Gladky, Dmitry (Spiridonovich) (b. Oct. 19, 1911, Martonosha, Yekaterinoslav province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Oct. 27, 1959, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1952-54).
Gladstone, William Ewart (b. Dec. 29, 1809, Liverpool, England - d. May 19, 1898, Hawarden, Flintshire, Wales), British prime minister (1868-74, 1880-85, 1886, 1892-94). He began his parliamentary career as a Tory member in 1832. He held minor office in Sir Robert Peel's short government of 1834-35, first at the treasury, then as undersecretary for the colonies. Time after time contact with the effects of Tory policy forced him to take a more liberal view. Peel made Gladstone vice president of the Board of Trade. In 1843 he entered the cabinet as president of the Board of Trade. He resigned in early 1845, but later that year he rejoined the cabinet as secretary of state for the colonies, until the government fell in 1846. He was chancellor of the exchequer in 1852-55 and 1859-66. He was well on the way to becoming "the people's William" when the death of Lord Palmerston and resignation of Lord John Russell gave him leadership of the Liberals in 1866. Gladstone's first and most successful government (1868-74) was marked by disestablishment of the Irish church, the Irish Land Act (to protect the peasants against abuses by their landlords), abolition of religious tests in universities, open competition in the civil service, the Secret Ballot Act, and other reforms. However, a pro-Anglican bias in the Education Act of 1870 contributed to his electoral defeat in 1874. He resigned the Liberal leadership in 1875, but he reentered the political arena to chastise (1876) his Conservative rival Benjamin Disraeli for indifference to Turkish atrocities in the Balkans. Gladstone attempted unsuccessfully to give Ireland home rule. He finally resigned in 1894, in a dispute over the naval budget, peace and retrenchment remaining his strongest passions.
Gladwyn (of Bramfield), (Hubert Miles) Gladwyn Jebb, (1st) Baron (b. April 25, 1900, Firbeck Hall, Yorkshire, England - d. Oct. 24, 1996, Halesworth, Suffolk, England), British politician. He entered the British diplomatic service in 1924 and served in Tehran and Rome. Recognized early for his efficiency and organizational skills, he advanced steadily in the Foreign Office, and in 1942 he was named head of its reconstruction department, which was responsible for developing Britain's post-World War II policy. He was a British delegate to the Dumbarton Oaks conference (1944) and accompanied Anthony Eden to Yalta (1945). In 1943 Gladwyn prepared early plans for the proposed United Nations; the first draft of the UN Charter was also prepared under his direction. After serving as acting secretary-general of the UN (1946) and as Britain's permanent UN representative (1950-54), Gladwyn served as Britain's ambassador to France (1954-60). In 1960 he was given a hereditary peerage in the House of Lords, and from 1965 to 1988 he served as deputy leader of the Liberal Party.
Glass, Albert (b. Jan. 25, 1935 - d. Aug. 18, 2007, Tristan da Cunha), chief islander of Tristan da Cunha (1973-79, 1982-85); great-great-grandson of William Glass.
Glass, Carter (b. Jan. 4, 1858, Lynchburg, Va. - d. May 28, 1946, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of the treasury (1918-20) and president pro tempore of the Senate (1941-45).
Glass, Conrad, byname Connie Glass (b. Jan. 20, 1961, Tristan da Cunha), chief islander of Tristan da Cunha (2007-10); great-great-great-grandson of William Glass.
Glass, Henry (b. Jan. 7, 1844, Hopkinsville, Ky. - d. Sept. 1, 1908, Paso Robles, Calif.), U.S. admiral. He was naval commander in charge of Alaska in 1881 and as commander of the U.S.S. Charleston took possession of Guam on June 21, 1898.
Glass, James (Patrick), chief islander of Tristan da Cunha (1994-2003); brother of Anne Green. He led the island people through the worst disaster since the October 1961 volcano eruption: the 2001 hurricane that damaged and/or destroyed all but one building in Edinburgh, the island's settlement.
Glass, William, original name William Glasgow (b. May 11, 1786, Kelso, Scotland - d. Nov. 24, 1853, Tristan da Cunha), chief islander of Tristan da Cunha (1817-53).
Glasspole, Sir Florizel (Augustus) (b. Sept. 25, 1909, Kingston, Jamaica - d. Nov. 25, 2000, Millbourough, St. Andrew parish, Jamaica), governor-general of Jamaica (1973-91); knighted 1981. He earlier was minister of labour (1955-57) and education (1957-62, 1972-73).
Glazkov, Aleksandr (Pavlovich) (b. July 26, 1951), acting head of the administration of Astrakhan oblast (2004).
Glean, Sir Carlyle (Arnold) (b. Feb. 11, 1932), governor-general of Grenada (2008-13); knighted 2009. He was education minister in 1990-95.
Glendening, Parris N(elson) (b. June 11, 1942, Bronx, New York City), governor of Maryland (1995-2003). In 1974 the Democrat was elected to the Prince George's Council; in 1982 he was elected Prince George's County executive. Prince George's grew during these years, developed a strong economy, dealt with school busing and developed an innovative magnet school plan. He won election as governor in 1994 almost entirely as the candidate of the Washington suburbs and Baltimore blacks. He took the Democratic primary, ordinarily the dispositive contest, with 54% of the vote, against American Joe Miedusiewski (that's his legal name). His Republican opponent, Ellen Sauerbrey, tried to gather evidence of fraud after the election and appeared at Republican Governors' Association meetings as governor-elect. Her findings fell well short of convincing evidence the election was stolen - at least half of the voters Sauerbrey's campaign had alleged were dead were found alive and living in Baltimore, according to the Washington Post - but did raise disturbing questions. Glendening won with 63% of the vote in metro Washington, while losing the rest of the state; metro Baltimore went 52% for Sauerbrey. Glendening won 90% among blacks, 75% in Baltimore City, 68% in Prince George's and 59% in Montgomery; Sauerbrey carried the other 19 counties. As governor, Glendening did not seek a tax increase, but did seek spending increases. He stepped back from his campaign promises for more gun control. He aggressively and successfully promoted a controversial ban on smoking in public places - ironic, given Maryland's history as a tobacco colony. He was reelected in 1998, again defeating Sauerbrey.
Gligorijevic, Slobodan (b. Nov. 20, 1920, Krusevac, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), president of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia (1989-92).
Gligorov, Kiro (Blagoje) (b. May 3, 1917, Stip, Ottoman Empire [now in Macedonia] - d. Jan. 1, 2012, Skopje, Macedonia), finance minister (1962-67) and president of the Federal Assembly (1974-78) of Yugoslavia and president of Macedonia (1991-99). He survived an assassination attempt in 1995.
Glistrup, Mogens (b. May 28, 1926, Rønne, Denmark - d. July 1, 2008, Virum, Denmark), Danish politician. In 1972 he founded the Progress Party, which ran primarily on a no-tax platform and secured nearly 16% of the popular vote in the 1973 elections. He famously suggested Denmark's army should be replaced with a telephone recording that said in Russian, "We surrender." From 1979, however, the party's popularity gradually plunged until garnering only 3.6% of the vote in the January 1984 election. Glistrup, who had been sentenced to three years in prison for tax fraud and expelled from parliament in 1983 and had become the first convict elected to the legislature straight from prison, was kicked out again in February 1984 and had to return to prison. Pia Kjærsgaard took over his seat and the effective leadership of the party. After his release in 1985 he returned to politics, but in 1991 he was expelled from the party because his hardline stance against immigration led to an internal power struggle. That struggle resulted in 1995 in the creation by Kjærsgaard of the Danish People's Party, which was subsequently more successful than the remaining Progress Party, to which Glistrup was readmitted in 1999 but whose four legislators all resigned soon after when Glistrup said all Muslims in Denmark should be placed in camps and the women sold to Paraguay. He also said: "Of course I'm a racist - all good Danes are. Either you're a racist or you're a traitor." In 2000 he was sentenced to a 20-day suspended sentence for saying Muslims had immigrated to Denmark in a bid to take control of the country. He appealed the decision, but a higher court ruled in 2003 that he should serve actual jail time because he had meanwhile repeated his comments several times on television and radio.
Glogowski, Gerhard (b. Feb. 11, 1943, Hannover, Germany), minister-president of Niedersachsen (1998-99). He was lord mayor of Braunschweig in 1976-81 and 1986-90.
Gloucester, Prince Henry (William Frederick Albert), (1st) Duke of (b. March 31, 1900, Sandringham, Norfolk, England - d. June 10, 1974, Barnwell Manor, Northamptonshire, England), governor-general of Australia (1945-47); son of George V; brother of Edward VIII and George VI. He was created duke in 1928.
Glushenkov, Anatoly (Yegorovich) (b. Nov. 20, 1942), head of the administration of Smolensk oblast (1993-98).
Gnassingbé, Faure (Essozimna) (b. June 6, 1966, Afagnan, southeastern Togo), president of Togo (2005, 2005- ); son of Gnassingbé Eyadéma. He was elected member of parliament for Blitta, in central Togo, in 1998 and 2002. In July 2003 he was appointed minister for mines, equipment, and telecommunications. On the day his father died in February 2005, the military proclaimed him as successor, contravening a constitution that called for the speaker of parliament to succeed the president until elections could be held in 60 days. The African Union condemned the appointment. The following day the parliament, dominated by Eyadéma's Togo People's Rally party, put a legal veneer on the succession by appointing Faure himself speaker, also passing a constitutional amendment allowing him to complete his father's term, voiding the need for new elections until 2008. However, the constitutional change was reversed two weeks later, as Togo faced increasing international sanctions. Another four days later, he said, "I've taken the decision to step down from the office of president in the interest of Togo." Presidential elections were held in April 2005 and he was declared the winner. Opposition supporters claimed massive fraud in the poll and clashed with security forces, leaving at least 22 dead nationwide and some 18,500 refugees flowing to neighbouring countries, according to the UN refugee agency.
Gnassingbé, Kpatcha (b. Sept. 6, 1970, Lomé, Togo), defense minister of Togo (2005-07); brother of Faure Gnassingbé.
Gnininvi, (Mensah Kokou) Léopold (b. Dec. 19, 1942, Aného, Togo), foreign minister of Togo (2007-08). He was also minister of mines and energy (2006-07) and industry, crafts, and technological innovations (2008-09).
Gnonlonfoun, Joseph (Houessou) (b. 1943, Porto-Novo, Dahomey [now Benin]), justice minister (1998-2003) and acting foreign minister (2003) of Benin.
Go, Issou, foreign minister of Burkina Faso (1989). He was also ambassador to Algeria (1988-90).
Goad, Sir (Edward) Colin (Viner) (b. Dec. 21, 1914 - d. March 15, 1998), secretary-general of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (1968-73); knighted 1974.
Gobbo, Sir James (Augustine) (b. March 22, 1931, Melbourne, Vic.), governor of Victoria (1997-2001); knighted 1982.
Gober, Hershel W(ayne) (b. Dec. 21, 1936, Monticello, Ark.), U.S. acting secretary of veterans affairs (1997-98, 2000-01).
Goblet, René (Marie) (b. Nov. 26, 1828, Aire, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. Dec. 13, 1905, Paris, France), prime minister of France (1886-87). He was also minister of interior (1882, 1886-87), public instruction and fine arts (1885-86), worship (1885-87), and foreign affairs (1888-89).
Goblet d'Alviella, Albert Joseph, comte (b. May 26, 1790, Tournai, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. May 5, 1873, Brussels, Belgium), cabinet chief (1831, 1831, 1832), war minister (1831), and foreign minister (1832-33, 1843-45) of Belgium. He was also envoy to Portugal (1837-39), whose queen created him conde d'Alviella in 1838, a title then confirmed by Belgium.
Gocevski, Trajan (b. 1950, Selnik, near Delcevo, Macedonia), defense minister of Macedonia (1991-92).
Godal, Bjørn Tore (b. Jan. 20, 1945, Skien, Telemark, Norway), foreign minister (1994-97) and defense minister (2000-01) of Norway.
Godana, Bonaya (Adhi) (b. Sept. 2, 1952, Dukana, northern Kenya - d. [plane crash] April 10, 2006, near Marsabit, northern Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (1998-2001). He was also minister of agriculture (2001-03).
Goddard, Sam(uel Pearson, Jr.) (b. Aug. 8, 1919, Clayton, Mo. - d. Feb. 1, 2006, Phoenix, Ariz.), governor of Arizona (1965-67). After losing his first gubernatorial bid in 1962 against Gov. Paul Fannin, Goddard was elected Arizona's 12th governor in 1964, defeating Republican Richard Kleindienst. He helped organize a compromise agreement among several state governors to support a bill authorizing the Colorado River Basin Project. That established the 336-mile Central Arizona Project - providing a reliable water source in the desert that propelled the state's economic and population growth. Goddard also signed a bill in 1965 that prohibited discrimination in voting and access to public places based on race, religion, gender, or ethnicity. He worked toward improving state management by establishing the first budget office in Arizona history and improved state trade relations with Mexico through his close relationship with the governor of Sonora, Luis Encinas. He lost a reelection bid to Republican Jack Williams in 1966 and lost to Williams again in 1968. He also served as state Democratic Party chair for more than a decade and on the Democratic National Committee for 20 years.
Godeheu (de Zaimont), Charles (Robert), acting governor of French India (1754).
Goding, Maurice Wilfred (b. Sept. 21, 1911, Skagway, Alaska - d. Sept. 14, 1998), high commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1961-66).
Godinho, Vitorino Henriques (b. July 19, 1878, Ansião, Portugal - d. Feb. 5, 1962, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister (1924) and interior minister (1925) of Portugal.
Godmanis, Ivars (b. Nov. 27, 1951, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), prime minister (1990-93, 2007-09), finance minister (1998-99), and interior minister (2006-07) of Latvia. He taught Latvians market economics amid the chaos and hyperinflation of the Soviet Union's collapse. His early price liberalization, mass privatization, and introduction of a stable national currency - the lats - put the country on solid economic ground, although the measures were widely criticized at the time. Latvians, who shivered through Godmanis's liberalization of heating fuel prices, dubbed the makeshift fireplaces they installed in those tough early winters "Godmanis furnaces." His party lost the 1993 elections, failing to get into the parliament at all. The benefits of his reforms came through in due course, and with the economy growing at 6.4% in the first half of 1998 and annual inflation at 2.9% in October 1998, economic hardship began to seem like something only other countries suffered from. But then Russia's economy collapsed, threatening to suck down Latvia, still dependent on trade with its huge neighbour. When he became finance minister, he promised simply to balance the budget, as did his predecessor, Roberts Zile. But the economic fallout from Russia's economic problems made the task more difficult for him than it was for Zile. In 2007 he returned as prime minister at a time when turbulent economic storms were forecast again. The global economic crisis hit Latvia hard in 2008, its GDP in the last quarter dropping 10.5% compared to the same period of 2007. Demonstrators rioted against the government, and he resigned in February 2009 after the two largest members of his six-party coalition withdrew their support (his own Latvia First/Latvia's Way party was the third largest).
Godoy Cruz, Domingo (Hilarión) (b. Jan. 13, 1847, Santiago, Chile - d. July 16, 1916, Santiago), foreign minister (1890-91) and interior minister (1891) of Chile; brother of Joaquín Godoy Cruz. He was also minister-resident to Colombia (1876-79) and Ecuador (1883-86).
Godoy Cruz, (José) Joaquín (b. c. November 1837 - d. Aug. 27, 1901, Brazil), foreign minister of Chile (1886). He was also chargé d'affaires in Peru (1868-70) and minister to the United States (1870-72, 1882-86), Peru (1872-79), Bolivia (1898), and Brazil (1899-1901).
Godoy Rangel, Leonel (b. June 5, 1950, Melchor Ocampo del Balsas [now Lázaro Cárdenas], Michoacán, Mexico), governor of Michoacán (2008-12).
Godoy y Álvarez de Faria (Ríos Sánchez Zarzosa), Manuel, (from June 6, 1792) marqués de Alcudia, (from July 4, 1792) duque de Alcudia, (from Sept. 27, 1795) príncipe de la Paz, (from March 7, 1804) duque de Sueca, (from March 24, 1806) barón de Marcalbo (b. May 12, 1767, Castuera, Badajoz, Spain - d. Oct. 4, 1851, Paris, France), first secretary of state of Spain (1792-98). He entered the royal bodyguard and became the lover of Maria Luisa of Parma, wife of the heir to the throne. When her husband became King Carlos IV in 1788, the domineering Maria Luisa persuaded him to advance Godoy in rank and power, and by 1792 he was field marshal and first secretary of state. He tried to save the French king Louis XVI from the guillotine, and when that failed, war broke out between France and Spain (1793). Godoy negotiated the Peace of Basel (1795), for which he was given the title príncipe de la Paz (prince of the Peace). He allied with France against England, but France proved an unfaithful ally and showed little scruple in betraying Spanish interests. In 1798 Godoy was removed from office, though he continued to enjoy royal favour and wield great influence. In 1802 an opposition party began to form against Godoy around the heir apparent, Fernando, spurred by growing discontent over the conduct of national affairs. When Spain learned in 1808 that France planned to seize certain of its northern provinces, the court, seeking to establish a government in exile, attempted to flee the country, but at Aranjuez a mob, loyal to Ferdinand, nearly killed Godoy and forced Carlos to abdicate in his son's behalf. Godoy was then arrested by Fernando, and in May all three - Godoy, Fernando, and Carlos - were enticed across the border into France, where they became prisoners. Godoy stayed with Carlos in Rome until the latter's death in 1819. Thereafter he lived in obscurity in Paris.
Godwin, Mills E(dwin), Jr. (b. Nov. 19, 1914, Suffolk, Va. - d. Jan. 30, 1998, Newport News, Va.), U.S. politician. He was elected to the House of Delegates in 1948, moved to the Virginia Senate four years later, and remained there until his 1961 election as lieutenant governor. In the Senate, Godwin was a principal architect of Virginia's so-called "massive resistance" policy to school integration. At one point, he declared there would be "no compromise on our principle of total segregation in Virginia." The state abandoned massive resistance in 1959. Godwin later said that Virginia needed time to "adjust to what inevitably had to happen." But he admitted that "we waited too long to do some of the things we should have done in earlier years to assure full equality of opportunity in education" for black children. He won his first term as governor in 1965. The term was highlighted by the creation of Virginia's system of two-year community colleges and implementation of the state sales tax. He could not seek reelection in 1969 because Virginia does not allow governors two consecutive terms. Upset by the liberal drift of the national Democratic Party, he was persuaded to join the GOP and ran for another term in 1973 as a Republican. But Godwin's second term may be more remembered for fiscal problems spawned by the Arab oil embargo. He ordered spending cuts of more than $200 million to keep the state budget balanced.
Goebbels, (Paul) Joseph (b. Oct. 29, 1897, Rheydt [now part of Mönchengladbach, Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. May 1, 1945, Berlin), German politician. In the autumn of 1924 he made friends with a group of National Socialists. A gifted speaker, he was soon made the district administrator of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Elberfeld. In November 1926 Adolf Hitler appointed him district leader in Berlin. In 1928 Hitler gave the successful orator and well-versed propagandist the additional post of propaganda director for the NSDAP for all of Germany. He began to create the Führer myth around the person of Hitler and to institute the ritual of party celebrations and demonstrations that played a decisive role in converting the masses to Nazism. In addition, he spread propaganda by continuing his rigorous schedule of speechmaking. After the "seizure of power" (1933), a ministry for propaganda was created for him, and in addition he became president of the newly formed "Chamber of Culture" for the Reich. In this capacity he controlled, besides propaganda as such, the press, radio, theatre, films, literature, music, and the fine arts as well. His influence decreased in the years 1937 and 1938. His position underwent little change with the outbreak of World War II. His hour came with the turn in fortunes of the war after the defeats in Stalingrad and Africa, when he was to prove himself a master of the clever propaganda of holding out in the face of defeat. His work was especially effective in intensifying the efforts of the home front: he became the protagonist of total war. He was the only one of the original Nazi leaders to remain with Hitler in the besieged bunker in Berlin and was named chancellor in Hitler's last testament, but one day after Hitler's suicide, Goebbels and his wife took their lives and those of their six children.
Goedgedrag, Frits (Martinus de los Santos) (b. Nov. 1, 1951, Aruba), administrator of Bonaire (1992-98) and governor of the Netherlands Antilles (2002-10) and of Curaçao (2010-12).
Goethals, George Washington (b. June 29, 1858, Brooklyn, N.Y. - d. Jan. 21, 1928, New York City), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1914-17). He was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, from which he graduated in 1880. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers on June 12, 1880. In the 1880s he served for four years as an instructor in civil and military engineering at the Military Academy. He was promoted to first lieutenant in 1882, and to captain on Dec. 14, 1891. During the Spanish-American War he served as chief of engineers in the Volunteer Army, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was later placed in charge of the Muscle Shoals canal construction on the Tennessee River and also built canals near Chattanooga, Tenn., and at Colbert Shoals, Ala. On March 4, 1907, Goethals was appointed by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt chairman and chief engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission (I.C.C.). He served in that position until completion of canal construction in 1914, following which he served as governor of the Panama Canal until his resignation in 1917. As chief engineer of the I.C.C., Goethals faced many daunting tasks, such as cutting down to a much lower level several good sized mountains near the centre of the Isthmus in order to minimize the elevation of the canal itself. But finally the job was done, and in 1915 General Goethals received the thanks of the U.S. Congress "for distinguished service in constructing the Panama Canal." On Dec. 18, 1917, he was recalled to active duty and appointed acting quartermaster general, U.S. Army. From 1918 to 1919 he was chief, Division of Purchase, Storage and Traffic, U.S. Army. At his request, Goethals was relieved of active duty with the Army in March 1919.
Goff, Phil(ip Bruce) (b. June 22, 1953, Auckland, New Zealand), New Zealand politician. A member of the Labour Party since 1969, he was chair of the Labour Party Youth Advisory Council in 1975-77 and organizer of the Insurance Workers Union in 1980-81. He was elected to the Roskill seat for Labour from 1981 until 1990 when he lost his seat. During this period he served as minister of housing (1984-87), employment (1986-89), environment (1986-87), tourism (1987-88), youth affairs (1987-89), and education (1989-90). He was reelected MP for Roskill in 1993, for New Lynn in 1996, and for Mt. Roskill from 1999. He became minister of foreign affairs, trade, and justice (1999-2005) and defense and trade (2005-08). In November 2008 he was elected leader of the Labour Party, but in November 2011 he resigned after the party was heavily defeated in general elections.
Goffin, Louis (Alexandre Marie) (b. March 25, 1904, Châtelet, Hainaut province, Belgium - d. 1975), secretary-general of the Western European Union (1955-62). He was also Belgian ambassador to the Soviet Union (1947-51), Iran (1951-55), and Portugal (1962-69).
Gogoi, Keshav Chandra (b. 1922? - d. Aug. 5, 1998, Dibrugarh, Assam, India), chief minister of Assam (1982).
Gogoi, Tarun (b. April 1, 1936, Rangajan Tea Estate, Jorhat district, Assam), chief minister of Assam (2001-16).
Gogovski, Gligorije (b. July 6, 1943, Tetovo, western Macedonia), chairman of the Executive Council of Macedonia (1986-91).
Gogua, Vasily (Barnabovich) (b. 1908, Ldurukveti, Russia [now in Georgia]), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian S.S.R. (1948-52). He was also people's commissar of public utilities (1938-42) and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1947-48).
Goh Chok Tong, Pinyin Wu Zuodong (b. May 20, 1941, Singapore), prime minister of Singapore (1990-2004). From 1964 to 1969 he worked in the Singapore Administrative Service. He was elected to Parliament in 1976. Goh served in Lee Kuan Yew's cabinet as minister of state for finance (1977-79), minister for trade and industry (1979-81), minister for health (1981-82), and minister for defense (1982-90). He became first deputy prime minister in January 1985. He succeeded Lee on Nov. 28, 1990, to become Singapore's first new prime minister in 31 years and only the second in the island nation's history. Lee's stepping down, however, did not represent his departure from a government that, though a parliamentary democracy, sometimes resembled an anti-Communist dictatorship. The elder statesman was to stay on as senior minister without portfolio in Goh's cabinet and as leader of Singapore's dominant political organization, the People's Action Party (PAP), which Lee founded in the early 1950s. Goh selected Lee's son, Lee Hsien Loong, to serve as one of two deputy prime ministers. The continued high visibility of the Lee family lent credence to the interpretation that Goh's leadership was "probationary." As Lee's designated successor, Goh had expressed his desire for an "imperceptible" transition of administrations, though he indicated that he intended to rely more heavily on his cabinet than did his predecessor. In 1992 he also became secretary-general of the PAP. He largely continued Lee's conservative policies and maintained the PAP's dominance in parliament (in the 1997 elections, the PAP won 81 of 83 seats). Retiring on Aug. 12, 2004, he became senior minister and replaced new prime minister Lee Hsien Loong as chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore (central bank); he left both posts in 2011.
Goh Chok Tong
Goh Keng Swee, Pinyin Wu Qingrui (b. Oct. 6, 1918, Malacca, Straits Settlements [now in Malaysia] - d. May 14, 2010, Singapore), finance minister (1959-65, 1967-70), defense minister (1965-67, 1970-79), deputy prime minister (1973-80), and first deputy prime minister (1980-85) of Singapore.
Goh Kun, also spelled Koh Kun, Revised Romanization Go Geon (b. Jan. 2, 1938, Seoul, Korea [now in South Korea]), prime minister of South Korea (1997-98, 2003-04). He held several cabinet posts during the 1980-88 presidency of Chun Doo Hwan (transport 1980-81, agriculture 1981-82, home affairs 1987). He was mayor of Seoul in 1988-90 under Pres. Roh Tae Woo, but quit in a row with the administration over a corrupt land deal involving the Hanbo Group. After serving as governor of South Cholla province, he became prime minister in 1997, succeeding Lee Soo Sung, a legal scholar who was premier for 15 months before he was sacrificed to take responsibility for the scandal involving loans to failed Hanbo Steel Co. Goh had a reputation for integrity stemming from the earlier Hanbo scandal, when he quit as Seoul mayor rather than bow to pressure and bend zoning rules to let a multimillion-dollar property deal for Hanbo go ahead. Though he was born in Seoul, his family hails from Cholla province, a traditional hotbed of opposition politics in a country where power traditionally had been monopolized by residents of wealthy Kyongsang province. Pres. Kim Young Sam had come under fire from opposition parties for packing his administration with fellow Kyongsang natives. In 1998-2002 he was again mayor of Seoul. Returning as prime minister under Pres. Roh Moo Hyun in 2003, he was acting president for 63 days in 2004 when Roh was suspended during an ultimately unsuccessful attempt by the opposition to impeach him. After Roh was reinstated, Goh immediately announced his willingness to resign as prime minister ("It's reasonable, Mr. President, that you change horses, as you've crossed a big river").
Goiana, Bernardo José da Gama, barão e visconde de (b. Aug. 20, 1782, Recife, Brazil - d. Aug. 3, 1854, Recife), principal minister of Brazil (1831, 1831). He was also president of Pará (1831-32). He was made baron in 1821 and viscount in 1830.
Goicochea (Alvares), Julio V(íctor) (b. c. 1883 - d. 19...), foreign minister of Peru (1930).
Gol, Jean (John) (b. Feb. 8, 1942, Hammersmith, England - d. Sept. 17, 1995, Liège, Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1981-88).
Gold, Dore (b. 1953, Hartford, Conn.), Israeli diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1997-99).
Goldberg, Arthur J(oseph) (b. Aug. 8, 1908, Chicago, Ill. - found dead Jan. 19, 1990, Washington, D.C.), U.S. politician. In 1948 he became general counsel for the United Steelworkers of America and the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO); in 1955 he was instrumental in merging the CIO and the American Federation of Labor (AFL). In 1961 he joined Pres. John F. Kennedy's cabinet as secretary of labor and, after a brief but effective tenure, he was named associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1962). Goldberg, a liberal, introduced activism into the court; he succeeded Felix Frankfurter, an exponent of judicial restraint. In one of his most controversial opinions, Escobedo v. Illinois (1964), Goldberg held that the conviction of a defendant in a murder case should be struck down because the accused had been denied the right to consult with his lawyer following his arrest. In 1965 Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson urged Goldberg, a skilled negotiator, to leave the bench to serve as ambassador to the United Nations. He did so, but candidly remarked, "I would rather the President had not asked me to undertake this duty." His frustration at not being able to involve the UN in seeking an end to the Vietnam war prompted him to resign his post in 1968. He was, however, successful in drafting UN Security Council Resolution 242, which was passed in 1967 and became a cornerstone in diplomatic efforts to bring peace to the Middle East. In 1970 he entered the New York governor's race but was defeated by the Republican incumbent, Nelson Rockefeller. Goldberg later served (1977-78) as Pres. Jimmy Carter's ambassador at large and headed the U.S. delegation to the first review conference of the 1975 Helsinki accords.
Goldenberg Schreiber, Efraín (b. Dec. 29, 1929, Lima, Peru), foreign minister (1993-95), prime minister (1994-95), and economy and finance minister (1999-2000) of Peru.
Golding, (Orette) Bruce (b. Dec. 5, 1947, Clarendon, Jamaica), prime minister and defense minister of Jamaica (2007-11).
Goldschmidt, Neil (Edward) (b. June 16, 1940, Eugene, Ore.), U.S. secretary of transportation (1979-81) and governor of Oregon (1987-91).
Goldsmith, Sir James (Michael) (b. Feb. 26, 1933, Paris, France - d. July 18, 1997, Benahavis, near Marbella, Spain), British politician. Born to an English father (Maj. Frank Goldsmith, who served as a Conservative member of Parliament) and a French mother, he was a citizen of both countries. He turned to politics after retiring from the business world in 1990. Goldsmith's cause was opposition to the Maastricht Treaty, which called for creation of a single currency as well as common foreign and security policies among the 15-member European Union. In 1993, he wrote a best-seller, Le Piège ("The Trap"), which called free trade a "global disaster" that was shifting jobs from Europe to Asia. His answer was free-trade blocs with tariffs to fend off outsiders. The next year, Goldsmith joined L'Autre Europe (The Other Europe), an anti-Maastricht party in France, and won a seat in the European Parliament. In 1995 he established the Referendum Party, with the sole mission of granting the British people the right to vote on their country's relationship with the European Union, but his party failed to win even one seat in the 1997 British election. Goldsmith was knighted by Britain in 1976, and two years later he was made a knight of the French Legion of Honour.
Goldsworthy, Sir Roger Tuckfield (b. 1839, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India - d. May 5, 1900, London), president of Nevis (1876-77), administrator of Saint Lucia (1881-84) and Grenada (1882-83), and governor of British Honduras (1884-91) and the Falkland Islands (1891-97); knighted 1889.
Goldwater, Barry M(orris) (b. Jan. 1, 1909, Phoenix, Ariz. - d. May 29, 1998, Phoenix), U.S. politician. He was elected to the Phoenix city council in 1949, and in 1952 he narrowly won the U.S. Senate seat of Majority Leader Ernest MacFarland. In 1954 Goldwater was one of only 22 senators who voted against the censure of Sen. Joseph McCarthy in the aftermath of the Army-McCarthy hearings, an action that was popular in Arizona and helped him gain reelection in 1958 by a large majority. A conservative Republican, he called for a harsher diplomatic stance toward the Soviet Union, opposed arms-control negotiations with that country, and charged the Democrats with creating a quasi-socialist state at home. His book, The Conscience of a Conservative (1960), reflected his philosophy - that the government should not interfere with individuals' lives and that communism should be vanquished. After winning several key victories in the 1964 primary elections, he won the Republican presidential nomination on the first ballot. He fought a determined campaign against the incumbent president, Lyndon B. Johnson, but national prosperity worked in Johnson's favour, and Goldwater, who stated that "extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice," was handicapped by the charge that he was an extreme anticommunist who might carry the country into war with the Soviet Union. One Democratic television commercial began with a small girl counting daisy petals as she plucked them, and ended with a missile-launch countdown and a mushroom cloud. He was decisively defeated in the election; he carried only Arizona and five states in the Deep South. He returned to Arizona, but in 1968 he won his Senate seat back and was reelected thereafter until he retired in 1987.
Golem, Frane Vinko (b. Nov. 4, 1938, Bisko, Croatia - d. Aug. 11, 2007), foreign minister of Croatia (1990-91).
Golescu, Nicolae (Constantin) (b. 1810, Câmpulung Muscel, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. Dec. 10, 1877, Bucharest, Romania), member of the Princely Lieutenancy of Walachia (1848) and member of the Princely Lieutenancy (1866) and prime minister and foreign minister (1868) of Romania; brother of Stefan Golescu. He was also president of the Senate (1868-69).
Golescu, Stefan (b. 1809, Câmpulung Muscel, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. Aug. 27, 1874, Nancy, France), prime minister and interior minister of Walachia (1861) and foreign minister (1867, 1867-68), interior minister (1867), and prime minister (1867-68) of Romania. He was also president of the Senate (1868).
Golfari, Cesare (b. Dec. 25, 1932, Forlimpopoli, Emilia-Romagna, Italy - d. Dec. 26, 1994, Lecco, Lombardia, Italy), president of Lombardia (1974-79).
Golitsyn, Knyaz (Prince) Dmitry (Mikhailovich) (b. June 13 [June 3, O.S.], 1665, Russia - d. April 25 [April 14, O.S.], 1737, Shlisselburg, near St. Petersburg, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also governor of Kiev (1711-18) and president of the Collegiums of State Income (1718-22) and Commerce (1727-30).
Golitsyn, Knyaz (Prince) Mikhail (Mikhailovich) (b. Nov. 11 [Nov. 1, O.S.], 1675 - d. Dec. 21 [Dec. 10, O.S.], 1730, Moscow, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also president of the War Collegium (1728-30).
Golitsyn, Knyaz (Prince) Nikolay (Dmitriyevich) (b. April 12 [March 31, O.S.], 1850 - d. [executed] July 2?, 1925, Leningrad [St. Petersburg]), prime minister of Russia (1917). He was governor of the provinces of Arkhangelsk (1885-93), Kaluga (1893-97), and Tver (1897-1903).
Gollan, John (b. April 2, 1911, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Sept. 5, 1977, London, England), British politician. At the age of 16 he joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and at the age of 20 he was accused of sedition and incitement to mutiny for distributing an anti-militarist paper to soldiers and sent to prison for six months. When he was freed in 1932 he entered the full-time service of the party. First he edited the Young Worker, then became general secretary of the Young Communist League. He became party secretary for the northeast coast in 1939 and for Scotland in 1941. A few years after World War II was over, he left Scotland to take up national office in London. For five years he was assistant editor of the Daily Worker (later the Morning Star) before succeeding Harry Pollitt as party general secretary (1956-75). When he took over, the party was having to explain to its adherents the exposure of Stalin by the Soviet leaders, and scarcely was he settled in office when Soviet repression of the Hungarian uprising aroused new agonies of doubt among loyal members. Within two years the party lost nearly a quarter of its membership, including many of its intellectuals. By patient and persistent effort, he succeeded in restoring the membership from 25,000 to a little over 30,000, but the bitter division between the Soviets and Chinese was a constant source of difficulty. In 1968 he deplored the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia, which he described as "a tragic error" and "completely unjustified." The British party was among those which refused to sign the main document which emerged from the conference of Communist parties in Moscow in 1969.
Golob, Ignac (b. Feb. 17, 1931, Senj, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), Yugoslav diplomat. He was ambassador to Mexico (1973-77, 1989-91) and Costa Rica, Honduras, and Panama (1973-77) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-86).
Golovkin, Graf (Count) Gavril (Ivanovich) (b. 1660, Russia - d. Jan. 20, 1734, St. Petersburg, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also chancellor (1709-34) and president of the Collegium of Foreign Affairs (1717-34).
Golovkov, Aleksey (Leonardovich) (b. May 31, 1956, Severomorsk, Murmansk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Jan. 7, 2009), head of the Government Apparatus (chief of staff) of Russia (1991-93).
Golub, Branko (b. Oct. 15, 1954, Fojnica [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of Central Bosnia (1998-2001).
Golubev, Vasily (Yuryevich) (b. Jan. 30, 1957, Ermakovskaya village, Rostov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting head of the administration of Moscow oblast (2000) and governor of Rostov oblast (2010- ).
Goluchowski von Goluchowo, Agenor (Maria Adam) Graf (Count) (b. March 25, 1849, Lemberg, Austria [now Lviv, Ukraine] - d. March 28, 1921, Lwów, Poland [now Lviv, Ukraine]), foreign minister of Austria-Hungary (1895-1906); son of Agenor (Romuald Onufrius) Graf Goluchowski von Goluchowo. He was also minister to Romania (1887-94).
Goluchowski von Goluchowo, Agenor (Romuald Onufrius) Graf (Count) (b. Feb. 8, 1812, Lemberg, Austria [now Lviv, Ukraine] - d. Aug. 3, 1875, Lemberg), interior minister of Austria (1859-60). He was also governor of Galicia (1849-59, 1866-68, 1871-75).
Goma, Lameck (Kazembe Haza) (b. April 8, 1930, Lundazi, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Jan. 11, 2004, Lusaka, Zambia), foreign minister of Zambia (1980-86). He was also minister of education (1976-79) and education and culture (1979-80).
Goma, Louis Sylvain (b. June 28, 1941, Pointe-Noire, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), prime minister of Congo (1975-84, 1991) and member of the Military Committee of the Congolese Labour Party (1977). In 2012 he was appointed ambassador to Brazil.
Gomango, Giridhar, also spelled Giridhar Gamang (b. April 8, 1943, Dibrisingi village, Gunupur, Rayagada district, Orissa [now Odisha], India), chief minister of Orissa (1999).
Gombosüren, Tserenpiliyn (b. Jan. 5, 1943, Hujirt district, Mongolia), foreign minister of Mongolia (1988-96).
Gomes, Antonieta Rosa (b. May 4, 1959, Bissau, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), foreign minister of Guinea-Bissau (2001). She was also a presidential candidate (1994, 1999, 2005) and justice minister (2000-01).
Gomes, Aristides (b. Nov. 8, 1954, Canchungo, Cacheu region, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), prime minister of Guinea-Bissau (2005-07). He was also minister of planning and international cooperation (1994-97).
Gomes, Carlos (Domingos), Júnior, byname Cadogo (b. Dec. 19, 1949, Bolama, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), prime minister of Guinea-Bissau (2004-05, 2009-12).
C. Gomes Júnior
Gomes, Cid Ferreira (b. April 27, 1963, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil), governor of Ceará (2007-15); brother of Ciro Ferreira Gomes. In 2015 he became Brazilian education minister.
Gomes, Ciro Ferreira (b. Nov. 6, 1957, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil), governor of Ceará (1991-94) and finance minister of Brazil (1994-95). He was a presidential candidate in 1998 and 2002. In 2003-06 he was minister of national integration.
Gomes, Emílio Hoffmann (b. July 19, 1925, Ponta Grossa, Paraná), governor of Paraná (1973-75).
Gomes, Gonçalo Aires de Santa Clara (b. Nov. 19, 1939, Lisbon, Portugal), Portuguese diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Nicaragua (1968-70), Italy (1977), and Spain (1984-85), ambassador to the Netherlands (1999-2002), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2002-04).
Gomes, Manuel Teixeira (b. May 27, 1860, Portimão, Portugal - d. Oct. 18, 1941, Bougie [now Béjaïa], Algeria), president of Portugal (1923-25). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1911-18, 1919-23) and Spain (1919).
Gomes, Patrick Ignatius (b. Nov. 3, 1941, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana]), secretary-general of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (2015- ). He was Guyana's ambassador to Belgium and the European Union in 2005-15.
Gómez, Alejandro (Florencio) (b. April 4, 1908, Rosario, Argentina - d. Feb. 6, 2005, Las Tapias, Córdoba, Argentina), vice president of Argentina (1958).
Gómez (Urcuyo), (José) Alfredo (b. Aug. 19, 1942, Rivas, Nicaragua), vice president of Nicaragua (2005-07).
Gómez (Díaz), Filiberto (b. Aug. 22, 1884, Hacienda Nueva, Tetípac, Guerrero, Mexico - d. 1935), governor of México (1929-33).
Gómez (Urrutia), José Antonio (b. Dec. 18, 1953, Santiago, Chile), defense minister of Chile (2015- ). He was also justice minister (1999-2003, 2014-15).
Gómez (y Gómez), José Miguel (b. July 6, 1858, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara province [now in Sancti Spíritus province], Cuba - d. June 12, 1921, New York City), president of Cuba (1909-13). As a youth he took up arms against the Spanish colonial government. He served with distinction in the patriot army during the 1868-78 war, and when the rebel army was dispersed he had risen to the rank of major. Again, in the 1890s, he took the field with the revolutionaries in the bitter struggle that ended with the Spanish-American War. Gómez held a commission at this time as major general. During the first American occupation he was governor of his native province of Santa Clara and a member of the Constitutional Convention, where he was one of those who voted in favour of adopting the Platt Amendment. He became quite popular in Cuba. In 1905 he planned to run for the presidency with Alfredo Zayas on behalf of the Liberals, but dropped out of the contest, denouncing the government of violence and intimidation. He supported the insurrection begun by Pino Guerra in 1906 but his arrest cut short his activities in the revolution that finally ended with another period of U.S. occupation. Gómez and Zayas began to split the Liberal party, but the strength of the Conservatives against the divided Liberals convinced them to rejoin, and Gómez and Zayas won the 1908 election. He was a kind president, but political corruption boomed and several major scandals occurred. The government also began funding newspapers, influencing them towards pro-government positions. Zayas beat Gómez for the presidency in 1920. Cheating probably occurred, and Gómez would very likely have won had the elections been fair and honest. Gómez went to the United States to appeal for American intervention, without success.
Gómez, Julio Arnaldo (b. 1919 - d. June 1994), justice minister of Argentina (1976-78).
Gómez (Segura), Marte R(odolfo) (b. July 4, 1896, Ciudad Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico - d. Dec. 16, 1973, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Tamaulipas (1937-40). He was also Mexican minister of agriculture and development (1928-30, 1940-46) and finance and public credit (1933-34).
Gómez Becerra, Álvaro (b. Dec. 26, 1771, Cáceres, Spain - d. Jan. 23, 1855, Madrid, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1843). He was also justice minister (1835-36, 1840-41, 1843) and president of the Congress of Deputies (1836) and Senate (1842-43).
Gómez Bergés, Víctor (Adriano) (b. Feb. 25, 1940, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1972-75). He was also minister of interior (1965), education and culture (1970-72), treasury (1977), and industry and commerce (1977-78) and ambassador to the Vatican, Greece, and Cyprus (1982-85) and Argentina and Paraguay (1990-92).
Gómez Calvo, Mario (b. Nov. 1, 1912, San José, Costa Rica - d. Feb. 28, 2005, Montes de Oca, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1957-58, 1965-66); great-grandson of Joaquín Bernardo Calvo Rosales. He was also ambassador to Ecuador (1955-57).
Gómez Camacho, Juan José (b. Oct. 6, 1964), Mexican diplomat. He has been ambassador to Singapore, Myanmar, and Brunei (2006-09) and Belgium and Luxembourg (2013-16) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2016- ).
Gómez Castro, Laureano (Eleuterio) (b. Feb. 20, 1889, Bogotá, Colombia - d. July 13, 1965, Bogotá), president of Colombia (1950-53). From 1911 to 1918 and again from 1921 to 1923 he served as a national deputy. In 1931, after serving as minister plenipotentiary to Argentina (1924) and to Germany (1930) and as minister of public works (1925-26), he was elected a senator. In 1932 he became the head of the Conservative Party. His strong support for both Adolf Hitler and Francisco Franco caused him frequent trouble in Colombia, and he was forced into exile several times. He was credited with engineering the choice of Mariano Ospina Pérez as Conservative candidate for the presidency, which the latter won in 1946. In 1948 Pérez appointed Gómez foreign minister. As such, Gómez presided over the ninth International Conference of American States at Bogotá, which was disrupted by rioting following the assassination of Liberal leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. The day after the assassination Gómez, being suspected of involvement, resigned and went abroad. He returned to Colombia from Spain after being nominated Conservative candidate for the presidency. The election of 1949 was marked by the imposition of martial law and press censorship and by the failure of the Liberals to participate. His rule earned him the enmity of most Colombians of all political shades. He censored the press, shackled the courts, terrorized Protestants, and caused violent rebellion in the countryside. Deposed in 1953, he fled once again to Spain. But his successor as president, Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, was so savage and incompetent that in 1957 Gómez joined with the Liberals in establishing the national front that placed Alberto Lleras Camargo in the presidency.
Gómez Centurión, Carlos Enrique (b. May 17, 1924, San Juan, San Juan, Argentina), governor of San Juan (1971-73, 1987-91). He was also Argentine ambassador to Mexico (1978-81) and Portugal (1981-83).
Gómez de Llano, Francisco (b. Oct. 22, 1896, Madrid, Spain - d. Oct. 31, 1970, Madrid), finance minister of Spain (1951-57). He was also ambassador to the Vatican (1957-62).
Gómez de Salazar (y Nieto), Federico (b. Dec. 29, 1912, Toledo, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain - d. Jan. 24, 2006, Madrid, Spain), governor-general of Spanish Sahara (1974-76).
Gómez Maganda, Alejandro (b. March 3, 1910, Arenal de Gómez, Guerrero - d. Sept. 14, 1984, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Guerrero (1951-54). He was also Mexican ambassador to Panama (1965-68) and Jamaica (1968-70).
Gómez Martínez, Fernando (b. March 1, 1897, Santa Fe de Antioquia, Colombia - d. Dec. 5, 1985, Medellín, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1963-65). He was also ambassador to the Netherlands (1947-48) and the Vatican (1971-73) and governor of Antioquia (1948-49).
Gómez Méndez, Alfonso (b. Aug. 16, 1949, Chaparral, Tolima, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was ambassador to Austria (1991-93), attorney general (1997-2001), and justice minister (2013-14).
Gómez Restrepo, Antonio (b. Jan. 13, 1869, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Nov. 6, 1947, Bogotá), foreign minister of Colombia (1897-98 and acting 1919, 1919-20, 1921-22, 1922, 1925, 1926-27). He was also minister of education (1909).
Gómez Ruiz, Luis Emilio (b. Nov. 10, 1911, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Dec. 19, 1966, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1948-52).
Gómez Valderrama, Pedro (b. Feb. 13, 1923, Bucaramanga, Colombia - d. May 7, 1992, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1965-66). He was also education minister (1962-65) and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1968-69) and Spain (1986-91).
Gómez Villanueva, Augusto (b. July 23, 1930, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1965), minister of agrarian reform (1975), and ambassador to Italy (1977-81) and Nicaragua (1982-86).
Gómez y Arias, Miguel Mariano (b. Oct. 6, 1889, Sancti Spíritus, Santa Clara province [now in Sancti Spíritus province], Cuba - d. Oct. 26, 1950, Havana), president of Cuba (1936); son of José Miguel Gómez. He served several terms in the Cuban House of Representatives, then in 1926 was elected mayor of Havana. In August 1931 there was a revolt against Pres. Gerardo Machado y Morales in the outlying provinces and for a time fighting in Havana, but Gómez, although a leader of the revolutionary forces, did not participate in the fighting on the ground that his men had no arms. The revolt was quickly suppressed and Gómez was allowed to go into exile in New York, where he headed a junta of various leaders of different anti-Machado parties which frequently met at the Biltmore Hotel. He returned to Cuba in 1933. That summer Machado was forced to flee from the country because of a general strike. Gómez took part in a combination of parties which installed Carlos Manuel de Céspedes as provisional president, but the rank and file of the army revolted and joined with radical students to set up a revolutionary junta, with Ramón Grau San Martín at its head. For a while in 1934 Gómez was again mayor of Havana and twice his home was bombed but he was not injured. He resigned because of a widespread physicians' strike. Toward the close of 1935 he was elected president, the first chief executive constitutionally elected since 1924, as the candidate of the Liberal, Republican, and Nationalist parties. He served only from May to December 1936, when he was impeached, primarily because of the power of Col. Fulgencio Batista, a new military dictator who later became president.
Gomina-Pampali, Laurent (b. Aug. 6, 1949, Bandoka, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1990-91). He was also minister of human rights and democratic culture (1997-98) and justice (1999-2000).
Gomis, Charles (Providence) (b. Feb. 5, 1941, Grand Bassam, Ivory Coast), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2000). He has also been ambassador to Brazil and Colombia (1978-86), the United States, Mexico, and the Bahamas (1986-94), and France (2013- ).
Gomm, Sir William Maynard (b. 1784, Barbados - d. March 15, 1875, Brighton, England), governor of Mauritius (1842-49); knighted 1859.
Gomulka, Wladyslaw (b. Feb. 6, 1905, Bialobrzegi, near Krosno, Poland, Austria-Hungary - d. Sept. 1, 1982, Warsaw, Poland), Polish politician. At the age of 16 he joined the youth Socialist movement. In 1926 he entered the clandestine Communist Party of Poland and in the same year was first arrested for revolutionary activity. In July 1942 he became a member of the Central Committee of the newly founded Polish Workers' Party (PPR). In November 1943, he became its secretary-general. When Soviet troops entered Poland in July 1944, he moved to Lublin, where the Communist-dominated provisional government had been set up. In January 1945 he was appointed deputy premier. In December 1945, he was elected a member of the Politburo and secretary general of the Central Committee. On Iosif Stalin's orders, he was accused of "nationalist deviation," and in September 1948 he was replaced as secretary general. After the Communist and Socialist parties merged into the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) in December 1948, he was also dropped from the Politburo. In January 1949 he was relieved of his government posts, and in November 1949 he was stripped of his membership in the PZPR. Finally, he was arrested in July 1951. Toward the end of 1954, he was released, and he was politically rehabilitated in 1956. In August he was readmitted to the party and in October was reelected to the Politburo and to the position of first secretary of the Central Committee. In 1970 the announcement of increased food prices led to workers' riots in some cities. This ferment in the country resulted in a change in the top party leadership, and on Dec. 20, 1970, Gomulka was ousted as first secretary, though he officially continued to be a member of the Sejm (national legislature) until 1972.
Gomwalk, Joseph (Dechi) (b. 1935 - d. May 15, 1976, Lagos, Nigeria), governor of Benue-Plateau (1968-75). He and B.S. Dimka were executed as the two principal authors of the abortive coup of February 1976 during which Pres. Murtala Mohammed was killed.
Gon Coulibaly, Amadou (b. Feb. 10, 1959, Abidjan, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), prime minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2017- ). He has also been mayor of Korhogo (2001- ), minister of agriculture (2003-10), and secretary-general of the presidency (2011-17).
Gonçalves, João Castelo Ribeiro (b. Oct. 19, 1937, Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Dec. 11, 2016, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Maranhão (1979-82). He was also mayor of São Luís (2009-12).
Gonçalves, Segismundo Antônio (b. Sept. 29, 1845, Maracujá farm, Barras municipality, Piauí, Brazil - d. Jan. 25, 1915, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (1899-1900, 1904-08).
Gonçalves, Vasco dos Santos (b. May 3, 1921, Lisbon - d. June 11, 2005, Almancil, Algarve region), prime minister of Portugal (1974-75). General Gonçalves, known in Portugal as "Comrade Vasco," was prime minister of four socialist provisional governments before being ousted by a more moderate wing in August 1975. A controversial politician, he was responsible for nationalizing banks and insurance companies following the April 1974 revolution that toppled 48 years of right-wing dictatorship. As one of the "captains of April," Gonçalves was involved in organizing and carrying out the revolution that ushered in the country's first free elections. The April 25, 1974, action was also known as the Revolution of the Carnations for the peaceful and bloodless way in which it was carried out, with soldiers handing out red carnations to the population and placing them in the barrels of guns and tanks. The first elections in April 1975, which were won by Gonçalves's Socialists, had a higher turnout than any election since, with 91.7% of the 6.2 million registered voters casting ballots. In the months after the revolution, in 1974 and 1975, the Portuguese African colonies of Angola, Mozambique, Portuguese Guinea, Cape Verde, and São Tomé and Príncipe were all given independence.
Gonçalves, Waldir de Figueiredo (b. Nov. 15, 1910, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil - d. Sept. 30, 2003, Teresina), governor of Piauí (1947).
Gonchigdorj, Radnaasümbereliyn (b. Dec. 29, 1953, Tariat, Arhangay aymag, Mongolia), Mongolian politician. He served as vice-president (and chairman of the State Little Khural) from 1990 to 1992, became chairman of the Social Democratic Party in 1994 (until it merged with others into the Democratic Party in 2000), and was chairman of the State Great Khural in 1996-2000. He was a presidential candidate in 2001.
Göncz, Árpád (b. Feb. 10, 1922, Budapest, Hungary - d. Oct. 6, 2015), president of Hungary (1990-2000). He was involved in the anti-Nazi political movement during World War II and was a member of the Smallholders Party, representing agrarian interests, which won a majority in the last freely held elections in 1945. For his participation in the 1956 uprising, he was jailed for conspiracy and high treason, and he served six years of a life sentence before being released in the general amnesty of 1963. Göncz was one of the founders of the Alliance of Free Democrats in May 1988. In the 1990 parliamentary elections they advocated rapid economic reconstruction and integration with Europe as well as withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. Initially they were allied with the Democratic Forum, but the alliance dissolved as the campaign became bitter, with politicians quickly learning the fine points of name-calling and negative advertising. Despite an early lead, the Free Democrats ultimately lost to the more moderate Democratic Forum, led by József Antall. By agreement of the parties, Göncz became president of the National Assembly and interim president and Antall prime minister. After low voter turnout invalidated a referendum on direct election of the president, parliament elected Göncz president with 295 out of 308 valid votes.
Göncz, Kinga (b. Nov. 8, 1947, Budapest, Hungary), foreign minister of Hungary (2006-09); daughter of Árpád Göncz. She was also minister of youth, family, social affairs, and equal opportunities (2004-06).
Gondim, Pedro Moreno (b. May 1, 1914, Alagoa Nova municipality, Paraíba, Brazil - d. July 26, 2005, João Pessoa, Paraíba), governor of Paraíba (1958-60, 1961-66).
Gondjout, Laure Olga (b. Dec. 18, 1953, Paris, France), foreign minister of Gabon (2008). She was also minister of communication, posts, telecommunications, and new information technologies (2007-08).
Gondra (Pereira), Manuel (b. Jan. 1, 1871, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. March 8, 1927, Asunción, Paraguay), foreign minister (1908-10, 1913-18) and president (1910-11, 1920-21) of Paraguay. He was also minister to Brazil (1905-08), the U.S. and Mexico (1918-20), and Cuba (1920).
Gondry, Henri Ernest (b. Feb. 9, 1845 - d. 1889), Belgian colonial official. He served as principal engineer of the Congo Free State.
Gondwe, Goodall (Edward) (b. Dec. 1, 1936, Kayiwonanga village, Mzimba district, Nyasaland [now Malawi]), acting president of the African Development Bank (1979-80) and finance minister of Malawi (2004-09, 2014- ). He was also minister of local government and rural development (2009-10), natural resources, energy, and environment (2011-12), and economic planning (2012-13).
Gong Ro Myung (b. Feb. 25, 1932), foreign minister of South Korea (1994-96). He was also ambassador to Brazil (1983-86), the Soviet Union/Russia (1990-92), and Japan (1993-94).
Gong Xinzhan (b. June 2, 1869, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. Dec. 13, 1943, Tianjin, China), civil governor of Anhui (1918-19) and finance minister (1919), acting premier (1919), interior minister (1924-25), and transportation minister (1925-26) of China. He went abroad, studying in the United Kingdom as a teenager, and served in Chinese embassies after graduation. At the end of the Qing dynasty he was named mayor of Guangzhou. Having held the financial post in his home province of Anhui, he was named deputy finance minister. He then held various posts in the government until he was removed from office in 1926. He lived in Tianjin ever since as president of the Chinese Bank of Enterprises.
Goni, Alhaji Mohammed (b. 1942, Kareto village [now in Borno state], Nigeria), governor of Borno (1979-83).
Gonsalves, Camillo (b. June 12, 1972, Philadelphia, Pa.), foreign minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2013-15); son of Ralph Gonsalves. He has also been permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-13) and minister of economic planning, sustainable development, industry, trade, information, and labour (2015- ).
Gonsalves, Ralph (Everard) (b. Aug. 8, 1946, Colonarie, Saint Vincent), prime minister and finance minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2001- ). He has also minister of national security (2005- ).
Gonzales Posada (Eyzaguirre), Luis (b. July 30, 1945, Ica, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1988-89). He was also justice minister (1985-86) and president of the Congress (2007-08).
González, Antonio Erman (b. May 16, 1935, Lamadrid, La Rioja, Argentina - d. Feb. 2, 2007, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentine minister of health (1989), economy (1989-91), defense (1991-93), and labour and social security (1997-99).
González (Franco), Federico Alberto (b. June 14, 1968), Paraguayan diplomat. He has been ambassador to South Korea and Mongolia (2004-06), Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia (2005-06), Venezuela (2007-09), Trinidad and Tobago (2009), and Argentina (2016- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2015- ).
González (Mosquera), Guillermo Alberto (b. Feb. 12, 1941, Popayán, Cauca, Colombia), defense minister of Colombia (1997). He was also mayor of Popayán (1977-78), minister of labour and social security (1983-84), ambassador to Brazil (1991-94) and Venezuela (1996-97), and governor of Cauca (2008-11).
González (González), (Jaime) Ignacio (b. Oct. 19, 1960, Madrid, Spain), president of the government of Madrid (2012-15).
González, Joaquín Víctor (b. March 6, 1863, Nonogasta, La Rioja, Argentina - d. Dec. 21, 1923, Buenos Aires, Argentina), interior minister (1901-04) and acting foreign minister (1902, 1903) of Argentina. He was also governor of La Rioja (1889-91) and minister of justice and education (1902, 1904-06).
González (Paredes), Juan Natalicio (b. Sept. 8, 1897, Villarrica, Paraguay - d. Dec. 16, 1966, Mexico), president of Paraguay (1948-49). He was also minister to Uruguay (1945-46) and ambassador to Mexico (1956-65).
González (Flores), Manuel (del Refugio) (b. June 18, 1833, El Moquete ranch, near Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico - d. April 10, 1893, Hacienda de Chapingo, near Guanajuato), president of Mexico (1880-84). He began his military career in 1847 and became a general during the civil war of 1858-60. He joined Porfirio Díaz in his revolution of 1876. After Díaz established a government, he appointed González minister of war and marine (1878-79). He was sent to command the military force of the northwest, and succeeding in the mission he returned to the capital and received from Congress the rank of General of Division and the title of Pacificator of the Occident. In June 1880 he resigned the portfolio of war to become candidate for president. He received a handsome majority over various candidates. His first act as president was to appoint his friend Díaz secretary of public works. He successfully defended Mexican rights in a boundary controversy with Guatemala and did much to win popularity by granting widespread railroad and mining concessions. On the other hand he decreed high import duties on foreign manufactures, doubled the stamp duty, and debased the currency by the issue of a great quantity of nickel coins. A land-survey law favoured large landowners and speculators. Díaz soon dissociated himself openly from the González government and in 1884 had himself reelected president. Leaving the presidency of a country that was nearly bankrupt, González became governor of Guanajuato. His ambitions to become president again brought about a rupture with Díaz. Díaz offered to placate González by appointing him as minister to France, but González refused to go abroad. From this time he did not figure again prominently in the politics of his country.
González, Porfirio G. (b. Aug. 10, 1885, China, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. May 28, 1928, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1920-21, 1923-25).
González Arévalo, Ismael (b. Sept. 23, 1906, Taxisco, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (1949-51). He was also ambassador to the United States (1948-49).
González Arias, Luis, Paraguayan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-83) and ambassador to Argentina (1983-86), Switzerland (1990-93), Brazil (1998-99, 2001-09), and Chile (1999-2001).
González Blanco, Salomón (b. April 22, 1902, Playa de Catazajá, Chiapas, Mexico - d. March 17, 1992), interim governor of Chiapas (1977-79). He was also Mexican minister of labour and social security (1957-70).
González Blanco Garrido, José Patrocinio (b. May 18, 1934, El Paraíso, Catazajá municipality, Chiapas, Mexico), governor of Chiapas (1988-93) and interior minister of Mexico (1993-94); son of Salomón González Blanco.
González Bravo (López de Arjona), Luis (b. July 8, 1811, Cádiz, Spain - d. Sept. 1, 1871, Biarritz, France), prime minister (1843-44, 1868) and foreign minister (1843-44, 1865) of Spain. He was also minister of justice (1843) and interior (1864-65, 1866-68) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1856-58).
González Canto, Félix (Arturo) (b. Aug. 23, 1968, Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico), governor of Quintana Roo (2005-11). He was also mayor of Cozumel (1999-2002).
González Cárdenas, Rubén (b. March 14, 1875, San Pedro de Capacho, Táchira, Venezuela - d. Aug. 26, 1939, Caracas, Venezuela), interior minister of Venezuela (1929-31). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1920, 1922) and education minister (1922-29).
González Casavantes, Abraham (b. June 7, 1864, Guerrero, Chihuahua, Mexico - d. [assassinated] March 7, 1913, Mápula, Chihuahua), governor of Chihuahua (1911, 1912, 1912-13) and interior minister of Mexico (1911-12).
González Curi, José Antonio (b. May 4, 1952, Campeche, Campeche, Mexico), governor of Campeche (1997-2003).
González de la Vega (Iriarte), Francisco (b. Dec. 3, 1901, Durango, Durango, Mexico - d. March 3, 1976, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Durango (1956-62). He was also Mexican attorney general (1946-52) and ambassador to Argentina (1967-70) and Portugal (1970-71).
González Díaz, Andrés (b. July 7, 1955, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was governor of Cundinamarca (1991-92, 1998-2000, 2008-11) and justice minister (1992-94).
González Fernández, José Antonio (b. March 8, 1952, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was minister of labour and social security (1998-99) and health (1999-2000) and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (1999).
González Flores, Alfredo (b. July 15, 1877, Heredia, Costa Rica - d. Dec. 28, 1962, Heredia), president of Costa Rica (1914-17).
González Gallo, (José de) Jesús (b. Jan. 14, 1900, Yahualica, Jalisco, Mexico - d. [car crash] Aug. 10, 1957), governor of Jalisco (1947-53).
González García, Ginés (Mario) (b. Aug. 31, 1945, San Nicolás de los Arroyos, Buenos Aires province), health minister of Argentina (2002-07). He was also ambassador to Chile (2007-15).
González Herrera, Saúl (b. Nov. 4, 1915, Guerrero, Chihuahua, Mexico - d. Oct. 22, 2006, Chihuahua, Chihuahua), governor of Chihuahua (1985-86). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1995).
González Lugo, Jesús (b. 1894, Colima - d. 1965, Mexico City), governor of Colima (1949-55).
González Macchi, Luis Ángel (b. Dec. 13, 1947, Asunción), president of Paraguay (1999-2003). The Senate chief became president upon the resignation of Pres. Raúl Cubas following the assassination of Vice Pres. Luis María Argaña. The Supreme Court decided that González should serve out the rest of Cubas's term, without new elections. On June 5, 2006, he was sentenced to six years in prison for embezzling $16 million of public funds arising from the sale of two state-owned banks that had collapsed between 1994 and 1998. On Dec. 4, 2006, he was further sentenced to eight years in prison for illegal enrichment and providing false testimony.
González Márquez, Emilio (b. Nov. 12, 1960, Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco, Mexico), governor of Jalisco (2007-13). He was also mayor of Guadalajara (2003-05).
González Márquez, Felipe (b. March 5, 1942, Seville, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1982-96). In 1964 he joined the outlawed Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE). He and his Andalusian comrades gradually gained ascendancy over the exiled PSOE leadership, and at the party congress at Suresnes, France, in 1974 he was elected secretary-general. González was conscious of the debt he owed to the Socialist International, which had supported him in his fight to win the leadership of the party from its "old guard" of Civil War veterans under Rodolfo Llopis. A vice-president of the International since 1976, he traveled extensively, especially in Latin America, to promote its aims. He was a close friend of West Germany's Willy Brandt and other leading European Socialists. González' ensuing efforts to broaden his party's popular appeal and electoral base were so successful that in the 1977 general elections the newly legalized PSOE emerged as the largest single political party in Spain. González' moderate stance and his youthful, attractive public image helped his party to a sweeping victory in the October 1982 general elections. He became at age 40 Europe's youngest head of government. In 1982 González froze Spain's participation in NATO but in 1986 he successfully persuaded the Spanish electorate to vote positively in a referendum on NATO membership. He also supported his country's entry into the European Community in 1986. He and his party were reelected to power in 1986 and 1989, but with diminishing majorities. In 1993 González won a fourth term in office, though the PSOE failed to capture a majority of seats. The PSOE lost the 1996 elections and in June 1997 González resigned as party leader.
González Martínez, César (b. Dec. 14, 1904, San Cristóbal, Táchira, Venezuela - d. July 9, 1984, Caracas, Venezuela), interior minister of Venezuela (1942-43). He was also ambassador to Mexico (1943-45) and the United States (1952-58) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1950-52).
González Medina, Arnulfo (b. April 23, 1886, Villa Juárez, Coahuila, Mexico - d. April 10, 1962, Mexico City, Mexico), provisional governor of Durango (1916) and Chihuahua (1916-18) and governor of the Distrito Federal (1918-19) and Coahuila (1921-23).
González Parás, José Natividad (b. March 30, 1949, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (2003-09).
González Parra, Emilio M(anuel) (b. May 23, 1913, Ixtlán del Río, Nayarit - d. April 16, 1998, Mexico City), governor of Nayarit (1981-87).
González Pedrero, Enrique (b. April 7, 1930, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico), governor of Tabasco (1983-87). He was also Mexican ambassador to Spain (1989-91).
González Revilla, Nicolás (b. Nov. 1, 1945), foreign minister of Panama (1977-78); cousin of Ernesto Pérez Balladares. He was also ambassador to the United States (1972-77).
González Sánchez, Ney (Manuel) (b. Jan. 25, 1963), governor of Nayarit (2005-11); son of Emilio M. González Parra. He was also mayor of Tepic (2002-04).
González Sanz, Manuel (Antonio) (b. April 2, 1968, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (2014- ). He was minister of foreign trade in 2004-06.
González Trujillo, Rómulo (b. 1931, Garzón, Huila, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was governor of Huila (1963-64) and justice minister (1999-2002).
González Videla, Gabriel (b. Nov. 23, 1898, La Serena, Chile - d. Aug. 22, 1980, Santiago, Chile), president of Chile (1946-52). In 1930 he was elected to the national Chamber of Deputies, where he served for nine years (and as its president in 1933). After serving as minister to France, Belgium, and Luxembourg (1939-40) and ambassador to Portugal (1941) and Brazil (1942-44), he was elected to the Senate in 1945, and in the same year served as a member of the Chilean delegation to the United Nations organizational conference in San Francisco. In the presidential election of September 1946, he was the Radical Party's candidate, and though his plurality was not sufficient, he was named chief executive by act of Congress in October, and inaugurated in November. Three seats in his new government were given to Communists, who were the first Communist Party members to serve in any government in the Americas. In the next two years, however, Communists were held responsible for a series of crippling strikes, and accordingly, by a presidential decree, individual liberties were suspended for the duration of the crisis, and Communists were arrested, while diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia were broken off. González Videla signed a bill outlawing communism in Chile in September 1948. His political support continued to be drawn from a wide selection of liberal elements in Chile, and he made frequent tours throughout the country to further his program of reform. He even visited Antarctica in 1948 to cement Chile's claims there, and in April 1950 visited the U.S. as a guest of Pres. Harry S. Truman.
González Víquez, Cleto (de Jesús) (b. Oct. 13, 1858, Barva, Costa Rica - d. Sept. 23, 1937, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1906-10, 1928-32). He was also interior minister (1887-88), foreign minister (1889), finance minister (1902-03), and mayor of San José (1904-05, 1922-23).
González Zarur, Mariano (b. April 3, 1949, Apizaco, Tlaxcala, Mexico), governor of Tlaxcala (2011-16).
Gonzi, Lawrence (b. July 1, 1953, Valletta, Malta), prime minister (2004-13), finance minister (2004-08), and home affairs minister (2012-13) of Malta. He was previously speaker of the House of Representatives (1988-96) and deputy prime minister (1999-2004).
Goodale, Ralph (Edward) (b. Oct. 5, 1949, Regina, Sask.), Canadian politician; minister of agriculture (1993-97), natural resources (1997-2002), public works (2002-03), finance (2003-06), and public safety and emergency preparedness (2015- ) and minister responsible for the Canadian Wheat Board (1993-2003).
Goode, Sir William (Allmond Codrington) (b. June 8, 1907 - d. Sept. 15, 1986), acting governor of Aden (1950-51), governor (1957-59) and head of state (1959) of Singapore, and governor of British North Borneo (1959-63); knighted 1957.
Goodman, Carolyn (Goldmark), née Goldmark (b. 1939?), mayor of Las Vegas (2011- ); wife of Oscar Goodman.
Goodman, Oscar (Baylin) (b. July 26, 1939, West Philadelphia, Pa.), mayor of Las Vegas (1999-2011).
Goodpaster, Andrew J(ackson, Jr.) (b. Feb. 12, 1915, Granite City, Ill. - d. May 16, 2005, Washington, D.C.), Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO (1969-74).
Goodwill (Percival Mbongi) Zwelithini ka Bhekuzulu (b. July 14, 1948, Nongoma, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), king of kwaZulu (1971- ).
Goodwin, Sir Fred(erick Tutu), queen's representative of the Cook Islands (2001-13); knighted 2004.
Goodwin, George (b. 194... - d. Dec. 11, 2009, St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda), acting director-general of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (2001-03).
Goonetilleke, Sir Oliver (Ernest) (b. Oct. 20, 1892, Trincomalee, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Dec. 17, 1978), governor-general of Ceylon (1954-62); knighted 1944. He was also minister of home affairs and rural development (1947-48, 1951-52), agriculture and food (1952-53), and finance (1953-54) and high commissioner to the U.K. (1948-51).
Gopallawa, Monty, byname of Moithra Cudabanda Gopallawa (b. Jan. 16, 1941 - d. Sept. 26, 2005, Colombo, Sri Lanka), governor of Central province, Sri Lanka (2002-05); son of William Gopallawa. He also served as culture minister (2000-01).
Gopallawa, William (b. Sept. 17, 1897, Dullewa, Matale, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Jan. 30, 1981, Colombo, Sri Lanka), Sri Lankan politician. He served on the municipal councils in Kandy and Colombo. In 1958 he was appointed ambassador to China and in 1961 to the U.S., Cuba, and Mexico. He became governor-general of Ceylon in 1962. An austere figure, respected for his nonpartisan statesmanship, he intervened to ensure the resignation of Sirimavo Bandaranaike's government in 1965 after her party's defeat in the general election. When the country became the Republic of Sri Lanka in 1972, he became its first president. As a result of constitutional changes made by Prime Minister J.R. Jayewardene, the presidency became elective in 1978, and on February 4 of that year Gopallawa retired and was succeeded by Jayewardene.
Gopee-Scoon, Paula (Scoon is husband's name) (b. April 18, 1958, Point Fortin, Trinidad), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (2007-10). In 2015 she became minister of trade and industry.
Goranov, Vladislav (Ivanov) (b. April 30, 1977, Pleven, Bulgaria), finance minister of Bulgaria (2014-17).
Gorbach, Alfons (b. Sept. 2, 1898, Imst, Tirol, Austria - d. July 31, 1972, Graz, Austria), chancellor of Austria (1961-64).
Gorbachev, Mark (Vasilyevich) (b. March 23, 1902, Kalin Ostrov, Olonets province [now in Karelia], Russia - d. Feb. 16, 1964, Petrozavodsk, Karelian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Karelo-Finnish S.S.R. (1940). He was also chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1936-37) and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1937-40) of the Karelian A.S.S.R.
Gorbachev, Mikhail (Sergeyevich) (b. March 2, 1931, Privolnoye, Stavropol kray [territory], Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. In 1952 he became a member of the Communist Party (CPSU). He was first secretary of the party committee of Stavropol kray (1970-78), became a member of the Central Committee in 1971, a candidate member of the Politburo in 1979, a full member in 1980, and general secretary of the CPSU in 1985. In 1987-88 he initiated significant reforms of the Soviet economic and political system. Under his new policy of glasnost ("openness"), a major cultural thaw took place, and under perestroika ("restructuring"), the first modest attempts to democratize the political system were undertaken. In 1988 he was elected chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (head of state). He was the single most important initiator of a series of events in late 1989 and 1990 that transformed the political fabric of Europe and marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War. In 1990 he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his striking achievements in international relations. In March 1990 the Congress of People's Deputies elected him to the newly created post of president of the U.S.S.R., with extensive executive powers. He was briefly held under house arrest (Aug. 19-21, 1991), during a coup by Communist hardliners. The Russian president, Boris Yeltsin, and other reformers who had risen to power under the democratic reforms, spearheaded opposition to the coup. Gorbachev resumed his duties as president, but his position had been irretrievably weakened. He quit the Communist Party and moved quickly to shift fundamental political powers to the Soviet Union's constituent republics. Events outpaced him, and on Dec. 25, 1991, he resigned the presidency of the Soviet Union, which then ceased to exist. He ran for the Russian presidency in 1996, but came only seventh, with 0.5% of the vote.
Gorbenko, Leonid (Petrovich) (b. June 20, 1939, Shenderovka, Cherkassy oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Shenderivka, Cherkasy oblast, Ukraine] - d. Aug. 7, 2010, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia), head of the administration of Kaliningrad oblast (1996-2000).
Gorbunovs, Anatolijs, Russian Anatoly (Valerianovich) Gorbunov (b. Feb. 10, 1942, Pilda village, Ludzas county, eastern Latvia), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian S.S.R. (1988-90) and chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-93) and acting president (1993) of Latvia. He was also speaker of the Saeima (1993-95), deputy prime minister (1996-99), and minister of environment and regional development (1996-98) and transport (1998-2002).
Gorchakov, Knyaz (Prince) Aleksandr (Mikhailovich) (b. June 15 [June 4, O.S.], 1798, Khaapsalu, Estonia, Russian Empire [now Haapsalu, Estonia] - d. March 11 [Feb. 27, O.S.], 1883, Baden-Baden, Germany), foreign minister of Russia (1856-82). He was also minister to Tuscany (1828-33), Württemberg (1841-54), the German Confederation (1850-54), and Austria (1854-56) and imperial chancellor (1867-82). He was made a prince in 1871.
Gorchakov, Knyaz (Prince) Mikhail (Aleksandrovich) (b. Aug. 24, 1839 - d. July 12, 1897), Russian diplomat; son of Knyaz Aleksandr Gorchakov. He was minister to Switzerland (1872-78), Saxony (1878-79), and Spain (1879-96).
Gordeyev, Aleksey (Vasilyevich) (b. Feb. 28, 1955, Frankfurt an der Oder, East Germany), agriculture minister of Russia (1999-2009) and governor of Voronezh oblast (2009- ).
Gordhan, Pravin (Jamnadas) (b. April 12, 1949, Durban, South Africa), finance minister of South Africa (2009-14, 2015- ).
Gordon, Sir Charles (b. 1756 - d. March 26, 1835, Ely Place, London), governor of Saint Lucia (1794-95).
Gordon, Jamie, byname of James Henry Gordon (b. 1957), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (2008-10).
Gordon, Dame (Elmira) Minita (b. Dec. 30, 1930, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize]), governor-general of Belize (1981-93); knighted 1984.
Gordon, Dame Pamela (Felicity) (b. Sept. 2, 1955, Hamilton, Bermuda), premier of Bermuda (1997-98). She entered politics in 1989 when she ran unsuccessfully for the United Bermuda Party in Pembroke East. A year later, she entered the Senate. She was appointed minister of youth and sport in 1992 and continued in that role after being elected as an MP in 1993. She became environment minister in 1995. Following the resignation of Premier David Saul in 1997, Gordon became not only Bermuda's youngest-ever premier but also the first woman in that office. She was knighted in 2004.
Gordon, Walter (Lockhart) (b. Jan. 27, 1906, Toronto, Ontario - d. March 21, 1987, Toronto), Canadian politician. In 1955 Gordon rose to national prominence when he was named chairman of the Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects. The 1957 "Gordon Commission" report decried the foreign domination of the Canadian economy, discussed the exporting of natural resources, and called for more skilled labour and a more equitable geographic distribution of wealth in Canada. As finance minister (1963-65) in the government of Lester B. Pearson, Gordon created a furor when he proposed his first budget. He was criticized for circumventing budget secrecy and, under pressure from the business community and the U.S., was forced to amend his provisions for control of foreign ownership in Canada. Gordon resigned in 1965 after the Liberals failed to win a majority in the election that he had recommended. He briefly served in the cabinet (1967-68) as minister without portfolio and returned to business in 1968. During the 1970s he was a founder of the Committee for an Independent Canada, which was influential for almost a decade before it disbanded.
Gordón Ordás, Félix (b. June 11, 1885, León, Spain - d. Jan. 25, 1973, Mexico City, Mexico), prime minister of Spain in exile (1951-60). He was also minister of industry and commerce (1933) and ambassador to Mexico (1936-38) and Cuba (1938).
Gordon Rubio, Humberto (b. Sept. 21, 1927, Santiago, Chile - d. June 15, 2000, Santiago), Chilean junta member. After spending years as chief of Augusto Pinochet's feared secret police, Gordon became a member of the dictator's ruling junta in 1986. Gordon, like some 40 former military officers, was being brought to task by a newly emboldened judiciary that followed the restoration of democracy and the end of 17 years of military rule in 1990. He steadfastly maintained his innocence. According to an official report, 3,190 people were killed under Pinochet's regime, and more than 1,000 remained unaccounted for. Gordon was facing prosecution by a judge in connection with the 1982 death of labour leader Tucapel Jiménez. The activist's body was recovered in February 1982 in his car. His throat was cut and face disfigured by five bullet wounds. Some 21 people, including other top military officers, were being prosecuted in connection with that case. Gordon died while under house arrest.
Gordon-Walker, Patrick (Chrestien) Gordon Walker, Baron (b. April 7, 1907, Worthing, England - d. Dec. 2, 1980, London), British politician. He was elected to Parliament in 1945 for Smethwick and two years later appointed undersecretary of state for Commonwealth relations. Walker skillfully handled negotiations with India at the time of its emergence as a republic and was appointed Commonwealth secretary, serving from 1950 to 1951. He was criticized at that time for apparently giving in to South African pressure in opposing the tribal chieftaincy of Seretse Khama in Bechuanaland (later Botswana) because of Khama's marriage to a white woman. He became "shadow" foreign secretary while Labour was in opposition and was dramatically defeated in the 1964 election. Despite Walker's defeat, Harold Wilson appointed him foreign secretary. After three successful months (October 1964-January 1965) in the post, he ran for the supposedly "safe" Labour seat at Leyton, but was defeated. He resigned his post and was sent on a fact-finding mission to Southeast Asia. He was finally elected at Leyton with a handsome majority in 1966 and served briefly as secretary of state for education and science. In 1974 he was made a life peer, then spent a year as a member of the European Parliament.
Gore, Al(bert Arnold, Jr.) (b. March 31, 1948, Washington, D.C.), U.S. vice president (1993-2001). When Democratic Rep. Joe L. Evins unexpectedly decided in 1976 not to seek reelection from Tennessee's 4th District, Gore jumped into politics; he won the Democratic primary over seven other candidates and was an easy victor in the general election. He coasted to three reelections and in 1984 won a Senate seat when Republican majority leader Howard Baker declined to run for another term. Calling himself a "raging moderate," Gore focused much of his attention on health-related and environmental issues: in the House he was a key player in the development and passage of the 1980 "Superfund" bill to clean up chemical spills, and he sponsored the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Act of 1984. In 1988 he ran for president, running a credible campaign in Southern primaries before self-destructing in New York City by aligning himself with Mayor Ed Koch against Jesse Jackson. In 1990 he won reelection and was one of only 10 Senate Democrats who voted to support Pres. George Bush's use of force to expel Iraqi invasion troops from Kuwait. By selecting Gore as his running mate in 1992, Bill Clinton shored up his weak areas: military service, foreign policy, and the environment. In 1993 Gore helped the Clinton administration secure congressional passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. As the Democratic presidential candidate in the Nov. 7, 2000, election, one of the most controversial in American history, Gore won the popular vote over George W. Bush by more than 500,000 votes but narrowly lost in the electoral college, 271-266 - the first inversion of the electoral and popular vote since 1888. In 2007 Gore and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change won the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to spread awareness of global warming. Gore had also won an Academy Award for his documentary on the subject, An Inconvenient Truth (2006).
Gore, Augustus Frederick (b. 1826 - d. Sept. 21, 1887), administrator of Tobago (1877-80) and lieutenant governor of Saint Vincent (1880-86).
Gore, Sir Ralph, (4th) Baronet (b. 1675 - d. Feb. 23, 1733), joint acting lord lieutenant of Ireland (1730-31). He was speaker of the Irish House of Commons in 1729-33. He succeeded his father as baronet c. 1703.
Goremykin, Ivan (Logginovich) (b. Nov. 8 [Oct. 27, O.S.], 1839 - d. [murdered] Dec. 24 [Dec. 11, O.S.], 1917, Sochi, Russia), interior minister (1895-99) and prime minister (1906, 1914-16) of Russia.
Gorgulho, Carlos de Sousa (b. Dec. 12, ... - d. Nov. 15, 1972, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of São Tomé and Príncipe (1945-48).
Goria, Giovanni (Giuseppe) (b. July 30, 1943, Asti, Italy - d. May 21, 1994, Asti), prime minister of Italy (1987-88). He joined the Christian Democratic Party at age 17 and entered local politics in Asti. When an Asti party boss declined to run for Parliament in the 1976 general election, Goria was put on the ballot in his place and was elected to the national Chamber of Deputies. He served as an undersecretary for the budget (1981-83) before becoming treasury minister in the caretaker cabinet of Amintore Fanfani and retaining his post in the government of Socialist Prime Minister Bettino Craxi. His easygoing style helped him avoid making political enemies. He probably most impressed the public with his television appearances, during which he did not talk like a politician. Although Goria had no political power base within the Christian Democrats and called himself, half-mockingly, "just a bookkeeper from Asti," his youth and relative success as minister made him an acceptable compromise choice to lead the country after Craxi's resignation forced a snap election in June 1987. He was the first prime minister who had not sought the office. He submitted his resignation in February 1988 after a rebellious Parliament had rejected his proposed budget bill 17 times in three weeks. He was elected to the European Parliament in 1989, returned to Rome as agriculture minister in 1991, and became finance minister in 1992. He resigned from the cabinet in February 1993 when he was caught up in a widespread government corruption investigation. In February 1994 he was brought to trial on corruption charges. Goria, who strongly denied the accusations of bribery and corruption, was acquitted of one charge; another was still pending at the time of his death.
Göring, Heinrich Ernst (b. Oct. 31, 1839, Emmerich [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. Dec. 7, 1913, Munich, Bavaria, Germany), acting commissioner of German South West Africa (1885-90). He was also German minister-resident to Haiti (1892-95).
Göring, Hermann (Wilhelm) (b. Jan. 12, 1893, Rosenheim, Bavaria, Germany - d. Oct. 15, 1946, Nürnberg), German Nazi leader; son of Heinrich Ernst Göring. He met Adolf Hitler in 1921 and joined the small National Socialist German Workers' (Nazi) Party late in 1922. As a former officer, he was given command of Hitler's Storm Troopers (SA). Göring took part in the abortive Munich Putsch of November 1923 in which Hitler tried to seize power prematurely. During the Putsch, Göring was badly wounded in the groin. His arrest was ordered, but he escaped with his wife into Austria. In 1927 he returned to Germany and was taken back into the party leadership. He occupied one of the 12 Reichstag seats that the Nazi Party won in the 1928 election. Thereafter, Göring became the acknowledged party leader in the lower house, and, when the Nazis won 230 seats in the election of July 1932, he was elected president of the Reichstag. Göring's sole concern in the Reichstag was to stultify the democratic system until Pres. Paul von Hindenburg was finally forced to invite Hitler to become chancellor on Jan. 30, 1933. Göring used his new position as minister of the interior in Prussia, Germany's largest state, to Nazify the Prussian police and establish the Gestapo, or secret political police. He also established concentration camps for the "corrective treatment" of difficult opponents. Göring's position as Hitler's most loyal supporter remained unassailable for the rest of the decade. He collected offices of state almost at will. In 1939 Hitler declared him his successor and in 1940 gave him the special rank of Reichsmarschall. He was condemned to hang as a war criminal by the International Military Tribunal at Nürnberg in 1946 but took poison and died the night that his execution was ordered.
Gorita, Ion, Romanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-2000).
Gorodetsky, Vladimir (Filippovich) (b. July 11, 1948, Aleksino, Smolensk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Novosibirsk oblast (2014- ). He was mayor of Novosibirsk in 2000-14.
Gorshenin, Konstantin (Petrovich) (b. May 28 [May 15, O.S.], 1907, Alatyr, Simbirsk province [now in Chuvashia], Russia - d. May 27, 1978, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He was people's commissar of justice of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1940-43) and prosecutor (1943-46), prosecutor-general (1946-48), and justice minister (1948-56) of the U.S.S.R.
Gorsira, Michaël, byname of Michiel Petrus Gorsira (b. Aug. 31, 1913, Willemstad, Curaçao - d. Jan. 4, 1994), administrator of Curaçao (1951-67).
Gorst, Sir (John) Eldon (b. June 25, 1861, Auckland, New Zealand - d. July 12, 1911, Castle Combe Manor, Wiltshire, England), British consul-general in Egypt (1907-11); knighted 1902.
Gorst, Ian (Joseph) (b. 1969?), chief minister of Jersey (2011- ).
Gorton, Sir John Grey (b. Sept. 9, 1911, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - d. May 19, 2002, Sydney), prime minister of Australia (1968-71). As a pilot in the Royal Australian Air Force in World War II, he served in Britain, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. He was elected to national office in 1949 as a senator for Victoria. He directed a re-equipment program as minister of the navy (1958-63) and then served as minister of works (1963-66). He administered the government scientific research program from 1962 to 1968, and in 1966 he was named the first minister for education and science. He became prime minister and leader of the Liberal Party on Jan. 10, 1968, a month after Prime Minister Harold Holt mysteriously disappeared while swimming at a Melbourne beach. Gorton, who led a coalition of the Liberal and Country parties, maintained Australian troops in South Vietnam, although he was less absolute in adhering to American policy than was his predecessor. He sponsored legislation extending educational and employment opportunities for Aborigines. His breezy style made him popular with voters but also made him some powerful enemies, including members of his own party and the government bureaucracy as well as Australia's most powerful media baron, Sir Frank Packer. In 1971, Defense Minister Malcolm Fraser - a future prime minister - resigned in disgust at Gorton's leadership, sparking a challenge. When the ballot among Liberal lawmakers split 33-33, Gorton used his ballot to vote himself out of the party leadership and prime minister's office. He served as defense minister in the subsequent administration of William McMahon. He retired from Parliament in 1975 and later became a patron of the movement to legalize marijuana. He was knighted in 1977.
Goryachev, Yury (Frolovich) (b. Nov. 11, 1938, Novo-Osorgin village, Kuybyshev [now Samara] oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Jan. 20, 2010, Ulyanovsk, Russia), chairman of the Executive Committee (1987-90), first secretary of the party committee (1990-91), and head of the administration (1992-2001) of Ulyanovsk oblast.
Gosaibi, Ghazi (Abdul Rahman) al-, also spelled Algosaibi, or al-Qusaibi (b. March 2, 1940, al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia - d. Aug. 15, 2010), Saudi politician. He was minister of industry and electricity (1975-83), health (1982-84), water resources (2002-04), and labour (2004-10) and ambassador to Bahrain (1984-92) and the United Kingdom and Ireland (1992-2002).
Gosálvez Tejada, Gabriel (b. Nov. 15, 1899, Los Yungas region, La Paz department, Bolivia - d. Dec. 12, 1957, Santiago, Chile), defense minister (1934-35) and interior minister (1938-39) of Bolivia. He was also minister of public works and communications (1938), ambassador to the Vatican (1939-40) and Argentina (1947-49), and president of the central bank (1940-41).
Goschen (of Hawkhurst, Kent), George Joachim Goschen, (1st) Viscount (b. Aug. 10, 1831, Stoke Newington, near [now part of] London, England - d. Feb. 7, 1907, Seacox Heath, Kent, England), British politician. He was chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1866), first lord of the Admiralty (1871-74, 1895-1900), and chancellor of the exchequer (1887-92). He was created viscount in 1900.
Goschen (of Hawkhurst, Kent), George Joachim Goschen, (2nd) Viscount (b. Oct. 15, 1866, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex, England - d. July 24, 1952, Hawkhurst, Kent, England), governor of Madras (1924-29) and viceroy and acting governor-general of India (1929); son of the above. He succeeded as viscount in 1907.
Goshu Wolde (b. 1942, Gore, Ethiopia), foreign minister of Ethiopia (1983-86). He was also education minister (1978-83).
Goss, Porter (Johnston) (b. Nov. 26, 1938, Waterbury, Conn.), CIA director (2004-06).
Goss, Wayne (Keith) (b. Feb. 26, 1951, Mundubbera, Qld. - d. Nov. 10, 2014, Brisbane, Qld.), premier of Queensland (1989-96).
Gosse, Clarence L(loyd) (b. Oct. 20, 1912, Newfoundland - d. Dec. 21, 1996, Halifax, N.S.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1973-78).
Gossler, Gustav Heinrich Konrad von (b. April 13, 1838, Naumburg, Prussia [now in Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany] - d. Sept. 29, 1902, Danzig, Prussia, Germany [now Gdansk, Poland]), president of the Reichstag of Germany (1881) and Oberpräsident of Westpreussen (1891-1902).
Goto, Hitoshi (b. July 22, 1957), governor of Yamanashi (2015- ).
Goto, Shimpei, in full Hakushaku (Count) Shimpei Goto (b. July 25, 1857, Muzusawa, Rikuchu province [now in Iwate prefecture], Japan - d. April 13, 1929, Kyoto, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1918). He was also minister of communications (1908-11, 1912-13) and home affairs (1916-18, 1923-24) and mayor of Tokyo (1920-23). He was made baron in 1906, viscount in 1922, and count in 1928.
Gotovac, Vlado (b. Sept. 9, 1930, Imotski, southern Croatia - d. Dec. 7, 2000, Rome, Italy), Croatian politician. In communist Yugoslavia Gotovac used essays and public appearances to press for freedom and democracy and was twice imprisoned (1972 and 1977). In the early '90s he was one of the founders of the Croatian Social Liberal Party (Hrvatska Socijalno Liberalna Stranka; HSLS), the first registered noncommunist political party in communist Croatia. During Pres. Franjo Tudjman's rule, it was the second strongest opposition party. He later left the HSLS and in 1998 formed the Liberal Party (Liberalna Stranka). He was one of the most consistent critics of Tudjman's authoritarian and nationalist policies. In 1993 he was one of six Croatian intellectuals who called on Tudjman to resign because of Croatian involvement in the Bosnian war. He was a member of the legislature since 1995. In 1997, Gotovac ran for president against Tudjman but was defeated. The Liberal Party became a junior partner in the government coalition that took power after elections in January 2000.
Gotsev, Lyuben (Stoyanov) (b. March 3, 1930, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1990). He was also ambassador to the Netherlands (1991-92).
Gottwald, Klement (b. Nov. 23, 1896, Dedice, Moravia, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. March 14, 1953, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czechoslovak politician. By the age of 16 he had become a socialist. During World War I he served in the Austro-Hungarian army, deserting, however, to the Russians before the end of the war. When he returned to the new state of Czechoslovakia in 1918, he joined the left wing of the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party, the wing that in 1921 became the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC); Gottwald was a charter member. Soon he was editor of the party newspaper in Bratislava, Hlas Ludu ("Voice of the People"), and later of Pravda ("Truth"). In 1925 he was elected to the central committee of the KSC and moved to Prague, and in 1927 he became the party's secretary-general. From 1929 he was a member of the Czechoslovak parliament. After the Munich Agreement of October 1938, he went to Moscow, where he later made several broadcasts to the Czechoslovak underground movement. In 1945 he became deputy premier in a provisional government appointed by Pres. Edvard Benes with the approval of Moscow. In March 1946 he became chairman of the KSC, and on July 3 he became the nation's premier. On June 14, 1948, after Benes's resignation under threat and pressure, he was inaugurated as president of the republic. He quickly consolidated his position. Czechoslovakia was compelled to adopt a Soviet and Stalinist model of government. Political purges began in 1950, resulting in the executions of about 180 party officials, including the party's first secretary, Rudolf Slánský. Gottwald caught a chill at Iosif Stalin's funeral (March 9, 1953) and succumbed to pneumonia five days later.
Gouandjia, Maurice (Chrysanthe) (b. June 4, 1925, Bambari, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. Sept. 20, 1988, Bangui, Central African Republic), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1968-69, 1970-71). He was also minister of posts and telecommunications (1968, 1969-70) and justice (1971) and ambassador to Italy (1973-74).
Goubert, Edouard (b. July 29, 1894, Pondicherry, French India - d. Aug. 14, 1979), chief minister of Pondicherry (1963-64).
Gouhot, François (b. Jan. 26, 1802, Toulon, France - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1841-42).
Gouin, (Jean) Félix (b. Oct. 4, 1884, Peypin, Bouches-du-Rhône, France - d. Oct. 25, 1977, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France), chairman of the Provisional Government of France (1946). He joined the Socialist Party in youth, took an active part in local politics, and in 1924 was elected deputy for Bouches-du-Rhône, which he continued to represent until the collapse of the Third Republic. He exhibited steady and dependable virtues as a parliamentarian and, without giving evidence of unusual abilities, earned the sincere respect of his fellow deputies. In 1937 he was elected vice president of the Socialist group in the Chamber and thereafter became one of the principal colleagues and advisers of Léon Blum. When the German invasion came in 1940 he was one of the 80 deputies who voted against the overthrow of the Third Republic. He took a firm stand against the policy of collaboration with Germany, was one of the three lawyers who defended Blum at the Riom trials, and in the summer of 1942 reached Britain by way of Spain and joined Charles de Gaulle. He headed the French parliamentary group in London and, after the Allied landings in North Africa, was elected president of the Consultative Provisional Assembly in Algiers, remaining president when in 1944 the Assembly moved to Paris. He was similarly honoured when, after the elections of October 1945, he became head of the National Constituent Assembly which drew up the constitution of the Fourth Republic. In the crisis caused by de Gaulle's unexpected withdrawal in January 1946, Gouin was an obvious choice as leader of a coalition government of the three main parties. He served until June, then was deputy prime minister under Georges Bidault until December, and then minister of state in Paul Ramadier's cabinet. Thereafter he dropped out of prominence.
Gouin, Sir (Jean) Lomer (b. March 19, 1861, Grondines, Canada East [now Quebec] - d. March 28, 1929, Québec, Quebec), Canadian politician. Elected as a Liberal to the Quebec legislature in 1897, he served as Quebec's minister of public works (1900-04) and then was premier and attorney general of the province (1905-20). His administration built roads, founded technical and professional schools, and did much to foster the industrial development of Quebec. After retiring from the premiership, he was appointed to his province's legislative council. He was knighted in 1908. Gouin served as the dominion minister of justice from 1921 to 1924 and represented Canada in the fourth League of Nations assembly in 1924. He became lieutenant governor of Quebec in 1929, shortly before his death.
Goujon, Denys Joseph (b. Aug. 17, 1863, Bagnols, Rhône, France - d. 19...), governor of French Guiana (1911).
Gouland, Sasao H. (b. June 2, 1933, Moen, Truk [now Chuuk], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. March 6, 2011, Honolulu, Hawaii), governor of Chuuk (1990-96).
Goulart, João (Belchior Marques), byname Jango (b. March 1, 19191, São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Dec. 6, 1976, Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina), president of Brazil (1961-64). By his early twenties he was a disciple of Getúlio Vargas, the populist president of Brazil (1930-45, 1951-54), who was also his relative. Goulart was elected to the Rio Grande do Sul state legislature in 1946 and later became the state's secretary of justice and the interior. In 1953 and 1954 he served under President Vargas as minister of labour, industry, and commerce and worked for labour legislation reform. He was Pres. Juscelino Kubitschek's vice president from 1956 to 1961. Again elected vice president in 1960, he took over the presidency in 1961 after the resignation of Pres. Jânio Quadros, in spite of strong opposition by the military, who accused Goulart of communist sympathies. During his administration he irritated the United States by strengthening ties with communist countries and by undertaking a program of radical reforms. He won passage of a law limiting foreign companies' export of their profits, tried to persuade Congress to approve a controversial land-redistribution program, and, on the eve of his ouster, proposed a package of reforms that would have benefited the working class. Goulart presided over an economy crippled by galloping inflation, and he was constantly beset by criticism from both the far left and the military. The U.S. government also played a role in helping to weaken his government. He was deposed by a military coup in 1964 and fled the country. He was granted asylum by Uruguay, where he spent most of the first nine years of his 12-year exile. He then took up residence in northern Argentina.
1 His "official" birth date was March 1, 1918, the result of a deliberate fabrication by his father to enable him to be admitted early to university.
Gouled Aptidon, Hassan, Arabic Hasan Julid Aptidun, Somali Xasan Guuleed Abtidoon (b. Oct. 15, 1916, Zeila, Somalia - d. Nov. 21, 2006, Djibouti, Djibouti), prime minister (1977) and president (1977-99) of Djibouti. When he entered politics in 1947, he wanted Djibouti to remain part of France. He was a Paris representative of French Somaliland (now Djibouti) from 1952 to 1958, vice president of the Government Council of French Somaliland (1958-59), a deputy of the French National Assembly (1959-62), and minister of education, youth, and sports of French Somaliland (1963-67). After his political party was banned in 1967 he began a peaceful campaign for independence, eventually achieving his aim in June 1977. He became the country's first president and was reelected to three six-year terms in 1981, 1987, and 1993. He survived a rebellion by ethnic Afar militants between 1991 and 1994.
Goulongana, Jean-Robert (b. April 30, 1953, Lambaréné, Gabon), secretary-general of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (2000-05). He has been also Gabonese ambassador to Italy (1992-96), Belgium (1996-2000), and China (2011- ).
Goumba, Abel (Nguéndé) (b. Sept. 18, 1926, Grimari, Ouaka region, Oubangui-Chari, French Equatorial Africa - d. May 11, 2009, Bangui, Central African Republic), Central African Republic politician. In May 1957 he was named vice president of the Oubangui-Chari Government Council (which was still presided by the French governor). In July 1958 he became president of the council. After the proclamation of the Central African Republic in December 1958, Barthélemy Boganda took the head of government position. After Boganda's death on March 29, 1959, Goumba became acting prime minister, but on April 30 he was replaced by David Dacko. Later that year Goumba, who had served as minister of finance (1957-59) and planning (1957-58, 1959), left Dacko's government. In 1960 Goumba and his friends founded the Mouvement d'Évolution Démocratique de l'Afrique Centrale (MEDAC), which claimed to be the true representative of Boganda's political thought. On Dec. 23, 1960, he was placed under house arrest; he was sentenced to 6 years in prison in 1964, but obtained authorization to go to France to continue his studies. After Dacko's fall at the end of 1965, the new president Jean-Bédel Bokassa firmly opposed the return of Goumba. In 1972 Goumba became founding president of the clandestine Oubanguian Patriotic Front (FPO), which organized internal resistance against Bokassa's dictatorship. After the renewed installation of Dacko by the French in 1979, Goumba protested against the colonial character of the operation and demanded the organization of elections. Dacko accused Goumba and the FPO of subversion and an international arrest order was issued against Goumba. He was allowed to return to Bangui in 1981 and ran for president, winning less than 2% of the vote. He was detained repeatedly (1982-83, 1983-84, 1990-91) by the regime of Gen. André Kolingba. In the 1993 presidential elections he won about 46% in a runoff with Ange-Félix Patassé. In 1998 he was elected a member of the National Assembly. In 1999 his presidential vote was down to about 6%. In March 2003 after François Bozizé's coup he was named prime minister, but was dismissed in December and named vice president, from which post he was also dismissed in March 2005 (the post was abolished in the new constitution). He had been a candidate in the March 2005 presidential election but received only 2.5% of the vote.
Gounaris, Elias (b. Sept. 7, 1941, Athens, Greece), Greek diplomat. He was ambassador to the Soviet Union/Russia (1989-93) and the United Kingdom (1993-96) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2002).
Gouraud, Henri (Joseph Eugène) (b. Nov. 17, 1867, Paris, France - d. Sept. 16, 1946, Paris), commandant of Niger (1901-02) and Chad (1904-06), commissioner of Mauritania (1907-09), acting resident-general of Morocco (1916-17), and high commissioner of Syria and Lebanon (1919-22).
Gourbeil, (Jules) Maurice, governor of Senegal (1908-09), lieutenant governor (1909-11) and governor (1911-16) of Cochinchina, and governor of Guadeloupe (1917-20) and Martinique (1920-21).
Gourbeyre, (Jean Baptiste Marie) Augustin (b. Oct. 30, 1786, Riom, Puy-de-Dôme, France - d. June 7, 1845, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe), governor of French Guiana (1839-41) and Guadeloupe (1841-45).
Gouttes (Lastouzeilles), Bernard de (b. 1945), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (1990-91).
Gouveia, (Maria) Teresa (Pinto Basto) Patrício (b. July 18, 1946, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (2003-04). She was also minister of environment and natural resources (1993-95).
Govorin, Boris (Aleksandrovich) (b. June 27, 1947, Irkutsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Irkutsk oblast (1997-2005). He was also mayor of Irkutsk (1990-97) and Russian ambassador to Mongolia (2006-09).
Govorun, Oleg (Markovich) (b. Jan. 15, 1969, Bratsk, Irkutsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), plenipotentiary of the president in Tsentralny federal district (2011-12). In 2012 he was Russian minister of regional development.
Gowda, D(evaragunda) V(enkappa) Sadananda (b. March 18, 1953, Mandekolu village, South Kanara district, Madras [now in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka], India), chief minister of Karnataka (2011-12). He has also been Indian minister of railways (2014) and justice (2014- ).
Gowda, H(aradanahalli) D(oddegowda) Deve (b. May 18, 1933, Haradanahalli, Hassan district, Mysore [now Karnataka], India), prime minister of India (1996-97). He started his political career with the Congress party in the 1950s but switched a decade later to socialist groups. He won a seat in the Karnataka state assembly in 1962. He became the chief minister of Karnataka in 1994 after leading his Janata Dal party to victory in the state assembly elections. In 1996 he became the third person to hold the post of prime minister in little more than two weeks. Pres. Shankar Dayal Sharma invited Gowda and his United Front alliance of 13 centrist and leftist parties to form a government. Atal Bihari Vajpayee's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party had edged out P.V. Narasimha Rao's Congress party in a round of inconclusive polls, but was unable to garner enough support in Parliament to sustain itself in power. The constraints of the new United Front governing coalition forced Gowda to surround himself with a number of cabinet ministers who had more experience in India's hinterlands than in the country's power centres of New Delhi and Bombay. But the new government was one of the most representative in India's history, with ministerial posts going to politicians from a diversity of religions, castes, and regions which historically have been shut out of the country's national leadership. However, the new government was also heavily dependent on Rao's Congress party for its political survival. Congress, which held a crucial bloc of 136 seats in the Lok Sabha house of Parliament, pledged support to Gowda's government but declined to join the coalition as a governing partner. In 1997, however, Congress withdrew its support and he was replaced by Inder Kumar Gujral.
Gowon, Yakubu (Cinwa Dan Yumma), byname Jack Gowon (b. Oct. 19, 1934, Garam [now in Plateau state], Nigeria), president of Nigeria (1966-75). He was chairman of the Organization of African Unity in 1973-74. Overthrown while on a diplomatic mission in Uganda, he took refuge in Britain, but returned to Nigeria in 1983.
Gowrie, Alexander Gore Arkwright Hore-Ruthven, (1st) Earl of (b. July 6, 1872, Windsor, Berkshire, England - d. May 2, 1955, Shipton Moyne, Gloucestershire, England), governor of South Australia (1928-34) and New South Wales (1935-36) and governor-general of Australia (1936-44). He was knighted in 1928 and created Baron Gowrie in 1935 and Earl of Gowrie in 1945.
Goytizolo Bolognesi, Enrique (b. Sept. 11, 1890, Lima, Peru - d. 19...), foreign minister of Peru (1939). He was also minister to Ecuador (1936-38) and ambassador to Venezuela (1942-45), Belgium (1946-48), the Netherlands (1948-52), Uruguay (1952-54), and Chile (1954-60).
Gozi, Giuliano (b. Aug. 7, 1894 - d. 1955), foreign minister (1917-43) and captain-regent (1923, 1926-27, 1932, 1937, 1941-42) of San Marino; brother of Manlio Gozi.
Gozi, Manlio (b. 1889 - d. 1968), captain-regent of San Marino (1926, 1930, 1938).
Gozney, Sir Richard (Hugh Turton) (b. July 21, 1951), governor of Bermuda (2007-12) and lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (2016- ); knighted 2006. He was British high commissioner to Swaziland (1993-96) and Nigeria (2004-07) and ambassador to Indonesia (2002-04).
Gqozo, Joshua Oupa (b. March 10, 1952, Kroonstad, South Africa), chairman of the Military Committee and of the Council of State of Ciskei (1990-94).