Rulers

Countries Ch

Contents of this page:
Chad - Chile - China - Christmas Island

Chad

 5 Sep 1900                French rule (Military Territory of the Lands and
                           Protectorates of Chad)
 5 Jul 1902                Circumscription of the Lands and Protectorates of Chad
29 Dec 1903                Territory of Chad
11 Feb 1906                Military Territory of Chad (part of Oubangui-Chari-Tchad [see
                           Central African Republic])
14 May 1915                Territory of Chad (part of Oubangui-Chari-Tchad to 12 Apr 1916,
                           thereafter separate part of French Equatorial Africa [see under
                           Congo (Brazzaville)])
17 Mar 1920                Colony of Chad
30 Jun 1934                Region of Chad
31 Dec 1937                Territory of Chad
28 Nov 1958                autonomy (Republic of Chad)
11 Aug 1960                independence

Commissioners
29 May 1900 -  2 Jul 1902  Émile Gentil                       (b. 1866 - d. 1914)
25 Aug 1900 -  8 Mar 1901    Félix Robillot                   (b. 1865 - d. 1943)
                             (acting for Gentil)
 8 Mar 1901 - 15 Jul 1902  Georges Destenave                  (b. 1854 - d. 1928)
                           (acting [for Gentil to 2 Jul 1902])
Administrators
 8 Aug 1902 - 19 Oct 1902  Emmanuel Largeau (acting)          (b. 1867 - d. 1916)
19 Oct 1902 -    Nov 1903  Alfred Fourneau                    (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
Commandants
   Nov 1903 - 17 Jul 1904  Emmanuel Largeau (1st time)        (s.a.)
17 Jul 1904 - 11 Aug 1906  Henri Gouraud                      (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
11 Aug 1906 - 25 Jul 1908  Emmanuel Largeau (2nd time)        (s.a.)
25 Jul 1908 -  1 Nov 1909  Constant Millot                    (b. 1863 - d. 19...)
 1 Nov 1909 -  9 Nov 1910  Henry Moll                         (b. 1871 - d. 1910)
 9 Nov 1910 - 12 Mar 1911  Joseph Édouard Maillard (acting)
12 Mar 1911 -  8 Sep 1912  Emmanuel Largeau (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 8 Sep 1912 -  3 Sep 1913  James Édouard Hirtzman (acting)    (b. 1862 - d. 1924)
 3 Sep 1913 - 29 Jul 1915  Emmanuel Largeau (4th time)        (s.a.)
29 Jul 1915 - 28 Nov 1917  Victor Merlet (administrator)
28 Nov 1917 - 22 May 1918  Clément Léon Martelly (acting)
22 May 1918 - 24 Mar 1920  Albert Ducarre (acting)            (b. 1869 - d. 1954)
Lieutenant governors
24 Mar 1920 - 10 Jan 1921  Bertrant (acting) (de facto)
10 Jan 1921 - 20 Apr 1923  Fernand Lavit                      (b. 1872 - d. 1956)
 7 May 1923 - 25 Jan 1926  François Joseph Reste              (b. 1879 - d. 1976)
                           (acting to 9 Apr 1925)
   Oct 1925 -    Jan 1926    François Terraz
                             (acting for Reste)
26 Jan 1926 - 18 Mar 1929  Marcel de Coppet (1st time)        (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
                           (acting)
 3 Dec 1927 -  9 Feb 1928    Cléret (acting for de Coppet)
18 Mar 1929 - 18 Apr 1929  Maurice Assier de Pompignan        (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
                           (acting)
18 Apr 1929 -    Feb 1930  Émile Buhot-Launay (acting)        (b. 1881 - d. 1970)
   Sep 1929 -    Dec 1929    Maurice Assier de Pompignan      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Buhot-Launay)
   Feb 1930 - 20 Apr 1932  Marcel de Coppet (2nd time)        (s.a.)
11 Oct 1930 - 24 Dec 1930    Louis de Poyen-Bellisle          (b. ... - d. 1937)
                             (acting for de Coppet)
20 Apr 1932 -  4 May 1932  Joseph Bouvet (acting)
 4 May 1932 - 14 Jun 1933  Georges Prouteaux (acting)
24 Sep 1932 - 20 Dec 1932    Louis de Poyen-Bellisle          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Prouteaux)
27 Jun 1933 - 15 Oct 1934  Richard Brunot                     (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
11 Dec 1933 -    Feb 1934    Louis de Poyen-Bellisle          (s.a.)
                             (acting for Brunot)
Commandants (subordinated to the governor-delegate of Oubangui-Chari to 31 Dec 1937)
15 Oct 1934 - 14 Dec 1938  Charles Dagain                     (b. 1885 - d. 1969)
                             Acting for Dagain:
   Jun 1935 -    Feb 1936    Maurice Falvy                    (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
 8 Mar 1938 -    Apr 1938    Gabriel Fortune                  (b. 1897 - d. 1971)
   Apr 1938 -    Nov 1938    Émile Buhot-Launay               (s.a.)
Chefs de territoire (from 1946, governors; from 1958, high commissioners)
14 Dec 1938 -  4 Jan 1939  Charles Dagain (acting)            (s.a.)
 4 Jan 1939 -    Dec 1940  Félix Éboué                        (b. 1884 - d. 1944)
 2 Jan 1941 - 21 Jan 1941  Philippe Leclerc (acting)          (b. 1902 - d. 1947)
21 Jan 1941 - 12 Dec 1942  Pierre-Olivier Lapie               (b. 1901 - d. 1994)
12 Dec 1942 -  5 Sep 1943  André Latrille                     (b. 1894 - d. 1987)
 5 Sep 1943 -    Jan 1949  Jacques Rogué                      (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
                           (acting to 7 Jan 1944)
                             Acting for Rogué:
   Jan 1944 -    Feb 1944    François Casamatta (1st time)    (b. 1899 - d. 1961)
28 Aug 1945 -    Oct 1945    Auguste Even                     (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
17 May 1946 - 21 Nov 1946    Adrien Léger                     (b. 1899 - d. 1948)
   Jan 1949 -    Feb 1949  François Casamatta (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting)
   Feb 1949 -    Jul 1949  Paul Le Layec (acting)             (b. 1901 - d. 1965)
   Aug 1949 -    Feb 1951  Henry de Mauduit                   (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
                           (acting to 1 Feb 1950)
   Feb 1951 - 19 Oct 1951  Charles Hanin (acting)             (b. 1895 - d. 1964)
19 Oct 1951 - 16 Dec 1951  François Casamatta (3rd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting)
16 Dec 1951 -  3 Nov 1956  Ignace Colombani                   (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
 3 Nov 1956 - 22 Jan 1959  René Troadec                       (b. 1908 - d. 1986)
22 Jan 1959 - 11 Aug 1960  Daniel Doustin                     (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
Presidents
11 Aug 1960 - 13 Apr 1975  François Tombalbaye (from 30 Aug
                           1973, N'Garta Tombalbaye)          (b. 1918 - d. 1975)
                           (Head of State to 23 Apr 1962)
13 Apr 1975 - 15 Apr 1975  Noël Milarew Odingar               (b. 1932 - d. 2007)
                           (interim head of state)
15 Apr 1975 - 23 Mar 1979  Félix Malloum                      (b. 1932 - d. 2009)
                           (chairman Higher Military Council to 12 May 1975,
                           Head of State 12 May 1975 - 29 Aug 1978)
23 Mar 1979 - 29 Apr 1979  Goukouni Oueddei (1st time)        (b. 1944)
                           (chairman Provisional Council of State)
29 Apr 1979 -  3 Sep 1979  Lol Mahamat Choua                  (b. 1939)
                           (president of Transitional Government of National Union)
 3 Sep 1979 -  7 Jun 1982  Goukouni Oueddei (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (chairman Provisional Administrative Committee to 10 Nov
                           1979, then president of Transitional Government of
                           National Union)
 7 Jun 1982 -  1 Dec 1990  Hissène Habré                      (b. 1942)
                           (chairman Command Council of the Armed Forces of the
                           North to 19 Jun 1982, chairman Council of State
                           19 Jun - 21 Oct 1982)
 1 Dec 1990 -  2 Dec 1990  Jean Alingué Bawoyeu (acting)      (b. 1937)
 2 Dec 1990 -              Idriss Déby (from 26 Jan 2006,
                           Idriss Déby Itno)                  (b. 1952)
                           (president of Patriotic Salvation Movement 2-4 Dec 1990,
                           Head of State 4 Dec 1990 - 4 Mar 1991)

Prime ministers 14 May 1957 - 11 Feb 1959 Gabriel Lisette (b. 1919 - d. 2001) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, president of the Government Council 26 Jul - 10 Dec 1958, president of the provisional government from 10 Dec 1958) 11 Feb 1959 - 12 Mar 1959 Gontchomé Sahoulba (b. 1916 - d. 1963) (president of the provisional government) 12 Mar 1959 - 26 Mar 1959 Ahmad Koulamallah (b. 1912 - d. 1995) (president of the provisional government) 26 Mar 1959 - 13 Apr 1975 François Tombalbaye (from 30 Aug 1973, N'Garta Tombalbaye) (s.a.) (president of the provisional government to 16 Jun 1959) 15 Apr 1975 - 29 Aug 1978 Félix Malloum (s.a.) 29 Aug 1978 - 23 Mar 1979 Hissène Habré (s.a.) 19 May 1982 - 19 Jun 1982 Djidingar Dono Ngardoum (b. 1928 - d. 2000) 4 Mar 1991 - 20 May 1992 Jean Alingué Bawoyeu (s.a.) 20 May 1992 - 7 Apr 1993 Joseph Yodoyman (b. 1950 - d. 1993) 7 Apr 1993 - 6 Nov 1993 Fidèle Moungar (b. 1948) 6 Nov 1993 - 8 Apr 1995 Delwa Kassire Koumakoye (1st time) (b. 1949) 8 Apr 1995 - 17 May 1997 Djimasta Koibla (b. 1950 - d. 2007) 17 May 1997 - 13 Dec 1999 Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaido (b. 1947) 13 Dec 1999 - 12 Jun 2002 Nagoum Yamassoum (b. 1954) 12 Jun 2002 - 24 Jun 2003 Haroun Kabadi (b. 1949) 24 Jun 2003 - 3 Feb 2005 Moussa Faki (b. 1960) 3 Feb 2005 - 23 Feb 2007 Pascal Yoadimnadji (b. 1950? - d. 2007) 23 Feb 2007 - 26 Feb 2007 Adoum Younousmi (interim) (b. 1962) 26 Feb 2007 - 16 Apr 2008 Delwa Kassire Koumakoye (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Apr 2008 - 5 Mar 2010 Youssouf Saleh Abbas (b. 1952) 5 Mar 2010 - 21 Jan 2013 Emmanuel Nadingar (b. 1951) 21 Jan 2013 - 21 Nov 2013 Djimrangar Dadnadji (b. 1954) 21 Nov 2013 - 15 Feb 2016 Kalzeubé Pahimi Deubet (b. 1957) 15 Feb 2016 - Albert Pahimi Padacké (b. 1966)

Champasak: see under Laos.
Chechnya: see under Russia.
Cheng: see under China.

Chile

12 Feb 1818                independence declared (State of Chile)
 9 Jul 1826                Republic of Chile

Supreme Directors
12 Feb 1818 - 28 Jan 1823  Bernardo O'Higgins                 (b. 1778 - d. 1842)
28 Jan 1823 - 29 Mar 1823  Agustín de Eyzaguirre              (b. 1768 - d. 1837)
                           (President of Junta)
29 Mar 1823 -  5 Apr 1823  Congress of Plenipotentiaries
                           - Juan Egaña                       (b. 1769 - d. 1836)
                           - Manuel Fernando Vásquez de Novoa (b. 1783 - d. 18...)
                           - Manuel Antonio González
 5 Apr 1823 - 13 Aug 1823  Ramón Freire (1st time)            (b. 1787 - d. 1851)
                           (provisional)
13 Aug 1823 -  2 Sep 1823  Deputy Supreme Junta
                           - Mariano Egaña                    (b. 1793 - d. 1846)
                           - Santiago Fernández               (b. 1768 - d. 1847)
                           - Diego José Benavente             (b. 1790 - d. 1867)
 2 Sep 1823 -  9 Jul 1826  Ramón Freire (2nd time)            (s.a.)
Presidents
 9 Jul 1826 -  9 Sep 1826  Manuel Blanco Encalada             (b. 1790 - d. 1876)
                           (provisional)
 9 Sep 1826 -  1 Feb 1827  Agustín de Eyzaguirre              (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 1 Feb 1827 -  8 May 1827  Ramón Freire (1st time)            (s.a.)
                           (provisional [in rebellion from 25 Jan 1827] to
                           15 Feb 1827)
 8 May 1827 - 16 Jul 1829  Francisco Antonio Pinto (1st time) (b. 1785 - d. 1858)
                           (acting)
16 Jul 1829 - 19 Oct 1829  Francisco Ramón de Vicuña
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1775 - d. 1849)
19 Oct 1829 -  2 Nov 1829  Francisco Antonio Pinto (2nd time) (s.a.)
 2 Nov 1829 -  7 Nov 1829  Francisco Ramón de Vicuña
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 7 Nov 1829 - 13 Nov 1829  Ramón Freire (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                           (President of Junta)
13 Nov 1829 -  7 Dec 1829  Francisco Ramón de Vicuña
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (acting [in rebellion from 8 Nov 1829])
 7 Dec 1829 - 24 Dec 1829  Ramón Freire (3rd time)            (s.a.)
                           (in charge of the Executive)
24 Dec 1829 - 18 Feb 1830  José Tomás Ovalle (1st time)       (b. 1788 - d. 1831)
                           (President of Junta)
18 Feb 1830 -  1 Apr 1830  Francisco Antonio Ruiz Tagle       (b. ... - d. 1860)
                           (provisional)
 1 Apr 1830 - 21 Mar 1831  José Tomás Ovalle (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
21 Mar 1831 - 18 Sep 1831  Fernando de Errázuriz              (b. 1777 - d. 1841)
                           ("accidental" to 22 Mar 1831, then acting)
18 Sep 1831 - 18 Sep 1841  Joaquín Prieto                     (b. 1786 - d. 1854)
18 Sep 1841 - 18 Sep 1851  Manuel Bulnes                      (b. 1799 - d. 1866)
18 Sep 1851 - 18 Sep 1861  Manuel Montt                       (b. 1809 - d. 1880)
18 Sep 1861 - 18 Sep 1871  José Joaquín Pérez                 (b. 1800 - d. 1889)
18 Sep 1871 - 18 Sep 1876  Federico Errázuriz Zañartu         (b. 1825 - d. 1877)
18 Sep 1876 - 18 Sep 1881  Aníbal Pinto                       (b. 1825 - d. 1884)
18 Sep 1881 - 18 Sep 1886  Domingo Santa María                (b. 1824 - d. 1889)
18 Sep 1886 - 29 Aug 1891  José Manuel Balmaceda              (b. 1840 - d. 1891)
29 Aug 1891 - 31 Aug 1891  Manuel Baquedano                   (b. 1823 - d. 1897)
                           ("accidental" chief of state)
31 Aug 1891 - 18 Sep 1896  Jorge Montt                        (b. 1846 - d. 1922)
                           (President of Junta [in rebellion from 12 Apr 1891] to
                           10 Nov 1891; Head of the Executive to 26 Dec 1891)
18 Sep 1896 - 12 Jul 1901  Federico Errázuriz Echaurren       (b. 1850 - d. 1901)
12 Jul 1901 - 18 Sep 1901  Aníbal Zañartu Zañartu (acting)    (b. 1847 - d. 1902)
18 Sep 1901 - 18 Sep 1906  Germán Riesco                      (b. 1854 - d. 1916)
18 Sep 1906 - 16 Aug 1910  Pedro Montt                        (b. 1849 - d. 1910)
16 Aug 1910 -  6 Sep 1910  Elías Fernández Albano (acting)    (b. 1845 - d. 1910)
 6 Sep 1910 - 23 Dec 1910  Emiliano Figueroa Larraín
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1866 - d. 1931)
23 Dec 1910 - 23 Dec 1915  Ramón Barros Luco                  (b. 1835 - d. 1919)
23 Dec 1915 - 23 Dec 1920  Juan Luis Sanfuentes               (b. 1858 - d. 1930)
23 Dec 1920 - 12 Sep 1924  Arturo Alessandri Palma
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1868 - d. 1950)
12 Sep 1924 - 23 Jan 1925  Luis Altamirano Talavera           (b. 1867 - d. 1938)
                           (junta chairman)
23 Jan 1925 - 27 Jan 1925  Pedro Pablo Dartnell Encina        (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
                           (junta chairman)
27 Jan 1925 - 20 Mar 1925  Emilio Bello Codesido              (b. 1868 - d. 1963)
                           (junta chairman)
20 Mar 1925 -  1 Oct 1925  Arturo Alessandri Palma
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1925 - 23 Dec 1925  Luis Barros Borgoño (acting)       (b. 1858 - d. 1943)
23 Dec 1925 - 10 May 1927  Emiliano Figueroa Larraín
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
10 May 1927 - 29 Jul 1931  Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1877 - d. 1960)
                           (acting to 21 Jul 1927)
29 Jul 1931 - 20 Aug 1931  Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1879 - d. 1948)
20 Aug 1931 - 15 Nov 1931  Manuel Trucco Franzani (acting)    (b. 1875 - d. 1954)
15 Nov 1931 -  4 Jun 1932  Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez
                           (2nd time) (acting to 4 Dec 1931)  (s.a.)
 4 Jun 1932 - 16 Jun 1932  Arturo Puga Osorio                 (b. 1879 - d. 19...)
                           (chairman Junta of the Socialist Republic of Chile)
16 Jun 1932 - 13 Sep 1932  Carlos Dávila Espinoza             (b. 1887 - d. 1955)
                           (chairman Junta of the Socialist Republic of Chile to
                           8 Jul 1932, then Provisional President of the Socialist
                           Republic of Chile)
13 Sep 1932 -  2 Oct 1932  Bartolomé Blanche Espejo           (b. 1879 - d. 1970)
                           (provisional)
 2 Oct 1932 - 24 Dec 1932  Abraham Oyanedel Urrutia (acting)  (b. 1874 - d. 1954)
24 Dec 1932 - 24 Dec 1938  Arturo Alessandri Palma            (s.a.)
                           (3rd time)
24 Dec 1938 - 25 Nov 1941  Pedro Aguirre Cerda                (b. 1879 - d. 1941)
25 Nov 1941 -  2 Apr 1942  Jerónimo Méndez Arancibia          (b. 1887 - d. 1959)
                           (acting)
 2 Apr 1942 - 27 Jun 1946  Juan Antonio Ríos Morales          (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
17 Jan 1946 - 17 Oct 1946  Alfredo Duhalde Vásquez            (b. 1898 - d. 1985)
                           (acting [for Ríos to 27 Jun 1946])
 3 Aug 1946 - 13 Aug 1946    Vicente Merino Bielich           (b. 1889 - d. 1977)
                             (acting for Duhalde)
17 Oct 1946 -  3 Nov 1946  Juan Antonio Iribarren Cabezas     (b. 1885 - d. 1966)
                           (acting)
 3 Nov 1946 -  3 Nov 1952  Gabriel González Videla            (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
 3 Nov 1952 -  3 Nov 1958  Carlos Ibáñez del Campo
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 3 Nov 1958 -  3 Nov 1964  Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez         (b. 1896 - d. 1986)
 3 Nov 1964 -  3 Nov 1970  Eduardo Frei Montalva              (b. 1911 - d. 1982)
 3 Nov 1970 - 11 Sep 1973  Salvador Allende                   (b. 1908 - d. 1973)
11 Sep 1973 - 27 Jun 1974  Junta
                           - Augusto Pinochet Ugarte          (b. 1915 - d. 2006)
                             (chairman)
                           - José Toribio Merino Castro       (b. 1915 - d. 1996)
                           - Gustavo Leigh Guzmán             (b. 1920 - d. 1999)
                           - César Mendoza Durán              (b. 1918 - d. 1996)
27 Jun 1974 - 11 Mar 1990  Augusto Pinochet Ugarte            (s.a.)
                           (Supreme Head of the Nation to 17 Dec 1974)
11 Mar 1990 - 11 Mar 1994  Patricio Aylwin Azócar             (b. 1918 - d. 2016)
11 Mar 1994 - 11 Mar 2000  Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle            (b. 1942)
11 Mar 2000 - 11 Mar 2006  Ricardo Lagos Escobar              (b. 1938)
11 Mar 2006 - 11 Mar 2010  Michelle Bachelet (f) (1st time)   (b. 1951)
11 Mar 2010 - 11 Mar 2014  Sebastián Piñera                   (b. 1949)
11 Mar 2014 -              Michelle Bachelet (f) (2nd time)   (s.a.)

Easter Island

Note: Easter Island had no traditional name in the island language; although this seems natural, given its isolation, it runs counter to the Polynesian practice of transporting island names in their migrations. Authors have tried to claim that Te Pito 'o Te Henua, meaning the Navel of the World in the island language, was the name brought with the founding migration, but this has been successfully disputed. The name Rapanui (Great Rapa, as opposed to Rapaiti, the Rapa in French Polynesia) was attributed in the 19th century and has acquired official status. The island had a highly tabooed paramount chief or king, the 'ariki henua. The office was hereditary in the Miru clan, and it appears that, in a similar fashion to Tahitian custom, the first-born son of the 'ariki henua succeeded to the position at birth because the mana passed to him at that moment, his father remaining in power as his regent until his marriage. In 1862, when the population of the island had already been severely depleted, Peruvian guano collectors raided the island, killed a large part of the population, and kidnapped almost all the rest, including the two 'ariki henua (i.e., the nominal 'ariki henua Maurata and his father and predecessor Kai Mako'i iti). Of the kidnapped population, fewer than 200 survived to be returned. Under these circumstances practically all knowledge of the past was lost or thoroughly garbled. It is therefore impossible to recover precise information. There are about six or seven lists of 'ariki henua that were provided to visitors and researchers, with between 20 and 57 names. Here is a list that is perhaps among the less unreliable ones (although interest in the 57-name list has been revived because carbon-dating has retrojected the human settlement of the island to no later than the 5th century).
 9 Sep 1888                annexed by Chile

Paramount chiefs (title 'ariki henua)
- Miru clan -
        ... -         ...  Hotu Matu'a
        ... -         ...  Tu'u maheke 'a Hotu Matu'a
        ... -         ...  Miru 'a Tu'u Maheke
        ... -         ...  Hata 'a Miru
        ... -         ...  Miru 'a Hata
        ... -         ...  Mitiake
        ... -         ...  Ataranga 'a Miru
        ... -         ...  Atu'u Raranga
        ... -         ...  Urakikena
        ... -         ...  Kahui Tuhunga
        ... -         ...  Te Tuhunga Nui
        ... -         ...  Te Tuhunga Marakapau
        ... -         ...  Ahu Arihao
        ... -         ...  Nui Te Patu
        ... -         ...  Hirakau Tehito
        ... -         ...  Tupu itetoki
        ... -         ...  Kura Ta Hongo
        ... -         ...  Hiti Rua Anea
        ... -         ...  Havi Nikoro
        ... -         ...  Te Ravarava
        ... -         ...  Te Raha'i
        ... -         ...  Koroharua
        ... -         ...  Te Ririkatea
        ... -         ...  Kai Mako'i
        ... -         ...  Te Hetukarakura
        ... -         ...  Huero
       1835 -        1859  Nga'ara
       1859 -        1862  Kai Mako'i iti                     (b. ... - d. 1862)
       1862                Maurata                            (b. ... - d. 1862)
       1863 -        1864  Tepito
       1864 -        1866  Gregorio Rokoroko hetau            (b. 18... - d. 1866)
       1866 -        1868  vacant
       1868 -        1869? Koreto Puakurunga (f)
       1869?-        1888? Carolina (f)
       1888?-        18..  Atamu Te Kena Maurata
      *1892 -        1899  Simeón Riroroko

Araucania

       1777                Araucania is recognized by treaty between Spain and the
                           "natives" to be outside the Spanish Monarchy
17 Nov 1860                Kingdom of Araucania proclaimed
20 Dec 1860                royal style changed to King of Araucania and Patagonia¹
 5 Jan 1862                king arrested and Araucania subsequently annexed by Chile²
 1 Nov 1903                kingdom effectively ended³

Kings
17 Nov 1860 - 17 Sep 1878  Orllie-Antoine I                   (b. 1825 - d. 1878)
17 Sep 1878 - 16 Mar 1902  Achille I                          (b. 1841 - d. 1902)
21 Mar 1902 -  1 Nov 1903  Antoine II                         (b. 1833 - d. 1903)
¹The inclusion of Patagonia was purely fictitious, and the claim to what arguably was already Argentinian territory was never pursued; it was supposedly based on theoretical considerations of ethnic affinity and claims of support never documented.
²Dates of the official enactments that produced the incorporation of Araucania into the Chilean state are unavailable, but by 1870 the Chilean government would consider this a matter of fact, however legally justified.
³On 6 Nov 1903, the Council of Regency met and chose Georges Sénéchal de la Grange to be the new "king," but he declined. From that date on, everything that has been written about the succession is essentially a fabrication by Philippe Paul Alexandre Henri Boiry (b. 1927 - d. 2014), who claimed to be Philippe I. His account runs as follows: the sole heir, and hence successor, of Antoine II was his daughter, Laure Thérèse Cros, veuve Bernard (b. 1856 - d. 1916), who "was" Queen Laure-Thérèse I from 6 Nov 1903 to her death 12 Mar 1916. There is no documentation of her acting as queen. Upon his mother's death, Jacques Alexandre Antoine Bernard (b. 1880 - d. 1952) became King Jacques-Antoine III. On 12 May 1951, Philippe I claimed, Jacques-Antoine III freely ceded the kingship to him, Philippe I, in the same terms as Orllie-Antoine I's nephew had ceded his claim to the future Achille I before his uncle's death. The documentation of this cession is a card that does not name to whom it is addressed.

China

Note: Names are given in pinyin transliteration (which was officially adopted by the People's Republic on 1 Jan 1979, but not by Taiwan), except for Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek, who are best known under those versions. Emperors are listed with their personal name (ming), followed by their temple name (miaohao), posthumous name (shi), and the era name (nianhao) roughly coextensive with the particular reign (note that the overlap is not perfect). Although it is customary in "Western" sources to refer to a Qing ruler by his nianhao (e.g., the Guangxu emperor), Chinese usually refer to a former emperor by his miaohao, perhaps preceded by the name of the polity (e.g., Qing Dezong).

Imperial China

15 May 1636                Great Qing Empire inaugurated

Emperors
- Qing dynasty -
 7 Feb 1661 - 20 Dec 1722  Xuanye                             (b. 1654 - d. 1722)
                           miaohao: Shengzu / shi: Ren huangdi
                           nianhao 18 Feb 1662 - 4 Feb 1723: Kangxi
10 Jul 1706 -        1707    Wei Zhiye (in rebellion)
                             nianhao 10 Jul 1706 - 1707: Wenxing
       1707 -        1708    Zhu Cihuan
                             (styled Ding wang, heading Great Ming [or Shining] Realm,
                             in rebellion)
26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721    Zhu Yigui
                             (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
                             nianhao 26 May 1721 - 30 Jul 1721: Yonghe
27 Dec 1722 -  8 Oct 1735  Yinzhen                            (b. 1678 - d. 1735)
                           miaohao: Shizong / shi: Xian huangdi
                           nianhao 5 Feb 1723 - 11 Feb 1736: Yongzheng
18 Oct 1735 -  9 Feb 1796  Hongli                             (b. 1711 - d. 1799)
                           miaohao: Gaozong / shi: Chun huangdi
                           nianhao 12 Feb 1736 - 8 Feb 1796: Qianlong
   Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788    Lin Shuangwen
                             (in rebellion, rules almost exclusively on Taiwan)
                             nianhao Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788: Shuntian
 9 Feb 1796 -  2 Sep 1820  Yongyan                            (b. 1760 - d. 1820)
                           miaohao: Renzong / shi: Rui huangdi
                           nianhao 9 Feb 1796 - 2 Feb 1821: Jiaqing
   Mar 1797 -        1797    Li Shu (in rebellion)
                             nianhao Mar 1797 - 1797: Daqing
 3 Oct 1820 - 25 Feb 1850  Minning                            (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
                           miaohao: Xuanzong / shi: Cheng huangdi
                           nianhao 3 Feb 1821 - 31 Jan 1851: Daoguang
 9 Mar 1850 - 22 Aug 1861  Yizhu                              (b. 1831 - d. 1861)
                           miaohao: Wenzong / shi: Xian huangdi
                           nianhao 1 Feb 1851 - 29 Jan 1862: Xianfeng
11 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875  Zaichun                            (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
                           miaohao: Muzong / shi: Yi huangdi
                           nianhao 30 Jan 1862 - 5 Feb 1875: Tongzhi
25 Feb 1875 - 14 Nov 1908  Zaitian                            (b. 1871 - d. 1908)
                           miaohao: Dezong / shi: Jing huangdi
                           nianhao 6 Feb 1875 - 21 Jan 1909: Guangxu
25 Feb 1875 -  4 Mar 1889    Empress Dowager Cixi (f)         (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
                             (regent)
 2 Dec 1908 - 12 Feb 1912  Puyi (1st time)                    (b. 1906 - d. 1967)
                           nianhao 22 Jan 1909 - 12 Feb 1912: Xuantong
 2 Dec 1908 -  6 Dec 1911    Zaifeng (regent)                 (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
 6 Dec 1911 - 12 Feb 1912    Empress Dowager Longyu (f)       (b. 1868 - d. 1913)
                             (holder of the Imperial seal)
 1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  Puyi (2nd time)                    (s.a.)

Premiers 8 May 1911 - 1 Nov 1911 Yikuang (b. 1836 - d. 1918) 2 Nov 1911 - Mar 1912 Yuan Shikai (b. 1859 - d. 1916)

Taiping

11 Jan 1851                Taiping tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Great Peace)
                           inaugurated
25 Oct 1864                extinguished by Qing empire

Heavenly Kings
11 Jan 1851 -  1 Jun 1864  Hong Xiuquan                       (b. 1813 - d. 1864)
 1 Jun 1864 - 25 Oct 1864  Hong Tianguifu                     (b. 1849 - d. 1864)

Shengping

 9 Oct 1854                Shengping tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Ascending Peace)
                           inaugurated
24 Jul 1858                extinguished by Qing empire

Heavenly Kings
 9 Oct 1854 - 24 Jul 1858  Hu Youlu (to Oct 1855)
                           + Zhu Hongying

Cheng

27 Sep 1855                Great Cheng Realm inaugurated
21 Aug 1861                extinguished by Qing empire

Kings
27 Sep 1855 - 21 Aug 1861  Chen Kai (styled Ping Xun wang)
                           + Li Wenmao (to 1858)

Kashghar

       1694 -        1720  occupied by Dörben Oyirad
   Jul 1759 -    May 1826  occupied by Qing empire
       1864                detached from the Qing empire
       1870                polity renamed Jiti Shahar
28 Dec 1877                reincorporated into Qing empire

Khans (from 6 Dec 1873, Amir Khans)
- Aqtalik dynasty -
       1720 -        1754  Daniyal Khwaja (2nd time)
       1754 -        1757  Yusuf ibn Daniyal
       1757                `Abd Allah Badshah Khwaja ibn Yusuf
       1757 -    Jul 1759  Burhan ad-Din ibn Ahmad
       1864 -    Feb 1865  Qutlugh Beg
   Feb 1865 -        1866  Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan
                           (1st time)
       1866                Muhammad Amin ibn Jahangir Khan
       1866 -        1867  Buzurg Khwaja ibn Jahangir Khan
                           (2nd time)
- Ya`qub dynasty -
       1867 - 29 May 1877  Muhammad Ya`qub Beg ibn Pir
                           Muhammad Mirza                     (b. c.1820 - d. 1877)
29 May 1877 - 28 Dec 1877  Quli Beg ibn Muhammad Ya`qub Beg

Pingnan Guo

       1856 - 26 Dec 1872  Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State") is a major
                           Islamic rebellious polity in Yunnan province

Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims)
(usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan)
       1856 - 26 Dec 1872  Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman        (b. ... - d. 1873)

Warlord China

 1 Jan 1912                Republic of China proclaimed
22 Dec 1915                Empire of China
22 Mar 1916                Republic of China
Note: The following provincial military governments proclaimed their independence from the Qing Empire in the name of a Republic of China in gestation at the end of 1911, and combined in a Central Military Government at the end of November.
Military governors
Hubei
11 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Li Yuanhong                        (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
Hunan
23 Oct 1911 - 31 Oct 1911  Jiao Dafeng                        (b. 1887 - d. 1911)
31 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Tan Yankai                         (b. 1879 - d. 1930)
Shaanxi
23 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Zhang Fenghui                      (b. 18... - d. 1958)
Jiangxi
24 Oct 1911 -  2 Nov 1911  Ma Yubao                           (b. 1864 - d. 1933)
 2 Nov 1911 - 12 Nov 1911  Wu Jiezhang
12 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Peng Chengwan
Shanxi
29 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Yan Xishan                         (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
Yunnan
30 Oct 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Cai E                              (b. 1882 - d. 1916)
Shanghai (actually called itself Military Government of the Republic of China)
 4 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Chen Qimei                         (b. 1878 - d. 1916)
Zhejiang
 4 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Tang Shouqian                      (b. 1856 - d. 1917)
Guizhou
 5 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Yang Jincheng                      (b. 1880 - d. 1922)
Jiangsu
 5 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Cheng Dequan                       (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
Anhui
 8 Nov 1911 - 28 Nov 1911  Zhu Jiabao                         (b. 1860 - d. 1928)
28 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Sun Yuyun                          (b. 1869 - d. 1924)
Guangxi
 9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Shen Bingkun                       (b. 1862 - d. 1913)
Fujian
 9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Sun Daoren                         (b. 1867 - d. 1923)
Guangdong
 9 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Hu Hanmin                          (b. 1879 - d. 1936)
Shandong
13 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Sun Baoqi                          (b. 1867 - d. 1931)
Sichuan
22 Nov 1911 - 27 Nov 1911  Zhang Peijue                       (b. 1879 - d. 1915)
27 Nov 1911 - 30 Nov 1911  Pu Dianjun                         (b. 1875 - d. 1934)

Military governor (Central Military Government of the Republic of China)
30 Nov 1911 - 31 Dec 1911  Li Yuanhong                        (s.a.)
Presidents
 1 Jan 1912 - 10 Mar 1912  Sun Yat-sen (provisional)          (b. 1866 - d. 1925)
10 Mar 1912 - 22 Dec 1915  Yuan Shikai (1st time)             (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 10 Oct 1913)
Emperor
22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916  Yuan Shikai                        (s.a.)
                           nianhao 1 Jan - 22 Mar 1916: Hongxian
Note: This attempt at imperial installation of Yuan Shikai was not formally consummated by an enthronement, and there are questions about its actual significance.
Presidents
22 Mar 1916 -  6 Jun 1916  Yuan Shikai (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 7 Jun 1916 -  1 Jul 1917  Li Yuanhong (1st time)             (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1917 - 12 Jul 1917  brief restoration of Great Qing Empire (see above)
12 Jul 1917 - 17 Jul 1917  Li Yuanhong (2nd time)             (s.a.)
17 Jul 1917 - 10 Oct 1918  Feng Guozhang                      (b. 1859 - d. 1919)
10 Oct 1918 -  2 Jun 1922  Xu Shichang                        (b. 1855 - d. 1939)
 2 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922  Zhou Ziqi (acting)                 (b. 1871 - d. 1923)
11 Jun 1922 - 13 Jun 1923  Li Yuanhong (3rd time)             (s.a.)
13 Jun 1923 -  9 Sep 1923  Zhang Shaozeng (acting)            (b. 1879 - d. 1928)
 9 Sep 1923 - 10 Oct 1923  Gao Lingwei (acting)               (b. 1870 - d. 1940)
10 Oct 1923 -  2 Nov 1924  Cao Kun                            (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
 2 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924  Huang Fu (acting)                  (b. 1880 - d. 1936)
24 Nov 1924 - 20 Apr 1926  Duan Qirui                         (b. 1865 - d. 1936)
                           (provisional chief executive)
20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926  Hu Weide (acting)                  (b. 1863 - d. 1933)
13 May 1926 - 22 Jun 1926  Yan Huiqing (acting)               (b. 1877 - d. 1950)
22 Jun 1926 -  1 Oct 1926  Du Xigui (acting)                  (b. 1874 - d. 1933)
 1 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927  Gu Weijun (acting)                 (b. 1887 - d. 1985)
18 Jun 1927 -  2 Jun 1928  Zhang Zuolin                       (b. 1873 - d. 1928)
                           (Generalissimo of the Military Government of China)

Premiers 13 Mar 1912 - 27 Jun 1912 Tang Shaoyi (b. 1860 - d. 1938) 29 Jun 1912 - 25 Sep 1912 Lu Zhengxiang (b. 1871 - d. 1949) 25 Sep 1912 - 1 May 1913 Zhao Bingjun (b. 1859 - d. 1914) 1 May 1913 - 31 Jul 1913 Duan Qirui (acting) (s.a.) 31 Jul 1913 - 12 Feb 1914 Xiong Xiling (b. 1870 - d. 1937) 12 Feb 1914 - 1 May 1914 Sun Baoqi (acting) (s.a.) Secretaries of state 1 May 1914 - Dec 1915 Xu Shichang (1st time) (s.a.) Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Lu Zhengxiang (acting) (s.a.) 22 Mar 1916 - 23 Apr 1916 Xu Shichang (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Apr 1916 - 29 Jun 1916 Duan Qirui (s.a.) Premiers 29 Jun 1916 - 23 May 1917 Duan Qirui (1st time) (s.a.) 23 May 1917 - 28 May 1917 Wu Tingfang (acting) (b. 1842 - d. 1922) 28 May 1917 - 2 Jun 1917 Li Jingxi (1st time) (b. 1859 - d. 1925) 2 Jun 1917 - 12 Jun 1917 Xu Shichang (s.a.) 12 Jun 1917 - 24 Jun 1917 Jiang Chaozong (acting) (b. 1861 - d. 1943) 24 Jun 1917 - 1 Jul 1917 Li Jingxi (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Jul 1917 - 30 Nov 1917 Duan Qirui (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Nov 1917 - 23 Mar 1918 Weng Shizhen (acting) (b. 1861 - d. 1930) 23 Mar 1918 - 10 Oct 1918 Duan Qirui (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Oct 1918 - 13 Jun 1919 Qian Nengxun (b. 1869 - d. 1924) 13 Jun 1919 - 24 Sep 1919 Gong Xinzhan (acting) (b. 1869 - d. 1943) 24 Sep 1919 - 14 May 1920 Jin Yunpeng (1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1951) (acting to 5 Nov 1919) 14 May 1920 - 9 Aug 1920 Sa Zhenbing (acting) (b. 1859 - d. 1952) 9 Aug 1920 - 18 Dec 1921 Jin Yunpeng (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 18 Dec 1921 - 24 Dec 1921 Yan Huiqing (1st time) (s.a.) 24 Dec 1921 - 25 Jan 1922 Liang Shiyi (b. 1869 - d. 1933) 25 Jan 1922 - 8 Apr 1922 Yan Huiqing (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 8 Apr 1922 - 11 Jun 1922 Zhou Ziqi (acting) (s.a.) 11 Jun 1922 - 5 Aug 1922 Yan Huiqing (3rd time) (s.a.) 5 Aug 1922 - 29 Nov 1922 Wang Chonghui (acting) (b. 1881 - d. 1958) 29 Nov 1922 - 11 Dec 1922 Wang Daxie (b. 1859 - d. 1929) 11 Dec 1922 - 4 Jan 1923 Wang Zhengting (b. 1882 - d. 1961) 4 Jan 1923 - 9 Sep 1923 Zhang Shaozeng (s.a.) 9 Sep 1923 - 12 Jan 1924 Gao Lingwei (acting) (s.a.) 12 Jan 1924 - 14 Sep 1924 Sun Baoqi (s.a.) 14 Sep 1924 - 31 Oct 1924 Yan Huiqing (4th time) (s.a.) 2 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu (acting) (s.a.) 26 Dec 1925 - 4 Mar 1926 Xu Shiying (b. 1873 - d. 1964) 4 Mar 1926 - 20 Apr 1926 Jia Deyao (b. 1881 - d. 1940) 20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926 Hu Weide (acting) (s.a.) 13 May 1926 - 22 Jun 1926 Yan Huiqing (5th time) (s.a.) 22 Jun 1926 - 1 Oct 1926 Du Xigui (acting) (s.a.) 1 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927 Gu Weijun (acting) (s.a.) 18 Jun 1927 - 2 Jun 1928 Pan Fu (b. 1883 - d. 1936)

"Independent" military governments in 1913

Military governors
Jiangsu
15 Jul 1913 - 29 Jul 1913  Cheng Dequan                       (b. 1860 - d. 1930)
Anhui
17 Jul 1913 -  7 Aug 1913  Bo Wenwei                          (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
Guangdong
18 Jul 1913 -  3 Aug 1913  Chen Jiongming                     (b. 1878 - d. 1933)
Hunan
25 Jul 1913 - 13 Aug 1913  Tan Yankai                         (s.a.)

"Independent" military governments in 1916

Military governors
Yunnan
 1 Jan 1916 -  8 May 1916  Tang Jiyao                         (b. 1881 - d. 1927)
Guizhou
27 Jan 1916 -  8 May 1916  Liu Xianshi                        (b. 1870 - d. 1927)
Guangxi
15 Mar 1916 -  8 May 1916  Lu Rongting                        (b. 1856 - d. 1927)
Guangdong
 6 Apr 1916 -  8 May 1916  Long Jiguang                       (b. 1860 - d. 1921)
Zhejiang
12 Apr 1916 -  8 May 1916  Lu Gongwang                        (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
These came together under an umbrella government:
Chairman of the Military Affairs Council
 8 May 1916 - 14 Jul 1916  Tang Jiyao                         (s.a.)

"Independent" military governments in 1917

Military governors
Anhui
29 May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Ni Sichong                         (b. 1868 - d. 1924)
Shaanxi
29 May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Chen Shufan                        (b. 1885 - d. 1949)
Fengtian
   May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Zhang Zuolin                       (s.a.)
Shandong
   May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Zhang Huaizhi                      (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
Fujian
   May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Li Houji                           (b. 1869 - d. 1942)
Henan
   May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Zhao Ti                            (b. 1871 - d. 1933)
Zhejiang
   May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Yang Shande                        (b. 1873 - d. 1919)
Zhili
   May 1917 - 22 Jun 1917  Cao Kun                            (s.a.)

Nationalist China

Note: The name of the polity is still Republic of China, but it overlaps the preceding polity of that name, has a different flag and government system, and eventually a different capital, Nanjing (Beijing is in fact deprived of the name-part jing, meaning capital, and is renamed Beiping after the demise of the "warlord" regime). During the Sino-Japanese war the capital is moved to Chongqing (Nov 1937 - Sep 1945). On 8 Dec 1949 the capital is moved to Taipei, Taiwan. Coverage of the Republic of China from that point continues under Taiwan.
Generalissimo of the Military Government
10 Sep 1917 -  5 Jul 1918  Sun Yat-sen                        (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1918 - 21 Aug 1918  Governing Committee of the
                           Military Government
                           - Sun Yat-sen                      (s.a.)
                           - Tang Shaoyi                      (s.a.)
                           - Wu Tingfang                      (s.a.)
                           - Cen Chunxuan                     (b. 1861 - d. 1933)
                           - Lu Rongting                      (s.a.)
                           - Tang Jiyao                       (s.a.)
                           - Lin Baoyi                        (b. 1863 - d. 1927)
21 Aug 1918 - 24 Oct 1920  Cen Chunxuan                       (s.a.)
                           (chairman Governing Committee of the Military Government)
24 Oct 1920 -  4 May 1921  Governing Committee of the
                           Military Government
                           - Sun Yat-sen                      (s.a.)
                           - Tang Shaoyi                      (s.a.)
                           - Wu Tingfang                      (s.a.)
                           - Tang Jiyao                       (s.a.)
Extraordinary President
 5 May 1921 - 29 Jun 1922  Sun Yat-sen                        (s.a.)
Generalissimos of the National Government
 2 Mar 1923 - 12 Mar 1925  Sun Yat-sen                        (s.a.)
12 Mar 1925 -  1 Jul 1925  Hu Hanmin (acting)                 (s.a.)
Chairmen of the National Government
 1 Jul 1925 - 15 Apr 1926  Wang Jingwei                       (b. 1883 - d. 1944)
16 Apr 1926 - 29 Mar 1927  Tan Yankai                         (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National Government
20 Mar 1927 - 13 Sep 1927  Wang Jingwei (at Wuhan)            (s.a.)
17 Sep 1927 - 10 Oct 1928  Tan Yankai                         (s.a.)
Chairmen of the National Government
10 Oct 1928 - 15 Dec 1931  Chiang Kai-shek (1st time)         (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
15 Dec 1931 -  1 Aug 1943  Lin Sen (acting to 1 Jan 1932)     (b. 1867 - d. 1943)
 1 Aug 1943 - 20 May 1948  Chiang Kai-shek (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting to 10 Oct 1943)
Presidents
20 May 1948 - 21 Jan 1949  Chiang Kai-shek                    (s.a.)
21 Jan 1949 -  1 Mar 1950  Li Zongren (acting¹)               (b. 1890 - d. 1969)

Presidents of the Executive Yuan (premiers) 10 Oct 1928 - 22 Sep 1930 Tan Yankai (s.a.) Sep 1930 - 4 Dec 1930 Song Ziwen (1st time) (acting) (b. 1894 - d. 1971) 4 Dec 1930 - 15 Dec 1931 Chiang Kai-shek (1st time) (s.a.) 15 Dec 1931 - 28 Dec 1931 Chen Mingshu (acting) (b. 1890 - d. 1965) 28 Dec 1931 - 28 Jan 1932 Sun Fo (1st time) (b. 1895 - d. 1973) 28 Jan 1932 - 7 Dec 1935 Wang Jingwei (s.a.) 7 Dec 1935 - 1 Jan 1938 Chiang Kai-shek (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1938 - 20 Nov 1939 Kong Xiangxi (b. 1880 - d. 1967) 20 Nov 1939 - 31 May 1945 Chiang Kai-shek (3rd time) (s.a.) 31 May 1945 - 1 Mar 1947 Song Ziwen (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Mar 1947 - 18 Apr 1947 Chiang Kai-shek (4th time) (s.a.) 18 Apr 1947 - 24 May 1948 Zhang Qun (b. 1889 - d. 1990) 24 May 1948 - 26 Nov 1948 Weng Wenhao (b. 1889 - d. 1971) 26 Nov 1948 - 12 Mar 1949 Sun Fo (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Mar 1949 - 3 Jun 1949 He Yingqin (b. 1889 - d. 1987) 3 Jun 1949 - 7 Mar 1950 Yan Xishan (s.a.)

Alternative governments of the Republic of China

Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National Government (at Nanjing)
18 Apr 1927 - 15 Aug 1927  Chiang Kai-shek                    (s.a.)
26 Aug 1927 - 15 Sep 1927  Tan Yankai                         (s.a.)
Chairman of the Committee of the National Government (at Beiping)
 1 Sep 1930 - 31 Oct 1930  Yan Xishan                         (s.a.)
Chairman of the National Government (at Guangzhou)
 1 Jul 1931 -  1 Jan 1932  Wang Jingwei                       (s.a.)
Chairman of the People's Government (at Fuzhou)
21 Nov 1933 - 21 Jan 1934  Li Jishen                          (b. 1884 - d. 1959)
Under Japanese occupation:
Acting chairman of the Provisional National Government (at Beiping)
14 Dec 1937 - 30 Mar 1940  Wang Kemin                         (b. 1873 - d. 1945)
Acting chairman of the Reformed National Government (at Nanjing)
28 Mar 1938 - 30 Mar 1940  Liang Hongzhi                      (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
Chairmen of the National Government (at Nanjing)
30 Mar 1940 - 10 Nov 1944  Wang Jingwei (acting to 1940)      (s.a.)
20 Nov 1944 -    Aug 1945  Chen Gongbo (acting)               (b. 1892 - d. 1946)

East Turkestan

12 Dec 1933 -  6 Feb 1934  Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan (in rebellion)
12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946  East Turkestan Republic (in rebellion)

Presidents
12 Dec 1933 -  6 Feb 1934  Xoca Niyaz Haci                    (b. 1887 - d. 1938)
12 Nov 1944 - 16 Jun 1946  Alikhan Tore                       (b. 1885 - d. 1976)

Communist China

 1 Oct 1949                People's Republic of China
Note: Deng Xiaoping (b. 1904 - d. 1997) was de facto leader from the late 1970s to the early 1990s. It is impossible to provide exact dates; he rose to power after being rehabilitated in Jul 1977 and became more and more frail in the 1990s (he last appeared in public 9 Feb 1994).
Chairmen of the Communist Party of China
 8 Jan 1935 -  9 Sep 1976  Mao Zedong                         (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
 7 Oct 1976 - 29 Jun 1981  Hua Guofeng                        (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
29 Jun 1981 - 12 Sep 1982  Hu Yaobang                         (b. 1915 - d. 1989)
General secretaries (top party post from 12 Sep 1982)
29 Feb 1980 - 16 Jan 1987  Hu Yaobang                         (s.a.)
16 Jan 1987 - 24 Jun 1989  Zhao Ziyang (acting to 2 Nov 1987) (b. 1919 - d. 2005)
24 Jun 1989 - 15 Nov 2002  Jiang Zemin                        (b. 1926)
15 Nov 2002 - 15 Nov 2012  Hu Jintao                          (b. 1942)
15 Nov 2012 -              Xi Jinping                         (b. 1953)

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Republic of China 1 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934 Mao Zedong (s.a.) Chairman of the People's Government of North China 19 Aug 1948 - 1 Oct 1949 Dong Biwu (b. 1886 - d. 1975) Chairman of the People's Government of the North-East 27 Aug 1949 - 1 Oct 1949 Gao Gang (b. 1895 - d. 1954) Chairman of the Central People's Government 1 Oct 1949 - 27 Sep 1954 Mao Zedong (s.a.) Chairmen² 27 Sep 1954 - 27 Apr 1959 Mao Zedong (s.a.) 27 Apr 1959 - 31 Oct 1968 Liu Shaoqi (b. 1898 - d. 1969) 31 Oct 1968 - 24 Feb 1972 Dong Biwu (s.a.) + Song Qingling (f) (b. 1893 - d. 1981) (acting) 24 Feb 1972 - 17 Jan 1975 Dong Biwu (acting) (s.a.) Chairmen of the Permanent Standing Committee of the National People's Congress 17 Jan 1975 - 6 Jul 1976 Zhu De (b. 1886 - d. 1976) 6 Jul 1976 - 5 Mar 1978 vacant³ 5 Mar 1978 - 18 Jun 1983 Ye Jianying (b. 1897 - d. 1986) Presidents² 18 Jun 1983 - 8 Apr 1988 Li Xiannian (b. 1909 - d. 1992) 8 Apr 1988 - 27 Mar 1993 Yang Shangkun (b. 1907 - d. 1998) 27 Mar 1993 - 15 Mar 2003 Jiang Zemin (s.a.) 15 Mar 2003 - 14 Mar 2013 Hu Jintao (s.a.) 14 Mar 2013 - Xi Jinping (s.a.)
Premiers 1 Oct 1949 - 8 Jan 1976 Zhou Enlai (b. 1898 - d. 1976) 4 Feb 1976 - 10 Sep 1980 Hua Guofeng (acting to 7 Apr 1976) (s.a.) 10 Sep 1980 - 24 Nov 1987 Zhao Ziyang (s.a.) 24 Nov 1987 - 17 Mar 1998 Li Peng (acting to 9 Apr 1988) (b. 1928) 17 Mar 1998 - 16 Mar 2003 Zhu Rongji (b. 1928) 16 Mar 2003 - 15 Mar 2013 Wen Jiabao (b. 1942) 15 Mar 2013 - Li Keqiang (b. 1955)

Manchukuo

 9 Mar 1932                Great Manchu State
 1 Mar 1934                Great Manchu Empire

Chief Executive
 9 Mar 1932 -  1 Mar 1934  Puyi (nianhao: Datong)             (s.a.)
Emperor
 1 Mar 1934 - 15 Aug 1945  Puyi (nianhao: Kangde)             (s.a.)

Premiers 9 Mar 1932 - 21 May 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu (b. 1860 - d. 1938) 21 May 1935 - 15 Aug 1945 Zhang Jinghui (b. 1871 - d. 1959)

Tibet

Note: Although the dates are firm in the Tibetan calendar, the correspondence between the Tibetan and the Gregorian calendars is only approximate, as are, consequently, the dates given here.
 7 Oct 1950                occupied by China
23 May 1951                annexed by China

Secular rulers (title Junwang, usually translated king)
11 Jan 1740 - 12 Mar 1747  Pho-lha-nas bSod-nams-stobs-rgyas
                           "Mi-dbang Pho-lha"                 (b. ... - d. 1747)
       1747 - 11 Nov 1750  Pho-lha-nas 'Gyur-med-rnam-rgyal
                           "Ta-la'i-ba-dur"                   (b. ... - d. 1750)
Dalai Lamas
 8 Dec 1697 - 27 Jun 1706  Rin-chen-blo-bzang-rig-'dzins-
                           tshangs-dbyangs-rgya-mtsho
                           (6th Dalai Lama)                   (b. 1683 - d. 1706)
27 Jun 1706 -        1707  vacant
       1707 -        1717  Ngag-dbang-ye-shes-rgya-mtsho
                           (usurping Dalai Lama)
       1717 -        1720  sTag-rtse-zhabs-drung (regent)
16 Oct 1720 - 22 Mar 1757  rGyal-dbang-blo-bzang-bskal-
                           bzang-rgya-mtsho (7th Dalai Lama)  (b. 1708 - d. 1757)
                           (ritually presumed to have ruled from 1708)
22 Mar 1757 - 29 Apr 1757  Council of Ministers
29 Apr 1757 - 28 Aug 1762  De-mo sprul-sku Ngag-dbang-'jam-
                           dpal-bde-legs-rgya-mtsho (regent)  (b. ... - d. 1770)
28 Aug 1762 - 19 Nov 1804  Blo-bzang-'jam-dpal-rgya-mtsho
                           (8th Dalai Lama)                   (b. 1758 - d. 1804)
       1804 -  5 Mar 1808  Kun-bde-gling rTa-tshag-rje-drung-
                           sprul-sku Ye-shes-blo-bzang-bstan-
                           pa'i-mgon-po (regent)              (b. ... - d. 1810)
 5 Mar 1808 - 26 Mar 1815  Blo-bzang-lung-rtogs-rgya-mtsho
                           (9th Dalai Lama)                   (b. 1806 - d. 1815)
       1815 - 28 Mar 1819  De-mo sPrul-sku Blo-bzang-thub-
                           bstan-'jigs-med-rgya-mtsho         (b. ... - d. 1819)
                           (regent)
30 Mar 1819 -  6 Feb 1822  mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku
                           Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims
                           (1st time) (regent)                (b. ... - d. 1844)
 6 Feb 1822 - 30 Sep 1837  Blo-bzang-tshul-khrims-rgya-mtsho
                           (10th Dalai Lama)                  (b. 1816 - d. 1837)
30 Sep 1837 - 29 Sep 1841  mTsho-smon-gling sPrul-sku
                           Ngag-dbang-'jam-dpal-tshul-khrims
                           (2nd time) (regent)                (s.a.)
29 Sep 1841 - 31 Jan 1856  Blo-bzang-mkhas'-grub-rgya-mtsho
                           (11th Dalai Lama)                  (b. 1838 - d. 1856)
31 Jan 1856 -        1856  Council of Ministers
       1856 - 26 Feb 1858  Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Ngag-dbang-
                           ye-shes-tshul-khrims-rgyal-mtshan  (b. ... - d. 1888)
                           (regent)
26 Feb 1858 - 25 Apr 1875  Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-'phrin-las-
                           rgya-mtsho (12th Dalai Lama)       (b. 1856 - d. 1875)
25 Apr 1875 -        1875  Council of Ministers
       1875 - 12 Feb 1878  Kun-bde-gling sPrul-sku rTa-tshag-
                           rje-drung-ngag-dbang-dpal-ldan-
                           chos-kyi-rgyal-mtshan (regent)
12 Feb 1878 - 17 Dec 1933  Ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-thub-bstan-
                           rgya-mtsho-'jigs-bral-dbang-phyug-
                           phyogs-las-rnam-rgyal
                           (13th Dalai Lama)                  (b. 1876 - d. 1933)
                           (30 Jul 1904 - Dec 1909 and 25 Feb 1910 - Jun 1912 in exile)
17 Dec 1933 -    Jan 1934  Council of Ministers
   Jan 1934 - 25 Aug 1939  Rva-sgreng sPrul-sku Thub-bstan-
                           'jam-dpal-ye-shes-rgyal-mtshan     (b. 1911 - d. 1947)
                           (regent [for the Dalai Lama to 16 Jan 1941])
25 Aug 1939 -              rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-
                           blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-
                           rgya-mtsho (14th Dalai Lama)       (b. 1935)
                           (from 31 Mar 1959 in exile [from 1 May 1960 in Dharamsala, India];
                           political role ended 31 May 2011)

Chairmen of the Cabinet (Kalon Tripa; from 26 Sep 2012, Sikyong) (in exile) 1960 - 19.. Zurkhang Ngawang Gelek 19.. - 19.. Shenkha Gurmey Topgyal 19.. - 19.. Garang Lobsang Rigzin 19.. - 19.. Kunling Woeser Gyaltsen (b. 1915 - d. 2001) 19.. - 198. Wangdue Dorji 198. - May 1990 Juchen Thupten Namgyal (b. 1929 - d. 2011) May 1990 - Aug 1991 Kelsang Yeshi (1st time) (b. 1942?) Aug 1991 - Feb 1993 Gyalo Thondup (b. 1928) Feb 1993 - 4 Jun 1996 Tenzin Namgyal Tethong (b. 1947?) 4 Jun 1996 - Apr 1997 Kelsang Yeshi (2nd time) (s.a.) Apr 1997 - 5 Sep 2001 Sonam Topgyal (b. 1934 - d. 2012) 5 Sep 2001 - 8 Aug 2011 Samdhong Rinpoche (b. 1939) 8 Aug 2011 - Lobsang Sangay (b. 1968)

Hong Kong

26 Jan 1841                British occupation of Hong Kong Island
29 Aug 1842                China cedes Hong Kong Island to Britain
26 Jun 1843                British crown colony
       1860                Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters Island ceded by China
 1 Jul 1898                New Territories leased from China for 99 years
 3 Sep 1926                official spelling changed from Hongkong to Hong Kong
25 Dec 1941 - 16 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation
 1 Jul 1997                return of the whole colony to China as a special
                           administrative region

Administrators
26 Jan 1841 - 12 Aug 1841  Charles Elliot                     (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
22 Jun 1841 - 26 Jun 1843    Alexander Robert Johnston        (b. 1812 - d. 1888)
                             (acting for Elliot and for Pottinger)
12 Aug 1841 - 26 Jun 1843  Sir Henry Pottinger                (b. 1789 - d. 1856)
Governors
26 Jun 1843 -  8 May 1844  Sir Henry Pottinger                (s.a.)
 8 May 1844 - 18 Mar 1848  Sir John Francis Davis             (b. 1795 - d. 1890)
21 Mar 1848 - 12 Apr 1854  Sir Samuel George Bonham           (b. 1803 - d. 1863)
13 Apr 1854 -  5 May 1859  Sir John Bowring                   (b. 1792 - d. 1872)
 9 Sep 1859 - 15 Mar 1865  Sir Hercules Robinson              (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
15 Mar 1865 - 11 Mar 1866  William T. Mercer (acting)         (b. 1821 - d. 1879)
11 Mar 1866 - 16 Apr 1872  Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell      (b. 1814 - d. 1881)
16 Apr 1872 -  1 Mar 1877  Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy          (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
22 Apr 1877 -  7 Mar 1882  Sir John Pope Hennessy             (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
   Mar 1882 - 30 Mar 1883  Sir William Henry Marsh (1st time) (b. 1827 - d. 1906)
                           (acting)
30 Mar 1883 -    Dec 1885  Sir George Ferguson Bowen          (b. 1821 - d. 1899)
   Dec 1885 -    May 1887  Sir William Henry Marsh (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (acting)
   May 1887 -  6 Oct 1887  William Gordon Cameron (acting)    (b. 1827 - d. 1913)
 6 Oct 1887 -    May 1891  Sir William Des Voeux              (b. 1834 - d. 1909)
   May 1891 - 10 Dec 1891  Digby Barker (acting)              (b. 1833 - d. 1914)
10 Dec 1891 -    Feb 1898  Sir William Robinson               (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
   Feb 1898 - 25 Nov 1898  Wilsone Black (acting)             (b. 1837 - d. 1909)
25 Nov 1898 -    Jul 1903  Sir Henry Arthur Blake             (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
   Nov 1903 - 29 Jul 1904  Francis Henry May (1st time)       (b. 1860 - d. 1922)
                           (acting)
29 Jul 1904 -    Apr 1907  Sir Matthew Nathan                 (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
   Apr 1907 - 29 Jul 1907  Francis Henry May (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
29 Jul 1907 -    Mar 1912  Sir Frederick Lugard               (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
   Mar 1912 - 24 Jul 1912  Claud Severn (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
24 Jul 1912 -    Feb 1919  Sir Francis Henry May (3rd time)   (s.a.)
   Feb 1919 - 30 Sep 1919  Claud Severn (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
30 Sep 1919 -    Oct 1925  Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs         (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
 1 Nov 1925 -    Feb 1930  Sir Cecil Clementi                 (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
   Feb 1930 -  9 May 1930  Thomas Southorn (1st time)         (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
                           (acting)
 9 May 1930 -    May 1935  Sir William Peel                   (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
   May 1935 -    Sep 1935  Sir Thomas Southorn (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
   Sep 1935 -    Nov 1935  Norman Lockhart Smith (1st time)   (b. 1887 - d. 1968)
                           (acting)
   Nov 1935 - 12 Dec 1935  Sir Thomas Southorn (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
12 Dec 1935 -    Apr 1937  Sir Andrew Caldecott               (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
   Apr 1937 - 28 Oct 1937  Norman Lockhart Smith (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
28 Oct 1937 -    Sep 1941  Sir Geoffry Northcote              (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
   Apr 1940 -    Aug 1940    Norman Lockhart Smith            (s.a.)
                             (acting for Northcote)
   Aug 1940 -    Mar 1941    Edward Felix Norton              (b. 1884 - d. 1954)
                             (acting for Northcote)
   Sep 1941 -    May 1947  Sir Mark Young                     (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
                           (Japanese prisoner 25 Dec 1941 - Aug 1945)
25 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942    Takashi Sakai                    (b. 1887 - d. 1946)
                             + Masaichi Niimi                 (b. 1887 - d. 1993)
                             (military chiefs)
20 Feb 1942 - 24 Dec 1944    Rensuke Isogai                   (b. 1886 - d. 1967)
 1 Feb 1945 - 16 Aug 1945    Hisaichi Tanaka                  (b. 1889 - d. 1947)
28 Aug 1945 - 30 Aug 1945    Franklin Charles Gimson          (b. 1890 - d. 1975)
                             (chief of provisional government)
 1 Sep 1945 -  1 May 1946    Sir Cecil Harcourt               (b. 1892 - d. 1959)
                             (military governor)
   May 1947 - 25 Jul 1947  David Mercer MacDougall (acting)   (b. 1904 - d. 1991)
25 Jul 1947 -    Dec 1957  Sir Alexander Grantham             (b. 1899 - d. 1978)
   Dec 1957 - 23 Jan 1958  Edgeworth Beresford David (acting) (b. 1908 - d. 1965)
23 Jan 1958 -    Mar 1964  Sir Robert Black                   (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
   Mar 1964 - 14 Apr 1964  Edmund Brinsley Teesdale (acting)  (b. 1915 - d. 1997)
14 Apr 1964 -    Oct 1971  Sir David Trench                   (b. 1915 - d. 1988)
   Oct 1971 - 19 Nov 1971  Sir Hugh Selby Norman-Walker       (b. 1916 - d. 1985)
                           (acting)
19 Nov 1971 -    Apr 1982  Sir Murray MacLehose               (b. 1917 - d. 2000)
   Apr 1982 - 20 May 1982  Sir Philip Haddon-Cave (acting)    (b. 1925 - d. 1999)
20 May 1982 -  4 Dec 1986  Sir Edward Youde                   (b. 1924 - d. 1986)
 4 Dec 1986 -  9 Apr 1987  Sir David Akers-Jones (acting)     (b. 1927)
 9 Apr 1987 -  9 Jul 1992  Sir David Wilson (from 14 Feb
                           1992, David Wilson, Baron Wilson
                           of Tillyorn)                       (b. 1935)
 9 Jul 1992 - 30 Jun 1997  Chris Patten                       (b. 1944)
Chief executives
 1 Jul 1997 - 12 Mar 2005  Tung Chee-hwa                      (b. 1937)
12 Mar 2005 -  1 Jun 2005  Donald Tsang (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1944)
 1 Jun 2005 - 24 Jun 2005  Henry Tang (acting)                (b. 1952)
24 Jun 2005 -  1 Jul 2012  Donald Tsang (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 1 Jul 2012 -  1 Jul 2017  Leung Chun-ying                    (b. 1954)
 1 Jul 2017 -              Carrie Lam (f)                     (b. 1957)

Macau

       1553                first Portuguese settlement at Macau
       1851                Portuguese occupy Taipa Island
       1864                Portuguese occupy Coloane Island
       1887                China recognizes Portuguese rule (renounced 1928)
       1951                status changed from colony to overseas province
20 Dec 1999                return to China as a special administrative region

Governors
 9 Aug 1698 -        1700  Pedro Vaz de Sequeira (1st time)
 5 Aug 1700 -        1702  Diogo de Melo Sampaio
22 Jul 1702 -        1703  Pedro Vaz de Sequeira (2nd time)
15 Aug 1703 -        1706  José da Gama Machado
 5 Aug 1706 -        1710  Diogo do Pinho Teixeira
28 Jul 1710 -        1711  Francisco de Melo e Castro
11 Jun 1711 -        1714  António de Sequeira de Noronha
18 Jul 1714 -        1718  Francisco de Alarcão de Souto-Maior
30 May 1718 -        1719  António de Albuquerque Coelho
 9 Sep 1719 -        1722  António da Silva Telo e Meneses
19 Aug 1722 -        1724  Cristóvão de Severim Manuel
 6 Sep 1724 -        1727  António Carneiro de Alcáçova
11 Aug 1727 -        1732  António Moniz Barreto
18 Aug 1732 -        1735  António do Amaral Meneses
15 Jan 1735 -        1735  João do Casal
 4 Aug 1735 -        1738  Cosme Damião Pinto Pereira (1st time)
25 Aug 1738 -        1743  Manuel Pereira Coutinho
25 Aug 1743 -        1747  Cosme Damião Pinto Pereira (2nd time)
30 Aug 1747 -        1749  António José Teles de Meneses
 2 Aug 1749 -        1752  João Manuel de Melo
29 Jul 1752 -        1755  Rodrigo de Castro (1st time)
14 Jul 1755 -        1758  Francisco António Pereira Coutinho
 1 Jul 1758 -        1761  Diogo Pereira
 4 Jul 1761 -        1764  António de Mendonça Corte-Real
14 Jul 1764 -        1767  José Plácido de Matos Saraiva
19 Aug 1767 -        1770  Diogo Fernandes Salema e Saldanha
                           (1st time)
29 Jul 1770 -        1771  Rodrigo de Castro (2nd time)
26 Jul 1771 -        1777  Diogo Fernandes Salema e Saldanha
                           (2nd time)
27 Jan 1777 -        1778  Alexandre da Silva Pedrosa Guimarães
 1 Aug 1778 -        1780  João Vicente da Silveira e Meneses
 5 Jan 1780 -        1781  António José da Costa
28 Aug 1781 -        1783  Francisco de Castro
18 Aug 1783 -        1788  Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos e Faria
                           (1st time)
21 Jul 1788 -        1789  Francisco Xavier de Mendonça Corte-Real
18 Jul 1789 -        1790  Lázaro da Silva Ferreira
29 Jul 1790 -        1793  Vasco Luís Carneiro de Sousa e Faro
27 Jul 1793 -        1797  José Manuel Pinto (1st time)
 8 Aug 1797 -        1800  Cristóvão Pereira de Castro
 8 Aug 1800 -        1803  José Manuel Pinto (2nd time)
 8 Aug 1803 -        1806  Caetano de Sousa Pereira
 8 Aug 1806 -        1808  Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos e Faria
                           (2nd time)
26 Dec 1808 -        1810  Lucas José de Alvarenga (1st time)
19 Jul 1810 -        1814  Bernardo Aleixo de Lemos Faria
                           (3rd time)
19 Jul 1814 -        1817  Lucas José de Alvarenga (2nd time)
19 Jul 1817 -        1822  José Onório de Castro e Albuquerque
19 Aug 1822 -        1823  Paulino da Silva Barbosa
23 Sep 1823 -        1825  Government Council
28 Jul 1825 -        1827  Joaquim Mourão Garcês Palha        (b. 1775 - d. 1850)
15 Nov 1827 -        1830  Government Council
 7 Jul 1830 -        1833  João Cabral de Estefique
 3 Jul 1833 -        1837  Bernardo José de Sousa Soares de
                           Andrea
22 Feb 1837 -        1843  Adrião Acácio da Silveira Pinto
 3 Oct 1843 -        1846  José Gregório Pegado
21 Apr 1846 - 22 Aug 1849  João Maria Ferreira do Amaral      (b. ... - d. 1849)
22 Aug 1849 -        1850  Government Council
30 May 1850 -  6 Jul 1850  Pedro Alexandrino da Cunha         (b. 1801 - d. 1850)
 7 Jul 1850 -        1851  Government Council
 3 Feb 1851 -        1851  Francisco António Gonçalves
                           Cardoso                            (b. 1800 - d. 1875)
19 Nov 1851 -        1863  Isidoro Francisco Guimarães,
                           (from 1862) visconde da Praia
                           Grande de Macau                    (b. 1808 - d. 1883)
22 Jun 1863 -        1866  José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
26 Oct 1866 -        1868  José Maria da Ponte e Horta
 3 Aug 1868 -        1872  António Sérgio de Sousa            (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
23 Mar 1872 -        1874  Januário Correia de Almeida,
                           visconde de São Januário           (b. 1829 - d. 1901)
 7 Dec 1874 -        1876  José Maria Lôbo de Ávila           (b. 1817 - d. 1889)
31 Dec 1876 -        1879  Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva    (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
28 Nov 1879 -        1883  Joaquim José da Graça
23 Apr 1883 -        1886  Tomás de Sousa Rósa                (b. 1844 - d. 1918)
 7 Aug 1886 -        1888  Firmino José da Costa              (b. 1843 - d. 1893)
 5 Feb 1889 -        1890  Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
16 Oct 1890 -        1894  Custódio Miguel de Borja           (b. 1849 - d. 19...)
24 Mar 1894 -        1897  José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
12 May 1897 -        1900  Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Galhardo (b. 1845 - d. 1908)
12 Aug 1900 -        1902  José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Dec 1902 - 10 Dec 1903  Arnaldo de Novaes Guedes Rebelo    (b. c.1850 - d. 19...)
 5 Apr 1904 -        1907  Martinho Pinto de Quierós
                           Montenegro                         (b. 1864 - d. 1919)
 6 Apr 1907 -        1908  Pedro de Azevedo Coutinho          (b. c.1863 - d. 19...)
18 Aug 1908 -        1909  José Augusto Alves Roçadas         (b. 1865 - d. 1926)
22 Sep 1909 -        1910  Eduardo Augusto Marquês            (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
17 Dec 1910 -        1912  Álvaro de Melo Machado             (b. 1883 - d. 19...)
14 Jul 1912 -        1914  Aníbal Augusto Sanches de Miranda  (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
10 Jun 1914 -        1916  José Carlos da Maia                (b. 1878 - d. 1921)
 5 Sep 1916 -        1917  Manuel Ferreira da Rocha           (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
22 Jun 1917 - 21 Dec 1917  Fernando Augusto Vieira de Matos
12 Oct 1918 -        1919  Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1880 - d. 1940)
23 Aug 1919 - 20 May 1922  Henrique Monteiro Correia da Silva (b. 1878 - d. 1935)
20 May 1922 -  5 Jan 1923  Luís António de Magalhães Correia  (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
                           (acting)
 5 Jan 1923 - 16 Jul 1924  Rodrigo José Rodrigues             (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
16 Jul 1924 - 18 Oct 1925  Joaquim Augusto dos Santos
                           (acting)
18 Oct 1925 -  1 Aug 1926  Manuel Firmino de Almeida Maia
                           Magalhães                          (b. 1881 - d. 1932)
 1 Aug 1926 -  8 Dec 1926  Hugo Lacerda Castelo Branco
                           (acting)
 8 Dec 1926 - 19 Nov 1930  Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1930 -        1931  João Pereira de Magalhães
                           (1st time)
30 Mar 1931 -        1931  Joaquim Anselmo da Mata e Oliveira (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
       1931 -        1932  João Pereira de Magalhães
                           (2nd time)
21 Jun 1932 -        1935  António José Bernardes de Miranda
       1935 -        1936  João Pereira Barbosa
       1936 -        1937  António Joaquim Ferreira da Silva
                           Júnior
11 Apr 1937 - 10 Jul 1940  Artur Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
10 Jul 1940 -        1940  José Rodrigues Moutinho (acting)
29 Oct 1940 -        1946  Gabriel Maurício Teixeira          (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
 1 Sep 1947 -        1951  Albano Rodrigues de Oliveira
23 Nov 1951 -        1957  Joaquim Marquês Esparteiro         (b. 1895 - d. ...)
 8 Mar 1957 -        1958  Pedro Correia de Barros            (b. 1911 - d. 1968)
       1958 -        1959  Manuel Peixoto Nunes
18 Sep 1959 -        1962  Jaime Silvério Marques             (b. 1914 - d. 1986)
17 Apr 1962 -        1966  António Adriano Faria Lopes dos
                           Santos                             (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
25 Nov 1966 -        1974  José Manuel de Sousa e Faria Nobre
                           de Carvalho
19 Nov 1974 -  1 Feb 1979  José Garcia Leandro                (b. 1940?)
28 Nov 1979 - 26 Feb 1981  Melo Egídio                        (b. 1922 - d. 2011)
26 Feb 1981 - 16 Jun 1981  José Carlos Moreira Campos
                           (acting)
16 Jun 1981 -        1986  Vasco Almeida e Costa              (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
28 May 1986 -    Jun 1987  Joaquim Pinto Machado              (b. 1930 - d. 2011)
   Jun 1987 -  9 Aug 1987  Carlos Monjardino (acting)         (b. 1942)
 9 Aug 1987 - 28 Sep 1990  Carlos Melancia                    (b. 1927)
28 Sep 1990 - 23 Apr 1991  Francisco Murteira Nabo (acting)   (b. 1939)
23 Apr 1991 - 19 Dec 1999  Vasco Rocha Vieira                 (b. 1939)
Chief executives
20 Dec 1999 - 20 Dec 2009  Edmund Ho                          (b. 1955)
20 Dec 2009 -              Chui Sai On                        (b. 1957)

Kiaochow

14 Nov 1897                German occupation
 6 Mar 1898                leased for 99 years (canceled by China 23 Aug 1914)
 7 Nov 1914                taken by Japan
10 Dec 1922                returned to China

Governors
 7 Mar 1898 - 19 Feb 1899  Carl Rosendahl                     (b. 1852 - d. 19...)
19 Feb 1899 - 27 Jan 1901  Otto Ferdinand Paul Jäschke        (b. 1851 - d. 1901)
27 Jan 1901 -  8 Jun 1901  Max Rollmann (acting)
 8 Jun 1901 - 19 Aug 1911  Oskar Truppel                      (b. 1854 - d. 1931)
19 Aug 1911 -  7 Nov 1914  Alfred Meyer-Waldeck               (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
 7 Nov 1914 -        1919  Mitsuomi Kamio                     (b. 1856 - d. 1925)
       1919 -        1922  Mitsue Yuhi                        (b. 1860 - d. 1940)

Kwangchowan

       1898                leased by France
   Feb 1943                occupied by Japan
   Sep 1945                returned to China

Administrators
       1898 -        1900  Charles Louis Théobald
                           Courrejolles                       (b. 1842 - d. 1902)
 1 Feb 1900 -    Mar 1902  Gustave Alby (1st time)            (b. 1855 - d. 1920)
   Mar 1902 -        1903  Théophile Henri Bergès             (b. 1851? - d. 1906)
       1903 -    Jul 1905  Gustave Alby (2nd time)            (s.a.)
14 Jul 1905 -    Sep 1908  Jean-Fernand Gautret               (b. 1862 - d. 1912)
   Sep 1908 -    Nov 1908  Henri Victor Sestier               (b. 1857 - d. 19...)
   Dec 1908 -    May 1910  Paul Edgar Dufrénil                (b. 1856 - d. 19...)
   May 1910 -    Jan 1912  Pierre Stéphane Salabelle
   Jan 1912 -    May 1915  Henri Jean Auguste Caillard        (b. 1872 - d. 1926)
   May 1915 -    May 1917  Albert Garnier                     (b. 1870 - d. 1929)
   May 1917 -    Jan 1919  Frédéric Alexandre Vialla          (b. 1867 - d. 19...)
   Jan 1919 -    Mar 1922  Jean-Félix Krautheimer (1st time)  (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
   Mar 1922 -    Dec 1922  Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard
                           de la Brosse (1st time)
   Dec 1922 -    Apr 1923  Jean-Félix Krautheimer (2nd time)  (s.a.)
   Apr 1923 -    Dec 1925  Paul Achille Michel Quesnel        (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
   Dec 1925 -    Dec 1926  Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard
                           de la Brosse (2nd time)
   Dec 1926 -    May 1927  Moisy
   May 1927 -    Jul 1927  Lacombe
   Jul 1927 -    Apr 1929  Louis Rivet                        (b. 1869 - d. 19...)
   Apr 1929 -        1932  Achille Silvestre
       1932 -        1933  Pierre Charles Edmond Jabouille
       1933 -        1934  Paul Delamarre                     (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
       1934 -        1936  Maurice Émile Henri de Tastes
       1936 -        1937  Camille Fernand Chapoulart
       1937 -        1942  Jacques Henri Paul Le Prevôt
       1942                Louis Frédéric Claire Guillaume
                           Marty
       1942 -        1943  Pierre Marie Jean Domec            (b. 1891 - d. 1984)

Kwantung

 5 Sep 1905                leased by Japan
   Sep 1945                returned to China

Governors-general
18 Oct 1905 - 26 Apr 1912  Yoshimasa Oshima                   (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
26 Apr 1912 - 15 Sep 1914  Yasumasa Fukushima                 (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
15 Sep 1914 - 31 Jul 1917  Satoru Nakamura                    (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
31 Jul 1917 - 11 Apr 1919  Yujiro Nakamura                    (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
12 Apr 1919 - 24 May 1920  Gonsuke Hayashi                    (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
24 May 1920 -  8 Sep 1922  Isaburo Yamagata                   (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
 8 Sep 1922 - 19 Sep 1923  Hikokichi Ijuin                    (b. 1864 - d. 1924)
26 Sep 1923 - 17 Dec 1927  Hideo Kodama                       (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
17 Dec 1927 -  7 Aug 1929  Kenjiro Kinoshita                  (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
 7 Aug 1929 - 16 Jan 1931  Masahiro Ota                       (b. 1870 - d. 1951)
16 Jan 1931 - 11 Jan 1932  Seiji Tsukamoto                    (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
11 Jan 1932 -  8 Aug 1932  Mannosuke Yamaoka                  (b. 1876 - d. 1968)
 8 Aug 1932 - 27 Jul 1933  Nobuyoshi Muto                     (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
28 Jul 1933 - 10 Dec 1934  Takashi Hishikari                  (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
10 Dec 1934 -  6 Mar 1936  Jiro Minami                        (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
 6 Mar 1936 -  7 Sep 1939  Kenkichi Ueda                      (b. 1875 - d. 1962)
 7 Sep 1939 - 18 Jul 1944  Yoshijiro Umezu                    (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
18 Jul 1944 -        1945  Otozo Yamada                       (b. 1881 - d. 1965)

Weihaiwei

       1898                leased by Britain
 1 Oct 1930                returned to China

Commissioners
10 Aug 1899 - 10 Dec 1901  Arthur Robert Ford Dorward
                           (from 1900, Sir Arthur Robert
                           Ford Dorward)                      (b. 1848 - d. 1934)
   May 1902 -        1921  James Haldane Stewart Lockhart     (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
       1921 -        1923  Arthur Powlett Blunt               (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
       1923 -        1927  Walter Russell Brown               (b. 1879 - d. 1966)
       1927 - 30 Sep 1930  Reginald Fleming Johnston          (b. 1874 - d. 1938)
¹The ambiguity of the constitutional situation leaves it unclear whether this was a vacancy or a substitution for Chiang.
²The title "chairman" for the heads of state in 1954-75 represents the same Chinese term (zhuxi) that is commonly translated "president" for the heads of state after 1983.
³Vice-chairmen of the Standing Committee during the vacancy: Wu De (b. 1914 - d. 1995) (who mostly performed the chairman's functions), Song Qingling (f) (b. 1893 - d. 1981), Liu Bocheng (b. 1892 - d. 1986), Wei Guoqing (b. 1913 - d. 1989), Seypidin (b. 1915 - d. 2003), Chen Yun (b. 1905 - d. 1995), Tan Zhenlin (b. 1902 - d. 1983), Li Jingquan (b. 1909 - d. 1989), Ulanhu (b. 1906 - d. 1988), Guo Moruo (b. 1892 - d. 1978), Xu Xiangqian (b. 1901 - d. 1990), Nie Rongzhen (b. 1899 - d. 1992), Zhang Dingcheng (b. 1898 - d. 1981), Cai Chang (f) (b. 1900 - d. 1990), Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (b. 1910 - d. 2009), Zhou Jianren (b. 1888 - d. 1984), Xu Deheng (b. 1890 - d. 1990), Hu Juewen (b. 1895 - d. 1989), Li Suwen (f) (b. 1933), Yao Lianwei (b. 1935), and, from 2 Dec 1976, Deng Yingchao (f) (b. 1904 - d. 1992).

Christmas Island

       1900 - 31 Dec 1957  part of Straits Settlements/Singapore
31 Mar 1942 -        1945    Japanese occupation
 1 Oct 1958                Australian territory

Official representatives
 1 Oct 1958 - 30 Sep 1960  D.E. Nickels
 1 Oct 1960 - 12 Jun 1966  J.W. Stokes
13 Jun 1966 - 30 Apr 1968  Charles Buffett
Administrators
 1 May 1968 - 30 Apr 1970  Leslie Dudley King                 (b. 1909)
 1 May 1970 - 14 Mar 1973  J.S. White
15 Mar 1973 - 14 Mar 1974  F.S. Evatt
15 Mar 1974 -  8 Oct 1975  C.H. Webb
 1 Nov 1975 - 31 Oct 1977  William Worth                      (b. 1912)
 1 Nov 1977 -  4 May 1980  F.C. Boyle
19 May 1980 - 25 May 1982  Rendle McNeilage Holten            (b. 1922 - d. 1996)
26 May 1982 -  9 Aug 1983  William Yates                      (b. 1921 - d. 2010)
10 Aug 1983 - 15 Apr 1986  Tom F. Paterson
15 Apr 1986 -  3 Aug 1986  C. Stephens (acting)
 4 Aug 1986 - 24 Feb 1990  A.D. Taylor
25 Feb 1990 -  2 May 1991  W.A. McKenzie
 2 May 1991 -  4 Jul 1991  A. Mitchell (acting)
 5 Jul 1991 -  9 Mar 1992  P. Gifford (acting)
10 Mar 1992 -  9 Mar 1994  Michael John Grimes
10 Mar 1994 - 30 Jun 1994  Peter Woods (acting)
 1 Jul 1994 - 30 Jun 1996  Danny Ambrose Gillespie
 1 Jul 1996 - 24 Apr 1997  Merrilyn Ann Chilvers (f) (acting)
25 Apr 1997 - 30 Sep 1997  Graham Nicholls (1st time)
                           (acting)
 1 Oct 1997 - 30 Oct 1998  Ron Harvey                         (b. 1934)
 1 Nov 1998 -  3 Feb 1999  Graham Nicholls (2nd time)
                           (acting)
 4 Feb 1999 - 30 Jul 2003  Bill Taylor                        (b. 1938)
30 Jul 2003 -  1 Nov 2003  Ray Stone (acting)
 1 Nov 2003 - 31 Oct 2005  Evan Williams
30 Jan 2006 - 22 Feb 2008  Neil Lucas                         (b. 1945)
22 Feb 2008 - 28 Feb 2008  Julian Yates (acting)
28 Feb 2008 -        2009  Sheryl Klaffer (f) (acting)
       2009 -  5 Oct 2009  Stephen Clay (acting)
 5 Oct 2009 - 29 Sep 2012  Brian James Lacy                   (b. 1943?)
 5 Oct 2012 -  6 Oct 2014  Jon Stanhope                       (b. 1951)
 6 Oct 2014 -              Barry Haase                        (b. 1945)