Iakovidis, Andreas (I.), English Andreas (J.) Jacovides (b. Dec. 19, 1936, Nicosia, Cyprus), Cypriot diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (1979-89, 1993-96) and Germany, Austria, and Denmark (1990-92) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-93).
Iakovos, original name Dimitrios (Athanasiou) Koukouzis (b. July 29, 1911, Imroz island, Turkey - d. April 10, 2005, Stamford, Conn.), Greek Orthodox archbishop of America (1959-96). Arriving in the United States in 1939, he was ordained to the priesthood in Lowell, Mass., in 1940 and became a U.S. citizen in 1950. He met with Pope John XXIII after his 1959 enthronement, becoming the first Greek Orthodox archbishop in 350 years to meet with a Roman Catholic prelate, and spent nine years as a president of the World Council of Churches. He marched with the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., in Selma, Ala., in 1965 and received the Medal of Freedom from Pres. Jimmy Carter in 1980. During his long tenure as archbishop, Iakovos led the U.S. Greek Orthodox church out of immigrant isolation and into the mainstream of American religious life, playing a leading role in bringing English into the liturgy. He was instrumental in setting up dialogues between Orthodox churches and Anglicans, Lutherans, Southern Baptists, and other denominations. He opposed the Vietnam War, supported Soviet Jews, and sought to aid the cause of Middle East peace. He met every U.S. president from Dwight D. Eisenhower through Bill Clinton. In September 1987, he took part when U.S. Christian leaders of many denominations met with Pope John Paul II in South Carolina. He sought to maintain Orthodox traditions such as opposing the ordination of women, while at the same time championing human rights and improved race relations. He was apparently forced out over his support for the idea of uniting the various Eastern Orthodox branches in a single American church.
Iakovou, Georgios (Kyriakou), English George Iacovou (b. July 19, 1938, Peristeronopigi village, northern Cyprus), foreign minister of Cyprus (1983-93, 2003-06). He was the runner-up in the 1998 presidential election and was also ambassador to West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland (1979-83) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2006-07).
Ialá, Kumba, Ialá also spelled Yala, also called (after conversion to Islam in July 2008) Mohamed Ialá Embaló (b. March 15, 1953, Pkon village, near Bula, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. April 4, 2014, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau), president of Guinea-Bissau (2000-03). He was expelled from the ruling African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) in 1989 for demanding greater democratic reform, at a time when Africa was ringing to the sound of calls for pluralist politics. Ialá ran against military ruler João Bernardo Vieira in 1994, winning 49% of the vote in a very close race. He rejected the result as rigged but opted to sit in parliament. He won the presidency at his second attempt in a rare alternation of power in Africa. The Jan. 16, 2000, runoff and the first round on Nov. 28, 1999, when his Party for Social Renewal emerged from legislative elections as the largest group in parliament, were part of a transition agreed after a 1999 army revolt against Vieira. Ialá won a landslide victory, taking 72% of votes cast. It marked the end of the domination of power by the PAIGC, whose candidate, Malam Bacai Sanhá, won only 28%. But with victory came the problem of how to deal with the army, which had toppled Vieira. Both Vieira and Ansumane Mané, the sacked army chief who led the revolt against him and then headed a military junta, were heroes of the independence war. Ialá represented a new generation of politicians. Before the first round of the election, the army made clear that it wanted a special pact giving the outgoing junta special consultative status after the election. Ialá, as a candidate, rejected the idea out of hand. As president Ialá was initially well-liked and when Mané tried to snatch power in November 2000 he was killed by loyalist troops. But in 2002 Ialá became increasingly autocratic and unpopular, and in 2003 he was overthrown in a remarkably smooth military coup which most Bissauans welcomed. He was placed under house arrest after the coup, but his party designated him on March 26, 2005, as its presidential candidate for the June 19 election. On May 15 he announced that he was reclaiming his position as president with immediate effect. He finished third in the elections and, after initially rejecting the results, eventually gave his support to Vieira, who then won the runoff against Sanhá. In the 2009 elections Ialá placed second and then lost the runoff to Sanhá.
Ibad (Khan), Ishratul, also spelled Ishrat-ul-Ibad, Ibad also spelled Ebad (b. March 3, 1962, Karachi, Pakistan), governor of Sindh (2002- ).
Ibáñez (Gutiérrez), Adolfo (b. Nov. 28, 1827, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 12, 1898, Santiago), foreign minister (1871-75) and interior minister (1890) of Chile. He was also minister to the United States (1875-76).
Ibáñez del Campo, Carlos (b. Nov. 3, 1877, Linares, Chile - d. April 28, 1960, Santiago), president of Chile (1927-31, 1952-58). In 1896 he entered the military. He participated in a revolt in 1924 against the government of Arturo Alessandri Palma and took a prominent part in the coup that recalled Alessandri to office in 1925. Ibáñez in effect controlled Chile in 1925-27 as minister of war and then as minister of the interior under Pres. Emiliano Figueroa Larraín. In 1927 he forced the resignation of Figueroa and took over as president. Backed by the army, he exiled or jailed all opposition. He was able to give the nation a semblance of prosperity, as long as foreign credit was available. He sought to rescue the ailing nitrate industry through the creation of a monopoly corporation, Compañía de Salitre de Chile (Cosach), heavily dependent upon U.S. capital. When Cosach failed and the world depression put an end to the influx of foreign capital, the economy crumbled. His administration was brought to an end by what amounted to a national sit-down strike; in July 1931 he fled across the Andes into exile in Argentina. He returned in May 1937 and in September 1938, with the support of Chilean Nazis, attempted an armed revolt that promptly failed. In August 1939 he led another uprising that was again quickly crushed. He ran unsuccessfully for the presidency in 1942. In 1948 he was elected senator for Santiago. In 1952, he again ran for the presidency and won the election through an appeal directed to the depressed urban elements and the rural workers. In marked contrast to his earlier dictatorship, he now demonstrated an ability to conciliate opposition, reorganized government departments to promote efficiency, and encouraged industrial growth.
Ibáñez Martín, José, conde de Marín (b. Dec. 18, 1896, Valbona, Teruel province, Spain - d. Dec. 21, 1969, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. He was education minister (1939-51) and ambassador to Portugal (1958-69).
Ibaragi, Ryuta (b. July 29, 1966), governor of Okayama (2012- ).
Ibarra (Lozano), Aníbal (b. March 1, 1958, Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), chief of government of Buenos Aires city (2000-06). He was suspended and ultimately removed from office over allegations that poor government safety regulation contributed to the death of 194 people in a December 2004 nightclub fire.
Ibarra, Juan, prime minister of Peru (1892). He was also minister of war and navy (1883 [insurrectionary government of Lizardo Montero], 1891-92, 1895-96) and interior and police (1892).
Ibarra Muñoz, Rogelio (b. Aug. 15, 1888, Asunción, Paraguay - d. July 8, 1936, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Paraguay (1923-24). He was also minister to Brazil (1924-28, 1933-34), Bolivia (1930-31), Peru (1931-33), and Chile (1934-36).
Ibarretxe (Markuartu), Juan José (b. May 15, 1957, Llodio, Spain), president of the government of País Vasco (1999-2009).
Ibárruri (Gómez), (Isidora) Dolores, pseudonym La Pasionaria (Spanish: "The Passionflower") (b. Dec. 9, 1895, Gallarta, near Bilbao, Spain - d. Nov. 12, 1989, Madrid), Spanish Communist leader. She was aware of the disparity between her life and that of wealthy mine owners. Becoming radicalized, she published in 1918 an article in a newspaper called El Minero Vizcaino, using for the first time the pseudonym La Pasionaria. Two years later she joined the local Communist Party and served as a delegate (1921) to the national congress that founded the Spanish Communist Party (PCE). She became a member (1930) of PCE's Central Committee. After a turbulent career, in which she was jailed several times for political activities, she emerged as one of the Communist deputies in the Republican parliament and, by the outbreak of the Civil War in 1936, had become a national figure. She earned a legendary reputation as an impassioned orator, coining the Republican battle cry, No pasarán! ("They shall not pass!") and making such famous exhortations as "It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees" (July 19, 1936). With Francisco Franco's victory in 1939 she escaped by plane to the Soviet Union, where she became an ardent supporter of most Soviet policies and over the years represented her party at Kremlin congresses, until Santiago Carrillo succeeded her as secretary-general in 1960; she then became the party's president, a largely honorary post. She returned to Spain on May 13, 1977, 34 days after the Spanish government again legalized the Communist Party. She was reelected to her deputy seat in the Spanish parliament that year but resigned in 1979 because of ill health. She remained honorary president of the PCE until her death.
Iberville (et d'Ardillières), Pierre Le Moyne, sieur d' (baptized July 20, 1661, Ville-Marie de Montréal [now Montreal] - d. July 9, 1706, Havana, Cuba), governor of Louisiana (1699). As a young man he took part in raids against English trading posts on Hudson Bay. In 1686 he joined Pierre de Troyes' expedition to the James Bay region, capturing three forts over which he was made commander. Subsequently he distinguished himself in numerous actions against the English, notably at Schenectady, N.Y. (1690), Pemaquid, Maine (1696), and St. John, Newfoundland (1696). His most brilliant foray, the Hudson Bay campaign of 1697, made him, at age 36, New France's most celebrated hero. After the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697) temporarily settled the dispute between the English and the French over Hudson Bay, he was commissioned to fortify the mouth of the Mississippi in order to secure the claim made on Louisiana by Cavelier de La Salle. In January 1699 he explored the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, rediscovering the mouth of the Mississippi. Later he established a temporary fort, Fort Maurepas, on Biloxi Bay (now Ocean Springs, Miss.) and then sailed for France. The following year he returned and established a second fort, Fort La Boulaye, just below present-day New Orleans and in 1702 constructed a new post, Fort Louis, on the Mobile River. In subsequent years the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) turned Iberville's attention toward the English, hampering his plans to develop Louisiana. In early 1706, commanding a French fleet in the West Indies, he sacked the islands of Nevis and St. Christopher. On the eve of a major expedition against the English in Carolina, he died suddenly.
Ibiam, Akanu, also known as (Sir) Francis Ibiam (b. Nov. 29, 1906, Unwana [now in Ebonyi state], Nigeria - d. July 1, 1995), governor of Eastern region, Nigeria (1960-66). He was baptized in 1919 and given the name Francis. In 1951 he was knighted. In 1967 he dropped his English name and renounced the knighthood, protesting against Britain's supply of military equipment to Nigeria during the Biafra secession.
Ibn Oumar, Acheikh (b. July 13, 1951, Fort-Lamy [now N'Djamena], Chad), defense minister (1983-84) and foreign minister (1989-90) of Chad. He was also ambassador to the United States (1992-93).
Ibori, James (Onanefu) (b. Aug. 4, 1958, Oghara [now in Delta state], Nigeria), governor of Delta (1999-2007).
Ibragimov, Ali (Ismail ogly) (b. Oct. 1 [Sept. 18, O.S.], 1913, Ust-Kara [now in Chita oblast], Russia - d. 1990), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1970-81). He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee (1950-53, 1954-63), a deputy premier (1957-58), and first deputy premier (1965-70).
Ibragimov, Mirza (Azhdar ogly) (b. Oct. 28 [Oct. 15, O.S.], 1911, Sarab province, Azarbaijan region, Iran - d. Dec. 17, 1993), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1954-58). He was also people's commissar/minister of education (1942-47).
Ibragimov, Mirzolim (Ibragimovich) (b. 1928, Fergana, Uzbek S.S.R. - d. Sept. 20/21, 2014), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1989-90). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Fergana oblast (1964-68), minister of the cotton industry (1968-73), first secretary of the party committee of Namangan oblast (1973-76), and chairman of the State Committee for Physical Culture and Sports (1976-88).
Ibrahim, (Moulay) Abdallah, Arabic Mawlay `Abd Allah Ibrahim (b. Aug. 24, 1918, Tamesloht village, near Marrakech, Morocco - d. Sept. 11, 2005, Casablanca, Morocco), prime minister and foreign minister of Morocco (1958-60). He was also labour and social affairs minister (1956-58).
Ibrahim, Abu al-Qasim Muhammad (b. 1937, Omdurman, Sudan), interior minister (1970-71) and first vice president (1977-79) of The Sudan. He was also minister of local government (1969-70), health (1971-74, 2000-01), agriculture, food, and natural resources (1974-76), and relations with the National Assembly (1996-2000).
Ibrahim, (Alhaji) Bukar Abba, early childhood name Bukar Fulata (b. October 1950, Goniri [now in Yobe state], Nigeria), governor of Yobe (1992-93, 1999-2007).
Ibrahim, Hafiz Mohammad (b. 1889, Bijnor district, North-Western Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Jan. 24, 1968), governor of Punjab (1964-65). He was also Indian minister of irrigation and power (1958-63).
Ibrahim (al-Douri), Izzat, Arabic `Izzat Ibrahim al-Dawri (b. 1942, al-Dour, Iraq), interior minister of Iraq (1974-79). He was vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council in 1979-2003. Reports that he died on Nov. 11, 2005, were later contradicted. By that time he was the "single most significant regime figure" still at large after the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq and overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003. He was blamed for coordinating some of the attacks on U.S.-led forces and a $10 million reward was offered for his capture. In an audio message broadcast on al-Jazeera in March 2006, he urged the Arab League summit meeting in Khartoum to recognize "the Iraqi resistance as the sole legitimate representative of the Iraqi people" and to "boycott the regime of agents and traitors." He was reportedly killed in an operation by Iraqi security forces and Shia militia members on April 17, 2015, but this was apparently contradicted by the release of a new audiotape in May in which he comments on recent events.
Ibrahim, (Alhaji Mohammed) Malam Awwal (b. 1941), governor of Niger state (1979-83) and emir of Suleja (1993-94, 2000- ).
Ibrahim Ismail ibni al-Marhum Sultan Iskandar, Tuanku (b. Nov. 22, 1958, Johor Bahru, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), regent (1984-89) and sultan (2010- ) of Johor; son of Tuanku Mahmud Iskandar ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ismail.
Ibrahimi, Ahmed Taleb, Arabic Ahmad Talib al-Ibrahimi (b. Jan. 5, 1932, Sétif, Algeria), Algerian politician. He was minister of education (1965-70) and information and culture (1970-77) and then a presidential adviser before becoming foreign minister (1982-88). Moderate and Islamist-minded, he was widely respected by Islamists as the son of Bachir Ibrahimi who founded the Muslim Scholars Association between 1932 and 1964 to promote moderate political Islam and the Arabic language. As presidential candidate in 1999, he favoured dialogue with the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), pledging an amnesty for jailed FIS members if he won the presidency.
Ibrahimovic, Hajrudin (b. April 15, 1957), acting premier of Sarajevo canton (2008-09).
Ibraimov, Jumabek (Ibraimovich) (b. Jan. 1, 1944, Kemin district, Kirgiz S.S.R. - d. April 4, 1999), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1998-99). A member of the Central Committee of the Kirgiz S.S.R. Communist Party from 1988 to 1991, Ibraimov became the mayor of the capital, Bishkek, in 1993, but retired in 1995 when his health became a concern. He continued to act as a state secretary and an advisor to Pres. Askar Akayev until December 1997 when he was unexpectedly appointed chairman of the State Property Fund. One year later he was a surprise choice to replace Kubanychbek Jumaliyev as prime minister when the latter was sacked by Akayev after less than one year in the post. Jumaliyev was dismissed for his government's failure in dealing with the growing fallout from the Russian financial crisis. Ibraimov was never seen as more than a transitional figure. During his short period in office, Kyrgyzstan's economy continued to suffer from the effects of the Russian financial crisis. The national currency, which had rebounded from a low of 35 som to one dollar in November 1998 to just under 30 to one dollar at year's end began to fall again in late February 1999. Other complications were caused by Kyrgyzstan's neighbours, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Kazakhstan's decision in February to raise by 200% tariff rates on some goods from Kyrgyzstan had a heavy impact on the Kyrgyz economy. Equally distressing for Kyrgyzstan were interruptions in supplies of natural gas from Uzbekistan which occurred in February and March. Additionally, a dispute over borders has arisen between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan since mid-February. Some deputies in the Kyrgyz parliament claimed Uzbekistan had moved its border into Kyrgyz territory and established new fortified border posts is these areas. He died in office.
Ibraimov, Sultan (Ibraimovich) (b. Sept. 20, 1927, Alchalu, Kirgiz A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Chuy oblast, Kyrgyzstan] - d. [assassinated] Dec. 4, 1980, Cholpon-Ata, Issyk-Kul oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1978) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1978-80) of the Kirgiz S.S.R. He was also minister of irrigation and water management (1961-66) and first secretary of the party committee of Osh oblast (1968-78).
Ibraimova, Elmira (Sultanovna) (b. April 13, 1962, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), Kyrgyz politician. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2001) and a deputy premier (2008-09).
Ibru, Alex(ander Uruemu) (b. March 1, 1945, Agbarha-Otor village, near Ughelli [now in Delta state], Nigeria - d. Nov. 20, 2011), interior minister of Nigeria (1993-95); brother of Felix Ibru.
Ibru, (Olorogun) Felix (Ovuodoroye) (b. Dec. 7, 1935, Agbarha-Otor village, near Ughelli [now in Delta state], Nigeria - d. March 12, 2016), governor of Delta (1992-93).
Ibuki, Bunmei (b. Jan. 9, 1938, Kyoto, Japan), finance minister of Japan (2008). He was also minister of labour (1997-98) and education, culture, sports, science, and technology (2006-07) and speaker of the House of Representatives (2012-14).
Icazuriaga (Medice), Héctor (b. Jan. 9, 1955, Chivilcoy, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), governor of Santa Cruz (2003). From 2003 he is head of the Intelligence Secretariat in the national government.
Ichimada, Hisato (b. Aug. 12, 1893, Oita prefecture, Japan - d. Jan. 22, 1984), finance minister of Japan (1954-56, 1957-58). He was also governor of the Bank of Japan (1946-54).
Ickes, Harold L(eClair) (b. March 15, 1874, Frankstown Township, Pa. - d. Feb. 3, 1952, Washington, D.C.), U.S. interior secretary (1933-46). In 1916 he took a prominent part in Charles Evans Hughes' presidential campaign. A progressive Republican, Ickes supported Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt's campaign in 1932 and after Roosevelt's election was made secretary of the interior. He became one of the most energetic and dedicated New Dealers in Washington and a lifelong supporter of the president. In his new post he fought for the preservation of natural resources against exploitation by private interests. Ickes won a wider reputation as head (1933-39) of the Public Works Administration (PWA). He spent money so carefully that many of his projects were slow getting under way, thereby failing to stimulate the depressed national economy as early as desired, but his numerous PWA contracts were virtually graft-proof. One of his most valuable services to consumers was in establishing "yardsticks" for electric-power rates through federal and municipal power projects. With the entrance of the U.S. into World War II, his duties were further increased; he became, for instance, petroleum administrator in 1942. During presidential campaigns, he became known as "Roosevelt's hatchet man" because of his colourful attacks upon Republican candidates; between campaigns he feuded with almost equal vigour with several of his Democratic colleagues, and his trenchant opinions of many others were recorded in his lively diary, published posthumously (The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes, 3 vol., 1953-54). He resigned in 1946 on the ground that he could not support certain men selected by Pres. Harry S. Truman for inclusion in the administration.
Ickonga, Auxence (b. July 27, 1937, Makoua, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Dec. 22, 1989, Brazzaville), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1970-71); nephew of Charles Assemekang. He was also ambassador to Egypt (1966-69), France (1972-74), and the United Kingdom (1973-74) and agriculture minister (1969-70).
Iddesleigh, Stafford Henry Northcote, (1st) Earl of, (1st) Viscount St. Cyres (b. Oct. 27, 1818, London, England - d. Jan. 12, 1887, London), British politician. He was president of the Board of Trade (1866-67), secretary of state for India (1867-68), chancellor of the exchequer (1874-80), and foreign secretary (1886-87). He succeeded his grandfather as (8th) baronet in 1851 and was created earl (and viscount) in 1885.
Iddrisu, Mahama, defense minister (1985-99) and interior minister (1996-97) of Ghana. He was also minister of local government (1978-79) and transport and communications (1982-85).
Ide, Henry Clay (b. Sept. 18, 1844, Barnet, Vt. - d. June 13, 1921, St. Johnsbury, Vt.), chief justice of Samoa (1893-97) and governor-general of the Philippines (1906). He served in the Vermont Senate from 1882 to 1885. In March 1891 he was appointed U.S. land commissioner in Samoa, where he won the praise of Robert Louis Stevenson for his "capacity, moderation, tact, and temper" before leaving Samoa in November of that year. Under the joint appointment of the U.S., Britain, and Germany, he became chief justice. From 1900 to 1906 he served in various official capacities in the Philippines, including as secretary of finance and justice, vice governor, and governor-general. He played an important role in framing new laws on civil procedure and internal revenue and in reforming of the currency of the Philippines. In 1909 he was appointed U.S. envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Spain, where he remained until August 1913.
Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung (b. July 21, 1921, Gianyar, Bali, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. April 22, 1999), ruler of Gianyar (1943-45, 1960-99), prime minister of Indonesia Timur (1947-49), and interior minister (1949-50) and foreign minister (1955-56) of Indonesia. He also served as ambassador to Belgium (1951-53) and France (1953-55). He was imprisoned by Sukarno from 1962 to 1966, then under Suharto served as ambassador to Austria (1969-74).
Idenburg, Alexander Willem Frederik (b. July 23, 1861, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Feb. 28, 1935, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1905-08) and of the Netherlands East Indies (1909-16). He was also Dutch minister of colonies (1902-05, 1908-09, 1918-19).
Idiagbon, Tunde, in full Babatunde Baku Abdul Idiagbon (b. Sept. 14, 1943, Ilorin, central Nigeria - d. March 24, 1999, Ilorin), Nigerian politician. Major General Idiagbon, who was governor of Borno in 1978-79, was deputy to Gen. Muhammadu Buhari who seized power from Nigeria's last elected civilian government on the eve of 1984. The feared military number two exerted a strong influence on the government and became the public face of the draconian regime which enacted the dreaded Decree Two, allowing indefinite detention without trial, and applied the death penalty on drug traffickers. After their regime was overthrown by Gen. Ibrahim Babangida in August 1985, Idiagbon retired to his hometown following his release from detention. He never gave interviews and made very rare public appearances.
Idigov, Akhyad (b. 1948, Kazakh S.S.R.), foreign minister of Chechnya (1998-99).
Ido, Toshizo (b. Aug. 10, 1945), governor of Hyogo (2001- ).
Idris I, in full Sidi Muhammad Idris al-Mahdi as-Sanusi (b. March 13, 1890, Jarabub, Cyrenaica, Libya - d. May 25, 1983, Cairo, Egypt), king of Libya (1951-69). In 1902 he became head of the Sanusiyah, an Islamic mystical brotherhood centred in Cyrenaica. Because he was a minor, active leadership passed to his cousin, Ahmad ash-Sharif. Ruling in his own right after 1916, his first problem was to deal with the Italians, who in 1911 had invaded Libya. Idris ultimately went into exile in Egypt, where he remained until British forces occupied Libya in 1942 during World War II. He continued to direct his followers from Egypt, not returning permanently until 1947, when he could head an official government. Conservative tribesmen thought in terms of a Sanusi government ruling over Cyrenaica, but younger and more urbanized elements looked to a union of the Libyan provinces. The issue was finally determined by the United Nations in November 1949, when the General Assembly resolved that the future of Cyrenaica, Fezzan, and Tripolitania should be decided upon by representatives of the three areas meeting in a national assembly. This assembly established a constitutional monarchy and offered the throne to Idris. Libya declared its independence in December 1951. Many of the younger army officers and members of the growing urban middle class resented his socially conservative policies and his aloofness from the growing currents of Arab nationalism. In September 1969, while Idris was in Turkey for medical treatment, the army, led by Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi, overthrew his government. He went first to Greece and then was given political asylum in Egypt. In 1974 he was tried in absentia on charges of corruption and found guilty. He remained in exile in Cairo until his death.
Idris, (Alhaji) Ibrahim (b. 1944), governor of Kogi (2003-08, 2008-12).
Idris (bin Haji) Haron, Datuk Seri (b. May 13, 1966, Jasin, Malacca, Malaysia), chief minister of Malacca (2013- ).
Idris ibn `Uthman, Shaykh, or Shehu Idris (b. Feb. 20, 1936, Zaria [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria), emir of Zaria (1975- ).
Idris (bin) Jusoh, Dato' Seri (Haji) (b. Nov. 15, 1955, Besut, Terengganu, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Terengganu (2004-08). He has also been Malaysian second education minister (2013-15) and minister of higher education (2015- ). He received the titles of Datuk (April 28, 1988) and Dato' Seri (July 20, 2004).
Idris Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Salehuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, Sharafuddin (b. Dec. 24, 1945, Klang, Selangor), sultan of Selangor (2001- ).
Idrisov, Yerlan (Abilfaizovich) (b. April 28, 1959, Karkaralinsk, Karaganda oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), foreign minister of Kazakhstan (1999-2002, 2012- ). He was ambassador to the United Kingdom (2002-07) and to the United States (2007-12).
Idsinga, Willem Hendrik Johan van (b. June 25, 1822, Baardwijk, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Nov. 16, 1896, The Hague, Netherlands), administrator of Sint Eustatius (1854-60) and Sint Maarten (1860-65) and governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1867-73); son-in-law of Reinier Frederik baron van Raders.
Iehsi, Ieske K(iesi) (b. Jan. 4, 1955, Pingelap atoll, Pohnpei), foreign minister of the Federated States of Micronesia (2000-03).
Ielemia, Apisai (b. Aug. 19, 1955), prime minister (2006-10) and foreign minister (2006-10, 2010-13) of Tuvalu.
Iemma, Morris (b. July 21, 1961, Sydney, N.S.W.), premier of New South Wales (2005-08).
Ieng Sary, original name Kim Trang (b. Oct. 24, 1925, Vinh Binh, Tra Vinh province, Vietnam - d. March 14, 2013, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), deputy prime minister (1975-79) and foreign minister (1976-79) of Cambodia. He was sentenced to death in absentia in August 1979, eight months after the overthrow of the Khmer Rouge regime. The Khmer Rouge carried on fighting a guerrilla war from the jungle after their ouster; when they were confined to a dwindling number of strongholds, mostly in border areas, Ieng Sary became the first member of the inner circle to defect. In August 1996, he seized control of thousands of Khmer Rouge guerrillas and the gem-rich area they controlled along the Thai border. A month later, at the request of Prime Minister Hun Sen, King Norodom Sihanouk rewarded Ieng Sary with an amnesty for breaking away from his comrades-in-arms. The amnesty lifted the death sentence against Ieng Sary and granted him immunity from prosecution under a 1994 law outlawing the Khmer Rouge. He was, however, arrested in November 2007 to be tried before a UN-backed genocide tribunal. The trial started in June 2011 but he died during its course.
Ieng Thirith, née Khieu Thirith (b. March 10, 1932 - d. Aug. 22, 2015), Cambodian politician; wife of Ieng Sary; sister-in-law of Pol Pot. She was minister of education (1975-76) and social affairs (1976-79).
Ieu Koeus (b. 1905, Sangkè district, Battambang province, Cambodia - d. [assassinated] Jan. 14, 1950, Phnom Penh), prime minister of Cambodia (1949). He was also interior minister (1949).
Iezekiel (b. 1913 - d. July 1, 1987, Athens, Greece), archbishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia (1959-74). He resigned on Feb. 24, 1968, but was reelected on Aug. 12, 1969.
Igbinedion, Lucky (Nosakhare) (b. May 13, 1957, Oredo, Nigeria), governor of Edo (1999-2007).
Ige, Bola (b. Sept. 13, 1930, Esa-Oke village [now in Osun state], Nigeria - d. [assassinated] Dec. 23, 2001, Bodija, Ibadan, Oyo state), governor of Oyo (1979-83) and justice minister of Nigeria (2000-01). He was also minister of power and steel (1999-2000).
Igic, Ljubisa (b. May 31, 1941, Nis, Serbia), acting president of the Presidency of Serbia (1989).
Iglesias (García), Enrique (Valentín) (b. March 29, 1930, Arancedo parish, El Franco municipality, Asturias, Spain), foreign minister of Uruguay (1985-88), president of the Inter-American Development Bank (1988-2005), and secretary-general of the Ibero-American Secretariat (2005-14). An Uruguayan-Spanish dual citizen, he was president of Uruguay's central bank in 1966-68.
Iglesias (Argüelles), Gerardo (b. June 29, 1945, near Mieres, Asturias, Spain), general secretary of the Spanish Communist Party (1982-88).
Iglesias (Pino de Arce), Joaquín, prime minister and interior minister of Peru (1885); brother of Miguel Iglesias.
Iglesias (Pino de Arce), Lorenzo (b. 1841 - d. Oct. 15, 1885, near Canta, Peru), prime minister of Peru (1883); brother of Miguel Iglesias.
Iglesias (Pino de Arce), Miguel (b. June 11, 1830, Cajamarca, Peru - d. Nov. 7, 1909, Madrid, Spain), president of Peru (1882-85). He was also prefect of Cajamarca (1865-68, 1872-73).
Iglesias (Gil), Roberto (Raúl) (b. 1951), governor of Mendoza (1999-2003).
Iglesias Castro, Rafael: see Yglesias Castro, Rafael.
Iglésias Navarri, Ramon (Catalan), Castilian Ramón Iglesias Navarri (b. Jan. 28, 1889, Durro, Spain - d. March 31, 1972, La Seu d'Urgel, Spain), co-prince of Andorra (1943-69).
Iglesias Ricou, Marcelino (b. April 16, 1951, Bonansa, Huesca, Aragón), president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1999-2011).
Ignatieff, George, originally Georgy (Pavlovich) Ignatyev (b. Dec. 16, 1913, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Aug. 10, 1989, Sherbrooke, Que.), Canadian diplomat; son of Graf Pavel Ignatyev (1870-1945). He was ambassador to Yugoslavia (1956-58) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-69).
Ignatieff, Michael (Grant) (b. May 12, 1947, Toronto, Ont.), Canadian politician; son of George Ignatieff. He was leader of the Liberal Party (2008-11).
Ignatov, Nikolay (Grigoryevich) (b. May 16 [May 3, O.S.], 1901, Tishanskaya village, near Tsaritsyn [now Volgograd], Russia - d. Nov. 14, 1966, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1959, 1962-66). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Kuybyshev (1938-40), Oryol (1944-48), Voronezh (1954-55), and Gorky (1955-57) oblasti, Krasnodar kray (1949-52), and Leningrad city (1953) and Soviet minister of food reserves (1952-53), a deputy premier (1960-62), and chairman of the State Committee for Procurement (1961-62).
Ignatyev, Mikhail (Vasilyevich) (b. Jan. 8, 1962, Malyye Torkhany, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), president (2010-12) and head of the republic (2012- ) of Chuvashia.
Ignatyev, Graf (Count) Nikolay (Pavlovich) (b. Jan. 29 [Jan. 17, O.S.], 1832, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. July 3 [June 20, O.S.], 1908, Krupodernitsy estate, Kiev province, Russia [now in Ukraine]), interior minister of Russia (1881-82); son of Graf Pavel Ignatyev (1797-1880). He was also envoy to China (1859-60), minister (1864-67) and ambassador (1867-77) to the Ottoman Empire, and governor-general of Nizhny Novgorod (1879-80).
Ignatyev, Graf (Count) Pavel (Nikolayevich) (b. June 18 [June 7, O.S.], 1797 - d. Jan. 1, 1880 [Dec. 20, 1879, O.S.]), chairman of the Committee of Ministers of Russia (1872-80). He was also governor-general of Vitebsk, Mogilyov, and Smolensk (1853-54) and Saint Petersburg (1854-61). He was made a count on Dec. 24, 1877.
Ignatyev, Graf (Count) Pavel (Nikolayevich) (b. July 12 [June 30, O.S.], 1870, Büyükdere, near Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Aug. 12, 1945, Upper Melbourne, Que.), Russian politician; son of Graf Nikolay Ignatyev. He was education minister (1915-16) and later emigrated to Canada.
Ignatyev, Semyon (Denisovich) (b. Sept. 14 [Sept. 1, O.S.], 1904 - d. Nov. 27, 1983), Soviet politician. He held regional posts in the secret police in the 1920s and in the party in the next two decades before becoming minister of state security in 1951. As such he was responsible for investigating the so-called "Doctors' Plot." As Nikita Khrushchev revealed at the 20th Communist Party Congress in 1956, Ignatyev had been ordered to obtain confessions from a group of Kremlin doctors, most of whom were Jews, under threats from Stalin that his own life would be taken if he failed. The doctors were alleged to have murdered Stalin's henchman Andrey Zhdanov in 1948 and to have tried to destroy the health of other leading figures. Two of the doctors died during interrogation and the others were released soon after Stalin's death when, as Khrushchev later confirmed, it was accepted that the case had been "fabricated from beginning to end." Ignatyev himself, who was reported to have suffered a heart attack, lost his post immediately after Stalin's death (March 1953) when Lavrenty Beria became head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, with which the Ministry of State Security was merged. He was made a secretary of the Central Committee, but was removed already in April 1953 for having shown "political blindness and gullibility" in the doctors case. Rehabilitated by Khrushchev, he became party chief in the Bashkir republic in 1954 and was shifted to the adjoining Tatar republic in 1957, which he led until his retirement in 1960. In 1974, on his 70th birthday, he was awarded the Order of the October Revolution.
Ignatyev, Vitaly (Viktorovich) (b. July 5, 1980, Kotovsk, Odessa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Transnistria (2015- ).
Igumnov, Gennady (Vyacheslavovich) (b. Oct. 27, 1936), head of the administration of Perm oblast (1996-2000).
Ihre, Albrecht Elof friherre (b. Oct. 6, 1797, Ekebyhof, near Stockholm, Sweden - d. Aug. 9, 1877, Ekebyhof), prime minister for foreign affairs of Sweden (1842-48). He was also chargé d'affaires in the Ottoman Empire (1827-31) and minister of ecclesiastical affairs (1840). He was made friherre (baron) in 1843.
Ihsanoglu, Ekmeleddin (Mehmet) (b. Dec. 26, 1943, Cairo, Egypt), secretary-general of the Organization of the Islamic Conference/Organization of Islamic Cooperation (2005-13). In 2014 he was a presidential candidate in Turkey.
Iivula-Ithana, Pendukeni, formerly (1980s) Pendukeni Kaulinge (b. Oct. 11, 1952, Uukwandongo, Omusati region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), home affairs minister of Namibia (2012- ). She was also minister of youth and sport (1991-96), lands, resettlement, and rehabilitation (1996-2001), and justice (2005-12) and attorney general (2001-08).
Iizumi, Kamon (b. July 29, 1960), governor of Tokushima (2003- ).
Ijuin, Hikokichi (b. June 1864, Kagoshima, Japan - d. April 26, 1924, Tokyo, Japan), governor-general of Kwantung (1922-23) and foreign minister of Japan (1923-24). He was also minister to China (1908-13) and ambassador to Italy (1916-20).
Ikeda, Hayato (b. Dec. 3, 1899, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan - d. Aug. 13, 1965, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1960-64). He entered the Ministry of Finance as a civil servant in 1925. After rising to the position of vice minister of finance (1947), he was elected to the Diet in the January 1949 general election and became minister of finance in the government of Shigeru Yoshida. He sought to stabilize an economy wracked by inflation with the strong deflationary policy recommended by Joseph Dodge, a Detroit banker sent by the U.S. government to study the economic difficulties of occupied Japan. Ikeda played a leading role in peace treaty negotiations with the United States. In October 1952 he became international trade and industry minister, and for much of the rest of the decade he was either finance or international trade minister, or minister without portfolio. He also served terms as secretary-general of the Liberal Party (subsequently Liberal-Democratic Party) and as chairman of the party's political affairs research committee. When Nobusuke Kishi resigned in July 1960, Ikeda became president of the party and began his four years as prime minister. With the stated goal of doubling Japan's national income in 10 years, he launched a high-rate economic-growth policy based on expanded public-sector spending, reduced taxes, and efforts to keep both inflation and interest rates low. He made determined efforts to break down trade barriers to Japanese goods in foreign markets. He maintained a lower profile in foreign affairs. While continuing to cultivate close relations with the U.S. on economic and security matters, he did favour expanding trade ties with the Soviet Union and China. Ill health forced him to resign in November 1964.
Ikeda, Shigeaki, also known as Seihin Ikeda (b. Aug. 15, 1867, Yonezawa [now in Yamagata prefecture], Japan - d. Oct. 9, 1950), finance minister of Japan (1938-39). He was also governor of the Bank of Japan (1937) and minister of industry and commerce (1938-39).
Ikeda, Yukihiko (b. May 13, 1937, Kobe, Japan - d. Jan. 28, 2004, Tokyo, Japan), defense minister (1990-91) and foreign minister (1996-97) of Japan; son-in-law of Hayato Ikeda. As foreign minister, his term was marked by Peruvian rebels' takeover of the ambassador's mansion in Lima during a reception in December 1996. The rebels held 72 people, including Japanese diplomats and businessmen, captive for nearly four months. They were freed April 22, 1997, in a raid by Peruvian commandos. Ikeda also held key posts in the Liberal-Democratic Party.
Ikimi, Tom (Omoghegbe) (b. April 10, 1944, Igueben, Edo state, Nigeria), foreign minister of Nigeria (1995-98).
Ikonomov, Todor (Poppetrov) (b. Aug. 29, 1838, Zheravna, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. Oct. 28, 1892, Shumen, Bulgaria), interior minister of Bulgaria (1880). He was also mayor of Sofia (1880) and minister of public works, agriculture, and commerce (1883-84).
Ikouébé, Basile (b. July 1, 1946), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (2007-15). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 1998-2007.
Ilangaratne, Tikiri Banda, also spelled Illangaratne (b. Feb. 27, 1913, Hataraliyedda, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. May 21, 1992), finance minister of Ceylon (1963-64). He was also minister of labour, housing, and social services (1956-59), home affairs (1959), commerce, food, trade, and shipping (1960-63), trade and supply (1964-65), foreign and internal trade (1970-77), and public administration and home affairs (1975-77).
Iléo (Songo Amba), Joseph (b. Sept. 15, 1921, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Sept. 19, 1994, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1960, 1961). He was also president of the Senate earlier in 1960.
Ilichev, Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. Aug. 14, 1905 - d. Sept. 2, 1983), Soviet high commissioner of Austria (1953-55). He was also head of the Soviet diplomatic mission to East Germany (1952-53) and ambassador to Austria (1953-56) and Denmark (1966-68).
Iliescu, Ion (Alexandru) (b. March 3, 1930, Oltenita, southeastern Romania), president of Romania (1990-96, 2000-04). He joined the Union of Communist Youth at the age of 14 and the Communist Party in 1953 and held positions of increasing prestige through the following decade. He was among several protégés of Nicolae Ceausescu who benefited from their mentor's election as party general secretary in 1965, and he continued to enjoy favour as Ceausescu consolidated his authority into a dictatorship. Ironically, Iliescu's popularity among students may have been his undoing. In 1971 the president divested him of all positions except his membership on the Central Committee, which he had obtained in 1968, and launched him on a career of remote assignments, frequent transfers, and decreasing responsibility. In 1984 he was expelled from the Central Committee. Upon Ceausescu's doomed flight from power on Dec. 22, 1989, Iliescu emerged from the shadows to head an interim government largely comprising disaffected former Communist officials. After the apparently spontaneous uprising that drove Ceausescu to an ignominious death, allegations circulated that a coup had been in the planning for several months, with Iliescu as president-designate. Despite promises of broad democratic reforms, charges of complicity with the ousted regime were widespread. After years of total suppression, however, the opposition was ill-equipped to mount a serious challenge. On May 20, 1990, Romania's first open elections in more than 50 years confirmed Iliescu as president. Political unrest continued and, in the most violent episode, some 7,000 miners were transported to the capital in June to suppress a popular protest by force. In 1992 he founded what would become the Social Democratic Party. Reelected under a new constitution in 1992, he lost the 1996 election to Emil Constantinescu but was returned in 2000. He withdrew from his party roles, including as honorary president, in 2010.
Ilimbetov, Azamat (Fattakhovich) (b. Sept. 26, 1972, Ufa, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Bashkortostan (2011-12).
Ilkin, Baki (b. Oct. 3, 1943, Ankara, Turkey), Turkish diplomat. He was ambassador to Pakistan (1987-90), Denmark (1990-93), the Netherlands (1996-98), and the United States (1998-2001) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-09).
Ilkovsky, Konstantin (Konstantinovich) (b. Jan. 12, 1964, Batagay, Yakut A.S.S.R. [now Republic of Sakha], Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Zabaikalsky kray (2013-16).
Illia (Francesconi), Arturo Umberto (b. Aug. 4, 1900, Pergamino, Argentina - d. Jan. 18, 1983, Córdoba city, Argentina), president of Argentina (1963-66). He was propelled into politics after the democratic government of Pres. Hipólito Irigoyen was overthrown in a 1930 military coup. In 1935 Illia was elected to the provincial senate of Córdoba as a Radical, and he remained a member of that party throughout his political career. From 1940 to 1943 he served as vice-governor of Córdoba. In 1948, during the reign of Juan Perón, Illia, one of the rare non-Peronists, was elected to the National Assembly. He used his seat to speak out against Perón's dictatorship, and even though he lost his seat in the 1952 election, he had gained a national reputation for daring to oppose Perón. In 1962 he was elected governor of Córdoba, only to have the election annulled. In 1963 he was chosen by the People's Radical Civic Party as their presidential candidate. Illia's defeat of Oscar Alende marked a return to a constitutional government. For the first time for many years, the state of siege was lifted. He ended foreign control of Argentina's oil industry, but his administration was weakened by the Peronist General Confederation of Labour, the scarcity of beef after a two-year drought, and the drop in oil production during negotiations with the U.S. over the petroleum companies. There was continuing turbulence and threats of intervention by the armed forces. In October 1964, when Gen. Charles de Gaulle was in Argentina during his tour of South America, he had to abandon a speech he was making halfway because of shouts of "Perón" by demonstrators. Later that year, Perón himself made an unsuccessful attempt to return from his Spanish exile. In 1966 a disgruntled military ousted Illia as president.
Illueca (Sibauste), Jorge (Enrique) (b. Sept. 17, 1918, Panama City, Panama - d. May 3, 2012), foreign minister (1981-82), vice president (1982-84), and president (1984) of Panama and president of the UN General Assembly (1983-84). He was also permanent representative to the UN (1959-60, 1976-81, 1994-97).
Illy, Riccardo (b. Sept. 24, 1955, Trieste, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (2003-08).
Iloilo(vatu Uluivuda), Ratu Josefa (Samate) (b. Dec. 29, 1920, Waiyevo, Taveuni island, Fiji - d. Feb. 6, 2011, Suva, Fiji), president of Fiji (2000-09). He was also minister of forests (1992), president of the Senate (1996-99), and vice president (1999-2000).
Ilon, Epel K(alwin) (b. 1952, Mortlocks, Truk [now Chuuk], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), foreign secretary of the Federated States of Micronesia (1991-92 [acting], 1997-2000).
Ilongo Tokole, Jean (b. Nov. 9, 1968, Lufulutulu, Congo [Kinshasa]), special commissioner (2015-16) and governor (2016- ) of Tshopo.
Ilves, Toomas Hendrik (b. Dec. 26, 1953, Stockholm, Sweden), foreign minister (1996-98, 1999-2002) and president (2006-16) of Estonia. In 1993-96 he was ambassador to the United States. As foreign minister, he oversaw the country's successful drive to be included in the first wave of east European nations accepted for fast track negotiations for EU membership. He resigned in 1998 to prepare his conservative People's Party for the March 1999 election. After that election, he returned to the post. Later that year the People's Party was absorbed by the Moderates.
Ilyashenko, Kirill (Fyodorovich) (b. May 27 [May 14, O.S.], 1915, Lipetskoye, Russia [now in Odessa oblast, Ukraine] - d. April 21, 1980, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1963-80). He was also a deputy premier (1963).
Ilyasov, Stanislav (Valentinovich) (b. 1953, Kizlyar, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), Moscow-backed prime minister of Chechnya (2001-02).
Ilyukhin, Vladimir (Ivanovich) (b. June 25, 1961, Novonikolayevka village, Krasnoyarsk kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Kamchatka kray (2011- ).
Ilyumzhinov, Kirsan (Nikolayevich) (b. April 5, 1962, Elista, Kalmyk A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), president (1993-2005) and head of the republic (2005-10) of Kalmykia. In 1990 he was elected to represent Kalmykia as a deputy of the Russian parliament, the next year he became a member of the U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet. On April 12, 1993, Ilyumzhinov became the first elected president of the Republic of Kalmykia. On Oct. 15, 1995, he was reelected as president with his term extended to 2002. On Nov. 24, 1995, Ilyumzhinov was elected president of the International Chess Federation (FIDE). In 1994 a presidential decree made chess a course of instruction in Kalmyk secondary schools. He put his tiny republic on the map in 1996 by hosting the world championships between Anatoly Karpov and Gata Kamsky. He was reelected as president of Kalmykia in 2002 and, when regional elections in Russia were abolished, he was confirmed in office by Pres. Vladimir Putin in 2005.
Imanaliyev, Muratbek (Sansyzbayevich) (b. Feb. 25, 1956, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), foreign minister of Kyrgyzstan (1991-92, 1997-2002) and secretary-general of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (2010-12). In 1993-96 he was ambassador to China.
Imashev, Sattar (Nurmashevich) (b. March 20, 1925, Birlik, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Atyrau oblast, Kazakhstan] - d. Feb. 22, 1984), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh S.S.R. (1979-84). He was also chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1975-79).
Imbali, Faustino (Fudut) (b. May 1, 1956, Ilondé, Biombo region, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), foreign minister (2001, 2012-13) and prime minister (2001) of Guinea-Bissau. He was a presidential candidate in 2005, receiving 0.5% of the votes.
Imbert Barrera, Antonio (Cosme) (b. Dec. 3, 1920, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic - d. May 31, 2016, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), member of the Civic-Military Council (1962), president (1965), and defense minister (1986-88) of the Dominican Republic.
Imbroda Ortiz, Juan José (b. June 24, 1944, Melilla), president of Melilla (2000- ).
Imbulana, P(rema) C(handra) (b. Oct. 18, 1920 - d. Sept. 28, 2012), governor of Uva (1988-90) and Central (1990-94) provinces, Sri Lanka. He was minister of labour in 1984-88.
Imfeld, Hans (b. June 21, 1902, Sarnen, Obwalden, Switzerland - d. July 3, 1947, Saigon, Vietnam), French commissioner of Laos (1945-46). He emigrated to France in 1922 where he attended the schools of officers of Poitiers and Fontainebleau. He entered the resistance in 1943 and was condemned to death by the Vichy government. He was on a mission in China in 1943-44, and he secured the restoration of the French protectorate over Laos in 1945. He was assassinated by the communist Vietminh.
Imhoff, Gustaaf Willem baron van (b. Aug. 8, 1705, Leer, East Frisia [now in Germany] - d. Nov. 1, 1750, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia]), governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies (1743-50). Son of an East Frisian nobleman, he entered into the service of the Dutch East India Company and was sent to the Indies in 1725. By 1732 he was a member of the chiefly advisory Council of the Indies and in 1736 became governor of Ceylon. Because of his opposition to the ruthless repression of a Chinese uprising, he was sent back to Holland (1740). There, however, the company's directors took his part and made him governor-general of the Indies. He set forth a plan for reform in his tract "Considerations on the Present State of the Dutch East India Company." To encourage the development of the company as a territorial power, he wanted to confine its activities to the eastern part of the archipelago and to settle Dutchmen in colonies to raise crops and to trade. He eased the restrictions on free trade with Asia but not enough to make it profitable. In his dealings with Indonesians van Imhoff was tactless. He intervened in a quarrel between the ruler of the Mataram kingdom of Java and his brother, thus touching off the Third Javanese War of Succession (1749-57), which left Mataram split into two kingdoms. In Bantam, another kingdom of Java, van Imhoff lent his support to the unpopular faction of a dynastic dispute, bringing on a popular uprising. The rebels were seeking English help when van Imhoff died, leaving his successor to solve the problem.
Imhoff, Gustaaf Willem baron van (b. Nov. 22, 1767, Groningen - d. Feb. 13, 1830, Groningen), governor of Groningen (1814-30); grandson of Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff (1705-50).
Imnadze, Kakha (b. Feb. 4, 1969, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), Georgian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2013- ).
Imperti, Rainier (b. Jan. 6, 1944, Monaco - d. April 16, 2009, Monaco), foreign minister of Monaco (2005-06). He was earlier Monaco's ambassador to Germany (2000-05) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-05).
Imru, Leul Ras (Haile Selassie) (b. Nov. 23, 1892, Gursum, eastern Ethiopia - d. Aug. 15, 1980, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), regent of Ethiopia (1936). He was raised to the personal titles of Gerazmatch (1909), Kniazmatch (1911), Dejazmatch (1917), Ras (1932), and Leul Ras (1954). He was governor-general of Wollo (1929-32) and Gojjam (1932-35) provinces. In 1936-43 he was imprisoned in Italy. He was minister (1946-49) and ambassador (1949-53) to the United States and ambassador to India (1954-59).
Imru, (Lij) Mikael (b. November 1929, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - d. October 2008), foreign minister (1961) and prime minister (1974) of Ethiopia; son of Leul Ras Imru. He was ambassador to the United States (1960-61) and the Soviet Union (1961-65) and minister of industry and commerce (1974) and information (1974-75).
In Tam (b. Sept. 22, 1922, Prek Kak, Stoeung Trang district, Kompong Cham province, eastern Cambodia - d. April 1, 2006, Chandler, Ariz.), Cambodian politician. He served as interior minister (1964-66, 1973), agriculture minister (1968), president of the National Assembly (1970), and prime minister (1973). In the presidential election of June 4, 1972, he came second with 24% of the votes. One day after the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh, he fled from his farm in Poipet to Thailand on April 18, 1975, where he unsuccessfully tried to establish a counterrevolutionary force along the border. Thai authorities, unhappy with his activities, deported him to France the same year, and in 1976 he went to the U.S., where he received asylum. He returned to Cambodia several times. He was a founding member and top official of Norodom Sihanouk's FUNCINPEC party, which was set up in 1981 to fight the Phnom Penh government set up by Vietnam after it ousted the brutal Khmer Rouge regime in 1979. In 1993 he led his Democratic Party in UN-run general elections, but it failed to win a seat; in March 1997 it signed a cooperation accord with Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party.
Inam ul-Haq (b. November 1940), foreign minister of Pakistan (2002, 2007-08). He was also ambassador to Turkey (1992-96) and China (1997-99) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2000).
Inamine, Keiichi (b. Oct. 14, 1933), governor of Okinawa (1998-2006).
Inayatullah Shah (b. Oct. 20, 1888, Kabul, Afghanistan - d. Aug. 12, 1946), king of Afghanistan (1929).
Indinok, Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. Aug. 6, 1938), head of the administration of Novosibirsk oblast (1993-95). He was also mayor of Novosibirsk (1988-90, 1991-93).
Indzhova, Reneta (Ivanova) (b. July 6, 1953, Nova Zagora), interim prime minister of Bulgaria (1994-95). She was a presidential candidate in 2001.
Ingólfsson, Thorsteinn (b. Dec. 9, 1944, Reykjavík, Iceland), Icelandic diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2003) and ambassador to Cuba and Barbados (2001-04) and Jamaica (2003-04).
Ingr, (Jan) Sergej (b. Sept. 2, 1894, Vlkos u Vyskova, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. June 17, 1956, Paris), defense minister of Czechoslovakia in exile (1940-44).
Ingraham, Hubert (Alexander) (b. Aug. 4, 1947, Pine Ridge, Grand Bahama island, Bahamas), prime minister of The Bahamas (1992-2002, 2007-12). Once the political protégé of Prime Minister Sir Lynden Pindling, he was dismissed from the cabinet and the ruling Progressive Liberal Party (PLP) in 1986 for accusing his former mentor and fellow party leaders of corruption. Reelected as an independent in the 1987 election, he joined the Free National Movement (FNM) in April 1990 and succeeded to its leadership on the death of Sir Cecil Wallace-Whitfield in May 1990. In the 1992 election, the FNM won 31 of the 49 seats in the House of Assembly, defeating Pindling, who ruled since 1967 and had long been accused of enriching himself by allowing Colombian drug dealers to use The Bahamas for drug-trafficking purposes. Ingraham profited from a strategic mistake by Sir Lynden, who scheduled the election during the summer, when many Bahamian young people were home from college. To many older voters, Sir Lynden was the father of his country, but many first-time voters apparently supported Ingraham as the leader better able to revive the ailing tourist trade and thereby provide more jobs. For the better part of a decade, officials of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration had complained about Bahamian involvement in the international drug trade. Immediately following his swearing in, Ingraham predicted that his country's relations with the U.S. "can only get warmer," but he rejected any notion that his government would extradite Sir Lynden or any other member of the defeated PLP to the U.S. to face drug-trafficking charges. He led his party to an even greater victory in 1997, then stepped down as party leader just before the 2002 election, which the party lost, but he was again elected leader in 2005 and returned the party to power in 2007. When it was defeated again in the 2012 election, he quit politics.
Ingstad, Helge (Marcus) (b. Dec. 30, 1899, Meråker, Norway - d. March 29, 2001, Oslo, Norway), governor of Eric the Red's Land (1932-33).
Ingvarsson, Ingvi S(igurdur) (b. Dec. 12, 1924, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. Aug. 26, 2009, Reykjavík), Icelandic diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1973-77) and ambassador to Sweden and Finland (1977-82), Yugoslavia (1977-83), Albania (1978-83), Saudi Arabia (1981-82), the United States (1986-90), Argentina and Canada (1987-91), Brazil (1987-92), Chile (1987-94), Mexico (1988-91), Denmark, Lithuania, and Italy (1991-94), China (1991-95), and Turkey and Israel (1992-94).
Inhambupe (de Cima), Antônio Luiz Pereira da Cunha, visconde e marquês de (b. April 6, 1760, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. Sept. 18, 1837, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister (1826), foreign minister (1826-27), and principal minister (1831) of Brazil. He was also president of the Senate (1837).
Inhomirim, Francisco de Sales Torres Homem, visconde de (b. Jan. 29, 1812, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. June 3, 1876, Paris, France), finance minister of Brazil (1858-59, 1870-71). He was also president of the Bank of Brazil (1866-69). He was made viscount in 1872.
Inienger, John (Mark) (b. April 16, 1945, Mkar area [now in Benue state], Nigeria - d. Feb. 8, 2002, in his car en route from Jos to Makurdi, Nigeria), governor of Bendel (1985-87).
Innih, George (Agbazika) (b. Sept. 25, 1938, Agenebode [now in Edo state], Nigeria - d. Aug. 15, 2002, Germany), governor of Mid-Western state (1975-76) and Kwara (1976-78).
Inonga Lokongo L'Ome (b. Jan. 12, 1939, Befale, Coquilhatville province, Belgian Congo [now in Équateur province, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 20, 1991, Johannesburg, South Africa), foreign minister of Zaire (1980-81, 1991). He was ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg in 1976-80 and permanent representative to the United Nations in 1984-85.
Inoni, Ephraïm (b. Aug. 16, 1947, Bakingili, near Limbé, Cameroon), prime minister of Cameroon (2004-09).
Inönü, Erdal (b. June 7, 1926, Ankara, Turkey - d. Oct. 31, 2007, Houston, Texas), acting prime minister (1993) and foreign minister (1995) of Turkey; son of Ismet Inönü. He was also deputy prime minister (1991-93) and leader of the Social Democracy Party (1983, 1983-85) and the Social Democratic Populist Party (1986-93).
Inönü, (Mustafa) Ismet, before 1935 (Mustafa) Ismet Pasha (b. Sept. 24, 1884, Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now Izmir, Turkey] - d. Dec. 25, 1973, Ankara, Turkey), prime minister (1923-24, 1925-37, 1961-65) and president (1938-50) of Turkey. In 1916, during World War I, he commanded the 4th Army in Syria. At the time of the Ottoman surrender (Oct. 30, 1918), he was the undersecretary of war in Constantinople. Later he joined Mustafa Kemal's movement to resist the Allied occupation of Anatolia. In 1920 he was elected to the last Ottoman parliament as deputy for Edirne. After the Greek occupation of western Anatolia, he was appointed chief of the general staff of the nationalist army and repelled the invaders in the two battles of Inönü (near Ankara) in January and April 1921. From those engagements he later took his surname. Appointed foreign minister in the government of the Grand National Assembly in Ankara in 1922, he succeeded, with the support of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), in gaining most of the Turkish demands in the Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923). When the republic was proclaimed on Oct. 29, 1923, he became prime minister. On Atatürk's death in 1938, he was elected president and became the permanent chairman of the Republican People's Party (RPP). In response to internal strains and to Western pressures for a democratic regime, he encouraged the formation of the Democrat Party (DP) in 1946, which defeated the RPP in 1950 elections. Inönü was replaced as president and led the opposition, assuming the role of defender of democracy. Following the 1960 military coup, which overthrew the DP government, he formed three coalition governments in 1961-65, but in the elections of 1965 and 1969 his party suffered overwhelming defeats. He was replaced in 1972 as RPP leader by Bülent Ecevit.
Inos, Eloy S(ongao) (b. Sept. 26, 1949 - d. Dec. 28, 2015, Seattle, Wash. [December 29, Northern Mariana Islands time]), governor of the Northern Mariana Islands (2013-15). He was lieutenant governor in 2009-13.
Insanally, Samuel R(udolph), byname Rudy Insanally (b. June 23, 1936, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana]), president of the UN General Assembly (1993-94) and foreign minister of Guyana (2001-08). He was also chargé d'affaires in Venezuela (1970), ambassador to Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (1972-78) and Belgium, Austria, Norway, and Sweden (1978-81), high commissioner to Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Eastern Caribbean and ambassador to Colombia (1982-86), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-2001).
Insfrán, Gildo (b. Jan. 19, 1951, Laguna Blanca, Formosa, Argentina), governor of Formosa (1995- ).
Inslee, Jay (Robert) (b. Feb. 9, 1951, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Washington (2013- ).
Insulza (Salinas), José Miguel (b. June 2, 1943, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister (1994-99) and interior minister (2000-05) of Chile and secretary-general of the Organization of American States (2005-15).
Intelmann, Tiina (b. Aug. 25, 1963, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), Estonian diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-10) and ambassador to Israel (2011) and Montenegro (non-resident, 2011).
Inukai, Tsuyoshi, also called Ki Inukai (b. May 5, 1855, Okayama, Japan - d. May 15, 1932, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister (1931-32), foreign minister (1931-32), and home affairs minister (1932) of Japan. Entering the Diet in 1890, he was briefly minister of education in 1898 and then founded a new political party, the Constitutional National Party (Rikken Kokuminto). In 1913 he headed a popular movement against the autocratic and unpopular government of the former army general Taro Katsura. As a result of Inukai's efforts, Katsura was forced to resign, opening the way for the gradual development of a cabinet selected by the majority party in the Diet (Japanese parliament). In 1922 Inukai organized another new party, the Reform Club (Kakushin Kurabu), and the following year he again joined the cabinet, this time as minister of communications. In 1924, however, he destroyed this coalition government when he left it to join the Friends of Constitutional Government (Rikken Seiyukai), the largest party in Japan; he served again as communications minister in 1924-25. In 1929 he became president of Rikken Seiyukai after the death of Giichi Tanaka. In 1931 Japanese troops occupied the Chinese provinces of Manchuria (Northeast Provinces), the first step in the process that led to the Pacific conflict of World War II. When the cabinet of Reijiro Wakatsuki fell, Inukai was able to organize a cabinet of his own, becoming prime minister in December 1931. His government immediately took the country off the gold standard and began efforts to reflate the economy. He was staunchly opposed to the continued attempts by the military to usurp the decision-making functions of the cabinet. He prepared to send a representative to negotiate with the Chinese and tried to halt any further military activities, but was fatally shot in the head as part of a coordinated terrorist outbreak by ultranationalist naval officers.
Inzko, Valentin (b. May 22, 1949, Klagenfurt, Austria), international high representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2009- ). He was Austrian ambassador to Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996-99) and Slovenia (2005-09).
Ioann, secular name Ilya Viktorovich Vitushkin (b. Aug. 2, 1926, Yelohino village, Yaroslavl oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), bishop of Kostroma and Yaroslavl, Locum Tenens of the Russian Orthodox Old Believers Church (2004, 2005).
Ioannes XXIII, Saint, English John XXIII, original name Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (b. Nov. 25, 1881, Sotto il Monte, Italy - d. June 3, 1963, Vatican City), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1958-63). In March 1925 he was appointed apostolic visitor to Bulgaria. In keeping with custom, he was made an archbishop before he left Rome. He spent the next 10 years in that obscure but delicate post, before he was appointed apostolic delegate to Greece, which was combined with naming him head of the Vatican diplomatic mission to Turkey. At the end of 1944, he was named papal nuncio to Charles de Gaulle's newly liberated France. In January 1953 he became a cardinal. As such, he immediately became eligible for one of the major Italian archbishoprics, and was appointed patriarch of Venice. After the death of Pius XII on Oct. 9, 1958, he was elected pope on the 12th ballot (October 28) - clearly a compromise candidate acceptable to all parties only because of his advanced years. He was crowned at St. Peter's on November 4. Soon after, he announced almost casually that he was summoning an ecumenical council - a general meeting of the bishops of the church - the first in almost a century. He said the idea came to him in a sudden inspiration. His purpose was to "bring the church up to date" (aggiornamento) and to work for its spiritual regeneration. He was the first pope since the Reformation who acknowledged frankly that Catholicism stood in need of reinvigoration and reform. Some of the Vatican cardinals did everything in their power to delay the council until the old man had passed from the scene and the project could be quietly dropped. But the pope pushed on with his plan and lived long enough to preside over the first session of the second Vatican Council in the fall of 1962. He was beatified in 2000 and canonized in 2014.
Ioannes Paulus I, English John Paul I, original name Albino Luciani (b. Oct. 17, 1912, Forno di Canale, Veneto, Italy - d. Sept. 28, 1978, Vatican City), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1978). He was ordained a priest in 1935. Appointed (1937) deputy director of the seminary in the Belluno diocese, he taught moral theology, canon law, and sacred art. In 1948 he was made vicar-general of his diocese, and in 1958 he was appointed bishop of Vittorio Veneto. Made patriarch of Venice in 1969, he became a cardinal in 1973. He was elected pope on Aug. 26, 1978, the first pope with a pastoral rather than a diplomatic or scholarly background since Pius X (reigned 1903-14). He was also the first pope to choose a double name and did so in commemoration of his two immediate predecessors, Ioannes XXIII and Paulus VI. He endeared himself to millions of people all over the world with his infectious smile, humble piety, and jovial extemporaneous conversations with his audiences. For his formal installation, he announced that he would not accept the traditional papal tiara nor be carried by papal throne-bearers to and from the ceremony. The sudden death of Ioannes Paulus I, who was discovered the morning after he died of an apparent heart attack while reading in bed, stunned the world. His 34-day pontificate was the shortest in modern times.
Ioannes Paulus I
Ioannes Paulus II, Saint, English John Paul II, original name Karol (Józef) Wojtyla (b. May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland - d. April 2, 2005, Vatican City), pope of the Roman Catholic Church (1978-2005). Ordained on Nov. 1, 1946, he was made auxiliary bishop (1958) and archbishop (1964) of Kraków and cardinal in 1967. He was present at all four sessions of the second Vatican Council (1962-65) and spoke lucidly on religious liberty and atheism. Subsequently, he attended all five Roman synods held between 1967 and 1977 and was elected to the council of the synod in 1971 - a good index of popularity. He was elected pope on Oct. 16, 1978, and invested on October 22, becoming the first non-Italian pope in 456 years and the first Polish pope in the Roman Catholic church's history. His fluency in a number of modern languages (Polish, Italian, English, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese) as well as in Latin qualified him uniquely as a roving international ambassador for the church. From the beginning of his reign he was an active pontiff, taking seriously his local duties as bishop of Rome in visiting parishes and institutions and at the same time undertaking extensive travels to Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States and Canada, Africa, various European countries, India, the Far East, and Australia. On May 13, 1981, he was shot and seriously wounded in St. Peter's Square by Mehmet Ali Agca, a Turkish national. Three Bulgarians suspected of conspiring with Agca and three other Turks in the assassination plot - attempted, it was believed, because of the pope's outspoken support of the Roman Catholic church and the Solidarity trade union in his native Poland - were later acquitted for lack of proof. On social questions, he was a conservative pope who firmly endorsed traditional Catholic views. He was beatified in 2011 and canonized in 2014.
Ioannes Paulus II
Ionatana, Ionatana (b. Nov. 15, 1938, Funafuti atoll [now in Tuvalu] - d. Dec. 8, 2000, Funafuti atoll), prime minister of Tuvalu (1999-2000). Ionatana entered public service in 1956. He became chief of police in 1976. In 1977, he was appointed as government secretary and became the top advisor to the cabinet. He was minister of works and communications (1989-93) and health, women's and community affairs, education, and culture (1996-99). He became prime minister in 1999 and was responsible for selling the country's ".tv" Internet suffix, which is generating millions of dollars in revenue for the country. He died in office.
Ionescu, Take (also spelled Tache), original name Dumitru (Ghita) Ioan (b. Oct. 25 [Oct. 13, O.S.], 1858, Ploiesti, Romania - d. June 22, 1922, Rome, Italy), foreign minister (1920-21) and prime minister (1921-22) of Romania. He was also minister of education and worship (1891-95, 1899-1900), finance (1900, 1905-07), and interior (1912-14).
Ionescu-Quintus, Mircea (b. March 18, 1917, Kherson, Russia [now in Ukraine]), Romanian politician. He was justice minister (1991-92) and president of the Senate (2000).
Ionita, Ion (b. June 14, 1924, Matasaru, Romania - d. July 27, 1987, Bucharest, Romania), defense minister of Romania (1966-76). He was also a deputy premier (1976-82).
Iordan, Andrey (Andreyevich) (b. Dec. 22, 1934, Saratov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Jan. 20, 2006, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan), acting prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1991-92). He was minister of automobile transport and highways (1987-88), trade (1992-96), material resources (1992-94), and industry (1993-96) and deputy prime minister (1989-91, 1993-94).
Iorga, Nicolae (b. June 5, 1871, Botosani, Romania - d. [assassinated] Nov. 27, 1940, near Strejnic, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1931-32). He was also minister of education and worship (1931-32) and interior (1931) and president of the Senate (1939).
Iorio, (Angelo) Michele (b. Jan. 17, 1948, Morrone del Sannio), president of Molise (1998-99, 2001-13).
Iorio, Pam (b. April 27, 1959, Waterville, Maine), mayor of Tampa (2003-11).
Ioseliani, Jaba (Aleksandres dze), Jaba also spelled Djaba or Dzhaba (b. July 10, 1926, Khashuri, Georgian S.S.R. - d. March 4, 2003, Tbilisi, Georgia), co-leader of the Military Council of Georgia (1992). He played a key role in Georgia's post-Soviet history. The leader of the Mkhedrioni (Horsemen) paramilitary force, he fought against separatists in the South Ossetia and Abkhazia regions of Georgia in the early 1990s. He was one of the initiators of the 1991-92 insurgency against the first president of independent Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, and then was instrumental in bringing Eduard Shevardnadze to office. By the mid-1990s, he was considered the second most powerful man in the Caucasus nation after Shevardnadze. Relations between the two men were tense, however. In early 1995, Shevardnadze ordered the Mkhedrioni disbanded, accusing the group of broad involvement in crime. Later in 1995, Ioseliani, who was also a member of parliament, was arrested for allegedly organizing a car bomb attack against Shevardnadze in August that year. He was charged with treason and plotting the killings of several Georgian political leaders, and sentenced in 1998 to 11 years in prison. Ioseliani's criminal career went back to Soviet times, when he served time in prison for assault and robbery. In all, he spent more than 20 years behind bars. He was equally comfortable in battle fatigues and formal wear, sometimes making public appearances in a white suit and white bow tie, an outfit he topped off with a white cane. He was known as a philologist and writer as well as a gifted politician - and shortly before his death he announced his intention of making a comeback in the fall 2003 parliamentary elections.
Iotti, Nilde, byname of Leonilde Iotti (b. April 10, 1920, Reggio Emilia - d. Dec. 3, 1999, Rome), Italian politician. She was one of the most prominent figures in Italian Communism. A long-time companion of postwar Communist leader Palmiro Togliatti and the first woman in Italy to hold a top institutional post, she was first elected deputy in the Constitutional Assembly in 1946. She was president of the Chamber of Deputies from 1979 to 1992.
Ipatas, Peter (b. 1958), governor of Enga (1997- ). He was also Papua New Guinean minister of mining (2001).
Ipatov, Pavel (Leonidovich) (b. April 12, 1950), governor of Saratov oblast (2005-12).
Ipoto Eyebu Bakand'Asi, (Martin) (b. Aug. 8, 1933, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)]), foreign minister of Zaire (1991). He was also ambassador to Algeria (1967-69), India (1970), Ethiopia (1970-72), West Germany (c. 1976), Zimbabwe (1980-88), and Poland (1988-91) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-73).
Iqbal, Rao Sikandar (b. 1943, Okara, Pakistan - d. Sept. 29, 2010, Okara), defense minister of Pakistan (2002-07).
Iraizos, Francisco (b. 1857, La Paz, Bolivia - d. 1930), foreign minister of Bolivia (1921, 1929). He was also minister of interior and justice (1923-25, 1928-29).
Irarrázaval (Larraín), Manuel José (b. Nov. 7, 1834, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 14, 1896, New York City), interior minister of Chile (1891).
Irgens, Kjeld (Stub) (b. May 23, 1879, Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder county, Norway - d. 1963), Norwegian politician. A professional officer in the merchant navy, he was one of the acting councillors of state (kommisariske statsråder) appointed Sept. 25, 1940, under the German occupation (their style was changed to minister on Sept. 25, 1941). Irgens was in charge of naval affairs, and continued as a member of the Council of Ministers in the Vidkun Quisling government from Feb. 1, 1942, to June 12, 1944. He received a penalty of 15 years hard labour during the postwar treason trials.
Iribarne, Alberto (Juan Bautista) (b. Aug. 2, 1950), justice minister of Argentina (2005-07).
Iribarren Borges, Ignacio (b. 1913, Caracas, Venezuela - d. June 16, 1988, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1964-69). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1959-64) and the United States (1976-79).
Iribarren Cabezas, Juan Antonio (b. May 7, 1885, Vicuña, Chile - d. 1966), interior minister (1946) and acting president (1946) of Chile. He was also education minister (1940-41, 1945-46).
Irigoyen (Bustamante), Bernardo de (b. Dec. 18, 1822, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Dec. 27, 1906, Buenos Aires), foreign minister (1875-77, 1880-82) and interior minister (1877-78) of Argentina and governor of Buenos Aires (1898-1902).
Irigoyen (Alem), (Juan) Hipólito (del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús), also spelled Yrigoyen1 (b. July 12, 1852, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. July 3, 1933, Buenos Aires), president of Argentina (1916-22, 1928-30). The nephew of Radical Party leader Leandro Alem, he was elected to the Buenos Aires provincial legislature in 1878 and to the national Chamber of Deputies in 1881. In 1893 the Radicals, led by Alem, with Irigoyen as his lieutenant, made an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the provincial government. After Alem's death in 1896 Irigoyen took control of the Radical Party. His relentless effort to obtain free elections succeeded in winning from the conservative oligarchy the Sáenz Peña Law (1912). Under this provision for the secret ballot he was elected president in 1916. During his six-year term he and his Radical followers in Congress maintained Argentina's neutrality in World War I. Measures regulating labour conditions were also passed, but these were not strongly enforced, and in 1919 a serious strike, in part politically inspired, was violently broken by the government. He was overwhelmingly reelected in 1928, despite the opposition of his former close associate, Marcelo T. de Alvear, who had served as president in 1922-28. But the increasingly senile Irigoyen lost his grip on affairs, and corruption and stagnation within his administration cost him much support, which went over to the opposition formed by his long-time conservative enemies. The business depression that began in 1929 further weakened his position, and a relatively bloodless conservative military coup in 1930 ended his career. For the last three years of his life he remained virtually a political prisoner.
1 From about 1918 he wrote his name with a Y possibly to distinguish himself from Bernardo de Irigoyen (no relation). His metronym was originally Alén, but his uncle Leandro Alén changed that name to Alem to separate himself from his father who was executed in 1853.
Irigoyen (Arias Larrea), Manuel (b. March 31, 1830, Lima, Peru - d. June 5, 1912, Chorrillos, Peru), foreign minister (1878-79, 1879, 1889-90, 1894-95) and prime minister (1878-79, 1890, 1894-95) of Peru. He was also chargé d'affaires in Prussia and Belgium (1861-66), minister to Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay (1873-78), finance and commerce minister (1886-87), and president of the Senate (1905-06).
Irinaios I, original name Emmanouil Skopelitis (b. April 1939, Chora, Samos island, Greece), patriarch of Jerusalem (2001-05). Top clergy voted to dismiss him over his involvement in the sale of church real estate in the Old City of Jerusalem to Jewish investors which provoked the anger of the Palestinians.
Irinej, original name Miroslav Gavrilovic (b. Aug. 28, 1930, Vidova village, near Cacak, Serbia), patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church (2010- ). He was bishop of Moravica (1974-75) and Nis (1975-2010).
Irmak, (Mahmut) Sadi (b. May 15, 1904, Seydisehir, Turkey - d. Nov. 11, 1990, Istanbul, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1974-75). He was speaker of the Consultative Assembly in 1981-83.
Irniq, Peter (Taqtu) (b. 1947, near Repulse Bay, Northwest Territories [now in Nunavut], Canada), commissioner of Nunavut (2000-05). He began his career in public affairs as an executive assistant to Northwest Territories Commissioner Stuart Hodgson in 1974-75. He represented the Keewatin region in the N.W.T. territorial council from 1975 to 1979. After that, Irniq worked as assistant regional director in the Department of the Executive within the Keewatin region, and as regional superintendent of renewable resources. In 1983, Irniq was elected president of the Keewatin Inuit Association, holding that post until 1987, when he was elected as member of the N.W.T. Legislative Assembly for the Aivilik constituency. Later, Irniq served on the Nunavut Implementation Commission, and was active in seeking justice for the former students of the infamous Joseph Bernier residential school in Chesterfield Inlet, who suffered physical and sexual abuse at the hands of school staff. Irniq was appointed deputy minister of Nunavut's Department of Culture, Language, Elders and Youth in April 1999. He was moved out of that job in summer 1999, and since then worked as an advisor at the Legislative Assembly before becoming commissioner.
Irving, (Edward) Clifford (b. May 24, 1914 - d. July 13, 2004, Douglas, Isle of Man), chairman of the Executive Council of the Isle of Man (1977-81). He became famous as a member of the Tourist Board in the 1960s, offering a £10,000 reward to anyone who found a mermaid in Manx waters. He chaired the board for 10 years from 1971 to 1981. He represented North Douglas, West Douglas, and East Douglas as a member of the House of Keys from 1955 to 1986, with only a three-year gap, and was a member of the Legislative Council from 1987 to 1995.
Irwin, John N(ichol) (b. Dec. 25, 1844, Butler county, Ohio - d. Dec. 22, 1905, Hot Springs, Ark.), governor of Idaho (1883) and Arizona (1890-92). He was also U.S. minister to Portugal (1899-1900).
Iryani, Abdul Karim (Ali) al-, Arabic `Abd al-Karim (`Ali) al-Iryani (b. Oct. 12, 1934, Iryan village, Ibb governorate, Yemen - d. Nov. 8, 2015, Frankfurt, Germany), prime minister of Yemen (1998-2001); nephew of Abdul Rahman al-Iryani. He was minister of development (1974-77), education (1976-79), and agriculture (1979) and prime minister (1980-83) of Yemen (Sana). Before becoming deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs in 1984, he was in charge of the reconstruction of areas hit by an earthquake in the central highlands. After the unification of Yemen in 1990, Iryani was appointed minister of foreign affairs once again. In June 1993 he became minister of planning and development. In October 1994, he was reappointed deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs. A member of Pres. Ali Abdullah Saleh's ruling General People's Congress, Iryani replaced Faraj Said Bin Ghanem as prime minister, who resigned on April 29, 1998, after less than a year in office. Officials said Bin Ghanem, an independent, quit in a row over a cabinet reshuffle he suggested to push forward the implementation of administrative and economic reforms.
Iryani, Abdul Rahman (Yahya) al-, Arabic `Abd al-Rahman (Yahya) al-Iryani (b. 1908?, Iryan village, Ibb governorate, Yemen - d. March 14, 1998, Damascus, Syria), president of Yemen (Sana) (1967-74). He gained widespread popularity and respect as one of the leaders of the al-Ahrar opposition group, which opposed Yemen's autocratic Mutawakkilite kings. He was sentenced to death by beheading in 1955 for his activities with al-Ahrar, Arabic for "the free." Minutes before his execution by sword, he was saved in a dramatic reprieve by King Ahmad. Iryani spent more than 15 years in prison during the rule of the Mutawakkilite, which ended in 1962. He served as minister of religious endowments and was the only civilian to have led Yemen (Sana). Since 1974 he lived in Damascus. In 1980, he returned to Yemen by invitation of Pres. Ali Abdullah Saleh, but chose to go back to Syria.
Isa, Ramez J(orge), byname Ronchi Isa (b. Oct. 17, 1917, Curaçao - d. March 17, 2005, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1971, 1972-73).
`Isa ibn Sulman Al Khalifah, Sheikh (b. June 3, 1933, Al Jasra village, Bahrain - d. March 6, 1999, Manama, Bahrain), ruler of Bahrain (1961-99). He came to the throne in 1961 on the death of his father, Sheikh Sulman ibn Hamad Al Khalifah, after having been named crown prince in 1958. Bahrain had been a British protectorate since the mid-19th century. But with the gradual eclipse of the British presence east of Suez in the 1960s, a federation was proposed to include Bahrain, Qatar, and the seven Trucial States further down the Gulf - now the United Arab Emirates. Sheikh `Isa, however, was dissatisfied with elements of the proposed constitution and decided to seek full independence. He adopted the title of emir on independence in 1971 and in 1973 established an elected parliament modelled on those of Lebanon and Kuwait. The assembly was dominated by leftists opposed to the ruling family's autocratic-style rule. Dissatisfaction with the assembly's workings and domestic political unrest led to its dissolution in 1975. Sheikh `Isa and his government decided the island's future prosperity could only be assured by transforming the economy. Long an established trading centre, Bahrain encouraged the development of a substantial banking industry. Its economic diversification helped it weather volatile oil prices better than some of its Gulf neighbours. In a newspaper interview in December 1986, Sheikh `Isa said he believed his biggest achievement as ruler had been the construction of a 25-km causeway linking Bahrain to Saudi Arabia by road for the first time. It was opened in November 1986. In December 1994, anti-government protests erupted after the arrest of a Shi`ite cleric for distributing leaflets signed by around 20,000 people demanding restoration of parliament.
Isaac, Mark (b. April 25, 1951), foreign minister of Grenada (1998-99, 1999-2000). He was previously minister of health, housing, and environment (1995-96), agriculture, forestry, lands, and fisheries (1996-98), and health and environment (1998).
Isaac, Pierre (Jean Marc) (b. Nov. 19, 1927, Toulouse, France - d. Sept. 9, 2012, Bordeaux, France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (1979-80).
Isaacs, Sir Isaac (Alfred) (b. Aug. 6, 1855, Melbourne, Victoria - d. Feb. 11, 1948, Melbourne), governor-general of Australia (1931-36); knighted 1928. He was also attorney general (1905-06) and chief justice (1930-31).
Isabekov, Azim (Beyshenbayevich) (b. April 4, 1960, Arashan village, Alamedin district, Chu oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (2007). He was minister of agriculture in 2006-07.
Isabella, Gilbert (P.) (b. 1961, Willemstad, Curaçao), representative of the national government for the Caribbean Netherlands (2014- ).
Isai, Hekuran (b. May 7, 1933, Peqin, Elbasan district, Albania - d. March 26, 2008), interior minister of Albania (1982-89, 1990-91). He was also a deputy premier (1987-89, 1990-91).
Isaias Afewerki: see Afewerki, Isaias.
Isaksson, Martin (b. 1921, Hammarland, Åland Islands, Finland - d. December 2001), lantråd of the Åland Islands (1967-72).
Isanov, Nasirdin (b. Nov. 7, 1943, Kok-Bel settlement, Kirgiz S.S.R. - d. [car crash] Nov. 29, 1991, en route from Osh to Jalal-Abad, Kyrgyzstan), vice president (1990-91) and prime minister (1991) of Kyrgyzstan. He was also minister of construction (1983-86).
Isaq, Abdallah Derow, Somali Cabdalla Deerow Isaaq (b. 1950, Elgaras, Tayeglow district, Bakool region, Somalia - d. [assassinated] July 28, 2006, Baidoa, Somalia), acting president of Somalia (2000). He was speaker of the Transitional National Assembly from Aug. 22, 2000, to Dec. 3, 2003. In 2004 he became minister of federal and constitutional affairs.
Isarescu, Mugur, byname of Constantin Mugurel Isarescu (b. Aug. 1, 1949, Dragasani, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1999-2000). He has been governor of the National Bank (1990-99, 2000- ) and was a presidential candidate in 2000.
Isayev, Eli (Abubakarovich) (b. Dec. 31, 1964), acting prime minister of Chechnya (2003-04).
Isekeshev, Aset (Orentayevich) (b. Aug. 17, 1971, Karaganda, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Astana city (2016- ). He was also Kazakh minister of industry and trade (2009-10), industry and new technologies (2010-14), and investment and development (2014-16) and a deputy premier (2010-14).
Isenschmid, Josef (b. June 21, 1908 - d. Sept. 17, 2009), Schultheiss of Luzern (1960, 1967).
Ishak, Awang Faroek (b. July 31, 1948, Tenggarong [now in Kalimantan Timur], Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Timur (2008- ).
Ishayev, Viktor (Ivanovich) (b. April 16, 1948), head of the administration of Khabarovsk kray (1991-2009) and plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2009-13). He was also minister of development of the Far East (2012-13).
Ishibashi, Tanzan (b. Sept. 25, 1884, Tokyo, Japan - d. April 25, 1973, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1956-57). He served as an adviser to various government economic organs and in 1946 became finance minister in Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida's first cabinet. His responsibilities brought him into headlong opposition with the occupation authorities, whose economic policies he disapproved, and he was purged from office in 1947. In 1952 he was "depurged" and returned to the Liberal Party sticking to Ichiro Hatoyama in the party troubles which followed. He became international trade and industry minister in Hatoyama's cabinet in 1956 and won a narrow party election victory to become president of the majority Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) and prime minister in December of that year. He advocated "independent diplomacy" for Japan and sought trade relations with the People's Republic of China. At home he tried to stimulate production to achieve full employment in a welfare-state structure. But his cabinet proved unstable amid intraparty factional dissensions, and serious illness caused him to resign in favour of his former rival Nobusuke Kishi in February 1957. Despite ill health, he became president of the Japan-Soviet Friendship Association (1960) and the International Trade Promotion Association of Japan. He toured Russia and Europe (1964) to promote trade. In 1959 he visited China and returned there in 1963 as chairman of a Japanese trade fair. He advocated a multilateral peace treaty among Japan, the United States, China, and the Soviet Union, but his increasingly progressive policies had made him unpopular with the LDP, and he was defeated in an election bid for the House of Representatives (1963).
Ishihara, Shintaro (b. Sept. 30, 1932, Kobe, Japan), Japanese politician. He won a seat as a member of the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) in the upper house of the Japanese legislature in 1968. He moved to the lower house in 1972. Although he lost the 1975 Tokyo gubernatorial election, he served as director-general of the Environment Agency in 1976 and as minister of transport in 1987-88. He attracted international attention in 1989 when he co-wrote a nationalist essay, "The Japan That Can Say No," with Sony chairman Akio Morita, arguing that Japan should wean itself from its reliance on the U.S. and that Americans were guilty of anti-Japanese racism. In 1995 he resigned from the LDP to protest the established political system. On March 10, 1999, he announced that he would run for governor of Tokyo again. His opponents included the LDP candidate, former UN undersecretary general Yasushi Akashi, and former foreign minister Koji Kakizawa, who was expelled from the LDP for running against the party's wishes. He was the front-runner from the start and easily won the April 11 election. Although some commentators feared his win signaled widespread endorsement of his hawkish nationalism, others credited his victory to his name recognition as a popular novelist, a growing dissatisfaction with the LDP, and the public's desire for a strong leader unafraid to speak his mind. During the campaign, he promised to call for the return of the U.S. Yokota Air Force Base to Tokyo, a sensitive issue in Japanese-U.S. relations, but after the election he backed away from this promise, instead choosing to focus on Japan's relationship with China. His greatest challenge as governor was expected to be his handling of the city's economic problems, particularly its massive debt. He resigned in 2012 to form a new party.
Ishii, Kikujiro, in full Shishaku (Viscount) Kikujiro Ishii (b. March 10, 1866, Chiba, Japan - d. May 25, 1945, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1915-16). He was also ambassador to France (1912-15, 1920-27) and the United States (1918-19). He became baron in 1911 and viscount in 1916.
Ishii, Masahiro (b. Nov. 29, 1945), governor of Okayama (1996-2012).
Ishii, Takakazu (b. Dec. 15, 1945), governor of Toyama (2004- ).
Ishikawa, Yoshinobu (b. Nov. 24, 1940), governor of Shizuoka (1993-2009).
Ishola, Kolapo (Olawuyi) (b. June 6, 1934, Pade village, near Ikereku [now in Oyo state], Nigeria - d. Aug. 9, 2011, Ibadan, Nigeria), governor of Oyo (1992-93).
Isik, Hasan Esat (b. Oct. 21, 1916, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. July 2, 1989, Ankara, Turkey), foreign minister (1965) and defense minister (1974, 1977, 1978-79) of Turkey. He was also ambassador to Belgium (1962-64), the Soviet Union (1964-65, 1966-68), and France (1968-73).
Iskakov, Bolat (Gazizovich) (b. Feb. 9, 1947, Ushtobe, Taldy-Kurgan oblast [now in Almaty oblast], Kazakh S.S.R.), interior minister of Kazakhstan (2000-02). He was also ambassador to Belarus (2006-08).
Iskaliyev, Nazhameden (Ikhsanovich) (b. Sept. 5, 1941, Krasnoyarsk rayon, Astrakhan oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (1992-93) and Kokshetau oblast (1993). He was also Kazakh ambassador to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (1994-97) and Ukraine and Moldova (1997-99).
Iskandarov, Akbarsho (Iskandarovich), Akbarsho also spelled Akbarshah (b. Aug. 1, 1951, Darvoz district, southeastern Tadzhik S.S.R.), chairman of the Provincial Council (1990-92) and of the Supreme Council (1992-93) of Gorno-Badakhshan and acting president of Tajikistan (1991, 1992). He was ambassador to Turkmenistan (1993-2000) and Kazakhstan (2000-07).
Iskenderov, Mamed (Abdul ogly) (b. Dec. 17 [Dec. 4, O.S.], 1915, Eyvazlar, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. May 28, 1985, Baku, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1959-61) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1961-69) of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. He was also first secretary of the party committee of Baku city (1953-54).
Iskhakov, Kamil (Shamilyevich) (b. Feb. 8, 1949), plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2005-07). In 1989-2005 he was mayor of Kazan.
Islam, Syed Nazrul (b. 1925, Jamodal Dampara, Mymensingh district, Bengal, India [now in Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh] - d. [killed] Nov. 3, 1975, Dacca [now Dhaka], Bangladesh), acting president of Bangladesh (1971-72).
Islami, Kastriot (Selman) (b. Aug. 18, 1952, Tiranë, Albania), Albanian politician. He was education minister (1991), chairman of the People's Assembly (1991-92), acting president (1992), deputy prime minister (1998), finance minister (2002-03), and foreign minister (2003-05).
Ismail, (Muhammad) (b. Dec. 31, 1927, Maos, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Feb. 23, 2008, Semarang, Jawa Tengah), governor of Jawa Tengah (1982-92).
Ismail (al-Jawfi), Abdul Fattah, Arabic `Abd al-Fattah Isma`il al-Jawfi (b. July 28, 1939, al-Hujariyah district, Yemen - d. Jan. 13, 1986, Aden, Yemen [Aden]), president of Yemen (Aden) (1978-80). He was killed in the fighting between rival factions in the government in January 1986, in which his faction was ultimately victorious over that of Pres. Ali Nasir Muhammad. His death was only announced by the new government on February 10.
Ismail, Abdul Malek (b. Nov. 26, 1936, Aden [now in Yemen]), Yemen (Aden) politician. He was minister of labour and social welfare (1967-68) and economy, commerce, and planning (1968-70), permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-73), and ambassador to Egypt (1973-75) and Sudan (1975).
Ismail, Amri Sued (b. 1942, Kigombe municipality, Ruhengeri prefecture, Rwanda), foreign minister of Rwanda (1999).
Ismail, Edna Adan, Somali Adna Aadan Ismaaciil (b. Sept. 8, 1937, Hargeysa, British Somaliland), foreign minister of Somaliland (2003-06); widow of Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal.
Ismail (al-Amin), Mustafa Osman, Arabic Mustafa `Uthman Isma`il (b. 1955, Romi al-Bakri, near Dongola, Sudan), foreign minister of The Sudan (1998-2005). He was also minister of investment (2012-14).
Ismail, Sherif (b. July 6, 1955), prime minister of Egypt (2015- ). He was also minister of petroleum and mineral resources (2013-15).
Ismail bin Dato' Abdul Rahman, Tun (b. Nov. 4, 1915, Johore Bahru, Malaya [now in Malaysia] - d. Aug. 2, 1973), foreign minister (1959-60), home affairs minister (1960-67, 1969-73), and deputy prime minister (1970-73) of Malaya/Malaysia. He was also ambassador to the United States and permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-59). He was given the title Tun in 1966.
Ismail bin D.A.R.
Ismail Nasiruddin Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin (Muadzam Shah), Tuanku (b. Jan. 24, 1907, Kuala Terengganu - d. Sept. 20, 1979, Kuala Terengganu), sultan of Terengganu (1945-79) and paramount ruler of Malaysia (1965-70).
Ismail Pasha, Arabic Isma`il Basha (b. Dec. 31, 1830, Cairo, Egypt - d. March 2, 1895, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), khedive of Egypt (1867-79). He undertook various diplomatic missions in Europe before becoming governor in 1863. In 1867 he obtained from the Ottoman sultan the hereditary title of khedive. As viceroy he conducted important negotiations regarding completion of the Suez Canal. The canal neared completion in the summer of 1869, and he turned the celebration of the canal's opening in November into a magnificent display of khedival splendour. One of the most significant of his innovations was the establishment of an assembly of delegates in November 1866. Although this body served only in an advisory capacity, its members eventually came to have an important influence on the course of governmental affairs. Ismail, hoping to bring the vast areas of the Sudan under effective Egyptian control, hired Europeans and Americans to direct the military and administrative aspects of this venture, feeling that they would be more immune to the intrigues to which his own officials would have been subjected. Although some progress was made, he did not realize his goal of creating a new southern province but did assert what later became an important element in nationalist thought - the political unity of the Nile valley. His administrative policies consumed an enormous amount of money, much of it supplied by European financiers. When he assumed power, the Egyptian national debt stood at £7,000,000; by 1876 this debt had increased to almost £100,000,000. The Commission of the Public Debt was set up at the urging of his foreign creditors, but he did not cooperate fully because some of the measures he was required to take would have infringed on his domestic authority. The Ottoman sultan dismissed him in June 1879.
Ismay (of Wormington), Hastings (Lionel) Ismay, (1st) Baron (b. June 21, 1887, Naini Tal, North-Western Provinces [now Nainital, Uttarakhand], India - d. Dec. 17, 1965, Broadway, Worcestershire, England), secretary-general of NATO (1952-57).
Isnard, (Honoré) Maximin (or Henri Maximin Isnard) (b. Feb. 24, 1758 [or Nov. 16, 1755], Grasse [now in Alpes-Maritimes département], France - d. March 12, 1825, Grasse), president of the National Convention of France (1793).
Isogai, Rensuke (b. 1886 - d. June 6, 1967, Ichinomiya, Japan), Japanese governor of Hong Kong (1942-44).
Isong, Clement (Nyong) (b. April 20, 1920, Eket [now in Akwa Ibom state], Nigeria - d. May 29, 2000), governor of Cross River (1979-83). He was governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria in 1967-75.
Issa (Gwaider al-Ghaiti al-Abaidy), Akila Saleh, also spelled Aguila, Ageela, Eissa, Iissa, etc., Arabic `Aqila Salih `Isa (Quwaydar al-Ghayti al-`Abaydi) (b. 1944, Gubba, eastern Libya), president of the House of Representatives of Libya (2014- ).
Issoufou, Mahamadou (b. 1952, Dandaji, Niger), prime minister (1993-94) and president (2011- ) of Niger. He was also president of the National Assembly (1995-96). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2004.
Issoze-Ngondet, (Franck) Emmanuel (b. April 2, 1961, Makokou, Gabon), budget minister (2011-12), foreign minister (2012-16), and prime minister (2016- ) of Gabon. He was also ambassador to South Korea (2000-06), Thailand (2003-06), the Philippines (2004-06), Ethiopia (2006-08), and Kenya (2007-08) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-09, 2009-11).
Istúriz (Almeida), Aristóbulo (b. Dec. 20, 1946, Curiepe, Miranda, Venezuela), governor of Anzoátegui (2012-16) and executive vice president of Venezuela (2016- ). He was also mayor of Libertador (1993-96) and minister of education (2001-07).
Istúriz y Montero, Francisco Javier de (b. Oct. 31, 1785, Cádiz, Spain - d. April 2, 1871, Madrid, Spain), prime minister and foreign minister of Spain (1836, 1846-47, 1858). He was also president of the Cortes (1823), the Estamento de Procuradores (1835-36), the Congress of Deputies (1838-39, 1840), and the Senate (1858), interior minister (1846), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1847-48, 1850-54, 1858-62) and France (1863-64).
Itaboraí, Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres, visconde de (b. Dec. 13, 1802, São João de Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro province [now state], Brazil - d. Jan. 8, 1872, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), chairman of the Council of Ministers of Brazil (1852-53, 1868-70). He was also minister of navy (1831-32, 1832-34, 1837-39, 1840, 1843-44), finance (1832, 1848-53, 1868-70), and war (1839), president of Rio de Janeiro (1834-36), and president of the Bank of Brazil (1855-57, 1859). He was made viscount in 1854.
Italeli, Sir Iakoba Taeia, governor-general of Tuvalu (2010- ); knighted 2011. He was also minister of health and education (2006-10) and earlier was attorney-general.
Itamaracá, Antônio Peregrino Maciel Monteiro, barão de (b. April 30, 1804, Recife, Brazil - d. Jan. 5, 1868, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Brazil (1837-39). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1852-54).
Itapicuru-Mirim, José Félix Pereira (Pinto) de Burgos, barão de (b. 1780, Maranhão province [now state], Brazil - d. April 9, 1854, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Pará (1825-28, 1830-31) and war minister of Brazil (1835). He was made baron in 1829.
Ito, Hirobumi, original name Toshisuke (b. Oct. 14, 1841, Suo province [now Yamaguchi prefecture], Japan - d. Oct. 26, 1909, Harbin, Manchuria, China), prime minister (1885-88, 1892-96, 1898, 1900-01) and foreign minister (1887-88) of Japan. When Toshimichi Okubo, the most powerful man in the government, was assassinated in 1878, Ito succeeded him as minister of home affairs. His advancement brought him into conflict with the equally talented and ambitious statesman Shigenobu Okuma. In a series of masterful political strokes, Ito forced Okuma and his supporters out of the government in 1881 and persuaded the government to adopt a constitution; by 1889 the emperor proclaimed it and in 1890 the national Diet was established. In the mid-1890s, as prime minister, he helped Japan attain two important successes. The first was an agreement with Great Britain signed in 1894 for doing away with extraterritoriality by 1899. Under the agreement British nationals in Japan would thereafter be subject to Japanese law. This agreement was followed by others with other major Western nations. The second achievement was Japan's victory over China in 1895, and both achievements were among the first clear signs that Japan, alone among non-Western nations, had achieved success in modernization and a weightier role in East Asian affairs. In 1900 he formed the Rikken Seiyukai ("Friends of Constitutional Government"), which he based on an older anti-government party, the Kenseito ("Constitutional Association"). He resigned as its president in 1903. He became resident general in Korea in 1905. In 1909 he was shot in Harbin in North China by An Chung-gun, a member of the Korean independence movement. He held the titles of count (1884), marquess (1895), and duke (1907).
Ito, Masayoshi (b. Dec. 15, 1915, Fukushima ken - d. May 20, 1994), acting prime minister (1980) and foreign minister (1980-81) of Japan.
Ito, Yuichiro (b. Nov. 17, 1947), governor of Kagoshima (2004-16).
Itriago Chacín, Pedro (b. Sept. 9, 1875, Zaraza, Guárico state, Venezuela - d. May 19, 1936, Canary Islands, Spain), foreign minister (1921-36) and acting president (1931) of Venezuela.
Iturralde Ballivián, Carlos (b. April 25, 1941, La Paz, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1989-92). He was also ambassador to Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Australia (1977-78) and the United States (1978-79).
Iturre, César (Eusebio) (b. 1938 - d. April 22, 1997, Asunción, Paraguay), governor of Santiago del Estero (1987-91).
Iturria (Igarzábal), (Nepomuceno) Raúl (b. June 16, 1935, Durazno department, Uruguay), interior minister (1993-94) and defense minister (1995-98) of Uruguay.
Itzik, Dalia, née Ballas (b. Oct. 20, 1952, Jerusalem), speaker of the Knesset (2006-09), acting president (2007), and interim president (2007) of Israel. She was also minister of environment (1999-2001), industry and trade (2001-02), and communications (2005).
Ivanchov, Todor (b. 1858, Turnovo, Ottoman Empire [now Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria] - d. Jan. 3, 1906, Paris, France), prime minister (1899-1901), foreign minister (1899-1900), and finance minister (1900-01) of Bulgaria. He was also education minister (1886, 1886-87, 1899).
Ivanic, Mladen (b. Sept. 16, 1958, Sanski Most, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of the Republika Srpska (2001-03) and foreign minister (2003-07) and chairman of the Presidency (2014-15) of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In June 2008 he was sentenced to 18 months in prison for "negligent behaviour" during his term as Republika Srpska premier, in relation to a corruption scandal involving the biggest state-owned timber company; the ruling was appealed. In July he became chairman of the House of Peoples; he resigned in February 2009.
Ivanisevic, Katica (b. Jan. 11, 1935, Omisalj, Krk island, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), president of the House of Districts of Croatia (1994-2001).
Ivanishvili, Bidzina (Grigoryevich) (b. Feb. 18, 1956, Chorvila, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Georgia (2012-13).
Ivanov, Aleksandr (Stepanovich) (b. Nov. 7, 1957, Syatrakasy village, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting prime minister of Chuvashia (2011).
Ivanov, Boris (Petrovich) (b. July 7, 1941), chairman of the Executive Committee (1991) and head of the administration (1991-96) of Chita oblast.
Ivanov, Gjorge (b. May 2, 1960, Valandovo, Macedonia), president of Macedonia (2009- ).
Ivanov, Igor (Sergeyevich) (b. Sept. 23, 1945, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), foreign minister of Russia (1998-2004). A career diplomat, he was ambassador to Spain (1991-93), and had a long experience of working under Yevgeny Primakov. He was his first deputy at the foreign ministry and then became foreign minister himself when Primakov became prime minister. Unlike Primakov, an Arabic-speaking Middle East expert, Ivanov, who speaks Spanish and English, had stronger professional ties with Europe and had been involved in efforts to bring peace to former Yugoslavia. In 2004-07 he was secretary of the Security Council.
I. (S.) Ivanov
Ivanov, Igor (Vladimirovich) (b. Sept. 13, 1937), acting head of the republic of Karachayevo-Cherkessia (1999).
Ivanov, Sergey (Borisovich) (b. Jan. 31, 1953, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), defense minister of Russia (2001-07). A close confidant of Vladimir Putin, he was, like him, a former KGB intelligence officer from St. Petersburg. He was in charge of army reform, but was accused by critics of being ineffective in handling the enormous task. He was also secretary of the Security Council (1999-2001), a deputy prime minister (2005-07, 2008-11), first deputy prime minister (2007-08), and head of the Administration of the President (2011-16); in 2016 he was named special representative of the president for environmental conservation, ecology, and transport.
Ivanov, Vasily (Ivanovich) (b. 1905 - d. October 1989), Soviet politician. He was a deputy premier of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1953-55) and Soviet ambassador to North Korea (1955-57) and Albania (1957-60).
Ivanov, Vitaly (Innokentievich) (b. Nov. 10, 1946), acting governor of Irkutsk oblast (1997).
Ivanov, Vladimir (Ivanovich) (b. March 23 [March 11, O.S.], 1893, Tula, Russia - d. [executed] March 15, 1938), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1925-27). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Severny kray (1931-37) and Soviet people's commissar of forest industry (1936-37).
Ivanova, Lyudmila (Nikolayevna) (b. Sept. 1, 1956), prime minister of Kalmykia (2011-12).
Ivanovic, Bozina (b. Dec. 31, 1931, Podgorica, Banovina of Zeta, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. Oct. 10, 2002, Podgorica), president of the Presidency of Montenegro (1988-89).
Ivanusic, Zvonko (b. May 17, 1959), finance minister of Slovenia (2000).
Ivashko, Vladimir (Antonovich) (b. Oct. 28, 1932, Poltava, Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. Nov. 13, 1994), first secretary of the Communist Party (1989-90) and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1990) of the Ukrainian S.S.R. He was also first secretary of the party committee of Dnepropetrovsk oblast (1987-88) and deputy general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1990-91).
Ivlev, Igor (Aleksandrovich) (b. May 30, 1941), acting head of the administration of Ryazan oblast (1996-97).
Iweins d'Eeckhoutte, Maurice (Léon Marie Joseph Ghislain) (b. Dec. 20, 1904, Ieper, Belgium - d. Jan. 22, 1976, Uccle, Belgium), secretary-general of the Western European Union (1962-70). He was also Belgian ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1960-61).
Iyambo, Nickey (b. May 20, 1936, Onayena, Oshikoto region, South West Africa [now Namibia]), vice president of Namibia (2015- ). He was also minister of health and social services (1990-96), regional and local government and housing (1996-2002), mines and energy (2002-05), agriculture, water, and forestry (2005-08), safety and security (2008-10), and veterans affairs (2010-15).
Iyamuremye, Augustin (b. March 15, 1946), foreign minister of Rwanda (1999-2000). He was also minister of agriculture and livestock (1994-97), agriculture, environment, and rural development (1997-99), and information (1999-2000).
Iyasu V (b. Feb. 3, 1898, Tanta - d. Nov. 25, 1935, Gara Muleta), emperor of Ethiopia (1913-16). The form "Lij Iyasu," meaning "Prince Iyasu" (with an overtone of "Child Iyasu"), though proper before his succession, continued to be used with a derogatory meaning during his reign (he was never crowned).
Izetbegovic, Alija (b. Aug. 8, 1925, Bosanski Samac, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. Oct. 19, 2003, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1990-98, 2000). A Muslim Slav nationalist, he was imprisoned in 1946-48 and again in 1983-88 for "pan-Islamic" activities by the Communist government of Yugoslavia (of which Bosnia and Herzegovina was then a part). He founded the Muslim nationalist Party of Democratic Action (SDA) in 1990 and was elected president of the Bosnian republic the same year. After voters chose independence in late February 1992, he mobilized the republic's armed forces to repel attacks from ethnic Serb guerrillas and units of the Serb-dominated Yugoslav military. Wishing to preserve his nation as a unitary multiethnic state, in 1992 he asked for Western arms and military intervention to protect its newly achieved independence. When this aid was not forthcoming, he accepted the principle early in 1993 of dividing the nation into separate autonomous provinces in which Muslims, ethnic Serbs, and ethnic Croats would each rule. No agreement could be reached on boundaries, however, and hostilities continued. On March 18, 1994, agreement was reached between the Muslim-dominated government of Bosnia and its ethnic Croatian population to create a federation of the territories under the respective control of the two groups. He took part in the Dayton, Ohio, peace negotiations, signing the agreement there on Nov. 21, 1995, and the formal peace treaty designed to end the war in Bosnia on Dec. 14, 1995. In 1996 he ran for election to the three-member presidency established for Bosnia by the Dayton agreement. Gaining the largest number of votes, he became the first chairman of the presidency, serving until 1998. He was again chairman for a regular eight-month term in 2000 and then withdrew from the presidency.
Izetbegovic, Bakir (b. June 28, 1956, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2012, 2014, 2016- ); son of Alija Izetbegovic.
Izmukhambetov, Baktykozha (Salakhatdinovich) (b. Sept. 1, 1948, Guryev [now Atyrau] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (2007-12) and Atyrau oblast (2012-16). He was also minister of energy and mineral resources (2006-07).
Izquierdo Fredes, Luis (b. Aug. 13, 1864, San Fernando, Chile - d. Sept. 6, 1949, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister (1910, 1931), interior minister (1910, 1916, 1922), and finance minister (1931-32) of Chile. He was also minister to Argentina (1920-22).
Izumida, Hirohiko (b. Sept. 15, 1962), governor of Niigata (2004- ).
Izvolsky, Aleksandr (Petrovich) (b. March 18 [March 6, O.S.], 1856, Moscow, Russia - d. Aug. 16, 1919, Paris, France), foreign minister of Russia (1906-10). He was also minister resident to the Vatican (1894-97), minister to Serbia (1897), Bavaria (1897-99), Japan (1899-1902), and Denmark (1902-06), and ambassador to France (1910-17).