Rulers

Countries U

Contents of this page:
Uganda - Ukraine - United Arab Emirates - United Kingdom - United States - Uruguay - Uzbekistan

Udarata: see under Sri Lanka.

Uganda

       1890                British rule
   Jun 1894                protectorate over Buganda declared
       1896                protectorate extended to include Bunyoro-Kitara, Toro,
                           Ankole, and Busoga
 9 Oct 1962                independence
 9 Oct 1963                Republic of Uganda
 8 Sep 1967                kingdoms abolished
24 Jul 1993                kingdoms revived

Administrator
26 Dec 1890 -    May 1892  Frederick Lugard                   (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
Commissioners
 1 Apr 1893 -    May 1893  Sir Gerald Herbert Portal          (b. 1858 - d. 1897)
   May 1893 -    Nov 1893  James Ronald Leslie MacDonald      (b. 1862 - d. 1927)
                           (acting)
   Nov 1893 -        1895  Henry Edward Colville              (b. 1852 - d. 1907)
       1895 -    Dec 1899  Ernest James Berkeley              (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
   Dec 1899 -    Nov 1901  Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston        (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
   Nov 1901 -        1906  Sir James Hayes Sadler             (b. 1851 - d. 1910)
       1906 -        1907  Hesketh Bell                       (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
Governors
       1907 -        1909  Hesketh Bell (from 1908,
                           Sir Hesketh Bell)                  (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1910 -  3 Apr 1911  Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux      (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
       1910 -        1911    Stanley Charles Tomkins          (b. 18... - d. 1946)
                             (acting for Cordeaux)
 3 Apr 1911 - 10 Feb 1918  Frederick John Jackson (from 1913,
                           Sir Frederick John Jackson)        (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
10 Feb 1918 - 15 Aug 1922  Robert Thorne Coryndon (from 1919,
                           Sir Robert Thorne Coryndon)        (b. 1870 - d. 1925)
15 Aug 1922 - 18 May 1925  Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer        (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
18 May 1925 - 23 Nov 1932  Sir William Frederick Gowers       (b. 1875 - d. 1954)
23 Nov 1932 - 17 Oct 1935  Sir Bernard Henry Bourdillon       (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
17 Oct 1935 -  7 Jul 1940  Philip Euen Mitchell (from 1937,
                           Sir Philip Euen Mitchell)          (b. 1890 - d. 1964)
 7 Jul 1940 -  1 Jan 1945  Sir Charles Cecil Farquharson
                           Dundas                             (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
 1 Jan 1945 - 17 Jan 1952  Sir John Hathorn Hall              (b. 1894 - d. 1979)
17 Jan 1952 - 26 Feb 1957  Sir Andrew Benjamin Cohen          (b. 1909 - d. 1968)
26 Feb 1957 - 18 Nov 1961  Sir Frederick Crawford             (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
18 Nov 1961 -  8 Oct 1962  Sir Walter Fleming Coutts          (b. 1912 - d. 1988)
Governor-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 9 Oct 1962 -  9 Oct 1963  Sir Walter Fleming Coutts          (s.a.)
Presidents
 9 Oct 1963 -  2 Mar 1966  Sir Edward Mutesa                  (b. 1924 - d. 1969)
 2 Mar 1966 - 25 Jan 1971  Milton Obote (1st time)            (b. 1924 - d. 2005)
                           (acting head of state to 15 Apr 1966)
25 Jan 1971 - 13 Apr 1979  Idi Amin                           (b. 1925? - d. 2003)
                           (Head of State to 21 Feb 1971)
13 Apr 1979 - 20 Jun 1979  Yusufu K. Lule                     (b. 1912 - d. 1985)
20 Jun 1979 - 11 May 1980  Godfrey L. Binaisa                 (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
12 May 1980 - 22 May 1980  Paulo Muwanga                      (b. 1924 - d. 1991)
                           (chairman Military Commission)
22 May 1980 - 15 Dec 1980  Presidential Commission
                           - Saulo Musoke                     (b. 1918? - d. 2011)
                           - Polycarp Nyamuchoncho            (b. ... - d. 199...)
                           - Yoweri Hunter Wacha-Olwol
17 Dec 1980 - 27 Jul 1985  Milton Obote (2nd time)            (s.a.)
27 Jul 1985 - 29 Jul 1985  Basilio Olara Okello               (b. 1929 - d. 1990)
                           (chairman Military Council)
29 Jul 1985 - 26 Jan 1986  Tito Okello                        (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
                           (chairman Military Council)
26 Jan 1986 -              Yoweri Museveni                    (b. 1944?)
                           (commander National Resistance Army to 29 Jan 1986)

Chief minister 2 Jul 1961 - 1 Mar 1962 Benedicto Kiwanuka (b. 1922 - d. 1972) Prime ministers 1 Mar 1962 - 30 Apr 1962 Benedicto Kiwanuka (s.a.) 30 Apr 1962 - 15 Apr 1966 Milton Obote (s.a.) 18 Dec 1980 - 27 Jul 1985 Otema Allimadi (b. 1929 - d. 2001) 1 Aug 1985 - 25 Aug 1985 Paulo Muwanga (s.a.) 25 Aug 1985 - 26 Jan 1986 Abraham Waligo (b. 1928 - d. 2000) 30 Jan 1986 - 22 Jan 1991 Samson Kisekka (b. 1912 - d. 1999) 22 Jan 1991 - 18 Nov 1994 George Cosmas Adyebo (b. 1945 - d. 2000) 18 Nov 1994 - 5 Apr 1999 Kintu Musoke (b. 1938) 5 Apr 1999 - 24 May 2011 Apolo Nsibambi (b. 1938) 24 May 2011 - Amama Mbabazi (b. 1949)

Buganda

Kings (title Kabaka)
        ... -         ...  Tebandeke
        ... -         ...  Ndawula
        ... -         ...  Kagulu
       17.. -        17..  Kikulwe
       17.. -        17..  Mawanda
       1740 -        1741  Mwanga I
       1741 -        1750  Namugala
       1750 -        1780  Kyabaggu
       1780 -        1797  Jjunju
       1797 -        1814  Ssemakookiro Wasajja
       1814 -        1836  Kamaanya Mukasa
       1836 -    Oct 1856  Ssuuna II Kalema                   (b. c.1800 - d. 1856)
   Oct 1856 - 19 Oct 1884  Mukaabya Mutesa I                  (b. c.1837 - d. 1884)
24 Oct 1884 - 10 Sep 1888  Mwanga II Basammula-Ekkere
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1868 - d. 1903)
10 Sep 1888 - 21 Oct 1888  Mutebi (II) Kiwewa                 (b. ... - d. 1889)
21 Oct 1888 -  5 Oct 1889  Kalema                             (b. ... - d. 1890)
 5 Oct 1889 -  9 Aug 1897  Mwanga II Basammula-Ekkere
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
14 Aug 1897 - 22 Nov 1939  Daudi Cwa II                       (b. 1896 - d. 1939)
       1898 -  5 Aug 1914    Apolo Kagwa (regent)             (b. 1864 - d. 1927)
23 Nov 1939 - 30 Nov 1953  Edward Mutesa II (1st time)        (b. 1924 - d. 1969)
30 Nov 1953 -  8 Dec 1953  Paulo Kavuma (regent)              (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
 8 Dec 1953 - 15 Aug 1955  Regency
                           - Paulo Kavuma                     (s.a.)
                           - Latimer Mpagi
                           - Matayo Mugwanya
                             (from 7 Jan 1954)
15 Aug 1955 - 17 Oct 1955  Regency
                           - Prince Badru Kakungulu           (b. 1907 - d. 1991)
                           - Manyangenda
                           - Andrea Kyemwa
17 Oct 1955 - 24 May 1966  Edward Mutesa II (2nd time)        (s.a.)
24 May 1966 -  8 Sep 1967  vacant
24 Jul 1993 -              Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II           (b. 1955)

Prime ministers (title Katikkiro) [with Tebandeke] Mujambula [with Ndawula] Nsobya [with Kagulu] Ntambi [with Kikulwe] Mawuuba [with Kikulwe] Nakiyenje [with Kikulwe] Nakikofu *1740 - 1741 Ssebanakitta 1741 - 1750 Kagali 1750 - 17.. Kabinuli 17.. - 1780 Lugoloobi 1780 - 17.. Ssendegeya 17.. - 17.. Mayembe 17.. - 1797 Kagenda 1797 - ... Nabbunga ... - ... Ssekayiba ... - ... Nabembezi *1814* Kadduwamala 18.. - 18.. Katimpa 18.. - 18.. Kafumbirwango 18.. - 18.. Kimoga 18.. - 1832 Ssebuko 1832 - 18.. Migeekyamye *1856* Kayiira 18.. - 18.. Kisomose 18.. - 18.. Mayanja 18.. - 18.. Mulere *1884 - 1888 Mukasa (b. ... - d. 1888) 1888 Nnyonyintono 1888 - 1889 Muguluma 1889 - 1926 Apolo Kagwa (s.a.) Feb 1927 - 1929? Kisosonkole 1929 - 1941 Martin Luther Nsibirwa (1st time) (b. 18... - d. 1945) 1941 - 1945 Samwiri Wamala 1945 - 5 Sep 1945 Martin Luther Nsibirwa (2nd time) (s.a.) Sep 1945 - 1950 Michael E. Kawalya-Kagwa 1950 M.N. Kibirige 1950 - 24 Aug 1955 Paulo Kavuma (s.a.) 24 Aug 1955 - 18 Nov 1964 Michael Kintu (b. 1900 - d. ...) 18 Nov 1964 - 1966 Jehoash Mayanja Nkangi (1st time) (b. 1931) 1993 - 1994 Jehoash Mayanja Nkangi (2nd time) (s.a.) 1994 - 28 Dec 2005 Joseph Ssemwogerere 28 Dec 2005 - 13 Feb 2007 Dan Muliika (b. 1943) 13 Feb 2007 - 8 Jan 2008 Emmanuel Ssendaula (interim) 8 Jan 2008 - 13 May 2013 John Baptist Walusimbi (b. 1944) 13 May 2013 - Charles Peter Mayiga British residents 1932 - 1944 Arthur Henry Cox (b. 1888 - d. 1971) 1945 - 1947 Douglas William Robertson (b. 1898 - d. 1993) 1947 - 1951 Lachlan Macpherson Boyd (b. 1904 - d. 1980) 1952 - 1954 John Pryor Birch (b. 1908 - d. 1993) 1954 - 1960 Charles Anthony Langdon Richards (b. 1911 - d. 1996) 1960 - 1962 Richard Evelyn Stone (b. 1914 - d. 1980)

Bunyoro-Kitara

Kings (title Omukama)
- Babiito dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Kyebambe II Bikafu
       1710 -        1730  Olimi III
       1731 -        1782  Duhaga I Cwa
       1782 -        1786  Olimi IV Kasoma
       1786 -        1835  Kyebambe III Nyamutukura
       1835 -        1848  Nyabongo II Mugenyi                (b. ... - d. 1848)
       1848 -        1852  Olimi V Rwakabale                  (b. ... - d. 1852)
       1852 -        1869  Kyebambe IV Kamurasi               (b. c.1822 - d. 1869)
       1869                Tibulihwa (regent)
       1869 -        1873  Cwa II Kabalega (1st time)         (b. c.1853 - d. 1923)
       1869 -        1873    Kabigumire (in rebellion)        (b. ... - d. 1873)
       1873                Olimi VI Kabugungu                 (b. ... - d. 1873)
       1873 -  3 Apr 1898  Cwa II Kabalega (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 3 Apr 1898 - 17 Sep 1902  Karukara Kitahimbwa (from
                           Feb 1899, Yosiya William
                           Karukara Kitahimbwa)               (b. c.1888 - d. 19...)
17 Sep 1902 - 30 Mar 1924  Andereya Bisereko Duhaga II        (b. 1882 - d. 1924)
12 Apr 1924 -  8 Sep 1967  Tito Gafabusa Winyi IV             (b. 1883 - d. 1971)
11 Jun 1994 -              Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I           (b. 1949)

Toro

Kings (title Omukama)
- Babiito dynasty -
       1822 -        186.  Olimi I Kaboyo I
       186. -        18..  Duhaga Kazana
       18.. -        1870  Kyebambe I Nyaika (1st time)
       1870 -        187.  Rukidi I Kato
       187. -        187.  Kyebambe I Nyaika (2nd time)
       187. -        187.  Olimi II Mukabirere
       187. -        187.  Kyebambe II Mukarusa
       187. -        187.  Rukidi II Isingoma
       187. -        187.  Kyebambe III Rububi (1st time)
       187. -        187.  incorporated into Bunyoro-Kitara
       187. -        187.  Nyamuyonjo Kakende (1st time)
       187. -        187.  Katere
       187. -        187.  Kyebambe III Rububi (2nd time)
       187. -        1876  Nyamuyonjo Kakende (2nd time)
       1876 -        1891  incorporated into Bunyoro-Kitara
14 Aug 1891 -        1893  Kasagama Kyebambe IV (1st time)    (b. c.1874 - d. 1928)
       1893 -        1894  incorporated into Bunyoro-Kitara
       1894 - 31 Dec 1928  Kasagama Kyebambe IV (2nd time)    (s.a.)
29 Jan 1929 - 21 Dec 1965  George David Matthew Kamurasi
                           Rukidi III                         (b. 1904 - d. 1965)
 2 Mar 1966 -  8 Sep 1967  Patrick David Matthew Rwamuhokya
                           Olimi III Kaboyo II (1st time)     (b. 1945 - d. 1995)
27 Jul 1993 - 26 Aug 1995  Patrick David Matthew Rwamuhokya
                           Olimi III Kaboyo II (2nd time)     (s.a.)
13 Sep 1995 -              Oyo Nyimba Kabamba Iguru Rukidi IV (b. 1992)
   Sep 1995 -    Dec 2002    Regency
                             - John Katuramu (to 2000)        (b. 1955)
                             - James Rabwoni                  (b. 1928 - d. 2009)
                             - Thomas Kisembo
   Dec 2002 - 21 Dec 2007    Regency
                             - Isaya Kalya
                             - Oswald Ndolerire
                             - Zaverio Byabagambi
25 Mar 2008 - 17 Apr 2010    Regency
                             - Richard Baguma Adyeeri
                             - George Nyakairu
                             - Justine Bakahumura
31 Dec 2010 -                Regency
                             - Best Kemigisa (f)              (b. 1967)
                             - Ephraim Mugasa
                             - Richard Baguma Adyeeri
                             - Apollo Karugaba                (b. 1949)
                             - Stephen Nyabongo Rwakijuma     (b. 1962)

Ankole

    bf.1447                Kingdom of Nkore
       1901                Nkore and other states consolidated into Kingdom of Ankole
       1993                despite restoration of kingdoms, Ankole is not recognized by
                           Uganda government

Kings (title Omugabe)
- Bahinda dynasty -
       1783 -         ...  Nyakashaija
        ... -         ...  Bwarenga
        ... -        1811  Rwebishengye
       1811 -        18..  Kayungu
       18.. -        18..  Rwanga (regent)
       18.. -        1839  Gasyonga I
       1839 -        1867  Mutambuka                          (b. ... - d. 1867)
       1867                Mukwenda (regent)
       1867 -        1895  Ntare V Rugingiza                  (b. ... - d. 1895)
       1895 -        1897  Kahitsi (regent)
       1897 - 10 Oct 1944  Edward Sulemani Kahaya II          (b. 18... - d. 1944)
   Sep 1945 -  8 Sep 1967  Charles Godfrey Rutahaba
                           Gasyonga II                        (b. 1910 - d. 1979)
20 Nov 1993 - 14 Oct 2011  Rutashijuka Ntare VI               (b. 1940 - d. 2011)
17 Oct 2011 -              Charles Aryaija Rwebishengye       (b. 1991?)

Prime ministers (title Enganzi) 1896 - 1938 Nuwa Mbaguta (b. 1867? - d. 1944) 1938 - 1946 Lazaro Kamugungunu 1946 - 1948 Erinesti Katungi 1948 - 1955 Zekeriya Mungonya 1955 - 1961 Kesi Nganwa 1961 - 1963 John Kabaireho (b. 1923 - d. 2014) 1963 - 1967 James Kahigiriza (b. 1921 - d. 2010)

Rwenzururu

19 Oct 2009                kingdom recognized (formerly part of Toro)

King (title Omusinga)
19 Oct 2009 -              Charles Wesley Mumbere             (b. 1953?)

Prime minister 19 Oct 2009 - Constantine Bwambale

Ukraine

Hetmanate

       1780                incorporated into Russia

Hetmans
25 Jul 1687 -  2 Oct 1709  Ivan Mazepa                        (b. 1639 - d. 1709)
       1708 -    Jul 1722  Ivan Skoropadsky                   (b. 1646 - d. 1722)
                           (in opposition to 1709)
   Apr 1710 - 24 May 1742    Pylyp Orlyk (in exile)           (b. 1672 - d. 1742)
       1722 -        1724  Pavlo Polubotok (acting)           (b. 1660 - d. 1724)
       1724 -        1727  direct Russian administration
 1 Oct 1727 - 28 Jan 1734  Danylo Apostol                     (b. 1654 - d. 1734)
       1734 -        1750  direct Russian administration
       1750 -        1764  Kyrylo Rozumovsky                  (b. 1728 - d. 1803)
       1764 -        1780  direct Russian administration

Non-communist Ukraine, 1918-21

22 Jan 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic (independence from Russia)
29 Apr 1918                Ukrainian State
14 Dec 1918                Ukrainian People's Republic
 7 May 1921                absorbed by Soviet Ukraine (see below)

Chairman of the Central Rada (Council)
22 Jan 1918 - 29 Apr 1918  Mykhailo Serhiyovych Hrushevsky    (b. 1866 - d. 1934)
Hetman
29 Apr 1918 - 14 Dec 1918  Pavlo Petrovych Skoropadsky        (b. 1873 - d. 1945)
Chairmen of the Directory
14 Dec 1918 - 11 Feb 1919  Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko   (b. 1880 - d. 1951)
11 Feb 1919 -  7 May 1921  Symon Vasylovych Petlyura          (b. 1879 - d. 1926)
                           (provisional to 15 Feb 1919)
Presidents in exile
 7 May 1921 - 25 May 1926  Symon Vasylovych Petlyura          (s.a.)
       1926 - 17 Jan 1954  Andriy Mykolayovych Livytsky       (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
 6 Mar 1954 - 19 Oct 1965  Stepan Vytvytsky                   (b. 1884 - d. 1965)
22 Mar 1967 -  8 Dec 1989  Mykola Livytsky                    (b. 1908 - d. 1989)
       1990 - 22 Aug 1992  Mykola Plavyuk                     (b. 1925 - d. 2012)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 22 Jan 1918 - 28 Apr 1918 Vsevolod Oleksandrovych Holubovych (b. 1885 - d. 1939) 29 Apr 1918 - 30 Apr 1918 Mykola Sakhno-Ustymovych (b. 1863 - d. 1918) 30 Apr 1918 - 10 May 1918 Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko (b. 1866 - d. 1935) 10 May 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 Fedir Andriyovych Lyzohub (b. 1851 - d. 1928) 14 Nov 1918 - 14 Dec 1918 Serhiy Mykolayovych Gerbel (b. 1856 - d. 19...) 26 Dec 1918 - 13 Feb 1919 Volodymyr Musiyovych Chekhivsky (b. 1876 - d. 1937) 13 Feb 1919 - 9 Apr 1919 Serhiy Stepanovych Ostapenko (b. 1881 - d. 1937) 9 Apr 1919 - 27 Aug 1919 Borys Mykolayovych Martos (b. 1879 - d. 1977) 27 Aug 1919 - 20 May 1920 Isaak Prokhorovych Mazepa (b. 1884 - d. 1951) 20 May 1920 - 20 Oct 1920 Vyacheslav Kostyantynovych Prokopovych (b. 1881 - d. 1942) 20 Oct 1920 - 18 Nov 1920 Andriy Mykolayovych Livytsky (s.a.)

Soviet and post-Soviet Ukraine

25 Dec 1917                Ukrainian People's Republic (independence from Russia)
18 Apr 1918 -    Nov 1918  authorities dissolved following Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
 6 Jan 1919                Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
30 Dec 1922                founding component of the Soviet Union (see Soviet republics)
24 Aug 1991                declaration of independence (confirmed 1 Dec 1991)
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)

Chairmen of the Central Executive Committee
25 Dec 1917 - 18 Mar 1918  Yukhym Hryhorovych Medvedyev       (b. 1886 - d. 1938)
18 Mar 1918 - 18 Apr 1918  Volodymyr Petrovych Zatonsky       (b. 1888 - d. 1937)
18 Apr 1918 -    Nov 1918  All-Ukrainian Bureau for Directing
                           the Partisan Resistance Against
                           the German Occupiers
                           - Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk     (b. 1872 - d. 1933)
                           - Volodymyr Petrovych Zatonsky     (s.a.)
                           - Andriy Serhiyovych Bubnov        (b. 1883 - d. 1940)
                           - Yuriy Leonidovych Pyatakov       (b. 1890 - d. 1937)
                           - Yevhen Petrovych Terletsky       (b. 1892 - d. 1938)
                           - O. Odoyevsky
                           - Serhiy Dmytrovych Mstyslavsky    (b. 1876 - d. 1943)
                           - Mykola Yevtykhiyovych Vrublevsky (b. 1897 - d. 1918)
                           - (possibly) Stanislav
                             Vikentiyovych Kosior             (b. 1889 - d. 1939)
                           (list not necessarily complete)
28 Nov 1918 - 10 Mar 1919  the heads of government (acting)
10 Mar 1919 -    Mar 1938  Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovsky       (b. 1878 - d. 1958)
Presidents
 5 Dec 1991 - 19 Jul 1994  Leonid Kravchuk                    (b. 1934)
19 Jul 1994 - 23 Jan 2005  Leonid Kuchma                      (b. 1938)
23 Jan 2005 - 25 Feb 2010  Viktor Yushchenko                  (b. 1954)
25 Feb 2010 - 22 Feb 2014  Viktor Yanukovych                  (b. 1950)
23 Feb 2014 -              Oleksandr Turchynov (acting)       (b. 1964)

Chairman of the People's Secretariat 9 Mar 1918 - 18 Apr 1918 Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk (s.a.) Chairman of the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government 28 Nov 1918 - 29 Jan 1919 Yuriy Leonidovych Pyatakov (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars (initially also styled Chairman of the Workers' and Peasants' Government of Ukraine) 29 Jan 1919 - 11 Dec 1919 Khrystyan Georgiyovych Rakovsky (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1941) 11 Dec 1919 - 19 Feb 1920 Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovsky (s.a.) (chairman All-Ukrainian Revolutionary Committee) 19 Feb 1920 - 15 Jul 1923 Khrystyan Georgiyovych Rakovsky (2nd time) (s.a.) Prime ministers 23 Oct 1990 - 2 Oct 1992 Vitold Fokin (b. 1932) (acting to 14 Nov 1990) 2 Oct 1992 - 13 Oct 1992 Valentyn Symonenko (acting) (b. 1940) 13 Oct 1992 - 22 Sep 1993 Leonid Kuchma (s.a.) 22 Sep 1993 - 16 Jun 1994 Yukhym Zvyahilsky (acting) (b. 1933) 16 Jun 1994 - 1 Mar 1995 Vitaliy Masol (b. 1928) 1 Mar 1995 - 28 May 1996 Yevhen Marchuk (b. 1941) (acting to 8 Jun 1995) 28 May 1996 - 2 Jul 1997 Pavlo Lazarenko (b. 1953) 19 Jun 1997 - 16 Jul 1997 Vasyl Durdynets (b. 1937) (acting [for Lazarenko to 2 Jul 1997]) 16 Jul 1997 - 22 Dec 1999 Valeriy Pustovoitenko (b. 1947) 22 Dec 1999 - 29 May 2001 Viktor Yushchenko (s.a.) 29 May 2001 - 21 Nov 2002 Anatoliy Kinakh (b. 1954) 21 Nov 2002 - 5 Jan 2005 Viktor Yanukovych (1st time) (s.a.) 7 Dec 2004 - 28 Dec 2004 Mykola Azarov (1st time) (b. 1947) (acting for Yanukovych) 5 Jan 2005 - 24 Jan 2005 Mykola Azarov (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 24 Jan 2005 - 8 Sep 2005 Yuliya Tymoshenko (f) (1st time) (b. 1960) (acting to 4 Feb 2005) 8 Sep 2005 - 4 Aug 2006 Yuriy Yekhanurov (b. 1948) (acting to 22 Sep 2005) 4 Aug 2006 - 18 Dec 2007 Viktor Yanukovych (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Dec 2007 - 11 Mar 2010 Yuliya Tymoshenko (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Mar 2010 - 11 Mar 2010 Oleksandr Turchynov (1st time) (s.a.) (acting for Tymoshenko) 11 Mar 2010 - 28 Jan 2014 Mykola Azarov (3rd time) (s.a.) 28 Jan 2014 - 22 Feb 2014 Serhiy Arbuzov (acting) (b. 1976) 22 Feb 2014 - 27 Feb 2014 Oleksandr Turchynov (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 27 Feb 2014 - Arseniy Yatsenyuk (b. 1974)

Donets Kryvyi Rih Soviet Republic

19 Mar 1918                dissolved

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
12 Feb 1918 - 19 Mar 1918  Fedor Andriyovych Artem            (b. 1883 - d. 1921)

Western Ukraine

 1 Nov 1918                Ukrainian State (independence from Austria)
13 Nov 1918                Western Ukrainian People's Republic
22 Jan 1919                incorporation into Ukraine; later alternately incorporated
                           into Poland and Ukraine

President of the Ukrainian National Council
 1 Nov 1918 - 22 Jan 1919  Yevhen Petrushevych                (b. 1863 - d. 1940)

Bukovina

12 Nov 1918                independence from Austria
31 Dec 1918                incorporation into Romania
15 Sep 1947                incorporation of northern Bukovina into Ukrainian S.S.R. (in
                           Soviet Union) after alternating between Ukraine and Romania

President of the National Council
12 Nov 1918 - 28 Nov 1918  Dionisie Bejan                     (b. 1837 - d. 1923)
President of the General Congress
28 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1918  Iancu Flondor                      (b. 1865 - d. 1924)

Carpatho-Ukraine

 5 Dec 1918                Lemko-Rusyn Republic
   Mar 1920                part of Czechoslovakia
11 Oct 1938                autonomy within Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Rus)
   Nov 1938                renamed Carpatho-Ukraine
14 Mar 1939                independence
16 Mar 1939                incorporation into Hungary
29 Jun 1945                incorporation into Ukrainian S.S.R. (in Soviet Union)

President of the Central National Council
 5 Dec 1918 -    Mar 1920  Jaroslav Kaczmarczyk               (b. 1884 - d. af.1939)
Governors
   Apr 1920 -    Mar 1921  Hrihoriy Ihnatiy Zhatkovych        (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
       1921 -        1923  Petr Ehrenfeld (acting)            (b. 1866 - d. 1936)
       1923 - 16 Jun 1933  Anton Beskid                       (b. 1855 - d. 1933)
       1935 -  9 Oct 1938  Konstantin Hrabar                  (b. 1877 - d. 1938)
 9 Oct 1938 -        1939  Ivan Párkányi                      (b. 1896 - d. 1996)
 6 Mar 1939 - 14 Mar 1939  Lev Prchala (military governor)    (b. 1892 - d. 1963)
President
14 Mar 1939 - 16 Mar 1939  Avhustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn        (b. 1874 - d. 1945)
                           (acting to 15 Mar 1939)

Heads of the Civil Administration 1920 - 1924 Petr Ehrenfeld (s.a.) 1924 - 1938 Antonín Rozsypal (b. 1866 - d. 1937) (from 1933, Head of the Political Administration) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 11 Oct 1938 - 26 Oct 1938 Andras Brody (b. 1895 - d. 1946) 26 Oct 1938 - 16 Mar 1939 Avhustyn Ivanovych Voloshyn (s.a.)

Crimea

       1427                khanate
 1 Jun 1475                Ottoman vassal
13 Jul 1771 -        1773  Russian occupation
21 Jul 1774	           Ottomans renounce sovereignty over Crimea
       1777                Russian vassal
21 Jul 1783                annexed to Russia
   Jun 1792                khanate finally overthrown
   Dec 1917 -  7 Nov 1921  various revolutionary governments
 7 Nov 1921 - 30 Jun 1945  Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Russian
                           S.F.S.R.
19 Feb 1954                Crimea transferred from Russian S.F.S.R. to Ukrainian S.S.R.
12 Feb 1991                Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within Ukraine
26 Feb 1992                renamed Crimean Republic
 4 Apr 1996                Autonomous Republic of Crimea
17 Mar 2014                independence declared (Republic of Crimea), recognized by
                           Russia
21 Mar 2014                annexed to Russia

Khans
- Giray dynasty -
 2 Mar 1699 - 26 Dec 1702  Devlet Giray II (1st time)         (b. 1668 - d. 1725)
26 Dec 1702 - 22 Dec 1704  Selim Giray I (4th time)           (b. ... - d. 1704)
30 Dec 1704 -    Apr 1707  Ghazi Giray III                    (b. 1673 - d. 1708)
   Apr 1707 -  9 Dec 1708  Qaplan Giray I (1st time)          (b. 1680 - d. 1738)
 9 Dec 1708 - 29 Mar 1713  Devlet Giray II (2nd time)         (s.a.)
29 Mar 1713 - 15 Dec 1716  Qaplan Giray I (2nd time)          (s.a.)
15 Dec 1716 - 29 Dec 1716  Qara-Devlet Giray III              (b. 1650 - d. 1716)
29 Dec 1716 - 16 Oct 1724  Sa'adet Giray III                  (b. ... - d. 1732)
16 Oct 1724 - 28 Sep 1730  Mengli Giray II (1st time)         (b. 1681 - d. 1739)
28 Sep 1730 - 24 Jul 1736  Qaplan Giray I (3rd time)          (s.a.)
24 Jul 1736 -    Jul 1737  Feth Giray II                      (b. ... - d. 1746/47)
   Jul 1737 - 31 Dec 1739  Mengli Giray II (2nd time)         (s.a.)
31 Dec 1739 -    Nov 1743  Selamet Giray II                   (b. 1690? - d. 1751)
   Nov 1743 - 18 May 1748  Selim Giray II                     (b. 1708 - d. 1748)
18 May 1748 -    Dec 1755  Arslan Giray (1st time)            (b. ... - d. 1767)
   Dec 1755 -  4 Oct 1758  Halim Giray                        (b. 1691 - d. 1759)
21 Oct 1758 -    Sep 1764  Qirim Giray (1st time)             (b. 1719 - d. 1769)
   Sep 1764 - 14 Mar 1767  Selim Giray III (1st time)         (b. 1708/16 - d. 1781/86)
14 Mar 1767 - 30 May 1767  Arslan Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
   Jun 1767 -    Nov 1768  Maqsud Giray (1st time)            (b. ... - d. 1781)
19 Oct 1768 -    Mar 1769  Qirim Giray (2nd time)             (s.a.)
   Mar 1769 - 25 Feb 1770  Devlet Giray IV (1st time)         (b. 1730 - d. 1781)
25 Feb 1770 -    Dec 1770  Qaplan Giray II                    (b. 1739 - d. 1771)
   Dec 1770 - 30 Jun 1771  Selim Giray III (2nd time)         (s.a.)
30 Jun 1771 -    Mar 1772  Maqsud Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
   Mar 1772 -    Jun 1775  Sahib Giray II                     (b. ... - d. 1807)
   Jun 1775 -    Jan 1777  Devlet Giray IV (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1777 -    Dec 1777  Shahin Giray (1st time)            (b. ... - d. 1787)
   Dec 1777 -        1778  Selim Giray III (3rd time)         (s.a.)
       1778 -        1782  Shahin Giray (2nd time)            (s.a.)
       1782 -        1783  Bahadur Giray II (1st time)        (b. ... - d. c.1792)
       1783 -  8 Apr 1783  Shahin Giray (3rd time)            (s.a.)
       1783 -        1790  Bahadur Giray II (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (in Kuban)
       1787 -        1789  Shahbaz Giray (in Kuban)           (b. 1728? - d. 1793)
   Feb 1789 -    Jun 1792  Bakht Giray (nominally)            (b. 1747 - d. 1801)
Chairman of Parliament
       1991 -  4 Feb 1994  Mykola Vasylovych Bahrov           (b. 1939)
President
 4 Feb 1994 - 17 Mar 1995  Yuriy Oleksandrovych Meshkov       (b. 1945)
Chairmen of Parliament
17 Mar 1995 -  6 Jul 1995  Serhiy Pavlovych Tsekov            (b. 1953)
 6 Jul 1995 - 10 Oct 1996  Yevhen Volodymyrovych Suprunyuk    (b. 1955)
10 Oct 1996 - 13 Feb 1997  Vasyl Oleksiyovich Kyselyov        (b. 1948)
13 Feb 1997 - 14 May 1998  Anatoliy Pavlovych Hrytsenko
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1958)
14 May 1998 - 29 Apr 2002  Leonid Ivanovych Hrach             (b. 1948)
29 Apr 2002 - 12 May 2006  Borys Davydovych Deich             (b. 1938)
12 May 2006 - 17 Mar 2010  Anatoliy Pavlovych Hrytsenko
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Mar 2010 - 14 Apr 2014  Volodymyr Andriyovych Konstantynov (b. 1956)
Head of the Republic
14 Apr 2014 -              Sergey Valeriyovich Aksyonov       (b. 1972)
                           (acting)

Heads of the Directory of the Crimean People's Democratic Republic 13 Dec 1917 - 4 Jan 1918 Chelebi Chelebiev (b. 1885 - d. 1918) 4 Jan 1918 - 14 Jan 1918 Dzhafer Seidamet (b. 1899 - d. 1960) Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Republic of Tavrida 21 Mar 1918 - 21 Apr 1918 Anton Yosypovych Slutsky (b. 1884 - d. 1918) Head of the Crimean government under German occupation 25 Jun 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 Suleiman Sulkevych (b. 1865 - d. 1920) Prime minister 15 Nov 1918 - 15 Apr 1919 Solomon Samoilovych Krym (b. 1867 - d. 1936) Provisional chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars of the Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic 29 Apr 1919 - May 1919 Yuriy Petrovych Haven (b. 1884 - d. 1936) May 1919 - Jun 1919 Dmytro Illich Ulyanov (b. 1874 - d. 1943) Head of government Jun 1920 - Nov 1920 Oleksandr Vasylovych Kryvoshein (b. 1857 - d. 1921) Chairmen of the Crimean Revolutionary Committee Nov 1920 - 21 Feb 1921 Béla Kun (b. 1886 - d. 1939) 21 Feb 1921 - 7 Nov 1921 Mykhailo Kharytonovych Polyakov (b. 1884 - d. 1938) Prime ministers 22 Mar 1991 - 20 May 1993 Vitaliy Volodymyrovych Kurashik (b. 1939) 20 May 1993 - 4 Feb 1994 Boris Ivanovych Samsonov (b. 1938) 4 Feb 1994 - 15 Feb 1994 Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk (1st time) (acting) (b. 1953) 15 Feb 1994 - 6 Oct 1994 Yevhen Fedorovych Saburov (b. 1946 - d. 2009) 6 Oct 1994 - 22 Mar 1995 Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Mar 1995 - 31 Mar 1995 Anatoliy Ivanovych Drobotov (b. 1951) 31 Mar 1995 - 26 Jan 1996 Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 Jan 1996 - 4 Jun 1997 Arkadiy Fedorovych Demydenko (b. 1950 - d. 2005) 4 Jun 1997 - 25 May 1998 Anatoliy Romanovych Franchuk (4th time) (s.a.) 25 May 1998 - 18 Jul 2001 Serhiy Volodymyrovych Kunitsyn (1st time) (b. 1960) 18 Jul 2001 - 25 Jul 2001 Lentun Romanovych Bezaziyev (b. 1942) (acting) 25 Jul 2001 - 29 Apr 2002 Valeriy Myronovych Horbatov (b. 1955) 29 Apr 2002 - 20 Apr 2005 Serhiy Volodymyrovych Kunitsyn (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Apr 2005 - 23 Sep 2005 Anatoliy Serhiyovych Matvienko (b. 1953) 23 Sep 2005 - 2 Jun 2006 Anatoliy Fedorovych Burdyugov (b. 1958) 2 Jun 2006 - 17 Mar 2010 Viktor Tarasovych Plakida (b. 1956) 17 Mar 2010 - 17 Aug 2011 Vasyl Heorhiyovych Dzharty (b. 1958 - d. 2011) 17 Aug 2011 - 8 Nov 2011 Pavlo Mykolayovych Burlakov (b. 1963) (acting) 8 Nov 2011 - 27 Feb 2014 Anatoliy Volodymyrovych Mohyliov (b. 1955) 27 Feb 2014 - 14 Apr 2014 Sergey Valeriyovich Aksyonov (s.a.)

Sevastopol

28 Jun 1996                definitely separated from Crimea
17 Mar 2014                part of self-declared Republic of Crimea
21 Mar 2014                annexed to Russia as a federal city

Mayors
19 Jul 1995 - 24 Apr 1998  Viktor Semenov                     (b. 1946)
27 Apr 1998 -  5 Apr 1999  Borys Kucher                       (b. 1942 - d. 1999)
13 Apr 1999 -  4 Feb 2005  Leonid Zhunko                      (b. 1951)
 4 Feb 2005 -  1 Jun 2006  Serhiy Ivanov                      (b. 1952)
 1 Jun 2006 -  6 Apr 2010  Serhiy Kunitsyn                    (s.a.)
 6 Apr 2010 -  7 Jun 2011  Valeriy Saratov                    (b. 1953)
 7 Jun 2011 - 24 Feb 2014  Volodymyr Yatsuba                  (b. 1947)
24 Feb 2014 -  1 Apr 2014  Aleksey Chaly                      (b. 1961)
Governors
 1 Apr 2014 - 14 Apr 2014  Aleksey Chaly (acting)             (s.a.)
14 Apr 2014 -              Sergey Menyaylo (acting)           (b. 1960)

United Arab Emirates

   Mar 1892 -        1971  British protectorates (Trucial States, or Trucial Oman)
 2 Dec 1971                federation of six emirates as United Arab Emirates (Abu
                           Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Sharjah, Umm al-Qaiwain)
11 Feb 1972                accession of Ras al-Khaimah

British political officers (subordinated to the chief political residents
of the Persian Gulf; see under Bahrain)
       1937 -        1940  John Baron Howes                   (b. 1907)
       1940 -        1941  Roy Douglas Metcalfe               (b. 1909)
       1941 -        1943  Cornelius James Pelly              (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
       1943 -        1944  Maurice Patrick Tandy              (b. 1912 - d. 1986)
       1944                Reginald Michael Hadow             (b. 1915 - d. 1993)
       1944 -        1945  Richard Ernest Rowland Bird        (b. 1912 - d. 1986)
       1945 -        1946  Raymond Clive Murphy               (b. 1912)
       1946 -        1947  J.E.H. Hudson
       1947 -        1948  Gordon Noel Jackson                (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
       1948 -        1950  Patrick Desmond Stobart            (b. 1920 - d. 1991)
       1950 -        1951  Harry Denis Mitchell               (b. 1923 - d. 1971)
       1951 -        1952  John Wilton                        (b. 1921 - d. 2011)
       1952                Martin Stanley Buckmaster          (b. 1921 - d. 2007)
       1952 -        1953  Michael Weir                       (b. 1925 - d. 2006)
British political agents (subordinated as above)
       1953 -        1955  Christopher Pirie-Gordon           (b. 1911 - d. 1980)
       1955 -        1958  John Peter Tripp                   (b. 1927 - d. 1986)
       1958 -        1961  Donald Hawley                      (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
       1961 -        1964  James Craig                        (b. 1924)
       1964 -        1966  Glencairn Balfour-Paul             (b. 1917 - d. 2008)
       1966 -        1968  David Roberts                      (b. 1924 - d. 1987)
       1968 -        1970  Julian Bullard                     (b. 1928 - d. 2006)
       1971                Julian Walker                      (b. 1929)
Presidents
 2 Dec 1971 -  2 Nov 2004  Sheikh Zaid ibn Sultan Al Nahayan  (b. c.1918 - d. 2004)
 2 Nov 2004 -  3 Nov 2004  Sheikh Maktum ibn Rashid Al Maktum (b. 1943 - d. 2006)
                           (acting)
 3 Nov 2004 -              Sheikh Khalifa ibn Zaid Al Nahayan (b. 1948)

Prime ministers 9 Dec 1971 - 25 Apr 1979 Sheikh Maktum ibn Rashid Al Maktum (1st time) (s.a.) 25 Apr 1979 - 7 Oct 1990 Sheikh Rashid ibn Said Al Maktum (b. c.1910 - d. 1990) 20 Nov 1990 - 4 Jan 2006 Sheikh Maktum ibn Rashid Al Maktum (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Jan 2006 - Sheikh Muhammad ibn Rashid Al Maktum (b. 1949)

Abu Dhabi

       1761                Al Abu Falah lineage of Banu Yas clan established in
                           Abu Dhabi

Rulers
- Al Abu Falah dynasty -
       1761 -        1793  Sheikh Dhiyab ibn `Isa ibn Nahayan (b. ... - d. 1793)
       1793 -        1795  Sheikh Hazza ibn Zaid
       1795 -        1816  Sheikh Shakhbut ibn Dhiyab
                           Al Nahayan (1st time)
       1816 -        1818  Sheikh Muhammad ibn Shakhbut
                           Al Nahayan
       1818 -         ...  Sheikh Shakhbut ibn Dhiyab
                           Al Nahayan (2nd time)
                           (jointly with the following two)
       1818 -    Apr 1833  Sheikh Tahnun ibn Shakhbut
                           Al Nahayan                         (b. ... - d. 1833)
   Apr 1833 -        1845  Sheikh Khalifa ibn Shakhbut
                           Al Nahayan                         (b. ... - d. 1845)
                           (jointly with the following)
   Apr 1833 -    Jul 1845  Sheikh Sultan ibn Shakhbut
                           Al Nahayan                         (b. ... - d. 1845)
   Jul 1845 -    Sep 1845  Sheikh `Isa ibn Khalid (usurper)   (b. ... - d. 1845)
   Sep 1845 -    Dec 1845  Sheikh Dhiyab ibn `Isa (usurper)   (b. ... - d. 1845)
   Dec 1845 -        1855  Sheikh Said ibn Tahnun Al Nahayan
       1855 -    May 1909  Sheikh Zaid ibn Khalifa Al Nahayan (b. 18... - d. 1909)
   May 1909 -    Oct 1912  Sheikh Tahnun ibn Zaid Al Nahayan  (b. 18... - d. 1912)
   Oct 1912 - 22 Aug 1922  Sheikh Hamdan ibn Zaid Al Nahayan  (b. 1881 - d. 1922)
22 Aug 1922 -  4 Aug 1926  Sheikh Sultan ibn Zaid Al Nahayan  (b. 1881 - d. 1926)
 4 Aug 1926 -  1 Jan 1928  Sheikh Saqr ibn Zaid Al Nahayan    (b. 1887 - d. 1928)
 1 Jan 1928 -  6 Aug 1966  Sheikh Shakhbut ibn Sultan
                           Al Nahayan                         (b. 1905 - d. 1989)
 6 Aug 1966 -  2 Nov 2004  Sheikh Zaid ibn Sultan Al Nahayan  (s.a.)
 2 Nov 2004 -              Sheikh Khalifa ibn Zaid Al Nahayan (s.a.)

British political officers
       1955 -        1958  Martin Stanley Buckmaster          (b. 1921 - d. 2007)
       1958 -        1959  E.R. Worsnop
       1959 -        1961  Edward Henderson                   (b. 1917 - d. 1995)
       1961                O.R. Miles (acting)
British political agents
   Nov 1961 -    May 1965  Hugh Boustead                      (b. 1895 - d. 1980)
       1965 -        1968  Archie Lamb                        (b. 1921)
       1968 -        1971  James Treadwell                    (b. 1920 - d. 2010)

Ajman

       17..                Ajman and Dependencies

Rulers
- Al Abu Khurayban dynasty -
       17.. -        17..  Sheikh Rashid Al Nuaimi
       17.. -        1816  Sheikh Humayd ibn Rashid Al Nuaimi
       1816 -        1838  Sheikh Rashid ibn Humayd Al Nuaimi (b. ... - d. 1838)
       1838 -        1841  Sheikh Humayd ibn Rashid Al Nuaimi
                           (1st time)                         (b. ... - d. 1873)
       1841 -        1848  Sheikh `Abd al-`Aziz ibn Rashid
                           Al Nuaimi                          (b. ... - d. 1848)
       1848 -        1873  Sheikh Humayd ibn Rashid Al Nuaimi
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1873 -    Apr 1891  Sheikh Rashid ibn Humayd Al Nuaimi (b. ... - d. 1891)
   Apr 1891 -  8 Jul 1900  Sheikh Humayd ibn Rashid Al Nuaimi (b. ... - d. 1900)
 8 Jul 1900 -    Feb 1910  Sheikh `Abd al-`Aziz ibn Humayd
                           Al Nuaimi                          (b. 18... - d. 1910)
   Feb 1910 -    Jan 1928  Sheikh Humayd ibn `Abd al-`Aziz
                           Al Nuaimi
   Jan 1928 -  6 Sep 1981  Sheikh Rashid ibn Humayd Al Nuaimi (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
 6 Sep 1981 -              Sheikh Humayd ibn Rashid Al Nuaimi (b. 1931)

Dubai

       17..                Al Abu Falasa lineage of Banu Yas clan established in Dubai

Rulers
- Al Abu Falasa dynasty -
        ... -  9 Jun 1833  Sheikh `Ubayd ibn Said
 9 Jun 1833 -        1852  Sheikh Maktum ibn Bati ibn Suhayl  (b. ... - d. 1852)
       1852 -        1859  Sheikh Said ibn Bati               (b. ... - d. 1859)
       1859 - 22 Nov 1886  Sheikh Hushur ibn Maktum           (b. ... - d. 1886)
22 Nov 1886 -  7 Apr 1894  Sheikh Rashid ibn Maktum           (b. ... - d. 1894)
 7 Apr 1894 - 16 Feb 1906  Sheikh Maktum ibn Hushur           (b. 18... - d. 1906)
16 Feb 1906 -    Nov 1912  Sheikh Bati ibn Suhayl             (b. 1851 - d. 1912)
   Nov 1912 - 15 Apr 1929  Sheikh Said ibn Maktum (1st time)  (b. 1878 - d. 1958)
15 Apr 1929 - 18 Apr 1929  Sheikh Mani ibn Rashid
18 Apr 1929 - 10 Sep 1958  Sheikh Said ibn Maktum (2nd time)  (s.a.)
10 Sep 1958 -  7 Oct 1990  Sheikh Rashid ibn Said Al Maktum   (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1990 -  4 Jan 2006  Sheikh Maktum ibn Rashid Al Maktum (s.a.)
 4 Jan 2006 -              Sheikh Muhammad ibn Rashid Al
                           Maktum                             (s.a.)

Fujairah

   Mar 1952                recognized

Rulers
       1942 - 18 Sep 1974  Sheikh Muhammad ibn Hamad
                           ash-Sharqi                         (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
18 Sep 1974 -              Sheikh Hamad ibn Muhammad
                           ash-Sharqi                         (b. 1949)

Ras al-Khaimah

       17..                Qawasim clan (Huwayla tribe) established in Ras al-Khaimah
   Sep 1900 -  7 Jul 1921  incorporated into Sharjah

Rulers
- Qawasim dynasty -
       17.. -        17..  Sheikh Rahman al-Qasimi
       17.. -        174.  Sheikh Matar ibn Rahman al-Qasimi
       174. -        1777  Sheikh Rashid ibn Matar al-Qasimi
       1777 -        1803  Sheikh Saqr ibn Rashid al-Qasimi
       1803 -        1808  Sheikh Sultan ibn Saqr al-Qasimi
                           (1st time)                         (b. ... - d. 1866)
       1808 -        1814  Sheikh al-Husayn ibn `Ali
                           al-Qasimi (acting)
       1814 -        1820  Sheikh al-Hasan ibn Rahman
                           al-Qasimi (acting)
       1820 -        1866  Sheikh Sultan ibn Saqr al-Qasimi
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1866 -    May 1867  Sheikh Ibrahim ibn Sultan
                           al-Qasimi
   May 1867 - 14 Apr 1868  Sheikh Khalid ibn Sultan al-Qasimi (b. ... - d. 1868)
14 Apr 1868 -        1869  Sheikh Salim ibn Sultan al-Qasimi  (b. 18... - d. 1919)
       1869 -    Aug 1900  Sheikh Humayd ibn Abdullah
                           al-Qasimi                          (b. ... - d. 1900)
10 Jul 1921 -    Feb 1948  Sheikh Sultan ibn Salim al-Qasimi  (b. 1891 - d. 19...)
   Feb 1948 - 27 Oct 2010  Sheikh Saqr ibn Muhammad al-Qasimi (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
       1999 - 14 Jun 2003    Sheikh Khalid ibn Saqr al-Qasimi (b. 1939?)
                             (de facto ruler)
14 Jun 2003 - 27 Oct 2010    Sheikh Saud ibn Saqr al-Qasimi   (b. 1956)
                             (de facto ruler)
27 Oct 2010 -              Sheikh Saud ibn Saqr al-Qasimi     (s.a.)

Sharjah

       17..                Qawasim clan (Huwayla tribe) established in Sharjah

Rulers
- Qawasim dynasty -
        ... -        1840  Sheikh Sultan ibn Saqr al-Qasimi
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
       1840                Sheikh Saqr ibn Sultan al-Qasimi
       1840 -        1866  Sheikh Sultan ibn Saqr al-Qasimi
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1866 - 14 Apr 1868  Sheikh Khalid ibn Sultan al-Qasimi (s.a.)
14 Apr 1868 -    Mar 1883  Sheikh Salim ibn Sultan al-Qasimi  (s.a.)
                           (jointly with following)
       1869 -        1871  Sheikh Ibrahim ibn Sultan al-Qasimi
   Mar 1883 -        1914  Sheikh Saqr ibn Khalid al-Qasimi   (b. 18... - d. 1914)
13 Apr 1914 - 21 Nov 1924  Sheikh Khalid ibn Ahmad al-Qasimi
21 Nov 1924 -    Mar 1951  Sheikh Sultan ibn Saqr al-Qasimi   (b. ... - d. 1951)
   Mar 1951 -  1 May 1951  Sheikh Muhammad ibn Saqr al-Qasimi (b. 1910)
 1 May 1951 - 24 Jun 1965  Sheikh Saqr ibn Sultan al-Qasimi   (b. 1925 - d. 1993)
24 Jun 1965 - 24 Jan 1972  Sheikh Khalid ibn Muhammad
                           al-Qasimi                          (b. 1931 - d. 1972)
25 Jan 1972 -        1972  Sheikh Saqr ibn Muhammad al-Qasimi
                           (acting)
       1972 - 17 Jun 1987  Sheikh Sultan ibn Muhammad
                           al-Qasimi (1st time)               (b. 1939)
17 Jun 1987 - 23 Jun 1987  Sheikh `Abd al-`Aziz ibn Muhammad
                           al-Qasimi                          (b. 1937)
23 Jun 1987 -              Sheikh Sultan ibn Muhammad
                           al-Qasimi (2nd time)               (s.a.)

Kalba

 8 Dec 1936                recognized
       1952                reincorporated into Sharjah

Rulers
- Qawasim dynasty -
       1903 - 30 Apr 1937  Sheikh Said ibn Hamad al-Qasimi    (b. 18... - d. 1937)
30 Apr 1937 -        1951  Sheikh Hamad ibn Said al-Qasimi    (b. ... - d. 1951)
       1951 -        1952  Sheikh Saqr ibn Sultan al-Qasimi   (s.a.)

Umm al-Qaiwain

       1775                Al Mu`alla lineage of Al `Ali clan established in
                           Umm al-Qaiwain

Rulers
- Al Mu`alla dynasty -
       1775 -        17..  Sheikh Majid Al Mu`alla
       17.. -        1816  Sheikh Rashid ibn Majid Al Mu`alla
       1816 -        1853  Sheikh Abdullah ibn Rashid
                           Al Mu`alla
       1853 -        1873  Sheikh Ali ibn Abdullah Al Mu`alla
       1873 - 13 Jun 1904  Sheikh Ahmad ibn Abdullah
                           Al Mu`alla                         (b. 18... - d. 1904)
13 Jun 1904 -    Aug 1922  Sheikh Rashid ibn Ahmad Al Mu`alla (b. 1875 - d. 1922)
   Aug 1922 -    Oct 1923  Sheikh Abdullah ibn Rashid
                           Al Mu`alla
   Oct 1923 -  9 Feb 1929  Sheikh Hamad ibn Ibrahim
                           Al Mu`alla
 9 Feb 1929 - 21 Feb 1981  Sheikh Ahmad ibn Rashid Al Mu`alla (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
21 Feb 1981 -  2 Jan 2009  Sheikh Rashid ibn Ahmad Al Mu`alla (b. 1930 - d. 2009)
 2 Jan 2009 -              Sheikh Saud ibn Rashid Al Mu`alla  (b. 1952)

United Arab Republic: see Egypt.

United Kingdom

        927                Kingdom of England
 3 Apr 1603                personal union with Kingdom of Scotland
12 May 1707                (United) Kingdom of Great Britain
 1 Jan 1801                United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
12 Apr 1927                United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
                           (in official, non-statutory use from 6 Dec 1922)

Kings/Queens¹
- Orange dynasty -
23 Feb 1689 - 19 Mar 1702  William III                        (b. 1650 - d. 1702)
                           (in Scotland William II)
                           (jointly with following)
- Stuart dynasty -
23 Feb 1689 -  7 Jan 1695  Mary II (f)                        (b. 1662 - d. 1695)
19 Mar 1702 - 12 Aug 1714  Anne (f)                           (b. 1665 - d. 1714)
- Hanover dynasty -
12 Aug 1714 - 22 Jun 1727  George I                           (b. 1660 - d. 1727)
22 Jun 1727 - 25 Oct 1760  George II                          (b. 1683 - d. 1760)
26 Oct 1760 - 29 Jan 1820  George III                         (b. 1738 - d. 1820)
29 Jan 1820 - 26 Jun 1830  George IV                          (b. 1762 - d. 1830)
                           (5 Feb 1811 - 29 Jan 1820 prince regent for George III)
26 Jun 1830 - 20 Jun 1837  William IV                         (b. 1765 - d. 1837)
20 Jun 1837 - 22 Jan 1901  Victoria (f)                       (b. 1819 - d. 1901)
- Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (from 17 Jul 1917, Windsor) dynasty -
22 Jan 1901 -  6 May 1910  Edward VII                         (b. 1841 - d. 1910)
 6 May 1910 - 20 Jan 1936  George V                           (b. 1865 - d. 1936)
20 Jan 1936 - 11 Dec 1936  Edward VIII                        (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
11 Dec 1936 -  6 Feb 1952  George VI                          (b. 1895 - d. 1952)
 6 Feb 1952 -              Elizabeth II (f)                   (b. 1926)

Prime ministers² 26 May 1730 - 22 Feb 1742 Sir Robert Walpole Whg (b. 1676 - d. 1745) 27 Feb 1742 - 13 Jul 1743 Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington Whg (b. 1673? - d. 1743) 7 Sep 1743 - 6 Mar 1754 Henry Pelham Whg (b. 1696 - d. 1754) 16 Mar 1754 - 16 Nov 1756 Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle (1st time) Whg (b. 1693 - d. 1768) 16 Nov 1756 - 2 Jul 1757 William Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire Whg (b. 1720 - d. 1764) 2 Jul 1757 - 26 May 1762 Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle (2nd time) Whg (s.a.) 26 May 1762 - 16 Apr 1763 John Stuart, Earl of Bute (b. 1713 - d. 1792) 16 Apr 1763 - 13 Jul 1765 George Grenville (b. 1712 - d. 1770) 13 Jul 1765 - 30 Jul 1766 Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham (1st time) Whg (b. 1730 - d. 1782) 30 Jul 1766 - 14 Oct 1768 William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (b. 1708 - d. 1778) 14 Oct 1768 - 28 Jan 1770 Augustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton (b. 1735 - d. 1811) 28 Jan 1770 - 22 Mar 1782 Frederick North, Lord North (b. 1732 - d. 1792) 27 Mar 1782 - 1 Jul 1782 Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham (2nd time) Whg (s.a.) 4 Jul 1782 - 2 Apr 1783 William Petty-Fitzmaurice, Earl of Shelburne (b. 1737 - d. 1805) 2 Apr 1783 - 19 Dec 1783 William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, Duke of Portland (1st time) Whg (b. 1738 - d. 1809) 19 Dec 1783 - 14 Mar 1801 William Pitt the Younger (1st time) Tor (b. 1759 - d. 1806) 17 Mar 1801 - 10 May 1804 Henry Addington Tor (b. 1757 - d. 1844) 10 May 1804 - 23 Jan 1806 William Pitt the Younger (2nd time) Tor (s.a.) 11 Feb 1806 - 31 Mar 1807 William Wyndham Grenville, Baron Grenville (b. 1759 - d. 1834) 31 Mar 1807 - 4 Oct 1809 William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, Duke of Portland (2nd time) Whg (s.a.) 4 Oct 1809 - 11 May 1812 Spencer Perceval Tor (b. 1762 - d. 1812) 8 Jun 1812 - 12 Apr 1827 Robert Banks Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool Tor (b. 1770 - d. 1828) 12 Apr 1827 - 8 Aug 1827 George Canning Tor (b. 1770 - d. 1827) 31 Aug 1827 - 22 Jan 1828 Frederick John Robinson, Viscount Goderich Tor (b. 1782 - d. 1859) 22 Jan 1828 - 22 Nov 1830 Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (1st time) Tor (b. 1769 - d. 1852) 22 Nov 1830 - 16 Jul 1834 Charles Grey, Earl Grey Whg (b. 1764 - d. 1845) 16 Jul 1834 - 17 Nov 1834 William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne (1st time) Whg (b. 1779 - d. 1848) 17 Nov 1834 - 10 Dec 1834 Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (2nd time) Tor (s.a.) 10 Dec 1834 - 18 Apr 1835 Sir Robert Peel (1st time) Tor (b. 1788 - d. 1850) 18 Apr 1835 - 30 Aug 1841 William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne (2nd time) Whg (s.a.) 30 Aug 1841 - 30 Jun 1846 Sir Robert Peel (2nd time) Con (s.a.) 30 Jun 1846 - 23 Feb 1852 Lord John Russell (1st time) Lib (b. 1792 - d. 1878) 23 Feb 1852 - 19 Dec 1852 Edward Geoffrey Stanley, Earl of Derby (1st time) Con (b. 1799 - d. 1869) 19 Dec 1852 - 6 Feb 1855 George Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen (b. 1784 - d. 1860) 6 Feb 1855 - 20 Feb 1858 Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston (1st time) Lib (b. 1784 - d. 1865) 20 Feb 1858 - 12 Jun 1859 Edward Geoffrey Stanley, Earl of Derby (2nd time) Con (s.a.) 12 Jun 1859 - 18 Oct 1865 Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 29 Oct 1865 - 28 Jun 1866 John Russell, Earl Russell (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 28 Jun 1866 - 27 Feb 1868 Edward Geoffrey Stanley, Earl of Derby (3rd time) Con (s.a.) 27 Feb 1868 - 3 Dec 1868 Benjamin Disraeli (1st time) Con (b. 1804 - d. 1881) 3 Dec 1868 - 20 Feb 1874 William Ewart Gladstone (1st time) Lib (b. 1809 - d. 1898) 20 Feb 1874 - 23 Apr 1880 Benjamin Disraeli, (from 12 Aug 1876) Earl of Beaconsfield (2nd time) Con (s.a.) 23 Apr 1880 - 23 Jun 1885 William Ewart Gladstone (2nd time) Lib (s.a.) 23 Jun 1885 - 1 Feb 1886 Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (1st time) Con (b. 1830 - d. 1903) 1 Feb 1886 - 25 Jul 1886 William Ewart Gladstone (3rd time) Lib (s.a.) 25 Jul 1886 - 15 Aug 1892 Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (2nd time) Con (s.a.) 15 Aug 1892 - 5 Mar 1894 William Ewart Gladstone (4th time) Lib (s.a.) 5 Mar 1894 - 25 Jun 1895 Archibald Primrose, Earl of Rosebery Lib (b. 1847 - d. 1929) 25 Jun 1895 - 12 Jul 1902 Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (3rd time) Con (s.a.) 12 Jul 1902 - 5 Dec 1905 Arthur James Balfour Con (b. 1848 - d. 1930) 5 Dec 1905 - 8 Apr 1908 Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman Lib (b. 1836 - d. 1908) 8 Apr 1908 - 7 Dec 1916 H.H. Asquith Lib (b. 1852 - d. 1928) 7 Dec 1916 - 23 Oct 1922 David Lloyd George Lib (b. 1863 - d. 1945) 23 Oct 1922 - 22 May 1923 Bonar Law Con (b. 1858 - d. 1923) 22 May 1923 - 22 Jan 1924 Stanley Baldwin (1st time) Con (b. 1867 - d. 1947) 22 Jan 1924 - 4 Nov 1924 Ramsay MacDonald (1st time) Lab (b. 1866 - d. 1937) 4 Nov 1924 - 5 Jun 1929 Stanley Baldwin (2nd time) Con (s.a.) 5 Jun 1929 - 7 Jun 1935 Ramsay MacDonald (2nd time) Lab (s.a.) 7 Jun 1935 - 28 May 1937 Stanley Baldwin (3rd time) Con (s.a.) 28 May 1937 - 10 May 1940 Neville Chamberlain Con (b. 1869 - d. 1940) 10 May 1940 - 26 Jul 1945 Winston Churchill (1st time) Con (b. 1874 - d. 1965) 26 Jul 1945 - 26 Oct 1951 Clement Attlee Lab (b. 1883 - d. 1967) 26 Oct 1951 - 6 Apr 1955 Winston Churchill (from 24 Apr 1953, Sir Winston Churchill) (2nd time) Con (s.a.) 6 Apr 1955 - 10 Jan 1957 Sir Anthony Eden Con (b. 1897 - d. 1977) 10 Jan 1957 - 19 Oct 1963 Harold Macmillan Con (b. 1894 - d. 1986) 19 Oct 1963 - 16 Oct 1964 Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Earl of Home (from 23 Oct 1963, Sir Alec Douglas-Home) Con (b. 1903 - d. 1995) 16 Oct 1964 - 19 Jun 1970 Harold Wilson (1st time) Lab (b. 1916 - d. 1995) 19 Jun 1970 - 4 Mar 1974 Edward Heath Con (b. 1916 - d. 2005) 4 Mar 1974 - 5 Apr 1976 Harold Wilson (2nd time) Lab (s.a.) 5 Apr 1976 - 4 May 1979 James Callaghan Lab (b. 1912 - d. 2005) 4 May 1979 - 28 Nov 1990 Margaret Thatcher (f) Con (b. 1925 - d. 2013) 28 Nov 1990 - 2 May 1997 John Major Con (b. 1943) 2 May 1997 - 27 Jun 2007 Tony Blair Lab (b. 1953) 27 Jun 2007 - 11 May 2010 Gordon Brown Lab (b. 1951) 11 May 2010 - David Cameron Con (b. 1966)
Party abbreviations: Con=Conservative, DUP=Democratic Unionist Party, Lab=Labour, Lib=Liberal, LD=Liberal Democrat, SNP=Scottish National Party, Tor=Tory, UUP=Ulster Unionist Party, Whg=Whig. Before the development of the Conservative and Liberal parties in the mid-19th century, parties were largely simply alliances of prominent groups or aristocratic families. The designations Whig and Tory tend often to be approximate.
¹The style of the ruler was:
(a) from 1 May 1707: by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland King/Queen, Defender of the Faith;
(b) from 1 Jan 1801: by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King/Queen, Defender of the Faith; in 1876 the title "Empress of India" was added;
(c) from 4 Nov 1901: by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India;
(d) from 13 May 1927: by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India; the title "Emperor of India" was dropped as of 15 Aug 1947;
(e) from 29 May 1953: by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.

²The origin of the term prime minister and the question to whom it should originally be applied have long been issues of debate. Although the term was used as early as the reign of Queen Anne (1702-14), it acquired wider currency during the reign of George II (1727-60), when it began to be used as a term of reproach toward Sir Robert Walpole, who is usually considered the first prime minister, although the title did not become official until 1905.

Northern Ireland

Governors
12 Dec 1922 -  7 Sep 1945  James Albert Edward Hamilton,
                           Duke of Abercorn                   (b. 1869 - d. 1953)
 7 Sep 1945 -  1 Dec 1952  William Spencer Leveson Gower,
                           Earl Granville                     (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
 3 Dec 1952 -  1 Dec 1964  John de Vere Loder,
                           Baron Wakehurst                    (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
 3 Dec 1964 -  2 Dec 1968  John Maxwell Erskine,
                           Baron Erskine of Rerrick           (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
 3 Dec 1968 - 18 Jul 1973  Ralph Francis Alnwick Grey,
                           Baron Grey of Naunton              (b. 1910 - d. 1999)

Prime ministers 7 Jun 1921 - 24 Nov 1940 Sir James Craig (from 20 Jan 1927, James Craig, Viscount Craigavon) UUP (b. 1871 - d. 1940) 24 Nov 1940 - 1 May 1943 John Miller Andrews UUP (b. 1871 - d. 1956) (acting to 27 Nov 1940) 1 May 1943 - 26 Mar 1963 Sir Basil Stanlake Brooke (from 1952, Basil Stanlake Brooke, Viscount Brookeborough of Colebrooke) UUP (b. 1888 - d. 1973) 26 Mar 1963 - 1 May 1969 Terence O'Neill UUP (b. 1914 - d. 1990) 1 May 1969 - 23 Mar 1971 James Chichester-Clark UUP (b. 1923 - d. 2002) 23 Mar 1971 - 30 Mar 1972 Brian Faulkner UUP (b. 1921 - d. 1977) Chief executive 1 Jan 1974 - 28 May 1974 Brian Faulkner UUP (s.a.) First ministers 1 Jul 1998 - 1 Jul 2001 David Trimble (1st time) UUP (b. 1944) (suspended 11 Feb - 30 May 2000) 1 Jul 2001 - 18 Oct 2001 Sir Reg Empey (acting) UUP (b. 1947) (suspended 10-11 Aug 2001 and 22-23 Sep 2001) 6 Nov 2001 - 15 Oct 2002 David Trimble (2nd time) UUP (s.a.) 8 May 2007 - 5 Jun 2008 Ian Paisley DUP (b. 1926) 5 Jun 2008 - Peter Robinson DUP (b. 1948) 11 Jan 2010 - 3 Feb 2010 Arlene Foster (f) DUP (b. 1970) (acting for Robinson)

Scotland

First ministers
17 May 1999 - 11 Oct 2000  Donald Dewar                  Lab  (b. 1937 - d. 2000)
11 Oct 2000 - 26 Oct 2000  Jim Wallace (1st time)        LD   (b. 1954)
                           (acting)
26 Oct 2000 -  8 Nov 2001  Henry McLeish                 Lab  (b. 1948)
 8 Nov 2001 - 22 Nov 2001  Jim Wallace (2nd time)        LD   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
22 Nov 2001 - 17 May 2007  Jack McConnell                Lab  (b. 1960)
17 May 2007 -              Alex Salmond                  SNP  (b. 1954)

Wales

First secretaries (from 16 Oct 2000, first ministers)
12 May 1999 -  9 Feb 2000  Alun Michael                  Lab  (b. 1943)
 9 Feb 2000 - 10 Dec 2009  Rhodri Morgan                 Lab  (b. 1939)
                           (acting to 15 Feb 2000)
10 Dec 2009 -              Carwyn Jones                  Lab  (b. 1967)

United States

 4 Jul 1776                independence declared (United States of America)
                           (Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts,
                           New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina,
                           Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia)
 2 Mar 1781                Articles of Confederation effective
 3 Sep 1783                independence recognized by Britain
 4 Mar 1789                Constitution effective; 11 of the 13 original states have
                           ratified it by that time
21 Nov 1789                North Carolina ratifies Constitution
29 May 1790                Rhode Island ratifies Constitution

Presidents of the ("Continental") Congress
 5 Sep 1774 - 22 Oct 1774  Peyton Randolph (1st time)         (b. 1721 - d. 1775)
22 Oct 1774 - 26 Oct 1774  Henry Middleton                    (b. 1717 - d. 1784)
10 May 1775 - 24 May 1775  Peyton Randolph (2nd time)         (s.a.)
24 May 1775 - 29 Oct 1777  John Hancock                       (b. 1737 - d. 1793)
29 Oct 1777 -  1 Nov 1777  Charles Thomson (acting)           (b. 1729 - d. 1824)
 1 Nov 1777 -  9 Dec 1778  Henry Laurens                      (b. 1724 - d. 1792)
10 Dec 1778 - 28 Sep 1779  John Jay                           (b. 1745 - d. 1829)
28 Sep 1779 -  2 Mar 1781  Samuel Huntington                  (b. 1731 - d. 1796)
Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
 2 Mar 1781 - 10 Jul 1781  Samuel Huntington                  (s.a.)
10 Jul 1781 -  4 Nov 1781  Thomas McKean                      (b. 1734 - d. 1817)
 5 Nov 1781 -  3 Nov 1782  John Hanson                        (b. 1721 - d. 1783)
 4 Nov 1782 -  2 Nov 1783  Elias Boudinot                     (b. 1740 - d. 1821)
 3 Nov 1783 - 31 Oct 1784  Thomas Mifflin                     (b. 1744 - d. 1800)
 3 Nov 1783 - 13 Dec 1783    Daniel Carroll                   (b. 1730 - d. 1796)
                             (acting for Mifflin)
30 Nov 1784 -  6 Nov 1785  Richard Henry Lee                  (b. 1732 - d. 1794)
23 Nov 1785 -  5 Jun 1786  John Hancock                       (s.a.)
23 Nov 1785 - 12 May 1786    David Ramsay                     (b. 1749 - d. 1815)
                             (acting for Hancock)
15 May 1786 -  5 Nov 1786  Nathaniel Gorham                   (b. 1738 - d. 1796)
                           (acting for Hancock to 5 Jun 1786)
 2 Feb 1787 -  4 Nov 1787  Arthur St. Clair                   (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
22 Jan 1788 -  2 Nov 1788  Cyrus Griffin                      (b. 1748 - d. 1810)
Presidents¹
30 Apr 1789 -  4 Mar 1797  George Washington                  (b. 1732 - d. 1799)
 4 Mar 1797 -  4 Mar 1801  John Adams                    Fed  (b. 1735 - d. 1826)
 4 Mar 1801 -  4 Mar 1809  Thomas Jefferson              D-R  (b. 1743 - d. 1826)
 4 Mar 1809 -  4 Mar 1817  James Madison                 D-R  (b. 1751 - d. 1836)
 4 Mar 1817 -  4 Mar 1825  James Monroe                  D-R  (b. 1758 - d. 1831)
 4 Mar 1825 -  4 Mar 1829  John Quincy Adams             D-R  (b. 1767 - d. 1848)
 4 Mar 1829 -  4 Mar 1837  Andrew Jackson                Dem  (b. 1767 - d. 1845)
 4 Mar 1837 -  4 Mar 1841  Martin Van Buren              Dem  (b. 1782 - d. 1862)
 4 Mar 1841 -  4 Apr 1841  William Henry Harrison        Whg  (b. 1773 - d. 1841)
 4 Apr 1841 -  4 Mar 1845  John Tyler                    Whg  (b. 1790 - d. 1862)
 4 Mar 1845 -  4 Mar 1849  James K. Polk                 Dem  (b. 1795 - d. 1849)
 4 Mar 1849 -  9 Jul 1850  Zachary Taylor                Whg  (b. 1784 - d. 1850)
 9 Jul 1850 -  4 Mar 1853  Millard Fillmore              Whg  (b. 1800 - d. 1874)
 4 Mar 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  Franklin Pierce               Dem  (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
 4 Mar 1857 -  4 Mar 1861  James Buchanan                Dem  (b. 1791 - d. 1868)
 4 Mar 1861 - 15 Apr 1865  Abraham Lincoln               Rep  (b. 1809 - d. 1865)
15 Apr 1865 -  4 Mar 1869  Andrew Johnson                Dem  (b. 1808 - d. 1875)
 4 Mar 1869 -  4 Mar 1877  Ulysses S. Grant              Rep  (b. 1822 - d. 1885)
 4 Mar 1877 -  4 Mar 1881  Rutherford B. Hayes           Rep  (b. 1822 - d. 1893)
 4 Mar 1881 - 19 Sep 1881  James A. Garfield             Rep  (b. 1831 - d. 1881)
19 Sep 1881 -  4 Mar 1885  Chester A. Arthur             Rep  (b. 1829 - d. 1886)
 4 Mar 1885 -  4 Mar 1889  Grover Cleveland (1st time)   Dem  (b. 1837 - d. 1908)
 4 Mar 1889 -  4 Mar 1893  Benjamin Harrison             Rep  (b. 1833 - d. 1901)
 4 Mar 1893 -  4 Mar 1897  Grover Cleveland (2nd time)   Dem  (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1897 - 14 Sep 1901  William McKinley              Rep  (b. 1843 - d. 1901)
14 Sep 1901 -  4 Mar 1909  Theodore Roosevelt            Rep  (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
 4 Mar 1909 -  4 Mar 1913  William Howard Taft           Rep  (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
 4 Mar 1913 -  4 Mar 1921  Woodrow Wilson                Dem  (b. 1856 - d. 1924)
 4 Mar 1921 -  2 Aug 1923  Warren G. Harding             Rep  (b. 1865 - d. 1923)
 2 Aug 1923 -  4 Mar 1929  Calvin Coolidge               Rep  (b. 1872 - d. 1933)
 4 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Herbert Hoover                Rep  (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
 4 Mar 1933 - 12 Apr 1945  Franklin D. Roosevelt         Dem  (b. 1882 - d. 1945)
12 Apr 1945 - 20 Jan 1953  Harry S. Truman               Dem  (b. 1884 - d. 1972)
20 Jan 1953 - 20 Jan 1961  Dwight D. Eisenhower          Rep  (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
20 Jan 1961 - 22 Nov 1963  John F. Kennedy               Dem  (b. 1917 - d. 1963)
22 Nov 1963 - 20 Jan 1969  Lyndon B. Johnson             Dem  (b. 1908 - d. 1973)
20 Jan 1969 -  9 Aug 1974  Richard M. Nixon              Rep  (b. 1913 - d. 1994)
 9 Aug 1974 - 20 Jan 1977  Gerald R. Ford                Rep  (b. 1913 - d. 2006)
20 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Jimmy Carter                  Dem  (b. 1924)
20 Jan 1981 - 20 Jan 1989  Ronald Reagan                 Rep  (b. 1911 - d. 2004)
20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  George Bush                   Rep  (b. 1924)
20 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Bill Clinton                  Dem  (b. 1946)
20 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2009  George W. Bush                Rep  (b. 1946)
20 Jan 2009 -              Barack Obama                  Dem  (b. 1961)
Party abbreviations: Dem=Democratic, D-R=Democratic-Republican, Fed=Federalist, Rep=Republican, Whg=Whig
¹On six occasions, a president took the oath of office one or (in Tyler's case) two days after the beginning of his term of office, either because the demise of the presidency was due to the death of the incumbent or because of religious scruples about swearing an oath on Sunday. These occasions are: Monroe 1821 (upon reelection), Tyler 1841, Taylor 1849, Fillmore 1850, Arthur 1881, Coolidge 1923. Although the oath is necessary for a president to "enter on the execution of the office," the presidential term itself begins on time. On several occasions the new president took the oath of office in public the day after the beginning of the term but, in view of the concerns voiced about earlier Sunday deferrals, had taken the oath in private (Hayes 1877 actually one day early). The beginnings of the terms are listed here, not the oath-taking dates. It may be noted in this context that there is no substance to the legend that David Rice Atchison was president 4-5 Mar 1849. (If not being sworn in as president is held against Zachary Taylor's being president already from noon on 4 Mar 1849, it cannot be argued that another person, however qualified otherwise, could have been acting president without being sworn in in that capacity.)

Confederate States of America

Note: The states making up the Confederate States of America previously seceded from the United States; the secession of Missouri and Kentucky affected only geographic parts of these states.
 8 Feb 1861                Confederate States of America founded by Alabama, Florida,
                           Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina
 5 Mar 1861                accession of Texas
20 May 1861                accession of Arkansas and North Carolina
23 May 1861                accession of Virginia
22 Jul 1861                accession of Tennessee
28 Nov 1861                accession of Missouri
10 Dec 1861                accession of Kentucky

President of the Congress
 8 Feb 1861 - 18 Feb 1861  Howell Cobb                        (b. 1815 - d. 1868)
President
18 Feb 1861 - 10 May 1865  Jefferson Davis               Dem  (b. 1808 - d. 1889)

Upper Volta: see Burkina Faso.

Uruguay

25 Aug 1825                independence from Brazil and reincorporation into the
                           United Provinces of the Río de la Plata declared
                           (Provincia Oriental del Río de la Plata¹, also styled
                           Province of Montevideo)
 8 Mar 1826 - 17 Aug 1827  provincial autonomy interrupted by United Provinces
                           government
 1 Dec 1828                secession from United Provinces (State of Montevideo)
18 Jul 1830                República Oriental del Uruguay¹ (before 1919 also styled
                           Estado Oriental del Uruguay¹)

Governors
25 Aug 1825 -  8 Mar 1826  Juan Antonio Lavalleja (1st time)  (b. 1784 - d. 1853)
17 Aug 1827 -  1 Dec 1828  Juan Antonio Lavalleja (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1828 - 22 Dec 1828  Joaquín Suárez de Rondelo          (b. 1781 - d. 1868)
                           (substitute)
22 Dec 1828 - 17 Apr 1830  José Rondeau (provisional)         (b. 1775 - d. 1844)
17 Apr 1830 - 24 Oct 1830  Juan Antonio Lavalleja (3rd time)  (s.a.)
                           (provisional)
Presidents
24 Oct 1830 -  6 Nov 1830  Luis Eduardo Pérez (acting)        (b. 1774 - d. 1841)
 6 Nov 1830 - 24 Oct 1834  Fructuoso Rivera (1st time)        (b. 1789? - d. 1854)
24 Oct 1834 -  1 Mar 1835  Carlos Anaya (acting)              (b. 1777 - d. 1862)
 1 Mar 1835 - 24 Oct 1838  Manuel Oribe (1st time)            (b. 1792 - d. 1857)
24 Oct 1838 - 11 Nov 1838  Gabriel Antonio Pereira (1st time) (b. 1794 - d. 1861)
                           (acting)
11 Nov 1838 - 28 Feb 1839  Fructuoso Rivera (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (General of Constitutional Army)
28 Feb 1839 - 25 Mar 1839  Gabriel Antonio Pereira (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (acting)
25 Mar 1839 -  1 Mar 1843  Fructuoso Rivera (3rd time)        (s.a.)
16 Feb 1843 -  8 Oct 1851    Manuel Oribe (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                             (in opposition during civil war)
 1 Mar 1843 - 15 Feb 1852  Joaquín Suárez de Rondelo (acting) (s.a.)
15 Feb 1852 -  1 Mar 1852  Bernardo P. Berro (1st time)       (b. 1803 - d. 1868)
                           (acting)
 1 Mar 1852 - 24 Sep 1853  Juan Francisco Giró                (b. 1791 - d. 1863)
26 Sep 1853 - 12 Mar 1854  Provisional Government
                           - Juan Antonio Lavalleja           (s.a.)
                             (to 22 Oct 1853)
                           - Venancio Flores                  (b. 1808 - d. 1868)
12 Mar 1854 - 10 Sep 1855  Venancio Flores (1st time)         (s.a.)
29 Aug 1855 - 11 Sep 1855    Luis Lamas (in rebellion)        (b. 1793 - d. 1864)
11 Sep 1855 - 15 Feb 1856  Manuel Basilio Bustamante (acting) (b. 1785 - d. 1863)
15 Feb 1856 -  1 Mar 1856  José María Plá (acting)            (b. 1794 - d. 1869)
 1 Mar 1856 -  1 Mar 1860  Gabriel Antonio Pereira (3rd time) (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1860 -  1 Mar 1864  Bernardo P. Berro (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1864 - 15 Feb 1865  Atanasio Aguirre (acting)          (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
16 Feb 1865 - 20 Feb 1865  Tomás Villalba                     (b. 1805 - d. 1886)
20 Feb 1865 - 15 Feb 1868  Venancio Flores (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (Provisional Governor)
15 Feb 1868 -  1 Mar 1868  Pedro Varela (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1837 - d. 1906)
 1 Mar 1868 -  1 Mar 1872  Lorenzo Batlle                     (b. 1810 - d. 1887)
 1 Mar 1872 - 15 Feb 1873  Tomás Gomensoro (acting)           (b. 1810 - d. 1900)
15 Feb 1873 - 15 Jan 1875  José Eugenio Ellauri               (b. 1834 - d. 1894)
                           (acting to 1 Mar 1873)
15 Jan 1875 - 22 Jan 1875  Pedro Varela (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                           (Provisional Governor)
22 Jan 1875 - 22 Jan 1875  Pedro E. Carve                     (b. 1839 - d. 1894)
22 Jan 1875 - 10 Mar 1876  Pedro Varela (3rd time)            (s.a.)
10 Mar 1876 - 14 Feb 1879  Lorenzo Latorre (1st time)         (b. 1844 - d. 1916)
                           (Provisional Governor)
14 Feb 1879 -  1 Mar 1879  Francisco Antonino Vidal
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1827 - d. 1889)
 1 Mar 1879 - 15 Mar 1880  Lorenzo Latorre (2nd time)         (s.a.)
15 Mar 1880 - 28 Feb 1882  Francisco Antonino Vidal
                           (2nd time) (acting to 16 Mar 1880) (s.a.)
28 Feb 1882 -  1 Mar 1882  Alberto Flangini (acting)          (b. 1824 - d. 1900)
 1 Mar 1882 -  1 Mar 1886  Máximo Santos (1st time)           (b. 1847 - d. 1889)
 1 Mar 1886 - 24 May 1886  Francisco Antonino Vidal
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
24 May 1886 - 18 Nov 1886  Máximo Santos (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
18 Nov 1886 -  1 Mar 1890  Máximo Tajes                       (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
 1 Mar 1890 -  1 Mar 1894  Julio Herrera y Obes               (b. 1841 - d. 1912)
 1 Mar 1894 - 21 Mar 1894  Duncan Stéwart (acting)            (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
21 Mar 1894 - 25 Aug 1897  Juan Idiarte Borda                 (b. 1844 - d. 1897)
25 Aug 1897 - 15 Feb 1899  Juan Lindolfo Cuestas (1st time)   (b. 1837 - d. 1905)
                           (acting to 10 Feb 1898, then provisional)
15 Feb 1899 -  1 Mar 1899  José Batlle y Ordóñez (1st time)   (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
                           (acting)
 1 Mar 1899 -  1 Mar 1903  Juan Lindolfo Cuestas (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1903 -  1 Mar 1907  José Batlle y Ordóñez (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1907 -  1 Mar 1911  Claudio Wílliman                   (b. 1863 - d. 1934)
 1 Mar 1911 -  1 Mar 1915  José Batlle y Ordóñez (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1915 -  1 Mar 1919  Feliciano Viera                    (b. 1872 - d. 1927)
 1 Mar 1919 -  1 Mar 1923  Baltasar Brum                      (b. 1883 - d. 1933)
 1 Mar 1923 -  1 Mar 1927  José Serrato                       (b. 1868 - d. 1960)
 1 Mar 1927 -  1 Mar 1931  Juan Campisteguy                   (b. 1859 - d. 1937)
 1 Mar 1931 - 19 Jun 1938  Gabriel Terra                      (b. 1873 - d. 1942)
19 Jun 1938 -  1 Mar 1943  Alfredo Baldomir                   (b. 1884 - d. 1948)
 1 Mar 1943 -  1 Mar 1947  Juan José de Amézaga               (b. 1881 - d. 1956)
 1 Mar 1947 -  2 Aug 1947  Tomás Berreta                      (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
 2 Aug 1947 -  1 Mar 1951  Luis Batlle Berres                 (b. 1897 - d. 1964)
 1 Mar 1951 -  1 Mar 1952  Andrés Martínez Trueba             (b. 1884 - d. 1959)
Presidents of the National Council of Government
 1 Mar 1952 -  1 Mar 1955  Andrés Martínez Trueba             (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1955 -  1 Mar 1956  Luis Batlle Berres                 (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1956 -  1 Mar 1957  Alberto Fermín Zubiría             (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
 1 Mar 1957 -  1 Mar 1958  Arturo Lezama                      (b. 1899 - d. 1964)
 1 Mar 1958 -  1 Mar 1959  Carlos L. Fischer                  (b. 1903 - d. 1969)
 1 Mar 1959 -  1 Mar 1960  Martín R. Echegoyen                (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
 1 Mar 1960 -  1 Mar 1961  Benito Nardone                     (b. 1906 - d. 1964)
 1 Mar 1961 -  1 Mar 1962  Eduardo Víctor Haedo               (b. 1901 - d. 1970)
 1 Mar 1962 -  1 Mar 1963  Faustino Harrison                  (b. 1900 - d. 1963)
 1 Mar 1963 -  1 Mar 1964  Daniel Fernández Crespo            (b. 1901 - d. 1964)
 1 Mar 1964 -  7 Feb 1965  Luis Giannattasio                  (b. 1894 - d. 1965)
 8 Feb 1965 -  1 Mar 1966  Washington Beltrán                 (b. 1914 - d. 2003)
 1 Mar 1966 -  1 Mar 1967  Alberto Heber Usher                (b. 1916 - d. 1981)
Presidents
 1 Mar 1967 -  6 Dec 1967  Óscar Diego Gestido                (b. 1901 - d. 1967)
 6 Dec 1967 -  1 Mar 1972  Jorge Pacheco Areco                (b. 1920 - d. 1998)
 1 Mar 1972 - 12 Jun 1976  Juan María Bordaberry              (b. 1928 - d. 2011)
12 Jun 1976 -  1 Sep 1976  Alberto Demicheli                  (b. 1896 - d. 1980)
 1 Sep 1976 -  1 Sep 1981  Aparicio Méndez                    (b. 1904 - d. 1988)
 1 Sep 1981 - 12 Feb 1985  Gregorio Conrado Álvarez Armelino  (b. 1925)
12 Feb 1985 -  1 Mar 1985  Rafael Addiego Bruno (acting)      (b. 1923 - d. 2014)
 1 Mar 1985 -  1 Mar 1990  Julio María Sanguinetti Coirolo
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1936)
 1 Mar 1990 -  1 Mar 1995  Luis Alberto Lacalle               (b. 1941)
 1 Mar 1995 -  1 Mar 2000  Julio María Sanguinetti Coirolo
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Mar 2000 -  1 Mar 2005  Jorge Batlle                       (b. 1927)
 1 Mar 2005 -  1 Mar 2010  Tabaré Vázquez                     (b. 1940)
 1 Mar 2010 -              José Mujica                        (b. 1935)

Chairmen of the National Council of Administration 1 Mar 1919 - 1 Mar 1921 Feliciano Viera (s.a.) 1 Mar 1921 - 1 Mar 1923 José Batlle y Ordóñez (1st time) (s.a.) 1 Mar 1923 - 1 Mar 1925 Julio María Sosa (b. 1879 - d. 1931) 1 Mar 1925 - 1 Mar 1927 Luis Alberto de Herrera (b. 1873 - d. 1959) 1 Mar 1927 - 16 Feb 1928 José Batlle y Ordóñez (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Feb 1928 - 1 Mar 1929 Luis C. Caviglia (b. 1874 - d. 1951) 1 Mar 1929 - 1 Mar 1931 Baltasar Brum (s.a.) 1 Mar 1931 - 1 Mar 1933 Juan P. Fabini (b. 1876 - d. 1962) 1 Mar 1933 - 31 Mar 1933 Antonio Rubio (b. 1882 - d. 1953)
¹There is a problem of translation here with regard to the word Oriental (essential for national identification: question: ¿nacionalidad? answer: oriental). República Oriental del Uruguay, for example, literally means Republic East of the Uruguay, but it is also often translated as Oriental Republic of Uruguay.
`Uvea: see under Wallis and Futuna.

Uzbekistan

Bukhara

       1747 -        1756  Persian occupation
       1785                emirate
 2 Sep 1920                Bukharan Soviet Republic
18 Oct 1920                Bukharan People's Soviet Republic
19 Sep 1924                Bukharan Soviet Socialist Republic
17 Feb 1925                incorporation into Uzbekistan

Khans
       1681 -        1702  Subhan Quli Khan
       1702 -        1711  `Ubayd Allah Khan
       1711 -        1747  Abu al-Fa´id Khan
Governors (or regents) (under Persian occupation)
       1747 -        1751  `Abd al-Mu´min Khan
       1751 -        1754  `Ubayd Allah Khan
       1754 -        1756  Shir Ghazi Khan
Emirs
- Manqit dynasty -
       1753 - 24 Mar 1758  Muhammad Rahim Khan                (b. 1709 - d. 1758)
                           (initially in opposition to the occupation)
       1758 -        1785  Daniyal Biy Atalyq                 (b. ... - d. 1785)
       1785 - 13 Dec 1799  Shah Murad Khan
   Dec 1799 -    Jan 1826  Haydar Tura Khan
   Jan 1826 -    Mar 1826  Husayn Khan                        (b. 1797 - d. 1826)
   Mar 1826 - 22 Mar 1826  `Umar Khan                         (b. ... - d. 1826)
22 Mar 1826 - 21 Sep 1860  Nasr Allah Bahadur Khan            (b. 1806 - d. 1860)
23 Sep 1860 - 12 Nov 1885  Muzaffar ad-Din Bahadur Khan       (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
12 Nov 1885 -  3 Jan 1911  `Abd al-Ahad Khan                  (b. 1859 - d. 1911)
 3 Jan 1911 - 30 Aug 1920  Muhammad `Alim Khan                (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
Chairmen of the Provisional (from 6 Oct 1920, Central) Revolutionary Committee
 2 Sep 1920 -        1921  Mirza Abdulqodir Mansurovich
                           Mukhitdinov                        (b. 1892 - d. 1934)
       1921 - 23 Sep 1921  Polat Usmon Khodzhayev
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee
23 Sep 1921 -    Apr 1922  Polat Usmon Khodzhayev
   Apr 1922 - 18 Aug 1922  Muin Jon Aminov                    (b. 1890 - d. af.1922)
18 Aug 1922 - 17 Feb 1925  Porsa Khodzhayev

Farghana (Khuqand)

       169.                Khanate of Farghana
       1732                capital established at Khuqand
       1841 -    Jun 1842  annexed by Bukhara
       1852 -        1853  annexed by Bukhara
19 Feb 1876                incorporated into Russia
 5 Dec 1924                incorporated into Uzbekistan

Khans
- Ming dynasty -
       1800 -        1809  `Alim Khan
       1809 -        1822  Muhammad `Umar Khan
                           (styled Amir al-Muslimin from 1814)
       1822 -        1841  Muhammad `Ali Khan
   Jun 1842 -        1845  Shir `Ali Khan
       1845                Murad Beg Khan
       1845 -        1852  Muhammad Khudayar Khan (1st time)
       1853 -        1858  Muhammad Khudayar Khan (2nd time)
       1858 -  1 Mar 1862  Muhammad Malla Beg Khan
       1862                Shah Murad Khan
       1862 -        1863  Muhammad Khudayar Khan (3rd time)
       1863 -    Jul 1865  Muhammad Sultan Khan (1st time)
       1865                Bil Bahchi Khan
       1865 -        1866  Muhammad Sultan Khan (2nd time)
       1866 - 22 Jul 1875  Muhammad Khudayar Khan (4th time)
       1875                Nasir ad-Din Khan (1st time)
       1875 -    Dec 1875  Muhammad Pulad Beg Khan
   Dec 1875 - 19 Feb 1876  Nasir ad-Din Khan (2nd time)

Khorazm (Khiva)

       1511                khanate
30 Apr 1920                Khorazmian People's Soviet Republic
20 Oct 1923                Khorazmian Soviet Socialist Republic
17 Feb 1925                incorporation into Uzbekistan

Khans
- Banu Gha´ip dynasty -
       1747 -        1750  Gha´ip Khan
       1750 -        1753  `Abd Allah Qarabay Khan
       1753 -        1764  Sultan Timur Ghazi Khan
       1764 -        1791  Gha´ip Khan ibn Gha´ip Khan
       1791 -        1804  Abu´l Ghazi Khan ibn Gha´ip Khan
                           (1st time)
- Qunghirat dynasty -
       1804 -        1806  Iltazar Inaq Khan ibn Iwaz Inaq Biy
- Banu Gha´ip dynasty -
       1806                Abu´l Ghazi Khan ibn Gha´ip Khan
                           (2nd time)
- Qunghirat dynasty -
   Dec 1806 -        1825  Muhammad Rahim Bahadur Khan
       1825 -        1842  Allah Quli Bahadur Khan
       1842 - 30 Jan 1846  Muhammad Rahim Quli Khan
30 Jan 1846 -    Mar 1855  Abu´l Ghazi Muhammad Amin Bahadur
                           Khan
   Mar 1855 -  1 Sep 1855  `Abd Allah Khan
   Sep 1855 -  Ja/Fe 1856  Qutlugh Muhammad Murad Bahadur Khan
       1856                Mahmud Khan
       1856 -    Sep 1864  Muhammad Khan
10 Sep 1864 -  Au/Se 1910  Muhammad Rahim Bahadur Khan        (b. 1845? - d. 1910)
   Sep 1910 -  1 Oct 1918  Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur Khan      (b. 1871 - d. 1918)
   Oct 1918 -  1 Feb 1920  `Abd Allah Khan                    (b. 18... - d. 1920)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
 2 Feb 1920 -    Mar 1920  Hoji Pahlavon Niyoz Yusuf
Chairman of the Provisional Government
   Mar 1920 - 30 Apr 1920  Jumaniyoz Sulton Muradoghli
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Assembly of People's Representatives
30 Apr 1920 -  6 Mar 1921  Hoji Pahlavon Niyoz Yusuf
 6 Mar 1921 - 15 May 1921  Qoch Qoroghli
                           (chairman Provisional Revolutionary Committee)
15 May 1921 - 23 May 1921  Khudoybergan Divanoghli
Chairmen of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee
23 May 1921 -    Jun 1921  Mulla Nozir
   Jun 1921 -    Sep 1921  Allabergan
   Sep 1921 - 27 Nov 1921  Ata Maqsum Madrahimoghli
27 Nov 1921 - 23 Jun 1922  Jangibay Murodoghli
23 Jun 1922 - 20 Oct 1923  Abdulla Abdurahmon Khojaoghli
20 Oct 1923 -        1924  K. Safaroghli
       1924                Sultonkari Jumaniyoz
       1924 - 17 Feb 1925  Temurkhoja Yaminoghli

Uzbekistan

 5 Dec 1924                Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic inaugurated
13 May 1925                accession to the Soviet Union (see Soviet republics)
31 Aug 1991                Republic of Uzbekistan
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the Soviet Union)

Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
 5 Dec 1924 - 17 Feb 1925  Fayzulla Khodzhayev                (b. 1896 - d. 1938)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
17 Feb 1925 - 19 Jul 1938  Yoldosh Okhunboboyev               (b. 1885 - d. 1943)
President
24 Mar 1990 -              Islam Karimov                      (b. 1938)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars 17 Feb 1925 - 17 Jun 1937 Fayzulla Khodzhayev (s.a.) Prime ministers 13 Jan 1992 - 21 Dec 1995 Abdulkhashim Mutalov (b. 1947) 21 Dec 1995 - 11 Dec 2003 Otkir Sultonov (b. 1939) 11 Dec 2003 - Shavkat Mirziyayev (b. 1957)

Karakalpakstan

       1991                Republic of Karakalpakstan autonomous within Uzbekistan

President
   Nov 1991 -    May 1992  Dauletbay Shamshetov               (b. 1948)
Chairmen of parliament
   May 1992 - 17 Jul 1997  Ubbiniyaz Ashirbekov               (b. 1944)
17 Jul 1997 -  3 May 2002  Timur Kamalov                      (b. 1938)
 3 May 2002 -              Musa Erniyazov                     (b. 1947)

Prime ministers 1989 - 1992 Amin Tojiyev (1st time) 1992 - 1995 Rejepbay Yuldashev Feb 1995 - Dec 1995 Bakhrom Jumaniyazov Dec 1995 - Oct 1998 Saparbay Avezmatov Oct 1998 - 7 Oct 2002 Amin Tojiyev (2nd time) 7 Oct 2002 - 3 Mar 2006 Tursunbay Tangirbergenov 3 Mar 2006 - Bakhodir Yangiboyev (b. 1960)