Fock, Cees, byname of Cornelis Laurens Willem Fock (b. Jan. 27, 1905, Den Helder, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. July 9, 1999, The Hague), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1962-70).
Fock, Cornelis (b. Nov. 29, 1828, Amsterdam - d. May 9, 1910, The Hague), interior minister of the Netherlands (1868-71) and king's/queen's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (1871-1900).
Fock, Jenö (b. May 17, 1916, Budapest, Hungary - d. May 22, 2001, Budapest), prime minister of Hungary (1967-75). He joined the Communist Party in 1932 and from 1940 to 1943 he was imprisoned for his Communist activities. An economist, he held several offices, including that of deputy premier (1961-67). During his premiership, his cabinet tried to add some market economy elements to the Soviet-style centrally planned economy. The initiative, however, was blocked by the Soviet-bloc trading alliance COMECON, and as a result Fock resigned in 1975.
Fockema Andreae, Joachim(us Pieter) (b. July 30, 1879, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. July 27, 1949, Utrecht), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1933-37).
Fofana, Bakary, foreign minister of Guinea (2010).
Fofana, Mohamed Said (b. 1952, Forécariah, French Guinea [now Guinea]), prime minister of Guinea (2010- ).
Fokin, Vitold (Pavlovych) (b. Oct. 25, 1932, Novonikolayevka village, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Novomykolaivka, Ukraine]), prime minister of Ukraine (1990-92).
Foley, Thomas S(tephen) (b. March 6, 1929, Spokane, Wash.), U.S. politician. He became assistant prosecuting attorney of Spokane county in 1958, assistant attorney general of Washington in 1960, and special counsel to the U.S. Senate's Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs in 1961. In 1964 a chance encounter with a major Democratic contributor in Spokane led him to resign as counsel and run for U.S. representative against Walt Horan, a senior incumbent Republican. Foley won an upset victory - and held a reception in Horan's honour. He continued to represent that Spokane area, where Republicans won most other elections. In 1974 he helped secure the passage of a rule allowing the Democratic caucus to remove committee chairmen. Urged to oppose W.R. Poage, the chairman of his own Committee on Agriculture, he instead nominated Poage, who lost. Poage gratefully nominated Foley, who served as chairman of the committee until 1981, when he became majority whip, responsible for obtaining the maximum possible Democratic support for the leaders' programs. He used polite persuasion effectively in a job in which predecessors had used bombast. In 1987 he became majority leader. His politeness contrasted well with Speaker Jim Wright's often imperious style. Opposed to gun control, Foley favoured most of the "liberal" federal social programs and wanted abortion to remain legal. On June 6, 1989, the Democratic majority in the House met, facing a crisis in its leadership. Wright had resigned as speaker and Tony Coelho as majority whip, both while under investigation for alleged ethical lapses. The caucus turned to Foley, who was well liked and had a spotless reputation, nominating him for speaker. Hours later, the House elected Foley to that office, which he held until 1995.
Fombona Pachano, Jacinto (b. May 19, 1901, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Feb. 6, 1951, Caracas), acting foreign minister of Venezuela (1948).
Fombrun, (Jean-Baptiste Joseph) Charles (b. Oct. 9, 1889 - d. July 2, 1961, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1941-43). Later he was president of the Senate.
Fombrun, (Pierre Daniel) Marcel (b. Dec. 12, 1915 - d. Dec. 22, 1986), finance minister of Haiti in the 1950s; son of Charles Fombrun.
Fonacier (y Suguitan), Santiago (Antonio) (b. May 21, 1885, Laoag, Philippines - d. Dec. 8, 1977, Mandaluyong, Philippines), supreme bishop of the Philippine Independent Church (1940-46). In addition to his ecclesiastical career, he was a legislator (assemblyman 1912-16 and senator 1919-25).
Foncha, John Ngu (b. June 21, 1916, Nkwen, Bamenda, North West province, Cameroon - d. April 10, 1999, Bamenda), Cameroonian politician. In 1959 he became premier of British Cameroons, which he led into a federation with Francophone Cameroon in 1961. He remained prime minister of what was then West Cameroon until 1965, and was also vice president of Cameroon in 1961-70. Later he became a champion of secessionist forces; in 1994 he led a delegation of the secessionist Southern Cameroons National Council (SNCC) to the United Nations to ask its backing for the movement's drive for greater autonomy for Cameroon's two English-speaking provinces.
Fonseca, Jorge Carlos (de Almeida) (b. Oct. 20, 1950, São Vicente island, Cape Verde), foreign minister (1991-93) and president (2011- ) of Cape Verde.
Fonseka, (Sembuge Don Shelton) Gamini (b. March 21, 1936, Dehiwala, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Sept. 30, 2004, Ja-Ela, western Sri Lanka), governor of North Eastern province, Sri Lanka (1995-98). He was a famous Sinhala cinema actor and producer. In 1989 he was invited into politics by Pres. Ranasinghe Premadasa.
Fonssagrives, Jean-Baptiste (Joseph Marie Pascal) (b. April 12, 1862, Brest, Finistère, France - d. May 13, 1910, Kati, Haut-Sénégal-Niger [now Mali]), acting governor of Dahomey (1899).
Fontaine, Nicole (Claude Marie), née Garnier (b. Jan. 16, 1942, Grainville-Ymauville, Seine-Inférieure [now Seine-Maritime], France), president of the European Parliament (1999-2002).
Fontanini, Pietro (b. Sept. 23, 1952, Udine, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1993-94).
Fontenelle, José Freire Bezerril (b. March 9, 1850, Viçosa do Ceará, Ceará, Brazil - d. March 30, 1926, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Ceará (1892-96).
Foot, Sir Dingle (Mackintosh) (b. Aug. 24, 1905, Plymouth, Devon, England - d. June 18, 1978, Hong Kong), British politician; brother of Michael Foot and Hugh Foot, Baron Caradon. He was Liberal MP for Dundee (1931-45) and parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Economic Warfare (1940-45); in 1945 he was also part of the British delegation to the San Francisco conference which framed the United Nations charter. He was defeated at Dundee in the general election that followed the war. At two subsequent elections (1950, 1951) he fought as a candidate for North Cornwall but without success. Soon afterwards he began to feel himself increasingly out of sympathy with the Liberal Party, which he thought to have lost its old radicalism, and he joined the Labour Party in 1956. He became MP for Ipswich (1957-70) and solicitor general (1964-67). He was knighted in 1964. In 1970 he lost his seat by the tiny majority of 13. As a lawyer his services were in much demand in constitutional cases in Commonwealth countries: he represented Hastings Kamuzu Banda when the then leader of the Nyasaland African Congress Party was jailed in Southern Rhodesia; he defended Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah, the former chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir; and in 1962 he was ordered to leave Nigeria after having appeared in the Federal Supreme Court there on behalf of a former premier of the Western Region.
Foot, Michael (Mackintosh) (b. July 23, 1913, Plymouth, Devon, England - d. March 3, 2010, London, England), British politician; brother of Sir Dingle Foot and Hugh Foot, Baron Caradon. A member of a strongly Liberal family (his father had been a member of Parliament), he left the Liberals at the age of 21 to express his revulsion against the mass unemployment of the 1930s. From 1945 on, apart from a break between 1955 and 1960, he was a Labour member of Parliament. In 1974 he established himself as a leading cabinet member, first as secretary of state for employment (1974-76) in charge of complex and controversial trade-union legislation, and then (1976-79) as lord president of the council and leader of the House of Commons, a role that required him to hold the parliamentary party together. From deputy leader of the Labour Party (1976-80) he rose to become the party's chief, defeating Denis Healey, the candidate of Labour's right wing, in November 1980 by a vote of 139 to 129. This vote, as well as other leftward trends in the party, caused some right-wing Labourites to resign from the party and four months later to found the Social Democratic Party. Following a disastrous showing in the June 1983 general election, Foot announced that he would not continue as party leader; Neil Kinnock succeeded him in October 1983. Foot had acquired a reputation as a rebel of the left. For many years he was a pamphleteer and political writer fervently espousing the cause of nuclear disarmament. He was a strong ally of the British trade unions and an advocate of sharply increased public expenditures and state ownership of industries.
Foray, Cyril P(atrick) (b. March 16, 1934, Baiama, Sierra Leone - d. July 31, 2003, Freetown, Sierra Leone), foreign minister of Sierra Leone (1969-71).
Forbes, George William (b. March 12, 1869, Lyttelton, New Zealand - d. May 17, 1947, Cheviot, New Zealand), prime minister of New Zealand (1930-35). He was a member of the House of Representatives for the North Canterbury constituency of Hurunui (1908-43). He was first elected as a Liberal and when his party went into opposition in 1912 he became its chief whip. As the Liberals declined further, he was elected leader of the new National Party in 1925. In 1928 the National Party was merged with other Liberal elements into the United Party, led by Sir Joseph Ward. When Ward formed a United Party government with Labour support in December 1928, Forbes became minister of lands and agriculture. A little later the illness of Ward imposed on him the additional responsibility of leading the House of Representatives, and in May 1930 he was elected to succeed Ward as leader of the United Party. Shortly afterward Ward died, and Forbes was asked to form his own ministry. At odds with the Labour Party, he formed a coalition government with the Reform Party. With the prime ministership he held the portfolio of external affairs and several other offices. His government was confirmed in the 1931 general election. Forbes maintained only the most conservative policies to combat the deepening depression; his government allowed widespread reductions of wages by employers, and his deflationary policies further contracted an already shrinking economy, thus swelling the ranks of the unemployed. Overwhelmingly defeated by the Labour Party in elections in 1935, he became leader of the opposition for a short period and in 1936 helped to merge the defeated remnants of the United, Reform, and Democrat parties into a new National Party, led by Adam Hamilton.
Forbes, John (b. 1750 - d. June 1797, Nassau, Bahamas), governor of the Bahamas (1797).
Forbes, Steve, byname of Malcolm Stevenson Forbes, Jr. (b. July 18, 1947, Morristown, N.J.), U.S. political figure; candidate for the Republican presidential nomination (1996, 2000).
Forckenbeck, Maximilian Franz August von (b. Oct. 21, 1821, Münster, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. May 26, 1892, Berlin), German politician. He was lord mayor of Breslau (1873-78) and Berlin (1878-92) and president of the Reichstag (1874-79). In 1866 he was a founder of the National Liberal Party.
Ford, Gerald R(udolph, Jr.), original name Leslie Lynch King, Jr. (b. July 14, 1913, Omaha, Neb. - d. Dec. 26, 2006, Rancho Mirage, Calif.), president of the United States (1974-77). In 1948 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Republican and was reelected successively thereafter, becoming House minority leader in 1965. After the resignation of Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, Pres. Richard Nixon, on Oct. 12, 1973, nominated Ford to fill the vacant vice-presidential post. He was sworn in on December 6, the first vice president to take office in the middle of an administration. Ford's succession to the presidency on Aug. 9, 1974, after Nixon's resignation, marked the first time in U.S. history that the holder of the presidential office had not been elected either as president or as vice president. On September 8 Ford granted a full pardon to Nixon "for all offenses against the United States" that he might have committed while in office. The pardon effectively squelched any criminal prosecutions that Nixon might have been liable to in connection with the Watergate scandal. Ford's relations with the Democratic-controlled Congress were perhaps typified by his more than 50 vetoes of legislation by the end of 1976; more than 40 were sustained. In the final days of the Vietnam War in April 1975, Ford ordered an airlift of anticommunist Vietnamese refugees that totaled 237,000, most of whom were taken to the United States. Later that year two attempts were made on Ford's life. In a close contest at the Republican convention in August 1976, Ford won his party's nomination, despite a serious challenge by Ronald Reagan. Running substantially behind from the beginning of the campaign, Ford was defeated in the November election by Democrat Jimmy Carter.
Ford, Rob(ert Bruce) (b. May 28, 1969), mayor of Toronto (2010- ).
Forde, Francis Michael (b. July 18, 1890, Mitchell, Queensland - d. Jan. 28, 1983, Brisbane, Queensland), prime minister of Australia (1945). Active in state politics as a young man, he was a member of the Australian House of Representatives (1922-46) and deputy leader of the Australian Labor Party (1932-46). In the cabinet he served as minister for the army (1941-46), minister for defense (1946), and deputy prime minister to John Curtin (1941-45) and Joseph Benedict Chifley (1945-46). He served as prime minister for a week, July 6-13, 1945; he automatically took over after Curtin's death but when the party met on July 12 to elect a new leader he was defeated by Chifley, making his period in office the shortest in Australia's history. From 1946 to 1953 he was Australian high commissioner to Canada.
Forde, Sir Henry (de Boulay) (b. 1933), foreign minister of Barbados (1976-81). In 1986-93 he was leader of the Barbados Labour Party. He was knighted in 1997.
Forde, (Mary Marguerite) Leneen, née Kavanagh (b. May 12, 1935, Ottawa, Ont.), governor of Queensland (1992-97); daughter-in-law of Francis Michael Forde.
Fordice, Kirk, byname of Daniel Kirkwood Fordice, Jr. (b. Feb. 10, 1934, Memphis, Tenn. - d. Sept. 7, 2004, Jackson, Miss.), governor of Mississippi (1992-2000). He showed political skill in the 1991 election, beating Auditor Pete Johnson, the grandson and nephew of governors, in the Republican primary, then zeroing in on Democratic incumbent Ray Mabus. Mabus's tax plan had been rejected by the legislature and a 24-hour waiting period on abortion passed over his veto; he beat former Congressman Wayne Dowdy by only 50%-41% in the Democratic primary. In the general, Fordice campaigned against welfare and racial quotas. He trailed in polls but won 51%-48%, losing the larger urban areas but carrying the white countryside solidly. He became the first Republican governor elected in Mississippi since 1874. Fordice was not entirely successful; a 1% increase in the sales tax was passed over his veto. But he did get a capital gains tax cut, tort reform and more prison cells. He wanted to make Mississippi "the capital of capital punishment," and he eliminated air conditioning and television from prisons and required prisoners to wear stripes. He claimed to have cut state spending while Mississippi's riverboat casinos were generating much new revenue. He installed an "empowerment" interactive telephone line with information on state issues and legislators' positions. Mississippi governors have been allowed to seek a second consecutive term since 1986, but scandal-tarred Bill Allain didn't run in 1987 and Mabus lost in 1991. Fordice broke the jinx in November 1995 with his 55%-45% win over Mississippi Secretary of State Dick Molpus. Both had token opposition in the August primary.
Forfait, Pierre Alexandre (Laurent) (b. April 2, 1752, Rouen [now in Seine-Maritime département], France - d. Nov. 8, 1807, Paris), French minister of marine and colonies (1799-1801).
Forlani, Arnaldo (b. Dec. 8, 1925, Pesaro), prime minister of Italy (1980-81). He gained extensive political experience at the local level before embarking on a career at Christian Democrat headquarters in Rome in the 1950s. Elected to the national Chamber of Deputies in 1958, Forlani received his first junior ministerial post in 1968. He then served as Christian Democrat party leader from 1969 to 1973. In 1974 he was appointed defense minister by Premier Aldo Moro. A brief experience as minister in charge of relations with the UN led to his appointment for three years as Italy's foreign minister, a post exercised with diligence but without distinction. In October 1980 he succeeded Francesco Cossiga to become head of Italy's 40th government since the end of World War II. He inherited an unstable political situation that was compounded by the breaking of a major scandal involving a government minister and some prominent public figures alleged to have helped defraud Italy of millions of dollars during the 1970s. He also had to deal with the much-criticized relief operation following the disastrous earthquake in southern Italy in November 1980 and a new bout of terrorism by the left-wing Red Brigades. Forlani's unflamboyant style and his unflappable manner stood him in good stead in dealing with this series of challenges, and the fact that he had always stood slightly apart from the factionalism that divides the Christian Democrats helped him to survive some hectic months.
Formuzal, Mihail (b. Nov. 7, 1959, Beshgioz, Ciadir-Lunga district, Moldavian S.S.R.), governor of Gagauz-Yeri (2006- ).
Forné Molné, Marc (b. Dec. 30, 1946, La Massana, Andorra), head of government of Andorra (1994-2005).
Fornerod, (Charles Emmanuel) Constant (b. May 30, 1819, Avenches, Vaud, Switzerland - d. Nov. 27, 1899, Bettens, Vaud), president of the Council of States (1855), trade and customs minister (1855-56, 1858), president (1857, 1863, 1867), finance minister (1859-61), and defense minister (1862, 1864-66) of Switzerland.
Forni, Raymond (b. May 20, 1941, Belfort, France - d. Jan. 5, 2008, Paris, France), president of the Regional Council of Franche-Comté (2004-08). He was president of the National Assembly in 2000-02.
Forrer, (Johann) Ludwig (b. Feb. 9, 1845, Islikon, Thurgau, Switzerland - d. Sept. 28, 1921, Bern), president of the National Council (1893), trade, industry and agriculture minister (1903), interior minister (1904-05), president (1906, 1912), defense minister (1907), justice and police minister (1908), and posts and railways minister (1908-11, 1913-17) of Switzerland.
Forrestal, James V(incent) (b. Feb. 15, 1892, Matteawan [now part of Beacon], N.Y. - d. [suicide] May 22, 1949, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. Navy secretary (1944-47) and defense secretary (1947-49).
Forsyth, William (Douglass) (b. Jan. 5, 1909, Casterton, Victoria, Australia - d. March 3, 1993, Canberra, Australia), secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1948-51, 1963-66).
Forthomme, Pierre (Jean Joseph) (b. May 24, 1877, Verviers, Belgium - d. Dec. 2, 1959, Brussels, Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1923-25).
Fortín (Midence), Mario (b. Jan. 9, 1954, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (2005-06).
Fortis, Alessandro (b. Sept. 16, 1842, Forlì, Papal States [now in Italy] - d. Dec. 4, 1909, Rome), prime minister of Italy (1905-06). He fought as a volunteer with Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1866 and 1867. After the unification of Italy as a monarchy, he remained an ardent republican and was arrested on Aug. 2, 1874, for conspiring with the socialists to foment insurrection but was released five months later. In 1876 he urged the republicans to begin participating in the government. Elected a deputy in 1880, he drifted to the right politically. He served as minister of agriculture (June 1898-May 1899), and, when Giovanni Giolitti resigned as premier (February 1905), he named Fortis as his successor. Because he was considered Giolitti's pawn, Fortis had difficulty forming a government. In office he settled a rail strike by declaring railway workers to be civil servants who were not allowed to strike. He nationalized the railways and in so doing offered an exorbitant sum to the railway companies and was accused of corruption. His foreign policy favouring the Triple Alliance was also unpopular. Finally, by reducing import duties on Spanish wine, he aroused opposition that toppled his government in February 1906.
Fortune, Gabriel (Émile) (b. March 18, 1897 - d. Dec. 18, 1971), acting commandant of Chad (1938) and lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1941-45).
Fortuño (Burset), Luis (Guillermo) (b. Oct. 31, 1960, San Juan, Puerto Rico), governor of Puerto Rico (2009-13).
Fortuyn, Pim, byname of Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuyn (b. Feb. 19, 1948, Velsen, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. May 6, 2002, Hilversum, Noord-Holland), Dutch politician. He joined a new conservative populist party, Leefbaar Nederland (Livable Netherlands), and became known for his anti-Islam and anti-immigration views. When he vehemently confirmed those views in an interview in February 2002, saying that he wanted to abolish Article 1 of the Dutch constitution, which guaranteed the equal treatment of all citizens, calling Islam "a backward culture," and declaring that no more refugees should be allowed into the Netherlands, the party dropped him as its candidate for prime minister. Undeterred, he formed his own Lijst Pim Fortuyn. Meanwhile, Leefbaar Rotterdam kept him as its leading candidate in local elections in March 2002, and out of nowhere it became the biggest political force in the Netherlands' second city. Fortuyn, who led an openly gay lifestyle, believed immigration was undermining the liberal, permissive society the Netherlands stood for. "In Holland, homosexuality is treated the same way as heterosexuality. In what Islamic country does that happen?" he asked. Nine days before the national elections, he was shot and killed as he left a radio interview. It was the first time in modern history that a Dutch political leader was assassinated. His party went on to a stunning second-place victory in the elections and became one of three partners in a coalition government.
Foschini, Antonio (b. Feb. 21, 1872, Udine, Italy - d. April 13, 1965, Rome, Italy), high commissioner of Fiume (1921).
Foss, Joe, byname of Joseph Jacob Foss (b. April 17, 1915, Sioux Falls, S.D. - d. Jan. 1, 2003, Scottsdale, Ariz.), governor of South Dakota (1955-59). He won the Congressional Medal of Honor as a Marine pilot during World War II. He also earned the Distinguished Flying Cross. He was among the most prominent U.S. World War II heroes, shooting down 26 enemy planes. He also served as a colonel in the Air Force in the Korean War. A Republican, he served in the state legislature for five years before becoming governor. Foss also was the first commissioner of the American Football League (1959-66) and hosted the national television show "The American Sportsman" (1964-67). He was chosen president of the National Rifle Association in 1988, serving through 1990.
Fosse, Alexandre François Ghislain burggraaf van der (b. May 20, 1769, Mechelen [now in Antwerp province, Belgium] - d. Feb. 28, 1840, Mechelen), governor of Noord-Brabant (1826-30).
Fossé, Roger (Jules) (b. Sept. 23, 1920, Pavilly, Seine-Inférieure [now Seine-Maritime], France - d. Dec. 18, 1996, Saint-Hellier, Seine-Maritime), president of the Regional Council of Haute-Normandie (1986-92).
Foster, John W(atson) (b. March 2, 1836, Pike county, Ind. - d. Nov. 15, 1917, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of state (1892-93). After service in the Union Army during the Civil War, he was active in Republican affairs in Indiana. He served as minister to Mexico (1873-80), minister to Russia (1880-81), and minister to Spain (1883-85). Appointed secretary of state by Pres. Benjamin Harrison in 1892, Foster tacitly encouraged American interests in Hawaii in their revolt against Queen Liliuokalani and negotiated a treaty (1893) for the annexation of Hawaii (which, at the urging of his successor, Secretary of State Walter Q. Gresham, was withdrawn from Senate consideration by the newly installed administration of Pres. Grover Cleveland). Foster resigned in early 1893 in order to represent the United States in the Bering Sea controversy before an arbitration tribunal at Paris.
Foster, Mike, byname of Murphy James Foster, Jr. (b. July 11, 1930, Shreveport, La.), governor of Louisiana (1996-2004); grandson of Murphy J. Foster. In June 1994 Gov. Edwin Edwards announced he was not running in 1995, leaving as wide open a field as Louisiana has had since 1979. Republicans in the October 1995 open primary included former governor Buddy Roemer and state senator Mike Foster. Democrats included state treasurer Mary Landrieu, attorney Phil Preis, Lieutenant Governor Melinda Schwegmann, state Rep. Robert Adley, and Congressman Cleo Fields. Fields and Foster, their parties' top vote getters with 26% and 19%, respectively, went on to the November election where Foster bested Fields 63%-37%. Foster, a former Democrat who switched parties in the summer of 1995, was the second Republican to be elected governor of Louisiana since Reconstruction. He is a staunch conservative who opposes abortion rights and affirmative action.
Foster, Murphy J(ames) (b. Jan. 12, 1849, Franklin, La. - d. June 12, 1921, Dixie Plantation, near Franklin), governor of Louisiana (1892-1900).
Foster, Sir Robert Sidney (b. Aug. 11, 1913 - d. Oct. 12, 2005, Cambridge, England), high commissioner for the Western Pacific (1964-68) and governor (1968-70) and governor-general (1970-73) of Fiji; knighted 1964.
Foster, William Z(ebulon) (b. Feb. 25, 1881, Taunton, Mass. - d. Sept. 1, 1961, Moscow, U.S.S.R.), U.S. presidential candidate (1924, 1928, 1932). A militant union organizer from 1894, Foster joined the Industrial Workers of the World (1909), which aimed at achieving socialism through industry-wide labour organization. He came into national prominence as an American Federation of Labor leader in the bloody steel strike of 1919. In 1921 the Russian communists designated Foster's Trade Union Educational League (which he had founded in 1920) as the American branch of their Profintern (Red Trade Union International), thereby moving him into the American communist organization as a top leader. He was a candidate three times for president, running on a platform that envisioned the ultimate demise of capitalism and the establishment of a workers' republic. In 1932 Foster suffered a serious heart attack, and party leadership passed to coworker Earl Browder. When the international communist leadership indicated its dissatisfaction with Browder in 1945, Foster again became party chairman. In 1948 he was among the party leaders indicted for subversive activity, but, because of his precarious health, he was not brought to trial. Foster's control of the party was endangered in 1956, when the Soviets' repudiation of Iosif Stalin and their suppression of the Hungarian Revolution caused an upheaval within the party. Foster, who steadfastly defended the Soviet leadership, was made chairman emeritus at the party's national convention in New York City (February 1957) and was thus, in effect, removed from power.
Fotyga, Anna (Elzbieta), née Kawecka (b. Jan. 12, 1957, Lebork, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (2006-07).
Fouché, Jacobus Johannes (b. June 6, 1898, Wepener, Orange Free State - d. Sept. 23, 1980, Cape Town), president of South Africa (1968-74). A dedicated Afrikaner nationalist, he became a Nationalist Party member of Parliament in 1941. As minister of defense (1959-66) he had to deal with the UN embargo on arms supplies and his failure in this respect led to his replacement by Pieter Willem Botha. But Fouché, known to his supporters as "Oom Jim" ("Uncle Jim"), continued to exercise a considerable influence in white South African political affairs and held minor ministerial posts until his appointment as president of the republic.
Fouchet, Christian (b. Nov. 17, 1911, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, France - d. Aug. 11, 1974, Geneva, Switzerland), high commissioner of Algeria (1962) and French education minister (1962-67) and interior minister (1967-68).
Foulkes, Sir Arthur (Alexander) (b. May 11, 1928, Mathew Town, Inagua, Bahamas), governor-general of The Bahamas (2010- ); knighted 2001. He was founding editor (1962-67) of the Bahamian Times, official organ of the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP). He was elected to parliament in 1967 and served in various political offices over the years including minister of communications and minister of tourism in the PLP government. He was one of the Dissident Eight who rejected the leadership of Lynden Pindling in 1970 and was a founder of the Free National Movement in 1971. He was appointed to the Senate in 1972 and 1977 and was reelected to the House of Assembly in 1982. From 1992 he held posts as high commissioner to the United Kingdom and ambassador to France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the European Union, China, and Cuba.
Foureau, Fernand (b. Oct. 17, 1850, Saint-Barbant, Haute-Vienne, France - d. Jan. 17, 1914, Paris), governor of Mayotte (1906-07) and Martinique (1908-13).
Fourès, Augustin Julien (b. June 14, 1853, Pouilly, Oise, France - d. 19...), acting French representative in Cambodia (1881-85), lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1889, 1892-95), acting governor-general of French Indochina (1896-97), and resident-superior of Tonkin (1897-1905).
Fourichon, (Léon) Martin (b. Jan. 10, 1809, Thiviers, Dordogne, France - d. Nov. 24, 1884, Paris), governor of French Guiana (1853-54).
Fourneau, Alfred (Louis) (b. June 14, 1860, Rambouillet, Yvelines, France - d. May 1930, Paris), administrator of Chad (1902-03), lieutenant governor of Gabon (1905-06), and acting commissioner-general of French Congo (1906-07).
Fourneau, Jacques (Georges) (b. April 9, 1901 - d. May 20, 1956), acting governor of French Guinea (1944-46) and lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1947-50); son of Alfred Fourneau; nephew of Lucien Fourneau.
Fourneau, Lucien (Louis) (b. Feb. 16, 1867, Saint-Cyr-l'Ecole, Yvelines, France - d. Aug. 3, 1930, Perros-Guirec, Côtes-du-Nord [now Côtes-d'Armor], France), lieutenant governor of Oubangui-Chari (1909-10) and Middle Congo (1911-16) and commissioner of French Cameroons (1916-19).
Fournier, Albéric (Auguste), lieutenant governor of Mauritania (1926-28) and Upper Volta (1928-32) and acting commissioner of French Cameroons (1932).
Fournier, Hubert (b. Sept. 13, 1948, Paris), prefect of Réunion (1992-95).
Fournier, Jean-René (b. Dec. 18, 1957), president of the Council of State of Valais (2000-01, 2004-05).
Fousset, Louis Jacques (Eugène) (b. July 18, 1882 - d. May 11, 1949), governor of French Sudan (1931-35) and Martinique (1935-36).
Fowler, Henry H(ammill) (b. Sept. 5, 1908, Roanoke, Va. - d. Jan. 3, 2000, Alexandria, Va.), U.S. treasury secretary (1965-68). In his native Virginia, Fowler was an opponent of the state political machine led by Sen. Harry F. Byrd. At the state's 1956 Democratic convention, nine of the 10 congressional districts supported a move to withdraw state support from nominee Adlai Stevenson. Fowler was a leading delegate in the lone northern Virginia district that remained loyal to the national ticket, prompting shouts of "Yankee, go home!" at the state convention. Some encouraged Fowler to run for governor against the Byrd machine, but Fowler never did so. Fowler's tenure as treasury secretary saw the last federal budget without a deficit until 1998. Fowler guided fiscal policy while the Vietnam War was expanding and the government was pursuing a more active social policy, a time when Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson insisted that the nation could afford both guns and butter. He lobbied within the administration for a 10% tax increase, which Johnson opposed because he didn't think Congress would accept it. The increase finally went through in 1968. Despite the disagreement, Fowler remained a strong backer of Johnson. Fowler also is known for the creation of so-called "paper gold," a special reserve currency used to bolster the nation's gold reserves when the strength of the dollar waned in early 1968.
Fox Quesada, Vicente (b. July 2, 1942, Mexico City), president of Mexico (2000-06). Mexico's difficult economy during the 1980s convinced Fox that the country needed new leadership. In 1988, as a candidate of the centre-right National Action Party (PAN), he ran for a seat in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of Mexico's legislature, and was elected. After serving one term he ran for governor of Guanajuato but lost in an election during which charges of fraud were made. In 1995 he again ran for governor and was elected. On July 2, 2000, he was elected president of Mexico and thereby ended 71 uninterrupted years of rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). As the PAN candidate, Fox won approximately 43% of the vote to 36% for PRI candidate Francisco Labastida Ochoa and 16.5% for Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas of the leftist Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD). After his election Fox, at one time president of the Mexican subsidiary of the Coca-Cola Co., said that he planned to run a "businesslike" administration and that "the main problem of Mexico is development ... growth of the economy, it's getting the jobs that we need, it's sharing the income, redistributing income." He also pledged to end the cronyism that had been prevalent in PRI administrations, saying he would "make sure we get the best men and best women this country has for each of the positions. It's a little bit like we do it in companies." During the sometimes stormy presidential campaign, the almost 2-m-tall Fox lashed out at Labastida, calling him "shorty" and ridiculing him as an "errand boy" for the PRI. After the election Fox broke precedent by apologizing in person to Labastida and other opponents he had criticized.
Foxley (Rioseco), Alejandro (Tomás) (b. May 26, 1939, Viña del Mar, Chile), finance minister (1990-94) and foreign minister (2006-09) of Chile.
Fradkov, Mikhail (Yefimovich) (b. Sept. 1, 1950, Kuybyshev, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Samara, Russia]), prime minister of Russia (2004-07). Since 1975 he slowly climbed the bureaucratic ladder at the Soviet (later Russian) ministry of external trade. After serving for a couple of years at Russian mission to GATT, on Oct. 19, 1992, he was appointed deputy minister of external trade. On Oct. 12, 1993, he was promoted to the position of first deputy minister of external trade. At last, after another government reshuffle on April 16, 1997, Pres. Boris Yeltsin named Fradkov minister of external trade. In another government reshuffle on April 30, 1998, his ministry was abolished, but a new Ministry of Trade was later established, and on May 25, 1999, Fradkov became minister again. In May 2000 that ministry was also abolished and Fradkov was transferred to the Security Council, becoming its first deputy secretary on May 31, 2000. On March 28, 2001, Pres. Vladimir Putin appointed Fradkov to head the powerful Federal Tax Police. However, this department was also abolished in March 2003. Fradkov was sent to Brussels as Russian ambassador at the European Commission, seen by most as an honourable exile. On March 1, 2004, Putin surprised virtually all experts by designating Fradkov to the position of prime minister. But the State Duma was too loyal to be surprised and on March 5, it confirmed Fradkov as prime minister (352-58 with 24 abstentions). On May 12, after the start of Putin's second term, the Duma again confirmed Fradkov in the post (356-72 with 8 abstentions). Many said that Fradkov proved to be the most colourless and uninfluential prime minister after 1991. He was completely overshadowed by Putin and never lived up to the title of Russia's number two. In 2007 he became director of the External Intelligence Service.
Fraga Iribarne, Manuel (b. Nov. 23, 1922, Vilalba, Galicia, Spain - d. Jan. 15, 2012, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. He was information and tourism minister (1962-69), ambassador to the U.K. (1973-75), deputy prime minister and interior minister (1975-76), chairman of the Popular Alliance (1979-86) and the Popular Party (1989-90), and president of the Xunta of Galicia (1990-2005).
Franc, Lubomír (b. Aug. 28, 1953, Broumov, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Královéhradecký kraj (2008- ).
Franchini, Alessandro (d. March 1836), member of the Council of State of Ticino (1834-36).
Francia (y Velasco), José Gaspar Rodríguez de (b. Jan. 6, 1766, Asunción, Río de la Plata [now in Paraguay] - d. Sept. 20, 1840, Asunción, Paraguay), supreme dictator of Paraguay (1814-40). In 1811 he became secretary to the junta that had overthrown Spanish rule. Not content with freedom from Spain, Francia in 1813 declared independence from Argentina (though Paraguay's only tie to the outer world lay on the river route through Buenos Aires) and became one of two consuls of the republic. The next year he was elected supreme dictator, and in 1816 perpetual supreme dictator. The word "dictator" at the time did not yet have the present meaning of "tyrant" - although he in fact was one. Determined to keep his country independent, he forbade all river traffic to Argentina and banned all foreign commerce. Paraguay thus became a hermit nation, few people being permitted to enter or leave. Francia, or "El Supremo," fostered internal industries and modern methods of farming and livestock raising which brought the nation to a primitive level of self-sufficiency. He organized and equipped the army, abolished the Inquisition, suppressed the college of theology, did away with the tithes, and deprived the aristocracy of their privileges. Francia was a frugal ruler but unspeakably cruel.
Francini, Loris (b. Aug. 12, 1962, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent (1998, 2006) and secretary of state for internal affairs (2002-05) of San Marino.
Franciosi, Carlo (b. April 1, 1935, Serravalle, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1987).
Francis, Larry (b. April 23, 1933, San Antonio, Texas), mayor of El Paso (1993-97).
Francis, Mayann E(lizabeth) (b. Sydney, N.S.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (2006-12).
Francis, Nathaniel J.S., byname Bops Francis (b. May 6, 1912, Grand Turk island, Turks and Caicos Islands - d. early August 2004), chief minister of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1985-86).
Franciscus, English Francis, original name Jorge Mario Bergoglio (Sívori) (b. Dec. 17, 1936, Buenos Aires, Argentina), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (2013- ). Archbishop of Buenos Aires from 1998 and a cardinal from 2001, he became the first Jesuit pope and the first from the Western Hemisphere.
Francisque, (Marie Joseph) Édouard (b. Sept. 12, 1928, Cap-Haïtien, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1981-82). He was a presidential candidate in 2006, winning 0.3% of the vote.
Franck, Antonio (Gabriel) (b. Nov. 27, 1927), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1975-76).
Franco, Adolpho de Oliveira (b. Nov. 12, 1915, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil - d. March 9, 2008), governor of Paraná (1955-56).
Franco, Albano do Prado Pimentel (b. Nov. 22, 1940), governor of Sergipe (1995-2003); son of Augusto do Prado Franco.
Franco, Augusto do Prado (b. Sept. 4, 1912, Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Dec. 15, 2003, Aracaju, Sergipe), governor of Sergipe (1979-82).
Franco (Gómez), (Luis) Federico (b. July 23, 1962, Asunción, Paraguay), vice president (2008-12) and president (2012- ) of Paraguay.
Franco (y Bahamonde), Francisco (Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo), byname El Caudillo (the Leader) (b. Dec. 4, 1892, El Ferrol, Galicia, Spain - d. Nov. 20, 1975, Madrid), Spanish head of state (1939-75). In May 1935 he was appointed chief of the Spanish Army's general staff. The leftist Popular Front won elections in 1936, but the new government was unable to prevent the accelerating dissolution of Spain's social and economic structure. Franco was removed from the general staff and sent to an obscure command in the Canary Islands. On July 18, 1936, Franco's manifesto acclaiming military rebellion was broadcast from the Canary Islands, and the same day the rising began on the mainland. The following day he flew to Morocco and within 24 hours was firmly in control of the protectorate and the Spanish Army garrisoning it. After landing in Spain, he and his army marched toward Madrid. In preparation of what they believed was the final assault that would deliver the country into their hands, the Nationalists decided to choose a commander in chief, or generalissimo, who would also head the rebel Nationalist government in opposition to the republic. Franco was the obvious choice. He became head of state of the new Nationalist regime on Oct. 1, 1936. The rebel government did not, however, gain complete control of the country until April 1, 1939. The tens of thousands of executions carried out by the Nationalist regime, which continued during the first years after the war ended, earned Franco more reproach than any other aspect of his rule. During World War II he kept Spain neutral. A 1947 referendum made the Spanish state a monarchy and ratified Franco's powers as a sort of regent for life. In 1969 he designated Juan Carlos as his official successor upon his death.
Franco, Itamar (Augusto Cautiero) (b. June 28, 1930, on board a ship between Salvador and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. July 2, 2011, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Brazil (1992-95). He served (1966-74) as mayor of Juiz de Fora. He was a founding member of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB) when it was the only opposition party permitted under military rule. He was a senator for 16 years, leading committees on economy and finance (1983-84) and investigating corruption (in the late 1980s). He lost a bid to be governor of Minas Gerais in 1986 but was later picked by Fernando Collor to balance the ticket and thus became vice president in 1990. He became acting president on Oct. 2, 1992, when Collor was suspended, and was sworn in as president on Dec. 29, 1992, serving until Jan. 1, 1995, when Fernando Henrique Cardoso became president. On Jan. 1, 1999, he began a four-year term as governor of Minas Gerais. He stopped paying the state's debt on January 6, blocked a plan to reduce layoffs at auto plants, and refused to meet Cardoso, whose irritation turned into public rage. Cardoso needed the cooperation of governors to cut the country's huge budget deficit, as Brazil promised it would do to get an International Monetary Fund loan. The action by Brazil's third-wealthiest state alarmed investors, who pulled dollars out of the country. When the drain hadn't stopped a week later, Cardoso's government was forced to devalue the currency, which plunged 40%. But Franco's feud with Cardoso was more than financial. Franco had never forgiven Cardoso (who was finance minister at the time) for "stealing" credit for the Plano Real, the economic program that slashed inflation from 2,700% in 1993 to about 2% in 1998. Franco left the PMDB in December 1999 after failing to win the party's backing to split with Cardoso's alliance.
Franco (Ferreira Pinto Castelo Branco), João (b. Feb. 14, 1855, Alcaide, eastern Portugal - d. April 1929, Lisbon), interior minister (1893-97, 1906-08) and prime minister (1906-08) of Portugal. He took office in May 1906 with a programme of reforming the national finances and administration by constitutional means if possible. The Cortes was dissolved in June and an election was held at which it was promised that all votes should be fairly counted; the Franquistas or "New Regenerators" obtained a majority. When the new Cortes met in September the king was charged by the opposition with complicity in grave financial scandals; the Republican deputies even accused him of trying to assign the tobacco monopoly in payment of one of his own foreign creditors. Franco sought to organize a coalition in defense of the crown, but early in 1907 business in the Cortes was brought to a standstill. The ministry appeared to be doomed, and the old "Rotativist" politicians prepared once more to divide the spoils of office. On May 2, however, Franco struck his blow. He obtained the dissolution of the Cortes, and announced that certain measures still under discussion should have forthwith the force of law. With the support not only of the king and the army but also of many Portuguese who hailed with joy the advent of an honest dictator, Franco was able to carry some useful reforms. But certain transactions in regard to the king's debts aroused so much indignation that rebellion was widely and openly advocated. On Feb. 1, 1908, King Carlos and his elder son were assassinated. Franco was sent into exile by the dynasty. The Rotativist politicians regained their power, but soon had to give way to the Republican revolution effected in October 1910. Franco, who had returned to Portugal, was arrested but acquitted by the Supreme Court in January 1911.
Franco (Gómez), Julio César, byname Yoyito (b. April 17, 1951, Fernando de la Mora, Paraguay), vice president of Paraguay (2000-02).
Franco, Manuel (b. June 9, 1871, Concepción, Paraguay - d. June 5, 1919, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1916-19).
Franco (Ojeda), Rafael (de la Cruz) (b. Oct. 22, 1896, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Sept. 16, 1973), provisional president of Paraguay (1936-37). He led a military insurrection in February 1936 and founded the still extant Partido Revolucionario Febrerista.
François, Jacques (Arthur) (d. April 13, 1987), foreign minister of Haiti (1986).
François, Joseph (Pascal) (b. June 27, 1853, Montpellier, Hérault, France - d. 19...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1889-96) and governor of French India (1905-06) and the French Settlements in Oceania (1908-10).
François, Pierre (Claude Emmanuel) (b. Dec. 28, 1869 - d. Aug. 15, 1933), acting lieutenant governor of Oubangui-Chari (1923-24).
François-Marsal, Frédéric (b. March 16, 1874, Paris - d. May 28, 1958, Gisors, Eure, France), finance minister (1920-21, 1924), prime minister (1924), and acting president (1924) of France.
François-Poncet, Jean (André) (b. Dec. 8, 1928, Paris, France - d. July 18, 2012, Paris), foreign minister of France (1978-81).
Franjieh, Hamid (Kabalan), also spelled Hamid Frangié, Arabic Hamid Faranjiyya (b. Aug. 6, 1907, Ehden, northern Lebanon, Ottoman Empire - d. Sept. 5, 1981, Beirut, Lebanon), Lebanese politician; brother of Suleiman Franjieh (1910-1992). He entered politics as a fervent nationalist, became finance minister for the first time in 1938, a post he also held in 1944-45, and was foreign minister several times for different governments, the first time in 1941-42 and the last time in 1955. He also aspired to the presidency, but was defeated in 1952 by Camille Chamoun, who had greater support from central Lebanon. After his resignation in 1955 Franjieh, who was then associated with a group supporting the policies of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, was forced to withdraw from political activity in 1957 because of illness.
Franjieh, Suleiman (Kabalan), also spelled Soleiman Frangié, Arabic Sulayman Faranjiyya (b. June 15, 1910, Zgharta, northern Lebanon, Ottoman Empire - d. July 23, 1992, Beirut, Lebanon), president of Lebanon (1970-76). In 1957 he was implicated in the murder of several members of a rival clan and fled to Syria, where he became friends with Hafez al-Assad, later to become president of Syria (1971). Franjieh soon returned to Lebanon to succeed his elder brother, Hamid, as clan leader, and after being elected to his brother's former seat in parliament (1960) he held a succession of ministerial posts, including posts and telegraphs (1960-61), agriculture (1961), interior (1968), economy (1968-70), and justice (1968-69). On Aug. 17, 1970, parliament elected Franjieh president by one vote on the third ballot, but he soon alienated Muslims and Christians alike by his autocratic rule and his promotion of inept and corrupt clansmen, notably his son Tony. He was considered to be in large part responsible for the country's descent into civil war in the mid-1970s. In June 1976, shortly before he left office, Franjieh reportedly invited Assad to send troops into Lebanon to assist the Maronite Christians against left-wing Muslim and Palestinian forces. Rival clans who opposed Syrian intervention allied themselves with Israel. In June 1978, members of the Phalange, a rival Christian militia, murdered Tony along with his wife and daughter, thus cementing the rift between the clans and precluding a quick end to the war.
Franjieh, Suleiman, also spelled Soleiman Frangié, Arabic Sulayman Faranjiyya (b. Oct. 18, 1964, Zgharta, northern Lebanon), interior minister of Lebanon (2004-05); grandson of Suleiman Franjieh (1910-1992). He was also minister of public health (1996-98, 2000-04) and agriculture (1998-2000).
Frank, Charles (Raphael, Jr.) (b. May 15, 1937, Pittsburgh, Pa.), first vice president (1997-2001) and acting president (1998, 2000) of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Frank, Edouard, prime minister of the Central African Republic (1991-92).
Franklin, Sir John (b. April 16, 1786, Spilsby, Lincolnshire, England - d. June 11, 1847, near King William Island [now in Nunavut, Canada]), lieutenant governor of Tasmania (1837-43); knighted 1829.
Franklin, Shirley (Clarke) (b. May 10, 1945, Philadelphia, Pa.), mayor of Atlanta (2002-10).
Franko, Ivan (b. Dec. 31, 1922, Skofja Loka, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), justice minister of Yugoslavia (1974-78).
Franks, Tommy (Ray) (b. June 17, 1945, Wynnewood, Okla.), commander-in-chief of U.S. Central Command (2000-03) and in that capacity commander of the U.S. forces in Iraq (2003).
Franssen, Jan (b. June 11, 1951, Hilversum, Noord-Holland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (2000- ).
Franz I, in full Franz de Paula Maria Karl August (b. Aug. 28, 1853, Liechtenstein Castle, near Mödling, Austria - d. July 25, 1938, Feldsberg, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prince of Liechtenstein (1929-38).
Franz Josef II, in full Franz Josef Maria Aloys Alfred Karl Johannes Heinrich Michael Georg Ignatius Benediktus Gerhardus Majella von und zu Liechtenstein (b. Aug. 16, 1906, Frauenthal Castle, near Deutschlandsberg, Austria - d. Nov. 13, 1989, Grabs, Switzerland), prince of Liechtenstein (1938-89). Soon after he was appointed to the throne by his great uncle Franz (July 26, 1938), Germany annexed Austria. Franz Josef II oversaw the formation of a national coalition government that kept Europe's fourth-smallest nation neutral during World War II. In 1945 Liechtenstein refused Soviet demands to extradite some 500 Soviet citizens who had sought refuge there. The production of high-technology goods in association with Switzerland built a strong industrial base. The family-owned bank in Liechtenstein - with branches in London, Zürich, New York, and Frankfurt - made the principality a desirable tax haven for wealthy individuals and an estimated 30,000 to 80,000 foreign companies. Among family holdings were forests in Austria, real estate in Vienna, and an estimated 1,400 paintings by such old masters as Rembrandt, Peter Paul Rubens, and Anthony Van Dyck. In 1984 women earned voting rights in the country, and Franz Josef II transferred much of his executive power to his son and successor, Hans Adam II.
Franz Josef II
Franz Joseph I, in full Franz Joseph Karl, Hungarian Ferenc József Károly (b. Aug. 18, 1830, Schloss Schönbrunn, near Vienna - d. Nov. 21, 1916, Schloss Schönbrunn), emperor of Austria and king of Hungary (1848-1916). He was the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl and Sophia, daughter of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. When revolution spread to the capitals of the Austrian Empire, Franz Joseph was proclaimed emperor at Olmütz (Olomouc) on Dec. 2, 1848, after the abdication of the emperor Ferdinand - the rights of his father to the throne having been passed over. In external affairs Prime Minister Felix Fürst zu Schwarzenberg achieved a powerful position for Austria. In home affairs, however, Schwarzenberg's harsh rule and the formation of an intolerant police apparatus evoked a latent mood of rebellion. After Schwarzenberg's death (1852), Franz Joseph decided not to replace him as prime minister and took a greater part in politics himself. Ill-fated wars in 1859 and 1866 resulted in the loss of the territories of Lombardy and Venetia. In 1867 it became obvious that a compromise had to be made with the restive Hungarians. The result was the kaiserliche und königliche Doppelmonarchie, the "imperial and royal Dual Monarchy" in which an Austrian and a Hungarian half coexisted in equal partnership. In the period 1908-14 Franz Joseph held fast to his peace policy in the face of warnings by the chief of the general staff, Franz Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf, who repeatedly advocated a preventive war against Serbia or Italy. Yet, without having fully thought out the consequences, he let himself in July 1914 be persuaded by Graf Leopold Berchtold, the foreign minister, to issue the intransigent ultimatum to Serbia that led to World War I.
Franz Joseph I
Franzoni, (Giovanni) Matteo (Francesco Maria) (b. Oct. 2, 1682, Genoa - d. Jan. 11, 1767, Genoa), doge of Genoa (1758-60).
Fraser, (John) Malcolm (b. May 21, 1930, Nareen, Victoria), prime minister of Australia (1975-83). He was elected a Liberal member of parliament in 1955. He held cabinet posts in the coalition government of the Liberal and National Country (since 1982 National) parties as minister for the army (1966-68), as minister for education and science (1968-69, 1971-72), and as minister for defense (1969-71). In March 1975 Fraser won the leadership of the Liberal Party, and in November he was named prime minister after the Labor government - which had been in power since 1972 - had been dismissed; his appointment received electoral approval in December, when the Liberal and National Country parties won by large majorities, and he set up another coalition government. As prime minister Fraser attempted to curb inflation by such orthodox measures as trimming government spending and discouraging union demands for large wage increases. He was also a firm supporter of Australia's defense commitments within the ANZUS Pact alliance. Fraser's government was again successful in elections held in 1977 and 1980, but it was defeated by the Labor Party in an election held in March 1983. Fraser immediately resigned as party leader and shortly thereafter resigned his seat in parliament. He was a critic of the Liberal government of John Howard (1996-2007), and in December 2009 he quit the Liberal Party, considering it had become too conservative.
Fraser, Peter (b. Aug. 28, 1884, Fearn, Ross, Scotland - d. Dec. 12, 1950, Wellington), prime minister of New Zealand (1940-49). While in London in 1908, he joined the Independent Labour Party, but he emigrated to New Zealand in 1910, where he was active in union organizing in Auckland and in the harshly repressed Waihi and Wellington strikes of 1912-13. He helped organize the Social Democratic Party in 1913 and its successor, the Labour Party, in 1916. He was imprisoned for sedition (1916-17) when he opposed conscription for World War I. In 1918 he entered Parliament, and soon became secretary of the Labour Party. When Labour came into power in 1935, he became minister of education, health, marine, and police. He was responsible for legislation that revised the educational system, especially at the secondary level, and for the Social Security Act (1938), which created a national health service and improved pensions. Fraser succeeded Michael Joseph Savage as prime minister in 1940 and led the country's mobilization for war. He won a voice for New Zealand in Allied military strategy in the Pacific and presided over a successful wartime price stabilization program organized by his minister of finance, Walter Nash. As one of the architects of the United Nations (1945) and a contributor to the UN Charter, Fraser was a spokesman for the rights of small nations, arguing unsuccessfully both against veto power for the great powers and for guaranteed aid to nations facing aggression. Union unrest and discontent with economic controls and with Fraser's legislation for peacetime conscription led to Labour's defeat in November 1949 after 15 years in office. Fraser then led the opposition in Parliament until his death the following year.
Frashëri, Mehdi (Abdyl) Bej (b. Feb. 28, 1872, Frashër, southern Albania - d. May 25, 1963, Rome, Italy), prime minister (1935-36) and chairman of the High Council of Regency (1943-44) of Albania.
Frattini, Franco (b. March 14, 1957, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (2002-04, 2008-11). In 2004-08 he was European commissioner for justice, freedom, and security.
Frckoski, Ljubomir (Danailov), also spelled Frckovski (b. Dec. 2, 1957, Skopje, Macedonia), interior minister (1991-96) and foreign minister (1996-97) of Macedonia. He was a presidential candidate in 2009.
Frébault, Charles Victor (b. Feb. 1, 1813, Saint-Jean-aux-Amognes village, Nièvre, France - d. Feb. 6, 1888, Paris), governor of Guadeloupe (1860-64).
Frêche, Georges (b. July 9, 1938, Puylaurens, Tarn, France - d. Oct. 24, 2010, Montpellier, Hérault, France), mayor of Montpellier (1977-2004) and president of the Regional Council of Languedoc-Roussillon (2004-10).
Frederik (André Henrik Christian) (b. May 26, 1968, Copenhagen, Denmark), crown prince of Denmark. On May 14, 2004, he married Mary Elizabeth Donaldson (b. Feb. 5, 1972, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia).
Frederik VIII, in full Christian Frederik Vilhelm Carl (b. June 3, 1843, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. May 14, 1912, Hamburg, Germany), king of Denmark (1906-12). He was an uncle of King George V of Britain. During the disastrous Danish-German War of 1864, in which Denmark lost the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg, he served as a lieutenant in North Jutland. He then assisted his father, Christian IX, in affairs of state and acted occasionally as regent. On his accession as king, he chose Berlin as the second foreign court which he visited, and the relations with Germany improved. In 1907, he formed a commission to draft a partial home rule bill for Iceland, but nothing came of it. His popularity was based on his sincerity in politics, his congeniality, and his simple lifestyle.
Frederik IX, in full Christian Frederik Franz Michael Carl Valdemar Georg (b. March 11, 1899, Sorgenfri Castle, near Copenhagen - d. Jan. 14, 1972, Copenhagen), king of Denmark (1947-72). The eldest son of the future king Christian X and Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Frederik became crown prince in 1912 and joined the Danish Navy in 1917. He rose to the rank of commander by 1935 and in 1946 became rear admiral. He married Ingrid (also in 1935), the only daughter of the crown prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden; their children were Margrethe, Benedikte, and Anne-Marie. He gave encouragement to the Danish resistance movement against the German occupation during World War II and, along with his father, Christian X, was imprisoned by the Germans (1943-45). Frederik acted as regent for his father in 1942 and 1947 and succeeded to the throne on his father's death on April 20, 1947. A highly popular monarch, he maintained the ties of affection between the people and the royal house. In June 1953 he signed a new constitution that provided for female succession to the throne and reduced Parliament to one house. In 1964 his daughter Anne-Marie married King Constantine II of Greece, who was exiled in 1967. On his death in January 1972, Frederik was succeeded by his daughter Margrethe.
Fredrik I, German Friedrich I (b. April 17, 1676, Kassel, Hesse-Kassel [Germany] - d. March 25, 1751, Stockholm, Sweden), king of Sweden (1720-51) and landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (1730-51).
Freeh, Louis (Joseph) (b. Jan. 6, 1950, Jersey City, N.J.), director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1993-2001). He joined the FBI in 1975 and spent a number of years investigating the infiltration of organized crime into the longshoremen's labour union. In 1981, Freeh joined the office of the United States Attorney as a federal prosecutor, where he continued to target organized crime. As a judge, Freeh led a prosecution team in 1987 that convicted defendants in the "pizza connection," an international Mafia drug ring. He was named FBI director by Pres. Bill Clinton on July 20, 1993, and was confirmed by the Senate on Aug. 6, 1993. He replaced William S. Sessions, who was dismissed from the post on July 19, 1993.
Freeman, Myra (Ava), née Holtzman (b. May 17, 1949, Saint John, N.B., Canada), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (2000-06).
Freeman, Orville L(othrop) (b. May 9, 1918, Minneapolis, Minn. - d. Feb. 20, 2003, Minneapolis), governor of Minnesota (1955-61) and U.S. agriculture secretary (1961-69). A decorated former U.S. Marine who was wounded during World War II, Freeman returned from the war to help Hubert Humphrey create Minnesota's Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, as the Democrats are known in the state. They also created the Humphrey Institute of public policy at the University of Minnesota. Freeman served three two-year terms as governor of Minnesota, first elected in 1954 when he was only 36 years old. He was defeated for reelection amid fallout from a decision to use National Guard troops to close a strike-hit meatpacking plant, though he gained praise from the labour movement for aiding the strikers. As vice president, his longtime ally Humphrey helped Freeman become Pres. John F. Kennedy's agriculture secretary, a job he held for eight years under Kennedy and successor Lyndon B. Johnson. Freeman aggressively promoted U.S. farm sales overseas and was credited with boosting farmers' incomes.
Freeman, Ron(ald Michael) (b. July 23, 1939, New York City), acting president of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (1993).
Freeth, Sir Gordon (b. Aug. 6, 1914, Angaston, South Australia - d. Nov. 27, 2001, Perth, Western Australia), interior minister (1958-63) and foreign minister (1969) of Australia; knighted 1978.
Frei Montalva, Eduardo (Nicanor) (b. Jan. 16, 1911, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 22, 1982, Santiago), president of Chile (1964-70). He helped organize a youth department within the Chilean Conservative Party in 1935. In 1938, disillusioned with the Conservative Party, he joined other youth department leaders to form the National Falange, an anti-fascist social Christian party. He was elected president of the Falange in 1941, 1943, and 1945. He served as minister of public works in the coalition cabinets of presidents José Antonio Ríos in 1945-46 and Gabriel González Videla in 1946-49. In 1949 he was elected to the Senate. In 1957 the Falange joined with the Social Christian Conservatives to form the Christian Democratic Party. Frei placed third as the party's presidential candidate in 1958, as the party showed increasing strength at the expense of the Conservatives, and by 1964 his presidential candidacy appeared to be the only effective alternative to Marxism. While Salvador Allende, the candidate of the leftist coalition, called for nationalization, Frei offered a moderate program of "Chileanization" of U.S.-owned copper interests. He won a decisive victory and in 1965 also won control of the lower house of Congress. Although he raised expectations of major change, he achieved only mixed success. His plan for 51% Chilean control of copper mining was thought to be still too favourable to U.S. corporate interests. His administration was harassed by labour unrest and persistent inflation. His agrarian-reform policies did not achieve expected objectives, but progress was made in expanding educational opportunities for the impoverished. Unable to succeed himself, he retired in 1970. His death in 1982, during the Augusto Pinochet regime, was ascribed to natural causes, but in 2007 his family said new evidence showed that he was murdered.
Frei Ruiz-Tagle, Eduardo (Alfredo Juan Bernardo) (b. June 24, 1942, Santiago, Chile), president of Chile (1994-2000); son of Eduardo Frei Montalva. He was president of the Senate in 2006-08 and unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2009-10.
Freire, Fernando Antônio da Câmara (b. March 22, 1954, Recife), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (2002-03).
Freitas, Paulin (Jacinto Kofi de) (b. Dec. 3, 1909, Lomé, Togo - d. May 17, 1989, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), foreign minister of Togo (1960-63).
Freitas do Amaral, Diogo (Pinto de) (b. July 21, 1941, Póvoa do Varzim, Portugal), foreign minister (1980-81, 2005-06) and acting prime minister (1980-81) of Portugal and president of the UN General Assembly (1995-96).
Freivalds, Laila (Ligita) (b. June 22, 1942, Riga, Latvia), foreign minister of Sweden (2003-06). She was justice minister in 1988-91 and 1994-2000.
Frémeur, Jean Toussaint de la Pierre, marquis de (b. 1697 - d. April 2, 1759, Mahon, Minorca), governor of Minorca (1758-59).
Frémont, John C(harles) (b. Jan. 21, 1813, Savannah, Ga. - d. July 13, 1890, New York City), U.S. presidential candidate (1856). When war with Mexico over the annexation of Texas seemed imminent, he threw his support behind a small group of dissident Americans near Sonoma, Calif., who started an unofficial uprising and created the Bear Flag Republic. When news of the declaration of war with Mexico (May 1846) reached California, Frémont was appointed by Commodore Robert F. Stockton as major of a battalion and, with Stockton, completed the conquest of the future 31st state. Gen. Stephen Watts Kearny meanwhile entered California from the southeast with orders to establish a government, leading to an obvious conflict of authority. Frémont accepted California's capitulation from Mexican officials at Cahuenga Pass, and Stockton appointed him military governor of California. Kearny, however, had Frémont arrested and court-martialed in Washington, D.C., in 1847-48 for disobedience. He was sentenced to dismissal from the army, and although his penalty was set aside by Pres. James K. Polk, Frémont resigned. In 1850 he was elected one of the state's first two senators. A firm opponent of slavery, he was nominated for the presidency in 1856 by the new Republican Party. In the election he was defeated by the Democratic candidate, James Buchanan, but he came closer to uniting the electorate of the North and West against the South than had any previous candidate. He served unsuccessfully as a Union officer in the American Civil War and resigned from the army (1862) a second time. He was considered for the presidential nomination again in 1864 but withdrew to avoid dividing the party. In 1878, he was appointed governor of Arizona Territory, where he served until 1883.
French, Neville Arthur Irwin (b. April 28, 1920 - d. April 21, 1996), governor of the Falkland Islands (1975-77).
Frendo, Michael (b. July 29, 1955, Floriana, Malta), foreign minister of Malta (2004-08). In 2010 he became speaker of the House of Representatives.
Frenette, J(oseph) Raymond (b. April 16, 1935, Beresford, N.B.), premier of New Brunswick (1997-98). A former councillor for the City of Moncton and the former village of Lewisville, Frenette was first elected MLA for Moncton East in 1974. He was reelected in 1978, 1982, 1987, 1991, and 1995. He was named interim leader of the Liberal Party of New Brunswick on Aug. 15, 1983, and retained that position until March 4, 1985. During his 13 years as a member of the official opposition, Frenette served on legislative standing committees on economic development, energy, estimates, law amendments, legislative administration, municipalities, municipalities and corporations, privileges, procedure, public accounts and standing rules. He was a member of the select committees on alcohol and drug abuse, Maritime affairs and Canada's future, and motor vehicle and highway safety. He has been the finance, health, energy and municipalities critic. In 1979-80 he was Opposition House Leader. On Oct. 27, 1987, he was sworn in as minister of health and community services and appointed Government House Leader. Following his re-election in 1991, he was appointed chairman of the New Brunswick Power Corporation. He continued as Government House Leader and was also a member of the Board of Management. Following the 1995 election, he was named deputy premier, president of the Executive Council and re-appointed Government House Leader. On Oct. 13, 1997, he was sworn in as New Brunswick's 28th premier.
Frère-Orban, (Hubert Joseph) Walthère (b. April 22, 1812, Liège, France [now in Belgium] - d. Jan. 2, 1896, Brussels), prime minister of Belgium (1868-70, 1878-84). A strong advocate of free trade, he played a prominent part in the Liberal movement. He was sent in 1847 to the Chamber of Representatives as a member from Liège and two months later received the portfolio of public works. For 47 years he served as the leading Liberal member of the lower house in addition to holding many ministerial posts. As minister of finance (1848-52), he founded the Banque Nationale, abolished the newspaper tax, reduced the postage, and modified the customs duties as a preliminary to a decided free-trade policy. To facilitate negotiations for a new commercial treaty, he conceded to France a law of copyright, which proved highly unpopular in Belgium. He resigned and the rest of the cabinet soon followed him. Finance minister again in 1857, he embodied his free-trade principles in commercial treaties with Great Britain and France and abolished the octroi duties (local import taxes) and tolls on national roads. Becoming prime minister in 1868, he defeated a French attempt to gain control of the Luxembourg railways (1869). In his second term, he provoked the bitter opposition of Belgium's Catholic party by establishing secular primary education (1879) and by breaking off diplomatic relations with the Vatican (1880). Although he grudgingly conceded an extension of the franchise (1883), the hostility of the Radicals and the discontent caused by a financial crisis resulted in the overthrow of his government in the elections of 1884. He continued to lead the Liberal opposition until being unseated in the elections of October 1894.
Frèrejean, (Joseph Benoît) Louis (b. April 3, 1862, Perpignan, Pyrénées-Orientales, France - d. 19..., Amélie-les-Bains, Pyrénées-Orientales), acting commissioner of Mauritania (1905).
Fretheim, Thorstein (John Ohnstad) (b. May 10, 1886, Hamar, Hedmark, Norway - d. June 29, 1971, Søndre Land, Oppland, Norway), Norwegian politician. He was one of the provisional council of state instituted under the German occupation and continued in the Vidkun Quisling government in his capacity as secretary/minister of agriculture. After liberation he was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.
Frey, Emil (Johann Rudolf) (b. Oct. 24, 1838, Arlesheim, Basel-Land, Switzerland - d. Dec. 24, 1922, Arlesheim), president of the National Council (1875-76), defense minister (1891-97), and president (1894) of Switzerland.
Frey, Roger (b. June 11, 1913, Nouméa, New Caledonia - d. Sept. 13, 1997, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France), French politician. When World War II broke out, he enlisted in the French armed forces, fighting in the Pacific, Africa, Italy, France, and Germany. His destiny crossed with Charles de Gaulle's in 1947, when the general founded the Rally of the French People of which Frey became a leading member. In 1958-59 he was general secretary of the Union for the New Republic. De Gaulle made him information minister (1959-60) and interior minister (1961-67). Frey was in charge of the brutal fight against the Secret Army Organization (OAS), a group of French settlers opposed to independence in Algeria. The organization conducted a guerrilla war against French forces - both in Algeria and in France - and de Gaulle narrowly escaped several assassination attempts. Frey's agents helped destroy the OAS network, and France granted Algeria independence in 1962. Frey was subsequently minister of relations with parliament (1967-71) and administrative reforms (1971-73) and in 1974 he was named head of the Constitutional Council, one of France's top legal bodies, a post he held until 1983.
Freyberg (of Wellington in New Zealand and of Munstead in the County of Surrey), Bernard Cyril Freyberg, (1st) Baron (b. March 21, 1889, Richmond, Surrey, England - d. July 4, 1963, Windsor, Berkshire, England), governor-general of New Zealand (1946-52). He was knighted in 1942 and created a baron in 1951.
Freycinet, Louis Henri de Saulces, baron de (b. Dec. 31, 1777, Montélimar, Drôme, France - d. March 21, 1840, Rochefort, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France), governor of Île Bourbon (1821-26) and Martinique (1829-30).
Fri, Robert W. (b. Nov. 16, 1935, Kansas City, Kan.), acting administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1973).
Frick, Alexander (b. Feb. 18, 1910, Schaan, Liechtenstein - d. Oct. 31, 1991, Schaan), head of government of Liechtenstein (1945-62). He was also president of the Diet (1966-70).
Frick, Aurelia (b. Sept. 19, 1975), foreign minister of Liechtenstein (2009- ).
Frick, Mario (K.) (b. May 8, 1965, Chur, Graubünden, Switzerland), head of government of Liechtenstein (1993-2001).
Frick, Wilhelm (b. March 12, 1877, Alsenz, Germany - d. Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg), German politician. An official in the police administration at Munich, he was convicted of high treason for participating in Adolf Hitler's Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch of November 1923 but managed to avoid imprisonment. Elected to the Reichstag (parliament) in May 1924, he began to lead the Nazis in that body in 1928. During 1930-31, as minister of the interior in the state government of Thuringia, Frick was the first Nazi to hold any ministerial-level post in Germany. Thereafter he became the recognized party expert in German domestic politics. As Hitler's national minister of the interior (1933-43), he played a significant role in devising and obtaining passage of legislation providing for government by decree (March 1933) and in drafting subsequent measures against the Jews, especially the notorious Nürnberg laws of September 1935. With the growth of the SS (Schutzstaffel) as the state's principal internal-security force, however, Frick's importance in the government declined, and in 1943 he was replaced at the interior ministry by SS chief Heinrich Himmler. Thereafter Frick served as Reichsprotektor for Bohemia and Moravia until the end of World War II. Arraigned before the Allied war-crimes tribunal at Nürnberg (1946), he was convicted and subsequently executed for his "crimes against humanity."
Frieden, Luc (b. Sept. 16, 1963, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg), justice minister (1998-2009), defense minister (2004-06), and finance minister (2009- ) of Luxembourg.
Frieden, Pierre (b. Oct. 28, 1892, Mertert, Luxembourg - d. Feb. 23, 1959, Zürich, Switzerland), prime minister of Luxembourg (1958-59).
Friederici, Gonthier (Jean Claude) (b. Aug. 23, 1945, Lille, France), prefect of Réunion (2001-04).
Friedman, Jeffrey (Mark) (b. Jan. 20, 1945), mayor of Austin (1975-77).
Friedrich III, in full Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl (b. Oct. 18, 1831, Potsdam, Prussia - d. June 15, 1888, Potsdam), German emperor and king of Prussia (1888). The son of the future king and emperor Wilhelm I and Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, he married (1858) the British princess royal, Victoria (1840-1901; from 1888 called the "empress Friedrich"). Despite the influence of his wife's liberal ideas, he favoured a strong central government and at times exceeded the prime minister and chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in willingness to exert pressure on the allied German princes. As crown prince from 1861, Friedrich spent 27 years chiefly in waiting to do something. Thanks to his chief of staff, Leonhard von Blumenthal, he was a successful commander in the Danish War of 1864, the Seven Weeks' War of 1866, and the Franco-German War of 1870-71. Although Friedrich supported Bismarck in the war of 1866, in general the "blood and iron" aspects of Bismarck's domestic and international policies were alien to him. In 1887 Friedrich showed symptoms of cancer of the throat. Although the disease was correctly diagnosed as such by German doctors, the British specialist Sir Morell Mackenzie advised against an operation (scheduled for May 21, 1887, and cancelled). A tracheotomy in February 1888 was too late. The crown prince, who became emperor on March 9, by this time was able to do little. His only significant official act was to dismiss the minister of the interior, Robert von Puttkamer, an extreme conservative. He died after 99 days as emperor and was succeeded by his son and heir, Wilhelm II.
Frigo, Franco (b. 1953, Cittadella, Veneto, Italy), president of Veneto (1992-93).
Frissen, Leon(ardus Johannes Petrus Maria) (b. June 24, 1950, Beek, Limburg, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Limburg (2005-11).
Fristo, Emir (b. Feb. 28, 1954, Gorazde, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Bosnian Podrinje-Gorazde (2011- ).
Frlec, Boris (b. Feb. 10, 1936), foreign minister of Slovenia (1997-2000). In 1989 he was appointed ambassador of Yugoslavia to Germany. He was employed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia since 1991. In 1992-97 he was Slovene ambassador to Germany.
Froger, Ernest Emmanuel (b. April 4, 1848, Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, Maine-et-Loire, France - d. ...), commandant of Diégo-Suarez (1887-96).
Frogier, Pierre (b. Nov. 16, 1950, Nouméa, New Caledonia), president of the government of New Caledonia (2001-04).
Frondizi (Ercoli), Arturo (b. Oct. 28, 1908, Paso de Los Libres, Corrientes, Argentina - d. April 18, 1995, Buenos Aires, Argentina), president of Argentina (1958-62). The political firebrand participated in hundreds of demonstrations against the dictatorial regime of Juan Perón while a student. Yet he adopted a pragmatic approach in his presidential election campaign by calling for democratization while at the same time incorporating Peronists into the political process. This philosophy caused a split in Frondizi's Radical Civic Union, and in the 1958 elections he represented the leftist faction of that party, defeating the rightist candidate, Ricardo Balbín. As president, Frondizi implemented a series of austerity measures that placed a severe burden on the poor and middle class, resulting in strikes, demonstrations, and confrontations with police. Though his economic policies were harsh, they would eventually lead to rapid industrialization and economic resurgence. His political undoing occurred when he attempted to lift a ban on Peronist parties and candidates and secretly met with Ernesto ("Che") Guevara, an emissary of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. The military withdrew its support, and Frondizi was forced to resign in March 1962. Frondizi, who continued to take a keen interest in economics, formed a small party, the Movement for Integration and Development, which promoted state protection for industrialization.
Frossard, Sir Charles (Keith) (b. Feb. 18, 1922 - d. July 15, 2012, Guernsey), bailiff of Guernsey (1982-92); knighted 1983.
Fruchard, Louis (Maurice Charles) (b. Dec. 22, 1921, Paris - d. Sept. 23, 2004, Paris), president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (1986-88).
Frutos (Escurra), Juan Manuel (b. June 12, 1879, Asunción, Paraguay - d. April 15, 1960, Asunción), provisional president of Paraguay (1948).
Frutos Vaesken, Alexis (Manuel) (b. Oct. 17, 1934 - d. March 18, 1996), foreign minister of Paraguay (1990-93).
Fruytier, Leonardus Albert (b. Jan. 6, 1882, Kloosterzande, Zeeland, Netherlands - d. Nov. 22, 1972, The Hague), governor of Curaçao (1929).
Frydenlund, Knut (b. March 31, 1927, Drammen, near Oslo, Norway - d. Feb. 26, 1987, Oslo), Norwegian politician. A career diplomat, Frydenlund joined the Foreign Service in 1953 and served in Bonn (1953-55) and Brussels (1962-63) and as Norway's permanent representative at the Council of Europe (1963-65). In the late 1960s he acted as consultant to the Labour Party Research Office and joined the party's Oslo Executive in 1968 before being elected a member of Parliament for Oslo the following year. He was a strong supporter of the European Economic Community (EEC) and advocated Norwegian membership in the EEC during the debate leading up to the 1972 referendum that resulted in rejection. Though disappointed by this result, Frydenlund worked to maintain party unity. He was foreign minister in the Labour government from 1973 to 1981 and again from May 1986 until his death. Sometimes known as "the good person from Drammen," he was highly respected for his qualities of statesmanship and diplomacy, his sense of humour, and his moderation in national and party politics.
Fu Liangzuo (b. 1873, Qiancheng, Hunan, China - d. Dec. 26, 1924, Tianjin, China), military governor of Hunan (1917). He was also vice-governor of Chahar. A graduate of the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he was a brain behind Xu Shichang during the Qing dynasty, and after the founding of the republic worked for Yuan Shikai and then, upon Yuan's death, for Duan Qirui. He was the deputy army minister in the central government before his term in Hunan. As the Guangxi Army, with a revolutionary tendency, entered Hunan, he was unable to stabilize his province. He was later recalled to Beijing and stepped down upon the fall of Duan in 1920.
Fu Zengxiang (b. Nov. 9, 1872, Jiangan, Sichuan, China - d. Oct. 20, 1949), education minister of China (1917-19). He was elected a member of parliament after the republic was founded. He resigned as minister in 1919, devoting himself to chronicles ever since. In 1927, he was named president of the Grand Library of the Forbidden City Museum.
Fuad I (Arabic Fu´ad), original name Ahmad Fuad Pasha (b. March 26, 1868, Cairo - d. April 28, 1936, Cairo), king of Egypt (1922-36). After serving in a number of administrative posts, Fuad became sultan of Egypt in 1917, at which time Egypt was still a British protectorate. The sultan had strong popular support but a strong nationalist movement had emerged - the Wafd party - under the leadership of Sa´d Zaghlul. A stalemate between the supporters of Fuad and Zaghlul resulted in the collapse of Anglo-Egyptian independence talks. Britain responded with a unilateral declaration of Egyptian independence, subject to strong British influence in Egyptian affairs. Accordingly, Fuad assumed the title of king in 1922. Dissatisfied with the British unilateral declaration, he struggled unsuccessfully throughout his reign to secure a bilateral treaty of independence that would be acceptable to the British and the Egyptians. In 1923 Fuad promulgated a constitution at a time when Zaghlul was in exile. When Zaghlul and other exiles returned, however, the king was confronted with an enormously popular Wafd, which used institutions created by the constitution to strengthen its opposition. The Wafd won commanding majorities in national elections held in 1923, 1925, and 1929, but Fuad usually managed to form his governments with non-Wafdist ministers who were amenable to his influence. In 1930 he made a determined attempt to stabilize his political position: he dissolved the Parliament, revoked the old constitution, and promulgated both a new constitution and a new electoral law. The 1931 elections yielded a cooperative, non-Wafdist parliament, and domestic political tranquillity prevailed until 1935, when, under strong nationalist pressure, Fuad restored the original 1923 constitution.
Fuad II, original name Ahmad Fuad (b. Jan. 16, 1952, Cairo), king of Egypt (1952-53); son of Faruq I.
Fuchs, Beat (b. March 14, 1948), Landammann of Nidwalden (2003-04, 2009-10).
Fuchs, Félix (Alexandre) (b. Jan. 25, 1858, Ixelles, near Brussels, Belgium - d. Feb. 23, 1928), governor-general of Belgian Congo (1912-16). He entered the service of the Congo Free State in June 1887 and went out to Africa in the following January to a post in the Department of Justice, being also a supplementary judge of the Appeal Court. In 1889 he became a member of the executive, in succession to the late Henri Ernest Gondry. In 1891 he succeeded Camille Coquilhat as vice-governor. In April 1892 he was appointed director-general, and was for a long time the devoted assistant of the governor-general, Théophile Wahis, for whom he acted when on leave. Fuchs was actively concerned in the delimitation agreement signed with Portugal. In 1894 he was appointed state inspector. In 1897 he was appointed president of the Court of Appeal, and was entrusted with a special mission in the Upper Congo. In 1900 he was appointed to represent the Congo Free State at the conference held in London on the regulation of sport and the protection of the fauna in Africa. For more than two years afterwards he made tours of inspection in a large portion of the Congo Free State territory, visiting the principal posts of the great lakes and going as far as the Upper Nile and returning by the Ubangi. In November 1908, the Free State was annexed to Belgium, the abuses of the Léopold regime were remedied, and the administration was reformed much on the lines of a British crown colony. In May 1912 Fuchs succeeded Wahis as governor-general. On the outbreak of World War I he was instructed to preserve a strictly defensive attitude, as Belgium wished to preserve neutrality in the Congo. But hostilities broke out and in the result the northwestern part of German East Africa was conquered by Belgian native troops.
Füeg(-Hitz), Cornelia (b. June 5, 1941), Landammann of Solothurn (1991, 1995).
Fuentes Mohr, Alberto (b. 1927 - d. [assassinated] Jan. 25, 1979, Guatemala City), foreign minister of Guatemala (1969-70).
Fuglesang, Rolf (Jørgen) (b. Jan. 31, 1909, Fredrikstad, Østfold county, Norway - d. Nov. 25, 1988, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian politician. He was the secretary of the provisional council of state formed on Sept. 25, 1940, and joined the Vidkun Quisling government on Feb. 1, 1942, as minister for the party, becoming in addition minister of culture on Dec. 1, 1942. After liberation he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
Fujimori (Fujimori1), Alberto (Kenya) (b. July 262, 1938, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (1990-2000). He formed the political party Cambio (Change) 90 and mounted a grassroots presidential campaign. He won an upset victory over Mario Vargas Llosa in the runoff election in June 1990, by appealing to the country's poor. As president, however, he turned to neoliberal economics that increased the gap between rich and poor, although the economy as a whole improved. Facing a hostile parliament, he suspended the constitution in April 1992 and dissolved the legislature, which was replaced by a new constituent assembly in November. A new constitution strengthened his authority and removed a bar to his seeking reelection. His economic reforms and a successful campaign against the Shining Path guerrilla were rewarded in 1993 by a commitment of $2 billion in U.S. and Japanese foreign loans. He won a second term in the 1995 election, securing almost two-thirds of the popular vote. In December 1996 left-wing guerrillas stormed the residence of the Japanese ambassador during a party and took hundreds of people hostage. The standoff ended in April 1997, when government troops attacked the building; all of the guerrillas were killed, and all but one of the 72 remaining hostages were freed without serious injury. After announcing his intention to seek a third term in 2000, he dismissed three Supreme Court justices, who had ruled that move unconstitutional. He won a flawed election, but a few months later he resigned while on a visit to Japan. Parliament refused to accept it and instead deposed him for being "morally unfit." He remained in Japan, which refused to extradite him, although Interpol in March 2003 issued a call for his arrest on murder charges. In November 2005 Fujimori, who had announced he wanted to return to Peru and run in the 2006 presidential election, arrived in Chile and was arrested there. He was extradited to Peru in September 2007. In December he was sentenced to 6 years in prison for abusing his powers; in separate trials he was sentenced to 25 years in prison in April 2009 for ordering a military death squad to carry out two massacres that killed 25 people, to 7½ years in July 2009 for embezzlement, and to 6 years in September 2009 for corruption.
1 His mother's original name was Mutsue Inomoto, and in his religious marriage he used the name Alberto Fujimori Inomoto, but for unclear reasons he always officially appeared as Fujimori Fujimori.
2 In Peru he had always maintained that his birthday was July 28, Peru's national day. In Japan, however, he obtained a Japanese passport with "Kenya Fujimori" as his name and July 26 as his birthday, which is also confirmed by the Japanese family registry.
Fujita, Yuzan (b. April 19, 1949), governor of Hiroshima (1993-2009).
Fujiyama, Aiichiro (b. May 22, 1897, Tokyo - d. Feb. 22, 1985, Tokyo), Japanese politician. A business executive who symbolized "big business" in Japan as president of Dai Nippon Sugar Manufacturing Co. and executive officer of Nitto Chemical Industry Co., he used his influence to bring about the fall of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo in 1944. After Japan's World War II surrender, Fujiyama was imprisoned without a trial for three years as a suspected war criminal. After his release he represented Japan at the 1951 UNESCO meeting in Paris. As Japan's foreign minister (1957-60) he headed Japan's first delegation to the UN (1957), helped revise the U.S.-Japanese security treaty (1960), and promoted the restoration of diplomatic relations between Japan and China. Fujiyama was elected to Parliament in 1957 and was reelected five times. He also served as director of Japan's Economic Planning Agency.
Fuka Unzola, Léonard (b. Oct. 19, 1935), governor of Bas-Congo (1997-98).
Fukuda, Akio (b. April 17, 1948), governor of Tochigi (2000-04).
Fukuda, Takeo (b. Jan. 14, 1905, Gunma prefecture, Japan - d. July 5, 1995, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1976-78). He was a member of the House of Representatives from 1952 on and by the early 1960s he was a major figure within the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP). His political career included tenures as minister of agriculture, of finance (three times), and of foreign affairs. When Fukuda successfully challenged Takeo Miki for the presidency of the LDP, he was also assured the post of prime minister. He assumed office in December 1976 under conditions of unrealistically high popular expectations. During his term in office the economic situation worsened when a new yen-dollar exchange rate was established, the bankruptcy rate rose, and unemployment soared. Trade relations with the West were strained when Japan built up a huge balance of payments surplus. In the realm of foreign relations, Fukuda achieved greater success. The Fukuda Doctrine, enunciated in 1977, declared Japan's resolve to never again become a military power and to strive to strengthen its relations with the nations of Southeast Asia. Fukuda was also instrumental in concluding the 1978 treaty of peace and friendship with China, and he was at the centre of international trade disputes, especially with the U.S., that erupted because of Japan's annual trade surplus, which reached $12 billion while he was prime minister. Fukuda's promise to stabilize the economy remained unfulfilled after one year, and the public's trust in his leadership declined further when some LDP members were implicated in the Lockheed bribery scandals. Fukuda was forced to dissolve his cabinet in 1978. He then became a mentor to younger politicians.
Fukuda, Tomikazu (b. May 21, 1953), governor of Tochigi (2004- ).
Fukuda, Yasuo (b. July 16, 1936, Gunma prefecture, Japan), prime minister of Japan (2007-08); son of Takeo Fukuda.
Fukushima, Joji (b. March 31, 1927 - d. Feb. 25, 2000, Kurokawa, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan), Japanese politician. A member of the Liberal-Democratic Party, he was elected governor of Kumamoto prefecture in 1991 and won reelection twice, in 1995 and 1999. Before becoming governor, he was elected six times to the national parliament and served as labour minister (1989-90) in the cabinet of Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu.
Fullerton, Robert (b. Jan. 14, 1773, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. June 6, 1831), governor of Penang (1824-26) and of the Straits Settlements (1826-30).
Fullerton, William H(ugh) (b. Feb. 11, 1939, Wolverhampton, England), governor of the Falkland Islands (1988-92). He was also British ambassador to Somalia (1983-87), Kuwait (1992-96), and to Morocco and Mauritania (1996-99).
Fulton, Sir Robert (Henry Gervase) (b. Dec. 21, 1948), governor of Gibraltar (2006-09).
Fundu Nkota (b. Oct. 10, 1943, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Équateur (1990).
Funes (Cartagena), (Carlos) Mauricio (b. Oct. 18, 1959, San Salvador, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (2009- ).
Funke, Otto (b. Aug. 23, 1915, Lennep [now part of Remscheid], Germany - d. Dec. 22, 1997, Berlin, Germany), first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Gera (1952-55) and Suhl (1956-68).
Furgaç, Izzet, until Jan. 1, 1935, Ahmed Izzet Pasha (b. 1864 - d. 1937), grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1918).
Furgler, Kurt (b. June 24, 1924, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland - d. July 23, 2008, Sankt Gallen), justice and police minister (1972-82), economy minister (1983-86), and president (1977, 1981, 1985) of Switzerland. In 1954 he was elected to parliament as a member of what became the Christian Democratic People's Party, and he was president of his party's parliamentary group in 1963-71. He had a reputation as a reformer. He brought about changes to adoption laws and legislation concerning children and marriage, as well as the acceptance of the constitutional article enshrining equal rights for men and women. He was also known for a piece of legislation which restricted property purchases by foreigners. His plans for the creation of a federal security police, however, failed in 1978, and a complete revision of the constitution started in the 1970s also went nowhere. In 1985 he welcomed U.S. president Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to Geneva for their summit meeting.
Furler, Hans (b. June 5, 1904, Lahr, Germany - d. June 29, 1975, Oberkirch, West Germany), president of the Parliamentary Assembly of the European Economic Community (1960-62).
Furrer, Jonas (b. March 3, 1805, Winterthur, Zürich, Switzerland - d. July 25, 1861, Ragaz [now Bad Ragaz], Sankt Gallen, Switzerland), president of the Diet (1845) and president (1848-49, 1852, 1855, 1858) of Switzerland.
Furst, Xavier de (b. May 4, 1948, Tangier, Morocco), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (2005-06).
Furtado, José da Rocha (b. 1908? - d. Feb. 27, 2005, Fortaleza, Brazil), governor of Piauí (1947-51).
Furukawa, Yasushi (b. July 15, 1958), governor of Saga (2003- ).
Futa (Mudiumbula Tshitumbu Tshipadi), André-Philippe (b. Aug. 26, 1946, Miabi [now in Kasaï Oriental province], Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Oct. 1, 2009, Paris, France), finance minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2003-05).
Fyodorov, Boris (Grigoryevich) (b. Feb. 13, 1958, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Nov. 20, 2008, London, England), finance minister of Russia (1990, 1993-94).
Fyodorov, Igor (Gennadiyevich) (b. Sept. 26, 1964, Leshukonskoye village, Arkhangelsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of administration of Nenets autonomous okrug (2009- ).
Fyodorov, Nikolay (Vasilyevich) (b. May 9, 1958, Chedino, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), president of Chuvashia (1994-2010). He was Russia's justice minister from 1991 to 1993 and was elected president of Chuvashia, a republic about 550 km east of Moscow, in 1993. He was a supporter of market reforms. But he challenged Pres. Boris Yeltsin's authority in January 1995 by issuing a decree permitting servicemen from Chuvashia to refuse to serve with Russian troops in the rebel region of Chechnya. He was reelected in 1997 and 2001 and appointed by Pres. Vladimir Putin in 2005. In 2012 he became Russian agriculture minister.
Fyodorov, Svyatoslav (Nikolayevich) (b. Aug. 8, 1927, Proskurovo [now Khmelnitsky], Ukraine - d. June 2, 2000, Moscow), Russian politician. A famous eye surgeon, he was a member of the Soviet Communist Party (CPSU) from 1957 until 1990. In 1989 he was elected people's deputy of the U.S.S.R. At the second Congress of People's Deputies of the U.S.S.R. he was one of the 17 deputies promoted by the CPSU who voted for the repeal of Article 6 of the constitution that provided for the leading role of the CPSU. In 1990 he joined the Democratic Party of Russia (DPR) and was briefly a member of its board. In February 1991 he was a member of the Supreme Consultative and Coordinating Council under the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the R.S.F.S.R., later renamed the Supreme Consultative Council under the Russian president. Fyodorov was not included in the Presidential Council which replaced the SCC in February 1993. In October 1991 Fyodorov was among the candidates considered for the post of Russia's prime minister. However, he turned down the offer. In October 1993 he was on the list of candidates for the State Duma promoted by the electoral bloc of the Russian Democratic Reform Movement (RDRM) headed by Gavriil Popov. He was number two on the list (after Anatoly Sobchak). The list never made the 5% barrier. On Jan. 28, 1995, he presided over the founding congress of the Workers Self-Government Party (PST). The candidates on the PST lists lost the elections for the State Duma on Dec. 17, 1995, but Fyodorov himself was elected to the Duma in the majority district in Cheboksary. He unsuccessfully ran for president in 1996 (winning 0.9% of the vote) but remained a member of the Duma until 1999. He died in a helicopter crash.
Fyodorov, Valentin (Petrovich) (b. Sept. 6, 1939), head of the administration of Sakhalin oblast (1991-93).