Rulers

Countries Me-My

Contents of this page:
Mexico - Federated States of Micronesia - Moldova - Monaco - Mongolia - Montenegro - Montserrat - Morocco - Mozambique - Myanmar

Memel Territory: see under Lithuania.

Mexico

New Spain

       1535                Viceroyalty of New Spain

Viceroys
13 Dec 1696 -  4 Nov 1701  José Sarmiento y Valladares,
                           conde de Moctezuma y de Tula       (b. 1643 - d. 1708)
 4 Nov 1701 -  8 Dec 1702  Juan de Ortega Montañés (2nd time) (b. 1627 - d. 1708)
                           (acting)
 8 Dec 1702 - 15 Jan 1711  Francisco Fernández de la Cueva
                           Enríquez, duque d'Albuquerque,
                           marqués de Cuéllar                 (b. 16... - d. 1733)
15 Jan 1711 - 16 Aug 1716  Fernando de Alencastre Noroña y
                           Silva, marqués de Valdefuentes,
                           duque de Linares                   (b. c.1641 - d. 1717)
16 Aug 1716 - 15 Oct 1722  Baltasar de Zúñiga, marqués de
                           Valero, duque de Arión             (b. 1658 - d. 1727)
15 Oct 1722 - 17 Mar 1734  Juan de Acuña, marqués de
                           Casafuerte                         (b. 1657 - d. 1734)
17 Mar 1734 - 17 Aug 1740  Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y
                           Eguiarreta                         (b. 1682 - d. 1747)
17 Aug 1740 - 22 Aug 1741  Pedro de Castro y Figueroa,
                           marqués de Gracía Real,
                           duque de la Conquista              (b. ... - d. 1741)
   Aug 1741 -  3 Nov 1742  Pedro Malo de Villavicencio
                           (president of the Audiencia)
 3 Nov 1742 -  9 Jul 1746  Pedro Cebrián y Agustín, conde
                           de Fuenclara                       (b. 1687 - d. 1752)
 9 Jul 1746 - 10 Nov 1755  Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas,
                           conde de Revillagigedo             (b. 1682 - d. 1768)
10 Nov 1755 -  5 Feb 1760  Agustín de Ahumada y Villalón,
                           marqués de las Amarillas           (b. 1702 - d. 1760)
   Feb 1760 - 28 Apr 1760  Francisco de Echévarri (acting)
28 Apr 1760 -  5 Oct 1760  Francisco Antonio Cagigal de la
                           Vega (acting)                      (b. 1695 - d. 1777)
 6 Oct 1760 - 23 Aug 1766  Joaquín de Montserrat y Ciurana,
                           marqués de Cruillas                (b. 1700 - d. 1771)
23 Aug 1766 - 23 Sep 1771  Carlos Francisco de Croix,
                           marqués de Croix                   (b. 1699 - d. 1786)
23 Sep 1771 -  9 Apr 1779  Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa
                           Hinostrosa Lasso de la Vega        (b. 1717 - d. 1779)
   Apr 1779 - 23 Aug 1779  Francisco Romá y Rosell
                           (president of the Audiencia)
23 Aug 1779 - 28 Apr 1783  Martín de Mayorga                  (b. 17... - d. 1783)
29 Apr 1783 -  3 Nov 1784  Matías de Gálvez García Madrid y
                           Cabrera                            (b. 1717 - d. 1784)
   Nov 1784 - 17 Jun 1785  Vicente de Herrera y Rivero
                           (president of the Audiencia)
17 Jun 1785 - 30 Nov 1786  Bernardo Vicente Polinarde de
                           Gálvez y Galardo, conde de Gálvez  (b. 1746 - d. 1786)
   Dec 1786 -  8 May 1787  Eusebio Sánchez Pareja y Beleño
                           (president of the Audiencia)
 8 May 1787 - 18 Aug 1787  Alonso Núñez de Haro y Peralta     (b. 1729 - d. 1800)
                           (acting)
18 Aug 1787 - 17 Oct 1789  Manuel Antonio Flores              (b. 1723 - d. 1799)
17 Oct 1789 - 12 Jul 1794  Juan Vicente de Güemes-Pacheco de
                           Padilla y Horcasitas, conde de
                           Revillagigedo                      (b. 1740 - d. 1799)
12 Jul 1794 - 31 May 1798  Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca
                           y Branciforte, marqués de
                           Branciforte
31 May 1798 - 30 Apr 1800  Miguel José de Azanza              (b. 1746 - d. 1826)
30 Apr 1800 -  4 Jan 1803  Félix Berenguer de Marquina        (b. 1738 - d. 1826)
 4 Jan 1803 - 16 Sep 1808  José de Iturrigaray y Aréstegui    (b. 1742 - d. 1815)
16 Sep 1808 - 19 Jun 1809  Pedro de Garibay                   (b. 1727 - d. 1815)
19 Jun 1809 -  8 May 1810  Francisco Javier de Lizana y
                           Beaumont                           (b. 1750 - d. 1811)
 8 May 1810 - 14 Sep 1810  Pedro Catani
                           (president of the Audiencia)
14 Sep 1810 -  4 Mar 1813  Francisco Javier Venegas de
                           Saavedra, marqués de la Reunión
                           de Nueva España                    (b. 1760 - d. 1838)
 4 Mar 1813 - 20 Sep 1816  Félix María Calleja del Rey,
                           conde de Calderón                  (b. 1753 - d. 1828)
20 Sep 1816 -  6 Jul 1821  Juan Ruiz de Apodaca               (b. 1754 - d. 1835)
 6 Jul 1821 - 30 Jul 1821  Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y
                           Sicardo (acting)
30 Jul 1821 - 28 Sep 1821  Juan O'Donojú                      (b. 1762 - d. 1821)

Mexico

 6 Nov 1813                independence of "Northern America" declared by the Congress
                           of Anáhuac (insurrection against Spain)
24 Oct 1814                constitution of Mexican America promulgated
15 Dec 1815                insurrection extinguished
28 Sep 1821                independence (Mexican Empire)
29 Mar 1823                Mexico
10 Oct 1824                United Mexican States
 1 Jan 1837                Mexican Republic
22 Aug 1846                United Mexican States
20 Apr 1853                Mexican Republic
16 Sep 1857                United Mexican States
31 May 1863                foreign intervention
22 Jun 1863                Mexico
11 Jul 1863                Mexican Empire
15 May 1867                United Mexican States

Generalissimo in charge of the Executive
 6 Nov 1813 - 24 Oct 1814  José María Morelos y Pavón         (b. 1765 - d. 1815)
Presidents of the Supreme Government
24 Oct 1814 - 24 Feb 1815  José María Liceaga                 (b. 1780? - d. 1818)
24 Feb 1815 -  5 Nov 1815  José María Morelos y Pavón         (s.a.)
 5 Nov 1815 - 13 Nov 1815  vacant
13 Nov 1815 - 15 Dec 1815  Ignacio Alas                       (b. 1780 - d. 1843)
President of the Regency of the Empire
28 Sep 1821 - 21 May 1822  Agustín de Iturbide                (b. 1783 - d. 1824)
                           (initially styled President of the Provisional Governing
                           Junta)
Emperor
- Iturbide dynasty -
21 May 1822 - 29 Mar 1823  Agustín                            (s.a.)
President of the Constituent Congress
29 Mar 1823 - 31 Mar 1823  José Mariano Marín                 (b. 1782 - d. 1863)
Presidents of the Supreme Executive Power
31 Mar 1823 - 30 Apr 1823  Pedro Celestino Negrete            (b. 1777 - d. 1846)
 1 May 1823 - 31 May 1823  José Mariano de Michelena
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1772 - d. 1852)
 1 Jun 1823 - 30 Jun 1823  Nicolás Bravo (1st time)           (b. 1786 - d. 1854)
 1 Jul 1823 - 31 Jul 1823  José Mariano de Michelena
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1823 - 31 Aug 1823  Miguel Domínguez (1st time)        (b. 1756 - d. 1830)
 1 Sep 1823 - 30 Sep 1823  Vicente Ramón Guerrero (1st time)  (b. 1783 - d. 1831)
 1 Oct 1823 - 31 Oct 1823  José Mariano de Michelena
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1823 - 30 Nov 1823  Miguel Domínguez (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1823 -  8 Dec 1823  Vicente Ramón Guerrero (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 8 Dec 1823 - 31 Dec 1823  Miguel Domínguez (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1824 - 31 Jan 1824  José Mariano de Michelena
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1824 - 29 Feb 1824  Miguel Domínguez (4th time)        (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1824 - 31 Mar 1824  Vicente Ramón Guerrero (3rd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1824 - 30 Apr 1824  Nicolás Bravo (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 1 May 1824 - 31 May 1824  Miguel Domínguez (5th time)        (s.a.)
 1 Jun 1824 - 30 Jun 1824  Vicente Ramón Guerrero (4th time)  (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1824 - 31 Jul 1824  Guadalupe Victoria (1st time)      (b. 1786 - d. 1843)
 1 Aug 1824 - 31 Aug 1824  Nicolás Bravo (3rd time)           (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1824 - 30 Sep 1824  Miguel Domínguez (6th time)        (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1824 - 10 Oct 1824  Guadalupe Victoria (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Presidents
10 Oct 1824 -  1 Apr 1829  Guadalupe Victoria                 (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1829 - 23 Dec 1829  Vicente Ramón Guerrero             (s.a.)
23 Dec 1829 -  1 Jan 1830  Pedro Vélez                        (b. 1787 - d. 1848)
                           + Lucas Alamán                     (b. 1792 - d. 1853)
                           + Luis de Quintanar                (b. 1772 - d. 1837)
                           (acting)
 1 Jan 1830 - 24 Dec 1832  Anastasio Bustamante (1st time)    (b. 1780 - d. 1853)
                           (acting)
14 Aug 1832 - 24 Dec 1832    Melchor Múzquiz                  (b. 1790 - d. 1844)
                             (acting for Bustamante)
24 Dec 1832 -  1 Apr 1833  Manuel Gómez Pedraza               (b. 1789 - d. 1851)
 1 Apr 1833 - 16 May 1833  Valentín Gómez Farías (1st time)   (b. 1781 - d. 1858)
                           (acting)
16 May 1833 - 27 Feb 1837  Antonio López de Santa Anna
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1794 - d. 1876)
28 Jan 1835 - 27 Feb 1836    Miguel Barragán                  (b. 1789 - d. 1836)
                             (acting for Santa Anna)
27 Feb 1837 - 19 Apr 1837  José Justo Corro (interim)         (b. 1794 - d. 1864)
19 Apr 1837 - 10 Oct 1841  Anastasio Bustamante (2nd time)    (s.a.)
10 Oct 1841 -  1 Feb 1844  Antonio López de Santa Anna
                           (2nd time) (provisional)           (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1844 -  4 Jun 1844  Valentín Canalizo (acting)         (b. 1794 - d. 1850)
 4 Jun 1844 - 17 Dec 1844  Antonio López de Santa Anna
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (removed de facto 6 Dec 1844)
 7 Dec 1844 - 30 Dec 1845  José Joaquín de Herrera (1st time) (b. 1792 - d. 1854)
                           (interim to 16 Sep 1845)
30 Dec 1845 -  2 Jan 1846  Gabriel Valencia (interim)         (b. 1799 - d. 1848)
 2 Jan 1846 -  4 Aug 1846  Mariano Paredes                    (b. 1797 - d. 1849)
                           (General-in-Chief to 4 Jan 1846, then interim)
 5 Aug 1846 - 24 Dec 1846  José Mariano de Salas (1st time)   (b. 1797 - d. 1867)
                           (acting)
24 Dec 1846 - 21 Mar 1847  Valentín Gómez Farías (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
21 Mar 1847 - 16 Sep 1847  Antonio López de Santa Anna
                           (4th time) (interim)               (s.a.)
26 Sep 1847 - 13 Nov 1847  José Manuel de la Peña y Peña
                           (1st time) (interim)               (b. 1789 - d. 1850)
13 Nov 1847 -  8 Jan 1848  Pedro María de Anaya (interim)     (b. 1794 - d. 1854)
 8 Jan 1848 -  3 Jun 1848  José Manuel de la Peña y Peña
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 15 May 1848, then interim)
 3 Jun 1848 - 15 Jan 1851  José Joaquín de Herrera (2nd time) (s.a.)
15 Jan 1851 -  6 Jan 1853  Mariano Arista                     (b. 1802 - d. 1855)
 6 Jan 1853 -  8 Feb 1853  Juan Bautista Ceballos (interim)   (b. 1811 - d. 1859)
 8 Feb 1853 - 20 Apr 1853  Manuel María Lombardini (acting)   (b. 1802 - d. 1853)
20 Apr 1853 - 12 Aug 1855  Antonio López de Santa Anna
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
13 Aug 1855 - 15 Aug 1855  Rómulo Díaz de la Vega (1st time)  (b. 1804 - d. 1877)
                           (General-in-Chief)
15 Aug 1855 - 12 Sep 1855  Martín Carrera (interim)           (b. 1806 - d. 1871)
12 Sep 1855 - 15 Nov 1855  Rómulo Díaz de la Vega (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (Governor of District of Mexico and Commander-in-Chief)
 4 Oct 1855 - 15 Sep 1856  Juan Álvarez                       (b. 1790 - d. 1867)
                           (interim; in rebellion as General-in-Chief from 14 Mar
                           1855)
15 Sep 1856 - 21 Jan 1858  Ignacio Comonfort                  (b. 1812 - d. 1863)
                           (substitute to 1 Dec 1857; provisional from 19 Dec 1857)
21 Jan 1858 - 23 Dec 1858  Félix María Zuloaga (1st time)     (b. 1813 - d. 1898)
                           (General-in-Chief to 23 Jan 1858; then interim)
23 Dec 1858 - 21 Jan 1859  Manuel Robles Pezuela (acting)     (b. 1817 - d. 1862)
21 Jan 1859 - 23 Jan 1859  José Mariano de Salas (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
23 Jan 1859                Miguel Miramón (1st time)          (b. 1831 - d. 1867)
                           (interim)
23 Jan 1859 - 13 Aug 1860  Félix María Zuloaga (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
13 Aug 1860 - 15 Aug 1860  José Ignacio Pavón (acting)        (b. 1791 - d. 1866)
15 Aug 1860 - 24 Dec 1860  Miguel Miramón (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (interim)
28 Dec 1860 - 23 Mar 1862  Félix María Zuloaga (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                           (interim)
21 Apr 1862 - 12 Jan 1863  Juan Nepomuceno Almonte            (b. 1803 - d. 1869)
                           (Supreme Chief of the Nation)
22 Jun 1863 - 25 Jun 1863  Teodosio Lares                     (b. 1806 - d. 1870)
                           (President of the Superior Governing Junta)
25 Jun 1863 - 20 May 1864  Supreme Provisional Executive Power
                           (from 11 Jul 1863, Regency)
                           - Juan Nepomuceno Almonte          (s.a.)
                           - Juan Bautista de Ormaechea       (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
                             (to 19 Oct 1863)
                           - Pelagio Antonio de Labastida     (b. 1816 - d. 1891)
                             (19 Oct - 18 Nov 1863)
                           - José Mariano de Salas            (s.a.)
Emperor
- Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty -
10 Apr 1864 - 15 May 1867  Maximiliano I                      (b. 1832 - d. 1867)
Presidents
15 May 1867 - 18 Jul 1872  Benito Juárez                      (b. 1806 - d. 1872)
                           (in opposition from 19 Jan 1858 [interim to 11 Jun 1861])
19 Jul 1872 - 21 Nov 1876  Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada          (b. c.1825 - d. 1889)
                           (interim to 30 Nov 1872)
21 Nov 1876 - 23 Nov 1876  José María Iglesias                (b. 1823 - d. 1891)
                           (interim; with this title in revolt from 28 Oct 1876
                           and to 17 Jan 1877)
23 Nov 1876 - 30 Nov 1880  Porfirio Díaz (1st time)           (b. 1830 - d. 1915)
                           (Chief of Armed Forces to 28 Nov 1876; interim
                           president 28 Nov 1876 - 5 May 1877)
 6 Dec 1876 - 15 Feb 1877    Juan N. Méndez (acting for Díaz) (b. 1820 - d. 1894)
 1 Dec 1880 - 30 Nov 1884  Manuel González                    (b. 1833 - d. 1893)
 1 Dec 1884 - 25 May 1911  Porfirio Díaz (2nd time)           (s.a.)
25 May 1911 -  6 Nov 1911  Francisco León de la Barra         (b. 1863 - d. 1939)
                           (interim)
 6 Nov 1911 - 19 Feb 1913  Francisco I. Madero                (b. 1873 - d. 1913)
19 Feb 1913    (minutes)   Pedro Lascuráin Paredes (interim)  (b. 1856 - d. 1952)
19 Feb 1913 - 15 Jul 1914  Victoriano Huerta (interim)        (b. 1845 - d. 1916)
15 Jul 1914 - 13 Aug 1914  Francisco S. Carvajal (interim)    (b. 1870 - d. 1932)
20 Aug 1914 - 31 Oct 1914  Venustiano Carranza (1st time)     (b. 1859 - d. 1920)
                           (revolutionary commander)
31 Oct 1914 -  6 Nov 1914  Antonio I. Villarreal González     (b. 1879 - d. 1944)
                           (president of Revolutionary Convention)
 6 Nov 1914 - 16 Jan 1915  Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz            (b. 1881 - d. 1939)
                           (provisional; continued in rebellion to 2 Jun 1915)
16 Jan 1915 - 10 Jun 1915  Roque González Garza (acting)      (b. 1885 - d. 1962)
10 Jun 1915 - 10 Oct 1915  Francisco Lagos Cházaro (acting)   (b. 1878 - d. 1932)
   Oct 1915 -  7 May 1920  Venustiano Carranza (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (revolutionary commander to 1 May 1917)
 7 May 1920 - 30 Nov 1920  Adolfo de la Huerta                (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
                           (revolutionary commander to 1 Jun 1920, then substitute
                           president)
 1 Dec 1920 - 30 Nov 1924  Álvaro Obregón                     (b. 1880 - d. 1928)
 1 Dec 1924 - 30 Nov 1928  Plutarco Elías Calles              (b. 1877 - d. 1945)
 1 Dec 1928 -  5 Feb 1930  Emilio Portes Gil             PRI  (b. 1890 - d. 1978)
                           (provisional)
 5 Feb 1930 -  4 Sep 1932  Pascual Ortiz Rubio           PRI  (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
 4 Sep 1932 - 30 Nov 1934  Abelardo L. Rodríguez         PRI  (b. 1889 - d. 1967)
                           (substitute)
 1 Dec 1934 - 30 Nov 1940  Lázaro Cárdenas               PRI  (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
 1 Dec 1940 - 30 Nov 1946  Manuel Ávila Camacho          PRI  (b. 1897 - d. 1955)
 1 Dec 1946 - 30 Nov 1952  Miguel Alemán                 PRI  (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
 1 Dec 1952 - 30 Nov 1958  Adolfo Ruiz Cortines          PRI  (b. 1890 - d. 1973)
 1 Dec 1958 - 30 Nov 1964  Adolfo López Mateos           PRI  (b. 1910 - d. 1969)
 1 Dec 1964 - 30 Nov 1970  Gustavo Díaz Ordaz            PRI  (b. 1911 - d. 1979)
 1 Dec 1970 - 30 Nov 1976  Luis Echeverría Álvarez       PRI  (b. 1922)
 1 Dec 1976 - 30 Nov 1982  José López Portillo           PRI  (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
 1 Dec 1982 - 30 Nov 1988  Miguel de la Madrid           PRI  (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
 1 Dec 1988 - 30 Nov 1994  Carlos Salinas de Gortari     PRI  (b. 1948)
 1 Dec 1994 - 30 Nov 2000  Ernesto Zedillo               PRI  (b. 1951)
 1 Dec 2000 - 30 Nov 2006  Vicente Fox Quesada           PAN  (b. 1942)
 1 Dec 2006 - 30 Nov 2012  Felipe Calderón               PAN  (b. 1962)
 1 Dec 2012 -              Enrique Peña Nieto            PRI  (b. 1966)

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 13 Jun 1864 - 6 Oct 1866 José María de Lacunza (b. 1809 - d. 1869) 6 Oct 1866 - 19 Mar 1867 Teodosio Lares (s.a.) 19 Mar 1867 - 15 May 1867 Santiago Vidaurri (b. 1808 - d. 1867)
Party abbreviations: PAN=National Action Party, PRI=Institutional Revolutionary Party (1929-38 National Revolutionary Party; 1938-46 Party of the Mexican Revolution)

Micronesia, Federated States of

       1899                Caroline Islands part of German New Guinea (see under Papua New Guinea)
       1914                Japanese occupation
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate (also including Marshall Islands,
                           Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau)
18 Jul 1947                former mandate becomes UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
10 May 1979                autonomy of Caroline Islands as Federated States of Micronesia
 3 Nov 1986                Compact of Free Association with the U.S. effective
10 Jul 1987                trust territory effectively dissolved
22 Dec 1990                final independence (Security Council ratifies termination
                           of trusteeship)

Mandate and trust territory

Administrators
       1921 -  4 Apr 1923  Toshiro Tezuka
 4 Apr 1923 - 11 Oct 1931  Gosuke Yokota                      (b. ... - d. 1931)
12 Oct 1931 - 21 Nov 1931  Mitsusada Horiguchi
21 Nov 1931 -  5 Feb 1932  Kazuo Tawara
 5 Feb 1932 -  4 Aug 1933  Masayuki Matsuda
 4 Aug 1933 - 19 Sep 1936  Hisao Hayashi
19 Sep 1936 -  9 Apr 1940  Kenjiro Kitajima                   (b. 1893 - d. 1957)
 9 Apr 1940 -  5 Nov 1943  Shunsuke Kondo                     (b. 1891? - d. 1966)
 5 Nov 1943 -        1944  Ishiro Hosokaya                    (b. 1888 - d. 1964)
High commissioners
18 Jul 1947 - 17 Apr 1948  Louis Emil Denfeld                 (b. 1891 - d. 1972)
17 Apr 1948 -  1 May 1949  DeWitt Clinton Ramsey              (b. 1888 - d. 1961)
 1 May 1949 -  6 Jan 1951  Arthur William Radford             (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
 6 Jan 1951 - 11 Feb 1953  Elbert Duncan Thomas               (b. 1883 - d. 1953)
13 Mar 1953 -  1 Sep 1954  Frank Elbert Midkiff               (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
 1 Sep 1954 -  1 May 1961  Delmas Henry Nucker                (b. 1907 - d. 1985)
                           (acting to Nov 1956)
 1 May 1961 - 27 May 1966  Maurice Wilfred Goding             (b. 1911 - d. 1998)
27 May 1966 -  1 May 1969  William Robert Norwood             (b. 1909 - d. 1981)
                           (acting to 1 Aug 1966)
 1 May 1969 -  1 Jul 1976  Edward Elliott Johnston            (b. 1918 - d. 2011)
 1 Jul 1976 -  9 Jul 1977  Peter Tali Coleman (acting)        (b. 1919 - d. 1997)
 9 Jul 1977 -        1981  Adrian P. Winkel                   (b. 1915 - d. 1994)
       1981 -    Dec 1981  Daniel J. High (acting)
   Dec 1981 - 10 Jul 1987  Janet J. McCoy (f)                 (b. 1916 - d. 1995)

Federated States of Micronesia

Presidents
11 May 1979 - 11 May 1987  Tosiwo Nakayama                    (b. 1931 - d. 2007)
11 May 1987 - 11 May 1991  John Haglelgam                     (b. 1949)
11 May 1991 -  8 May 1997  Bailey Olter                       (b. 1932 - d. 1999)
 8 Nov 1996 - 11 May 1999  Jacob Nena                         (b. 1941)
                           (acting for incapacitated Olter to 8 May 1997)
11 May 1999 - 11 May 2003  Leo A. Falcam                      (b. 1935)
11 May 2003 - 11 May 2007  Joseph J. Urusemal                 (b. 1952)
11 May 2007 -              Manny Mori                         (b. 1948)

Mingrelia: see under Georgia.
Modena: see under Italian states.
Mohéli: see under Comoros.
Moldavia: see under Romania.

Moldova

 6 Feb 1918                Moldovan Democratic Republic
 9 Apr 1918                incorporation into Romania
28 Jun 1940                incorporation into the Soviet Union as Moldavian Soviet
                           Socialist Republic (see Soviet republics)
   Jul 1941                incorporation into Romania
       1944                incorporation into the Soviet Union
                           (recognized by Romania 15 Sep 1947)
23 Jun 1990                Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova
23 May 1991                Republic of Moldova
27 Aug 1991                independence declared
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)

President of the Bessarabian National Council (also known as Assembly of the Land)
 6 Feb 1918 -  9 Apr 1918  Ion Inculet                        (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
Presidents
 3 Sep 1990 - 15 Jan 1997  Mircea Snegur                      (b. 1940)
15 Jan 1997 -  7 Apr 2001  Petru Lucinschi                    (b. 1940)
 7 Apr 2001 - 11 Sep 2009  Vladimir Voronin                   (b. 1941)
11 Sep 2009 - 28 Dec 2010  Mihai Ghimpu (acting)              (b. 1951)
28 Dec 2010 - 30 Dec 2010  Vlad Filat (acting)                (b. 1969)
30 Dec 2010 - 23 Mar 2012  Marian Lupu (acting)               (b. 1966)
23 Mar 2012 -              Nicolae Timofti                    (b. 1948)

Prime ministers 26 May 1990 - 28 May 1991 Mircea Druc (b. 1941) 28 May 1991 - 1 Jul 1992 Valeriu Muravschi (b. 1949) 1 Jul 1992 - 24 Jan 1997 Andrei Sangheli (b. 1944) 24 Jan 1997 - 12 Mar 1999 Ion Ciubuc (b. 1943) 12 Mar 1999 - 21 Dec 1999 Ion Sturza (b. 1960) 21 Dec 1999 - 19 Apr 2001 Dumitru Braghis (b. 1957) 19 Apr 2001 - 31 Mar 2008 Vasile Tarlev (b. 1963) 31 Mar 2008 - 14 Sep 2009 Zinaida Greceanîi (f) (b. 1956) 14 Sep 2009 - 25 Sep 2009 Vitalie Pirlog (acting) (b. 1974) 25 Sep 2009 - 25 Apr 2013 Vlad Filat (s.a.) 25 Apr 2013 - Iurie Leanca (b. 1963) (acting to 31 May 2013)

Dniester Republic (Transnistria)

 2 Sep 1990                independence declared (Transnistrian Moldavian Soviet
                           Socialist Republic, later Transnistrian Moldavian Republic)

Chairman of the (to 29 Nov 1990, Provisional) Supreme Soviet; from Dec 1990 chairman
of the republic
 2 Sep 1990 -  1 Dec 1991  Igor Smirnov                       (b. 1941)
                           (Moldovan prisoner 29 Aug - 25 Sep 1991)
Presidents
 1 Dec 1991 - 30 Dec 2011  Igor Smirnov                       (s.a.)
30 Dec 2011 -              Yevgeny Shevchuk                   (b. 1968)

Prime ministers 18 Jan 2012 - 10 Jul 2013 Pyotr Stepanov (b. 1959) 10 Jul 2013 - Tatyana Turanskaya (f) (b. 1972)

Gagauz-Yeri Autonomous Region

19 Aug 1990                independence declared (Gagauz Soviet Socialist Republic)
19 Jun 1995                Gagauz-Yeri Autonomous Region

Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
30 Oct 1990 -  1 Dec 1991  Stepan Topal                       (b. 1938)
President
 1 Dec 1991 - 19 Jun 1995  Stepan Topal                       (s.a.)
Governors
19 Jun 1995 - 24 Sep 1999  Gheorghe Tabunscic (1st time)      (b. 1939)
24 Sep 1999 - 10 Jul 2002  Dumitru Croitor                    (b. 1959)
10 Jul 2002 - 29 Jul 2002  Ivan Kristioglo                    (b. 1952)
                           (acting chairman of the Executive Committee)
10 Jul 2002 - 29 Jul 2002    Valeri Ianioglo                  (b. 1957)
                             (acting; in opposition)
29 Jul 2002 -  9 Nov 2002  Gheorghe Mollo (interim)
 9 Nov 2002 - 29 Dec 2006  Gheorghe Tabunscic (2nd time)      (s.a.)
29 Dec 2006 -              Mihail Formuzal                    (b. 1959)

Monaco

       1612                Principality of Monaco (sovereign 8 Jun 1688)
14 Feb 1793 - 30 May 1814  annexed to France (renamed Fort-Hercule)

Princes/Princesses
- Grimaldi dynasty¹ -
10 Jan 1662 -  2 Jan 1701  Louis I                            (b. 1642 - d. 1701)
 2 Jan 1701 - 20 Feb 1731  Antoine I                          (b. 1661 - d. 1731)
20 Feb 1731 - 31 Dec 1731  Louise-Hippolyte (f)               (b. 1697 - d. 1731)
20 Feb 1731 -  7 Nov 1733  Jacques I                          (b. 1689 - d. 1751)
                           (regent to 31 Dec 1731)
 7 Nov 1733 - 14 Feb 1793  Honoré III                         (b. 1720 - d. 1795)
30 May 1814 - 16 Feb 1819  Honoré IV                          (b. 1758 - d. 1819)
 3 Jun 1814 - 18 Jan 1815    Joseph (regent)                  (b. 1763 - d. 1816)
18 Jan 1815 - 16 Feb 1819    Honoré (regent)                  (b. 1778 - d. 1841)
16 Feb 1819 -  2 Oct 1841  Honoré V                           (s.a.)
 2 Oct 1841 - 20 Jun 1856  Florestan I                        (b. 1785 - d. 1856)
20 Jun 1856 - 10 Sep 1889  Charles III                        (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
10 Sep 1889 - 26 Jun 1922  Albert I                           (b. 1848 - d. 1922)
26 Jun 1922 -  9 May 1949  Louis II                           (b. 1870 - d. 1949)
 9 May 1949 -  6 Apr 2005  Rainier III                        (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
31 Mar 2005 -  6 Apr 2005    Albert (regent)                  (b. 1958)
 6 Apr 2005 -              Albert II                          (s.a.)

Ministers of state Feb 1911 - Dec 1917 Émile Flach Jan 1918 - Feb 1919 Georges Jaloustre (acting) (b. 18... - d. 1922) 19 Feb 1919 - 11 Aug 1923 Raymond Le Bourdon (b. 1861 - d. 1937) 11 Aug 1923 - Jan 1932 Maurice Piette (b. 1871 - d. 1953) Jan 1932 - Jun 1932 Henri Mauran (1st time) (acting) Jun 1932 - Jun 1937 Maurice Bouilloux-Lafont (b. 1875 - d. 1937) Jun 1937 - Aug 1937 Henri Mauran (2nd time) (acting) 15 Sep 1937 - 29 Sep 1944 Émile Roblot (b. 1886 - d. 1963) 29 Sep 1944 - 13 Oct 1944 Pierre Blanchy (1st time) (acting) 13 Oct 1944 - Dec 1948 Pierre de Witasse 4 Jan 1949 - 12 Jul 1949 Pierre Blanchy (2nd time) (acting) 12 Jul 1949 - 1 Aug 1950 Jacques Léon Rueff (b. 1896 - d. 1978) 1 Aug 1950 - 2 Sep 1953 Pierre Voizard (b. 1896 - d. 1982) 15 Nov 1953 - 12 Feb 1959 Henry Soum (b. 1899 - d. 1983) 12 Feb 1959 - 23 Jan 1962 Émile Pelletier (b. 1898 - d. 1975) 23 Jan 1962 - 16 Aug 1963 Pierre Blanchy (3rd time) (acting) 16 Aug 1963 - 28 Dec 1966 Jean Reymond (b. 1912 - d. 1986) 28 Dec 1966 - 1 Apr 1969 Paul Demange (b. 1906 - d. 1970) 1 Apr 1969 - 24 May 1972 François-Didier Gregh (b. 1906 - d. 1992) 24 May 1972 - Jul 1981 André Saint-Mleux (b. 1920 - d. 2012) Jul 1981 - 16 Sep 1985 Jean Herly (b. 1920 - d. 1998) 16 Sep 1985 - 16 Feb 1991 Jean Ausseil (b. 1925 - d. 2001) 16 Feb 1991 - 2 Dec 1994 Jacques Dupont (b. 1929 - d. 2002) 2 Dec 1994 - 3 Feb 1997 Paul Dijoud (b. 1938) 3 Feb 1997 - 1 Jan 2000 Michel Lévêque (b. 1933) 1 Jan 2000 - 1 Jun 2005 Patrick Leclercq (b. 1938) 1 Jun 2005 - 29 Mar 2010 Jean-Paul Proust (b. 1940 - d. 2010) 29 Mar 2010 - Michel Roger (b. 1949)
¹The dynastic name has been preserved through several changes in patrilineage: all males marrying female heirs to the principality (as e.g. the father of Rainier III) have changed their family name to Grimaldi. All princes since Jacques I carried the additional title of duc de Valentinois, together with a very long list of other (actually extinct) titles.

Mongolia

 1 Dec 1911                Mongolia (Bogd Khaan State)
19 Feb 1920                reannexation to China
 3 Feb 1921                Mongolia (Bogd Khaan State)
26 Nov 1924                Mongolian People's Republic
12 Feb 1992                Mongolia

Chairmen of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Party (from Aug 1924,
Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party)
 3 Mar 1921 -    Sep 1921  Soliyn Danzan                      (b. 1884 - d. 1924)
   Sep 1921 -  7 Jan 1922  Dogsomyn Bodoo                     (b. 1895 - d. 1922)
15 Mar 1922 -  2 Jan 1923  Tseren-Ochiryn Dambadorj
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1899 - d. 1934)
 2 Jan 1923 - 31 Aug 1924  Ajvaagiyn Danzan                   (b. 1895 - d. 1932)
31 Aug 1924 -    Oct 1928  Tseren-Ochiryn Dambadorj
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
Secretaries of the Central Committee of the MPRP (jointly)
11 Dec 1928 - 30 Jun 1932  Ölziytiyn Badrakh                  (b. 1895 - d. 1941)
11 Dec 1928 - 13 Mar 1930  Bat-Ochiryn Eldev-Ochir (1st time) (b. 1905 - d. 1937)
11 Dec 1928 - 30 Jun 1932  Peljidiyn Genden                   (b. 1892 - d. 1937)
13 Mar 1930 - 30 Jun 1932  Zolbingiyn Shijee                  (b. 1901 - d. 1941)
30 Jun 1932 -        1937  Bat-Ochiryn Eldev-Ochir (2nd time) (s.a.)
30 Jun 1932 -        1933  Jambyn Lkhümbe                     (b. 1902 - d. 1934)
30 Jun 1932 -        1937  Dorgijavyn Luvsansharav            (b. 1900 - d. 1941)
 5 Oct 1934 - 15 Aug 1936  Khas-Ochiryn Luvsandorj            (b. 1910 - d. 1937)
 7 Oct 1936 - 22 Feb 1940  Banzarjavyn Baasanjav              (b. 1906 - d. 1940)
 4 Jul 1939 -  8 Apr 1940  Dashiyn Damba                      (b. 1908 - d. 1989)
General secretaries of the Central Committee of the MPRP
 8 Apr 1940 -  4 Apr 1954  Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (1st time)    (b. 1916 - d. 1991)
 4 Apr 1954 - 22 Nov 1958  Dashiyn Damba                      (s.a.)
                           (first secretary)
22 Nov 1958 - 24 Aug 1984  Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (first secretary to 30 May 1981)
24 Aug 1984 - 14 Mar 1990  Jambyn Batmönkh                    (b. 1926 - d. 1997)
14 Mar 1990 - 13 Apr 1990  Gombojavyn Ochirbat                (b. 1929)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 23 Mar 1990)

Bogd Khaan (reincarnated lama ruler) 1 Dec 1911 - 19 Feb 1920 Jabzandamba Khutagt Bogd Gegeen Ezen Khaan (1st time) (b. 1869 - d. 1924) 3 Feb 1921 - 20 May 1924 Jabzandamba Khutagt Bogd Gegeen Ezen Khaan (2nd time) (s.a.) Acting head of state 20 May 1924 - 28 Nov 1924 Balingiyn Tserendorj Beyse (b. 1868 - d. 1928) Chairman of the State Great Khural 28 Nov 1924 - 29 Nov 1924 Navaandorjiyn Jadambaa Chairmen of the Presidium of the State Little Khural 29 Nov 1924 - 15 Nov 1927 Peljidiyn Genden (s.a.) 16 Nov 1927 - 23 Jan 1929 Jamtsangiyn Damdinsüren (b. 1898 - d. 1938) 24 Jan 1929 - 27 Apr 1930 Khorloogiyn Choybalsan (b. 1895 - d. 1952) 27 Apr 1930 - 2 Jul 1932 Losolyn Laagan (b. 1887 - d. 1940) 2 Jul 1932 - 22 Mar 1936 Agdanbuugiyn Amar (b. 1886 - d. 1941) 22 Mar 1936 - 9 Jul 1939 Dansrabilegiyn Dogsom (b. 1884 - d. 1941) 9 Jul 1939 - 6 Jul 1940 vacant 6 Jul 1940 - 6 Jul 1951 Gonchigiyn Bumtsend (b. 1881 - d. 1953) Chairmen of the Presidium of the State Great Khural (from 7 Jul 1960, People's Great Khural) 6 Jul 1951 - 23 Sep 1953 Gonchigiyn Bumtsend (s.a.) 23 Sep 1953 - 7 Jul 1954 Sükhbaataryn Yanjmaa (f) (acting) (b. 1893 - d. 1962) 7 Jul 1954 - 20 May 1972 Jamtsarangiyn Sambuu (b. 1895 - d. 1972) 20 May 1972 - 29 Jun 1972 Tsagaanlamyn Dügersüren (acting) 29 Jun 1972 - 11 Jun 1974 Sonomyn Luvsan (acting) (b. 1924) 11 Jun 1974 - 23 Aug 1984 Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (s.a.) 23 Aug 1984 - 12 Dec 1984 Nyamyn Jagvaral (acting) (b. 1919 - d. 1987) 12 Dec 1984 - 21 Mar 1990 Jambyn Batmönkh (s.a.) 21 Mar 1990 - 3 Sep 1990 Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat (b. 1942) Presidents 3 Sep 1990 - 20 Jun 1997 Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat (s.a.) 20 Jun 1997 - 24 Jun 2005 Natsagiyn Bagabandi (b. 1950) 24 Jun 2005 - 18 Jun 2009 Nambaryn Enkhbayar (b. 1958) 18 Jun 2009 - Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj (b. 1963)
Prime ministers Jul 1912 - 1915 Sain Noyon Khan Namnansüren (b. 1878 - d. 1919) Feb 1919 - Nov 1919 Chin Van Badamdorj (b. ... - d. 1919) Feb 1921 - Mar 1921 Khatan Baatar Magsarjav (b. 1877 - d. 1927) 13 Mar 1921 - 16 Apr 1921 Dambyn Chadarjav (b. 1880 - d. 1922) 16 Apr 1921 - 7 Jan 1922 Dogsomyn Bodoo (s.a.) 3 Mar 1922 - 23 Jun 1923 Sodnomyn Damdinbazar (b. 1874 - d. 1923) 28 Sep 1923 - 28 Nov 1924 Balingiyn Tserendorj Beyse (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars (from 1946, chairmen of the Council of Ministers) 28 Nov 1924 - 13 Feb 1928 Balingiyn Tserendorj Beyse (s.a.) 21 Feb 1928 - 27 Apr 1930 Agdanbuugiyn Amar (1st time) (s.a.) 27 Apr 1930 - 2 Jul 1932 Tsengeltiyn Jigjidav (acting) (b. 1894 - d. 1933) 2 Jul 1932 - 22 Mar 1936 Peljidiyn Genden (s.a.) 22 Mar 1936 - 7 Mar 1939 Agdanbuugiyn Amar (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Mar 1939 - 26 Jan 1952 Khorloogiyn Choybalsan (s.a.) 28 May 1952 - 11 Jun 1974 Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (s.a.) 11 Jun 1974 - 12 Dec 1984 Jambyn Batmönkh (s.a.) 12 Dec 1984 - 21 Mar 1990 Dumaagiyn Sodnom (b. 1933) 21 Mar 1990 - 11 Sep 1990 Sharavyn Gungaadorj (b. 1935) Prime ministers 11 Sep 1990 - 21 Jul 1992 Dashiyn Byambasüren (b. 1942) 21 Jul 1992 - 19 Jul 1996 Puntsagiyn Jasray (b. 1933 - d. 2007) 19 Jul 1996 - 23 Apr 1998 Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan (b. 1955) 23 Apr 1998 - 9 Dec 1998 Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj (1st time) (s.a.) 9 Dec 1998 - 22 Jul 1999 Janlavyn Narantsatsralt (b. 1957 - d. 2007) 22 Jul 1999 - 30 Jul 1999 Nyam-Osoryn Tuyaa (f) (acting) (b. 1958) 30 Jul 1999 - 26 Jul 2000 Rinchinnyamyn Amarjargal (b. 1961) 26 Jul 2000 - 13 Aug 2004 Nambaryn Enkhbayar (s.a.) 13 Aug 2004 - 20 Aug 2004 Chultem Ulaan (acting) (b. 1954) 20 Aug 2004 - 25 Jan 2006 Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Jan 2006 - 22 Nov 2007 Miyeegombo Enkhbold (b. 1964) 22 Nov 2007 - 28 Oct 2009 Sanj Bayar (b. 1956) 28 Oct 2009 - 29 Oct 2009 Norov Altankhuyag (1st time) (b. 1958) (acting) 29 Oct 2009 - 9 Aug 2012 Sükhbaataryn Batbold (b. 1963) 9 Aug 2012 - Norov Altankhuyag (2nd time) (s.a.)

Montenegro

       1516                Montenegro
13 Mar 1852                Principality of Montenegro
13 Jul 1878                independence from Ottoman Empire recognized
28 Aug 1910                Kingdom of Montenegro
26 Nov 1918                merged with Serbia
 1 Dec 1918                merged into what became Yugoslavia
13 Jul 1922                union with Yugoslavia recognized by Western powers
17 Apr 1941 - 10 Sep 1943  Italian occupation
12 Jul 1941                nominal independence under Italian control
10 Sep 1943 - 15 Dec 1944  German occupation
       1945                People's Republic of Montenegro
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Montenegro
   Nov 1991                Republic of Montenegro
 3 Jun 2006                independence
22 Oct 2007                Montenegro

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
   May 1943 - 29 Jun 1963  Blazo Jovanovic                    (b. 1907 - d. 1976)
29 Jun 1963 - 14 Dec 1968  Djoka Pajkovic                     (b. 1917 - d. 1980)
14 Dec 1968 - 21 Mar 1977  Veselin Djuranovic                 (b. 1925 - d. 1997)
21 Mar 1977 -  1 Jul 1982  Vojo Srzentic                      (b. 1934)
 1 Jul 1982 -    May 1984  Dobroslav-Toro Culafic             (b. 1926 - d. 2011)
   May 1984 - 30 Jul 1984  Vidoje Zarkovic                    (b. 1927 - d. 2000)
30 Jul 1984 -    May 1986  Marko Orlandic                     (b. 1930)
   May 1986 - 11 Jan 1989  Miljan Radovic                     (b. 1933)
11 Jan 1989 - 26 Apr 1989  Veselin Vukotic (acting)           (b. 1949)
26 Apr 1989 - 28 Apr 1989  Milica Pejanovic Djurisic (f)      (b. 1959)
28 Apr 1989 - 22 Jun 1991  Momir Bulatovic                    (b. 1956)

Bishops (vladikas) and governors Jul 1696 - 22 Jan 1735 Danilo I Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1670 - d. 1735) 22 Jan 1735 - 9 Mar 1781 Sava II Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1700 - d. 1781) (jointly with following) 1750 - 21 Mar 1766 Vasilije Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1709 - d. 1766) Oct 1767 - 9 Oct 1773 Scepan "Mali" (b. c.1734 - d. 1773) (tsar, in rebellion) 9 Mar 1781 - May 1784 Arsenije II Plamenac (b. c.1700 - d. 1784) May 1784 - 30 Oct 1830 Petar I Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1747 - d. 1830) 30 Oct 1830 - 31 Oct 1851 Petar II Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1813 - d. 1851) 1 Nov 1851 - 13 Jan 1852 Pero Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1811 - d. 1854) (regent; assumes style, but not position, of Prince) 13 Jan 1852 - 13 Mar 1852 Danilo II Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1826 - d. 1860) Princes 13 Mar 1852 - 13 Aug 1860 Danilo I Petrovic-Njegos (s.a.) 13 Aug 1860 - 28 Aug 1910 Nikola I Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1841 - d. 1921) Kings (in exile from 17 Jan 1917) 28 Aug 1910 - 1 Mar 1921 Nikola I Petrovic-Njegos (s.a.) 1 Mar 1921 - 7 Mar 1921 Danilo I Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1871 - d. 1939) 7 Mar 1921 - 13 Jul 1922 Mihajlo I Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1908 - d. 1986) 7 Mar 1921 - 13 Jul 1922 Queen Milena (f) (regent) (b. 1847 - d. 1923) President of the Assembly 26 Nov 1918 - 1 Dec 1918 Savo Cerovic Civil commissioner (from 22 May 1941, high commissioner) 29 Apr 1941 - 23 Jul 1941 Conte Serafino Mazzolini (b. 1890 - d. 1945) Governors 23 Jul 1941 - 13 Jul 1943 Principe Alessandro Pirzio Biroli (b. 1877 - d. 1962) 13 Jul 1943 - 10 Sep 1943 Conte Curio Barbasetti di Prun (b. 1885 - d. 1953) German plenipotentiary generals 10 Sep 1943 - 31 May 1944 Theodor Geib (b. 1885 - d. 1944) 1 Jun 1944 - 15 Dec 1944 Wilhelm Keiper (b. 1893 - d. 1957) President of the Anti-Fascist Council of People's Liberation of Montenegro and Boka (from 14 Jul 1944, president of the Montenegrin Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation) 15 Nov 1943 - 21 Nov 1946 Nikola Miljanic (b. 1892 - d. 1957) President of the Presidium of the Constitutional Assembly 21 Nov 1946 - 1 Jan 1947 Milos Rasovic Presidents of the Presidium of the People's Assembly 1 Jan 1947 - Nov 1950 Milos Rasovic Nov 1950 - Feb 1953 Nikola Kovacevic (b. 1890 - d. 1964) Presidents of the People's Assembly Feb 1953 - Dec 1953 Nikola Kovacevic (s.a.) Dec 1953 - 14 Jul 1962 Blazo Jovanovic (s.a.) 14 Jul 1962 - Jun 1963 Filip Bajkovic (b. 1910 - d. 1985) Jun 1963 - May 1967 Andrija Mugosa (b. 1912 - d. 2006) May 1967 - Jun 1969 Veljko Milatovic (b. 1921 - d. 2004) Jun 1969 - 6 May 1974 Vidoje Zarkovic (s.a.) Presidents of the Presidency 6 May 1974 - May 1982 Veljko Milatovic (s.a.) May 1982 - 7 May 1983 Veselin Djuranovic (s.a.) 7 May 1983 - 7 May 1984 Marko Orlandic (s.a.) 7 May 1984 - May 1985 Miodrag Vlahovic May 1985 - May 1986 Branislav Soskic (b. 1922) May 1986 - May 1988 Radivoje Brajovic (b. 1935) May 1988 - 13 Jan 1989 Bozina Ivanovic (b. 1931 - d. 2002) 17 Mar 1989 - 23 Dec 1990 Branko Kostic (b. 1939) Presidents 23 Dec 1990 - 15 Jan 1998 Momir Bulatovic (s.a.) 15 Jan 1998 - 25 Nov 2002 Milo Djukanovic (b. 1962) 25 Nov 2002 - 19 May 2003 Filip Vujanovic (1st time) (b. 1954) (acting) 19 May 2003 - 22 May 2003 Rifat Rastoder (b. 1950) + Dragan Kujovic (b. 1948 - d. 2010) (acting) 22 May 2003 - Filip Vujanovic (2nd time) (s.a.)
Prime ministers (in exile 26 Nov 1918 - 1922) 20 Mar 1879 - 19 Dec 1905 Bozo Petrovic-Njegos (b. 1846 - d. 1929) 19 Dec 1905 - 24 Nov 1906 Lazar Mijuskovic (1st time) (b. 1867 - d. 1936) 24 Nov 1906 - 1 Feb 1907 Marko Radulovic (b. 1866 - d. af.1935) 1 Feb 1907 - 17 Apr 1907 Andrija Radovic (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1947) 17 Apr 1907 - 19 Jun 1912 Lazar Tomanovic (b. 1854 - d. 1933) 19 Jun 1912 - 8 May 1913 Mitar Martinovic (b. 1870 - d. 1954) 8 May 1913 - 16 Jul 1915 Janko Vukotic (b. 1866 - d. 1927) 16 Jul 1915 - 2 Jan 1916 Milo Matanovic (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1955) 2 Jan 1916 - 12 May 1916 Lazar Mijuskovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 May 1916 - 17 Jan 1917 Andrija Radovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Jan 1917 - 11 Jun 1917 Milo Matanovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Jun 1917 - 17 Feb 1919 Evgenije Popovic (b. 1842 - d. af.1921) 17 Feb 1919 - 28 Jun 1921 Jovan Plamenac (b. 1873 - d. 1944) 28 Jun 1921 - 13 Jul 1922 Milutin Vucinic (b. 1869 - d. 1922) 13 Jul 1941 - Jul 1941 Sekula Drljevic (b. 1884 - d. 1945) Presidents of the National Committee 1941 - 19 Oct 1943 Blazo Djukanovic (b. 1883 - d. 1943) 1943 Ljubo Vukcevic Prime minister Apr 1945 - Feb 1953 Blazo Jovanovic (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council Feb 1953 - 16 Dec 1953 Blazo Jovanovic (s.a.) 16 Dec 1953 - 12 Jul 1962 Filip Bajkovic (s.a.) 12 Jul 1962 - 25 Jun 1963 Djoka Pajkovic (s.a.) 25 Jun 1963 - 8 Dec 1966 Veselin Djuranovic (s.a.) 8 Dec 1966 - 5 May 1967 Mijusko Sibalic (b. 1915 - d. 1995) 5 May 1967 - 7 Oct 1969 Vidoje Zarkovic (s.a.) 7 Oct 1969 - 6 May 1974 Zarko Bulajic (b. 1922 - d. 2009) 6 May 1974 - 28 Apr 1978 Marko Orlandic (s.a.) 28 Apr 1978 - 7 May 1982 Momcilo Cemovic (b. 1928 - d. 2001) 7 May 1982 - 6 Jun 1986 Radivoje Brajovic (s.a.) 6 Jun 1986 - 29 Mar 1989 Vuko Vukadinovic (b. 1937) 29 Mar 1989 - 16 Jan 1991 Radoje Kontic (b. 1937) Prime ministers 15 Feb 1991 - 5 Feb 1998 Milo Djukanovic (1st time) (s.a.) 5 Feb 1998 - 8 Jan 2003 Filip Vujanovic (s.a.) 5 Nov 2002 - 8 Jan 2003 Dragan Djurovic (b. 1959) (acting for Vujanovic) 8 Jan 2003 - 10 Nov 2006 Milo Djukanovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Nov 2006 - 29 Feb 2008 Zeljko Sturanovic (b. 1960) 29 Feb 2008 - 29 Dec 2010 Milo Djukanovic (3rd time) (s.a.) 29 Dec 2010 - 4 Dec 2012 Igor Luksic (b. 1976) 4 Dec 2012 - Milo Djukanovic (4th time) (s.a.)

Montserrat

       1632                part of Antigua
22 Feb 1782 -    Jan 1784  French occupation
       1833 -  1 Jan 1960  part of the Leeward Islands (see under Antigua and Barbuda)
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  part of the Federation of the West Indies
                           (see under Trinidad and Tobago)

Deputy governors
       1695 -        1701  Thomas Delavall
       1701 -        1710  Anthony Hodges
       1710 -        1713  John Pearne
       1713 -        1714  John Marshall
       1714 -        1715  George Hay
       1715 -        1722  Thomas Talmash
       1722 -        1724  Charles Dilke
       1724 -        1728  Paul George
       1728 -        1729  John Osborne
       1729 -        1734  Thomas Diggs
       1734 -        1738  William Forbes
       1738 -        1854  none
       1782 -        1784  Louis Joseph de Goullon
                           (French governor)
Administrators
       1854 -        1855  Hercules Robinson                  (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
       1855 -        1862  Edward Everard Rushworth           (b. 1818 - d. 1877)
       1862 -        1866  William Cleaver Francis Robinson   (b. 1834 - d. 1897)
       1867 -        1869  William Rowland Pyne               (b. ... - d. 1885)
       1869 -        1870  Robert French Sheriff
       1872 -        1883  Neale Porter
       1883 -        1888  James Meade
Commissioners
       1888 -        1889  John Kemys Spencer-Churchill       (b. 1835 - d. 1913)
       1889 -        1900  Edward Baynes
       1900 -        1906  Frederick Henry Watkins            (b. 1859 - d. 1928)
       1906 -        1918  Wilfred Bennett Davidson-Houston   (b. 1870 - d. 1960)
       1918 -        1922  Claude Forlong Condell             (b. 1865 - d. 19...)
       1922 -        1929  Herbert Walter Peebles             (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
       1929 -        1931  Hugh Houston Hutchings             (b. 1869 - d. 1937)
       1932 -        1946  Thomas Edwin Percival Haynes
       1946 -        1949  Hugh Burrowes                      (b. 1909)
       1949 -        1956  Charles Worth Ross
Administrators
       1956 -        1960  Arthur Francis Dawkins
   Mar 1960 -        1964  Donald Alonzo Wiles                (b. 1912 - d. af.1998)
30 Sep 1964 -    Jun 1971  Dennis Raleigh Gibbs               (b. 1922 - d. 1985)
 1 Jul 1971 -  1 Nov 1971  Willoughby Harry Thompson          (b. 1919)
Governors
 2 Nov 1971 -        1974  Willoughby Harry Thompson          (s.a.)
       1974 -        1976  Norman Derek Matthews              (b. 1922 - d. 1976)
       1977 -        1980  Gwilym Wyn Jones                   (b. 1926 - d. 1993)
       1980 - 18 Dec 1984  David Kenneth Hay Dale             (b. 1927 - d. 2001)
       1985 -        1987  Arthur Christopher Watson          (b. 1927 - d. 2001)
       1987 -        1990  Christopher J. Turner              (b. 1933)
23 May 1990 -        1993  David Taylor                       (b. 1933 - d. 2007)
16 Jul 1993 -    Sep 1997  Frank Savage                       (b. 1943)
17 Sep 1997 - 28 Apr 2001  Tony Abbott                        (b. 1941)
28 Apr 2001 - 11 May 2001  Howard A. Fergus (1st time)        (b. 1937)
                           (acting)
11 May 2001 -  2 Apr 2004  Tony Longrigg                      (b. 1944)
 2 Apr 2004 - 10 May 2004  Sir Howard A. Fergus (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
10 May 2004 -  6 Jul 2007  Deborah Barnes Jones (f)           (b. 1956)
 6 Jul 2007 - 13 Jul 2007  John Skerritt (acting)
13 Jul 2007 - 27 Jul 2007  Sir Howard A. Fergus (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
27 Jul 2007 -  3 Mar 2011  Peter Waterworth                   (b. 1957)
 3 Mar 2011 -  8 Apr 2011  Sarita Francis (f) (acting)
 8 Apr 2011 -              Adrian Davis

Chief ministers Jan 1960 - Dec 1970 William Henry Bramble (b. 1901 - d. 1988) Dec 1970 - Nov 1978 Percival Austin Bramble (b. 1931) Nov 1978 - 11 Oct 1991 John Osborne (1st time) (b. 1936 - d. 2011) 11 Oct 1991 - 13 Nov 1996 Reuben Meade (1st time) (b. 1954) 13 Nov 1996 - 22 Aug 1997 Bertrand Osborne (b. 1935) 22 Aug 1997 - 5 Apr 2001 David Brandt 5 Apr 2001 - 2 Jun 2006 John Osborne (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Jun 2006 - 10 Sep 2009 Lowell Lewis (b. 1952) 10 Sep 2009 - 27 Sep 2011 Reuben Meade (2nd time) (s.a.) Premier 27 Sep 2011 - Reuben Meade (s.a.)

Morocco

 6 Jun 1666                Sharifi Moroccan State
30 Mar 1912 -  2 Mar 1956  French protectorate
27 Nov 1912 -  7 Apr 1956  Spanish protectorate in so-called Spanish Zone
14 Aug 1957                Kingdom of Morocco
Note: During the period covered by this record, there are numerous "pretenders" being proclaimed rulers, in part because of the multiplicity of historic capitals. Their names appear indented here, without each one being indicated as "in rebellion."
Sultans¹
- A`lawi Filali Sharifi dynasty -
 6 Jun 1666 -  9 Apr 1672  `Ali I ar-Rashid                   (b. 1631 - d. 1672)
                           (actually from 3 Aug 1664)
   Apr 1672                Muhammad I
14 Apr 1672 - 22 Mar 1727  Abu´n Nasr Isma`il "as-Samin"      (b. 1645/46 - d. 1727)
                           (in rebellion from 27 Mar 1672)
       1672 -        1684    al-Harrani ibn Muhammad ash-Sharif
       1672 -        1684    Abu´l Abbas Ahmad I ibn Mahraz
22 Mar 1727 -    Apr 1728  Abu´l Abbas Ahmad II "adh-Dhahabi"
                           (1st time)                         (b. c.1677 - d. 1729)
   Apr 1728 -    Jun 1728  `Abd al-Malik
   Jun 1728 -  5 Mar 1729  Abu´l Abbas Ahmad II "adh-Dhahabi"
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1729 - 29 Sep 1734  `Abd Allah (1st time)              (b. 1694 - d. 1757)
29 Sep 1734 - 12 May 1736  Zayn al-`Abidin `Ali II "al-A`raj"
12 May 1736 -        1736  `Abd Allah (2nd time)              (s.a.)
       1736 -        1738  Muhammad II "ibn al-`Arabiyya"
       1738 -        1740  al-Mustadi (1st time)              (b. ... - d. 1759)
       1740 -        1745  `Abd Allah (3rd time)              (s.a.)
       1745                al-Mustadi (2nd time)              (s.a.)
       1745 -        1748  `Abd Allah (4th time)              (s.a.)
       1748                Muhammad III "al-Khatib"
                           (1st time)                         (b. c.1710 - d. 1790)
       1748 -  8 Nov 1757  `Abd Allah (5th time)              (s.a.)
10 Nov 1757 - 11 Apr 1790  Muhammad III "al-Khatib"
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
10 Dec 1790 -    Jan 1795  Hisham (1st time)                  (b. ... - d. 1799/1800)
                           (in Marrakush only)
15 Apr 1790 - 15 Feb 1792  Yazid (in Fas only)                (b. 1750 - d. 1792)
       1790                  `Abd ar-Rahman ibn Muhammad
15 Feb 1792 - 28 Nov 1822  Abu´r-Rabi Sulayman                (b. 1760 - d. 1822)
                           (to Jan 1795 in Fas only)
       1792 -        1799    Maslama ibn Muhammad
   Oct 1795 -    Mar 1797    Hisham (2nd time)                (s.a.)
       1805                  Muhammad Darhazi
       1819 - 15 Mar 1821    Ibrahim ibn Yazid
       1820 -        1822    Sa`id
       1821                  Sa`id ibn Yazid
30 Nov 1822 - 28 Aug 1859  Abu´l-Fadl `Abd ar-Rahman          (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
       1822                  `Abd as-Salam
       1832                  Muhammad ibn Tayyib
28 Aug 1859 - 11 Sep 1873  Muhammad IV                        (b. 1803 - d. 1873)
       1859                  `Abd ar-Rahman
25 Sep 1873 -  7 Jun 1894  Hassan I                           (b. 1827/28 - d. 1894)
       1873                  `Abd al-Kabir
 8 Jun 1894                Muhammad (V)                       (b. c.1875 - d. af.1909)
 9 Jun 1894 -  4 Jan 1908  `Abd al-`Aziz                      (b. 1878 - d. 1943)
 3 Apr 1903 - 22 Aug 1909    Muhammad (V)
 5 May 1907 - 24 Nov 1907    `Abd al-Hafiz (1st time)         (b. 1875 - d. 1937)
 4 Jan 1908 - 12 Aug 1912  `Abd al-Hafiz (2nd time)           (s.a.)
25 Apr 1911 -        1911    al-Za´in                         (b. ... - d. af.1926)
   Apr 1911 -        1911    al-Kabir ibn `Abd al-`Aziz
       1911                  `Arafa ibn Muhammad
18 Aug 1912 - 17 Nov 1927  Yusuf                              (b. 1882 - d. 1927)
18 Aug 1912 -  6 Sep 1912    Ahmad al-Hayba                   (b. c.1870 - d. 1919)
18 Nov 1927 - 20 Aug 1953  Muhammad V (1st time)              (b. 1909 - d. 1961)
21 Aug 1953 - 15 Oct 1955  Muhammad ibn `Arafa                (b. 1889 - d. 1976)
15 Oct 1955 -  6 Nov 1955  Council of the Throne
                           - Mohamed El Mokri                 (b. 1854? - d. 1957)
                           - M'barek Bekkai                   (b. 1907 - d. 1961)
                           - Tahar Ouassou Loudyi             (b. 1917)
                           - Mohamed Sbihi                    (b. 1884 - d. 19...)
 6 Nov 1955 - 14 Aug 1957  Muhammad V (2nd time)              (s.a.)
Kings¹
- A`lawi Filali Sharifi dynasty -
14 Aug 1957 - 26 Feb 1961  Muhammad V                         (s.a.)
26 Feb 1961 - 23 Jul 1999  Hassan II                          (b. 1929 - d. 1999)
23 Jul 1999 -              Muhammad VI                        (b. 1963)

Prime ministers 7 Dec 1955 - 12 May 1958 M'barek Bekkai (s.a.) 12 May 1958 - 16 Dec 1958 Ahmed Balafrej (b. 1908 - d. 1990) 16 Dec 1958 - 20 May 1960 Abdallah Ibrahim (b. 1918 - d. 2005) 13 Nov 1963 - 7 Jun 1965 Ahmed Bahnini (b. 1909 - d. 1971) 6 Jul 1967 - 6 Oct 1969 Mohamed Benhima (b. 1924 - d. 1992) 6 Oct 1969 - 6 Aug 1971 Ahmed Laraki (b. 1931) 6 Aug 1971 - 2 Nov 1972 Mohamed Karim Lamrani (1st time) (b. 1919) 2 Nov 1972 - 22 Mar 1979 Ahmed Osman (b. 1930) 22 Mar 1979 - 30 Nov 1983 Maati Bouabid (b. 1927 - d. 1996) 30 Nov 1983 - 30 Sep 1986 Mohamed Karim Lamrani (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Sep 1986 - 11 Aug 1992 Azzedine Laraki (b. 1929 - d. 2010) 11 Aug 1992 - 25 May 1994 Mohamed Karim Lamrani (3rd time) (s.a.) 25 May 1994 - 4 Feb 1998 Abdellatif Filali (b. 1928 - d. 2009) 4 Feb 1998 - 9 Oct 2002 Abderrahmane Youssoufi (b. 1924) 9 Oct 2002 - 19 Sep 2007 Driss Jettou (b. 1945) 19 Sep 2007 - 29 Nov 2011 Abbas El Fassi (b. 1940) 29 Nov 2011 - Abdelilah Benkirane (b. 1954) French residents-general 28 Apr 1912 - 25 Aug 1925 Hubert Lyautey (b. 1854 - d. 1934) 12 Dec 1916 - 7 Apr 1917 Henri Gouraud (b. 1867 - d. 1946) (acting for Lyautey) 4 Oct 1925 - 1 Jan 1929 Théodore Steeg (b. 1868 - d. 1950) 2 Jan 1929 - 14 Sep 1933 Lucien Saint (b. 1867 - d. 1938) 14 Sep 1933 - 22 Mar 1936 Henri Ponsot (b. 1877 - d. 1963) 22 Mar 1936 - 16 Sep 1936 Marcel Peyrouton (b. 1887 - d. 1983) 16 Sep 1936 - 5 Jun 1943 Charles Noguès (b. 1876 - d. 1971) 5 Jun 1943 - 21 Jun 1943 Jacques Meyrier (acting) (b. 1892 - d. 1962) 21 Jun 1943 - 4 Mar 1946 Gabriel Puaux (b. 1883 - d. 1970) 4 Mar 1946 - 14 May 1947 Eirik Labonne (b. 1888 - d. 1971) 14 May 1947 - 28 Aug 1951 Alphonse Juin (b. 1888 - d. 1967) 28 Aug 1951 - 20 May 1954 Augustin Guillaume (b. 1895 - d. 1983) 20 May 1954 - 20 Jun 1955 Francis Lacoste (b. 1905 - d. 1993) 20 Jun 1955 - 31 Aug 1955 Gilbert Grandval (b. 1904 - d. 1981) 31 Aug 1955 - 11 Nov 1955 Pierre Boyer de Latour (b. 1896 - d. 1976) 11 Nov 1955 - 2 Mar 1956 André Dubois (b. 1903 - d. 1998) Spanish high commissioners 3 Apr 1913 - 15 Aug 1913 Felipe Alfau y Mendoza (b. 1845 - d. 1937) 17 Aug 1913 - 9 Jul 1915 José Marina Vega (b. 1848 - d. 1926) 9 Jul 1915 - 18 Nov 1918 Francisco Gómez Jordana (1st time) (b. 1876 - d. 1944) 27 Jan 1919 - 13 Jul 1922 Dámaso Berenguer (b. 1873 - d. 1953) 15 Jul 1922 - 22 Jan 1923 Ricardo Burguete Lana (b. 1871 - d. 1938) 16 Feb 1923 - 14 Sep 1923 Luis Silvela y Casado (b. 1865 - d. 1928) 25 Sep 1923 - 16 Oct 1924 Luis Aizpuru Mondéjar (b. 1857 - d. 19...) 16 Oct 1924 - Nov 1925 Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, marqués de Estella (b. 1870 - d. 1930) Nov 1925 - Nov 1928 José Sanjurjo Sacanell, (from 26 May 1926) marqués de Monte Malmusi (from 1 Oct 1927, marqués del Riff) (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1936) Nov 1928 - Apr 1931 Francisco Gómez Jordana (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Apr 1931 - 20 Jun 1931 José Sanjurjo Sacanell, marqués del Riff (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Jun 1931 - May 1933 Luciano López Ferrer (b. 1869 - d. 1945) May 1933 - 23 Jan 1934 Juan Moles Ormella (1st time) (b. 1871 - d. 1943) 23 Jan 1934 - Mar 1936 Manuel Rico Avello (b. 1887 - d. 1936) Mar 1936 - May 1936 Juan Moles Ormella (2nd time) (s.a.) May 1936 - 18 Jul 1936 Arturo Álvarez-Buylla (acting) (b. 1895 - d. 1937) 18 Jul 1936 - Jul 1936 Eduardo Sáenz de Buruaga (b. 1893 - d. 1963) Jul 1936 - 2 Oct 1936 Francisco Franco (b. 1892 - d. 1975) 2 Oct 1936 - Mar 1937 Luis Orgaz y Yoldi (1st time) (b. 1881 - d. 1946) Aug 1937 - Aug 1939 Juan Beigbeder y Atienza (b. 1888 - d. 1957) Feb 1940 - 12 May 1941 Carlos Asensio Cabanillas (b. 1896 - d. 1969) 12 May 1941 - 4 Mar 1945 Luis Orgaz y Yoldi (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Mar 1945 - 24 Mar 1951 José Enrique Varela Iglesias (b. 1891 - d. 1951) 24 Mar 1951 - 7 Apr 1956 Rafael García Valiño y Marcén (b. 1898 - d. 1975)
¹The sultans and kings also held the title of Amir al-Mu´minin (Commander of the Faithful).

Rif Republic

18 Sep 1921                independence of the Rif proclaimed
 1 Feb 1923                Rif Republic

Emir (from 1 Feb 1923, Head of State)
18 Sep 1921 - 27 May 1926  Abd el-Krim                        (b. 1882 - d. 1963)

Tangier

       1912                international protectorate
14 Jun 1940                occupied by Moroccan troops under Spanish command
 4 Nov 1940 - 11 Oct 1945  de facto incorporated into Spanish Morocco
29 Oct 1956                part of Morocco

Administrators
       1926 - 19 Aug 1929  Paul Alberge (France)
19 Aug 1929 -  1 Aug 1940  Joseph Le Fur (France)
 1 Aug 1940 -  4 Nov 1940  Manuel Amieva (Spain)
11 Oct 1945 - 18 Jun 1948  Luís António de Magalhães Correia
                           (Portugal)                         (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
   Aug 1948 -  9 Apr 1951  Jonkheer H.F.L.K. van Vredenburch
                           (Netherlands)                      (b. 1905 - d. 1981)
 9 Apr 1951 - 21 Jun 1954  José Luís Archer (Portugal)        (b. 1901 - d. 1979)
21 Jun 1954 -    Dec 1954  Étienne de Croÿ, prince de
                           Croÿ-Roeulx (Belgium)              (b. 1898 - d. 1990)
 4 Jan 1955 -  5 Jul 1956  Robert van de Kerchove d'Hallebast
                           (Belgium)                          (b. 1890 - d. 1974)

Ifni

26 Apr 1860                Morocco cedes Ifni to Spain
 6 Apr 1934                first occupied by Spain
       1946                united with Río de Oro as Spanish West Africa (see under Western Sahara)
12 Jan 1958                Spanish overseas province
30 Jun 1969                Ifni returned to Morocco

Governors-general
       1958 -        1959  Mariano Gómez Zamalloa y Quirce    (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
       1959 -        1961  Pedro Latorre Alcubierre           (b. 1900 - d. 1995)
       1961 -        1963  Joaquín Agulla Jiménez-Coronado    (b. 1902 - d. 1971)
       1963 -        1965  Adolfo Artalejo Campos             (b. ... - d. 1965)
       1965 -        1967  Marino Trovo Larrasquito
       1967 - 30 Jun 1969  José Miguel Vega Rodríguez         (b. 1913 - d. 1992)

Mosquito: see under Nicaragua.

Mozambique

       1507                Portuguese occupation of Mozambique Island
       1531                first Portuguese inland settlements
11 Jun 1951                status changed from colony to overseas province
25 Jun 1975                independence (People's Republic of Mozambique)
 1 Dec 1990                Republic of Mozambique

Captains-general
       1699 -        1703  Jácome de Morais Sarmento
       1703 -        1706  João Fernandes de Almeida
                           (1st time)
       1706 -        1708  Luís de Brito Freire
       1708 -        1712  Luís Gonçalves da Câmara
       1712 -        1714  João Fernandes de Almeida
                           (2nd time)
       1714 -        1716  Francisco de Mascarenhas
       1716 -        1719  Francisco de Souto-Maior
       1719 -        1722  Francisco de Alarcão e Souto-Maior
       1722 -        1723  Álvaro Caetano de Melo e Castro
       1723 -        1726  António João Sequeira e Faria
       1726 -        1730  António Cardim Fróis
       1730 -        1733  António Casco de Melo
       1733 -        1736  José Barbosa Leal
       1736 -        1740  Nicolau Tolentino de Almeida
       1740 -        1743  Lourenço de Noronha
       1743 -        1746  Pedro do Rêgo Barreto da Gama
                           e Castro
       1746 -        1750  Caetano Correia de Sá
       1750 -    Mar 1758  Francisco de Melo e Castro
   Mar 1758 -    Apr 1758  João Manuel de Melo
   Apr 1758 - 28 May 1759  David Marques Pereira
28 May 1759 -    Jan 1763  Pedro de Saldanha e Albuquerque
                           (1st time)                         (b. ... - d. 1783)
 6 Jan 1763 -        1765  João Pereira da Silva Barba
       1765 -    Jun 1779  Baltazar Pereira do Lago           (b. 1725 - d. 1779)
   Jun 1779 -        1780  Provisional Administration
       1780 -        1781  José de Vasconcelos e Almeida
       1781 -  4 Jan 1782  Vicente da Maia e Vasconcelos
                           (acting)
 4 Jan 1782 - 21 Aug 1782  Pedro de Saldanha e Albuquerque
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1782 -        1786  Provisional Administration
       1786 -        1793  António de Melo e Castro
       1793 -        1797  Diogo de Sousa Coutinho
       1797 -    Sep 1801  Francisco Guedes de Carvalho
                           Meneses da Costa
   Sep 1801 -    Aug 1805  Isidro de Sousa e Sá
   Aug 1805 -    Dec 1807  Francisco de Paula de Albuquerque
                           do Amaral Cardoso
   Dec 1807 - 14 Aug 1809  Provisional Administration
14 Aug 1809 -    Aug 1812  António Manuel de Melo e Castro
                           de Mendonça                        (b. 17... - d. 1812)
   Aug 1812 -    Feb 1817  Marcos Caetano de Abreu e Meneses
   Feb 1817 -    Sep 1818  José Francisco de Paula Cavalcanti
                           de Albuquerque
   Sep 1818 -    Nov 1819  Provisional Administration
   Nov 1819 -    Jun 1821  João da Costa M. Brito-Sanches
   Jun 1821 -    Jun 1824  Provisional Administration
   Jun 1824 -    Jan 1825  João Manuel da Silva
20 Jan 1825 -    Aug 1829  Sebastião Xavier Botelho           (b. 1768 - d. 1840)
   Aug 1829 -    Jan 1832  Paulo José Miguel de Brito
   Jan 1832 -    Mar 1834  Provisional Administration
   Mar 1834 -    Mar 1836  José Gregório Pagado
   Mar 1836 -    Mar 1837  Provisional Administration
Governors-general
   Mar 1837 -    Oct 1837  António José de Melo
   Oct 1837 -    Mar 1838  João Carlos Augusto de Oeynhausen,
                           marquês de Aracaty                 (b. 1776 - d. 1838)
   Mar 1838 - 25 Mar 1840  Juiz A. de Ramalho de Sá
                           (president of Governing Council)
25 Mar 1840 -    May 1841  Joaquim Pereira Marinho            (b. 1782 - d. 1854)
   May 1841 - 15 Feb 1843  João da Costa Xavier
15 Feb 1843 -    May 1847  Rodrigo Luciano de Abreu e Lima
   May 1847 -    Oct 1851  Domingos Fortunato de Vale
   Oct 1851 -    Apr 1854  Joaquim Pinto de Magalhães
   Apr 1854 -    Sep 1857  Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
                           (acting)
   Sep 1857 -    Feb 1864  João Tavares d'Almeida
   Feb 1864 -    Apr 1864  Candido M. Montes
                           (president of Governing Council)
   Apr 1864 -    Oct 1867  M. António do Canto e Castro
   Oct 1867 -    Sep 1868  António Augusto de Almeida
                           Portugal Correia de Lacerda        (b. 1804 - d. ...)
   Sep 1868 -    Feb 1869  M.N.P. de Ataíde e Azevedo
                           (president of Governing Council)
   Feb 1869 -    Apr 1869  António Tavares de Almeida
   Apr 1869 -    Dec 1869  Fernão da Costa Leal
   Dec 1869 -    Jun 1870  Juiz E.K. da Fonseca e Gouveia
                           (president of Governing Council)
   Jun 1870 -    Aug 1870  Inácio A. Alves (acting)
   Aug 1870 -    Dec 1873  José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
   Dec 1873 -    Aug 1874  Juiz J.M. Crispiniano da Fonseca
                           (president of Governing Council)
   Aug 1874 -    Dec 1877  José Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses
   Dec 1877 -    Jan 1880  Francisco Maria da Cunha           (b. 1832 - d. 1909)
   Jan 1880 -    Aug 1881  Augusto César Rodrigues Sarmento
                           (acting)
   Aug 1881 -    Feb 1882  Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva,
                           visconde de Paço de Arcos          (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
   Feb 1882 -    Apr 1882  J. d'Almeida d'Avila (acting)
   Apr 1882 -    Apr 1885  Agostinho Coelho                   (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
   Apr 1885 -    Jul 1885  D. Henrique Real da Silva
                           (president of Governing Council)
   Jul 1885 -    Mar 1889  Augusto de Castilho                (b. 1844 - d. 1912)
   Mar 1889 -    Jul 1889  José Joaquim d'Almeida (acting)
   Jul 1889 -    Jul 1890  João António de Brissac das Neves
                           Ferreira                           (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
   Jul 1890 -  2 Jul 1891  Joaquim José Machado (1st time)    (b. 1847 - d. 1925)
 2 Jul 1891 -    May 1893  Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade    (b. 1851 - d. 1900)
   May 1893 - 13 Jan 1894  Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
   Jan 1894 -    Jul 1894  Joaquim da Graça Correia e Lança
                           (1st time) (acting)
   Jul 1894 -    Jan 1895  Fernão de Magalhães e Meneses
   Jan 1895 -    Dec 1895  António José Enes (commissioner)   (b. 1848 - d. 1901)
   Jan 1896 -    Mar 1896  Joaquim da Graça Correia e Lança
                           (2nd time) (acting)
   Mar 1896 -    Nov 1897  Joaquim Mousinho de Albuquerque    (b. 1855 - d. 1902)
   Nov 1897 -    Aug 1898  Baltasar Freire Cabral (acting)    (b. 1868 - d. ...)
   Aug 1898 -    Dec 1898  Carlos Alberto Schultz Xavier
   Dec 1898 -    Mar 1900  Álvaro António Ferreira
   Mar 1900 -    May 1900  Júlio José, marquês da Costa
   May 1900 -    Oct 1900  Joaquim José Machado (2nd time)    (s.a.)
   Oct 1900 -    Dec 1902  Manuel Rafael Gorjão               (b. 1846 - d. 1918)
   Dec 1902 -    Feb 1905  Thomás António García Rosado
   Feb 1905 -    Oct 1906  João de Azevedo Coutinho           (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
   Oct 1906 -    Nov 1910  Alfredo Augusto Freire de Andrade  (b. 1859 - d. 1929)
   Nov 1910 -    May 1911  José de Freitas Ribeiro (acting)   (b. 1868 - d. 1929)
   May 1911 -    Feb 1912  José Francisco de Azevedo e Silva
   Feb 1912 -    Mar 1913  Alfredo Afonso Mendeses de Magalhães
   Mar 1913 -    Apr 1914  Augusto Ferreira dos Santos
   Apr 1914 -    May 1915  Joaquim José Machado (3rd time)    (s.a.)
   May 1915 -    Oct 1915  Alfredo Baptista Coelho
   Oct 1915 -    Apr 1918  Álvaro de Castro                   (b. 1878 - d. 1928)
   Apr 1918 -    Apr 1919  Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
   Apr 1919 -    Mar 1921  Manuel Juiz Moreira da Fonseca
                           (1st time) (acting)
High commissioners and governors-general
   Mar 1921 -    Sep 1923  Manuel de Brito Camacho            (b. 1862 - d. 1934)
   Sep 1923 -    Nov 1924  Manuel Juiz Moreira da Fonseca
                           (2nd time) (acting)
   Nov 1924 -    May 1926  Vítor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho     (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
   May 1926 -    Nov 1926  Artur Ivens Ferraz (acting)        (b. 1870 - d. 1933)
   Nov 1926 -    Apr 1938  José Ricardo Pereira Cabral        (b. 1879 - d. 1956)
   Apr 1938 -    Mar 1940  José Nicolau Nunes de Oliveira     (b. 1890 - d. 1954)
   Mar 1940 -        1946  José Tristão de Bettencourt        (b. 1880 - d. 1954)
   May 1947 -    Dec 1948  Luis de Sousa e Vasconcelos e
                           Funchal                            (b. 1897 - d. 19...)
   Dec 1948 -        1958  Gabriel Mauricio Teixeira          (b. 1897 - d. 19...)
       1958 -        1961  Pedro Correia de Barros
       1961 -        1964  Manuel Maria Sarmento Rodrigues    (b. 1899 - d. 1979)
       1964 -        1968  José Augusto da Costa Almeida      (b. 1912)
12 Jul 1968 -        1970  Baltasar Rebelo de Sousa           (b. 1921 - d. 2002)
       1970 -        1972  Eduardo Arantes e Oliveira         (b. 1907)
       1972 - 27 Apr 1974  Manuel Pimentel Pereira dos Santos (b. 1919 - d. 2006)
27 Apr 1974 - 11 Jun 1974  David Teixeira Ferreira (acting)
11 Jun 1974 - 17 Aug 1974  Henrique Soares de Melo
19 Aug 1974 - 12 Sep 1974  Jorge Ferro Ribeiro (acting)
12 Sep 1974 - 25 Jun 1975  Vítor Crespo                       (b. 1932)
Presidents
25 Jun 1975 - 19 Oct 1986  Samora Machel                      (b. 1933 - d. 1986)
19 Oct 1986 -  6 Nov 1986  Political Bureau of the Central
                           Committee of Frelimo (acting)
                           - Marcelino dos Santos             (b. 1929)
                           - Joaquim Chissano                 (b. 1939)
                           - Alberto Joaquim Chipande
                           - Armando Guebuza                  (b. 1943)
                           - Jorge Rebelo                     (b. 1940)
                           - Mariano de Araújo Matsinhe       (b. 1953)
                           - Sebastião Marcos Mabote          (b. 1941 - d. 2001)
                           - Jacinto Soares Veloso            (b. 1937)
                           - Mário da Graça Machungo          (b. 1940)
                           - José Óscar Monteiro
 6 Nov 1986 -  2 Feb 2005  Joaquim Chissano                   (s.a.)
 2 Feb 2005 -              Armando Guebuza                    (s.a.)

Prime ministers 20 Sep 1974 - 25 Jun 1975 Joaquim Chissano (s.a.) 17 Jul 1986 - 16 Dec 1994 Mário da Graça Machungo (s.a.) 16 Dec 1994 - 17 Feb 2004 Pascoal Mocumbi (b. 1941) 17 Feb 2004 - 16 Jan 2010 Luísa Diogo (f) (b. 1958) 16 Jan 2010 - 8 Oct 2012 Aires Ali (b. 1955) 8 Oct 2012 - Alberto Vaquina (b. 1961)

Mustang: see under Nepal.

Myanmar

Note: Burmese names are often seen prefixed with U (e.g., U Nu, U San Yu). This simply means Mr. and is therefore omitted here.
       1752                independence of Kingdom of Awa recovered
24 Feb 1826                Arakan and Tenasserim annexed to British India
20 Dec 1852                Pegu annexed to British India
31 Jan 1862                Arakan, Tenasserim, and Pegu united as British Burma
                           (within British India)
 1 Jan 1886                remnant of Kingdom of Awa annexed to British Burma
 1 Apr 1937                Burma becomes separate British colony
 1 Aug 1942 -  3 May 1945    occupied by Japan
 1 Aug 1943 -  3 May 1945    Republic of Burma
 4 Jan 1948                independence (Union of Burma)
 4 Jan 1974                Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
23 Sep 1988                Union of Burma
18 Jun 1989                Union of Myanmar¹
21 Oct 2010                Republic of the Union of Myanmar

Kings
- Konbaung dynasty -
   Apr 1752 - 11 May 1760  Alaungphaya                        (b. 1714 - d. 1760)
11 May 1760 - 28 Nov 1763  Naungdawkyi                        (b. 1734 - d. 1763)
29 Nov 1763 - 10 Jun 1776  Hsinbyushin                        (b. 1736 - d. 1776)
10 Jun 1776 -  5 Feb 1782  Singu Min                          (b. 1756 - d. 1782)
 6 Feb 1782 - 11 Feb 1782  Maung Maung                        (b. 1763 - d. 1782)
11 Feb 1782 -  5 Jun 1819  Bodawphaya                         (b. 1745 - d. 1819)
 5 Jun 1819 - 15 Apr 1837  Bagyidaw                           (b. 1784 - d. 1846)
15 Apr 1837 - 17 Nov 1846  Tharawadi Min                      (b. 1787 - d. 1846)
17 Nov 1846 - 18 Feb 1853  Pagan Min                          (b. 1811 - d. 1880)
18 Feb 1853 -  1 Oct 1878  Mindon Min                         (b. 1808 - d. 1878)
 1 Oct 1878 - 29 Nov 1885  Thibaw Min                         (b. 1859 - d. 1916)
29 Nov 1885 -  1 Jan 1886  Hlutdaw (National Council)
Chief commissioners
31 Jan 1862 - 16 Feb 1867  Arthur Purves Phayre               (b. 1812 - d. 1885)
16 Feb 1867 - 18 Apr 1871  Albert Fytche                      (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
18 Apr 1871 - 14 Apr 1875  Ashley Eden                        (b. 1831 - d. 1887)
14 Apr 1875 - 30 Mar 1878  Augustus Rivers Thompson           (b. 1829 - d. 1890)
                           (acting to 30 Apr 1877)
30 Mar 1878 -  2 Jul 1880  Charles Umpherton Aitchinson       (b. 1832 - d. 1896)
 2 Jul 1880 -  2 Mar 1883  Charles Edward Bernard (1st time)  (b. 1837 - d. 1901)
                           (acting to 4 Apr 1882)
 2 Mar 1883 - 25 Sep 1886  Sir Charles Haukes Todd
                           Crosthwaite (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1835 - d. 1915)
25 Sep 1886 - 12 Mar 1887  Charles Edward Bernard (2nd time)  (s.a.)
12 Mar 1887 - 10 Dec 1890  Sir Charles Haukes Todd
                           Crosthwaite (2nd time)             (s.a.)
10 Dec 1890 -  3 Apr 1895  Alexander Mackenzie                (b. 1842 - d. 1910)
 3 Apr 1895 -  1 May 1897  Frederick William Richard Fryer    (b. 1845 - d. 1922)
Lieutenant governors
 1 May 1897 -  4 Apr 1903  Frederick William Richard Fryer    (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1903 -  9 May 1905  Sir Hugh Shakespear Barnes         (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
 9 May 1905 - 19 May 1910  Sir Herbert Thirkell White         (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
19 May 1910 - 28 Oct 1915  Sir Harvey Adamson                 (b. 1854 - d. 1941)
28 Oct 1915 - 22 Sep 1917  Sir Spencer Harcourt Butler
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
22 Sep 1917 - 15 Feb 1918  Walter Francis Rice (acting)       (b. 18... - d. 1941)
15 Feb 1918 - 21 Dec 1922  Sir Reginald Henry Craddock        (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
21 Dec 1922 -  2 Jan 1923  Sir Spencer Harcourt Butler
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
Governors
 2 Jan 1923 - 20 Dec 1927  Sir Spencer Harcourt Butler        (s.a.)
20 Dec 1927 - 20 Dec 1932  Sir Charles Alexander Innes        (b. 1874 - d. 1959)
20 Dec 1932 -  8 May 1936  Sir Hugh Lansdown Stephenson       (b. 1871 - d. 1941)
 8 May 1936 -  6 May 1941  Sir Archibald Douglas Cochrane     (b. 1885 - d. 1958)
 6 May 1941 - 31 Aug 1946  Sir Reginald Hugh Dorman-Smith     (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
                           (May 1942 - Oct 1945 in exile at Simla, India)
 1 Aug 1943 -  3 May 1945    Ba Maw                           (b. 1893 - d. 1977)
                             (Chief of State; Head of the Burmese Administration
                             from 1 Aug 1942)
31 Aug 1946 -  4 Jan 1948  Sir Hubert Elvin Rance             (b. 1898 - d. 1974)
Presidents
 4 Jan 1948 - 13 Mar 1952  Sao Shwe Thaike                    (b. 1896 - d. 1962)
13 Mar 1952 - 13 Mar 1957  Ba U                               (b. 1887 - d. 1963)
13 Mar 1957 -  2 Mar 1962  Win Maung                          (b. 1916 - d. 1989)
 2 Mar 1962 -  9 Nov 1981  Ne Win                             (b. 1911 - d. 2002)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Council to 2 Mar 1974)
 9 Nov 1981 - 25 Jul 1988  San Yu                             (b. 1918 - d. 1996)
25 Jul 1988 - 12 Aug 1988  Sein Lwin                          (b. 1924 - d. 2004)
12 Aug 1988 - 19 Aug 1988  Aye Ko (acting)                    (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
19 Aug 1988 - 18 Sep 1988  Maung Maung                        (b. 1925 - d. 1994)
Chairmen of the State Law and Order Restoration Council
18 Sep 1988 - 23 Apr 1992  Saw Maung                          (b. 1928 - d. 1997)
23 Apr 1992 - 15 Nov 1997  Than Shwe                          (b. 1933)
Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council
15 Nov 1997 - 30 Mar 2011  Than Shwe                          (s.a.)
President
30 Mar 2011 -              Thein Sein                         (b. 1945)

Deputy chairmen of the Executive Council 1 Apr 1937 - 20 Feb 1939 Ba Maw (1st time) (s.a.) 20 Feb 1939 - Sep 1940 Maung Pu (b. 1881 - d. 19...) Sep 1940 - 19 Jan 1942 Saw (b. 1900 - d. 1948) 19 Jan 1942 - Mar 1942 Sir Paw Tun (b. 1883 - d. 1953) Mar 1942 - May 1942 Tun Oke (head of the Central Government) 3 Jun 1942 - 3 May 1945 Ba Maw (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Sep 1946 - 19 Jul 1947 Aung San (b. 1915 - d. 1947) 24 Jul 1947 - 4 Jan 1948 Nu (b. 1907 - d. 1995) Prime ministers 4 Jan 1948 - 12 Jun 1956 Nu (1st time) (s.a.) 12 Jun 1956 - 1 Mar 1957 Ba Swe (b. 1915 - d. 1987) 1 Mar 1957 - 29 Oct 1958 Nu (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Oct 1958 - 4 Apr 1960 Ne Win (1st time) (s.a.) 4 Apr 1960 - 2 Mar 1962 Nu (3rd time) (s.a.) 2 Mar 1962 - 4 Mar 1974 Ne Win (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Mar 1974 - 29 Mar 1977 Sein Win (b. 1919 - d. 1993) 29 Mar 1977 - 26 Jul 1988 Maung Maung Kha (b. 1920 - d. 1995) 26 Jul 1988 - 18 Sep 1988 Tun Tin (b. 1920) 21 Sep 1988 - 23 Apr 1992 Saw Maung (s.a.) 24 Apr 1992 - 25 Aug 2003 Than Shwe (s.a.) 25 Aug 2003 - 19 Oct 2004 Khin Nyunt (b. 1939) 19 Oct 2004 - 12 Oct 2007 Soe Win (b. 1949 - d. 2007) Apr 2007 - 30 Mar 2011 Thein Sein (s.a.) (acting to 24 Oct 2007 [for Soe Win to 12 Oct 2007])
¹Not strictly a name change, just a new version to be used internationally of the same Burmese name (Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw) that was previously translated Union of Burma.

Arakan

       3325 BCE            kingdom of Arakan founded according to legend
31 Dec 1784                conquered by Awa
24 Feb 1826                annexed to British India

Kings
       1698 -        1700  Naradipati I
       1700 -        1706  Sandawimala I
       1706 -        1710  Sandathuriya I
       1710 -        1731  Sandawizaya
       1731 -        1734  Sandathuriya II
       1734 -        1735  Naradipati II
       1735 -        1736  Narapawara
       1737                Sandawizala
       1737                Katya
       1737 -        1742  Madarit
       1742 -        1761  Nara Apaya
       1761                Thirithu
       1761 -        1764  Sandaparama
       1764 -        1773  Apaya
       1773 -        1777  Sandathumana
       1777                Sandawimala II
       1777 -        1782  Sandathaditha
       1782 - 31 Dec 1784  Thamada
Commissioners
       1826 -        1829  George Hunter
       1829 -        1830  Charles Paton
       1830 -        1837  Thomas Dickinson
       1837 -        1849  Archibald Bogle                    (b. 1805 - d. 1870)
       1849 - 31 Jan 1862  Arthur Purves Phayre               (s.a.)

Tenasserim

Commissioners
       1826 -        1828  Sir Archibald Campbell             (b. 1769 - d. 1843)
       1828 -        1833  Anthony de la Combe Maingy         (b. 1795 - d. 1865)
       1833 -        1843  Edmund Augustus Blundell           (b. 1804? - d. 1868)
       1843 -        1844  George Broadfoot                   (b. 1807 - d. 1845)
       1844 -        1846  Henry Marion Durand                (b. 1812 - d. 1871)
       1846 -        1849  John Russell Colvin                (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
       1849 -        1858  Archibald Bogle (from 9 Dec 1853,
                           Sir Archibald Bogle)               (s.a.)
       1858 -        1862  Albert Fytche                      (s.a.)

Pegu

Commissioner
       1852 - 31 Jan 1862  Arthur Purves Phayre               (s.a.)