Rulers

Countries F

Contents of this page:
Faeroe Islands - Falkland Islands - Fiji - Finland - France - French Guiana - French Polynesia - French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Faeroe Islands

       1380                part of Denmark
       1655                Danish king gives the islands as a feudal estate to the
                           von Gabel family
       1709                Danish crown again takes possession
       1720                administered as part of Iceland
       1776                administered as part of Sjælland county
       1816                Faeroe Islands become separate county
       1940 -        1945  British occupation
 1 Apr 1948                self-government

Governor
       1671 - 21 Jun 1708  Frederik von Gabel                 (b. 16... - d. 1708)
       1709 -        1720  Committee
                           - Jørgen Kristian Klein (to 1715)
                           - Didrik Markussen (from 1715)
                           - Rasmus Juel
                           - Samuel Pedersen
Prefects of Sjælland
       1776 -        1787  Henrik Adam Brockenhuus            (b. 1720 - d. 1803)
       1787 -        1790  Gregers Kristian von Haxthausen    (b. 1732 - d. 1802)
       1790 -        1802  Johan Heinrich Knuth               (b. 1746 - d. 1802)
       1802 -        1810  Frederik Hauch                     (b. 1754 - d. 1839)
       1810 -        1816  Verner Jasper Andreas Moltke       (b. 1755 - d. 1835)
Prefects
       1816 -        1825  Emilius Marius Georgius Løbner     (b. 1766 - d. 1849)
       1825 -        1830  Ludvig Christian Tillisch          (b. 1797 - d. 1844)
       1830 -        1837  Frederik Ferdinand Tillisch        (b. 1801 - d. 1889)
       1837 -        1849  Christian Pløyen                   (b. 1803 - d. 1867)
       1849 -        1862  Carl Emil Dahlerup                 (b. 1813 - d. 1890)
       1862 -        1871  Peter Holten                       (b. 1816 - d. 1892)
       1871 -        1885  Hannes Christian Steingrim Finsen  (b. 1828 - d. 1892)
       1885 -        1897  Lorens Høyer Buchwaldt             (b. 1841 - d. 1933)
       1897 -        1911  Christian Bærentsen                (b. 1862 - d. 1944)
       1911 -        1918  Svenning Krag Nielsen Rytter       (b. 1875 - d. 1955)
       1918 -        1920  Victor Stahlschmidth               (b. 1884 - d. 1920)
       1920 -        1929  Elias Olrik                        (b. 1885 - d. 1975)
       1929 -        1936  Hjalmar Ringberg                   (b. 1889 - d. 1978)
       1936 -        1945  Carl Aage Hilbert                  (b. 1899 - d. 1953)
       1945 -        1948  Cai A. Vagn-Hansen                 (b. 1911 - d. 1990)
High commissioners
       1948 -        1954  Cai A. Vagn-Hansen                 (s.a.)
       1954 -        1961  Niels Elkær-Hansen                 (b. 1915 - d. 2007)
       1961 -        1972  Mogens Wahl                        (b. 1918 - d. 1986)
       1972 -        1981  Leif Groth                         (b. 1930 - d. 2009)
       1981 -        1988  Niels Bentsen                      (b. 1936)
       1988 -        1995  Bent Klinte                        (b. 1939)
       1995 -  1 Nov 2001  Vibeke Larsen (f)                  (b. 1944)
 1 Nov 2001 -  1 Aug 2005  Birgit Kleis (f)                   (b. 1956)
 1 Aug 2005 -  1 Jan 2008  Søren Christensen                  (b. 1940)
 1 Jan 2008 -              Dan M. Knudsen                     (b. 1962)

Løgmenn 1679 - 1706 Jóhan Hendrik Weyhe 1706 - 1755 Sámal Pætursson (b. ... - d. 1755) 1755 - 1769 Hanus Jákupsson Debes (b. 1723 - d. 1769) 1769 - 1772 Thorkild Fieldsted 1772 - 1786 Jacob Hveding 1786 - 1805 Johan Michael Lund (b. 1753 - d. 1824) 1805 - 1816 Jørgen Frants Hammershaimb (b. 1767 - d. 1820) Prime ministers 12 May 1948 - 15 Dec 1950 Andrass Samuelsen (b. 1873 - d. 1954) 15 Dec 1950 - 9 Jan 1959 Kristian Djurhuus (1st time) (b. 1895 - d. 1984) 9 Jan 1959 - 4 Jan 1963 Peter Mohr Dam (1st time) (b. 1898 - d. 1968) 4 Jan 1963 - 12 Jan 1967 Hákun Djurhuus (b. 1908 - d. 1987) 12 Jan 1967 - 19 Nov 1968 Peter Mohr Dam (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Nov 1968 - 12 Dec 1970 Kristian Djurhuus (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Dec 1970 - 5 Jan 1981 Atli P. Dam (1st time) (b. 1932 - d. 2005) 5 Jan 1981 - 10 Jan 1985 Pauli Ellefsen (b. 1936 - d. 2012) 10 Jan 1985 - 18 Jan 1989 Atli P. Dam (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Jan 1989 - 15 Jan 1991 Jógvan Sundstein (b. 1933) 15 Jan 1991 - 18 Jan 1993 Atli P. Dam (3rd time) (s.a.) 18 Jan 1993 - 15 Sep 1994 Marita Petersen (f) (b. 1940 - d. 2001) 15 Sep 1994 - 15 May 1998 Edmund Joensen (b. 1944) 15 May 1998 - 3 Feb 2004 Anfinn Kallsberg (b. 1947) 3 Feb 2004 - 26 Sep 2008 Jóannes Eidesgaard (b. 1951) 26 Sep 2008 - Kaj Leo Johannesen (b. 1964)

Falkland Islands

       1764                French settlement on East Falkland
       1766                British settlement on West Falkland
 1 Apr 1767                French transfer their settlement to Spain
       1774                British withdraw, but claim sovereignty over all Falklands
   Feb 1811                Spanish withdraw
       1820                Argentina claims sovereignty
       1826                Argentine settlement founded
 3 Jan 1833                British occupation
       1892                British colony
 2 Apr 1982 - 14 Jun 1982  Argentine occupation

Governors (to 1774 of East Falkland only)
 5 Apr 1764 -  1 Apr 1767  Louis Antoine de Bougainville      (b. 1729 - d. 1811)
 2 Apr 1767 - 23 Jan 1773  Felipe Ruíz Puente
23 Jan 1773 -  5 Jan 1774  Domingo Chauri (interim)           (b. 1722 - d. ...)
 5 Jan 1774 -  1 Feb 1777  Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos   (b. 1736 - d. 1809)
 1 Feb 1777 - 22 Nov 1779  Ramón de Carassa (interim)
22 Nov 1779 - 26 Feb 1781  Salvador de Medina
26 Feb 1781 -  1 Apr 1783  Jacinto de Altolaguirre            (b. 1754 - d. 1787)
 1 Apr 1783 - 28 Jun 1784  Fulgencio Montemayor
28 Jun 1784 - 15 May 1785  Agustín Figueroa
15 May 1785 - 25 May 1786  Ramón Clairac (1st time)
25 May 1786 - 15 May 1787  Pedro de Mesa y Castro (1st time)
15 May 1787 - 10 Apr 1788  Ramón Clairac (2nd time)
10 Apr 1788 - 16 May 1789  Pedro de Mesa y Castro (2nd time)
16 May 1789 - 30 Jun 1790  Ramón Clairac (3rd time)
30 Jun 1790 -  1 Mar 1791  Juan José de Elizalde (1st time)
 1 Mar 1791 -  1 Mar 1792  Pedro Pablo Sanguineto (1st time)
 1 Mar 1792 -  1 Feb 1793  Juan José de Elizalde (2nd time)
 1 Feb 1793 -    Apr 1794  Pedro Pablo Sanguineto (2nd time)
   Apr 1794 - 15 Jun 1795  José de Aldana y Ortega (1st time)
15 Jun 1795 - 15 Mar 1796  Pedro Pablo Sanguineto (3rd time)
15 Mar 1796 - 20 Feb 1797  José de Aldana y Ortega (2nd time)
20 Feb 1797 - 17 Mar 1798  Luis de Medina y Torres (1st time)
17 Mar 1798 -    Apr 1799  Francisco Xavier de Viana
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1764 - d. 1820)
   Apr 1799 - 15 Mar 1800  Luis de Medina y Torres (2nd time)
15 Mar 1800 - 31 Mar 1801  Francisco Xavier de Viana
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
31 Mar 1801 - 17 Mar 1802  Ramón Fernández de Villegas
17 Mar 1802 -    Feb 1803  Bernardo Bonavía (1st time)
   Feb 1803 - 21 Mar 1804  Antonio Leal de Ibarra (1st time)
21 Mar 1804 - 21 Mar 1805  Bernardo Bonavía (2nd time)
21 Mar 1805 - 20 Mar 1806  Antonio Leal de Ibarra (2nd time)
20 Mar 1806 -    Aug 1808  Bernardo Bonavía (3rd time)
   Aug 1808 -    Jan 1810  Gerardo Bordas
   Jan 1810 - 13 Feb 1811  Pablo Guillén
Argentine representatives
 6 Nov 1820 -    Apr 1821  David Jewett
   May 1821 -    Jun 1821  Guillermo Mason
 2 Feb 1824 -    Aug 1824  Pablo Areguati
Governors
30 Aug 1829 - 10 Sep 1832  Luis Vernet                        (b. 1791 - d. 1871)
   Nov 1832 - 30 Nov 1832  Juan Esteban Francisco Mestivier   (b. ... - d. 1832)
       1832 -  3 Jan 1833  José María Pinedo                  (b. 1795 - d. 1885)
Naval officers-in-charge
 3 Jan 1833 -        1838  Henry Smith
       1838 -        1839  Robert Lowcay
       1839 -        1841  John Tyssen
Governors
       1841 -        1848  Richard Clement Moody              (b. 1813 - d. 1887)
                           (lieutenant governor to 1843)
       1848 -        1855  George Rennie                      (b. 1802 - d. 1860)
       1855 -        1862  Thomas Edward Laws Moore           (b. 1819 - d. 1872)
       1862 -        1866  James George Mackenzie
       1866 -        1870  William Cleaver Francis Robinson   (b. 1834 - d. 1897)
       1870 -        1876  George Abbas Kooli D'Arcy          (b. 1818? - d. 1885)
       1876 -        1880  Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerald
                           Callaghan                          (b. c.1830 - d. 1881)
 6 Apr 1880 - 24 Jun 1880  Robert C. Packe (acting)
       1880 -        1891  Thomas Kerr                        (b. 1818 - d. 1907)
28 Mar 1891 - 13 Apr 1891  Frederick Shedden Sanguinetti      (b. 1847 - d. 1906)
                           (acting)
       1891 -        1897  Sir Roger Tuckfield Goldsworthy    (b. 1839 - d. 1900)
17 Apr 1897 - 20 Oct 1897  Fred Craigie Halkett (acting)      (b. 1852 - d. 1899)
       1897 -        1904  William Grey-Wilson                (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
22 Jun 1904 -  1 Sep 1904  William Hart Bennett (acting)      (b. 1861 - d. 1918)
       1904 -        1915  William Lamond Allardyce           (b. 1861 - d. 1930)
 2 Apr 1915 - 15 May 1915  C.F. Condell (acting)              (b. 1865 - d. 1922)
       1915 -        1920  William Douglas Young (from 1919,
                           Sir William Douglas Young)         (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
       1920 -        1927  John Middleton (from 1924,
                           Sir John Middleton)                (b. 1870 - d. 1954)
       1927 -        1931  Arnold Wienholt Hodson             (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
       1931 -        1934  Sir James O'Grady                  (b. 1866 - d. 1934)
       1935 -        1941  Herbert Henniker Heaton            (b. 1880 - d. 1961)
       1941 -        1946  Allan Wolsey Cardinall (from
                           1943, Sir Allan Wolsey Cardinall)  (b. 1887 - d. 1956)
       1946 -        1954  Geoffrey Miles Clifford (from
                           1949, Sir Geoffrey Miles Clifford) (b. 1897 - d. 1986)
       1954 -        1957  Oswald Raynor Arthur               (b. 1905 - d. 1973)
       1957 -        1964  Edwin Porter Arrowsmith (from
                           1959, Sir Edwin Porter Arrowsmith) (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
       1964 -        1970  Cosmo Dugal Patrick Thomas Haskard
                           (from 1965, Sir Cosmo Dugal
                           Patrick Thomas Haskard)            (b. 1916)
       1971 -        1975  Ernest Gordon Lewis                (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
       1975 -    Jan 1977  Neville Arthur Irwin French        (b. 1920 - d. 1996)
   Jan 1977 -        1980  James Roland Walter Parker         (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
   Feb 1980 -  2 Apr 1982  Rex Hunt (1st time)                (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
 3 Apr 1982 - 14 Jun 1982  Mario Benjamín Menéndez            (b. 1930)
                           (Argentine military governor)
14 Jun 1982 - 25 Jun 1982  Jeremy Moore                       (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
                           (commander of British forces)
25 Jun 1982 - 16 Oct 1985  Rex Hunt (from 11 Oct 1982,
                           Sir Rex Hunt) (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                           (civil commissioner)
16 Oct 1985 -        1988  Gordon Wesley Jewkes               (b. 1931)
   Nov 1988 -        1992  William H. Fullerton               (b. 1939)
   Aug 1992 -    Dec 1995  David E. Tatham                    (b. 1939)
 8 Jan 1996 -        1999  Richard Ralph                      (b. 1946)
12 May 1999 - 23 Nov 2002  Donald Lamont                      (b. 1947)
23 Nov 2002 -  3 Dec 2002  Russ Jarvis (acting)
 3 Dec 2002 -  5 Aug 2006  Howard Pearce                      (b. 1949)
 5 Aug 2006 - 28 Aug 2006  Harriet Hall (f) (acting)
28 Aug 2006 - 18 Sep 2010  Alan Huckle                        (b. 1948)
18 Sep 2010 - 16 Oct 2010  Ric Nye (acting)
16 Oct 2010 - 25 Feb 2014  Nigel Haywood                      (b. 1955)
25 Feb 2014 - 27 Feb 2014  Sandra Tyler-Haywood (f) (acting)
27 Feb 2014 -    Apr 2014  John Duncan (acting)               (b. 1958)
29 Apr 2014 -              Colin Roberts                      (b. 1959)

West Falkland

Naval officers-in-charge
 8 Jan 1766 -    Jan 1767  John McBride                       (b. ... - d. 1800)
   Jan 1767 -    May 1770  Anthony Hunt
   May 1770 - 10 Jun 1770  George Farmer
16 Apr 1771 -    Sep 1771  John Scott
   Sep 1771 -    Mar 1773  John Burr
   Mar 1773 - 20 May 1774  Samuel Wittewrong Clayton

Far-Eastern Republic: see under Russia.
Farghana: see under Uzbekistan.
Fezzan: see under Libya.

Fiji

       1865                Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti
                           (comprising Bau, Bua, Cakaudrove, Lakeba, Macuata, Naduri)
       1867                split into Kingdom of Bau and Confederation of Lau
                           (comprising Bua, Cakaudrove, Lau)
       1871                Kingdom of Viti (Fiji)
10 Oct 1874                British colony
10 Oct 1970                independence
 7 Oct 1987                Republic of Fiji declared (accepted by Britain 15 Oct 1987)
25 Jul 1990                Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji
27 Jul 1998                Republic of the Fiji Islands
18 Jan 2011                Republic of Fiji

Bau

Rulers (styled Vunivalu)
       17.. -        1770  Naulatikau
       1770 -    Feb 1803  Banuve                             (b. ... - d. 1803)
21 Feb 1803 -        1829  Naulivou                           (b. ... - d. 1829)
       1829 -        1832  Tanoa Visawaqa (1st time)          (b. ... - d. 1852)
       1832 -        1837  Navuaka Komainaqaranikula
                           Tui Veikoso
   Aug 1837 -  8 Dec 1852  Tanoa Visawaqa (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 8 Dec 1852 - 10 Oct 1874  Seru Cakobau (from 1857,
                           Seru Epenisa Cakobau)              (b. 1815 - d. 1883)

Bua

Rulers (styled Tui Bua)
      *1800*               Rawaike
       18.. -        1847  Ra Masima                          (b. ... - d. 1847)
       1847 -        1848  Batinamu                           (b. ... - d. 1848)
       1848 -        18..  Tamavunisa Peter
       18.. - 10 Oct 1874  George Vakawalitabua, Ra Masima

Cakaudrove

Rulers (styled Tui Cakau)
       1845                Lalabalavu Tui Kilakila (1st time) (b. ... - d. 1854)
       1845 -        18..  Ralulu
       18.. -        1854  Lalabalavu Tui Kilakila (2nd time) (s.a.)
       1854 -        1862  Raivalita
       1862 - 10 Oct 1874  Qoleanavanua                       (b. ... - d. 1879)

Lakeba

Rulers (styled Roko Sau and, after a year or more of rule, Tui Nayau)
- Navuanirewa dynasty -
        ... -         ...  Niumataiwalu
        ... -         ...  Uluilakeba I
        ... -         ...  Lubati Lakeba
        ... -         ...  Rasolo
        ... -         ...  Dranivia
        ... -         ...  Matawalu
        ... -        1833  Malani                             (b. ... - d. 1833)
       1833 -        18..  Taltai Tupou
       18.. -        18..  Uluilakeba II
       18.. - 10 Oct 1874  Eroni Loganimoce

Macuata

Rulers (styled Tui Macuata)
        ... -        1841  Mamaca                             (b. ... - d. 1841)
       1841                Roqiqi                             (b. ... - d. 1841)
       1841                Gigi                               (b. ... - d. 1841)
       1841 -        1859  Bonaveidogo
       1859 -        1861  Bete                               (b. ... - d. 1861)
       1861 - 10 Oct 1874  Ritova                             (b. ... - d. 1875)

Rewa

Rulers (styled Tui Dreketi)
       1825 -        1839  Roko Tabaivalu                     (b. ... - d. 1839)
       1839                Koroitamana                        (b. ... - d. 1839)
       1839 -  2 Oct 1839  Bativuaka                          (b. ... - d. 1839)
       1839                Macanavai                          (b. ... - d. 1839)
       1839 -        1841  Cokanauto (1st time)               (b. c.1810 - d. 1851)
                           jointly with
       1839 -        1840  Qaraniqio (1st time)               (b. ... - d. 1855)
                           and jointly with
       1839 -        1846  Banuve                             (b. ... - d. 1846)
       1846 -        1851  Cokanauto (2nd time)               (s.a.)
       1851 - 26 Jan 1855  Qaraniqio (2nd time)               (s.a.)
       1855 -        18..  vacant
       18.. - 10 Oct 1874  B.V. Rabici

Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti

President of the General Assembly
       1865 -        1867  Seru Epenisa Cakobau               (s.a.)

Kingdom of Bau

King
 2 May 1867 -        1869  Seru Epenisa Cakobau               (s.a.)

Confederation of Lau

Chieftains Supreme
13 Feb 1867 -        1869  Qoleanavanua                       (b. ... - d. 1879)
       1869 -        1871  Enele Ma'afu'otu'itoga             (b. 1816 - d. 1881)

Kingdom of Viti

King
 5 Jun 1871 - 10 Oct 1874  Seru Epenisa Cakobau               (s.a.)

Premiers Jun 1871 - May 1872 Sydney C. Burt May 1872 - 23 Mar 1874 George Austin Woods (b. ... - d. 1905) 23 Mar 1874 - 10 Oct 1874 John Bates Thurston (acting) (b. 1836 - d. 1897)

Fiji from 1874

Governors (1877 - 3 Jul 1952 also high commissioners for the Western Pacific)
10 Oct 1874 -    Jun 1875  Sir Hercules Robinson              (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
   Jun 1875 -    Jan 1880  Sir Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
   Jan 1880 -        1886  William Des Voeux (from 1883,
                           Sir William Des Voeux)             (b. 1834 - d. 1909)
   Jan 1887 -    Feb 1888  Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell   (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
   Feb 1888 -  7 Feb 1897  Sir John Bates Thurston            (s.a.)
   Mar 1897 -        1901  Sir George Thomas Michael O'Brien  (b. 1844 - d. 1906)
       1901 - 10 Sep 1902  William Lamond Allardyce (acting)  (b. 1861 - d. 1930)
10 Sep 1902 - 11 Oct 1904  Sir Henry Moore Jackson            (b. 1849 - d. 1908)
11 Oct 1904 - 21 Feb 1911  Sir Everard F. im Thurn            (b. 1852 - d. 1932)
21 Feb 1911 - 25 Jul 1912  Sir Francis Henry May              (b. 1860 - d. 1922)
25 Jul 1912 - 10 Oct 1918  Sir Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott    (b. 1857 - d. 1941)
10 Oct 1918 - 25 Apr 1925  Cecil Hunter-Rodwell (from 1919,
                           Sir Cecil Hunter-Rodwell)          (b. 1874 - d. 1953)
25 Apr 1925 - 22 Nov 1929  Sir Eyre Hutson                    (b. 1864 - d. 1936)
22 Nov 1929 -    May 1936  Sir Arthur George Murchison
                           Fletcher                           (b. 1878 - d. 1954)
28 Nov 1936 -    Aug 1938  Sir Arthur Frederick Richards      (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
16 Sep 1938 - 21 Jul 1942  Sir Harry Charles Luke             (b. 1884 - d. 1969)
21 Jul 1942 -  1 Jan 1945  Sir Philip Euen Mitchell           (b. 1890 - d. 1964)
 1 Jan 1945 -        1947  Sir Alexander Grantham             (b. 1899 - d. 1978)
20 Jan 1948 -  6 Oct 1952  Sir Leslie Brian Freeston          (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
 6 Oct 1952 - 28 Oct 1958  Sir Ronald Herbert Garvey          (b. 1903 - d. 1991)
28 Oct 1958 -  6 Jan 1964  Sir Kenneth Phipson Maddocks       (b. 1907 - d. 2001)
 6 Jan 1964 -    Dec 1968  Sir Francis Derek Jakeway          (b. 1915 - d. 1993)
   Dec 1968 - 10 Oct 1970  Sir Robert Sidney Foster           (b. 1913 - d. 2005)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
10 Oct 1970 - 13 Jan 1973  Sir Robert Sidney Foster           (s.a.)
13 Jan 1973 - 12 Feb 1983  Ratu Sir George Cakobau            (b. 1912 - d. 1989)
12 Feb 1983 -  6 Oct 1987  Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau            (b. 1918 - d. 1993)
Head of the Interim Military Government
 7 Oct 1987 -  5 Dec 1987  Sitiveni Rabuka                    (b. 1948)
Presidents
 5 Dec 1987 - 15 Dec 1993  Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau            (s.a.)
16 Dec 1993 - 29 May 2000  Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara             (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
                           (acting to 18 Jan 1994)
Head of the Interim Military Government
29 May 2000 - 18 Jul 2000  Voreqe Bainimarama                 (b. 1954)
Presidents
18 Jul 2000 -    Sep 2009  Ratu Josefa Iloilo                 (b. 1920 - d. 2011)
                           (interim to 15 Mar 2001)
 5 Dec 2006 -  4 Jan 2007    Voreqe Bainimarama               (s.a.)
                             (acting for Iloilo)
30 Jul 2009 -              Ratu Epeli Nailatikau              (b. 1941)
                           (acting [for Iloilo to Sep 2009] to 5 Nov 2009)

Chief minister Sep 1967 - 10 Oct 1970 Ratu Kamisese Mara (from 1969, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara) (s.a.) Prime ministers 10 Oct 1970 - 13 Apr 1987 Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara (1st time) (s.a.) 13 Apr 1987 - 14 May 1987 Timoci Bavadra (b. 1934 - d. 1989) 5 Dec 1987 - 2 Jun 1992 Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Jun 1992 - 19 May 1999 Sitiveni Rabuka (s.a.) 19 May 1999 - 27 May 2000 Mahendra Chaudhry (b. 1942) 4 Jul 2000 - 14 Mar 2001 Laisenia Qarase (1st time) (b. 1941) (interim) 14 Mar 2001 - 16 Mar 2001 Ratu Tevita Momoedonu (b. 1946) 16 Mar 2001 - 5 Dec 2006 Laisenia Qarase (2nd time) (s.a.) (interim to 10 Sep 2001) 6 Dec 2006 - 5 Jan 2007 Jona Senilagakali (interim) (b. 1929 - d. 2011) 5 Jan 2007 - 9 Apr 2009 Voreqe Bainimarama (1st time) (s.a.) (interim) 11 Apr 2009 - Voreqe Bainimarama (2nd time) (s.a.) (interim)

Rotuma

13 May 1881                part of Fiji

Head chiefs (styled fakpure)
        ... -         ...  Raho
        ... -         ...  Tokaniua
        ... -         ...  Fuge
        ... -         ...  Kaurfonua
        ... -         ...  Safoak
        ... -         ...  Savoiat
        ... -         ...  Olil
        ... -         ...  Fer
        ... -         ...  Tuipurotu
        ... -         ...  Tokaniua
        ... -         ...  Tuitafaga
        ... -         ...  Irava
     c.1829                Konao
     c.1838                Solovalu
     c.1839                Riamkau
     c.1852                Kausiliafe
     c.1858                Riamkau
     c.1862                Malafu

Spiritual chiefs (styled mua)
        ... -         ...  Lapatemasui
        ... -         ...  Tuitupu
        ... -         ...  Saparere
        ... -         ...  Mameata
        ... -         ...  Muatoirere
        ... -         ...  Ipiuri
        ... -         ...  Ifituga
        ... -         ...  Fisaitu
        ... -         ...  Niua
        ... -         ...  Saurotuma
        ... -         ...  Tafaki
        ... -         ...  Muamea
        ... -         ...  Tukumasui
Spiritual chiefs (styled sau)
        ... -         ...  Sauhani
        ... -         ...  Kaurifanua
        ... -         ...  Riamkau
        ... -         ...  Kaufose
        ... -         ...  Taio
        ... -         ...  Fonomanu
        ... -         ...  Varomua
        ... -         ...  Tiu
        ... -         ...  Marafu-Kauat
        ... -         ...  Irava
        ... -         ...  Tokoara
        ... -         ...  Asesekava
        ... -         ...  Mariseu
        ... -         ...  Sakanane
        ... -         ...  Tausia
        ... -         ...  Sautupuak
        ... -         ...  Paka
        ... -         ...  Ravak
        ... -         ...  Tokoniua
        ... -         ...  Titofag
        ... -         ...  Irava
        ... -         ...  Ravak
        ... -         ...  Tua-Oajo
     c.1820                Gagafag
     c.1825                Fatafesi
     c.1829                Fatenefau
     c.1833                Vuna
     c.1838                Fatafesi
     c.1838                Tamanava
     c.1839                Solovalu
     c.1839                Riamkau
     c.1839                Tirasoko
     c.1840                Otorovao
     c.1841                Ragafua
     c.1843                Vaurasi
     c.1843                Vavaoti
     c.1845                Ufat
     c.1845                Patipat vavahina
     c.1845                Furisefaua
     c.1845                Tirotorava
     c.1846                Marafu
     c.1846                Pogisemose
     c.1846                Tarupea
     c.1846                Sukamaso
     c.1847                Mua
     c.1847                Kausirafe
     c.1847                Toporotu
     c.1848                Tokaniua
     c.1849                Garagasau
     c.1850                Fakarufono
     c.1850                Matagatage
     c.1851                Manava
     c.1851                Sokagatau
     c.1851                Vavaoti
     c.1851                Tavao
     c.1852                Vaimanoko
     c.1852                Katoagatau
     c.1854                Kautane
     c.1855                Fonogarotoi
     c.1856                Tiporotu
     c.1857                Fonmanu
     c.1858                Tiu
     c.1858                Sarsartau
     c.1859                Taipo
     c.1859                Kauika
     c.1860                Faoriro
     c.1860                Farapapau
     c.1860                Saurorota
     c.1860                Ufamarata
     c.1862                Sarasortau
     c.1862                Teau
     c.1864                Ufagatau
     c.1865                Kavasakamua
     c.1865                Saurativa
     c.1865                Fotoafuru
     c.1865                Fonomanu
     c.1866                Jimi
     c.1866                Varea
     c.1866                Ravak
     c.1866                Maraa
     c.1867                Fonomanu
     c.1867                Vasea
     c.1867                Tavo
     c.1867                Sokagaitu
     c.1868                Ragafua
     c.1868                Irava
     c.1868                Hanifiro-Asoatemuri
     c.1868                Tuipenau
     c.1869                Tigarea
     c.1869                Vasea
     c.1869                Maraia
     c.1869 -        1870  Suakamasa

Finland

       12..                part of Sweden
       1581                Grand Duchy of Finland (subject to, and from 1772
                           in nominal personal union with, Sweden)
29 Mar 1809                personal union with Russia (transfer from Sweden to Russia
                           ratified in peace treaty 17 Sep 1809)
 6 Dec 1917                formal declaration of independence
17 Jul 1919                Republic of Finland

Grand dukes (the emperors of Russia- Romanov (Holstein-Gottorp) dynasty -
29 Mar 1809 -  1 Dec 1825  Alexander I                        (b. 1777 - d. 1825)
 1 Dec 1825 - 26 Dec 1825  Konstantin                         (b. 1779 - d. 1831)
                           (proclaimed, but did not accept)
26 Dec 1825 -  2 Mar 1855  Nikolai I                          (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
 2 Mar 1855 - 13 Mar 1881  Alexander II                       (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
13 Mar 1881 -  1 Nov 1894  Alexander III                      (b. 1845 - d. 1894)
 1 Nov 1894 - 15 Mar 1917  Nikolai II                         (b. 1868 - d. 1918)
15 Mar 1917 -  7 Nov 1917  Russian provisional government
                           exercising grand-ducal authority
Governors-general¹
 1 Dec 1808 - 17 Jun 1809  Göran Magnus Sprengtporten         (b. 1740 - d. 1819)
17 Jun 1809 -  1 Feb 1810  Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly   (b. 1761 - d. 1818)
 3 Mar 1810 - 22 Mar 1824  Fabian Steinheil                   (b. 1762 - d. 1831)
   Sep 1812 -    Apr 1813    Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt           (b. 1757 - d. 1814)
                             (acting for Steinheil)
28 Mar 1824 -  1 Dec 1831  Arsenij Andrejewitsch Zakrewsky    (b. 1783 - d. 1865)
 1 Dec 1831 -  8 Mar 1855  Alexander Sergejewitsch
                           Menschikoff                        (b. 1787 - d. 1869)
24 Apr 1833 -        1846    Alexander Amatus Thesleff        (b. 1778 - d. 1847)
                             (acting intermittently for Menschikoff)
       1848 -        1855    Platon Iwanowitsch Rokassowsky   (b. 1800 - d. 1869)
                             (acting intermittently for Menschikoff)
 8 Mar 1855 - 20 Nov 1861  Fredrik Wilhelm Rembert Berg       (b. 1794 - d. 1874)
                           (acting for Menschikoff from 26 Jan 1855)
20 Nov 1861 -  1 May 1866  Platon Iwanowitsch Rokassowsky     (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1864 - 16 Oct 1864    Johan Mauritz Nordenstam         (b. 1802 - d. 1882)
                             (acting for Rokassowsky)
 1 May 1866 -  3 Jun 1881  Nikolai Wladimirowitsch Adlerberg  (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
                             Acting for Adlerberg:
23 Jun 1866 - 21 Jul 1866    Bernhard Indrenius (1st time)    (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
18 Jul 1867 - 18 Oct 1867    Bernhard Indrenius (2nd time)    (s.a.)
20 Jul 1868 - 18 Oct 1868    Johan Mauritz Nordenstam
                             (1st time)                       (s.a.)
 7 May 1870 - 11 Sep 1870    Johan Mauritz Nordenstam
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
19 Nov 1872 - 24 Mar 1873    Johan Mauritz Nordenstam
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1881 - 13 Jan 1897  Feodor Logginovitsh Heiden         (b. 1831 - d. 1900)
31 Jan 1897 - 29 Aug 1898  Stepan Osipovitsh Gontsharoff      (b. 1831 - d. 1912)
                           (acting)
29 Aug 1898 - 17 Jun 1904  Nikolai Ivanovitsh Bobrikoff       (b. 1839 - d. 1904)
18 Jun 1904 - 18 Aug 1904  Nikolai Matvejevitsh Turbin
                           (acting)
18 Aug 1904 - 18 Nov 1905  Ivan Mikailovitsh Obolenskij       (b. 1853 - d. 1910)
18 Nov 1905 -  6 Dec 1905  Anton von Saltza (acting)          (b. 1843 - d. 1916)
 6 Dec 1905 -  2 Feb 1908  Nikolai Nikolajevitsh Gerard       (b. 1839 - d. 1929)
 2 Feb 1908 - 24 Nov 1909  Vladimir Aleksandrovitsh Boeckmann (b. 1848 - d. 1923)
24 Nov 1909 - 16 Mar 1917  Frans Albert Seyn                  (b. 1862 - d. 1918)
16 Mar 1917 - 19 Mar 1917  Adam Josifovitsh Lipskij (acting)  (b. 1860 - d. ...)
19 Mar 1917 - 31 Mar 1917  Sergei Aleksandrovitsh Korff       (b. 1876 - d. 1924)
                           (acting)
31 Mar 1917 - 17 Sep 1917  Mihail Aleksandrovitsh Stahovitsh  (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
17 Sep 1917 -  7 Nov 1917  Nikolai Vissarionovitsh Nekrasov   (b. 1879 - d. 1940)
Acting heads of state
 7 Nov 1917 - 15 Nov 1917  Eemil Nestor Setälä                (b. 1864 - d. 1935)
                           (chief minister)
15 Nov 1917 - 28 Nov 1917  Otto Johannes Lundson              (b. 1867 - d. 1939)
                           (Speaker of Diet)
28 Nov 1917 - 18 May 1918  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud              (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
                           (chief minister)
State Protectors (usually referred to as Regents)²
18 May 1918 - 12 Dec 1918  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud              (s.a.)
12 Dec 1918 - 27 Jul 1919  Carl Gustaf Mannerheim             (b. 1867 - d. 1951)
Presidents
27 Jul 1919 -  1 Mar 1925  Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg              (b. 1865 - d. 1952)
 1 Mar 1925 -  1 Mar 1931  Lauri Kristian Relander            (b. 1883 - d. 1942)
 1 Mar 1931 -  1 Mar 1937  Pehr Evind Svinhufvud              (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1937 - 19 Dec 1940  Kyösti Kallio                      (b. 1873 - d. 1940)
19 Dec 1940 -  4 Aug 1944  Risto Heikki Ryti                  (b. 1889 - d. 1956)
                           (acting to 21 Dec 1940)
 4 Aug 1944 - 11 Mar 1946  Carl Gustaf Mannerheim             (s.a.)
11 Mar 1946 -  1 Mar 1956  Juho Kusti Paasikivi               (b. 1870 - d. 1956)
 1 Mar 1956 - 27 Jan 1982  Urho Kekkonen                      (b. 1900 - d. 1986)
27 Jan 1982 -  1 Mar 1994  Mauno Koivisto                     (b. 1923)
                           (acting for Kekkonen 11 Sep 1981 - 27 Jan 1982)
 1 Mar 1994 -  1 Mar 2000  Martti Ahtisaari                   (b. 1937)
 1 Mar 2000 -  1 Mar 2012  Tarja Halonen (f)                  (b. 1943)
 1 Mar 2012 -              Sauli Niinistö                     (b. 1948)

Chief ministers (vice chairmen of the Senate's Economy Department) 1 Oct 1822 - 1 Mar 1826 Carl Erik Mannerheim (b. 1759 - d. 1837) 12 Dec 1826 - 12 Jan 1828 Samuel Fredrik von Born (acting) (b. 1782 - d. 1850) 12 Jan 1828 - 10 Apr 1833 Anders Henrik Falck (b. 1772 - d. 1851) 10 Apr 1833 - 1 Oct 1841 Gustaf Hjärne (b. 1768 - d. 1845) 1 Oct 1841 - 29 Apr 1858 Lars Gabriel von Haartman (b. 1789 - d. 1859) 29 Apr 1858 - 8 Jun 1882 Johan Mauritz Nordenstam (s.a.) 1 Oct 1882 - 1 Oct 1885 Edvard Gustaf af Forselles (b. 1817 - d. 1891) 1 Oct 1885 - 23 Nov 1891 Samuel Werner von Troil (b. 1833 - d. 1900) 23 Nov 1891 - 19 Oct 1900 Sten Carl Tudeer (b. 1840 - d. 1905) 19 Oct 1900 - 18 Jan 1905 Constantin Linder (b. 1836 - d. 1908) 29 Mar 1905 - 11 Nov 1905 Emil Streng (b. 1838 - d. 1911) 1 Dec 1905 - 1 Aug 1908 Leopold Henrik Stanislaus Mechelin (b. 1839 - d. 1914) 1 Aug 1908 - 23 Apr 1909 Edvard Immanuel Hjelt (b. 1855 - d. 1921) 1 May 1909 - 13 Nov 1909 August Johannes Hjelt (b. 1862 - d. 1919) 13 Nov 1909 - 21 Apr 1913 Wladimir Markoff (b. 1859 - d. 1919) 21 Apr 1913 - 16 Mar 1917 Mikael Borovitinoff (b. 1874 - d. 1921) 16 Mar 1917 - 26 Mar 1917 Andrei Wirenius (acting) (b. 1850 - d. 1919) 26 Mar 1917 - 17 Aug 1917 Oskari Tokoi (b. 1873 - d. 1963) 17 Aug 1917 - 27 Nov 1917 Eemil Nestor Setälä (s.a.) 27 Nov 1917 - 27 May 1918 Pehr Evind Svinhufvud (1st time) (s.a.) Prime ministers 27 May 1918 - 27 Nov 1918 Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1st time) (s.a.) 27 Nov 1918 - 17 Apr 1919 Lauri Johannes Ingman (1st time) (b. 1868 - d. 1934) 17 Apr 1919 - 15 Aug 1919 Kaarlo Castrén (b. 1860 - d. 1938) 15 Aug 1919 - 15 Mar 1920 Juho Heikki Vennola (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1938) 15 Mar 1920 - 9 Apr 1921 Rafael Waldemar Erich (b. 1879 - d. 1946) 9 Apr 1921 - 2 Jun 1922 Juho Heikki Vennola (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Jun 1922 - 14 Nov 1922 Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1943) 14 Nov 1922 - 18 Jan 1924 Kyösti Kallio (1st time) (s.a.) 18 Jan 1924 - 31 May 1924 Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 May 1924 - 31 Mar 1925 Lauri Johannes Ingman (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Mar 1925 - 31 Dec 1925 Antti Agaton Tulenheimo (b. 1879 - d. 1952) 31 Dec 1925 - 13 Dec 1926 Kyösti Kallio (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Dec 1926 - 17 Dec 1927 Väinö Tanner (b. 1881 - d. 1966) 17 Dec 1927 - 22 Dec 1928 Juho Emil Sunila (1st time) (b. 1875 - d. 1936) 22 Dec 1928 - 16 Aug 1929 Oskari Mantere (b. 1874 - d. 1942) 16 Aug 1929 - 4 Jul 1930 Kyösti Kallio (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Jul 1930 - 16 Feb 1931 Pehr Evind Svinhufvud (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Feb 1931 - 21 Mar 1931 Juho Heikki Vennola (3rd time) (s.a.) 21 Mar 1931 - 14 Dec 1932 Juho Emil Sunila (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Dec 1932 - 7 Oct 1936 Toivo Mikael Kivimäki (b. 1886 - d. 1968) 7 Oct 1936 - 12 Mar 1937 Kyösti Kallio (4th time) (s.a.) 12 Mar 1937 - 1 Dec 1939 Aimo Kaarlo Cajander (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Dec 1939 - 21 Dec 1940 Risto Heikki Ryti (s.a.) 21 Dec 1940 - 3 Jan 1941 Rudolf Waldén (acting) (b. 1878 - d. 1946) 3 Jan 1941 - 5 Mar 1943 Johan Wilhelm Rangell (b. 1894 - d. 1982) 5 Mar 1943 - 8 Aug 1944 Edwin Johan Hildegard Linkomies (b. 1894 - d. 1963) 8 Aug 1944 - 21 Sep 1944 Antti Verner Hackzell (b. 1881 - d. 1946) 21 Sep 1944 - 17 Nov 1944 Urho Jonas Castrén (b. 1886 - d. 1965) 17 Nov 1944 - 26 Mar 1946 Juho Kusti Paasikivi (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Mar 1946 - 29 Jul 1948 Mauno Pekkala (b. 1890 - d. 1952) 29 Jul 1948 - 17 Mar 1950 Karl August Fagerholm (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1984) 17 Mar 1950 - 17 Nov 1953 Urho Kekkonen (1st time) (s.a.) 17 Nov 1953 - 5 May 1954 Sakari Tuomioja (b. 1911 - d. 1964) 5 May 1954 - 20 Oct 1954 Ralf Törngren (b. 1899 - d. 1961) 20 Oct 1954 - 3 Mar 1956 Urho Kekkonen (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Mar 1956 - 27 May 1957 Karl August Fagerholm (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 May 1957 - 29 Nov 1957 Vieno Johannes Sukselainen (1st time) (b. 1906 - d. 1995) 29 Nov 1957 - 26 Apr 1958 Rainer von Fieandt (b. 1890 - d. 1972) 26 Apr 1958 - 29 Aug 1958 Reino Kuuskoski (b. 1907 - d. 1965) 29 Aug 1958 - 13 Jan 1959 Karl August Fagerholm (3rd time) (s.a.) 13 Jan 1959 - 3 Jul 1961 Vieno Johannes Sukselainen (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Jul 1961 - 14 Jul 1961 Eemil Luukka (acting) (b. 1892 - d. 1970) 14 Jul 1961 - 13 Apr 1962 Martti Miettunen (1st time) (b. 1907 - d. 2002) 13 Apr 1962 - 18 Dec 1963 Ahti Karjalainen (1st time) (b. 1923 - d. 1990) 18 Dec 1963 - 12 Sep 1964 Reino Lehto (b. 1898 - d. 1966) 12 Sep 1964 - 27 May 1966 Johannes Virolainen (b. 1914 - d. 2000) 27 May 1966 - 22 Mar 1968 Rafael Paasio (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1980) 22 Mar 1968 - 14 May 1970 Mauno Koivisto (1st time) (s.a.) 14 May 1970 - 15 Jul 1970 Teuvo Aura (1st time) (b. 1912 - d. 1999) 15 Jul 1970 - 29 Oct 1971 Ahti Karjalainen (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Oct 1971 - 23 Feb 1972 Teuvo Aura (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Feb 1972 - 4 Sep 1972 Rafael Paasio (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Sep 1972 - 13 Jun 1975 Kalevi Sorsa (1st time) (b. 1930 - d. 2004) 13 Jun 1975 - 30 Nov 1975 Keijo Liinamaa (b. 1929 - d. 1980) 30 Nov 1975 - 15 May 1977 Martti Miettunen (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 May 1977 - 26 May 1979 Kalevi Sorsa (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 May 1979 - 27 Jan 1982 Mauno Koivisto (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Sep 1981 - 19 Feb 1982 Eino Uusitalo (b. 1924) (acting [for Koivisto to 27 Jan 1982]) 19 Feb 1982 - 30 Apr 1987 Kalevi Sorsa (3rd time) (s.a.) 30 Apr 1987 - 26 Apr 1991 Harri Holkeri (b. 1937 - d. 2011) 26 Apr 1991 - 13 Apr 1995 Esko Aho (b. 1954) 13 Apr 1995 - 17 Apr 2003 Paavo Lipponen (b. 1941) 17 Apr 2003 - 24 Jun 2003 Anneli Jäätteenmäki (f) (b. 1955) 24 Jun 2003 - 22 Jun 2010 Matti Vanhanen (b. 1955) 22 Jun 2010 - 22 Jun 2011 Mari Kiviniemi (f) (b. 1968) 22 Jun 2011 - 24 Jun 2014 Jyrki Katainen (b. 1971) 24 Jun 2014 - Alexander Stubb (b. 1968)

Finnish Socialist Conciliar Republic

28 Jan 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic in the south of
                           Finland during civil war

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
14 Feb 1918 - 25 Apr 1918  Valfrid Perttilä                   (b. 1878 - d. 1953)

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars 28 Jan 1918 - 13 Apr 1918 Kullervo Manner (b. 1880 - d. 1936) 13 Apr 1918 - 17 Apr 1918 Otto Ville Kuusinen (b. 1881 - d. 1964) 17 Apr 1918 - 25 Apr 1918 Edvard Gylling (b. 1881 - d. 1938)

Finnish Democratic Republic

 1 Dec 1939 - 12 Mar 1940  Finnish Democratic Republic at the Soviet-occupied
                           town of Terijoki (now Zelenogorsk, Russia)

Chairman of the Finnish People's Government
 1 Dec 1939 - 12 Mar 1940  Otto Ville Kuusinen                (s.a.)

Allied Control Commission

Chairman
22 Sep 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Andrey Zhdanov (U.S.S.R.)          (b. 1896 - d. 1948)
¹Transcription of Russian names follows the one used in official publications at the time.
²Friedrich Karl of Hesse (b. 1868 - d. 1940), elected king 7 Oct 1918, did not arrive, and declined the throne 4 Dec 1918.

Åland Islands

       12..                part of Sweden
       1634                administered as part of a Finnish province
                           (Åbo och Björneborgs län = Turun ja Porin lääni)
       1808 -        1809  attempted separation from Åbo och Björneborgs län
17 Sep 1809                part of the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland
       1917 -        1919  popular movement to rejoin Sweden
24 Jun 1921                League of Nations decides in favour of Finland
 9 Jun 1922                Åland autonomous region

Governors (title landshövding)
       1808 -        1809  Otto Reinhold Meurman (acting)     (b. 1750 - d. 1814)
 9 Mar 1918 - 13 Jun 1918  Hjalmar von Bonsdorff              (b. 1869 - d. 1945)
                           (military governor)
13 Jun 1918 - 17 Oct 1922  William Isaksson                   (b. 1866 - d. 1924)
17 Oct 1922 -  1 Jan 1938  Wilhelm Fagerlund                  (b. 1852 - d. 1939)
 1 Jan 1938 -  3 Nov 1938  Torsten Rothberg                   (b. 1884 - d. 1938)
 3 Nov 1938 - 21 Dec 1938  Walter Johansson (acting)          (b. 1885 - d. 1960)
21 Nov 1938 -  1 May 1945  Ruben Österberg                    (b. 1895 - d. 1959)
14 May 1945 -  1 Jan 1954  Herman Koroleff                    (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
 1 Jan 1954 -  1 Jul 1972  Tor Brenning                       (b. 1903 - d. 1983)
 1 Jul 1972 -  1 Oct 1982  Martin Isaksson                    (b. 1921 - d. 2001)
 1 Oct 1982 -  1 Apr 1999  Henrik Gustafsson                  (b. 1934)
 1 Apr 1999 -              Peter Lindbäck                     (b. 1955)

Chief ministers (title lantråd) 10 Jul 1922 - 30 Dec 1938 Carl Björkman (b. 1873 - d. 1948) 30 Dec 1938 - 1 Jan 1955 Viktor Strandfält (b. 1887 - d. 1962) 1 Jan 1955 - 28 Mar 1967 Hugo Johansson (b. 1900 - d. 1983) 28 Mar 1967 - 1 Jul 1972 Martin Isaksson (s.a.) 1 Jul 1972 - 1 Jan 1979 Alarik Häggblom (b. 1914 - d. 1996) 1 Jan 1979 - 20 Apr 1988 Folke Woivalin (b. 1928) 20 Apr 1988 - 28 Nov 1991 Sune Eriksson (b. 1939) 28 Nov 1991 - 24 Nov 1995 Ragnar Erlandsson (b. 1941) 24 Nov 1995 - 3 Dec 1999 Roger Jansson (b. 1943) 3 Dec 1999 - 26 Nov 2007 Roger Nordlund (b. 1957) 26 Nov 2007 - 25 Nov 2011 Viveka Eriksson (f) (b. 1956) 25 Nov 2011 - Camilla Gunell (f) (b. 1970)

Fiume: see under Croatia.

France

        987                Kingdom of France
21 Sep 1792                French Republic ("First Republic")
18 May 1804                state headed by emperor, but polity continues to be
                           officially styled French Republic
 1 Jan 1809                French Empire
 6 Apr 1814                Kingdom of France
13 Mar 1815                French Empire
 8 Jul 1815                Kingdom of France
24 Feb 1848                French Republic ("Second Republic")
 2 Dec 1852                French Empire
17 Feb 1871                French Republic ("Third Republic")
11 Jul 1940 - 20 Aug 1944  French State
 3 Jun 1944                French Republic (Provisional Government)
16 Jan 1947                ("Fourth Republic" [constitution promulgated 28 Oct 1946])
 8 Jan 1959                ("Fifth Republic" [constitution promulgated 6 Oct 1958])

Kings¹
- Bourbon (Capetian) dynasty -
14 May 1643 -  1 Sep 1715  Louis XIV "le Grand"               (b. 1638 - d. 1715)
18 May 1643 -  7 Sep 1651    Anne d'Autriche (f) (regent)     (b. 1601 - d. 1666)
 1 Sep 1715 - 10 May 1774  Louis XV "le Bien-Aimé"            (b. 1710 - d. 1774)
 1 Sep 1715 - 22 Feb 1723    Philippe, duc d'Orléans (regent) (b. 1674 - d. 1723)
10 May 1774 - 21 Sep 1792  Louis XVI                          (b. 1754 - d. 1793)
                           (suspended 21 Jun - 14 Sep 1791 and 10 Aug - 21 Sep 1792)
Presidents of the National Assembly (often referred to as National Constituent Assembly)
25 Jun 1791 -  2 Jul 1791    Alexandre François Marie,
                             vicomte de Beauharnais
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1760 - d. 1794)
 2 Jul 1791 - 19 Jul 1791    Charles Malo François, comte
                             de Lameth                        (b. 1757 - d. 1832)
19 Jul 1791 - 30 Jul 1791    Joseph Jacques Defermon, dit
                             Defermon des Chapelières         (b. 1752 - d. 1831)
30 Jul 1791 - 13 Aug 1791    Alexandre François Marie,
                             vicomte de Beauharnais
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
13 Aug 1791 - 27 Aug 1791    Charles Louis Victor,
                             prince de Broglie                (b. 1756 - d. 1794)
27 Aug 1791 - 10 Sep 1791    Théodore Vernier                 (b. 1731 - d. 1818)
10 Sep 1791 - 14 Sep 1791    Jacques Guillaume Thouret        (b. 1746 - d. 1794)
Presidents of the National Assembly
10 Aug 1792 - 19 Aug 1792    Jean François Honoré Merlet      (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
19 Aug 1792 -  2 Sep 1792    Jean-François Delacroix, dit
                             Lacroix                          (b. 1753 - d. 1794)
 2 Sep 1792 - 16 Sep 1792    Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles  (b. 1759 - d. 1794)
16 Sep 1792 - 21 Sep 1792    Pierre Joseph Cambon             (b. 1756 - d. 1820)
Presidents of the National Convention
21 Sep 1792 -  4 Oct 1792  Jérôme Pétion, dit Pétion de
                           Villeneuve                         (b. 1756 - d. 1794)
 4 Oct 1792 - 18 Oct 1792  Jean-François Delacroix, dit
                           Lacroix                            (s.a.)
18 Oct 1792 -  1 Nov 1792  Marguerite Élie Guadet             (b. 1755 - d. 1794)
 1 Nov 1792 - 15 Nov 1792  Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
15 Nov 1792 - 29 Nov 1792  Henri Baptiste Grégoire            (b. 1750 - d. 1831)
29 Nov 1792 - 13 Dec 1792  Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac         (b. 1755 - d. 1841)
13 Dec 1792 - 27 Dec 1792  Joseph Jacques Defermon, dit
                           Defermon des Chapelières           (s.a.)
27 Dec 1792 - 10 Jan 1793  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard            (b. 1742 - d. 1810)
10 Jan 1793 - 24 Jan 1793  Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud        (b. 1753 - d. 1793)
24 Jan 1793 -  7 Feb 1793  Jean-Paul Rabaut, dit Rabaut
                           Saint-Étienne                      (b. 1743 - d. 1793)
 7 Feb 1793 - 21 Feb 1793  Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit
                           Bréard-Duplessis                   (b. 1751 - d. 1840)
21 Feb 1793 -  7 Mar 1793  Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois de
                           Crancé, dit Dubois-Crancé          (b. 1747 - d. 1814)
 7 Mar 1793 - 21 Mar 1793  Arnaud Gensonné                    (b. 1758 - d. 1793)
21 Mar 1793 -  4 Apr 1793  Jean Antoine Joseph Debry          (b. 1760 - d. 1834)
 4 Apr 1793 - 18 Apr 1793  Jean François Bertrand Delmas      (b. 1751 - d. 1798)
18 Apr 1793 -  2 May 1793  Marc David Alba, dit Alba-Lasource (b. 1763 - d. 1793)
 2 May 1793 - 16 May 1793  Jean-Baptiste Boyer-Fonfrède       (b. 1765 - d. 1793)
16 May 1793 - 30 May 1793  Maximin Isnard                     (b. 1758 - d. 1825)
30 May 1793 - 13 Jun 1793  François René Auguste Mallarmé     (b. 1755 - d. 1831)
13 Jun 1793 - 27 Jun 1793  Jean-Marie Collot, dit Collot
                           d'Herbois (1st time)               (b. 1749 - d. 1796)
27 Jun 1793 - 11 Jul 1793  Jacques Alexis Thuriot de la
                           Rosière                            (b. 1753 - d. 1829)
11 Jul 1793 - 25 Jul 1793  André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon
                           Saint-André                        (b. 1749 - d. 1813)
25 Jul 1793 -  8 Aug 1793  Georges Jacques Danton             (b. 1759 - d. 1794)
 8 Aug 1793 - 22 Aug 1793  Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Aug 1793 -  5 Sep 1793  Maximilien Robespierre (1st time)  (b. 1758 - d. 1794)
 5 Sep 1793 - 19 Sep 1793  Jacques Nicolas Billaud, dit
                           Billaud-Varenne                    (b. 1756 - d. 1819)
19 Sep 1793 -  3 Oct 1793  Pierre Joseph Cambon               (s.a.)
 3 Oct 1793 - 22 Oct 1793  Charles Louis Joseph Charlier      (b. 1754 - d. 1797)
22 Oct 1793 -  6 Nov 1793  Moïse Antoine Pierre Jean Bayle    (b. 1755 - d. 1811?)
 6 Nov 1793 - 21 Nov 1793  Pierre Antoine Laloy               (b. 1749 - d. 1846)
21 Nov 1793 -  6 Dec 1793  Charles Gilbert Romme              (b. 1750 - d. 1795)
 6 Dec 1793 - 21 Dec 1793  Jean-Henri Voulland                (b. 1751 - d. 1801)
21 Dec 1793 -  5 Jan 1794  Georges Auguste Couthon            (b. 1755 - d. 1794)
 5 Jan 1794 - 20 Jan 1794  Jacques Louis David                (b. 1748 - d. 1825)
20 Jan 1794 -  4 Feb 1794  Marc Guillaume Alexis Vadier       (b. 1736 - d. 1828)
 4 Feb 1794 - 19 Feb 1794  Joseph Nicolas Barbeau Du Barran,
                           dit Dubarran                       (b. 1761 - d. 1816)
19 Feb 1794 -  6 Mar 1794  Louis de Saint-Just                (b. 1767 - d. 1794)
 6 Mar 1794 - 21 Mar 1794  Philippe Jacques Rühl              (b. 1737 - d. 1795)
21 Mar 1794 -  5 Apr 1794  Jean-Lambert Tallien               (b. 1767 - d. 1820)
 5 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794  Jean Baptiste André Amar           (b. 1755 - d. 1816)
20 Apr 1794 -  5 May 1794  Robert Lindet                      (b. 1746 - d. 1825)
 5 May 1794 - 20 May 1794  Lazare Carnot                      (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
20 May 1794 -  4 Jun 1794  Claude Antoine Prieur-Duvernois,
                           dit Prieur de la Côte d'Or         (b. 1763 - d. 1832)
 4 Jun 1794 - 19 Jun 1794  Maximilien Robespierre (2nd time)  (s.a.)
19 Jun 1794 -  5 Jul 1794  Élie Lacoste                       (b. 1745 - d. 1806)
 5 Jul 1794 - 19 Jul 1794  Jean-Antoine Louis, dit Louis
                           du Bas-Rhin                        (b. 1742 - d. 1796)
19 Jul 1794 -  3 Aug 1794  Jean-Marie Collot, dit Collot
                           d'Herbois (2nd time)               (s.a.)
 3 Aug 1794 - 18 Aug 1794  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai                    (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
18 Aug 1794 -  2 Sep 1794  Antoine Christophe Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Thionville               (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
 2 Sep 1794 - 22 Sep 1794  André Antoine Bernard des
                           Jeuzines, dit Bernard de Saintes
                           (or Adrien-Antoine...)             (b. 1751 - d. 1818)
22 Sep 1794 -  7 Oct 1794  André Dumont                       (b. 1765 - d. 1836)
 7 Oct 1794 - 22 Oct 1794  Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès      (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
22 Oct 1794 -  6 Nov 1794  Pierre Louis Prieur, dit Prieur
                           de la Marne                        (b. 1756 - d. 1827)
 6 Nov 1794 - 24 Nov 1794  Louis Legendre                     (b. 1752 - d. 1797)
24 Nov 1794 -  6 Dec 1794  Jean-Baptiste Clauzel              (b. 1746 - d. 1803)
 6 Dec 1794 - 21 Dec 1794  Jean-François Reubell              (b. 1747 - d. 1807)
21 Dec 1794 -  6 Jan 1795  Pierre Louis Bentabole             (b. 1756 - d. 1798)
 6 Jan 1795 - 20 Jan 1795  Étienne François Louis Honoré
                           Letourneur (or Charles François
                           Louis Honoré Letourneur)           (b. 1751 - d. 1817)
20 Jan 1795 -  4 Feb 1795  Joseph Stanislas François Xavier
                           Alexis Rovère                      (b. 1748 - d. 1798)
 4 Feb 1795 - 19 Feb 1795  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras  (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
19 Feb 1795 -  6 Mar 1795  François Louis Bourdon, dit
                           Bourdon de l'Oise                  (b. 1758 - d. 1798)
 6 Mar 1795 - 24 Mar 1795  Antoine Claire Thibaudeau          (b. 1765 - d. 1854)
24 Mar 1795 -  5 Apr 1795  Jean Pelet, dit Pelet de la Lozère (b. 1759 - d. 1842)
 5 Apr 1795 - 20 Apr 1795  François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas   (b. 1756 - d. 1826)
20 Apr 1795 -  5 May 1795  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès             (b. 1748 - d. 1836)
 5 May 1795 - 26 May 1795  Théodore Vernier                   (s.a.)
26 May 1795 -  4 Jun 1795  Jean Baptiste Charles Mathieu,
                           dit Mathieu-Mirampal               (b. 1763 - d. 1833)
 4 Jun 1795 - 19 Jun 1795  Jean-Denis Lanjuinais              (b. 1753 - d. 1827)
19 Jun 1795 -  4 Jul 1795  Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray    (b. 1760 - d. 1797)
 4 Jul 1795 - 19 Jul 1795  Louis Gustave Le Doulcet de
                           Pontécoulant                       (b. 1764 - d. 1853)
19 Jul 1795 -  3 Aug 1795  Louis Marie La Revellière, dit
                           La Revellière-Lépeaux              (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
 3 Aug 1795 - 19 Aug 1795  Pierre Claude François Daunou      (b. 1761 - d. 1840)
19 Aug 1795 -  2 Sep 1795  Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier        (b. 1764 - d. 1811)
 2 Sep 1795 - 23 Sep 1795  Théophile Berlier                  (b. 1761 - d. 1844)
23 Sep 1795 -  8 Oct 1795  Pierre Charles Louis Baudin,
                           dit Baudin des Ardennes            (b. 1748 - d. 1799)
 8 Oct 1795 - 26 Oct 1795  Charles François Jean Joseph
                           Victor Génissieu                   (b. 1749 - d. 1804)
26 Oct 1795 -  2 Nov 1795  the Committee of Public Safety
                           (see heads of government)
Presidents of the Executive Directory
 2 Nov 1795 - 31 Jan 1796  Jean-François Reubell (1st time)   (s.a.)
31 Jan 1796 - 30 Apr 1796  Étienne François Louis Honoré
                           Letourneur (or Charles François
                           Louis Honoré Letourneur)
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
30 Apr 1796 - 29 Jul 1796  Lazare Carnot (1st time)           (s.a.)
29 Jul 1796 -  1 Nov 1796  Louis Marie de La Revellière, dit
                           La Revellière-Lépeaux (1st time)   (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1796 - 30 Jan 1797  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
30 Jan 1797 - 30 Apr 1797  Jean-François Reubell (2nd time)   (s.a.)
30 Apr 1797 - 26 May 1797  Étienne François Louis Honoré
                           Letourneur (or Charles François
                           Louis Honoré Letourneur)
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
26 May 1797 - 24 Aug 1797  Lazare Carnot (2nd time)           (s.a.)
24 Aug 1797 - 27 Nov 1797  Louis Marie de La Revellière, dit
                           La Revellière-Lépeaux (2nd time)   (s.a.)
27 Nov 1797 - 25 Feb 1798  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
25 Feb 1798 - 26 May 1798  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai (1st time)         (s.a.)
26 May 1798 - 24 Aug 1798  Jean-François Reubell (3rd time)   (s.a.)
24 Aug 1798 - 27 Nov 1798  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard            (s.a.)
27 Nov 1798 - 25 Feb 1799  Louis Marie de La Revellière, dit
                           La Revellière-Lépeaux (3rd time)   (s.a.)
25 Feb 1799 - 26 May 1799  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
26 May 1799 - 18 Jun 1799  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai (2nd time)         (s.a.)
18 Jun 1799 - 23 Sep 1799  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès             (s.a.)
23 Sep 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Louis-Jérôme Gohier                (b. 1746 - d. 1830)
11 Nov 1799 - 25 Dec 1799  Consular Executive Commission
                           (3 consuls; chair probably rotating daily, in order given;
                           no conclusive documentation was created)
                           - Napoléon Bonaparte               (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
                           - Pierre Roger Ducos,
                             dit Roger-Ducos                  (b. 1747 - d. 1816)
                           - Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès           (s.a.)
First consul
25 Dec 1799 - 18 May 1804  Napoléon Bonaparte                 (s.a.)
Emperor¹
- Bonaparte dynasty -
18 May 1804 - 11 Apr 1814  Napoléon I (1st time)              (s.a.)
President of the Provisional Government
 3 Apr 1814 - 14 Apr 1814  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
                           Périgord, prince de Bénévent       (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
Lieutenant-general of the kingdom
14 Apr 1814 -  2 May 1814  Charles-Philippe de France,
                           comte d'Artois                     (b. 1757 - d. 1836)
King¹
- Bourbon (Capetian) dynasty -
 2 May 1814 - 19 Mar 1815  Louis XVIII (1st time)             (b. 1755 - d. 1824)
Emperors¹
- Bonaparte dynasty -
13 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Napoléon I (2nd time)              (s.a.)
22 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Napoléon II (lived in Austria)     (b. 1811 - d. 1832)
22 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815    Commission of Government
                             (also styled Executive Commission)
                             - Joseph, comte Fouché,
                               duc d'Otrante                  (b. 1759 - d. 1820)
                               (president from 23 Jun 1815)
                             - Lazare Carnot                  (s.a.)
                             - Paul, comte Grenier            (b. 1768 - d. 1827)
                             - Armand Augustin Louis
                               Caulaincourt, duc de Vicence   (b. 1773 - d. 1827)
                             - Nicolas Marie, baron de
                               Quinette de Rochemont          (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
Kings¹
- Bourbon (Capetian) dynasty -
 8 Jul 1815 - 16 Sep 1824  Louis XVIII (2nd time)             (s.a.)
16 Sep 1824 -  2 Aug 1830  Charles X (= Charles-Philippe de
                           France, comte d'Artois)            (s.a.)
29 Jul 1830 -  1 Aug 1830    Municipal Commission
                             (in opposition to Charles X)
                             - Jacques Laffitte               (b. 1767 - d. 1844)
                             - Casimir Perier                 (b. 1777 - d. 1832)
                             - Georges Mouton, comte de Lobau (b. 1770 - d. 1838)
                             - Auguste, baron de Schonen      (b. 1782 - d. 1849)
                             - Pierre François Audry de
                               Puyraveau                      (b. 1783 - d. 1852)
                             - François Mauguin               (b. 1785 - d. 1854)
 2 Aug 1830 -  9 Aug 1830  Louis-Philippe, duc d'Orléans      (b. 1773 - d. 1850)
                           (lieutenant-general of the kingdom)
- Bourbon-Orléans dynasty -
 9 Aug 1830 - 24 Feb 1848  Louis-Philippe I                   (s.a.)
President of the Provisional Government of the Republic
24 Feb 1848 -  9 May 1848  Jacques Charles Dupont de l'Eure   (b. 1767 - d. 1855)
President of the National Constituent Assembly
 9 May 1848 - 10 May 1848  Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez    (b. 1796 - d. 1865)
Chairman of the Executive Power Commission
10 May 1848 - 24 Jun 1848  Dominique François Jean Arago      (b. 1786 - d. 1853)
President of the National Constituent Assembly
24 Jun 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Antoine Marie Jules Sénard         (b. 1800 - d. 1885)
Chief of the Executive Power
28 Jun 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Louis Eugène Cavaignac             (b. 1802 - d. 1857)
President
20 Dec 1848 -  2 Dec 1852  Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte           (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
Emperor¹
- Bonaparte dynasty -
 2 Dec 1852 -  4 Sep 1870  Napoléon III                       (s.a.)
President of the Government of National Defense
 4 Sep 1870 - 13 Feb 1871  Louis Jules Trochu                 (b. 1815 - d. 1896)
Presidents of the National Constituent Assembly
13 Feb 1871 - 16 Feb 1871  Denis Emmanuel,
                           comte Benoist d'Azy (acting)       (b. 1796 - d. 1880)
16 Feb 1871 - 17 Feb 1871  Jules Grévy                        (b. 1807 - d. 1891)
Presidents
17 Feb 1871 - 24 May 1873  Adolphe Thiers                     (b. 1797 - d. 1877)
                           (Head of Executive Power to 31 Aug 1871)
24 May 1873 - 30 Jan 1879  Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon       (b. 1808 - d. 1893)
30 Jan 1879                Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure     (b. 1798 - d. 1881)
                           (acting)
30 Jan 1879 -  2 Dec 1887  Jules Grévy                        (s.a.)
 2 Dec 1887 -  3 Dec 1887  Maurice Rouvier (acting)           (b. 1842 - d. 1911)
 3 Dec 1887 - 25 Jun 1894  Sadi Carnot                        (b. 1837 - d. 1894)
25 Jun 1894 - 27 Jun 1894  Charles Dupuy (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1851 - d. 1923)
27 Jun 1894 - 16 Jan 1895  Jean Casimir-Perier                (b. 1847 - d. 1907)
16 Jan 1895 - 17 Jan 1895  Charles Dupuy (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
17 Jan 1895 - 16 Feb 1899  Félix Faure                        (b. 1841 - d. 1899)
16 Feb 1899 - 18 Feb 1899  Charles Dupuy (3rd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
18 Feb 1899 - 18 Feb 1906  Émile Loubet                       (b. 1838 - d. 1929)
18 Feb 1906 - 18 Feb 1913  Armand Fallières                   (b. 1841 - d. 1931)
18 Feb 1913 - 18 Feb 1920  Raymond Poincaré                   (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
18 Feb 1920 - 21 Sep 1920  Paul Deschanel                     (b. 1855 - d. 1922)
21 Sep 1920 - 11 Jun 1924  Alexandre Millerand                (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
                           (acting to 23 Sep 1920)
11 Jun 1924 - 13 Jun 1924  Frédéric François-Marsal (acting)  (b. 1874 - d. 1958)
13 Jun 1924 - 13 Jun 1931  Gaston Doumergue                   (b. 1863 - d. 1937)
13 Jun 1931 -  7 May 1932  Paul Doumer                        (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
 7 May 1932 - 10 May 1932  André Tardieu (acting)             (b. 1876 - d. 1945)
10 May 1932 - 11 Jul 1940  Albert Lebrun                      (b. 1871 - d. 1950)
Head of State
11 Jul 1940 - 20 Aug 1944  Philippe Pétain                    (b. 1856 - d. 1951)
Acting heads of state
 3 Jun 1944 - 16 Jan 1947  see heads of government
Presidents
16 Jan 1947 - 16 Jan 1954  Vincent Auriol                     (b. 1884 - d. 1966)
16 Jan 1954 -  8 Jan 1959  René Coty                          (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
 8 Jan 1959 - 28 Apr 1969  Charles de Gaulle                  (b. 1890 - d. 1970)
28 Apr 1969 - 20 Jun 1969  Alain Poher (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1909 - d. 1996)
20 Jun 1969 -  2 Apr 1974  Georges Pompidou                   (b. 1911 - d. 1974)
 3 Apr 1974 - 27 May 1974  Alain Poher (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
27 May 1974 - 21 May 1981  Valéry Giscard d'Estaing           (b. 1926)
21 May 1981 - 17 May 1995  François Mitterrand                (b. 1916 - d. 1996)
17 May 1995 - 16 May 2007  Jacques Chirac                     (b. 1932)
16 May 2007 - 15 May 2012  Nicolas Sarkozy                    (b. 1955)
15 May 2012 -              François Hollande                  (b. 1954)

Provisional Executive Council (chair rotating weekly) - Ministers of Justice - 21 Sep 1792 - 9 Oct 1792 Georges Jacques Danton (s.a.) 9 Oct 1792 - 20 Mar 1793 Dominique Joseph Garat (b. 1749 - d. 1833) 20 Mar 1793 - 20 Apr 1794 Louis Jérôme Gohier (s.a.) - Ministers of the Marine and Colonies - 21 Sep 1792 - 10 Apr 1793 Gaspard Monge (b. 1746 - d. 1818) 10 Apr 1793 - 20 Apr 1794 Jean Dalbarade (b. 1743 - d. 1819) - Ministers of Foreign Affairs - 21 Sep 1792 - 21 Jun 1793 Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu, dit Lebrun-Tondu (b. 1754 - d. 1794) 21 Jun 1793 - 2 Apr 1794 François Louis Michel Chemin des Forgues, dit Deforgues (b. 1759 - d. 1840) 2 Apr 1794 - 5 Apr 1794 vacant 5 Apr 1794 - 8 Apr 1794 Jean Marie Claude Alexandre Goujon (b. 1766 - d. 1795) (interim) 8 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794 Martial Joseph Armand Herman (b. 1759 - d. 1795) (interim)² - Ministers of the Interior - 21 Sep 1792 - 23 Jan 1793 Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière (b. 1734 - d. 1793) 23 Jan 1793 - 20 Aug 1793 Dominique Joseph Garat (s.a.) (interim to 15 Mar 1793) 20 Aug 1793 - 5 Apr 1794 Jules François Paré (b. 1755 - d. 1819) 5 Apr 1794 - 8 Apr 1794 Jean Marie Claude Alexandre Goujon (s.a.) (interim) 8 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794 Martial Joseph Armand Herman (s.a.) (interim) - Ministers of War - 21 Sep 1792 - 3 Oct 1792 Joseph Marie Servan, dit Servan de Gerbey (b. 1741 - d. 1808) 3 Oct 1792 - 18 Oct 1792 Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu, dit Lebrun-Tondu (1st time) (s.a.) (interim) 18 Oct 1792 - 4 Feb 1793 Jean-Nicolas Pache (b. 1746 - d. 1823) 4 Feb 1793 - 1 Apr 1793 Pierre Riel de Beurnonville (b. 1752 - d. 1821) 1 Apr 1793 - 4 Apr 1793 Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu, dit Lebrun-Tondu (2nd time) (s.a.) (interim) 4 Apr 1793 - 22 Jun 1793 Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte (1st time) (b. 1754 - d. 1840) 22 Jun 1793 (hours) Charles Alexis Alexandre (b. 1754 - d. 1825) 22 Jun 1793 - 20 Apr 1794 Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte (2nd time) (s.a.) - Ministers of Public Contributions and Revenues - 21 Sep 1792 - 13 Jun 1793 Étienne Clavière (b. 1735 - d. 1793) 13 Jun 1793 - 20 Apr 1794 Louis Grégoire Des Champs des Tournelles (b. 1744 - d. 1795) Committee of Public Safety of the National Convention 20 Apr 1794 - 1 Sep 1794 Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 1 Sep 1794 Jacques Nicolas Billaud, dit Billaud-Varenne (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 6 Oct 1794 Lazare Carnot (1st time) (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 1 Sep 1794 Jean-Marie Collot, dit Collot d'Herbois (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 27 Jul 1794 Georges Auguste Couthon (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 31 Jul 1794 André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon Saint-André (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 6 Oct 1794 Jean Baptiste Robert Lindet (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 31 Jul 1794 Pierre Louis Prieur, dit Prieur de la Marne (1st time) (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 6 Oct 1794 Claude Antoine Prieur-Duvernois, dit Prieur de la Côte d'Or (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 27 Jul 1794 Maximilien Robespierre (s.a.) 20 Apr 1794 - 27 Jul 1794 Louis de Saint-Just (s.a.) 31 Jul 1794 - 5 Dec 1794 Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit Bréard-Duplessis (1st time) (s.a.) 31 Jul 1794 - 5 Nov 1794 Joseph Eschassériaux (1st time) (b. 1753 - d. 1823) 31 Jul 1794 - 5 Nov 1794 Pierre Antoine Laloy (s.a.) 31 Jul 1794 - 1 Sep 1794 Jean-Lambert Tallien (1st time) (s.a.) 31 Jul 1794 - 5 Dec 1794 Jacques Alexis Thuriot de la Rosière (s.a.) 31 Jul 1794 - 5 Nov 1794 Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (1st time) (s.a.) 1 Sep 1794 - 5 Dec 1794 Charles Cochon de Lapparent (b. 1750 - d. 1825) 1 Sep 1794 - 4 Jan 1795 Jean François Bertrand Delmas (s.a.) 1 Sep 1794 - 4 Jan 1795 Antoine François Fourcroy (1st time) (b. 1755 - d. 1809) 1 Sep 1794 - 4 Jan 1795 Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit Merlin de Douai (1st time) (s.a.) 6 Oct 1794 - 3 Feb 1795 Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau, dit Guyton-Morveau (b. 1737 - d. 1816) 6 Oct 1794 - 3 Feb 1795 Pierre Louis Prieur, dit Prieur de la Marne (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Oct 1794 - 3 Feb 1795 Joseph Charles Étienne Richard (b. 1761 - d. 1834) 5 Nov 1794 - 5 Mar 1795 Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès (1st time) (s.a.) 5 Nov 1794 - 5 Mar 1795 Lazare Carnot (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Nov 1794 - 5 Mar 1795 Jean Pelet, dit Pelet de la Lozère (s.a.) 5 Dec 1794 - 4 Apr 1795 François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas (1st time) (s.a.) 5 Dec 1794 - 4 Apr 1795 Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois de Crancé, dit Dubois-Crancé (s.a.) 5 Dec 1794 - 4 Apr 1795 André Dumont (s.a.) 4 Jan 1795 - 4 May 1795 Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit Bréard-Duplessis (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Jan 1795 - 4 May 1795 Jean-Pierre Chazal (b. 1766 - d. 1840) 4 Jan 1795 - 4 May 1795 Pierre Marec (1st time) (b. 1739 - d. 1828) 3 Feb 1795 - 3 Jun 1795 Antoine François Fourcroy (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Feb 1795 - 3 Jun 1795 Pierre Jean Lacombe, dit Lacombe Saint-Michel (b. 1751 - d. 1812) 3 Feb 1795 - 3 Jun 1795 Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit Merlin de Douai (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Mar 1795 - 3 Jul 1795 Marie François Sébastien Christophe Delaporte, dit Laporte (b. 1760 - d. 1823) 5 Mar 1795 - 3 Jul 1795 Jean-François Reubell (1st time) (s.a.) 5 Mar 1795 - 3 Jul 1795 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1st time) (s.a.) 4 Apr 1795 - 2 Aug 1795 François Aubry (b. 1747 - d. 1798) 4 Apr 1795 - 2 Aug 1795 Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Apr 1795 - 4 May 1795 Jacques Antoine Creuzé de La Touche, dit Creuzé-Latouche (b. 1749 - d. 1800) 4 Apr 1795 - 3 Jul 1795 Pierre Mathurin Gillet (or René Mathurin Gillet) (b. 1766 - d. 1795) 4 Apr 1795 - 4 May 1795 Bernard Marie Lesage (or Denis Toussaint Lesage) (1st time) (b. 1758 - d. 1796) 4 Apr 1795 - 3 Jul 1795 Louis Félix Roux (b. 1753 - d. 1817) 4 Apr 1795 - 2 Aug 1795 Jean-Lambert Tallien (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 May 1795 - 1 Sep 1795 Joseph Jacques Defermon, dit Defermon des Chapelières (s.a.) 4 May 1795 - 1 Sep 1795 Louis Gustave Le Doulcet de Pontécoulant (s.a.) 4 May 1795 - 1 Sep 1795 Jacques Antoine Rabaut, dit Rabaut-Pomier (b. 1744 - d. 1820) 4 May 1795 - 2 Aug 1795 Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 May 1795 - 1 Sep 1795 Théodore Vernier (s.a.) 3 Jun 1795 - 7 Oct 1795 Charles Antoine Augustin Blad (b. 1764 - d. 1802) 3 Jun 1795 - 7 Oct 1795 François Joseph Gamon (b. 1767 - d. 1832) 3 Jun 1795 - 7 Oct 1795 Pierre François Joachim Henry-Larivière (b. 1761 - d. 1838) 3 Jun 1795 - 7 Oct 1795 Pierre Marec (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Jul 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Jul 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Jean Antoine Joseph Debry (s.a.) 3 Jul 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Bernard Marie Lesage (or Denis- Toussaint Lesage) (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Jul 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray (s.a.) 2 Aug 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Étienne François Louis Honoré Letourneur (or Charles François Louis Honoré Letourneur) (s.a.) 2 Aug 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit Merlin de Douai (3rd time) (s.a.) 2 Aug 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Jean-François Reubell (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Aug 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Sep 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Théophile Berlier (s.a.) 1 Sep 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Sep 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Pierre Claude François Daunou (s.a.) 1 Sep 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Louis Marie La Revellière, dit La Revellière-Lépeaux (s.a.) 7 Oct 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier (s.a.) 7 Oct 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Joseph Eschassériaux (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Oct 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Charles Claude Christophe Gourdan (b. 1744 - d. 1804) 7 Oct 1795 - 4 Nov 1795 Antoine Claire Thibaudeau (s.a.) Prime ministers³ 9 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand- Périgord, prince de Bénévent (s.a.) 26 Sep 1815 - 29 Dec 1818 Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (1st time) (b. 1766 - d. 1822) 29 Dec 1818 - 19 Nov 1819 Jean Joseph Paul Augustin, marquis Dessolles (b. 1767 - d. 1828) 19 Nov 1819 - 20 Feb 1820 Élie, comte Decazes (b. 1780 - d. 1860) 20 Feb 1820 - 14 Dec 1821 Armand Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Sep 1822 - 4 Jan 1828 Joseph, comte de Villèle (b. 1773 - d. 1854) 4 Jan 1828 - 8 Aug 1829 Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac (b. 1778 - d. 1832) 8 Aug 1829 - 29 Jul 1830 Jules Auguste Armand Marie, prince de Polignac (b. 1780 - d. 1847) 29 Jul 1830 Victor Louis Victurnien, duc de Montemart (b. 1783 - d. 1834) 2 Nov 1830 - 13 Mar 1831 Jacques Laffitte (b. 1767 - d. 1844) 13 Mar 1831 - 16 May 1832 Casimir Perier (b. 1777 - d. 1832) 11 Oct 1832 - 18 Jul 1834 Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (1st time) (b. 1769 - d. 1851) 18 Jul 1834 - 10 Nov 1834 Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard (b. 1773 - d. 1852) 10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834 Hugues Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano (b. 1763 - d. 1839) 18 Nov 1834 - 12 Mar 1835 Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, duc de Treviso (b. 1768 - d. 1835) 12 Mar 1835 - 22 Feb 1836 Achille Charles Léonce Victor, duc de Broglie (b. 1785 - d. 1870) 22 Feb 1836 - 6 Sep 1836 Adolphe Thiers (1st time) (s.a.) 6 Sep 1836 - 31 Mar 1839 Mathieu Louis, comte Molé (1st time) (b. 1781 - d. 1855) 12 May 1839 - 1 Mar 1840 Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840 Adolphe Thiers (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Oct 1840 - 19 Sep 1847 Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (3rd time) (s.a.) 19 Sep 1847 - 23 Feb 1848 François Guizot (b. 1787 - d. 1874) 23 Feb 1848 - 24 Feb 1848 Mathieu Louis, comte Molé (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Feb 1848 Adolphe Thiers (3rd time) (s.a.) 28 Jun 1848 - 20 Dec 1848 Louis Eugène Cavaignac (s.a.) 20 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849 Odilon Barrot (b. 1791 - d. 1873) 2 Jan 1870 - 9 Aug 1870 Émile Ollivier (b. 1825 - d. 1913) 9 Aug 1870 - 4 Sep 1870 Charles Guillaume Cousin- Montauban, comte de Palikao (b. 1796 - d. 1878) 2 Sep 1871 - 25 May 1873 Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure (1st time) (s.a.) (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers) 25 May 1873 - 22 May 1874 Albert, duc de Broglie (b. 1821 - d. 1901) (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers) 22 May 1874 - 10 Mar 1875 Ernest Courtot de Cissey (b. 1810 - d. 1882) (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers) 10 Mar 1875 - 23 Feb 1876 Louis Joseph Buffet (b. 1818 - d. 1898) (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers) 23 Feb 1876 - 12 Dec 1876 Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure (2nd time) (s.a.) (vice chairman of the Council of Ministers to 9 Mar 1876) 12 Dec 1876 - 17 May 1877 Jules Simon (b. 1814 - d. 1896) 17 May 1877 - 23 Nov 1877 Albert, duc de Broglie (b. 1821 - d. 1901) 23 Nov 1877 - 13 Dec 1877 Caietan de Grimaudet de Rochebouet (b. 1813 - d. 1899) 13 Dec 1877 - 4 Feb 1879 Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Feb 1879 - 28 Dec 1879 William Henry Waddington (b. 1826 - d. 1894) 28 Dec 1879 - 23 Sep 1880 Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (1st time) (b. 1828 - d. 1923) 23 Sep 1880 - 14 Nov 1881 Jules Ferry (1st time) (b. 1832 - d. 1893) 14 Nov 1881 - 30 Jan 1882 Léon Gambetta (b. 1838 - d. 1882) 30 Jan 1882 - 7 Aug 1882 Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Aug 1882 - 29 Jan 1883 Charles Théodore Eugène Duclerc (b. 1813 - d. 1888) 29 Jan 1883 - 21 Feb 1883 Armand Fallières (s.a.) 21 Feb 1883 - 6 Apr 1885 Jules Ferry (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Apr 1885 - 7 Jan 1886 Henri Brisson (1st time) (b. 1835 - d. 1912) 7 Jan 1886 - 11 Dec 1886 Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Dec 1886 - 30 May 1887 René Goblet (b. 1828 - d. 1905) 30 May 1887 - 12 Dec 1887 Maurice Rouvier (1st time) (s.a.) 12 Dec 1887 - 3 Apr 1888 Pierre Emmanuel Tirard (1st time) (b. 1827 - d. 1893) 3 Apr 1888 - 22 Feb 1889 Charles Floquet (b. 1828 - d. 1896) 22 Feb 1889 - 17 Mar 1890 Pierre Emmanuel Tirard (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Mar 1890 - 27 Feb 1892 Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (4th time) (s.a.) 27 Feb 1892 - 6 Dec 1892 Émile Loubet (s.a.) 6 Dec 1892 - 4 Apr 1893 Alexandre Ribot (1st time) (b. 1842 - d. 1923) 4 Apr 1893 - 3 Dec 1893 Charles Dupuy (1st time) (s.a.) 3 Dec 1893 - 30 May 1894 Jean Casimir-Perier (s.a.) 30 May 1894 - 26 Jan 1895 Charles Dupuy (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jan 1895 - 1 Nov 1895 Alexandre Ribot (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Nov 1895 - 29 Apr 1896 Léon Bourgeois (b. 1851 - d. 1925) 29 Apr 1896 - 28 Jun 1898 Jules Méline (b. 1838 - d. 1925) 28 Jun 1898 - 1 Nov 1898 Henri Brisson (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Nov 1898 - 22 Jun 1899 Charles Dupuy (3rd time) (s.a.) 22 Jun 1899 - 7 Jun 1902 René Waldeck-Rousseau (b. 1846 - d. 1904) 7 Jun 1902 - 24 Jan 1905 Émile Combes (b. 1835 - d. 1921) 24 Jan 1905 - 14 Mar 1906 Maurice Rouvier (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Mar 1906 - 25 Oct 1906 Jean Marie Ferdinand Sarrien (b. 1840 - d. 1915) 25 Oct 1906 - 24 Jul 1909 Georges Clemenceau (1st time) (b. 1841 - d. 1929) 24 Jul 1909 - 2 Mar 1911 Aristide Briand (1st time) (b. 1862 - d. 1932) 2 Mar 1911 - 27 Jun 1911 Antoine Emmanuel Ernest Monis (b. 1846 - d. 1929) 27 Jun 1911 - 14 Jan 1912 Joseph Caillaux (b. 1863 - d. 1944) 14 Jan 1912 - 21 Jan 1913 Raymond Poincaré (1st time) (s.a.) 21 Jan 1913 - 22 Mar 1913 Aristide Briand (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Mar 1913 - 9 Dec 1913 Louis Barthou (b. 1862 - d. 1934) 9 Dec 1913 - 9 Jun 1914 Gaston Doumergue (1st time) (s.a.) 9 Jun 1914 - 13 Jun 1914 Alexandre Ribot (3rd time) (s.a.) 13 Jun 1914 - 29 Oct 1915 René Viviani (b. 1863 - d. 1925) 29 Oct 1915 - 20 Mar 1917 Aristide Briand (3rd time) (s.a.) 20 Mar 1917 - 12 Sep 1917 Alexandre Ribot (4th time) (s.a.) 12 Sep 1917 - 16 Nov 1917 Paul Painlevé (1st time) (b. 1863 - d. 1933) 16 Nov 1917 - 20 Jan 1920 Georges Clemenceau (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Jan 1920 - 24 Sep 1920 Alexandre Millerand (s.a.) 24 Sep 1920 - 16 Jan 1921 Georges Leygues (b. 1857 - d. 1933) 16 Jan 1921 - 15 Jan 1922 Aristide Briand (4th time) (s.a.) 15 Jan 1922 - 9 Jun 1924 Raymond Poincaré (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Jun 1924 - 14 Jun 1924 Frédéric François-Marsal (s.a.) 14 Jun 1924 - 17 Apr 1925 Édouard Herriot (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1957) 17 Apr 1925 - 28 Nov 1925 Paul Painlevé (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Nov 1925 - 19 Jul 1926 Aristide Briand (5th time) (s.a.) 19 Jul 1926 - 23 Jul 1926 Édouard Herriot (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Jul 1926 - 29 Jul 1929 Raymond Poincaré (3rd time) (s.a.) 29 Jul 1929 - 3 Nov 1929 Aristide Briand (6th time) (s.a.) 3 Nov 1929 - 21 Feb 1930 André Tardieu (1st time) (s.a.) 21 Feb 1930 - 2 Mar 1930 Camille Chautemps (1st time) (b. 1885 - d. 1963) 2 Mar 1930 - 13 Dec 1930 André Tardieu (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Dec 1930 - 27 Jan 1931 Théodore Steeg (b. 1868 - d. 1950) 27 Jan 1931 - 20 Feb 1932 Pierre Laval (1st time) (b. 1883 - d. 1945) 20 Feb 1932 - 3 Jun 1932 André Tardieu (3rd time) (s.a.) 3 Jun 1932 - 18 Dec 1932 Édouard Herriot (3rd time) (s.a.) 18 Dec 1932 - 31 Jan 1933 Joseph Paul-Boncour (b. 1873 - d. 1972) 31 Jan 1933 - 26 Oct 1933 Édouard Daladier (1st time) (b. 1884 - d. 1970) 26 Oct 1933 - 26 Nov 1933 Albert Sarraut (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1962) 26 Nov 1933 - 30 Jan 1934 Camille Chautemps (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Jan 1934 - 9 Feb 1934 Édouard Daladier (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Feb 1934 - 8 Nov 1934 Gaston Doumergue (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Nov 1934 - 1 Jun 1935 Pierre Étienne Flandin (b. 1889 - d. 1958) 1 Jun 1935 - 7 Jun 1935 Fernand Bouisson (b. 1874 - d. 1959) 7 Jun 1935 - 24 Jan 1936 Pierre Laval (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Jan 1936 - 4 Jun 1936 Albert Sarraut (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Jun 1936 - 22 Jun 1937 Léon Blum (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1950) 22 Jun 1937 - 13 Mar 1938 Camille Chautemps (3rd time) (s.a.) 13 Mar 1938 - 10 Apr 1938 Léon Blum (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Apr 1938 - 21 Mar 1940 Édouard Daladier (3rd time) (s.a.) 21 Mar 1940 - 16 Jun 1940 Paul Reynaud (b. 1878 - d. 1966) 16 Jun 1940 - 18 Apr 1942 Philippe Pétain (s.a.) 18 Apr 1942 - 17 Aug 1944 Pierre Laval (3rd time) (s.a.) Chairmen of the National Committee of the Free French (in London; from 3 Jun 1943 in Algiers) 24 Sep 1941 - 3 Jun 1943 Charles de Gaulle (1st time) (s.a.) 3 Jun 1943 - 9 Nov 1943 Charles de Gaulle (2nd time) (s.a.) + Henri Giraud (b. 1879 - d. 1949) 9 Nov 1943 - 3 Jun 1944 Charles de Gaulle (3rd time) (s.a.) Chairmen of the Provisional Government 3 Jun 1944 - 26 Jan 1946 Charles de Gaulle (s.a.) 26 Jan 1946 - 24 Jun 1946 Félix Gouin (b. 1884 - d. 1977) 24 Jun 1946 - 16 Dec 1946 Georges Bidault (b. 1899 - d. 1983) 16 Dec 1946 - 23 Jan 1947 Léon Blum (s.a.) Prime ministers³ 23 Jan 1947 - 24 Nov 1947 Paul Ramadier (b. 1888 - d. 1961) 24 Nov 1947 - 26 Jul 1948 Robert Schuman (1st time) (b. 1886 - d. 1963) 26 Jul 1948 - 5 Sep 1948 André Marie (b. 1897 - d. 1974) 5 Sep 1948 - 11 Sep 1948 Robert Schuman (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Sep 1948 - 28 Oct 1949 Henri Queuille (1st time) (b. 1884 - d. 1970) 28 Oct 1949 - 2 Jul 1950 Georges Bidault (s.a.) 2 Jul 1950 - 12 Jul 1950 Henri Queuille (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Jul 1950 - 10 Mar 1951 René Pleven (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1993) 10 Mar 1951 - 11 Aug 1951 Henri Queuille (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Aug 1951 - 20 Jan 1952 René Pleven (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Jan 1952 - 8 Mar 1952 Edgar Faure (1st time) (b. 1908 - d. 1988) 8 Mar 1952 - 8 Jan 1953 Antoine Pinay (b. 1891 - d. 1994) 8 Jan 1953 - 28 Jun 1953 René Mayer (b. 1895 - d. 1972) 28 Jun 1953 - 18 Jun 1954 Joseph Laniel (b. 1889 - d. 1975) 18 Jun 1954 - 23 Feb 1955 Pierre Mendès-France (b. 1907 - d. 1982) 23 Feb 1955 - 1 Feb 1956 Edgar Faure (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Feb 1956 - 13 Jun 1957 Guy Mollet (b. 1905 - d. 1975) 13 Jun 1957 - 6 Nov 1957 Maurice Bourgès-Maunoury (b. 1914 - d. 1993) 6 Nov 1957 - 14 May 1958 Félix Gaillard (b. 1919 - d. 1970) 14 May 1958 - 1 Jun 1958 Pierre Pflimlin (b. 1907 - d. 2000) 1 Jun 1958 - 8 Jan 1959 Charles de Gaulle (s.a.) 8 Jan 1959 - 14 Apr 1962 Michel Debré (b. 1912 - d. 1996) 14 Apr 1962 - 13 Jul 1968 Georges Pompidou (s.a.) 13 Jul 1968 - 20 Jun 1969 Maurice Couve de Murville (b. 1907 - d. 1999) 20 Jun 1969 - 5 Jul 1972 Jacques Chaban-Delmas (b. 1915 - d. 2000) 5 Jul 1972 - 27 May 1974 Pierre Messmer (b. 1916 - d. 2007) 27 May 1974 - 25 Aug 1976 Jacques Chirac (1st time) (s.a.) 25 Aug 1976 - 21 May 1981 Raymond Barre (b. 1924 - d. 2007) 21 May 1981 - 17 Jul 1984 Pierre Mauroy (b. 1928 - d. 2013) 17 Jul 1984 - 20 Mar 1986 Laurent Fabius (b. 1946) 20 Mar 1986 - 10 May 1988 Jacques Chirac (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 May 1988 - 15 May 1991 Michel Rocard (b. 1930) 15 May 1991 - 2 Apr 1992 Edith Cresson (f) (b. 1934) 2 Apr 1992 - 29 Mar 1993 Pierre Bérégovoy (b. 1925 - d. 1993) 29 Mar 1993 - 18 May 1995 Édouard Balladur (b. 1929) 18 May 1995 - 3 Jun 1997 Alain Juppé (b. 1945) 3 Jun 1997 - 6 May 2002 Lionel Jospin (b. 1937) 6 May 2002 - 31 May 2005 Jean-Pierre Raffarin (b. 1948) 31 May 2005 - 17 May 2007 Dominique de Villepin (b. 1953) 17 May 2007 - 16 May 2012 François Fillon (b. 1954) 16 May 2012 - 1 Apr 2014 Jean-Marc Ayrault (b. 1950) 1 Apr 2014 - Manuel Valls (b. 1962)
¹The style of the ruler was:
(a) 1589 - 14 Sep 1791, 4 Jun 1814 - 19 Mar 1815, 22 Jun 1815 - 9 Aug 1830: par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre ("by the grace of God, king of France and of Navarre");
(b) 14 Sep 1791 - 21 Sep 1792, 9 Aug 1830 - 24 Feb 1848: roi des français ("king of the French");
(c) 18 May 1804 - 11 Apr 1814, 20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815, 2 Dec 1852 - 4 Sep 1870: empereur des français ("emperor of the French").

²On 9 Apr 1794, Philibert Buchot (b. 1748 - d. 1812), acting for Herman, chaired the last official meeting of the Provisional Executive Council.
³The term prime minister (premier ministre) was only introduced in the constitution of the "Fifth Republic" that went into effect 8 Jan 1959. Previously the principal minister was called Président du Conseil des Ministres although (a) there was no such position mentioned in the constitution, and (b) the formal Conseil des Ministres was (as it continues to be) chaired by the president of the republic, the Président du Conseil chairing only the (technically informal) Conseil de cabinet.

Corsica

17 Feb 1297                under Aragón; the king assumes the style of king of Corsica
 3 Apr 1559                Corsica is acquired by the Genoese Bank styled Uffizio di
                           San Giorgio
12 Jun 1564 -  1 Apr 1569  insurrection under a leader styled generale
       1637                the heads of state of Genoa assume the style king of Corsica
22 Dec 1730                insurrections begin, under leaders styled generale
30 Jan 1735                independence of Kingdom of Corsica proclaimed
15 Mar 1736 - 10 Jul 1739  adventurer styled king of Corsica (continues in exile, with
                           renewed attempt in 1743)
 7 Jun 1746                independence proclaimed, not recognized by Genoa
       1751                Uffizio di San Giorgio resumes control
   Feb 1753                independence proclaimed (Corsican Nation)
15 May 1768                (ratified 28 May 1768) Genoa gives France de facto
                           authority over Corsica
13 Jun 1769                Corsican Nation extinguished
30 Nov 1789                Corsica formally incorporated into France
15 Jun 1794                Corsican Nation reestablished under British control
19 Jun 1794                Kingdom of Corsica under British king
15 Oct 1796                reincorporation into France
12 Apr 1814                Provisional Government Committee established in Bastia
27 Apr 1814                Corsica accepts British protection
18 Jun 1814                Corsica returned to France
13 May 1991                status of collectivité territoriale
                           (see under French regions)

Governors
       1696 -        1700  Raffaello de Passano
       1700 -        1702  Ottone de Fornari
       1702 -        1704  Ettore de Fieschi
       1704 -        1706  Filippo Doria
       1706 -        1708  Filippo Adorno
       1708 -        1710  Geronimo Venoroso
       1710 -        1711  Filippo Cattaneo de Marini
       1711 -        1714  Nigrone Rivarola
       1714 -        1716  Paolo Francesco Spinola
       1716 -        1717  Marco Aurelio Rebuffo
       1717 -        1719  Giovanni Stefano Spinola
       1719 -        1721  Bartolomeo Passano
       1721 -        1722  Agostino Spinola
       1722 -        1724  Antonio de Negroni (1st time)
       1724 -        1726  Nicolo Durazzo
       1726 -        1728  Antonio de Negroni (2nd time)
       1728 -        1729  Alessandro Saluzzo
       1729 -        1730  Felice Pinelli
       1730 -        1731  Giovanni Francesco Gropallo
       1731                Carlo de Fornari
       1731                Camilio Doria
       1731 -        1733  Paolo Battista Rivarola
Commissioners-general
       1733 -        1734  Paolo Gironimo Pallavicini
       1734 -        1735  Pier Maria Giustiniani (1st time)
                           + Ugo Fieschi
       1735 -        1736  Felice Pinelli
       1736 -        1737  Paolo Battista Rivarola
       1737 -        1740  Giovanni Battista de Mari
       1740 -        1743  Domenico Maria Spinola
       1743 -        1745  Pier Maria Giustiniani (2nd time)
       1745 -        1751  Stefano de Mari
       1751 -        1755  Giovanni Giacomo Grimaldi
       1755 -        1762  Giuseppe Maria Doria
       1762 -        1764  Giovanni Battista Saoli
       1764 -        1768  Agostino Sperone
Generals
22 Dec 1730 -    May 1732  Carlo Francesco Raffaelli
                           (styled generalissimo, but playing no leading part)
                           + Luigi Giafferi
                           + Andrea Colonna Ceccaldi
12 Jan 1734 -        173.  Giacinto Paoli                     (b. 1702 - d. 1768)
                           + Luigi Giafferi
                           (from 12 May 1734)
30 Jan 1735 - 15 Mar 1736  Leaders of the Realm
                           - Giacinto Paoli                   (s.a.)
                           - Luigi Giafferi
                           - Andrea Colonna Ceccaldi
10 Aug 1735 -        173.  Luca Ornano
King
15 Mar 1736 - 10 Jul 1739  Teodoro I Antonio Stefano
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1694 - d. 1756)
10 Nov 1736 - 10 Jul 1739    Regency
                             - Giacinto Paoli                 (s.a.)
                             - Luigi Giafferi
                             - Luca Ornano
 1 Feb 1743 - 16 Mar 1743  Teodoro I Antonio Stefano
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (Regency continues to at least 20 Jul 1743, and some
                           assemblies [Consulte] continue to proclaim loyalty to
                           Teodoro I as late as 24 Jun 1744)
Chairman of the Protectors
 7 Jun 1746 -  1 Aug 1751  Ignazio Venturini
                           (appointed 30 Aug 1745)
General Heads of the Nation
   Jan 1753 -  2 Oct 1753  Conte Giovanni Pietro Gaffori      (b. 1710 - d. 1753)
22 Oct 1753 - 15 Jul 1755  Supreme Council
                           (chairman in rotation, in order given)
                           - Carlo Grimaldi
                           - Clemente Paoli
                           - Santucci Tomassio
                           - Simone Pietro Frediani
                           - ...
15 Jul 1755 - 13 Jun 1769  Filippo Antonio Pasquale Paoli     (b. 1725 - d. 1807)
10 Aug 1755 -    Oct 1755    Mario Emanuele Matra (1st time)  (b. ... - d. 1757)
                             (in rebellion)
   Jan 1757 - 28 Mar 1757    Mario Emanuele Matra (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion)
Governors
       1768                François Claude, marquis de
                           Chauvelin                          (b. 1716 - d. 1773)
       1768 -        1769  Louis Charles René, comte de
                           Marbeuf (1st time) (acting)        (b. 1712 - d. 1786)
       1769 -        1770  Noël de Jourda, comte de Vaux      (b. 1705 - d. 1788)
       1770 -        1772  Louis Charles René, comte de
                           Marbeuf (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
       1772 -        1775  Jean François, comte de Narbonne   (b. 1725 - d. ...)
                           (acting)
       1775 -        1786  Louis Charles René, comte de
                           Marbeuf, (from 1778) marquis de
                           Cargèse (3rd time)                 (s.a.)
       1786 -        1789  Armand Charles, vicomte de Barrin
                           de la Galissonière                 (b. 1723 - d. ...)
President of the Consulta
15 Jun 1794 - 19 Jun 1794  Filippo Antonio Pasquale Paoli     (s.a.)
                           (appointed 10 Jun 1794)
King
- Hannover dynasty -
19 Jun 1794 - 15 Oct 1796  Giorgio
                           (= George III of Great Britain)    (b. 1738 - d. 1820)
Governor
27 Apr 1814 - 18 Jun 1814  Henri Montresor

Comtat Venaissin

       1274                papal possession (though not part of the Papal States)
 9 Jun 1768 - 30 Apr 1774  French occupation
12 Jun 1790                end of papal rule
14 Sep 1791                annexed by France

Vice-legats of Avignon
       1696 -        1700  Filippo Antonio Gualteri
       1700                Giovanni Battista Cicci
       1700 -        1703  Antonio Francesco Sanvitali
       1703 -        1706  Antonio Banchieri
       1706                Francesco Maurizio Gontieri
                           (1st time)
       1706 -        1711  Sinibaldo Doria
       1711 -        1717  Alamanno Salviati
       1717 -        1719  Francesco Maurizio Gontieri
                           (2nd time)
       1719 -        1731  Raniero d'Elci
       1731                Francesco Maurizio Gontieri
                           (3rd time)
       1731 -        1739  Filippo Buondelmonte
       1739                Marcelo Crescenzi
       1739 -        1744  Niccolò Maria Lercari
       1744 -        1754  Pasquale Acquaviva
       1754 -        1760  Paolo Passionei
       1760 -        1766  Gregorio Salviati
       1766 -        1767  Francesco Maria Manzi (1st time)   (b. 1694 - d. 1774)
       1767 -        1768  Giuseppe Vincentini
 9 Jun 1768 - 30 Apr 1774  Jean Roger, marquis de
                           Rochechouart (French governor)
       1774                Francesco Maria Manzi (2nd time)   (s.a.)
       1775 -        1776  Angelo Maria Durini
       1776 -        1787  Giacomo Filomarino della Rocca
       1787 -        1790  Filippo Casoni
Rectors of Comtat Venaissin
       1698 -        1702  Flavio Barbarossa
       1702 -        1707  Francesco Maria Abbati (1st time)
       1707 -        1711  Bernardino Giunigi
       1711                Carlo Francesco Gallarini
       1711 -        1712  Francesco Maria Abbati (2nd time)
       1712 -        1716  Alessandro Francesco Codebo
       1716 -        1733  Ottavio Gasparini
       1733 -        1738  Azzolino Cervini
       1738 -        1745  Alessandro Guiccioli
       1745                Domenico Giuseppe Inguiberti       (b. 1683 - d. 1757)
       1745 -        1753  Gaspard de Sainte-Croix
       1753 -        1755  Tommaso Galli
       1755 -        1758  Fortunato Savini
       1758 -        1768  Carlo Manzoni
       1774 -        1776  Dionisio Francesco Regis Valoris
       1776 -        1785  Giulio Cesare Zollio
       1785 -        1787  Giuseppe Beni
       1787 -        1790  Cristofano Pieracchi               (b. 1741 - d. 1797)

Dombes

       1402                Principality of Dombes
28 Mar 1762                part of France

Princes
   Mar 1682 - 14 May 1736  Louis-Auguste I                    (b. 1670 - d. 1736)
14 May 1736 -  1 Oct 1755  Louis-Auguste II                   (b. 1700 - d. 1755)
 1 Oct 1755 - 28 Mar 1762  Louis Charles                      (b. 1701 - d. 1775)

French Equatorial Africa: see under Congo (Brazzaville).

French Guiana

       1674                French colony
   Jan 1809 -  8 Nov 1817  Portuguese/Brazilian rule
 6 Jul 1930                hinterland separated as Territory of Inini, under the same governor
19 Mar 1946                French Guiana becomes a French overseas département
14 Sep 1951                Inini is declared an arrondissement of French Guiana

Governors
       1691 -        1700  Pierre Eléonore de la Ville,
                           marquis de Férolles (3rd time)     (b. 16... - d. 1705)
       1700 -        1701  Rémy Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (1st time)                         (b. 16... - d. 1713)
       1701 -  5 Aug 1705  Pierre Eléonore de la Ville,
                           marquis de Férolles (4th time)     (s.a.)
       1705 -        1706  Antoine de Querci de Rionville
       1706 -        1713  Rémy Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1713 -        1716  Pierre de Morthon de Laumière
                           de Grandville
       1716 -        1720  Claude Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1668 - d. 1728)
       1720 -        1722  François de la Motte-Aigron
       1722 -        1728  Claude Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1729 -        1730  Michel Narshalek de Charanville
       1730                Gilbert Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (1st time)
       1730 - 30 Aug 1736  Henri Dussault de Lamirande        (b. ... - d. 1736)
       1736                Henri de Poilvillain de Grenay
       1736 -        1738  Gilbert Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (2nd time)
       1738 -        1743  Antoine Le Moyne de Chateauguay    (b. 1683 - d. 1747)
       1743 -        1751  Gilbert Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (3rd time)
       1751 -        1752  Jean Baptiste Hyacinthe de
                           Saint-Michel Dunezat (1st time)
       1752 -        1753  Gilbert Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (4th time)
       1753 -        1757  Jean Baptiste Hyacinthe de
                           Saint-Michel Dunezat (2nd time)
       1757 -        1763  Gilbert Guillouet d'Orvilliers
                           (5th time)
       1763 -        1764  Jean Pierre Antoine de Béhague
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1727 - d. 1813)
       1764                Louis Thomas Jacau de Fiedmond
                           (1st time)
       1764 -        1765  Étienne François de Turgot         (b. 1721 - d. 1789)
       1765 -        1766  Jean Pierre Antoine de Béhague
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1766 -        1781  Louis Thomas Jacau de Fiedmond
                           (2nd time)
       1781 -        1785  Ferdinand Alexandre de Bessner
       1785                Louis de Lavallière
       1785 -        1787  Thomas de FitzMaurice
   May 1787 - 22 Oct 1788  Pierre François de Mareuilh de
                           Villeboi                           (b. ... - d. 1788)
       1788 -        1789  Charles Guillaume Vial d'Alais
       1789 -        1791  Jacques Martin de Bourgon
       1791 -        1792  Henri Benoît
       1792 -        1793  Frédéric Guillot
14 Apr 1793 -    Nov 1794  Nicolas Georges Jeannet-Oudin
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1762 - d. 1828)
   Nov 1794 -    Apr 1796  François Maurice Cointet de
                           Fillain                            (b. 1766 - d. 1809)
   Apr 1796 -    Nov 1798  Nicolas Georges Jeannet-Oudin
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Nov 1798 -  2 Dec 1799  Pierre Burnel                      (b. 1762 - d. ...)
13 Dec 1799 -  8 Jan 1800  Étienne Franconie                  (b. 1729? - d. 18...)
 8 Jan 1800 -        1809  Victor Hugues                      (b. 1762 - d. 1826)
       1809 -  8 Nov 1817  João Severiano Maciel da Costa     (b. 1769 - d. 1833)
                           (Portuguese governor)
       1817 -        1819  Jean-François Carra Saint-Cyr      (b. 1756 - d. 1834)
25 Jan 1819 - 12 Mar 1823  Pierre Clément de Laussat          (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
       1823 -        1825  Pierre Bernard de Milius           (b. 1773 - d. 1829)
       1825 -        1826  Charles Emmanuel de Muyssard
       1826 -        1827  Joseph Burgues de Missiessy
       1827 -        1829  Louis Henri de Saulces de
                           Freycinet                          (b. 1777 - d. 1840)
 1 Jun 1829 - 11 Apr 1836  Jean-Guillaume Jubelin             (b. 1787 - d. 18...)
       1836 -        1837  François Dominique Laurens de
                           Choisy
       1837 -        1839  Paul de Nourquer du Camper
       1839 -        1841  Augustin Gourbeyre                 (b. 1786 - d. 1845)
       1841 -        1843  Guillaume Charmasson de Puylaval   (b. 1780 - d. 18...)
       1843 -        1845  Jean-François Layrle               (b. 1791 - d. 1881)
       1845 -        1846  Jean Baptiste Armand Bertrand
                           Cadéot
18 Feb 1846 - 16 May 1850  André Aimé Pariset                 (b. 1795 - d. 1872)
       1850 -  6 Jan 1851  Louis Eugène Maissin               (b. 1811 - d. 1851)
       1851                Jean François Marie Félix
                           Stanislas Vidal de Lingendes       (b. 1796 - d. ...)
   Mar 1851 -    May 1852  Octave Pierre Antoine Henri de
                           Chabannes-Curton                   (b. 1803 - d. 1889)
       1852 -        1853  Joseph Napoléon Sarda-Garriga      (b. 1808 - d. 1877)
       1853 -        1854  Martin Fourichon                   (b. 1809 - d. 1884)
       1854 -        1855  Louis Adolphe Bonard               (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
       1855 -    Jan 1856  Antoine Alphonse Masset
   Jan 1856 -        1859  Auguste Baudin                     (b. 1800 - d. 1877)
15 May 1859 -  1 May 1864  Louis Tardy de Montravel           (b. 1811 - d. 1864)
       1864 -        1865  Antoine Favre
       1865 -        1870  Agathon Hennique                   (b. 1810 - d. 1870)
30 Apr 1870 -    Aug 1877  Jean-Louis Loubère                 (b. 1820 - d. ...)
                           (acting to 1871)
       1877 -        1880  Marie Alfred Armand Huart          (b. 1826 - d. ...)
       1880 -        1883  Charles Alexandre Lacouture        (b. 1829 - d. 1917)
       1883 -        1884  Henri Isidore Chessé               (b. 1839 - d. ...)
       1884 -        1885  Jean Baptiste Antoine Lougnon      (b. 1843 - d. ...)
       1885 -        1887  Léonce Pierre Henri Le Cardinal    (b. 1830 - d. ...)
       1888 -        1891  Anne Léodor Philotée Metellus
                           Gerville-Réache                    (b. 1849 - d. ...)
   Apr 1891 -        1893  Albert Grodet (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1853 - d. 1933)
       1893                Paul Fawtier                       (b. 1837 - d. 1903)
24 Apr 1893 -  4 Aug 1895  Camille Charvein                   (b. 1834 - d. ...)
30 Aug 1895 - 13 Jun 1896  Henri de Lamothe                   (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
       1896 -        1898  Henri Danel                        (b. 1850 - d. ...)
       1898                Henri Charles Roberdeau            (b. 1849 - d. 1916)
       1899                Louis Mouttet                      (b. 1857 - d. 1902)
       1899 -        1903  Émile Merwart
       1903 -        1904  Albert Grodet (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1905                Charles Marchal                    (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
       1905 -        1906  Victor Rey
       1906                Louis Alphonse Bonhoure            (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
20 Jan 1906 -  5 Jul 1907  Édouard Picanon                    (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
       1907 -        1909  François Pierre Rodier             (b. 1854 - d. 19...)
       1909 -        1910  William Maurice Fawtier            (b. 1867 - d. 19...)
       1910                Fernand Ernest Thérond
       1910 - 31 May 1911  Paul Samary                        (b. 1848 - d. 1911)
       1911                Denys Joseph Goujon                (b. 1863 - d. 19...)
       1911 -        1914  Pierre Jean Henri Didelot
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1870 - d. 19...)
       1914 -        1916  Fernand Levecque                   (b. 1852 - d. 19...)
       1916                Pierre Jean Henri Didelot
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1916 -        1917  Georges Lévy                       (b. 1867 - d. 19...)
       1917                Jules Gérard Auguste Lauret        (b. 1866 - d. 19...)
       1917 -        1918  Antoine Joseph Xavier Barre
       1918 -        1923  Henri Alphonse Joseph Lejeune
       1923                Julien Edgard Cantau (acting)      (b. 1877 - d. 1952)
20 Nov 1923 -        1926  Marc Émile Chanel                  (b. 1882 - d. 1943)
       1926 -        1927  Gabriel Henri Joseph Thaly
       1927                Adrien Juvanon                     (b. 1875 - d. 19...)
       1927 -        1928  Émile Buhot-Launay                 (b. 1881 - d. 1970)
       1928 -        1929  Camille Théodore Raoul Maillet
       1929 -        1931  Bernard Jacques Victorin Siadous
27 May 1931 -        1933  Louis Bouge (acting)               (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
       1933 -        1935  Julien Georges Lamy
 2 Jun 1935 -        1936  Max de Masson de Saint-Félix       (b. ... - d. 1939)
       1936                Pierre Tap
       1936 -        1938  René Veber (1st time)
       1938 -        1942  Robert Paul Chot-Plassot           (b. 1897 - d. ...)
                           (acting to 1939)
18 Apr 1942 -    Mar 1943  René Veber (2nd time)
22 Mar 1943 - 26 Mar 1943  Albert Le Bel (acting)
26 Mar 1943 -        1944  Jean Rapenne                       (b. 1901 - d. 1952)
       1944 -        1946  Jules Surlemont (acting)           (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
       1946                Jean Pezet
Prefects (10 May 1982 - 24 Feb 1988, commissioners of the republic)
16 Aug 1947 -  1 Jun 1955  Robert Vignon                      (b. 1910 - d. 1989)
 1 Jun 1955 - 16 Sep 1957  Pierre Malvy                       (b. 1909)
 1 Oct 1957 -  1 Nov 1958  Pierre Voitellier                  (b. 1910)
13 Oct 1958 -  1 Dec 1960  André Dubois-Chabert               (b. 1913 - d. 1992)
                           (acting for Voitellier to 1 Nov 1958)
 1 Dec 1960 -  1 Dec 1963  René Erignac                       (b. 1909 - d. 2002)
 1 Dec 1963 - 16 Aug 1967  René Letellier                     (b. 1914)
16 Aug 1967 - 16 Jul 1970  Paul Bouteiller                    (b. 1921 - d. 2011)
16 Jul 1970 -  1 Feb 1972  Jean Monfraix                      (b. 1918 - d. 2008)
 1 Feb 1972 -  8 Feb 1974  Jacques Robert Delaunay            (b. 1921)
 5 Mar 1974 - 20 May 1977  Hervé Bourseillier                 (b. 1925)
20 May 1977 - 10 Feb 1980  Jean Le Direach                    (b. 1924 - d. 2003)
10 Feb 1980 - 27 Jul 1981  Désiré Carli                       (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
27 Jul 1981 - 22 Jul 1982  Maxime Gonzalvo                    (b. 1917)
   Jul 1982 -        1984  Claude Silberzahn                  (b. 1935)
       1984 -        1986  Bernard Courtois                   (b. 1935)
       1986 -    Aug 1988  Jacques Dewatre                    (b. 1936)
22 Aug 1988 - 16 May 1990  Jean-Pierre Lacroix                (b. 1942)
19 Jun 1990 -    May 1992  Jean-François Di Chiara            (b. 1941?)
27 May 1992 -  6 Jan 1995  Jean-François Cordet               (b. 1951)
 6 Jan 1995 -  3 Feb 1997  Pierre Dartout                     (b. 1954)
 3 Feb 1997 -  2 Aug 1999  Dominique Vian                     (b. 1944)
 2 Aug 1999 -  2 Sep 2002  Henri Masse                        (b. 1947)
 2 Sep 2002 -    Aug 2006  Ange Mancini                       (b. 1944)
28 Aug 2006 -    Feb 2009  Jean-Pierre Laflaquière            (b. 1947)
19 Feb 2009 -    May 2011  Daniel Ferey                       (b. 1947)
16 May 2011 - 20 Jun 2013  Denis Labbé                        (b. 1952)
24 Jun 2013 -              Éric Spitz                         (b. 1963)

Presidents of the General Council 1982 - 1983 Georges Othily (b. 1944) 1983 - Mar 1994 Elie Castor (b. 1943 - d. 1996) Mar 1994 - 30 Mar 1998 Stéphan Phinera-Horth 30 Mar 1998 - 26 Mar 2001 André Lecante (b. 1941?) 26 Mar 2001 - 4 Apr 2004 Joseph Ho-Ten-You (b. 1942) 4 Apr 2004 - 20 Mar 2008 Pierre Désert (b. 1944) 20 Mar 2008 - Alain Tien-Liong (b. 1963)

French Guinea: see Guinea.
French India: see under India.
French Indochina: see under Vietnam.

French Polynesia

Society Islands

Otaheiti (Tahiti)

       1791                the numerous districts of the island of Otaheiti (called
                           Tahiti by the Europeans), each ruled by an ari`i, most
                           descended from partly legendary rulers of the whole island,
                           come under the loose leadership of an ari`i rahi (called
                           king by the Europeans)
       1842                Otaheiti becomes a French protectorate
       1847                the queen assumes the style of Queen of the Society Islands
                           and their Dependencies
30 Dec 1880                annexation by France

Rulers (title Ari`i rahi)
13 Feb 1791 -  3 Sep 1803  Vai ra`a toa Tû Pomare I           (b. 1743 - d. 1803)
                           (de facto paramount ruler from 1768, first as ari`i,
                           then from 1774 as regent for the following)
 3 Sep 1803 - 22 Dec 1808  Pomare II (1st time)               (b. 1774 - d. 1821)
                           (succeeded the preceding at birth 1774 as ari`i)
22 Dec 1808 - 15 Nov 1815  vacant
15 Nov 1815 -  7 Dec 1821  Pomare II (2nd time)               (s.a.)
 7 Dec 1821 -  8 Jan 1827  Teri`i tari`a Pomare III           (b. 1820 - d. 1827)
 7 Dec 1821 -  8 Jan 1827    Teri`i tari`a Ari`i paea vahine
                             (f) (regent)                     (b. 1790 - d. 1858)
11 Jan 1827 - 17 Sep 1877  `Aimata Pomare IV Vahine (f)       (b. 1813 - d. 1877)
17 Sep 1877 - 30 Dec 1880  Ari`i aue Pomare V                 (b. 1839 - d. 1891)

Ra`iatea and Taha`a

     c.1300                Ra`iatea, poetically referred to as Havai`i, is regarded
                           as the legendary centre of Polynesian dispersion
     c.1800                Tamatoa II unites the several districts of Ra`iatea and
                           becomes sole ruler
       1831                the ruler of Ra`iatea also becomes ruler of Taha`a, which
                           up to that date had been fragmented into several districts
       1857                annexation by Otaheiti
       1860                independence recovered
16 Mar 1888                annexation by France

Rulers (title Ari`i)
        ... -         ...  Taraoari`i Tamatoa II fa`o
        ... -        1831  Vete`a ra`i Tamatoa III            (b. c.1757 - d. 1831)
       1831 - 19 Aug 1857  Moe`ore Tamatoa IV                 (b. c.1797 - d. 1857)
19 Aug 1857 -  8 Feb 1871  Tamatoa V a Tu                     (b. 1842 - d. 1881)
 8 Feb 1871 -        1881  Tahi toe II                        (b. ... - d. 1881)
       1881 - 18 Mar 1884  Rereao Hau roa ari`i (f)           (b. ... - d. 1884)
18 Mar 1884 - 16 Mar 1888  Te uru ra`i Ari`i mate Tamatoa VI
                           a Tautu                            (b. 1853 - d. ...)

Porapora (Borabora)

     c.1500                Porapora, also called Vavau, has a lineage of rulers
19 Mar 1888                annexation by France

Rulers (title Ari`i)
        ... -        1812  Te ari`i noho ra`i Tapoa I         (b. 17... - d. 1812)
        ... -         ...  Ma`i (co-ruler with preceding)
       1812 -    Mar 1860  Tapoa II                           (b. 1808 - d. 1860)
                           (styled Pomare abu rahi as husband
                           of Queen Pomare IV of Otaheiti)
26 Jul 1860 - 12 Feb 1873  Te ari`i maeva rua I (f)           (b. 1841 - d. 1873)
12 Feb 1873 - 19 Mar 1888  Te ari`i maeva rua II (f)          (b. 1871 - d. 1932)
       1873 -        1876    Temauiari`i a Mai (regent)       (b. 1849 - d. 1911)

Huahine

16 Mar 1888                annexation by France

Rulers (title Ari`i)
- Te hau mo`o rere dynasty -
      *1777*               Te ha`a papa I Te `i`oa tua
                           Teri`i tari`a (f)
       1814 -  2 Feb 1838  Mahine Te hei `ura Puru            (b. c.1761 - d. 1838)
       18.. -        1852  Teri`i tari`a Ari`i paea vahine
                           (f)                                (b. 1790 - d. 1858)
       1852 - 18 Mar 1854  Ma`i hara Te ma ri`i Ari`i peu
                           vahine (f)                         (b. 1822 - d. 1877)
18 Mar 1854 -        1868  Te uru ra`i Ari`i mate             (b. ... - d. 1874)
       1868 - 16 Mar 1888  Te ha`a papa II (f)                (b. ... - d. 1891)
22 Feb 1888 - 22 Jul 1890    Temari`i Ma`ihara Te uhe (f)     (b. c.1838 - d. 1891)
                             (in rebellion)
       1893 -    Sep 1895    Te ari`i na vaho roa Te ha`a
                             papa III (f)                     (b. 1879 - d. 1917)
                             (in rebellion)

Oparo (Rapa)

     c.1800                Aureka lineage becomes the ruling Ngaitapana dynasty
 6 Mar 1881                annexation by France, but kingship continues
18 Jun 1887                kingship abolished

Kings (title Ariki)
- Ngaitapana dynasty -
     c.1800 -         ...  Koroi
                           (jointly with following)
     c.1800 -         ...  Teraau tamaiti
        ... -         ...  Pirimaiteiti
      *1817 -        1825  Tereau
       1825 -        18..  Awariki
      *1863*               Aperahama
      *1867 -        1886  Te Paarima = Tereau
       1886 - 18 Jun 1887  ... (f)

Mangareva

       1881                annexation of Gambier Islands, including Mangareva, to
                           France
Rulers (title `Akariki)
        ... -         ...  O`oke`u
        ... -         ...  Te-Makorotau-eriki
        ... -         ...  Te-Mangi-tutavake
        ... -         ...  Teiti-a-tuou (usurper)
        ... -         ...  Te-`Akariki-tea + Te-`Akariki-pangu
        ... -         ...  Te-Oa + Te-Ma`uru + Te-Ma-tetama
        ... -        1830  Te-Ma-teoa + Mataira
       1830 -        1857  Te-Ma-puteoa (from 1836, Grégoire
                           Stanislas dit Gregorio I Te-Ma-puteoa)
       1857 -        1868  Joseph Gregorio II
       1868 -        1869  Maria Eutokia Toaputeitou (regent)
       1869 -        1873  Aarona Te-Ika-tohara (regent)
       1873 -        1881  Bernardo Teaoiti (regent)

French Polynesia

 1 May 1842                chiefs of the Marquesas Islands cede sovereignty to France;
                           other islands are annexed until 1900 (French Settlements in
                           Oceania)
27 Oct 1946                overseas territory
22 Jul 1957                French Polynesia
28 Mar 2003                overseas collectivité
27 Feb 2004                overseas country

Governors (1849-54 and 1860-81 commandants)
       1843 -        1847  Armand Joseph Bruat                (b. 1796 - d. 1855)
       1847 -        1850  Charles François Lavaud            (b. 1798 - d. 1878)
       1850 -        1852  Louis Adolphe Bonard               (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
       1852 -        1854  Théogène François Page             (b. 1807 - d. 1867)
       1854 -        1858  Joseph Fidèle Eugène du Bouzet     (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
       1858                Jean-Marie Saisset                 (b. 1810 - d. 1879)
       1858 -        1864  Eugène Gaultier de la Richerie     (b. 1820 - d. 1886)
       1864 -        1869  Émile, comte de la Roncière        (b. 1803 - d. 1874)
       1869 -        1871  Michel Louis Isidore de Jouslard   (b. 1814 - d. 1872)
       1871 -        1873  Hippolyte Auguste Girard           (b. 1822 - d. ...)
       1873 -        1876  Octave Bernard Gilbert-Pierre      (b. 1817 - d. ...)
       1876 -        1877  Antoine Léonce Michaux             (b. 1822 - d. ...)
       1877                Joseph Henri Brunet-Millet         (b. 1821 - d. ...)
       1877 -        1878  Auguste Marie Édouard d'Oncieu
                           de la Bâtie                        (b. 1833 - d. ...)
       1878 -        1880  Jacques Ferdinand Planche          (b. 1829 - d. 1894)
       1880 -        1881  Henri Isidore Chessé               (b. 1839 - d. ...)
       1881 -        1883  Frédéric Jean Dorlodot des Essarts (b. 1832 - d. ...)
       1883 -        1885  Marie Nicolas François Auguste
                           Morau                              (b. 1832 - d. ...)
       1885 -        1886  Delphino Moracchini (acting)       (b. 1846 - d. 1903)
       1886 -        1893  Étienne Théodore Lacascade         (b. 1841 - d. 1906)
       1893                Adolphe Jean Granier de Cassagnac  (b. 1849 - d. ...)
                           (acting)
       1893                Lucien Bommier (acting)
       1893                Jean Ours (acting)
       1893 -        1896  Clovis Papinaud                    (b. 1844 - d. 1900)
       1896 -        1901  Gustave Pierre Théodore Gallet     (b. 1850 - d. 19...)
       1901                Victor Rey (acting)
       1901 -        1904  Édouard Petit                      (b. 1856 - d. 1904)
       1904                Victor Lanrezac                    (b. 1854 - d. 19...)
       1904 -        1905  Henri Cor (acting)
       1905 -        1907  Philippe Émile Jullien             (b. 1845 - d. 1912)
       1907 -        1908  Élie Charlier (acting)
       1908 -        1910  Joseph François                    (b. 1853 - d. 19...)
       1910 -        1912  Adrien Bonhoure                    (b. 1860 - d. 19...)
       1912                Charles Hostein (acting)
       1912 -        1913  Léon Géraud (acting)
       1913 -        1915  William Maurice Fawtier            (b. 1867 - d. 19...)
   Oct 1915 -        1919  Gustave Julien                     (b. 1870 - d. 1936)
       1919 -    Apr 1919  Simoneau (acting)
   Apr 1919 -    Jan 1921  Jocelyn Robert (acting)
   Jan 1921 -    Apr 1921  Gabriel Henri Joseph Thaly
                           (acting)
   Apr 1921 -    Nov 1921  Auguste Guédès                     (b. 1871 - d. 19...)
   Sep 1922 -    Jan 1927  Louis Rivet                        (b. 1869 - d. 19...)
   Jan 1927 -    Feb 1928  Alfred Solari (acting)
   Feb 1928 -    Jun 1930  Louis Bouge (acting)               (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
21 Jun 1930 - 18 Jun 1932  Léonce Jore                        (b. 1882 - d. 1975)
   Jun 1932 -    Jun 1933  Alfred Léon Bouchet (acting)
   Jun 1933 -    May 1935  Lucien Montagné                    (b. 1886 - d. 1942)
   May 1935 -    Mar 1937  Henri Sautot (acting)              (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
   Mar 1937 -  4 Sep 1940  Jean Chastenet de Géry             (b. 1889 - d. 1976)
 4 Sep 1940 - 12 Sep 1940  Provisional Government
                           - Édouard Ahnne                    (b. 1867 - d. 1945)
                           - Georges Lagarde
                           - Émile Martin
                           - Georges Bambridge                (b. 1887 - d. 1942)
12 Sep 1940 -  5 Nov 1940  Edmond Mansard
 5 Nov 1940 - 18 Jun 1941  Émile de Curton                    (b. 1908)
18 Jun 1941 -    Nov 1941  Richard Brunot                     (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
   Nov 1941 -        1945  Georges Orselli
       1945 -        1947  Jean-Camille Haumant               (b. 1898 - d. 1955)
       1947 -        1949  Pierre Louis Maestracci
       1949 -        1950  Armand Anziani                     (b. 1904 - d. 1960)
       1950                Louis Girault (acting)
       1950 -        1954  René Petitbon                      (b. 1902 - d. 19...)
   Sep 1954 -        1958  Jean Toby                          (b. 1900 - d. 1964)
       1958                Camille Bailly (acting)            (b. 1907 - d. 1984)
       1958 -        1961  Pierre Sicaud                      (b. 1911 - d. 1998)
   Dec 1961 -    Jan 1965  Aimé Grimald                       (b. 1903 - d. 2000)
14 Jan 1965 -  4 Feb 1969  Jean Sicurani                      (b. 1915 - d. 1977)
   Feb 1969 -        1973  Pierre Angeli                      (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
       1973 -        1975  Daniel Videau                      (b. 1920)
 4 Dec 1975 - 13 Jul 1977  Charles Schmitt                    (b. 1922 - d. 1977)
High commissioners
13 Jul 1977 - 31 Oct 1977  Charles Schmitt                    (s.a.)
18 Dec 1977 - 27 Jul 1981  Paul Cousseran                     (b. 1922 - d. 2000)
27 Jul 1981 - 15 Jan 1983  Paul Noirot-Cosson                 (b. 1924 - d. 1997)
15 Jan 1983 - 28 Mar 1985  Alain Ohrel                        (b. 1935 - d. 2010)
   Mar 1985 -        1986  Bernard Gérard                     (b. 1932)
   Apr 1986 - 10 Nov 1987  Pierre Angeli                      (s.a.)
28 Nov 1987 -  3 Jan 1992  Jean Montpezat                     (b. 1937)
31 Jan 1992 -  8 Aug 1994  Michel Jau                         (b. 1951)
 8 Aug 1994 - 27 Aug 1997  Paul Roncière                      (b. 1942)
27 Aug 1997 -  8 Oct 1997  Michel Jeanjean (acting)           (b. 1951)
 8 Oct 1997 - 24 Oct 2001  Jean Aribaud                       (b. 1943)
24 Oct 2001 - 17 Nov 2001  Christian Massinon (acting)        (b. 1946)
17 Nov 2001 - 30 Jul 2005  Michel Mathieu                     (b. 1944 - d. 2010)
30 Jul 2005 - 10 Sep 2005  Jacques Michaut (acting)           (b. 1946)
10 Sep 2005 - 29 Jun 2008  Anne Boquet (f)                    (b. 1952)
29 Jun 2008 -  7 Jul 2008  Éric Spitz (acting)                (b. 1963)
 7 Jul 2008 -  7 Jan 2011  Adolphe Colrat                     (b. 1955)
 7 Jan 2011 - 24 Jan 2011  Alexandre Rochatte (acting)
24 Jan 2011 -  3 Sep 2012  Richard Didier                     (b. 1961)
 3 Sep 2012 - 23 Aug 2013  Jean-Pierre Laflaquière            (b. 1947)
23 Aug 2013 - 16 Sep 2013  Gilles Cantal (acting)             (b. 1953)
16 Sep 2013 -              Lionel Beffre                      (b. 1964)

Vice presidents of the Government Council 1957 - 11 Oct 1958 Pouvanaa a Oopa (b. 1895 - d. 1977) 1977 - 3 Jun 1982 Francis Sanford (b. 1912 - d. 1996) 3 Jun 1982 - 14 Sep 1984 Gaston Flosse (b. 1931) Presidents of the Government 14 Sep 1984 - 12 Feb 1987 Gaston Flosse (1st time) (s.a.) 12 Feb 1987 - 9 Dec 1987 Jacques Teuira (b. 1933) 9 Dec 1987 - 4 Apr 1991 Alexandre Léontieff (b. 1948 - d. 2009) 4 Apr 1991 - 27 Feb 2004 Gaston Flosse (2nd time) (s.a.) Presidents 27 Feb 2004 - 14 Jun 2004 Gaston Flosse (1st time) (s.a.) 14 Jun 2004 - 23 Oct 2004 Oscar Temaru (1st time) (b. 1944) 23 Oct 2004 - 3 Mar 2005 Gaston Flosse (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Mar 2005 - 26 Dec 2006 Oscar Temaru (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Dec 2006 - 13 Sep 2007 Gaston Tong Sang (1st time) (b. 1949) 13 Sep 2007 - 23 Feb 2008 Oscar Temaru (3rd time) (s.a.) 23 Feb 2008 - 15 Apr 2008 Gaston Flosse (3rd time) (s.a.) 15 Apr 2008 - 11 Feb 2009 Gaston Tong Sang (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Feb 2009 - 24 Nov 2009 Oscar Temaru (4th time) (s.a.) 24 Nov 2009 - 1 Apr 2011 Gaston Tong Sang (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Apr 2011 - 17 May 2013 Oscar Temaru (5th time) (s.a.) 17 May 2013 - 5 Sep 2014 Gaston Flosse (4th time) (s.a.) 5 Sep 2014 - 12 Sep 2014 Nuihau Laurey (acting) (b. 1964) 12 Sep 2014 - Édouard Fritch (b. 1952)

French Southern and Antarctic Lands

 6 Aug 1955                French overseas territory (detached from Madagascar)
28 Mar 2003                category of "overseas territory" removed in French
                           constitutional revision; organization of French Southern and
                           Antarctic Lands to be determined by law; no change in de facto
                           status

Administrators-superior
       1955 -        1959  Xavier Richert                     (b. 1913 - d. 1992)
       1959 -        1972  Pierre Rolland                     (b. 1918 - d. 1988)
       1973 -        1979  Roger Barberot                     (b. 1915 - d. 2002)
       1979 -        1982  Francis Jacquemont                 (b. 1932)
       1982 -        1987  Claude Pieri                       (b. 1922 - d. 2002)
25 Mar 1987 -    May 1990  Claude Corbier                     (b. 1927)
16 May 1990 -  4 Dec 1991  Bernard de Gouttes                 (b. 1945)
 4 Dec 1991 -  8 Feb 1996  Christian Dors                     (b. 1954)
14 Mar 1996 - 25 Mar 1998  Pierre Lise                        (b. 1937)
25 Mar 1998 - 26 Jan 2000  Brigitte Girardin (f)              (b. 1953)
14 Feb 2000 - 24 May 2000  Jean-Yves Hermoso (interim)
24 May 2000 - 21 Jan 2005  François Garde                     (b. 1959)
21 Jan 2005 - 28 Feb 2007  Michel Champon                     (b. 1952)
28 Feb 2007 - 10 Apr 2007  Alain Mauroy (interim)             (b. 1946)
10 Apr 2007 -    Sep 2008  Éric Pilloton                      (b. 1964)
16 Oct 2008 -    Nov 2010  Rollon Mouchel-Blaisot             (b. 1959)
 4 Nov 2010 - 10 Apr 2012  Christian Gaudin                   (b. 1950)
10 Apr 2012 -              Pascal Bolot                       (b. 1963)

French Sudan: see Mali.
French West Africa: see under Senegal.
Fujairah: see under United Arab Emirates.