of Italy as a monarchy, he remained an ardent republican and was arrested on Aug. 2, 1874, for conspiring with the socialists to foment insurrection but was released five months later. In 1876 he urged the republicans to begin participating in the government. Elected a deputy in 1880, he drifted to the right politically. He served as minister of agriculture (June 1898-May 1899), and, when Giovanni Giolitti resigned as premier (February 1905), he named Fortis as his successor. Because he was considered Giolitti's pawn, Fortis had difficulty forming a government. In office he settled a rail strike by declaring railway workers to be civil servants who were not allowed to strike. He nationalized the railways and in so doing offered an exorbitant sum to the railway companies and was accused of corruption. His foreign policy favouring the Triple Alliance was also unpopular. Finally, by reducing import duties on Spanish wine, he aroused opposition that toppled his government in February 1906.

Forto, Edin (b. Aug. 16, 1972, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Sarajevo canton (2018-20, 2021-23). He has also been Bosnian minister of transport and communications (2023- ).

Fortov, Vladimir (Yevgenyevich) (b. Jan. 23, 1946, Noginsk, Moscow oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Nov. 29, 2020, Moscow, Russia), Russian minister of science and technology (1997-98). In 1996-97 he was chairman of the State Committee for Science and Technology and a deputy prime minister. He was president of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2013-17.

Fortún Sanjinés, Arturo (d. Oct. 25, 1973, La Paz, Bolivia), interior and justice minister (1956-57) and defense minister (1960-61) of Bolivia. He was also agriculture minister (1963-64).

Fortún Sanjinés, Federico (d. September 1986), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1952-56); brother of Arturo Fortún Sanjinés. He was also president of the Senate (1962-63).

Fortún Suárez, Guillermo (b. 1938, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Sept. 15, 2012, La Paz), interior minister of Bolivia (2000-01); son of Arturo Fortún Sanjinés; nephew of Federico Fortún Sanjinés. He was also minister of information and sport (1972-73) and labour (1973) and minister without portfolio (1989-91).

Fortunato, Marchese Giustino (b. Aug. 20, 1777, Rionero in Vulture, Kingdom of Naples [now in Basilicata, Italy] - d. Aug. 22, 1862, Naples, Italy), finance minister (1847-48, 1849) and prime minister and foreign minister (1849-52) of the Two Sicilies.

Fortune, Gabriel (Émile) (b. March 18, 1897 - d. Dec. 18, 1971), acting commandant of Chad (1938) and lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1941-45).

Fortuño (Burset), Luis (Guillermo) (b. Oct. 31, 1960, San Juan, Puerto Rico), governor of Puerto Rico (2009-13).

Fortuyn, Pim, byname of Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuyn (b. Feb. 19, 1948, Velsen, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. May 6, 2002, Hilversum, Noord-Holland), Dutch politician. He joined a new conservative populist party, Leefbaar Nederland (Livable Netherlands), and became known for his anti-Islam and anti-immigration views. When he vehemently confirmed those views in an interview in February 2002, saying that he wanted to abolish Article 1 of the Dutch constitution, which guaranteed the equal treatment of all citizens, calling Islam "a backward culture," and declaring that no more refugees should be allowed into the Netherlands, the party dropped him as its candidate for prime minister. Undeterred, he formed his own Lijst Pim Fortuyn. Meanwhile, Leefbaar Rotterdam kept him as its leading candidate in local elections in March 2002, and out of nowhere it became the biggest political force in the Netherlands' second city. Fortuyn, who led an openly gay lifestyle, believed immigration was undermining the liberal, permissive society the Netherlands stood for. "In Holland, homosexuality is treated the same way as heterosexuality. In what Islamic country does that happen?" he asked. Nine days before the national elections, he was shot and killed as he left a radio interview. It was the first time in modern history that a Dutch political leader was assassinated. His party went on to a stunning second-place victory in the elections and became one of three partners in a coalition government.

Forward, Walter (b. Jan. 24, 1786, Old Granby [now East Granby], Conn. - d. Nov. 24, 1852, Pittsburgh, Pa.), U.S. secretary of the treasury (1841-43). He was also chargé d'affaires in Denmark (1850-51).

Fosbery, Widenham Francis Widenham (b. 1869 - d. Feb. 26, 1935), acting high commissioner of Southern Nigeria (1904).

Foschini, Antonio (b. Feb. 21, 1872, Udine, Italy - d. April 13, 1965, Rome, Italy), high commissioner of Fiume (1921).

Foss, Eugene N(oble) (b. Sept. 24, 1858, West Berkshire, Vt. - d. Sept. 13, 1939, Boston, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1911-14).

Foss, Joe, byname of Joseph Jacob Foss (b. April 17, 1915, Sioux Falls, S.D. - d. Jan. 1, 2003, Scottsdale, Ariz.), governor of South Dakota (1955-59). He won the Medal of Honor as a Marine pilot during World War II. He also earned the Distinguished Flying Cross. He was among the most prominent U.S. World War II heroes, shooting down 26 enemy planes. He also served as a colonel in the Air Force in the Korean War. A Republican, he served in the state legislature for five years before becoming governor. Foss also was the first commissioner of the American Football League (1959-66) and hosted the national television show "The American Sportsman" (1964-67). He was chosen president of the National Rifle Association in 1988, serving through 1990.

Foss, Per-Kristian (b. July 19, 1950, Oslo, Norway), finance minister of Norway (2001-05). He was the first openly gay minister in a Norwegian government.

Fosse, Alexandre François Ghislain burggraaf van der (b. May 20, 1769, Mechelen, Austrian Netherlands [now in Antwerpen province, Belgium] - d. Feb. 28, 1840, Mechelen), governor of Noord-Brabant (1826-30) and Antwerpen (1830).

Fossé, Roger (Jules) (b. Sept. 23, 1920, Pavilly, Seine-Inférieure [now Seine-Maritime], France - d. Dec. 18, 1996, Saint-Hellier, Seine-Maritime), president of the Regional Council of Haute-Normandie (1986-92).

Foster, Charles (b. April 12, 1828, near Tiffin, Ohio - d. Jan. 9, 1904, Springfield, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1880-84) and U.S. secretary of the treasury (1891-93).

Foster, Sir George (Eulas) (b. Sept. 3, 1847, Wakefield parish, Carleton county, New Brunswick - d. Dec. 30, 1931, Ottawa, Ont.), finance minister of Canada (1888-96, 1896); knighted 1914. He was also minister of marine and fisheries (1885-88) and trade and commerce (1911-21).

J.W. Foster
Foster, John W(atson) (b. March 2, 1836, Pike county, Ind. - d. Nov. 15, 1917, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of state (1892-93). After service in the Union army during the Civil War, he was active in Republican affairs in Indiana. He served as minister to Mexico (1873-80), Russia (1880-81), and Spain (1883-85). Appointed secretary of state by Pres. Benjamin Harrison in 1892, Foster tacitly encouraged American interests in Hawaii in their revolt against Queen Liliuokalani and negotiated a treaty (1893) for the annexation of Hawaii (which, at the urging of his successor, Secretary of State Walter Q. Gresham, was withdrawn from Senate consideration by the newly installed administration of Pres. Grover Cleveland). Foster resigned in early 1893 in order to represent the United States in the Bering Sea controversy before an arbitration tribunal at Paris.

Mike Foster
Foster, Mike, byname of Murphy James Foster, Jr. (b. July 11, 1930, Shreveport, La. - d. Oct. 4, 2020, Franklin, La.), governor of Louisiana (1996-2004); grandson of Murphy J. Foster. In June 1994 Gov. Edwin Edwards announced he was not running in 1995, leaving as wide open a field as Louisiana has had since 1979. Republicans in the October 1995 open primary included former governor Buddy Roemer and state senator Mike Foster. Democrats included state treasurer Mary Landrieu, attorney Phil Preis, Lieutenant Governor Melinda Schwegmann, state representative Robert Adley, and congressman Cleo Fields. Fields and Foster, their parties' top vote getters with 26% and 19%, respectively, went on to the November election where Foster bested Fields 63%-37%. Foster, a former Democrat who switched parties in the summer of 1995, was the second Republican to be elected governor of Louisiana since Reconstruction. He was a staunch conservative who opposed abortion rights and affirmative action. He was reelected in 1999, defeating Democrat William J. Jefferson 62%-29%. His campaign benefited from the fact that Louisiana was enjoying an economic boom, and he took credit for improving schools and passing a popular tort reform law. He was blocked by term limits from seeking reelection in 2003.

Murphy Foster
Foster, Murphy J(ames) (b. Jan. 12, 1849, Franklin, La. - d. June 12, 1921, Dixie Plantation, near Franklin), governor of Louisiana (1892-1900).

Foster, Sir Robert (Sidney) (b. Aug. 11, 1913 - d. Oct. 12, 2005, Cambridge, England), high commissioner for the Western Pacific (1964-68) and governor (1968-70) and governor-general (1970-73) of Fiji; knighted 1964.

W.Z. Foster
Foster, William Z(ebulon), originally William E. Foster (b. Feb. 25, 1881, Taunton, Mass. - d. Sept. 1, 1961, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), U.S. presidential candidate (1924, 1928, 1932). A militant union organizer from 1894, Foster joined the Industrial Workers of the World (1909), which aimed at achieving socialism through industry-wide labour organization. He came into national prominence as an American Federation of Labor leader in the bloody steel strike of 1919. In 1921 the Russian Communists designated Foster's Trade Union Educational League (which he had founded in 1920) as the American branch of their Profintern (Red Trade Union International), thereby moving him into the American Communist organization as a top leader. He was a candidate three times for president, running on a platform that envisioned the ultimate demise of capitalism and the establishment of a workers' republic. In 1932 Foster suffered a serious heart attack, and party leadership passed to coworker Earl Browder. When the international Communist leadership indicated its dissatisfaction with Browder in 1945, Foster again became party chairman. In 1948 he was among the party leaders indicted for subversive activity, but, because of his precarious health, he was not brought to trial. Foster's control of the party was endangered in 1956, when the Soviets' repudiation of Iosif Stalin and their suppression of the Hungarian Revolution caused an upheaval within the party. Foster, who steadfastly defended the Soviet leadership, was made chairman emeritus at the party's national convention in New York City (February 1957) and was thus, in effect, removed from power.

Foster of A.
Foster of Aghadrumsee, Arlene (Isobel) Foster, Baroness, née Kelly (b. July 17, 1970, Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland), first minister of Northern Ireland (2016-17, 2020-21). She was leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (2015-21). She was knighted in June 2022 and in November made a life peer.

Foster Recabarren, Manuel (b. May 5, 1864, Santiago, Chile - d. June 11, 1946, Santiago), war and marine minister of Chile (1905-06).

Fostervoll, Alv Jakob (b. Jan. 20, 1932, Kristiansund, Møre og Romsdal, Norway - d. June 15, 2015), defense minister of Norway (1971-72, 1973-76) and governor of Møre og Romsdal (1977-2002).

Foteyev, Vladimir (Konstantinovich) (b. June 25, 1935, Stavropol [now Tolyatti, Samara oblast], Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R. (1984-89).

Fotyga, Anna (Elzbieta), née Kawecka (b. Jan. 12, 1957, Lebork, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (2006-07).

Fouché, Jacobus Johannes (b. June 6, 1898, Wepener, Orange Free State [now Free State, South Africa] - d. Sept. 23, 1980, Cape Town, South Africa), state president of South Africa (1968-75). A dedicated Afrikaner nationalist, he was a Nationalist Party member of parliament in 1941-50 (for Smithfield) and 1960-68 (for Bloemfontein West). In 1951-59 he was administrator of the Orange Free State. As minister of defense (1959-66) he had to deal with the UN embargo on arms supplies and his failure in this respect led to his replacement, ostensibly for health reasons, by Pieter Willem Botha. But Fouché continued to exercise a considerable influence in white South African political affairs and was minister of agricultural technical services and water affairs (1966-68) until his appointment as president. Known through his presidency as "Oom Jim" ("Uncle Jim"), he continued to show his loyalty to the government by defending censorship and castigating outside "pressure groups" and "Communists" for attempting to sow internal discord; he also was the B.J. Vorster ministry's chief spokesman when it wished to emphasize its "development" programs for the black "homelands," or to announce the introduction of increased self-government for the same. He was the first South African head of state to visit an independent black African nation when he went to Malawi in March 1972, to return Pres. Hastings Kamuzu Banda's visit the year before.

Foucher de Careil, Louis Alexandre, comte (b. March 1, 1826, Paris, France - d. Jan. 10, 1891, Paris), French official. He was prefect of the départements of Côtes-du-Nord (1871-72) and Seine-et-Marne (1872-73) and ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1883-86).

Fouchet, Christian (b. Nov. 17, 1911, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France - d. Aug. 11, 1974, Geneva, Switzerland), high commissioner of Algeria (1962) and interior minister of France (1967-68). He was also minister of Moroccan and Tunisian affairs (1954-55) and education (1962-67) and ambassador to Denmark (1958-62).

Fougier, Guy (Albin Paul) (b. March 13, 1932, Paris, France - d. May 2, 2008), prefect of police of Paris (1983-86). He was also prefect of Vienne département (1981-83).

Fougner, Else Bugge (b. Nov. 9, 1944, Moss, Østfold, Norway), justice minister of Norway (1989-90).

Fould, Achille (Marcus) (b. Nov. 17, 1800, Paris, France - d. Oct. 5, 1867, Laloubère, Hautes-Pyrénées, France), finance minister of France (1849-51, 1851, 1851-52, 1861-67). He was also minister of state (1852-60) and minister of the Emperor's House (1852-60).

Foulkes, Sir Arthur (Alexander) (b. May 11, 1928, Mathew Town, Inagua, Bahamas), governor-general of The Bahamas (2010-14); knighted 2001. He was founding editor (1962-67) of the Bahamian Times, official organ of the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP). He was elected to parliament in 1967 and served in various political offices over the years including minister of communications and minister of tourism in the PLP government. He was one of the Dissident Eight who rejected the leadership of Lynden Pindling in 1970 and was a founder of the Free National Movement in 1971. He was appointed to the Senate in 1972 and 1977 and was reelected to the House of Assembly in 1982. Later he held posts as high commissioner to the United Kingdom and ambassador to France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, and the European Union (1992-99) and non-resident ambassador to China and Cuba (1999-2007).

Foum, Muhammed Ali (b. June 4, 1936, Zanzibar [now in Tanzania]), Tanzanian diplomat. He was ambassador to Italy and Tunisia (1975-76), Zaire, Burundi, and Rwanda (1976-77), and Egypt (1990s), high commissioner to India (1980-84), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-86).

Foumane Akame, Jean (b. Aug. 31, 1937, Ndonkol, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon] - d. Jan. 13, 2019, Geneva, Switzerland), territorial administration minister of Cameroon (1983-84).

Fourati, Hichem (b. June 9, 1967, Tunis, Tunisia), interior minister of Tunisia (2018-20). He has also been governor of Monastir (2011-12) and ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2021- ).

Fourcade, Jean-Pierre (b. Oct. 18, 1929, Marmande, Lot-et-Garonne, France), economy and finance minister of France (1974-76). He was also minister of equipment (1976-77) and regional planning (1977) and mayor of Saint-Cloud (1971-92) and Boulogne-Billancourt (1995-2007).

Foureau, Fernand (b. Oct. 17, 1850, Saint-Barbant, Haute-Vienne, France - d. Jan. 17, 1914, Paris, France), governor of Mayotte (1906-07) and Martinique (1908-13).

Fourès, Augustin Julien (b. June 14, 1853, Pouilly, Oise, France - d. June 16, 1915, Paris, France), acting French representative in Cambodia (1881-85), lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1889, 1892-95), acting governor-general of French Indochina (1896-97), and resident-superior of Tonkin (1897-1905).

Fourichon, (Léon) Martin (b. Jan. 10, 1809, Thiviers, Dordogne, France - d. Nov. 24, 1884, Paris, France), governor of French Guiana (1853-54).

Fourie, Bernardus Gerhardus, byname Brand Fourie (b. Oct. 13, 1916, Wolmaransstad, Transvaal [now in North West province], South Africa - d. July 31?, 2008, Pretoria, South Africa), South African diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-62) and ambassador to the United States (1982-85).

Fourneau, Alfred (Louis) (b. June 14, 1860, Rambouillet, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France - d. May 1930, Paris, France), administrator of Chad (1902-03), lieutenant governor of Gabon (1905-06), and acting commissioner-general of French Congo (1906-07).

Fourneau, Jacques (Georges) (b. April 9, 1901 - d. May 20, 1956), acting governor of French Guinea (1944-46) and lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1947-50); son of Alfred Fourneau; nephew of Lucien Fourneau.

Fourneau, Lucien (Louis) (b. Feb. 16, 1867, Saint-Cyr-l'Ecole, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France - d. Aug. 3, 1930, Perros-Guirec, Côtes-du-Nord [now Côtes-d'Armor], France), lieutenant governor of Oubangui-Chari (1909-10) and Middle Congo (1911-16) and commissioner of French Cameroons (1916-19).

Fournier, Albéric (Auguste), lieutenant governor of Mauritania (1926-28) and Upper Volta (1928-32) and acting commissioner of French Cameroons (1932).

Fournier, Hubert (b. Sept. 13, 1948, Paris, France), prefect of Réunion (1992-95). He was also prefect of the French départements of Var (1997-99), Calvados (1999-2000), and Haute-Garonne (2000-03) and ambassador to Kenya (2004-06).

J.-R. Fournier
Fournier, Jean-René (b. Dec. 18, 1957), president of the Council of State of Valais (2000-01, 2004-05).

Fournier Quirós, Ricardo (b. Feb. 6, 1891, San José, Costa Rica - d. July 10, 1979, San José), Costa Rican diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1947-48).

Fousset, Louis Jacques (Eugène) (b. July 18, 1882 - d. May 11, 1949), governor of French Sudan (1931-35) and Martinique (1935-36).

Foveaux, Joseph (baptized April 6, 1767, Ampthill, Bedfordshire, England - d. March 20, 1846, London, England), commandant of Norfolk Island (1800-04) and acting governor of New South Wales (1808-09).

Fowle, Daniel G(ould) (b. March 3, 1831, Washington, N.C. - d. April 7, 1891, Raleigh, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1889-91).

Fowle, Sir Trenchard Craven William (b. Nov. 28, 1884 - d. Feb. 23, 1940), British acting political agent in Bahrain (1916), political agent and consul in Muscat and Oman (1930-31, 1931-32), and political resident in the Persian Gulf (1932-39); knighted 1937.

H.H. Fowler
Fowler, Henry H(ammill) (b. Sept. 5, 1908, Roanoke, Va. - d. Jan. 3, 2000, Alexandria, Va.), U.S. treasury secretary (1965-68). In his native Virginia, Fowler was an opponent of the state political machine led by Sen. Harry F. Byrd. At the state's 1956 Democratic convention, nine of the 10 congressional districts supported a move to withdraw state support from nominee Adlai Stevenson. Fowler was a leading delegate in the lone northern Virginia district that remained loyal to the national ticket, prompting shouts of "Yankee, go home!" at the state convention. Some encouraged Fowler to run for governor against the Byrd machine, but Fowler never did so. Fowler's tenure as treasury secretary saw the last federal budget without a deficit until 1998. Fowler guided fiscal policy while the Vietnam War was expanding and the government was pursuing a more active social policy, a time when Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson insisted that the nation could afford both guns and butter. He lobbied within the administration for a 10% tax increase, which Johnson opposed because he didn't think Congress would accept it. The increase finally went through in 1968. Despite the disagreement, Fowler remained a strong backer of Johnson. Fowler also is known for the creation of so-called "paper gold," a special reserve currency used to bolster the nation's gold reserves when the strength of the dollar waned in early 1968.

Fowler, Robert R(amsay) (b. Aug. 18, 1944, Ottawa, Ont.), Canadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-2000), ambassador to Italy (2000-06), San Marino (2001-06), and Albania (2001-06), high commissioner to Malta (2001-06), and UN special envoy to Niger (2008-09). In the latter role he was kidnapped by an al-Qaeda group and spent four months in captivity before being released, apparently after payment of a ransom.

Fox, Charles James (b. Jan. 24, 1749, London, England - d. Sept. 13, 1806, Chiswick, Middlesex [now part of London], England), British foreign secretary (1782, 1783, 1806); son of Henry Fox, Baron Holland.

Fox, Liam (b. Sept. 22, 1961, East Kilbride, Lanarkshire, Scotland), British defence secretary (2010-11). He was also chairman of the Conservative Party (2003-05) and secretary of state for international trade (2016-19).

Fox, Sir William (b. Jan. 20, 1812, South Shields, Durham [now in Tyne and Wear], England - d. June 23, 1893, Auckland, N.Z.), premier of New Zealand (1856, 1861-62, 1869-72, 1873); knighted 1879. He was also attorney general (1856, 1861).

V. Fox
Fox Quesada, Vicente (b. July 2, 1942, Mexico City), president of Mexico (2000-06). Mexico's difficult economy during the 1980s convinced Fox that the country needed new leadership. In 1988, as a candidate of the centre-right National Action Party (PAN), he ran for a seat in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of Mexico's legislature, and was elected. After serving one term he ran for governor of Guanajuato but lost in an election during which charges of fraud were made. In 1995 he again ran for governor and was elected. On July 2, 2000, he was elected president of Mexico and thereby ended 71 uninterrupted years of rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). As the PAN candidate, Fox won approximately 43% of the vote to 36% for PRI candidate Francisco Labastida Ochoa and 16.5% for Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas of the leftist Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD). After his election Fox, at one time president of the Mexican subsidiary of the Coca-Cola Co., said that he planned to run a "businesslike" administration and that "the main problem of Mexico is development... growth of the economy, it's getting the jobs that we need, it's sharing the income, redistributing income." He also pledged to end the cronyism that had been prevalent in PRI administrations, saying he would "make sure we get the best men and best women this country has for each of the positions. It's a little bit like we do it in companies." During the sometimes stormy presidential campaign, the almost 2-m-tall Fox lashed out at Labastida, calling him "shorty" and ridiculing him as an "errand boy" for the PRI. After the election Fox broke precedent by apologizing in person to Labastida and other opponents he had criticized.

Fox-Strangways, Maurice Walter (b. March 23, 1862 - d. May 27, 1938), acting chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1912).

Fox-Strangways, Vivian (b. July 29, 1898, Pachmarhi, Central Provinces [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. Nov. 21, 1974, Dorset, England), resident commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1941-46); son of Maurice Walter Fox-Strangways.


Foxley (Rioseco), Alejandro (Tomás) (b. May 26, 1939, Viña del Mar, Chile), finance minister (1990-94) and foreign minister (2006-09) of Chile. He was also president of the Christian Democratic Party (1994-96).

Foy, Tim(othy John) (b. 1961, St. Helens, Lancashire, England), governor of Anguilla (2017-20).

Foyer, Jean (b. April 27, 1921, Contigné, Maine-et-Loire, France - d. Oct. 3, 2008, Paris, France), justice minister of France (1962-67). He was also minister of cooperation (1961-62) and public health (1972-73).

Fradkov, Mikhail (Yefimovich) (b. Sept. 1, 1950, Kuybyshev, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Samara, Russia]), prime minister of Russia (2004-07). Since 1975 he slowly climbed the bureaucratic ladder at the Soviet (later Russian) ministry of external trade. After serving for a couple of years at Russian mission to GATT, on Oct. 19, 1992, he was appointed deputy minister of external trade. On Oct. 12, 1993, he was promoted to the position of first deputy minister of external trade. At last, after another government reshuffle on April 16, 1997, Pres. Boris Yeltsin named Fradkov minister of external trade. In another government reshuffle on April 30, 1998, his ministry was abolished, but a new Ministry of Trade was later established, and on May 25, 1999, Fradkov became minister again. In May 2000 that ministry was also abolished and Fradkov was transferred to the Security Council, becoming its first deputy secretary on May 31, 2000. On March 28, 2001, Pres. Vladimir Putin appointed Fradkov to head the powerful Federal Tax Police. However, this department was also abolished in March 2003. Fradkov was sent to Brussels as Russian ambassador at the European Commission, seen by most as an honourable exile. On March 1, 2004, Putin surprised virtually all experts by designating Fradkov to the position of prime minister. But the State Duma was too loyal to be surprised and on March 5, it confirmed Fradkov as prime minister (352-58 with 24 abstentions). On May 12, after the start of Putin's second term, the Duma again confirmed Fradkov in the post (356-72 with 8 abstentions). Many said that Fradkov proved to be the most colourless and uninfluential prime minister after 1991. He was completely overshadowed by Putin and never lived up to the title of Russia's number two. In 2007-16 he was director of the External Intelligence Service.

Fraga (López), (Segundo) Rosendo (María Eduardo) (b. Oct. 13, 1856, Santa Fe, Argentina - d. June 3, 1928, Buenos Aires, Argentina), war minister of Argentina (1906-07); son of Rosendo María Fraga.

Fraga (Ranchel), Rosendo (José) María (b. May 1, 1815, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Sept. 1, 1871, Buenos Aires), governor of Santa Fe (1858-60).

Fraga Iribarne, Manuel (b. Nov. 23, 1922, Vilalba, Galicia, Spain - d. Jan. 15, 2012, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. He was information and tourism minister (1962-69), ambassador to the U.K. (1973-75), deputy prime minister and interior minister (1975-76), chairman of the Popular Alliance (1979-86) and the Popular Party (1989-90), and president of the Xunta of Galicia (1990-2005).

Fragelli, José Manuel Fontanillas (b. Dec. 31, 1915, Corumbá, Mato Grosso [now in Mato Grosso do Sul], Brazil - d. April 30, 2010, Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul), governor of Mato Grosso (1971-75); nephew of Fernando Correia da Costa. He was also president of the Senate of Brazil (1985-87).

Fragoso, Augusto Tasso (b. Aug. 28, 1869, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Sept. 20, 1945, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), chairman of the Government Junta of Brazil (1930).

Fragueiro (del Corro), Mariano Antonio (b. June 20, 1795, Córdoba city, Río de la Plata [now Argentina] - d. July 3, 1872, Córdoba), governor of Córdoba (1831 [acting], 1858-60) and finance minister of Argentina (1854).

Fraiteur, Raoul (Laurent Alexandre Gaspard) de (b. Nov. 13, 1895, Leernes, Hainaut, Belgium - d. Dec. 9, 1984, Beauraing, Namur, Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1946-49).

Franasovic, Dragutin (b. Dec. 5, 1842, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. April 18, 1914, Vienna, Austria), war minister (1885-86, 1893, 1895-96) and foreign minister (1886-87, 1887-88) of Serbia.

Franasovici, Richard (b. April 8, 1883, Turnu Severin [now Drobeta-Turnu Severin], Romania - d. July 24, 1964, Paris, France), interior minister of Romania (1937). He was also minister of public works and communications (1933-37), ambassador to Poland (1938-39) and France (1939-40), and minister to Switzerland (1945-46).

Franc, Evert August (b. May 23, 1729, Janslunda, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Feb. 23, 1800), governor of Örebro (1780-96); son-in-law of Johan Abraham friherre Hamilton af Hageby.

L. Franc
Franc, Lubomír (b. Aug. 28, 1953, Broumov, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Královéhradecký kraj (2008-16).

Franc, Peter (b. Sept. 26, 1642, Kvillinge, Östergötland, Sweden - d. April 2, 1714, Nyköping, Södermanland, Sweden), governor of Södermanland (1710-14).

Franc, Ulric Gustaf (b. April 16, 1736, Överselö socken, Södermanland, Sweden - d. May 23, 1811, Stockholm, Sweden), acting chancellery president of Sweden (1790-92).

França, Augusto Ferreira (b. April 17, 1836, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. Sept. 28, 1902, São Salvador da Bahia), president of Goiás (1865-67).

C.A.F. França
França, Carlos Alberto Franco (b. April 18, 1964, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (2021-23). He was appointed ambassador to Canada in 2023.

França, Francisco Xavier Monteiro da (b. June 15, 1773, Paraíba [now João Pessoa], Paraíba, Brazil - d. June 16, 1851), president of Paraíba (1840-41).

França, José Manoel de (b. 1794?, Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil - d. March 9, 1852, São Paulo, Brazil), acting president of São Paulo (1836).

França, Manoel José de Souza (b. 1780, Laguna, Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Feb. 8, 1856, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), principal minister of Brazil (1831). He was also justice minister (1831, 1831) and president of Rio de Janeiro (1840-41).

França (Gomes), Márcio (Luiz) (b. June 23, 1963, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (2018-19). He was also mayor of São Vicente (1997-2005) and Brazilian minister of ports and airports (2023).

Francesco I, in full Francesco Saverio Gennaro Giuseppe (b. Aug. 14, 1777, Naples [Italy] - d. Nov. 8, 1830, Naples), king of the Two Sicilies (1825-30); son of Ferdinando I.

Francesco II, in full Francesco d'Assisi Maria Leopoldo (b. Jan. 16, 1836, Naples [Italy] - d. Dec. 27, 1894, Arco, Italy), king of the Two Sicilies (1859-60); son of Ferdinando II.

Francese, Antonio (b. Oct. 29, 1899, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. 1979), defense minister (1967-70, 1973) and interior minister (1970-71) of Uruguay.

Franchini, Alessandro (d. March 1836), member of the Council of State of Ticino (1834-36).

Franchuk, Anatoliy (Romanovych) (b. Sept. 8, 1935, Vladimirovka, Vinnitsa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. July 7, 2021), prime minister of Crimea (1994 [acting], 1994-95, 1995-96, 1997-98).

Francia (y Velasco), José Gaspar Rodríguez de (b. Jan. 6, 1766, Asunción, Río de la Plata [now in Paraguay] - d. Sept. 20, 1840, Asunción, Paraguay), supreme dictator of Paraguay (1814-40). In 1811 he became secretary to the junta that had overthrown Spanish rule. Not content with freedom from Spain, Francia in 1813 declared independence from Argentina (though Paraguay's only tie to the outer world lay on the river route through Buenos Aires) and became one of two consuls of the republic. The next year he was elected supreme dictator, and in 1816 perpetual supreme dictator. The word "dictator" at the time did not yet have the present meaning of "tyrant" - although he in fact was one. Determined to keep his country independent, he forbade all river traffic to Argentina and banned all foreign commerce. Paraguay thus became a hermit nation, few people being permitted to enter or leave. Francia, or "El Supremo," fostered internal industries and modern methods of farming and livestock raising which brought the nation to a primitive level of self-sufficiency. He organized and equipped the army, abolished the Inquisition, suppressed the college of theology, did away with the tithes, and deprived the aristocracy of their privileges. Francia was a frugal ruler but unspeakably cruel.

Francini, Loris (b. Aug. 12, 1962, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent (1998, 2006) and secretary of state for internal affairs (2002-05) of San Marino.

Franciosi, Carlo (b. April 1, 1935, Serravalle, San Marino - d. Dec. 27, 2021), captain-regent of San Marino (1987).

A. Francis

D.J. Francis
Francis, Alida (b. 1965?), government commissioner of Sint Eustatius (2021- ).

Francis, David J(ohn) (b. Oct. 5, 1965), chief minister (2018-21) and foreign minister (2021-23) of Sierra Leone.

Francis, David R(owland) (b. Oct. 1, 1850, Richmond, Ky. - d. Jan. 15, 1927, St. Louis, Mo.), mayor of St. Louis (1885-89), governor of Missouri (1889-93), and U.S. secretary of the interior (1896-97). He was also ambassador to Russia (1916-17).

Francis, Dennis (b. Nov. 27, 1956), Trinidad and Tobago diplomat. He has been non-resident ambassador to Italy and Austria (2007-11), permanent representative to the United Nations (2021-23), and president of the UN General Assembly (2023- ).

Francis, Harold Huyton, byname Tim Francis (b. May 1, 1928, Auckland, N.Z. - d. Jan. 2, 2016, Wellington, N.Z.), administrator of Tokelau (1984-88). He was also New Zealand high commissioner to Singapore (1970-73), permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-82), and ambassador to the United States (1988-91).

Francis, John B(rown) (b. May 31, 1791, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Aug. 9, 1864, Warwick, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1833-38).

Francis, Larry (b. April 23, 1933, San Antonio, Texas), mayor of El Paso (1993-97).

M.E. Francis
Francis, Mayann E(lizabeth) (b. Feb. 18, 1946, Sydney, N.S.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (2006-12).

Francis, Nathaniel J(oseph) S(elver), byname Bops Francis (b. May 6, 1912, Grand Turk island, Turks and Caicos Islands - d. early August 2004), chief minister of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1985-86). He was also minister of works and communications (1980-85).

Francis, Sarita (Violeta) (b. Sept. 11, 1953), acting governor of Montserrat (2011).

Francis Lanuza, Yavel Mireya (b. Nov. 6, 1967, Panama), Panamanian diplomat. She has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2009) and ambassador to Belgium (2019- ).

Franciscus, English Francis, original name Jorge Mario Bergoglio (Sívori) (b. Dec. 17, 1936, Buenos Aires, Argentina), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (2013- ). He was ordained a priest in 1969, took his final vows in the Jesuit order in 1973, and served as superior of the Jesuit province of Argentina (1973-79). He later claimed to have hidden several people from the authorities during the period of military rule (1976-83), although his role in the case of two Jesuit priests who were kidnapped for five months in 1976 generated controversy. He was made an auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992, archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998, and a cardinal in 2001. He acquired a public reputation for humility, living in a simple downtown apartment rather than in the archbishop's residence and traveling by public transportation or by foot rather than in a chauffeured limousine. He became an outspoken advocate for the poor and promoted the church's position on social matters in meetings with government officials. His theological conservatism, however, set him at odds with the left-leaning administrations of Presidents Néstor Kirchner (2003-07) and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (2007-15); he was a vocal critic of the legalization of same-sex marriage in 2010. Following the resignation of Pope Benedictus XVI, Bergoglio was elected on the fifth ballot to become the first Jesuit pope and the first from the Western (or the Southern) Hemisphere. He chose the name Franciscus in honour of St. Francis of Assisi (1181/82-1226), who lived a life of humble service to the poor, and also recalling St. Francis Xavier (1506-52), a founding member of the Jesuits. He declined to use the Roman numeral I to indicate that he was the first to use his papal name. Clergy sexual-abuse scandals having undermined the church's stature, Franciscus called for spiritual renewal within the church and increased attention to the plight of the poor. He at first appeared more tolerant of homosexuality ("Who am I to judge?"), but in 2018 aroused controversy when he suggested parents should seek psychiatric help for their gay children and also compared abortion to "hiring a hitman."

Francisque, (Marie Joseph) Édouard (b. Sept. 12, 1928, Cap-Haïtien, Haiti - d. May 19 or 26, 2023, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), finance minister (1971-73) and foreign minister (1981-82) of Haiti. He was also ambassador to France (1973-76) and West Germany (1976-81) and a presidential candidate in 2006, winning 0.3% of the vote.


A.P.P. Franco
Franck, Antonio (Gabriel) (b. Nov. 27, 1927, Pointe-Noire, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. March 8, 2006, Gonesse, Val-d'Oise, France), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1975-76). He was also minister of education, youth, and sports (1969), art and culture (1969), public service and labour (1969-70), veterans (1973-74), and public works (1974-75).

Francke (Ballvé), Pedro (Andrés Toribio Topiltzin) (b. Nov. 1, 1960, Lima, Peru), finance minister of Peru (2021-22).

Franco, Adolpho de Oliveira (b. Nov. 12, 1915, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil - d. March 9, 2008), governor of Paraná (1955-56).

Franco, Afonso Arinos de Mello (b. Nov. 27, 1905, Belo Horizonte, Brazil - d. Aug. 28, 1990, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1961, 1962); son of Afrânio de Mello Franco.

Franco, Afonso Arinos de Mello, Filho (b. Nov. 11, 1930, Belo Horizonte, Brazil - d. March 15, 2020, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Brazilian diplomat; son of Afonso Arinos de Mello Franco. He was ambassador to Bolivia (1979-82), Venezuela (1983-85), the Vatican (1986-90), and the Netherlands (1991-94).

Franco, Afrânio de Mello, original name Afrânio Camorim Jacaúna de Otingi (b. Feb. 25, 1870, Paracatu, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Jan. 1, 1943, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1930-33). He was also minister of transport (1918-19) and acting minister of justice and interior (1930, 1932).

Franco, Albano do Prado Pimentel (b. Nov. 22, 1940), governor of Sergipe (1995-2003); son of Augusto do Prado Franco.

Franco, Augusto do Prado (b. Sept. 4, 1912, Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Dec. 15, 2003, Aracaju, Sergipe), governor of Sergipe (1979-82).

Franco, Carlos Augusto, governor-general of Angola (1860-61).

Federico Franco
Franco (Gómez), (Luis) Federico (b. July 23, 1962, Asunción, Paraguay), vice president (2008-12) and president (2012-13) of Paraguay. He was also governor of Central department (2003-07).

Francisco Franco
Franco (y Bahamonde), Francisco (Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo), byname El Caudillo (the Leader) (b. Dec. 4, 1892, El Ferrol, Galicia, Spain - d. Nov. 20, 1975, Madrid, Spain), Spanish head of state (1939-75). In May 1935 he was appointed chief of the Spanish Army's general staff. The leftist Popular Front won elections in 1936, but the new government was unable to prevent the accelerating dissolution of Spain's social and economic structure. Franco was removed from the general staff and sent to an obscure command in the Canary Islands. On July 18, 1936, Franco's manifesto acclaiming military rebellion was broadcast from the Canary Islands, and the same day the rising began on the mainland. The following day he flew to Morocco and within 24 hours was firmly in control of the protectorate and the Spanish Army garrisoning it. After landing in Spain, he and his army marched toward Madrid. In preparation of what they believed was the final assault that would deliver the country into their hands, the Nationalists decided to choose a commander in chief, or generalissimo, who would also head the rebel Nationalist government in opposition to the republic. Franco was the obvious choice. He became head of state of the new Nationalist regime on Oct. 1, 1936. The rebel government did not, however, gain complete control of the country until April 1, 1939. The tens of thousands of executions carried out by the Nationalist regime, which continued during the first years after the war ended, earned Franco more reproach than any other aspect of his rule. During World War II he kept Spain neutral. A 1947 referendum made the Spanish state a monarchy and ratified Franco's powers as a sort of regent for life. In 1969 he designated Juan Carlos as his official successor upon his death. His widow Carmen Polo was awarded the title Señora de Meirás by King Juan Carlos on Nov. 26, 1975.

I. Franco
Franco, Itamar (Augusto Cautiero) (b. June 28, 1930, on board a ship between Salvador and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. July 2, 2011, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Brazil (1992-95). He was a founding member of what would become the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), which was the only opposition party permitted under military rule, and served as mayor of his hometown Juiz de Fora (1967-71, 1973-74). He was a senator for 16 years, leading committees on economy and finance (1983-84) and investigating corruption (in the late 1980s). He lost a bid to be governor of Minas Gerais in 1986 but was later picked by Fernando Collor to balance his presidential ticket and thus became vice president in 1990. He became acting president on Oct. 2, 1992, when Collor was suspended, and with Collor's definite removal was sworn in as president on Dec. 29, 1992, serving, in a somewhat eccentric way, until Jan. 1, 1995, when Fernando Henrique Cardoso became president. On Jan. 1, 1999, he began a four-year term as governor of Minas Gerais. He stopped paying the state's debt on January 6, blocked a plan to reduce layoffs at auto plants, and refused to meet Cardoso, whose irritation turned into public rage. Cardoso needed the cooperation of governors to cut the country's huge budget deficit, as Brazil promised it would do to get an International Monetary Fund loan. The action by Brazil's third-wealthiest state alarmed investors, who pulled dollars out of the country. When the drain had not stopped a week later, Cardoso's government was forced to devalue the currency, which plunged 40%. But Franco's feud with Cardoso was more than financial. Franco had never forgiven Cardoso (who was finance minister at the time) for "stealing" credit for the Plano Real, the economic program that slashed inflation from 2,700% in 1993 to about 2% in 1998. Franco left the PMDB in December 1999 after failing to win the party's backing to split with Cardoso's alliance. He was also ambassador to Portugal (1995-96) and Italy (2004-05).

J. Franco
Franco (Ferreira Pinto Castelo Branco), João (b. Feb. 14, 1855, Alcaide, eastern Portugal - d. April 1929, Lisbon, Portugal), interior minister (1893-97, 1906-08) and prime minister (1906-08) of Portugal. He was also minister of finance (1890) and public works, commerce, and industry (1891-92). He took office as prime minister in May 1906 with a programme of reforming the national finances and administration by constitutional means if possible. The Cortes was dissolved in June and an election was held at which it was promised that all votes should be fairly counted; the Franquistas or "New Regenerators" obtained a majority. When the new Cortes met in September the king was charged by the opposition with complicity in grave financial scandals; the Republican deputies even accused him of trying to assign the tobacco monopoly in payment of one of his own foreign creditors. Franco sought to organize a coalition in defense of the crown, but early in 1907 business in the Cortes was brought to a standstill. The ministry appeared to be doomed, and the old "Rotativist" politicians prepared once more to divide the spoils of office. On May 2, however, Franco struck his blow. He obtained the dissolution of the Cortes, and announced that certain measures still under discussion should have forthwith the force of law. With the support not only of the king and the army but also of many Portuguese who hailed with joy the advent of an honest dictator, Franco was able to carry some useful reforms. But certain transactions in regard to the king's debts aroused so much indignation that rebellion was widely and openly advocated. On Feb. 1, 1908, King Carlos and his elder son were assassinated. Franco was sent into exile by the dynasty. The Rotativist politicians regained their power, but soon had to give way to the Republican revolution effected in October 1910. Franco, who had returned to Portugal, was arrested but acquitted by the Supreme Court in January 1911.

J.C. Franco
Franco (Gómez), Julio César, byname Yoyito (b. April 17, 1951, Fernando de la Mora, Paraguay), vice president of Paraguay (2000-02).

Manuel Franco

Mike Franco
Franco, Manuel (b. June 9, 1871, Concepción, Paraguay - d. June 5, 1919, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1916-19). He was also minister of justice, worship, and education (1908) and interior (1908-10).

Franco, Mike, byname of Marcolino Cerbinio Ferdinand Franco (b. Oct. 4, 1959), government commissioner of Sint Eustatius (2018-20). He was also chairman of the parliament of Curaçao (2012-16).

Franco (Bahamonde), Nicolás (b. July 1, 1891, El Ferrol, Spain - d. April 15, 1977, Madrid, Spain), Spanish diplomat; brother of Francisco Franco. He was ambassador to Italy (1937-38) and Portugal (1938-58).

R. Franco
Franco (Ojeda), Rafael (de la Cruz) (b. Oct. 22, 1896, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Sept. 16, 1973), provisional president of Paraguay (1936-37). He led a military insurrection in February 1936 and founded the still extant Partido Revolucionario Febrerista.

Franco, Salvador (b. 1864 - d. 1930), war minister (1916-18) and finance minister (1927) of Colombia. He was also governor of Boyacá (1896, 1900) and Cundinamarca (1925-26) and minister of treasury (1915-16) and industry (1926-27).

Franco, Wellington Moreira (b. Oct. 19, 1944, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Rio de Janeiro (1987-91). He was also mayor of Niterói (1977-82) and Brazilian minister of strategic affairs (2011-13), civil aviation (2013-15), and mines and energy (2018).

Franco Franco, Tulio (b. Aug. 8, 1893, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - d. 1978), Dominican Republic diplomat. He was minister to Haiti (1944-45) and Switzerland (1948-50), ambassador to the Vatican (1946-47, 1956-60, 1966-70), France (1950-52), and Haiti (1952-53), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1953-54).

Franco López, Gabriel (b. Oct. 14, 1897, Astorga, León, Spain - d. Jan. 29, 1972, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1936).

François, Jacques (Arthur) (b. 1908 - d. April 13, 1987, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1986). He was also ambassador to Cuba (1955-56).

François, Joseph (Pascal) (b. June 27, 1853, Montpellier, Hérault, France - d. 19...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1889-96) and governor of French India (1905-06) and the French Settlements in Oceania (1908-10).

François, Pierre (Claude Emmanuel) (b. Dec. 28, 1869 - d. Aug. 15, 1933), acting lieutenant governor of Oubangui-Chari (1923-24).

François-Marsal, Frédéric (b. March 16, 1874, Paris, France - d. May 28, 1958, Gisors, Eure, France), finance minister (1920-21, 1924), prime minister (1924), and acting president (1924) of France.

François-Poncet, André (b. June 13, 1887, Provins, Seine-et-Marne, France - d. Jan. 8, 1978, Paris, France), French high commissioner in Germany (1949-55). He was also ambassador to Germany (1931-38), Italy (1938-40), and West Germany (1955).

François-Poncet, Jean (André) (b. Dec. 8, 1928, Paris, France - d. July 18, 2012, Paris), foreign minister of France (1978-81); son of André François-Poncet.

Francos, Guillermo (Alberto) (b. April 20, 1950, Puerto Belgrano, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), interior minister (2023- ) and cabinet chief (2024- ) of Argentina.

H. Franjieh
Franjieh, Hamid (Kabalan), also spelled Hamid Frangié, Arabic Hamid Faranjiyya (b. Aug. 6, 1907, Ehden, northern Lebanon, Ottoman Empire - d. Sept. 5, 1981, Beirut, Lebanon), Lebanese politician; brother of Suleiman Franjieh (1910-1992). He entered politics as a fervent nationalist, became finance minister for the first time in 1938, a post he also held in 1944-45, and was foreign minister several times for different governments (1938, 1941-42, 1945-46, 1947-49, 1955). He also aspired to the presidency, but was defeated in 1952 by Camille Chamoun, who had greater support from central Lebanon. After his resignation in 1955 Franjieh, who was then associated with a group supporting the policies of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, was forced to withdraw from political activity in 1957 because of illness.

S. Franjieh
Franjieh, Suleiman (Kabalan), also spelled Soleiman Frangié, Arabic Sulayman Faranjiyya (b. June 15, 1910, Zgharta, northern Lebanon, Ottoman Empire - d. July 23, 1992, Beirut, Lebanon), president of Lebanon (1970-76). In 1957 he was implicated in the murder of several members of a rival clan and fled to Syria, where he became friends with Hafez al-Assad, later to become president of Syria (1971). Franjieh soon returned to Lebanon to succeed his elder brother, Hamid, as clan leader, and after being elected to his brother's former seat in parliament (1960) he held a succession of ministerial posts, including posts and telegraphs (1960-61), agriculture (1961), interior (1968), economy (1968-70), and justice (1968-69). On Aug. 17, 1970, parliament elected Franjieh president by one vote on the third ballot, but he soon alienated Muslims and Christians alike by his autocratic rule and his promotion of inept and corrupt clansmen, notably his son Tony. He was considered to be in large part responsible for the country's descent into civil war in the mid-1970s. In June 1976, shortly before he left office, Franjieh reportedly invited Assad to send troops into Lebanon to assist the Maronite Christians against left-wing Muslim and Palestinian forces. Rival clans who opposed Syrian intervention allied themselves with Israel. In June 1978, members of the Phalange, a rival Christian militia, murdered Tony along with his wife and daughter, thus cementing the rift between the clans and precluding a quick end to the war.

S. Franjieh
Franjieh, Suleiman, also spelled Soleiman Frangié, Arabic Sulayman Faranjiyya (b. Oct. 18, 1964, Zgharta, northern Lebanon), interior minister of Lebanon (2004-05); grandson of Suleiman Franjieh (1910-1992). He was also minister of public health (1996-98, 2000-04) and agriculture (1998-2000).

Frank, Charles (Raphael, Jr.) (b. May 15, 1937, Pittsburgh, Pa.), first vice president (1997-2001) and acting president (1998, 2000) of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

E. Frank
Frank, Édouard, Frank also spelled Franck (b. April 5, 1934, Grimari, Oubangui-Chari [now in Central African Republic]), prime minister of the Central African Republic (1991-92). He was also president of the Supreme Court (1980-82) and of the Constitutional Court (1996-2003) and ambassador to France (1982-84). He also presided over the criminal court that tried ex-emperor Bokassa in 1986-87.

Frank, Felix (b. Oct. 31, 1876, Vienna, Austria - d. March 2, 1957, Innsbruck, Austria), vice chancellor (1922-24), interior minister (1922-23), and justice minister (1923-24) of Austria.

Frank, Hans (b. May 3, 1900, Karlsruhe, Germany - d. Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Germany), German governor-general of Poland (1939-45). He was hanged as a war criminal.

Franke, Egon (b. April 11, 1913, Hannover, Germany - d. April 26, 1995, Hannover), vice chancellor of West Germany (1982). He was also minister of inner-German relations (1969-82).

Franke, Emil (b. April 3, 1880, Grosspriesen, Austria [now Velké Brezno, Czech Republic] - d. Dec. 1, 1939, Prague, Bohemia and Moravia [now Czech Republic]), acting finance minister of Czechoslovakia (1936, 1937). He was also minister of railways (1919-20 [acting], 1925 [acting]), supply (1922-25), posts and telegraphs (1924-25 [acting], 1929-36), and education (1936-38).

Frankinet, Bénédicte (b. July 23, 1951), Belgian diplomat. She was ambassador to Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique, and Malawi (1999-2003) and Israel (2008-13) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-16).

Franklin, Benjamin (b. Jan. 17, 1706 [Jan. 6, 1705, O.S.], Boston, Massachusetts - d. April 17, 1790, Philadelphia, Pa.), U.S. postmaster general (1775-76) and president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania (1785-88). A man of many talents, he was famous as a printer, publisher, author, inventor, and scientist besides being one of the U.S. founding fathers. He became involved in civic improvement in Philadelphia in 1727. He purchased the Pennsylvania Gazette in 1729 and commenced the publication of Poor Richard's Almanac in 1732. He was appointed postmaster of Philadelphia (1737), then deputy postmaster-general for the colonies (1753). His invention of the Franklin stove and its commercial success encouraged him to turn from printing to the natural sciences in the 1740s, and in 1746 he commenced his famous researches in electricity, suggesting that buildings could be protected by lightning-conductors. His scientific ingenuity also found outlet in the theory of heat, charting the Gulf Stream, ship design, meteorology, and the invention of bifocal lenses and a harmonica. His election in 1751 to the Pennsylvania Assembly began nearly 40 years as a public official. He proposed to the Albany Congress a Plan of Union for the colonies in 1754. During the French and Indian War (1754-63), he worked with British commanders to win a North American empire for Britain. When he went to England in 1757 as agent of the Assembly, the British attitude of dominance over the colonies began to strain his loyalty. He remained in England until 1762 and in 1764 was sent there again to contest the pretensions of Parliament to tax the American colonies without representation. But the differences became too grave to be reconciled by negotiation, and he returned in 1775 and helped draft the Declaration of Independence. To secure foreign assistance in the war of independence, Franklin was sent to Paris in 1776, and in February 1778 a treaty of alliance was signed. He was officially minister to France - the first U.S. minister - in 1779-85. In 1783 he helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris, ending the war with Great Britain. In 1787 he was a delegate to the convention which framed the U.S. constitution.

Franklin, Benjamin J(oseph) (b. March 1839, near Maysville, Ky. - d. May 18, 1898, Phoenix, Ariz.), governor of Arizona (1896-97).

Franklin, Jesse (b. March 24, 1760, Orange county, Virginia - d. Aug. 31, 1823, Surry county, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1820-21).

Franklin, Sir John (b. April 16, 1786, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England - d. June 11, 1847, near King William Island [now in Nunavut, Canada]), lieutenant governor of Tasmania (1837-43); knighted 1829. He was a famous Arctic explorer who died in an expedition in search for the Northwest Passage.

Franklin, Shirley (Clarke) (b. May 10, 1945, Philadelphia, Pa.), mayor of Atlanta (2002-10).

Franklin, William (b. 1731?, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - d. Nov. 16, 1813, London, England), governor of New Jersey (1763-76); illegitimate son of Benjamin Franklin.

Franko, Ivan (b. Dec. 31, 1922, Skofja Loka, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), justice minister of Yugoslavia (1974-78).

Franko Pasha, originally Franko Nasri Kusa (b. 1814, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Feb. 2, 1873), governor of Mount Lebanon (1868-73).


Franz I (Liech.)
Franks, Tommy (Ray) (b. June 17, 1945, Wynnewood, Okla.), commander-in-chief of U.S. Central Command (2000-03) and in that capacity commander of the U.S. forces in Iraq (2003).

Franscini, Stefano (b. Oct. 23, 1796, Bodio, Ticino, Switzerland - d. July 19, 1857, Bern, Switzerland), interior minister of Switzerland (1848-57). He was also a member of the Council of State (1837-39, 1839-45, 1847-49) and president of the Provisional Government (1839) of Ticino.

Franssen, Jan (b. June 11, 1951, Hilversum, Noord-Holland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (2000-14). He was also mayor of Zwolle (1994-2000).

Frantz, Frank (b. May 7, 1872, Roanoke, Ill. - d. March 9, 1941, Muskogee, Okla.), governor of Oklahoma (1906-07).

Franz I, in full Franz Stephan (b. Dec. 8, 1708, Nancy, Lorraine [now in France] - d. Aug. 18, 1765, Innsbruck, Austria), duke of Lorraine (as François III) (1729-37), grand duke of Tuscany (as Francesco II) (1737-65), and Holy Roman emperor (1745-65).

Franz I, in full Franz de Paula Maria Karl August (b. Aug. 28, 1853, Liechtenstein Castle, near Mödling, Austria - d. July 25, 1938, Feldsberg, Czechoslovakia [now Valtice, Czech Republic]), prince of Liechtenstein (1929-38). He was also Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Russia (1894-98).

Franz II, in full Franz Joseph Karl Johann, Hungarian Ferenc József Károly János (b. Feb. 12, 1768, Florence, Tuscany [now in Italy] - d. March 2, 1835, Vienna, Austria), Holy Roman emperor (1792-1806), (as Franz I) archduke (1792-1835) and emperor (1804-35) of Austria, and (as Ferenc I) king of Hungary (1792-1835); son of Leopold II.

Franz Josef II
Franz Josef II, in full Franz Josef Maria Aloys Alfred Karl Johannes Heinrich Michael Georg Ignatius Benediktus Gerhardus Majella von und zu Liechtenstein (b. Aug. 16, 1906, Frauenthal Castle, near Deutschlandsberg, Austria - d. Nov. 13, 1989, Grabs, Switzerland), prince of Liechtenstein (1938-89). Soon after Germany annexed Austria, he was appointed regent (March 30, 1938) by his great-uncle Franz I, who died four months later. Franz Josef II oversaw the formation of a national coalition government that kept Europe's fourth-smallest nation neutral during World War II. In 1945 Liechtenstein refused Soviet demands to extradite some 500 Soviet citizens who had sought refuge there. The production of high-technology goods in association with Switzerland built a strong industrial base. The family-owned bank in Liechtenstein - with branches in London, Zürich, New York, and Frankfurt - made the principality a desirable tax haven for wealthy individuals and an estimated 30,000 to 80,000 foreign companies. Among family holdings were forests in Austria, real estate in Vienna, and an estimated 1,400 paintings by such old masters as Rembrandt, Peter Paul Rubens, and Anthony Van Dyck. In 1984 women earned voting rights in the country, and Franz Josef II transferred much of his executive power to his son and successor, Hans-Adam II.

Franz Joseph I
Franz Joseph I, in full Franz Joseph Karl, Hungarian Ferenc József Károly (b. Aug. 18, 1830, Schloss Schönbrunn, near Vienna - d. Nov. 21, 1916, Schloss Schönbrunn), emperor of Austria and king of Hungary (1848-1916). He was the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl and Sophia, daughter of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. When revolution spread to the capitals of the Austrian Empire, Franz Joseph was proclaimed emperor at Olmütz (Olomouc) on Dec. 2, 1848, after the abdication of the emperor Ferdinand - the rights of his father to the throne having been passed over. In external affairs Prime Minister Felix Fürst zu Schwarzenberg achieved a powerful position for Austria. In home affairs, however, Schwarzenberg's harsh rule and the formation of an intolerant police apparatus evoked a latent mood of rebellion. After Schwarzenberg's death (1852), Franz Joseph decided not to replace him as prime minister and took a greater part in politics himself. Ill-fated wars in 1859 and 1866 resulted in the loss of the territories of Lombardy and Venetia. In 1867 it became obvious that a compromise had to be made with the restive Hungarians. The result was the kaiserliche und königliche Doppelmonarchie, the "imperial and royal Dual Monarchy" in which an Austrian and a Hungarian half coexisted in equal partnership. In the period 1908-14 Franz Joseph held fast to his peace policy in the face of warnings by the chief of the general staff, Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, who repeatedly advocated a preventive war against Serbia or Italy. Yet, without having fully thought out the consequences, he let himself in July 1914 be persuaded by Graf Leopold Berchtold, the foreign minister, to issue the intransigent ultimatum to Serbia that led to World War I.

Franzoni, (Giovanni) Matteo (Francesco Maria) (b. Oct. 2, 1682, Genoa [Italy] - d. Jan. 11, 1767, Genoa), doge of Genoa (1758-60).

Fraser, Alistair (b. March 15, 1885, New Glasgow, N.S. - d. Jan. 24, 1964), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1952-58); son of Duncan Cameron Fraser.

Fraser, Sir Andrew Henderson Leith (b. Nov. 14, 1848, Bombay [now Mumbai], India - d. Feb. 26, 1919, Edinburgh, Scotland), chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1899-1902) and lieutenant governor of Bengal (1903-08); knighted 1903.

Fraser, Sir Denholm (de Montalt Stuart) (b. Oct. 5, 1889 - d. Oct. 19, 1956), British resident in Jammu and Kashmir (1938-41) and Mysore (1941-44); knighted 1948.

Fraser, Duncan Cameron (b. Oct. 1, 1845, Pictou county, Nova Scotia - d. Sept. 27, 1910, Fort Point, near Guysborough, N.S.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1906-10).

Fraser, Frederick (b. Oct. 20, 1895, Revelstoke, B.C. - d. Oct. 18, 1990, Victoria, B.C.), commissioner of Yukon Territory (1951-52).

Fraser, Hugh (b. March 20, 1890 - d. Oct. 26, 1944, Singapore), federal secretary of the Federated Malay States (1939-42).

Fraser, James Stuart (b. July 1, 1783, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Aug. 22, 1869, Twickenham, Middlesex [now part of London], England), resident in Mysore and commissioner of Coorg (1834-36).

Fraser, John Allen (b. Dec. 15, 1931, Yokohama, Japan - d. April 7, 2024, Vancouver, B.C.), Canadian politician. He was minister of the environment and postmaster general (1979-80), minister of fisheries and oceans (1984-85), and speaker of the House of Commons (1986-94).

Fraser, John James (b. Aug. 1, 1829, Beaubears Island, near Newcastle, New Brunswick - d. Nov. 24, 1896, Genoa, Italy), lieutenant governor of New Brunswick (1893-96).

Fraser, Sir Malcolm (b. 1834, Gloucestershire, England - d. Aug. 17, 1900, Bristol, Gloucestershire), acting governor of Western Australia (1889-90); knighted 1887. He was surveyor-general (1870-83) and colonial secretary (1883-90).

(J.) M. Fraser
Fraser, (John) Malcolm (b. May 21, 1930, Nareen, Vic. - d. March 20, 2015), prime minister of Australia (1975-83). He was elected a Liberal member of parliament in 1955. He held cabinet posts in the coalition government of the Liberal and National Country (since 1982 National) parties as minister for the army (1966-68), as minister for education and science (1968-69, 1971-72), and as minister for defense (1969-71). In March 1975 Fraser won the leadership of the Liberal Party, and in November he was named prime minister after the Labor government - which had been in power since 1972 - had been dismissed; his appointment received electoral approval in December, when the Liberal and National Country parties won by large majorities, and he set up another coalition government. As prime minister Fraser attempted to curb inflation by such orthodox measures as trimming government spending and discouraging union demands for large wage increases. He was also a firm supporter of Australia's defense commitments within the ANZUS Pact alliance. Fraser's government was again successful in elections held in 1977 and 1980, but it was defeated by the Labor Party in an election held in March 1983. Fraser immediately resigned as party leader and shortly thereafter resigned his seat in parliament. He was a critic of the Liberal government of John Howard (1996-2007), and in December 2009 he quit the Liberal Party, considering it had become too conservative.

P. Fraser
Fraser, Peter (b. Aug. 28, 1884, Fearn, Ross, Scotland - d. Dec. 12, 1950, Wellington, New Zealand), prime minister (1940-49) and foreign minister (1943-49) of New Zealand. While in London in 1908, he joined the Independent Labour Party, but he emigrated to New Zealand in 1910, where he was active in union organizing in Auckland and in the harshly repressed Waihi and Wellington strikes of 1912-13. He helped organize the Social Democratic Party in 1913 and its successor, the Labour Party, in 1916. He was imprisoned for sedition (1916-17) when he opposed conscription for World War I. In 1918 he entered parliament, and soon became secretary of the Labour Party. When Labour came into power in 1935, he became minister of education, health, marine, and police. He was responsible for legislation that revised the educational system, especially at the secondary level, and for the Social Security Act (1938), which created a national health service and improved pensions. Fraser succeeded Michael Joseph Savage as prime minister in 1940 and led the country's mobilization for war. He won a voice for New Zealand in Allied military strategy in the Pacific and presided over a successful wartime price stabilization program organized by his minister of finance, Walter Nash. As one of the architects of the United Nations (1945) and a contributor to the UN Charter, Fraser was a spokesman for the rights of small nations, arguing unsuccessfully both against veto power for the great powers and for guaranteed aid to nations facing aggression. Union unrest and discontent with economic controls and with Fraser's legislation for peacetime conscription led to Labour's defeat in November 1949 after 15 years in office. Fraser then led the opposition in parliament until his death the following year.

Fraser, Santiago, byname of James Fraser (b. Feb. 5, 1800, Aberdeen, Scotland - d. June 9, 1878, Bogotá, Colombia), war and navy minister of New Granada (1853, 1870).

Fraser, Sir Stuart (Mitford) (b. June 2, 1864 - d. Dec. 1, 1963), resident in Mysore and chief commissioner of Coorg (1905-10) and resident in Jammu and Kashmir (1911-14); knighted 1918.

Fraser, William A(lex) (b. July 28, 1924, Dunedin, New Zealand - d. Jan. 13, 2001), defence minister of New Zealand (1974-75). He was also housing minister (1972-74).

Frashëri, Eshref Bej (b. 1874 - d. 1938), Albanian politician. He was deputy prime minister and minister of public works (1920).

M. Frashëri
Frashëri, Mehdi (Abdyl) Bej (b. Feb. 28, 1872, Frashër, southern Albania - d. May 25, 1963, Rome, Italy), prime minister (1935-36) and chairman of the High Council of Regency (1943-44) of Albania.


Frattini, Franco (b. March 14, 1957, Rome, Italy - d. Dec. 24, 2022, Rome), foreign minister of Italy (2002-04, 2008-11). He was also minister of public administration (2001-02) and European commissioner for justice, freedom, and security (2004-08).

Frazão, Sérgio Armando (b. Feb. 26, 1917, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Jan. 7, 1986, Rio de Janeiro), Brazilian diplomat. He was ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1964), Uruguay (1966-68), West Germany (1970-71), and Spain (1975-82) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-75).

Frazier, James B(eriah) (b. Oct. 18, 1856, Pikeville, Tenn. - d. March 28, 1937, Chattanooga, Tenn.), governor of Tennessee (1903-05).

Frazier, Lynn J(oseph) (b. Dec. 21, 1874, Steele county, Minn. - d. Jan. 11, 1947, Riverdale, Md.), governor of North Dakota (1917-21). He was also a U.S. senator from North Dakota (1923-41).

Frazier, Vanessa (b. May 24, 1969), Maltese diplomat. She has been ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (2012-13) and Italy and San Marino (2013-19) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2020- ).

Frckoski, Ljubomir (Danailov), also spelled Frckovski (b. Dec. 2, 1957, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), interior minister (1991-96) and foreign minister (1996-97) of Macedonia. He has also been a presidential candidate (2009) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Frear, Walter F(rancis) (b. Oct. 29, 1863, Grass Valley, Calif. - d. Jan. 22, 1948, Honolulu, Hawaii), governor of Hawaii (1907-13).

Frébault, Charles Victor (b. Feb. 1, 1813, Saint-Jean-aux-Amognes village, Nièvre, France - d. Feb. 6, 1888, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1860-64).

Frebran, (Ingegärd) Rose-Marie (b. April 12, 1948, Barkåkra, Kristianstad [now in Skåne], Sweden), governor of Örebro (2008-15).

Frêche, Georges (b. July 9, 1938, Puylaurens, Tarn, France - d. Oct. 24, 2010, Montpellier, Hérault, France), mayor of Montpellier (1977-2004) and president of the Regional Council of Languedoc-Roussillon (2004-10).

Fréchette, Louise (b. July 16, 1946, Montreal, Que.), Canadian diplomat. She was ambassador to Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay (1985-88), permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-94), and UN deputy secretary-general (1998-2006).

Frederik (André Henrik Christian) (b. May 26, 1968, Copenhagen, Denmark), crown prince of Denmark; son of Margrethe II. On May 14, 2004, he married Mary Elizabeth Donaldson (b. Feb. 5, 1972, Hobart, Tas.). They have four children: Christian (Valdemar Henri Jean) (b. Oct. 15, 2005), Isabella (Henrietta Ingrid Margrethe) (b. April 21, 2007), and twins Vincent (Frederik Minik Alexander) and Josephine (Sophia Ivalo Mathilda) (b. Jan. 8, 2011).

Frederik IV (b. Oct. 11, 1671, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Oct. 12, 1730, Odense, Denmark), king of Denmark and, as Friedrich II, count of Oldenburg (1699-1730).

Frederik V (b. March 31, 1723, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Jan. 14, 1766, Copenhagen), king of Denmark and, as Friedrich III, count of Oldenburg (1746-66); son of Christian VI.

Frederik VI (b. Jan. 28, 1768, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Dec. 3, 1839, Copenhagen), king of Denmark (1808-39); son of Christian VII.

Frederik VII (b. Oct. 6, 1808, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Nov. 15, 1863, Glücksburg, Schleswig [now in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany]), king of Denmark (1848-63); son of Christian VIII.

Frederik VIII
Frederik VIII, in full Christian Frederik Vilhelm Carl (b. June 3, 1843, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. May 14, 1912, Hamburg, Germany), king of Denmark (1906-12). He was an uncle of King George V of Britain. During the disastrous Danish-German War of 1864, in which Denmark lost the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg, he served as a lieutenant in North Jutland. He then assisted his father, Christian IX, in affairs of state and acted occasionally as regent. On his accession as king, he chose Berlin as the second foreign court which he visited, and the relations with Germany improved. In 1907, he formed a commission to draft a partial home rule bill for Iceland, but nothing came of it. His popularity was based on his sincerity in politics, his congeniality, and his simple lifestyle.

Frederik IX
Frederik IX, in full Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg (b. March 11, 1899, Sorgenfri castle, near Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Jan. 14, 1972, Copenhagen), king of Denmark (1947-72). The eldest son of the future king Christian X and Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Frederik became crown prince in 1912 and joined the Danish Navy in 1917. He rose to the rank of commander by 1935 and in 1946 became rear admiral. He married Ingrid (also in 1935), the only daughter of the crown prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden; their children were Margrethe, Benedikte, and Anne-Marie. He gave encouragement to the Danish resistance movement against the German occupation during World War II and, along with his father, Christian X, was imprisoned by the Germans (1943-45). Frederik acted as regent for his father in 1942 and 1947 and succeeded to the throne on his father's death on April 20, 1947. A highly popular monarch, he maintained the ties of affection between the people and the royal house. In June 1953 he signed a new constitution that provided for female succession to the throne and reduced parliament to one house. In 1964 his daughter Anne-Marie married King Constantine II of Greece, who was exiled in 1967. On his death in January 1972, Frederik was succeeded by his daughter Margrethe.

Frederik X, in full Frederik André Henrik Christian (b. May 26, 1968, Copenhagen, Denmark), king of Denmark (2024- ); son of Margrethe II.

Frederiks, Baron Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. Feb. 10, 1835 - d. Sept. 18, 1889, Ustye, Pskov province, Russia), governor of Tambov (1879-89); brother of Baron Platon Frederiks.

Frederiks, Baron Konstantin (Platonovich) (b. 1858 - d. 1910), governor of Nizhny Novgorod (1905-06); son of Baron Platon Frederiks.

Frederiks, Baron Platon (Aleksandrovich) (b. Jan. 20, 1828 - d. Sept. 17, 1888), governor-general of East Siberia (1873-79); cousin of Graf Vladimir Frederiks.

Frederiks, Baron Vladimir (Aleksandrovich) (b. Jan. 6, 1837 - d. April 9, 1892, Stuttgart, Germany), Russian diplomat; brother of Baron Platon Frederiks. He was minister to Württemberg and Baden (1884-92).

Frederiks, Graf Vladimir (Borisovich), Finnish Adolf Andreas Woldemar Freedericksz (b. Nov. 16, 1838, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. July 1, 1927, Kauniainen, Finland), Russian official. He was the last minister of the imperial court and imperial lands (1897-1917). He was raised from Baron to Graf (count) in 1913.

Frederiksen, Claus Hjort (b. Sept. 4, 1947, Copenhagen, Denmark), finance minister (2009-11, 2015-16) and defense minister (2016-19) of Denmark. He was also minister of employment (2001-09).

M. Frederiksen

S.K. Frederiksen
Frederiksen, Mette (b. Nov. 19, 1977, Aalborg, Denmark), prime minister of Denmark (2019- ). She was also minister of employment (2011-14) and justice (2014-15). She became leader of the Social Democrats in 2015.

Frederiksen, Suka K(ristiansen) (b. July 18, 1965, Narsaq, Greenland - d. July 21, 2020), foreign minister of Greenland (2017-18). She was also minister of independence and agriculture (2016-18) and nature and environment (2016-17).

Fredrik I, German Friedrich I (b. April 17, 1676, Kassel, Hesse-Kassel [Germany] - d. April 5 [March 25, O.S.], 1751, Stockholm, Sweden), king of Sweden (1720-51) and landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1730-51); brother-in-law of Carl XII.

Freeh, Louis (Joseph) (b. Jan. 6, 1950, Jersey City, N.J.), director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1993-2001). He joined the FBI in 1975 and spent a number of years investigating the infiltration of organized crime into the longshoremen's labour union. In 1981, Freeh joined the office of the United States Attorney as a federal prosecutor, where he continued to target organized crime. As a judge, Freeh led a prosecution team in 1987 that convicted defendants in the "pizza connection," an international Mafia drug ring. He was named FBI director by Pres. Bill Clinton on July 20, 1993, and was confirmed by the Senate on Aug. 6, 1993. He replaced William S. Sessions, who was dismissed from the post on July 19, 1993.


J. Freeman

M. Freeman
Freeland, Chrystia, original name Christina Alexandra Freeland (b. Aug. 2, 1968, Peace River, Alta.), foreign minister (2017-19) and finance minister (2020- ) of Canada. She has also been minister of international trade (2015-17) and intergovernmental affairs (2019-20) and deputy prime minister (2019- ). She was a well-known journalist before entering politics.

Freeling, Sir Sanford (b. May 16, 1828 - d. Sept. 30, 1894), lieutenant governor of Dominica (1869-71) and Grenada (1871-75) and governor of Barbados (acting, 1875), Gold Coast (1876-78), and Trinidad (1880-84); knighted 1878.

Freeman, Barrie (Lynne) (b. December 1959), acting head of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (2021-22).

Freeman, Henry Stanhope (b. March 8, 1836, England - d. April 7, 1865, Tunis, Tunisia), governor of Lagos (1861-65).

Freeman, John (Patrick George) (b. March 25, 1951), governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands (2016-19). He was also British ambassador to Argentina (2012-16).

Freeman, Myra (Ava), née Holtzman (b. May 17, 1949, Saint John, N.B.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (2000-06).

Freeman, Orville L(othrop) (b. May 9, 1918, Minneapolis, Minn. - d. Feb. 20, 2003, Minneapolis), governor of Minnesota (1955-61) and U.S. agriculture secretary (1961-69). A decorated former U.S. Marine who was wounded during World War II, Freeman returned from the war to help Hubert Humphrey create Minnesota's Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, as the Democrats are known in the state. They also created the Humphrey Institute of public policy at the University of Minnesota. Freeman served three two-year terms as governor of Minnesota, first elected in 1954 when he was only 36 years old. He was defeated for reelection amid fallout from a decision to use National Guard troops to close a strike-hit meatpacking plant, though he gained praise from the labour movement for aiding the strikers. As vice president, his longtime ally Humphrey helped Freeman become Pres. John F. Kennedy's agriculture secretary, a job he held for eight years under Kennedy and successor Lyndon B. Johnson. Freeman aggressively promoted U.S. farm sales overseas and was credited with boosting farmers' incomes.

Freeman, Ron(ald Michael) (b. July 23, 1939, New York City), acting president of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (1993).

Freeman Caris, Pedro (Hernán) (b. Aug. 11, 1888, Hijuelas, Chile - d. July 29, 1978, Santiago, Chile), justice minister of Chile (1936-37).

Freeston, Sir (Leslie) Brian (b. Aug. 11, 1892 - d. July 16, 1958), governor of the Leeward Islands (1943-47) and Fiji (1948-52) and secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1951-54); knighted 1945.

Freeth, Sir Gordon (b. Aug. 6, 1914, Angaston, S.Aus. - d. Nov. 27, 2001, Perth, W.Aus.), foreign minister of Australia (1969); knighted 1978. He was also minister of interior and works (1958-63), shipping and transport (1963-68), and air (1968-69), ambassador to Japan (1970-73), and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1977-80).

Frei Bolívar, (Erwin) Arturo (b. Nov. 18, 1939, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 13, 2022), Chilean politician; nephew of Eduardo Frei Montalva. He was a minor presidential candidate in 1999.

Frei Montalva
Frei Montalva, Eduardo (Nicanor) (b. Jan. 16, 1911, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 22, 1982, Santiago), president of Chile (1964-70). He helped organize a youth department within the Chilean Conservative Party in 1935. In 1938, disillusioned with the Conservative Party, he joined other youth department leaders to form the National Falange, an anti-fascist social Christian party. He was elected president of the Falange in 1941, 1943, and 1945. He served as minister of public works in the coalition cabinets of presidents José Antonio Ríos in 1945-46 and Gabriel González Videla in 1946-49. In 1949 he was elected to the Senate. In 1957 the Falange joined with the Social Christian Conservatives to form the Christian Democratic Party. Frei placed third as the party's presidential candidate in 1958, as the party showed increasing strength at the expense of the Conservatives, and by 1964 his presidential candidacy appeared to be the only effective alternative to Marxism. While Salvador Allende, the candidate of the leftist coalition, called for nationalization, Frei offered a moderate program of "Chileanization" of U.S.-owned copper interests. He won a decisive victory and in 1965 also won control of the lower house of Congress. Although he raised expectations of major change, he achieved only mixed success. His plan for 51% Chilean control of copper mining was thought to be still too favourable to U.S. corporate interests. His administration was harassed by labour unrest and persistent inflation. His agrarian-reform policies did not achieve expected objectives, but progress was made in expanding educational opportunities for the impoverished. Unable to succeed himself, he retired in 1970. His death in 1982, during the Augusto Pinochet regime, was ascribed to natural causes, but in 2007 his family said new evidence showed that he was murdered.

Frei Ruiz-Tagle
Frei Ruiz-Tagle, Eduardo (Alfredo Juan Bernardo) (b. June 24, 1942, Santiago, Chile), president of Chile (1994-2000); son of Eduardo Frei Montalva; cousin of Arturo Frei Bolívar. He was also president of the Christian Democratic Party (1991-93) and president of the Senate (2006-08). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2009-10.

Freihsler, Johann, byname Hans Freihsler (b. Dec. 4, 1917, Vienna, Austria - d. Feb. 16/17, 1981, Vienna), defense minister of Austria (1970-71).

Freile (Zaldumbide), Juan Francisco (baptized Nov. 9, 1859 - d. April 17, 1916), foreign minister of Ecuador (1911); brother of Carlos Freile Zaldumbide. He was also governor of Pichincha (1909-11).

Freile Zaldumbide, Carlos (b. 1851, Quito, Ecuador - d. Aug. 21, 1928, Paris, France), vice president (1899-1903) and acting president (1911, 1911-12) of Ecuador. He was also governor of Pichincha (1895-96), minister of education (1896), and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1899-1900), the Constitutional Assembly (1906-07), and the Senate (1904-05, 1910-12).

Freire, Adelino Antonio de Luna (b. March 21, 1829, Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. March 1, 1913, Olinda), president of Piauí (1866-67) and acting president of Pernambuco (1878, 1879, 1880).

Freire, Felisbello Firmo de Oliveira (b. Jan. 30, 1858, Itaporanga, Sergipe, Brazil - d. May 7, 1916, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1889-90) and foreign minister (1893) and finance minister (1893-94) of Brazil.

Freire, Fernando Antônio da Câmara (b. March 22, 1954, Recife, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (2002-03).

Freire, João Gomes (b. Dec. 23, 1813 - d. Oct. 20, 1877), acting president of Rio Grande do Norte (1872).

Freire, José de Mello Carvalho Muniz (b. July 13, 1861, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. April 3, 1918, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1892-96, 1900-04).

Freire, José Lisboa (b. 1922, Paraíba state, Brazil - d. April 22, 2012), governor of Amapá (1972-74).

Freire, Milciades Mário de Sá (b. Feb. 18, 1870, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. July 8, 1947, Rio de Janeiro), prefect of Distrito Federal (1919-20).

Freire, Oswaldo da Costa Nunes (b. Dec. 6, 1911, Grajaú, Maranhão, Brazil - d. June 8, 1986, São Luís, Maranhão), governor of Maranhão (1975-79).

Freire (Serrano), Ramón (b. Nov. 29, 1787, Santiago, Chile - d. Dec. 9, 1851, Santiago), supreme director (1823 [provisional], 1823-26), president (1827), and junta president (1829) of Chile.

Freire, Zeferino Pimentel Moreira (b. Aug. 26, 1806, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Nov. 14, 1865, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Mato Grosso (1843-44).

Freire Caldera, Francisco (b. 1839, Santiago, Chile - d. July 3, 1900, Santiago), foreign minister of Chile (1886-87); son of Ramón Freire. He was also intendant of Santiago (1886, 1899-1900) and Tarapacá (1898-99) provinces.

A. de A. Freitas
Freitas, Antônio de Almendra, Neto (b. March 17, 1947, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Piauí (1991-94); cousin of Hugo Napoleão do Rego Neto; grandnephew of Pedro de Almendra Freitas. He was also mayor of Teresina (1983-86) and Brazilian extraordinary minister of institutional reforms (1998-99).

Freitas, Antônio de Pádua Chagas (b. March 4, 1914, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Sept. 30, 1991, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Guanabara (1971-75) and Rio de Janeiro (1979-83).

B. Freitas
Freitas, Bendito (dos Santos), foreign minister of Timor-Leste (2023- ). He was also minister of education (2012-15) and ambassador to China (2016-20).

Freitas, Joaquim Ayres de Almeida (d. April 6, 1849, Pernambuco province [now state], Brazil), acting president of Rio Grande do Norte (1838).

Freitas, José Manoel de (b. March 14, 1832, Jerumenha, Piauí, Brazil - d. Nov. 10, 1887, Caxangá [now part of Recife], Pernambuco, Brazil), acting president of Piauí (1866, 1867, 1868) and president of Maranhão (1882-83) and Pernambuco (1883-84).

Freitas, José Vicente de (b. Jan. 22, 1869, Calheta, Madeira, Portugal - d. Sept. 6, 1952, Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1928-29). He was also minister of interior (1927-29), finance (1928), and commerce and communications (1929).

Freitas, Paulin (Jacinto Kofi de) (b. Dec. 3, 1909, Lomé, Togo - d. May 17, 1989, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), foreign minister of Togo (1960-63). He was also minister of interior and information (1958-60).

Freitas, Pedro de Almendra (b. March 1, 1891, Livramento [now José Freitas], Piauí, Brazil - d. Feb. 7, 1990, Teresina, Piauí), governor of Piauí (1951-55).

T.G. de Freitas

D. Freitas
Freitas, Tarcísio Gomes de (b. June 19, 1975, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (2023- ). He was also Brazilian minister of infrastructure (2019-22).

Freitas, Tertuliano Teixeira de (b. Sept. 6, 1834, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Bahia, Brazil - d. July 24, 1910, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), governor of Paraná (1894).

Freitas do Amaral, Diogo (Pinto de) (b. July 21, 1941, Póvoa do Varzim, Portugal - d. Oct. 3, 2019), foreign minister (1980-81, 2005-06), acting prime minister (1980-81), and defense minister (1981-83) of Portugal and president of the UN General Assembly (1995-96).

Freites (Piñate), Modesto (Antonio) (b. 19... - d. [plane crash] Aug. 29, 2003, San Juan de Los Morros, Guárico, Venezuela), governor of Guárico (1985-87, 1990-92). He was also president of the State Planning Corporation of Venezuela (1987-89).

Freivalds, Laila (Ligita) (b. June 22, 1942, Riga, Latvia), foreign minister of Sweden (2003-06). She was justice minister in 1988-91 and 1994-2000.

Frelek, Ryszard (b. May 30, 1929, Parysów, Poland - d. Oct. 21, 2007), Polish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-81).

Frelinghuysen, Frederick T(heodore) (b. Aug. 4, 1817, Millstone, N.J. - d. May 20, 1885, Newark, N.J.), U.S. secretary of state (1881-85). He was also a U.S. senator (1866-69, 1871-77).

Fremantle, Sir Arthur James Lyon (b. Nov. 11, 1835 - d. Sept. 25, 1901), governor of Malta (1894-99); knighted 1894.

Frémeur, Jean Toussaint de la Pierre, marquis de (b. 1697 - d. April 2, 1759, Mahon, Minorca), governor of Minorca (1758-59).

Frémicourt, Charles (b. Sept. 27, 1877, Lens, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. July 16, 1967, Béthencourt, Nord, France), justice minister of France (1940). He was also first president of the Court of Cassation (1937-40).

Frémont, Christian (b. April 23, 1942, Champagnac-de-Belair, Dordogne, France - d. Aug. 3, 2014, Paris, France), personal representative of the French co-prince of Andorra (2008-12). He was also prefect of the French départements of Ariège (1991-92), Finistère (1992-96), Pas-de-Calais (1996-97), Gironde (2000-03), and Bouches-du-Rhône (2003-07).

J.C. Frémont
Frémont, John C(harles) (b. Jan. 21, 1813, Savannah, Ga. - d. July 13, 1890, New York City), U.S. presidential candidate (1856); son-in-law of Thomas Hart Benton. When war with Mexico over the annexation of Texas seemed imminent, he threw his support behind a small group of dissident Americans near Sonoma, Calif., who started an unofficial uprising and created the Bear Flag Republic. When news of the declaration of war with Mexico (May 1846) reached California, Frémont was appointed by Commodore Robert F. Stockton as major of a battalion and, with Stockton, completed the conquest of the future 31st state. Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny meanwhile entered California from the southeast with orders to establish a government, leading to an obvious conflict of authority. Frémont accepted California's capitulation from Mexican officials at Cahuenga Pass, and Stockton appointed him military governor of California. Kearny, however, had Frémont arrested and court-martialed in Washington, D.C., in 1847-48 for disobedience. He was sentenced to dismissal from the army, and although his penalty was set aside by Pres. James K. Polk, Frémont resigned. In 1850 he was elected one of the state's first two senators. A firm opponent of slavery, he was nominated for the presidency in 1856 by the new Republican Party. In the election he was defeated by the Democratic candidate, James Buchanan, but he came closer to uniting the electorate of the North and West against the South than had any previous candidate. He served unsuccessfully as a Union officer in the American Civil War and resigned from the army (1862) a second time. He was considered for the presidential nomination again in 1864 but withdrew to avoid dividing the party. In 1878, he was appointed governor of Arizona Territory, where he served until 1883.

French, Augustus C(haflin) (b. Aug. 2, 1808, Hill, N.H. - d. Sept. 4, 1864, Lebanon, Ill.), governor of Illinois (1846-53).

French, Neville Arthur Irwin (b. April 28, 1920, Kenya - d. April 21, 1996), governor of the Falkland Islands (1975-77).

Frendo, Michael (b. July 29, 1955, Floriana, Malta), foreign minister of Malta (2004-08). He was also minister of youth and arts (1992-94) and transport, communications, and technology (1994-96) and speaker of the House of Representatives (2010-13).

Frenette, J(oseph) Raymond (b. April 16, 1935, Beresford, N.B. - d. July 13, 2018, Moncton, N.B.), premier of New Brunswick (1997-98). A former councillor for the city of Moncton and the former village of Lewisville, Frenette was first elected MLA for Moncton East in 1974. He was reelected in 1978, 1982, 1987, 1991, and 1995. He was named interim leader of the Liberal Party of New Brunswick on Aug. 15, 1983, and retained that position until March 4, 1985. During his 13 years as a member of the official opposition, Frenette served on legislative standing committees on economic development, energy, estimates, law amendments, legislative administration, municipalities, municipalities and corporations, privileges, procedure, public accounts and standing rules. He was a member of the select committees on alcohol and drug abuse, Maritime affairs and Canada's future, and motor vehicle and highway safety. He has been the finance, health, energy and municipalities critic. In 1979-80 he was opposition house leader. On Oct. 27, 1987, he was sworn in as minister of health and community services and appointed government house leader. Following his reelection in 1991, he was appointed chairman of the New Brunswick Power Corporation. He continued as government house leader and was also a member of the Board of Management. Following the 1995 election, he was named deputy premier, president of the Executive Council, and reappointed government house leader. On Oct. 13, 1997, he was sworn in as New Brunswick's 28th premier.

Frenken, Josef (b. Sept. 27, 1854, Löcken, Prussia [now part of Waldfeucht, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. Sept. 10, 1943, Cologne, Germany), justice minister (and acting minister of the occupied territories) of Germany (1925).

Frere, Sir (Henry) Bartle Edward (b. March 29, 1815, Clydach, Brecknockshire, Wales - d. May 29, 1884, Wimbledon, Surrey [now part of London], England), commissioner of Sind (1851-59) and governor of Bombay (1862-67) and Cape Colony (1877-80); knighted 1859.

Frère-Orban, (Hubert Joseph) Walthère (b. April 24, 1812, Liége, France [now Liège, Belgium] - d. Jan. 2, 1896, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister (1868-70, 1878-84) and foreign minister (1878-84) of Belgium. A strong advocate of free trade, he played a prominent part in the Liberal movement. He was sent in 1847 to the Chamber of Representatives as a member from Liége and two months later received the portfolio of public works. For 47 years he served as the leading Liberal member of the lower house in addition to holding many ministerial posts. As minister of finance (1848-52), he founded the Banque Nationale, abolished the newspaper tax, reduced the postage, and modified the customs duties as a preliminary to a decided free-trade policy. To facilitate negotiations for a new commercial treaty, he conceded to France a law of copyright, which proved highly unpopular in Belgium. He resigned and the rest of the cabinet soon followed him. Finance minister again in 1857, he embodied his free-trade principles in commercial treaties with Great Britain and France and abolished the octroi duties (local import taxes) and tolls on national roads. Becoming prime minister in 1868, he defeated a French attempt to gain control of the Luxembourg railways (1869). In his second term, he provoked the bitter opposition of Belgium's Catholic party by establishing secular primary education (1879) and by breaking off diplomatic relations with the Vatican (1880). Although he grudgingly conceded an extension of the franchise (1883), the hostility of the Radicals and the discontent caused by a financial crisis resulted in the overthrow of his government in the elections of 1884. He continued to lead the Liberal opposition until being unseated in the elections of October 1894.

Frèrejean, (Joseph Benoît) Louis (b. April 3, 1862, Perpignan, Pyrénées-Orientales, France - d. 19..., Amélie-les-Bains, Pyrénées-Orientales), acting commissioner of Mauritania (1905).

Frescher, Eugen, Russian Yevgeny (Eduardovich) Fresher (b. 1890 - d. [executed] 1938), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Volga German A.S.S.R. (1932-34, 1934-36, 1937). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Saratov kray (1936-37).

Fretheim, Thorstein (John Ohnstad) (b. May 10, 1886, Hamar, Hedemarkens amt [now in Innlandet fylke], Norway - d. June 29, 1971, Søndre Land, Oppland [now in Innlandet], Norway), Norwegian politician. He was one of the provisional council of state instituted under the German occupation and continued in the Vidkun Quisling government in his capacity as secretary/minister of agriculture. After liberation he was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.

Freudenthal, Dave, byname of David Duane Freudenthal (b. Oct. 12, 1950, Thermopolis, Wyo.), governor of Wyoming (2003-11).

Freundt Rosell, Alberto (b. Dec. 19, 1896, Lima, Peru - d. May 19, 1972, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1932); brother of Alejandro Freundt Rosell. He was also minister of justice and worship (1950-52) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1952-54) and Brazil (1954-55).

Freundt Rosell, Alejandro (b. Feb. 22, 1895, Lima, Peru - d. Aug. 23, 1970, Callao, Peru), justice minister of Peru (1952-55). He was also minister of Sweden (1949-52), Norway (1950-52), and Belgium (1952) and ambassador to the Netherlands (1956-58).

Freundt Rosell, Víctor (b. Jan. 7, 1903, Lima, Peru - d. Jan. 20, 1988, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), Peruvian politician; brother of Alejandro Freundt Rosell and Alberto Freundt Rosell. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1964-65).

Frey, Emil (Johann Rudolf) (b. Oct. 24, 1838, Arlesheim, Basel-Land, Switzerland - d. Dec. 24, 1922, Arlesheim), president of the National Council (1875-76), defense minister (1891-97), and president (1894) of Switzerland. He was also minister to the United States (1882-88) and director of the International Telegraph Union (1897-1921).

R. Frey
Frey, Roger (b. June 11, 1913, Nouméa, New Caledonia - d. Sept. 13, 1997, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France), French politician. When World War II broke out, he enlisted in the French armed forces, fighting in the Pacific, Africa, Italy, France, and Germany. His destiny crossed with Charles de Gaulle's in 1947, when the general founded the Rally of the French People of which Frey became a leading member. In 1958-59 he was general secretary of the Union for the New Republic. De Gaulle made him information minister (1959-60) and interior minister (1961-67). Frey was in charge of the brutal fight against the Secret Army Organization (OAS), a group of French settlers opposed to independence in Algeria. The organization conducted a guerrilla war against French forces - both in Algeria and in France - and de Gaulle narrowly escaped several assassination attempts. Frey's agents helped destroy the OAS network, and France granted Algeria independence in 1962. Frey was subsequently minister of relations with parliament (1967-71) and administrative reforms (1971-73) and in 1974 he was named head of the Constitutional Council, one of France's top legal bodies, a post he held until 1983.

Frey-Herosé, Friedrich (b. Oct. 12, 1801, Lindau, Bavaria [Germany] - d. Sept. 22, 1873, Bern, Switzerland), president of Switzerland (1854, 1860). He was also Landammann of Aargau (1839-40, 1842-43, 1845-46) and minister of trade and customs (1848-53, 1861-66) and military (1855-59).

Freyberg (of Wellington in New Zealand and of Munstead in the County of Surrey), Bernard Cyril Freyberg, (1st) Baron (b. March 21, 1889, Richmond, Surrey, England - d. July 4, 1963, Windsor, Berkshire, England), governor-general of New Zealand (1946-52). He was knighted in 1942 and created a baron in 1951.

Freydin, Igor (Vitalyevich) (b. Aug. 3, 1974, Saransk, Mordovian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting prime minister of Mordovia (2022-23).

Freyre (Santa Cruz), Manuel (b. 1814?, Lima, Peru - d. June 9, 1878, Washington, D.C.), interior, police, and public works minister of Peru (1863). He was also prefect of La Libertad (1849-51) and minister to Colombia (1866-68) and the United States (1869-76).

Freyre (González), Nicolás (b. Sept. 10, 1808, Lima, Peru - d. Nov. 1, 1887, Lima), prime minister of Peru (1875-76); nephew of Ramón Freire. He was also minister of war and navy (1873-76).

Freyre y Santander, Manuel (b. Nov. 29, 1872, Washington, D.C. - d. April 1, 1944, Washington), Peruvian diplomat; son of Manuel Freyre. He was chargé d'affaires in Colombia (1904, 1905-07), minister to the United States (1917-18), Japan and China (1918-20), Ecuador (1920-22), Colombia (1922-24), Argentina (1924-26), and the United Kingdom (1926-30), and ambassador to the United States (1930-44).

Freycinet, Louis Henri de Saulces, baron de (b. Dec. 31, 1777, Montélimar, Drôme, France - d. March 21, 1840, Rochefort, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France), governor of Île Bourbon (1821-26) and Martinique (1829-30).

Freze, Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. June 29 [June 17, O.S.], 1840 - d. 1918), governor-general of Vilna, Kovno, and Grodno (1904-06); grandson of Stepan Tatarinov. He was also governor of Erivan (1891-95) and Vilna (1895-96).

Fri, Robert W. (b. Nov. 16, 1935, Kansas City, Kan.), acting administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1973).

Friaa, Ahmed (b. Feb. 17, 1949, Zarzis, Tunisia), interior minister of Tunisia (2011). He was also minister of supply and housing (1989-92), education and science (1994), and communications (1997-2002) and ambassador to Italy (1995-97).

Frías (y de Uceda), Bernardino Fernández de Velasco (y Benavídez), duque de, marqués de Villena1 (b. July 20, 1783, Madrid, Spain - d. May 28, 1851, Madrid), prime minister and foreign minister of Spain (1838). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1820-21) and France (1834-35).
1 Full name and titles: Bernardino José Joaquín Andrés Avelino María de la Portería Diego Luis Obispo María de la Soledad Elías Librada María del Milagro Bibiana María de la Paz Francisco de Paula María del Rosario Pascual Elena Fausto Antonio Abad Pedro de Alcántara Juan Nepomuceno Nicolás de Tolentino Gertrudis Pedro Nolasco Domingo de Guzmán Francisco de Borja Ánimas de Purgatorio y Todos los Santos Fernández de Velasco y Benavídez Téllez Girón y Fernández de Córdova, duque de Frías, de Uceda y de Escalona, marqués de Villena, de Belmonte, de Menasalbas, de Cilleruelo, de Fresno, de Villanueva del Fresno, de Jaramillo, de Frechilla, de Villarramiel, de Frómista, de Caracena, de Berlanga, de Toral y del Villar de Granajeros, conde de Haro, de Castilnovo, de Salazar, de Alba de Liste, de la Puebla de Montalbán, de Peñaranda de Bracamonte, de Luna, de Fuensalida, de Colmenar, de Oropesa, de Alcaudete, de Deleitosa, de Pinto y de Pornia, señor de Frías, de Gálvez, de Jumela, de la Casa de Velasco, de los Siete Infantes de Lara, de Moguer, de Villanueva de Barcarrota, de Lillo, de Casa de Montemayor, del Castillo de las Dos Hermanas, de Cebolla, de Almaraz, de Mejorada.

Frías, Félix (b. May 12, 1816, Santiago del Estero, Argentina - d. Nov. 9, 1881, Paris, France), Argentine politician. An eloquent denouncer and uncompromising opponent of Juan Manuel de Rosas, he was driven into exile in Bolivia (1841-43) and Chile (1843-48). Later he was minister to Chile (1869-75); he was appointed foreign minister in 1874 but did not take office.

Frías (y Moya), Joaquín de (b. 1782?, Cádiz, Spain - d. April 22, 1852, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1843). He was also minister of navy, commerce, and overseas (1840-41, 1843).

Frías (Ametller), Tomás (b. Dec. 21, 1804, Potosí, Viceroyalty of Peru [now in Bolivia] - d. May 10, 1884, Florence, Italy), foreign minister (1844-47) and president (1872-73, 1874-76) of Bolivia. He was also chargé d'affaires in Chile (1840-41).

Frick, Alexander (b. Feb. 18, 1910, Schaan, Liechtenstein - d. Oct. 31, 1991, Schaan), head of government of Liechtenstein (1945-62). He was also president of the Diet (1966-70).

Aurelia Frick

M. Frick
Frick, Aurelia (Cäcilia Katharina) (b. Sept. 19, 1975), foreign minister of Liechtenstein (2009-19). She was also minister of justice (2009-13, 2017-19), culture (2009-19), and education (2013-17).

Frick, Mario (Kuno) (b. May 8, 1965, Chur, Graubünden, Switzerland), head of government of Liechtenstein (1993-2001).

W. Frick
Frick, Wilhelm (b. March 12, 1877, Alsenz, Bayern [now in Rheinland-Pfalz], Germany - d. Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Germany), German politician. An official in the police administration at Munich, he was convicted of high treason for participating in Adolf Hitler's Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch of November 1923 but managed to avoid imprisonment. Elected to the Reichstag (parliament) in May 1924, he began to lead the Nazis in that body in 1928. During 1930-31, as minister of the interior in the state government of Thuringia, Frick was the first Nazi to hold any ministerial-level post in Germany. Thereafter he became the recognized party expert in German domestic politics. As Hitler's national minister of the interior (1933-43), he played a significant role in devising and obtaining passage of legislation providing for government by decree (March 1933) and in drafting subsequent measures against the Jews, especially the notorious Nürnberg laws of September 1935. With the growth of the SS (Schutzstaffel) as the state's principal internal-security force, however, Frick's importance in the government declined, and in 1943 he was replaced at the interior ministry by SS chief Heinrich Himmler. Thereafter Frick served as Reichsprotektor for Bohemia and Moravia until the end of World War II. Arraigned before the Allied war-crimes tribunal at Nürnberg (1946), he was convicted and subsequently executed for his "crimes against humanity."

Fricke Lemoine, Ernesto (b. April 7, 1890, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. 1962), finance minister of Bolivia (1950). He was also chargé d'affaires in Germany (1923-26) and minister to Czechoslovakia (1935-39).

Friday, (Ethelstan) Angus (b. Feb. 6, 1965, Grenada), Grenadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-08) and ambassador to the United States (2013-18).

Fride, Aleksey (Yakovlevich) (b. March 20 [March 8, O.S.], 1838 - d. July 21 [July 9, O.S.], 1896), governor of Semirechye oblast (1882-87) and Yaroslavl province (1887-96).

Fridh, (Karl) Göte (b. Sept. 30, 1926, Lund, Malmöhus [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. Nov. 20, 1996), governor of Älvsborg (1978-91).

Friedberg, Heinrich von (b. Jan. 27, 1813, Märkisch-Friedland, Prussia [now Miroslawiec, Poland] - d. June 2, 1895, Berlin, Germany), justice minister of Germany (1876-79). He acquired the "von" in 1888.

Friedberger, John Peter William (b. May 27, 1937), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (1988-90).

L. Frieden

Frieden, Luc (b. Sept. 16, 1963, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg), justice minister (1998-2009), defense minister (2004-06), finance minister (2009-13), and prime minister (2023- ) of Luxembourg.

Frieden, Pierre (b. Oct. 28, 1892, Mertert, Luxembourg - d. Feb. 23, 1959, Zürich, Switzerland), prime minister of Luxembourg (1958-59). He was also minister of education (1944-45, 1948-59), interior (1951-59), family and health (1951-58), and family and population (1958-59).

Friedensburg, Ferdinand (b. Nov. 17, 1886, Schweidnitz, Prussia, Germany [now Swidnica, Poland] - d. March 11, 1972, West Berlin), acting lord mayor of Berlin (1947).

Friederici, Gonthier (Jean Claude) (b. Aug. 23, 1945, Lille, France), prefect of Réunion (2001-04). He was also prefect of the French départements of Territoire de Belfort (1997-2000), Pyrénées-Orientales (2000-01), and Finistère (2004-08).

Friedman, Jeffrey (Mark) (b. Jan. 20, 1945), mayor of Austin (1975-77).

Friedmann, Daniel (b. April 17, 1936, Tel Aviv, Palestine [now in Israel]), justice minister of Israel (2007-09).

Friedrich I (b. July 11, 1657, Königsberg, Prussia [now Kaliningrad, Russia] - d. Feb. 25, 1713, Berlin, Prussia [now in Germany]), elector of Brandenburg (as Friedrich III) (1688-1713) and king of Prussia (1701-13).

Friedrich I, in full Friedrich Wilhelm Karl (b. Nov. 6, 1754, Treptow an der Rega, Prussia [now Trzebiatów, Poland] - d. Oct. 30, 1816, Stuttgart, Württemberg [now in Baden-Württemberg, Germany]), duke (1797-1806) and elector (1803-06) (as Friedrich II) and king (1806-16) of Württemberg; brother-in-law of Pavel I.

Friedrich II, in full Karl Friedrich, byname Friedrich der Grosse (Frederick the Great) (b. Jan. 24, 1712, Berlin, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. Aug. 17, 1786, Potsdam, Prussia [now in Brandenburg, Germany]), king of Prussia (1740-86). He was the eldest surviving son of Friedrich Wilhelm I, king of Prussia, and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, daughter of George I of Britain. His early years were devoted to military training and a rigid system of education, against which he initially rebelled to no avail (a friend was executed in his presence). In 1733 he dutifully accepted as his bride Princess Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern, and he was restored to favour. In May 1740 he became king; this was followed in October by the accession of Maria Theresia in Austria, whose claims to several of the heterogeneous Habsburg territories were certain to be disputed. Friedrich, in possession of a fine army and a well-filled treasury, seized the opportunity. He entered Silesia (December 1740), defeated the Austrians at Mollwitz (1741) and Chotusitz (1742), and, after concluding an alliance for 15 years with France, forced Maria Theresia to yield him almost all of Silesia. The second Silesian War (1744-45) left him again with increased territories and a reputation as one of the first military commanders of the day. In 1756 the third Silesian War, or Seven Years' War, began. He anticipated attack by himself taking the offensive, and during all this momentous struggle displayed great courage and military genius; combined with some fortunate turns of events, he prevailed, though at enormous cost. In 1772 he shared in the first partition of Poland, by which he acquired Polish Prussia and a portion of Great Poland. In 1778 he completed the acquisition of the Franconian duchies. One of his last political actions was the formation in 1785 of the Fürstenbund (League of Princes), which marked the emergence of Prussia as a rival to Austria for the lead in Germany. He contrived to carry on his wars without incurring any debt and he governed Prussia as one huge camp. By the end of his reign the area of Prussia had doubled, and, despite a temporary eclipse under Napoléon I, the foundation of Prussia's greatness was laid. The administration of justice under his rule was pure, the press enjoyed comparative freedom, and freedom of conscience was promoted.

Friedrich III
Friedrich III, in full Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl (b. Oct. 18, 1831, Potsdam, Prussia [now in Brandenburg, Germany] - d. June 15, 1888, Potsdam), German emperor and king of Prussia (1888). The son of the future king and emperor Wilhelm I and Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, he married (1858) the British princess royal, Victoria (1840-1901; from 1888 called the "empress Friedrich"). Despite the influence of his wife's liberal ideas, he favoured a strong central government and at times exceeded the prime minister and chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in willingness to exert pressure on the allied German princes. As crown prince from 1861, Friedrich spent 27 years chiefly in waiting to do something. Thanks to his chief of staff, Leonhard von Blumenthal, he was a successful commander in the Danish War of 1864, the Seven Weeks' War of 1866, and the Franco-German War of 1870-71. Although Friedrich supported Bismarck in the war of 1866, in general the "blood and iron" aspects of Bismarck's domestic and international policies were alien to him. In 1887 Friedrich showed symptoms of cancer of the throat. Although the disease was correctly diagnosed as such by German doctors, the British specialist Sir Morell Mackenzie advised against an operation (scheduled for May 21, 1887, and cancelled). A tracheotomy in February 1888 was too late. The crown prince, who became emperor on March 9, by this time was able to do little. His only significant official act was to dismiss the minister of the interior, Robert von Puttkamer, an extreme conservative. He died after 99 days as emperor and was succeeded by his son and heir, Wilhelm II.

Friedrich IV (b. Oct. 18, 1671, Gottorp castle, Schleswig [now in Schleswig city, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany] - d. [shot in battle] July 19, 1702, near Kliszów, Poland), duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (1695-1702).

Friedrich, Hans-Peter (b. March 10, 1957, Naila, Bayern, West Germany), interior minister of Germany (2011-13). He was also minister of food and agriculture (2013-14).

Friedrich, István (b. July 1, 1883, Malacka, Hungary [now Malacky, Slovakia] - d. Nov. 25, 1951, Vác, Hungary), prime minister (1919) and acting head of state (1919) of Hungary. He was also minister of trade (acting, 1919), interior (1919), and war (1919-20).

Friedrich, Rudolf (b. July 4, 1923, Winterthur, Zürich, Switzerland - d. Oct. 15, 2013, Winterthur), justice and police minister of Switzerland (1983-84).

Friedrich Wilhelm (b. July 19, 1692 - d. Jan. 21 [Jan. 10, O.S.], 1711, Kippinghof, near St. Petersburg, Russia), duke of Courland (1698-1711).

Friedrich Wilhelm I (b. Aug. 15, 1688, Berlin, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. May 31, 1740, Potsdam, Prussia [now in Germany]), king of Prussia (1713-40); son of Friedrich I (1657-1713).

Friedrich Wilhelm II (b. Sept. 25, 1744, Berlin, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. Nov. 16, 1797, Potsdam, Prussia [now in Germany]), king of Prussia (1786-97); nephew of Friedrich II.

Friedrich Wilhelm III (b. Aug. 3, 1770, Potsdam, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. June 7, 1840, Berlin, Prussia [now in Germany]), king of Prussia (1797-1840); son of Friedrich Wilhelm II.

Friedrich Wilhelm IV (b. Oct. 15, 1795, Cölln [now part of Berlin], Prussia [now in Germany] - d. Jan. 2, 1861, Potsdam, Prussia [now in Germany]), king of Prussia (1840-61); son of Friedrich Wilhelm III.

Friedrichs, Rudolf (b. March 9, 1892, Plauen, Sachsen, Germany - d. June 13, 1947, Dresden, Sachsen), Landespräsident (1945-46) and minister-president (1946-47) of Sachsen.

Friesendorff, Carl Gustaf friherre von (b. Aug. 14, 1663, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 24 [Sept. 13, O.S.], 1715, Stralsund, Sweden [now in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany]), Swedish diplomat. He was minister to Prussia (1712-15). He was made friherre (baron) in 1705.

Friesendorff, Fredrik friherre von (b. Nov. 15, 1707, Norrsunda socken, Stockholm county, Sweden - d. Aug. 26, 1770, Norrsunda socken), governor of Västmanland (1747-61) and acting chancellery president of Sweden (1768-69); son of Carl Gustaf friherre von Friesendorff.

Friesendorff, Fredrik Ulrik friherre von (b. Feb. 13, 1740, Stockholm, Sweden - d. July 19, 1793, Vreten, Södermanland, Sweden), acting governor of Uppsala (1783); son of Fredrik friherre von Friesendorff.

Frigerio (Adam), Rogelio (b. Jan. 7, 1970, Buenos Aires, Argentina), interior minister of Argentina (2015-19) and governor of Entre Ríos (2023- ).

Friggebo, Birgit (Irma Gunborg) (b. Dec. 25, 1941, Falköping, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Jönköping (1998-2003). She was also Swedish minister of housing (1978-82, 1991), gender equality (1991-93), and culture and immigration (1991-94).

Frigo, Franco (b. 1953, Cittadella, Veneto, Italy), president of Veneto (1992-93).

Friis, Michael Petersen (b. Oct. 22, 1857, Marienlund, near Odense, Denmark - d. April 20, 1944, Copenhagen, Denmark), prime minister and defense minister of Denmark (1920).

Frischenschlager, Friedhelm (b. Oct. 6, 1943, Salzburg, Germany [now in Austria]), defense minister of Austria (1983-86).

Frisenheim, Johan Henrik friherre, original name Johan Henrik Frisius (b. Nyen, Sweden [now St. Petersburg, Russia] - d. Oct. 12, 1737, Villmanstrand [now Lappeenranta], Finland), governor of Nyslott och Kymmenegård (1721-37). He was ennobled under the name Frisenheim in 1716 and made friherre (baron) in 1727.

Frish, Eduard (Vasilyevich), German Eduard Wilhelm Frisch (b. May 26, 1833, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. March 31, 1907, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian official. He was chairman of the Imperial State Council (1906-07).

Frissen, Leon(ardus Johannes Petrus Maria) (b. June 24, 1950, Beek, Limburg, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Limburg (2005-11).

Fristo, Emir (b. Feb. 28, 1954, Gorazde, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Bosnian Podrinje-Gorazde (2011-15).

Fritch, (Winfred) Édouard (Tereori) (b. Jan. 4, 1952, Papeete, French Settlements in Oceania [now French Polynesia]), vice president (2004-06, 2008-09, 2009-11) and president (2014-23) of French Polynesia; son-in-law of Gaston Flosse. He was also president of the Assembly (2007-08, 2009, 2013-14).

Frith, Geoffrey Hammond (b. July 28, 1891 - d. April 27, 1945, Turks and Caicos Islands), commissioner of the Cayman Islands (1929-31).

Frithiofson, Karl (Axel Frithiof) (b. Dec. 11, 1919, Morlanda, Göteborg och Bohus [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Sept. 24, 2009), governor of Skaraborg (1967-86).

Fritsche, Claudia (b. July 26, 1952), Liechtenstein diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-2002) and ambassador to the United States (2000-16).

Frizel, Ivan (Grigoryevich), German Johann Friedrich Friesell (b. May 19, 1760, Reval province, Russia [now Estonia] - d. Sept. 23, 1810, Nizhny Novgorod province, Russia), governor of Vilna (1799-1801) and Orenburg (1806-09).

Frlec, Boris (b. Feb. 10, 1936), foreign minister of Slovenia (1997-2000). In 1989 he was appointed ambassador of Yugoslavia to Germany. He was employed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia since 1991. In 1992-97 he was Slovene ambassador to Germany.

Frochot, Nicolas Thérèse Benoît, comte (b. March 20, 1761, Dijon [now in Côte-d'Or], France - d. July 29, 1828, Etuf, Haute-Marne, France), prefect of Seine département (1800-12). He was also prefect of Bouches-du-Rhône département (1815).

Frödden Lorenzen, Carlos O. (b. 1887, Coronel, Chile - d. 1976, Santiago, Chile), defense minister (1927) and interior minister (1930-31, 1931) of Chile. He was also navy minister (1927).

Froger, Ernest Emmanuel (b. April 4, 1848, Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, Maine-et-Loire, France - d. ...), commandant of Diégo-Suarez (1887-96).

Frogier, Pierre (b. Nov. 16, 1950, Nouméa, New Caledonia), president of the government of New Caledonia (2001-04).

Frölich, Bengt Gustaf greve (b. June 6, 1715, Kazan, Russia - d. June 23, 1783, Barkåkra socken, Kristianstad [now in Skåne], Sweden), governor of Malmöhus (1772-76); grandson of Carl Gustaf greve Frölich; nephew of Carl greve Frölich.

Frölich, Carl greve (b. 1680, Västergötland landskap [traditional province], Sweden - d. Dec. 14, 1754), governor of Österbotten (1734-39); son of Carl Gustaf greve Frölich.

Frölich, Carl Gustaf greve (b. 1637 - d. March 3, 1714, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Riga (1700-06) and governor-general of Livonia (1702-06). He was made friherre (baron) in 1700 and greve (count) in 1706.

Frölich, Gustaf Erik greve (b. March 18, 1792, Stockholm, Sweden - d. April 9, 1860, Nyköping, Södermanland, Sweden), governor of Södermanland (1833-58); grandson of Bengt Gustaf greve Frölich.

Frondizi (Ercoli), Arturo (b. Oct. 28, 1908, Paso de Los Libres, Corrientes, Argentina - d. April 18, 1995, Buenos Aires, Argentina), president of Argentina (1958-62). The political firebrand participated in hundreds of demonstrations against the dictatorial regime of Juan Perón while a student. Yet he adopted a pragmatic approach in his presidential election campaign by calling for democratization while at the same time incorporating Peronists into the political process. This philosophy caused a split in Frondizi's Radical Civic Union, and in the 1958 elections he represented the leftist faction of that party, defeating the rightist candidate, Ricardo Balbín. As president, Frondizi implemented a series of austerity measures that placed a severe burden on the poor and middle class, resulting in strikes, demonstrations, and confrontations with police. Though his economic policies were harsh, they would eventually lead to rapid industrialization and economic resurgence. His political undoing occurred when he attempted to lift a ban on Peronist parties and candidates and secretly met with Ernesto ("Che") Guevara, an emissary of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. The military withdrew its support, and Frondizi was forced to resign in March 1962. Frondizi, who continued to take a keen interest in economics, formed a small party, the Movement for Integration and Development, which promoted state protection for industrialization.

Frontin, André Gustavo Paulo de (b. Sept. 17, 1860, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Feb. 15, 1933, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), prefect of Distrito Federal (1919).

Frossard, Sir Charles (Keith) (b. Feb. 18, 1922 - d. July 15, 2012, Guernsey), bailiff of Guernsey (1982-92); knighted 1983. He was solicitor general (1969-73), attorney general (1973-76), and deputy bailiff (1977-82).

Frot, Eugène (b. Oct. 2, 1893, Montargis, Loiret, France - d. April 10, 1983, Château-Landon, Seine-et-Marne, France), interior minister of France (1934). He was also minister of merchant marine (1933, 1933-34) and labour and social security provisions (1933, 1934).

Frota, Antonio Nicolau Falcão da (b. Sept. 10, 1834, Desterro [now Florianópolis], Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. March 21, 1900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1891).

Frota, Júlio Anacleto Falcão da (b. Oct. 27, 1836, Vila de São Miguel [now part of Biguaçu], Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. March 5, 1909, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Sul (1890); brother of Antonio Nicolau Falcão da Frota.

Frota, Sylvio (Couto Coelho da) (b. Aug. 26, 1910, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Oct. 23, 1996, Rio de Janeiro), army minister of Brazil (1974-77).

Frota, Vivaldo Barros (b. Dec. 7, 1928, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brazil - d. Jan. 16, 2015, Manaus, Amazonas), acting governor of Amazonas (1990-91).

Frouté, Alain (Pierre) (b. June 29, 1939, Tarbes, Hautes-Pyrénées, France), prefect of Guadeloupe (1993-94). He was also prefect of Creuse département (1989-92).

Fru Ndi, John (b. July 7, 1941, Baba II, British Cameroons [now in Cameroon] - d. June 12, 2023, Yaoundé, Cameroon), Cameroonian presidential candidate (1992, 2004, 2011).

Fruchard, Louis (Maurice Charles) (b. Dec. 22, 1921, Paris, France - d. Sept. 23, 2004, Paris), president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (1986-88).

Frúgoli (Capdevila), Amadeo (Ricardo) (b. Feb. 26, 1930, Mendoza province, Argentina - d. June 15, 2022), defense minister of Argentina (1981-82). He was also minister of social welfare (1971) and justice (1981).

Frunzaverde, Sorin (b. April 26, 1960, Bocsa, Caras-Severin county, Romania - d. Nov. 3, 2019, Resita, Caras-Severin county), defense minister of Romania (2000, 2006-07). He was also minister of water, forestry, and environmental protection (1997-98) and tourism (1998).

Frunze, Mikhail (Vasilyevich) (b. Feb. 2 [Jan. 21, O.S.], 1885, Pishpek, Russia [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan] - d. Oct. 31, 1925, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet people's commissar for military and navy affairs (1925). The city of Bishkek was named Frunze after him in 1926-91.

J.M. Frutos
Frutos (Escurra), Juan Manuel (b. June 12, 1879, Asunción, Paraguay - d. April 15, 1960, Asunción), provisional president of Paraguay (1948).

Frutos Vaesken, Alexis (Manuel) (b. Oct. 17, 1934 - d. March 18, 1996), foreign minister of Paraguay (1990-93).

Fruytier, Leonardus Albert (b. Jan. 6, 1882, Kloosterzande, Zeeland, Netherlands - d. Nov. 22, 1972, The Hague), governor of Curaçao (1929).

Fry, Sir William (b. Sept. 8, 1858 - d. March 20, 1934), lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (1919-26); knighted 1920.

Frydenberg, Alf (Birger) (b. May 2, 1896, Furnes, Hedemarkens amt [now in Innlandet fylke], Norway - d. May 14, 1989), governor of Vest-Agder (1948-54) and Hedmark (1954-66).

Frydenlund, Knut (b. March 31, 1927, Drammen, near Oslo, Norway - d. Feb. 26, 1987, Oslo), Norwegian politician. A career diplomat, Frydenlund joined the Foreign Service in 1953 and served in Bonn (1953-55) and Brussels (1962-63) and as Norway's permanent representative at the Council of Europe (1963-65). In the late 1960s he acted as consultant to the Labour Party Research Office and joined the party's Oslo Executive in 1968 before being elected a member of parliament for Oslo the following year. He was a strong supporter of the European Economic Community (EEC) and advocated Norwegian membership in the EEC during the debate leading up to the 1972 referendum that resulted in rejection. Though disappointed by this result, Frydenlund worked to maintain party unity. He was foreign minister in the Labour government from 1973 to 1981 and again from May 1986 until his death. Sometimes known as "the good person from Drammen," he was highly respected for his qualities of statesmanship and diplomacy, his sense of humour, and his moderation in national and party politics.

Fryer, Sir Frederic William Richards (b. 1845, Worcestershire, England - d. Feb. 20, 1922, London, England), chief commissioner (1895-97) and lieutenant governor (1897-1903) of Burma; knighted 1895.

Fu Cong (b. June 1965), Chinese diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2024- ).

Fu Liangzuo (b. 1873, Qiancheng, Hunan, China - d. Dec. 26, 1924, Tianjin, China), military governor of Hunan (1917). He was also vice-governor of Chahar. A graduate of the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he was a brain behind Xu Shichang during the Qing dynasty, and after the founding of the republic worked for Yuan Shikai and then, upon Yuan's death, for Duan Qirui. He was the deputy army minister in the central government before his term in Hunan. As the Guangxi Army, with a revolutionary tendency, entered Hunan, he was unable to stabilize his province. He was later recalled to Beijing and stepped down upon the fall of Duan in 1920.

Fu Zengxiang (b. Nov. 9, 1872, Jiangan, Sichuan, China - d. Oct. 20, 1949), education minister of China (1917-19). He was elected a member of parliament after the republic was founded. He resigned as minister in 1919, devoting himself to chronicles ever since. In 1927, he was named president of the Grand Library of the Forbidden City Museum.

Fu Zhenghua (b. March 1955, Luan county [now part of Tangshan city], Hebei, China), justice minister of China (2018-20).

Fuad I
Fuad I (Arabic Fu´ad), original name Ahmad Fuad Pasha (b. March 26, 1868, Cairo - d. April 28, 1936, Cairo), king of Egypt (1922-36). After serving in a number of administrative posts, Fuad became sultan of Egypt in 1917, at which time Egypt was still a British protectorate. The sultan had strong popular support but a strong nationalist movement had emerged - the Wafd party - under the leadership of Sa´d Zaghlul. A stalemate between the supporters of Fuad and Zaghlul resulted in the collapse of Anglo-Egyptian independence talks. Britain responded with a unilateral declaration of Egyptian independence, subject to strong British influence in Egyptian affairs. Accordingly, Fuad assumed the title of king in 1922. Dissatisfied with the British unilateral declaration, he struggled unsuccessfully throughout his reign to secure a bilateral treaty of independence that would be acceptable to the British and the Egyptians. In 1923 Fuad promulgated a constitution at a time when Zaghlul was in exile. When Zaghlul and other exiles returned, however, the king was confronted with an enormously popular Wafd, which used institutions created by the constitution to strengthen its opposition. The Wafd won commanding majorities in national elections held in 1923, 1925, and 1929, but Fuad usually managed to form his governments with non-Wafdist ministers who were amenable to his influence. In 1930 he made a determined attempt to stabilize his political position: he dissolved the parliament, revoked the old constitution, and promulgated both a new constitution and a new electoral law. The 1931 elections yielded a cooperative, non-Wafdist parliament, and domestic political tranquillity prevailed until 1935, when, under strong nationalist pressure, Fuad restored the original 1923 constitution.

Fuad II, original name Ahmad Fuad (b. Jan. 16, 1952, Cairo), king of Egypt (1952-53); son of Faruq I.

Fuad Pasha, Keçecizade Mehmed (b. Jan. 17, 1815, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Feb. 12, 1869, Nice, France), foreign minister (1852-53, 1855-56, 1858-60, 1861, 1867-69), grand vizier (1861-63, 1863-66), and war minister (1863) of the Ottoman Empire.


B. Fuchs
Fubara, (Amaopusenibo) Siminalayi (b. Jan. 28, 1975, Opobo, Rivers, Nigeria), governor of Rivers (2023- ).

Fuchs, Beat (b. March 14, 1948), Landammann of Nidwalden (2003-04, 2009-10).

Félix Fuchs
Fuchs, Félix (Alexandre) (b. Jan. 25, 1858, Ixelles [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium - d. Feb. 23, 1928), governor-general of Belgian Congo (1912-16). He entered the service of the Congo Free State in June 1887 and went out to Africa in the following January to a post in the Department of Justice, being also a supplementary judge of the Appeal Court. In 1889 he became a member of the executive, in succession to the late Henri Ernest Gondry. In 1891 he succeeded Camille Coquilhat as vice-governor. In April 1892 he was appointed director-general, and was for a long time the devoted assistant of the governor-general, Théophile Wahis, for whom he acted when on leave. Fuchs was actively concerned in the delimitation agreement signed with Portugal. In 1894 he was appointed state inspector. In 1897 he was appointed president of the Court of Appeal, and was entrusted with a special mission in the Upper Congo. In 1900 he was appointed to represent the Congo Free State at the conference held in London on the regulation of sport and the protection of the fauna in Africa. For more than two years afterwards he made tours of inspection in a large portion of the Congo Free State territory, visiting the principal posts of the great lakes and going as far as the Upper Nile and returning by the Ubangi. In November 1908, the Free State was annexed to Belgium, the abuses of the Léopold regime were remedied, and the administration was reformed much on the lines of a British crown colony. In May 1912 Fuchs succeeded Wahis as governor-general. On the outbreak of World War I he was instructed to preserve a strictly defensive attitude, as Belgium wished to preserve neutrality in the Congo. But hostilities broke out and in the result the northwestern part of German East Africa was conquered by Belgian native troops.

Fuchs (y Carrera), Fernando C(arlos) (b. April 9, 1871, Lima, Peru - d. Feb. 21, 1954, Lima), interior minister (1914-15) and finance minister (1919-21, 1930) of Peru.

Fuchs, Hans, byname of Johannes Fuchs (b. Sept. 30, 1874, Bickendorf, Prussia [now in Rheinland-Pfalz], Germany - d. Sept. 10, 1956, Cochem, Rheinland-Pfalz, West Germany), Oberpräsident of Rheinland (1922-33) and Nordrhein (1945). He was also German minister of the occupied territories (1923).

Fuchs, Heinrich, Russian Genrikh (Mikhailovich) Fuks (b. 1895 - d. [executed] Jan. 21, 1938), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1930-35) and of the Central Executive Committee (1934-35) of the Volga German A.S.S.R.

Fuchs, Rutger friherre (b. April 2, 1682, Malmö, Sweden - d. April 10, 1753, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Stockholm city (1739-53). He was made friherre (baron) in 1719.

Füeg(-Hitz), Cornelia (b. June 5, 1941), Landammann of Solothurn (1991, 1995).

Fuentebella, Arnulfo (Palma), byname Noli Fuentebella (b. Oct. 29, 1945, Goa, Camarines Sur, Philippines - d. Sept. 9, 2020), Philippine politician. He was speaker of the House of Representatives (2000-01).

Fuentes, Armando L., Colombian politician. He was governor of Magdalena (1943-44) and president of the Senate (1961-62).

Fuentes (Núñez del Prado), Hildebrando (b. Jan. 14, 1860, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 14, 1917, New York City), interior minister of Peru (1914).

Fuentes (Knight), Juan Alberto, finance minister of Guatemala (2008-10); son of Alberto Fuentes Mohr.

Fuentes (Menjivar), Nelson (Eduardo) (b. Sept. 29, 1978), finance minister of El Salvador (2018-20).

Fuentes Mohr, Alberto (b. Nov. 22, 1927, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala - d. [assassinated] Jan. 25, 1979, Guatemala City, Guatemala), finance minister (1966-68) and foreign minister (1969-70) of Guatemala.

Fuentes Pieruccini, Mario (Edwin) (b. Oct. 7, 1921, Quetzaltenango, Guatemala - d. July 4, 2010), finance minister of Guatemala (1968-69). He was also president of Congress (1966-67) and a presidential candidate (1970).

Fuentes Quintana, Enrique (b. Dec. 13, 1924, Carrión de los Condes, Palencia province, Spain - d. June 6, 2007, Madrid, Spain), second deputy prime minister and minister of economic affairs of Spain (1977-78).

Fuentes Rodríguez, José de las (b. April 20, 1920, General Cepeda, Coahuila, Mexico - d. Oct. 8, 2011, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Coahuila (1981-87). He was also president of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies (1968).

Fuero (y Unda), Carlos (b. Oct. 1, 1844, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Jan. 11, 1892, Mexico City), governor of Coahuila (1873-74), Nuevo León (1875-76), Durango (1876-77), and Chihuahua (1884-85).


Fugatti, Maurizio (b. April 7, 1972, Bussolengo, Verona province, Veneto, Italy), president of Trento (2018- ) and Trentino-Alto Adige (2021- ).

Fuglesang, Rolf (Jørgen) (b. Jan. 31, 1909, Fredrikstad, Østfold, Norway - d. Nov. 25, 1988, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian politician. He was the secretary of the provisional council of state formed on Sept. 25, 1940, and joined the Vidkun Quisling government on Feb. 1, 1942, as minister for the party, becoming in addition minister of culture on Dec. 1, 1942. After liberation he was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Fujieda, Sensuke (b. Dec. 3, 1907, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, Japan - d. June 6, 1971), home affairs minister of Japan (1966-67). He was also director-general of the Defense Agency (1961-62) and minister of transport (1966).

Fujii, Hirohisa (b. June 24, 1932, Tokyo, Japan - d. July 10, 2022, Tokyo), finance minister of Japan (1993-94, 2009-10).

Fujii, Sadanobu (b. Jan. 1, 1885, Tokushima prefecture, Japan - d. Jan. 31, 1935), finance minister of Japan (1934).

A. Fujimori
Fujimori (Fujimori1), Alberto (Kenya) (b. July 262, 1938, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (1990-2000). He formed the political party Cambio (Change) 90 and mounted a grassroots presidential campaign. He won an upset victory over Mario Vargas Llosa in the runoff election in June 1990, by appealing to the country's poor. As president, however, he turned to neoliberal economics that increased the gap between rich and poor, although the economy as a whole improved. Facing a hostile parliament, he suspended the constitution in April 1992 and dissolved the legislature, which was replaced by a new constituent assembly in November. A new constitution strengthened his authority and removed a bar to his seeking reelection. His economic reforms and a successful campaign against the Shining Path guerrilla were rewarded in 1993 by a commitment of $2 billion in U.S. and Japanese foreign loans. He won a second term in the 1995 election, securing almost two-thirds of the popular vote. In December 1996 left-wing guerrillas stormed the residence of the Japanese ambassador during a party and took hundreds of people hostage. The standoff ended in April 1997, when government troops attacked the building; all of the guerrillas were killed, and all but one of the 72 remaining hostages were freed without serious injury. After announcing his intention to seek a third term in 2000, he dismissed three Supreme Court justices, who had ruled that move unconstitutional. He won a flawed election, but a few months later he resigned while on a visit to Japan. Parliament refused to accept it and instead deposed him for being "morally unfit." He remained in Japan, which refused to extradite him, although Interpol in March 2003 issued a call for his arrest on murder charges. In November 2005 Fujimori, who had announced he wanted to return to Peru and run in the 2006 presidential election, arrived in Chile and was arrested there. He was extradited to Peru in September 2007. In December he was sentenced to 6 years in prison for abusing his powers; in separate trials he was sentenced to 25 years in prison in April 2009 for ordering a military death squad to carry out two massacres that killed 25 people, to 7½ years in July 2009 for embezzlement, and to 6 years in September 2009 for corruption. He was pardoned in December 2017; the pardon was overturned in October 2018 but restored in March 2022.
1 His mother's original name was Mutsue Inomoto, and in his religious marriage he used the name Alberto Fujimori Inomoto, but for unclear reasons he always officially appeared as Fujimori Fujimori.
2 In Peru he had always maintained that his birthday was July 28, Peru's national day. In Japan, however, he obtained a Japanese passport with "Kenya Fujimori" as his name and July 26 as his birthday, which is also confirmed by the Japanese family registry.

Fujimori (Higuchi), Keiko (Sofía) (b. May 25, 1975, Lima, Peru), Peruvian presidential candidate (2011, 2016, 2021); daughter of Alberto Fujimori.

Fujisawa, Ikunosuke (b. March 20 [Feb. 16, lunar calendar], 1859, Sendai, Mutsu province [now in Miyagi prefecture], Japan - d. April 3, 1940), Japanese politician. He was minister of commerce and industry (1926-27) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1930-31).

Fujita, Masaaki (b. Jan. 3, 1922, Hiroshima, Japan - d. May 27, 1996), Japanese politician. He was director-general of the Okinawa Development Agency (1976-77) and president of the House of Councillors (1986-88).

Fujita, Yuzan (b. April 19, 1949 - d. Dec. 18, 2015), governor of Hiroshima (1993-2009); son of Masaaki Fujita.

Fujiyama, Aiichiro (b. May 22, 1897, Tokyo, Japan - d. Feb. 22, 1985, Tokyo), Japanese politician. A business executive who symbolized "big business" in Japan as president of Dai Nippon Sugar Manufacturing Co. and executive officer of Nitto Chemical Industry Co., he used his influence to bring about the fall of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo in 1944. After Japan's World War II surrender, Fujiyama was imprisoned without a trial for three years as a suspected war criminal. After his release he represented Japan at the 1951 UNESCO meeting in Paris. As Japan's foreign minister (1957-60) he headed Japan's first delegation to the UN (1957), helped revise the U.S.-Japanese security treaty (1960), and promoted the restoration of diplomatic relations between Japan and China. Fujiyama was elected to parliament in 1957 and was reelected five times. He also served as director of Japan's Economic Planning Agency.

Fuka Unzola, Léonard (b. Oct. 19, 1935), governor of Bas-Congo (1997-98).

Fukaya, Takashi (b. Sept. 29, 1935), home affairs minister of Japan (1995-96). He was also minister of posts and telecommunications (1990) and international trade and industry (1999-2000).

Fukida, Akira (b. Feb. 1, 1927, Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan - d. June 19, 2017), home affairs minister of Japan (1990-91).

Fukuda, Akio (b. April 17, 1948), governor of Tochigi (2000-04).

Fukuda, Hajime (b. April 1, 1902, Ono, Fukui, Japan - d. Sept. 2, 1997), home affairs minister (1972, 1974-76) and justice minister (1976-77) of Japan. He was also minister of international trade and industry (1962-64) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1980-83).

Takeo Fukuda
Fukuda, Takeo (b. Jan. 14, 1905, Gunma prefecture, Japan - d. July 5, 1995, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1976-78). He was a member of the House of Representatives from 1952 on and by the early 1960s he was a major figure within the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP). His political career included tenures as minister of agriculture and forestry (1959-60), finance (1965-66, 1968-71, 1973-74), and foreign affairs (1971-72) and deputy prime minister (1974-76). When Fukuda successfully challenged Takeo Miki for the presidency of the LDP, he was also assured the post of prime minister. He assumed office in December 1976 under conditions of unrealistically high popular expectations. During his term in office the economic situation worsened when a new yen-dollar exchange rate was established, the bankruptcy rate rose, and unemployment soared. Trade relations with the West were strained when Japan built up a huge balance of payments surplus. In the realm of foreign relations, Fukuda achieved greater success. The Fukuda Doctrine, enunciated in 1977, declared Japan's resolve to never again become a military power and to strive to strengthen its relations with the nations of Southeast Asia. Fukuda was also instrumental in concluding the 1978 treaty of peace and friendship with China, and he was at the centre of international trade disputes, especially with the U.S., that erupted because of Japan's annual trade surplus, which reached $12 billion while he was prime minister. Fukuda's promise to stabilize the economy remained unfulfilled after one year, and the public's trust in his leadership declined further when some LDP members were implicated in the Lockheed bribery scandals. Fukuda was forced to dissolve his cabinet in 1978. He then became a mentor to younger politicians.

Fukuda, Tokuyasu (b. Oct. 13, 1906, Tokyo, Japan - d. Aug. 7, 1993), Japanese politician. He was director-general of the Defense Agency (1963-64) and the Hokkaido Development Agency and the Administrative Management Agency (1965-66) and minister of posts and telecommunications (1976).

Fukuda, Tomikazu (b. May 21, 1953), governor of Tochigi (2004- ).

Y. Fukuda
Fukuda, Yasuo (b. July 16, 1936, Gunma prefecture, Japan), prime minister of Japan (2007-08); son of Takeo Fukuda; grandson-in-law of Yukio Sakurauchi. He was also chief cabinet secretary (2000-04).

Fukunaga, Kenji (b. Aug. 5, 1910, Koka, Shiga, Japan - d. May 31, 1988), Japanese politician. He was chief cabinet secretary (1953-54, 1966-67), a minister without portfolio (1954), minister of labour (1961-62), welfare (1974), and transport (1977-78), and speaker of the House of Representatives (1983-85).

Fukushima, Joji (b. March 31, 1927 - d. Feb. 25, 2000, Kurokawa, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan), Japanese politician. A member of the Liberal-Democratic Party, he was elected governor of Kumamoto prefecture in 1991 and won reelection twice, in 1995 and 1999. Before becoming governor, he was elected six times to the national parliament and served as labour minister (1989-90) in the cabinet of Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu.

Fukushima, Yasumasa, in full (from 1907) Danshaku (Baron) Yasumasa Fukushima (b. Oct. 27 [Sept. 15, lunar calendar], 1852 - d. Feb. 18, 1919), governor-general of Kwantung (1912-14).

Fulci, Francesco Paolo (b. March 19, 1931, Messina, Italy - d. Jan. 21, 2022), Italian diplomat. He was ambassador to Canada (1980-85) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1993-99).

Füle, Stefan (b. May 24, 1962, Sokolov, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czech politician. He was minister of European affairs (2009) and EU commissioner for enlargement and European neighbourhood policy (2010-14).

Fuller, Alvan T(ufts) (b. Feb. 27, 1878, Boston, Mass. - d. April 30, 1958, Boston), governor of Massachusetts (1925-29).

Fuller, Sir (Joseph) Bampfylde (b. March 20, 1854, Newton, Somerset, England - d. Nov. 29, 1935, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England), chief commissioner of Assam (1902-05) and lieutenant governor of Eastern Bengal and Assam (1905-06); knighted 1906.

Fuller, Carlos C(ecil) (b. Oct. 9, 1954, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize City, Belize]), Belizean diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2021- ).

Fuller, Frank (b. Sept. 25, 1827, Boston, Mass. - d. Feb. 19, 1915, New York City), acting governor of Utah (1861, 1861-62).

Fuller, Sir John (Michael Fleetwood), (1st) Baronet (b. Oct. 21, 1864, Corsham, Wiltshire, England - d. Sept. 4, 1915, Melksham, Wiltshire), governor of Victoria (1911-14). He was created baronet in 1910.

Fuller, Levi K(night) (b. Feb. 24, 1841, Westmoreland, N.H. - d. Oct. 10, 1896, Brattleboro, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1892-94).

Fullerton, Robert (b. Jan. 14, 1773, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. June 6, 1831), governor of Prince of Wales Island (1824-26) and of the Straits Settlements (1826-30).

Fullerton, William H(ugh) (b. Feb. 11, 1939, Wolverhampton, England), governor of the Falkland Islands (1988-92). He was also British ambassador to Somalia (1983-87), Kuwait (1992-96), and to Morocco and Mauritania (1996-99).

Fulton, Robert (David) (b. May 13, 1929, Waterloo, Iowa), governor of Iowa (1969).

R. Fulton
Fulton, Sir Robert (Henry Gervase) (b. Dec. 21, 1948), governor of Gibraltar (2006-09).

Fulton, William S(avin) (b. June 2, 1795, Cecil county, Md. - d. Aug. 15, 1844, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1835-36).

Funada, Naka (b. April 24, 1895, Tochigi prefecture, Japan - d. April 12, 1979, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He was director-general of the Defense Agency (1955-56) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1963-65, 1970-72).

Funaro, Dilson Domingos (b. Oct. 23, 1933, São Paulo, Brazil - d. April 12, 1989, São Paulo), finance minister of Brazil (1985-87).

Funchal, Domingos António de Sousa Coutinho, conde e marquês de (b. Feb. 20, 1762, Chaves, Portugal - d. Nov. 29, 1833, Brighton, England), Portuguese diplomat; brother of Rodrigo Domingos de Sousa Coutinho Teixeira de Andrade Barbosa, conde de Linhares. He was minister of Denmark (1790-95) and Sardinia (1796-1803) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1803-14) and the Papal State (1814-28). He was made count in 1808 and marquess in 1833.

Funck, Gustaf friherre (b. Dec. 24, 1670 - d. Sept. 12, 1736, Bro socken, Uppsala, Sweden), governor of Västmanland (1720-36). He was made friherre (baron) in 1723.

Funck, Johan friherre (b. April 29, 1703, Sala, Västmanland, Sweden - d. Feb. 24, 1773, Uppsala, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (1759-62) and Uppsala (1762-73); son of Gustaf friherre Funck.

Fundu Kota, Lévy Jacques (b. Oct. 10, 1943, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Équateur (1990) and Kinshasa (1990-92).

M. Funes
Funes (Cartagena), (Carlos) Mauricio (b. Oct. 18, 1959, San Salvador, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (2009-14). Faced with corruption investigations which he described as political persecution, he was granted asylum by Nicaragua in 2016. In 2023 he was sentenced in absentia to 14 years in prison for negotiating with gangs during his administration.

Funes (Allende), Pedro Lucas (b. Oct. 18, 1820, Córdoba [now in Argentina] - d. Aug. 29, 1890, Buenos Aires, Argentina), finance minister of Argentina (1859-60). He was also minister of justice and public instruction (1858-60).

Funke, Otto (b. Aug. 23, 1915, Lennep [now part of Remscheid], Germany - d. Dec. 22, 1997, Berlin, Germany), first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Gera (1952-55) and Suhl (1956-68) districts.

Fuqua, Henry (Luce) (b. Nov. 8, 1865, Baton Rouge, La. - d. Oct. 11, 1926, Baton Rouge), governor of Louisiana (1924-26).

Für, Lajos (b. Dec. 21, 1930, Egyházasrádóc, Hungary - d. Oct. 22, 2013, Budapest, Hungary), defense minister of Hungary (1990-94). He was also chairman of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (1994-96).

Furcolo, (John) Foster (b. July 29, 1911, New Haven, Conn. - d. July 5, 1995, Cambridge, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1957-61).

A. Furey

Furey, Andrew (John) (b. July 1975, St. John's, Nfld.), premier of Newfoundland and Labrador (2020- ); son of George Furey.

Furey, George (Joseph) (b. May 12, 1948, St. John's, Newfoundland), Canadian politician. He was speaker of the Senate (2015-23).

Furgaç, Izzet, until Jan. 1, 1935, Ahmed Izzet Pasha (b. 1864 - d. March 31, 1937, Istanbul, Turkey), grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1918). He was also minister of war (1913-14, 1918, 1919-20), interior (1920-21), and foreign affairs (1921-22).

Furgal, Sergey (Ivanovich) (b. Feb. 12, 1970, Poyarkovo, Amur oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Khabarovsk kray (2018-20).

Furgler, Kurt (b. June 24, 1924, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland - d. July 23, 2008, Sankt Gallen), justice and police minister (1972-82), economy minister (1983-86), and president (1977, 1981, 1985) of Switzerland. In 1954 he was elected to parliament as a member of what became the Christian Democratic People's Party, and he was president of his party's parliamentary group in 1963-71. He had a reputation as a reformer. He brought about changes to adoption laws and legislation concerning children and marriage, as well as the acceptance of the constitutional article enshrining equal rights for men and women. He was also known for a piece of legislation which restricted property purchases by foreigners. His plans for the creation of a federal security police, however, failed in 1978, and a complete revision of the constitution started in the 1970s also went nowhere. In 1985 he welcomed U.S. president Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to Geneva for their summit meeting.

Furler, Hans (b. June 5, 1904, Lahr, Germany - d. June 29, 1975, Oberkirch, West Germany), president of the Parliamentary Assembly of the European Economic Community (1960-62).

Furmanavicius, Gintaras (Jonas) (b. July 5, 1961, Kaunas, Lithuanian S.S.R.), interior minister of Lithuania (2004-06).

Furnas, Robert W(ilkinson) (b. May 5, 1824, near Troy, Ohio - d. June 1, 1905, Lincoln, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1873-75).

Furrer, Jonas (b. March 3, 1805, Winterthur, Zürich, Switzerland - d. July 25, 1861, Ragaz [now Bad Ragaz], Sankt Gallen, Switzerland), Amtsbürgermeister of Zürich (1845, 1847) and president of the Diet (1845), president (1848-49, 1852, 1855, 1858), and justice and police minister (1850-51, 1853-54, 1856-57, 1859-61) of Switzerland.

Furst, Xavier de (b. May 4, 1948, Tangier, Morocco), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (2005-06).

Furtado, Alarico José (b. 1846, Maranhão province [now state], Brazil - d. August 1884), president of Rio Grande do Norte (1880-81) and Amazonas (1881-82); son of Francisco José Furtado.

Furtado, Francisco José (b. Aug. 13, 1818, Oeiras, Piauí, Brazil - d. July 23, 1870, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), chairman of the Council of Ministers of Brazil (1864-65). He was also president of Amazonas (1857-60), justice minister (1862, 1864-65), and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1864).

Furtado, José da Rocha (b. Feb. 24, 1909, União, Piauí, Brazil - d. Feb. 27, 2005, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil), governor of Piauí (1947-51).

Furu, Ole Andreas (b. Dec. 26, 1841, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway - d. Nov. 28, 1925, Oslo, Norway), interior minister (1890-91) and finance minister (1893-95) of Norway and governor of Akershus (1895-1918).

Furugelm, Ivan (Vasilyevich), Finnish Johan Hampus Furuhjelm (b. March 23 [March 11, O.S.], 1821, Pirkkala, Finland - d. Oct. 4 [Sept. 21, O.S.], 1909, Pirkkala), governor of Russian America (1859-63).

Furui, Yoshimi (b. Jan. 4, 1903, Gunge, Tottori prefecture, Japan - d. Feb. 3, 1995), justice minister of Japan (1978-79). He was also minister of health and welfare (1960-61).

Furukawa, Yasushi (b. July 15, 1958), governor of Saga (2003-14).

Furukawa, Yoshihisa (b. Aug. 3, 1965, Miyazaki prefecture, Japan), justice minister of Japan (2021-22).

Furuta, Hajime (b. Sept. 13, 1947), governor of Gifu (2005- ).

Furuya, Toru (b. Jan. 6, 1909 - d. June 20, 1991), home affairs minister of Japan (1984-85).

Futa (Mudiumbula Tshitumbu Tshipadi), André-Philippe (b. Aug. 26, 1946, Miabi [now in Kasaï Oriental province], Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Oct. 1, 2009, Paris, France), finance minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2003-05).

Futaih, Abdul Aziz al- (b. Feb. 2, 1936, Kadas, Hugariah district, Yemen), Yemen (Sana) politician. He was minister of agriculture (1966), ambassador to the United States (1967), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1967).

Futkaradze, Ismail (Khasanovich), acting chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1937-38) and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars/Council of Ministers (1938-47) of the Adzhar A.S.S.R.

Futrell, J(unius) M(arion) (b. Aug. 14, 1870, Greene county, Ark. - d. June 20, 1955, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1913 [acting], 1933-37).

Fyfe, Laurence (Dalzelle) R(iky) (b. Aug. 4, 1845, Jamaica - d. May 9, 1892), administrator of Grenada (1890-92).

Fyles, Natasha (Kate) (b. May 26, 1978, Darwin, N.T.), chief minister of the Northern Territory (2022-23).

Fyneah, Sarah Safyn, also called Sarah Fyneah Dorbor, earlier Sarah Fyneah Brownell, Liberian diplomat. She has been chargé d'affaires in Ethiopia (2019-21) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2023- ).

Fynn, Sir Percival Donald Leslie, byname Sir Percy Fynn (b. Aug. 16, 1872, "Gonubie Vale," Cape Colony [now in Eastern Cape, South Africa] - d. April 25, 1940, Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia [now Harare, Zimbabwe]), acting administrator of Southern Rhodesia (1923); knighted 1935. He was also minister of internal affairs (1935-39).

Fyodor III, in full Fyodor Alekseyevich (b. June 9 [May 30, O.S.], 1661, Moscow, Russia - d. May 7 [April 27, O.S.], 1682, Moscow), tsar of Russia (1676-82).

Fyodorov, Boris (Grigoryevich) (b. Feb. 13, 1958, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Nov. 20, 2008, London, England), finance minister of Russia (1990, 1993-94). He was also a deputy prime minister (1992-94, 1998).

I. Fyodorov
Fyodorov, Igor (Gennadiyevich) (b. Sept. 26, 1964, Leshukonskoye village, Arkhangelsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of administration of Nenets autonomous okrug (2009-14).

Fyodorov, Mikhail (Mikhailovich) (b. May 5 [April 23, O.S.], 1858, Bezhetsk, Tver province, Russia - d. Jan. 31, 1949, Paris, France), acting commerce and industry minister of Russia (1906).

Fyodorov, Nikolay (Vasilyevich) (b. May 9, 1958, Chedino, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), president of Chuvashia (1994-2010). He was Russia's justice minister from 1991 to 1993 and was elected president of Chuvashia, a republic about 550 km east of Moscow, in 1993. He was a supporter of market reforms. But he challenged Pres. Boris Yeltsin's authority in January 1995 by issuing a decree permitting servicemen from Chuvashia to refuse to serve with Russian troops in the rebel region of Chechnya. He was reelected in 1997 and 2001 and appointed by Pres. Vladimir Putin in 2005. In 2012-15 he was Russian agriculture minister.

Fyodorov, Pavel (Ivanovich) (b. Jan. 26 [Jan. 15, O.S.], 1790 - d. July 12 [June 30, O.S.], 1855), governor of Bessarabia (1834-54).

S. Fyodorov
Fyodorov, Svyatoslav (Nikolayevich) (b. Aug. 8, 1927, Proskurov [now Khmelnytskyi], Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. June 2, 2000, Moscow, Russia), Russian politician. A famous eye surgeon, he was a member of the Soviet Communist Party (CPSU) from 1957 until 1990. In 1989 he was elected people's deputy of the U.S.S.R. At the second Congress of People's Deputies of the U.S.S.R. he was one of the 17 deputies promoted by the CPSU who voted for the repeal of Article 6 of the constitution that provided for the leading role of the CPSU. In 1990 he joined the Democratic Party of Russia (DPR) and was briefly a member of its board. In February 1991 he was a member of the Supreme Consultative and Coordinating Council under the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the R.S.F.S.R., later renamed the Supreme Consultative Council under the Russian president. Fyodorov was not included in the Presidential Council which replaced the SCC in February 1993. In October 1991 Fyodorov was among the candidates considered for the post of Russia's prime minister. However, he turned down the offer. In October 1993 he was on the list of candidates for the State Duma promoted by the electoral bloc of the Russian Democratic Reform Movement (RDRM) headed by Gavriil Popov. He was number two on the list (after Anatoly Sobchak). The list never made the 5% barrier. On Jan. 28, 1995, he presided over the founding congress of the Workers Self-Government Party (PST). The candidates on the PST lists lost the elections for the State Duma on Dec. 17, 1995, but Fyodorov himself was elected to the Duma in the majority district in Cheboksary. He unsuccessfully ran for president in 1996 (winning 0.9% of the vote) but remained a member of the Duma until 1999. He died in a helicopter crash.

Fyodorov, Valentin (Petrovich) (b. Sept. 6, 1939, Zhatay, Yakut A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Sakha republic, Russia] - d. Jan. 12, 2021), chairman of the Executive Committee (1990-91) and head of the administration (1991-93) of Sakhalin oblast and prime minister of Sakha (1997-98).

Fytche, Albert (b. Sept. 21, 1820 - d. June 16, 1892, Bournemouth, England), commissioner of Tenasserim (1858-62) and chief commissioner of British Burma (1867-71).