Rulers

Countries Ph-Pu

Contents of this page:
Philippines - Pitcairn Island - Poland - Portugal - Puerto Rico

Philippines

       1569                Spanish colony
 6 Oct 1762 - 10 Feb 1763    British rule
23 Mar 1897 - 16 Dec 1897    Philippine Republic (insurrection against Spain)
12 Jun 1898 - 16 Apr 1902    Philippine Republic (insurrection against Spain and U.S.)
13 Aug 1898                U.S. territory
15 Nov 1935                Commonwealth of the Philippines
 3 Jan 1942 - 14 Oct 1943    Japanese military occupation (de facto to 17 Aug 1945)
14 Oct 1943 - 17 Aug 1945    nominal independence (Republic of the Philippines)
 4 Jul 1946                independence (Republic of the Philippines)

Governors-general
25 Jul 1690 -  8 Sep 1701  Fausto Cruzat y Góngora
 8 Sep 1701 - 25 Aug 1709  Domingo de Zabalburu de Echeverri
25 Aug 1709 -  4 Feb 1715  Martín de Ursúa Arizmendi,
                           conde de Lizárraga                 (b. 1653 - d. 1715)
 4 Feb 1715 -  9 Aug 1717  José de Torralba (acting)          (b. 16... - d. 1726)
 9 Aug 1717 - 11 Oct 1719  Fernando Manuel de Bustamante y
                           Bustillo Rueda                     (b. 16... - d. 1719)
11 Oct 1719 -  6 Aug 1721  Fray Francisco de la Cuesta        (b. 16... - d. 1724)
                           (acting)
 6 Aug 1721 - 14 Aug 1729  Toribio José Miguel de Cosio y
                           Campo, marqués de Torre Campo
14 Aug 1729 -    Jul 1739  Fernando de Valdés Tamón
   Jul 1739 - 21 Sep 1745  Gaspar de la Torre Ayala           (b. ... - d. 1745)
21 Sep 1745 - 20 Jul 1750  Fray Juan de Arechederra (acting)  (b. 16... - d. 1751)
20 Jul 1750 -    Jul 1754  Francisco José de Ovando y Solís,
                           marqués de Ovando                  (b. ... - d. 1755)
   Jul 1754 - 31 May 1759  Pedro Manuel de Arandía
                           Santisteban                        (b. ... - d. 1759)
   Jun 1759 -    Jul 1761  Miguel Lino de Espeleta (acting)   (b. ... - d. 1771)
   Jul 1761 -    Oct 1762  Manuel Rojo del Río (acting)       (b. ... - d. 1764)
   Oct 1762 - 17 Mar 1764  Simón de Anda y Salazar (1st time) (b. 1710 - d. 1776)
 2 Nov 1762 - 10 Feb 1763    Dawsonne Drake
                             (British governor)
17 Mar 1764 -  6 Jul 1765  Francisco Javier de la Torre
                           (acting)
 6 Jul 1765 -    Jul 1770  José Raón
   Jul 1770 - 30 Oct 1776  Simón de Anda y Salazar (2nd time) (s.a.)
30 Oct 1776 -    Jul 1778  Pedro Sarrio (1st time) (acting)
   Jul 1778 - 22 Sep 1787  José Basco y Vargas
22 Sep 1787 -  1 Jul 1788  Pedro Sarrio (2nd time) (acting)
 1 Jul 1788 -  1 Sep 1793  Félix Berenguer de Marquina        (b. 1738 - d. 1826)
 1 Sep 1793 -  7 Aug 1806  Rafael María de Aguilar y
                           Ponce de León                      (b. 17... - d. 1806)
 7 Aug 1806 -  4 Mar 1810  Mariano Fernández de Folgueras
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 17... - d. 1823)
 4 Mar 1810 -  4 Sep 1813  Manuel González Aguilar
 4 Sep 1813 - 10 Dec 1816  José de Gardoqui Jaraveita
10 Dec 1816 - 30 Oct 1822  Mariano Fernández de Folgueras
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
30 Oct 1822 - 14 Oct 1825  Juan Antonio Martínez
14 Oct 1825 - 23 Dec 1830  Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca
23 Dec 1830 -  1 Mar 1835  Pascual Enrile y Alcedo
 1 Mar 1835 - 23 Apr 1835  Gabriel de Torres y Velasco        (b. ... - d. 1835)
23 Apr 1835 -  9 Sep 1835  Joaquín de Crámer (acting)
 9 Sep 1835 - 27 Aug 1837  Pedro Antonio de Salazar Castillo
                           y Varona (acting)
27 Aug 1837 - 29 Dec 1838  Andrés García Camba (acting)
29 Dec 1838 - 14 Feb 1841  Luis Lardizabal y Montojo
14 Feb 1841 - 17 Jun 1843  Marcelino de Oraá y Lecumberri     (b. 1788 - d. 1851)
17 Jun 1843 - 16 Jul 1844  Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la
                           Torre
16 Jul 1844 - 26 Dec 1849  Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa
26 Dec 1849 - 29 Jul 1850  Antonio María Blanco (acting)
29 Jul 1850 - 20 Dec 1853  Antonio de Urbiztondo y Eguía      (b. 179... - d. c.1856)
20 Dec 1853 -  2 Feb 1854  Ramón Montero y Blandino
                           (1st time) (acting)
 2 Feb 1854 - 28 Oct 1854  Manuel Pavia y Lacy, marqués de
                           Novaliches                         (b. 1814 - d. 1896)
28 Oct 1854 - 20 Nov 1854  Ramón Montero y Blandino
                           (2nd time) (acting)
20 Nov 1854 -  5 Dec 1856  Manuel Crespo y Cebrián
 5 Dec 1856 -  9 Mar 1857  Ramón Montero y Blandino
                           (3rd time) (acting)
 9 Mar 1857 - 12 Jan 1860  Fernando de Norzagaray y Escudero  (b. 1808 - d. 1860)
12 Jan 1860 - 29 Aug 1860  Ramón María Solano y Llanderal     (b. ... - d. 1860)
                           (acting)
29 Aug 1860 -  2 Feb 1861  Juan Herrera Dávila (acting)
 2 Feb 1861 -  7 Jul 1862  José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y
                           Gonzáles                           (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
 7 Jul 1862 -  9 Jul 1862  Salvador Valdés (acting)
 9 Jul 1862 - 24 Mar 1865  Rafael de Echagüe Bermingham       (b. 1815 - d. 1887)
24 Mar 1865 - 25 Apr 1865  Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez
                           (1st time) (acting)
25 Apr 1865 - 13 Jul 1866  Juan de Lara e Irigoyen
13 Jul 1866 - 21 Sep 1866  José Laureano Sanz y Posse         (b. 1822 - d. 1898)
                           (acting)
21 Sep 1866 - 27 Sep 1866  Juan Antonio Osorio (acting)
27 Sep 1866 - 26 Oct 1866  Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez
                           (2nd time) (acting)
26 Oct 1866 -  7 Jun 1869  José de la Gándara y Navarro       (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
 7 Jun 1869 - 23 Jun 1869  Manuel Maldonado (acting)
23 Jun 1869 -  4 Apr 1871  Carlos María de la Torre y Nava
                           Cerrada
 4 Apr 1871 -  8 Jan 1873  Rafael Izquierdo Gutiérrez         (b. 1820 - d. 1882)
 8 Jan 1873 - 24 Jan 1873  Manuel MacCrohon (acting)
24 Jan 1873 - 17 Mar 1874  Juan Alaminos y de Vivar
17 Mar 1874 - 18 Jun 1874  Manuel Blanco Valdemarra (acting)
18 Jun 1874 - 28 Feb 1877  José Malcampo y Monge, marqués
                           de San Rafael                      (b. 1828 - d. 1880)
28 Feb 1877 - 20 Mar 1880  Domingo Moriones y Murillo         (b. 1823 - d. 1881)
20 Mar 1880 - 15 Apr 1880  Rafael Rodríguez Arias (acting)
15 Apr 1880 - 10 Mar 1883  Fernando Primo de Rivera y
                           Sobremonte (1st time)              (b. 1831 - d. 1921)
10 Mar 1883 -  7 Apr 1883  Emilio Molins (1st time) (acting)
 7 Apr 1883 -  1 Apr 1885  Joaquín Jovellar y Soler           (b. 1819 - d. 1892)
 1 Apr 1885 -  4 Apr 1885  Emilio Molins (2nd time) (acting)
 4 Apr 1885 -        1888  Emilio Terrero y Parenat
       1888                Antonio Molto (acting)
       1888                Federico Lobaton (acting)
       1888 -        1891  Valeriano Weyler                   (b. 1838 - d. 1930)
       1891 -        1893  Eulogio Despujol y Dusay, conde
                           de Caspe                           (b. 1834 - d. 1907)
       1893                Federico Ochando (acting)
       1893 - 13 Dec 1896  Ramón Blanco y Erenas, marqués
                           de Peña Plata                      (b. 1831 - d. 1906)
13 Dec 1896 - 15 Apr 1897  Camilo García de Polavieja y del
                           Castillo                           (b. 1838 - d. 1914)
15 Apr 1897 - 23 Apr 1897  José de Lachambre y Domínguez      (b. 1846 - d. 19...)
                           (acting)
23 Apr 1897 - 11 Apr 1898  Fernando Primo de Rivera y
                           Sobremonte (2nd time)              (s.a.)
11 Apr 1898 -  5 Aug 1898  Basilio Augustín y Dávila          (b. 1840 - d. 1910)
 5 Aug 1898 - 13 Aug 1898  Fermín Jáudenes y Álvarez (acting)
13 Aug 1898 -        1898  Francisco Rizzo (acting)
                           (at Malolos, in opposition to U.S.)
       1898 -  1 Jan 1899  Diego de los Ríos (acting)
                           (at Iloilo, in opposition to U.S.)
President of the Supreme Government Council
23 Mar 1897 - 16 Dec 1897    Emilio Aguinaldo                 (b. 1869 - d. 1964)
                             (chairman Revolutionary Government to 1 Nov 1897)
Dictator
12 Jun 1898 - 23 Jan 1899    Emilio Aguinaldo                 (s.a.)
                             (chairman Revolutionary Government from 23 Jun 1898)
Presidents
23 Jan 1899 -  1 Apr 1901    Emilio Aguinaldo                 (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1901 - 16 Apr 1902    Miguel Malvar                    (b. 1865 - d. 1911)
Governors
13 Aug 1898 - 29 Aug 1898  Wesley Merritt                     (b. 1834 - d. 1910)
29 Aug 1898 -  5 May 1900  Elwell Stephen Otis                (b. 1838 - d. 1909)
 5 May 1900 -  4 Jul 1901  Arthur MacArthur                   (b. 1845 - d. 1912)
 4 Jul 1901 -  1 Feb 1904  William Howard Taft                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
 1 Feb 1904 -  3 Nov 1905  Luke E. Wright                     (b. 1846 - d. 1922)
Governors-general
 3 Nov 1905 - 30 Mar 1906  Luke E. Wright                     (s.a.)
30 Mar 1906 -    Sep 1906  Henry Clay Ide                     (b. 1844 - d. 1921)
                           (acting to 2 Apr 1906)
   Sep 1906 - 11 Nov 1909  James Francis Smith                (b. 1859 - d. 1928)
11 Nov 1909 -  1 Sep 1913  William Cameron Forbes             (b. 1870 - d. 1959)
 1 Sep 1913 -  6 Oct 1913  Newton W. Gilbert (acting)         (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
 6 Oct 1913 -  5 Mar 1921  Francis Burton Harrison            (b. 1873 - d. 1957)
 5 Mar 1921 - 15 Oct 1921  Charles E. Yeater (acting)         (b. 1861 - d. 19...)
15 Oct 1921 -  7 Aug 1927  Leonard Wood                       (b. 1860 - d. 1927)
 7 Aug 1927 - 27 Dec 1927  Eugene Allen Gilmore (1st time)    (b. 1871 - d. 1953)
                           (acting)
27 Dec 1927 - 23 Feb 1929  Henry L. Stimson                   (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
23 Feb 1929 -  8 Jul 1929  Eugene Allen Gilmore (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 8 Jul 1929 -  9 Jan 1932  Dwight F. Davis                    (b. 1879 - d. 1945)
 9 Jan 1932 - 29 Feb 1932  George C. Butte (acting)           (b. 1877 - d. 1940)
29 Feb 1932 - 15 Jul 1933  Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.            (b. 1887 - d. 1944)
15 Jul 1933 - 15 Nov 1935  Frank Murphy                       (b. 1890 - d. 1949)
U.S. high commissioners
15 Nov 1935 - 31 Dec 1936  Frank Murphy                       (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1937 - 26 Apr 1937  J. Weldon Jones (1st time)         (b. 1896 - d. 1982)
                           (acting)
26 Apr 1937 - 12 Jul 1939  Paul V. McNutt (1st time)          (b. 1891 - d. 1955)
12 Jul 1939 - 21 Oct 1939  J. Weldon Jones (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
21 Oct 1939 - 12 Oct 1942  Francis B. Sayre                   (b. 1885 - d. 1972)
                           (from Mar 1942 in Washington, D.C.)
13 Oct 1942 - 14 Sep 1945  Harold L. Ickes                    (b. 1874 - d. 1952)
                           (U.S. interior secretary, in charge of high commissioner's
                           functions)
14 Sep 1945 -  4 Jul 1946  Paul V. McNutt (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Presidents
15 Nov 1935 -  1 Aug 1944  Manuel L. Quezon                   (b. 1878 - d. 1944)
                           (in Washington, D.C., exile from 3 Jan 1942)
23 Jan 1943 - 14 Oct 1943    Jorge B. Vargas                  (b. 1890 - d. 1980)
                             (president of the Executive Commission
                             of the Philippine Council of State)
14 Oct 1943 - 17 Aug 1945    José P. Laurel                   (b. 1891 - d. 1959)
 1 Aug 1944 - 28 May 1946  Sergio Osmeña                      (b. 1878 - d. 1961)
                           (in Washington, D.C., exile to 20 Oct 1944)
28 May 1946 - 15 Apr 1948  Manuel Roxas                       (b. 1892 - d. 1948)
17 Apr 1948 - 30 Dec 1953  Elpidio Quirino                    (b. 1890 - d. 1956)
30 Dec 1953 - 17 Mar 1957  Ramon Magsaysay                    (b. 1907 - d. 1957)
17 Mar 1957 - 30 Dec 1961  Carlos P. Garcia                   (b. 1896 - d. 1971)
30 Dec 1961 - 30 Dec 1965  Diosdado Macapagal                 (b. 1910 - d. 1997)
30 Dec 1965 - 25 Feb 1986  Ferdinand E. Marcos                (b. 1917 - d. 1989)
25 Feb 1986 - 30 Jun 1992  Corazon Aquino (f)                 (b. 1933 - d. 2009)
30 Jun 1992 - 30 Jun 1998  Fidel V. Ramos                     (b. 1928)
30 Jun 1998 - 20 Jan 2001  Joseph Estrada                     (b. 1937)
20 Jan 2001 - 30 Jun 2010  Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (f)        (b. 1947)
30 Jun 2010 - 30 Jun 2016  Benigno Aquino III                 (b. 1960)
30 Jun 2016 -              Rodrigo Duterte                    (b. 1945)

Prime ministers 21 Jan 1899 - 7 May 1899 Apolinario Mabini (b. 1864 - d. 1903) 7 May 1899 - 13 Nov 1899 Pedro A. Paterno (b. 1858 - d. 1911) 12 Jun 1978 - 8 Apr 1981 Ferdinand E. Marcos (s.a.) 8 Apr 1981 - 25 Feb 1986 Cesar Virata (b. 1930) 25 Feb 1986 - 25 Mar 1986 Salvador Laurel (b. 1928 - d. 2004)

Magindanao

Sultans
       1699 -        1702  Maulana Kaharuddin Kudai
       1702 -        1711  Bayan ul Anwar
       1711 -        1733  Jaafar Sadiq Manamir
       1733 -        1736  Tahiruddin Malinug
       1736 -        1775  Pakir Maulana Khairuddin Hamza
       1775 -        1780  Muhammad Paharuddin
       1780 -        1805  Muhammad Amirul Omra Azimuddin
                           Sikandar Sul Karnain ibn Pakir
                           Maulana
       1805 -        1830  Kawasa Anwaruddin bin Muhammad
                           Amirul Omra
       1830 -        1854  Sikandar Kudratullah Muhammad
                           Jamalul Azam bin Raja Tiwa         (b. ... - d. 1854)
       1854 -        1857  Datu Amirul Intirinu Musa (regent)
       1857 -        1883  Muhammad Makakwa bin Datu Intirinu
       1883 -        1888  Muhammad Jalaluddin Pablu bin
                           Muhammad Makakwa                   (b. ... - d. 1888)
       1888 -        1906  Rajah Putri (f) (regent)
       1906 -        1926  Muhammad Mangigin bin Datu
       1926 -        1938  Iskandar Hijaban Mastura
       1938 -        1991  Tato Ismael bin Kalug
       1991 -    May 2000  Muhammad Gutierez bin Baraguir     (b. ... - d. 2000)
 8 Jun 2000 - 11 Jan 2006  Datu Amir bin Muhammad Baraguir    (b. 1960 - d. 2006)

Buayan

Sultans
       1865 -        1899  Anwaruddin Uto                     (b. 18... - d. 1902)
       1899 - 22 Oct 1905  Ali                                (b. 18... - d. 1905)

Sulu

22 Mar 1915                part of Philippines (except regarding suzerainty over
                           Sabah - see under Malaysian states)
   Apr 1940                U.S. government abolishes sultanate

Sultans
       1789 -        1805  Muhammad Sharafuddin ibni Sultan
                           Muhammad Azimuddin                 (b. ... - d. 1805)
       1805                Muhammad Azimuddin III ibni Sultan
                           Muhammad Sharafuddin
       1805 -        1808  Aliyuddin I ibni Sultan Muhammad
                           Sharafuddin
       1808 -        1823  Shakirullah ibni Sultan Muhammad
                           Sharafuddin                        (b. ... - d. 1823)
       1823 -        1842  Jamalul Kiram I ibni Sultan
                           Muhammad Azimuddin                 (b. ... - d. 1842)
       1842 - 24 Sep 1862  Muhammad Fazlul Kahir ibni Sultan
                           Jamalul Kiram                      (b. ... - d. 1862)
24 Sep 1862 -7/8 Apr 1881  Muhammad Jamalul Azam ibni Sultan
                           Muhammad Fazlul Kahir              (b. ... - d. 1881)
 8 Apr 1881 - 22 Feb 1884  Muhammad Badaruddin II ibni Sultan
                           Muhammad Jamalul Azam              (b. ... - d. 1884)
       1884 -        1886  Muhammad Amirul Kiram ibni Sultan
                           Muhammad Jamalul Azam              (b. 18... - d. 1936)
       1884 -        1887    Aliyuddin II ibni Datu Israil
                             (rival sultan)
       1886 -        1894  Muhammad Harunur Rashid ibni Datu
                           Dakula                             (b. ... - d. 1899)
       1894 -  7 Jun 1936  Muhammad Jamalul Kiram II ibni
                           Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Azam       (b. 18... - d. 1936)
                           (rival sultan from 1886)
 7 Jun 1936 - 20 Nov 1936  Muwallil Wasit II ibni Sultan
                           Muhammad Jamalul Azam              (b. ... - d. 1936)
29 Jan 1937 -    Apr 1940  Zainal Abidin ibni Datu Uyung      (b. ... - d. 1950)
                           (rival with following)
29 Jan 1937 -    Apr 1940  Amirul Omra II                     (b. ... - d. 1967)
                           (rival with preceding)

Negros

 5 Nov 1898                Spanish administration overthrown in Negros Occidental
24 Nov 1898                Spanish administration overthrown in Negros Oriental
27 Nov 1898                Cantonal Republic of Negros established
30 Apr 1899                under U.S. protection
22 Jul 1899                Republic of Negros
30 Apr 1901                extinguished by U.S.

Presidents
 5 Nov 1898 - 22 Jul 1899  Aniceto Lacson                     (b. 1858 - d. 1931)
                           (to 27 Nov 1898 in Negros Occidental only)
24 Nov 1898 - 27 Nov 1898  Demetrio Larena
                           (in Negros Oriental)
President of the Constituent Assembly
22 Jul 1899 -  6 Nov 1899  José Luzuriaga
Civil Governor
 6 Nov 1899 - 30 Apr 1901  Melecio Severino

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

 6 Nov 1990                Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) established,
                           covering Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi
                           provinces
19 Sep 2001                Basilan province and Marawi city added to ARMM

Governors
 6 Nov 1990 -    Apr 1993  Zacaria Candao
   Apr 1993 - 30 Sep 1996  Lininding Pangandaman              (b. 1933? - d. 2013)
30 Sep 1996 - 27 Dec 2001  Nur Misuari                        (b. 1940)
22 Nov 2001 - 27 Dec 2001    Alvarez Isnaji
                             (acting for suspended Misuari)
27 Dec 2001 - 30 Sep 2005  Parouk Hussin                      (b. 1944)
30 Sep 2005 - 22 Dec 2011  Zaldy Ampatuan                     (b. 1967)
                           (arrested 5 Dec 2009)
10 Dec 2009 - 22 Dec 2011    Ansaruddin Alonto-Adiong
                             (acting for Ampatuan)
22 Dec 2011 -              Mujiv Hataman                      (b. 1972)
                           (officer-in-charge to 13 Jun 2013)

Pitcairn Island

23 Jan 1790                mutineers from HMS Bounty settle on Pitcairn
   Mar 1831 -  3 Sep 1831  islanders temporarily removed to Tahiti
   Oct 1832 -    Dec 1837  Commonwealth of Pitcairn
 3 May 1856                islanders relocated to Norfolk Island
       1857                some islanders begin to return from Norfolk Island
       1887                island becomes a British settlement
                           (1898-1970 under the jurisdiction of the governors of Fiji
                           [until 1952 as high commissioners for the Western Pacific])

Governors (the British high commissioners to New Zealand)
   Oct 1970 -    Jan 1973  Sir Arthur Norman Galsworthy       (b. 1916 - d. 1986)
   Jan 1973 -        1975  David Aubrey Scott (from 1974,
                           Sir David Aubrey Scott)            (b. 1919 - d. 2010)
   Feb 1976 -        1980  Harold Smedley (from 1978,
                           Sir Harold Smedley)                (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
   Sep 1980 -        1984  Richard Stratton (from 1982,
                           Sir Richard Stratton)              (b. 1924 - d. 1988)
   Jul 1984 -        1987  Terence Daniel O'Leary             (b. 1928 - d. 2006)
   Dec 1987 -        1990  Robin Byatt                        (b. 1930)
   Sep 1990 -        1994  David Moss                         (b. 1938)
   Aug 1994 - 10 Feb 1998  Robert John Alston                 (b. 1938)
   Apr 1998 -        2001  Martin Williams                    (b. 1941)
10 Dec 2001 -    Apr 2006  Richard Fell                       (b. 1948)
 2 May 2006 -    May 2010  George Fergusson                   (b. 1955)
 3 Jun 2010 -    Jul 2014  Vicki Treadell (f)                 (b. 1959)
15 Aug 2014 -              Jonathan Sinclair                  (b. 1970?)

Leaders 23 Jan 1790 - 3 Oct 1793 Fletcher Christian (b. 1764 - d. 1793) 3 Oct 1793 - 25 Dec 1800 Edward Young (b. 1766 - d. 1800) 25 Dec 1800 - 5 Mar 1829 John Adams (b. 1767 - d. 1829) President Oct 1832 - Dec 1837 Joshua Hill (b. 1773 - d. af.1844) Chief magistrates 29 Nov 1838 - 31 Dec 1839 Edward Quintal (b. 1800 - d. 1841) 1 Jan 1840 - 31 Dec 1841 Arthur Quintal I (b. 1793 - d. 1872) 1 Jan 1842 - 31 Dec 1842 Fletcher Christian II (b. 1812 - d. 1852) 1 Jan 1843 - 31 Dec 1843 Matthew McCoy (1st time) (b. 1819 - d. 1853) 1 Jan 1844 - 31 Dec 1844 Thursday October Christian II (1st time) (b. 1820 - d. 1911) 1 Jan 1845 - 31 Dec 1846 Arthur Quintal II (1st time) (b. 1816 - d. 1902) 1 Jan 1847 - 31 Dec 1847 Charles Christian III (b. 1818 - d. 1886) 1 Jan 1848 - 31 Dec 1848 George Adams (b. 1804 - d. 1873) 1 Jan 1849 - 31 Dec 1849 Simon Young (b. 1823 - d. 1893) 1 Jan 1850 - 31 Dec 1850 Arthur Quintal II (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1851 Thursday October Christian II (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1852 - 31 Dec 1852 Abraham Blatchly Quintal (b. 1827 - d. 1910) 1 Jan 1853 - 31 Jan 1853 Matthew McCoy (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1854 - 31 Dec 1854 Arthur Quintal II (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1855 - 3 May 1856 George Martin Frederick Young (b. 1822 - d. 1899) 1864 - 31 Dec 1864 Thursday October Christian II (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1866 Moses Young (1st time) (b. 1829 - d. 1909) 1 Jan 1867 - 31 Dec 1867 Thursday October Christian II (4th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1868 - 31 Dec 1868 Robert Pitcairn Buffett (b. 1830 - d. 1916) 1 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1869 Moses Young (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1870 - 31 Dec 1872 James Russell McCoy (1st time) (b. 1845 - d. 1924) 1 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1873 Thursday October Christian II (5th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1874 - 31 Dec 1874 ... 1 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1875 Moses Young (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1876 - 31 Dec 1876 Thursday October Christian II (6th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1877 - 31 Dec 1877 ... 1 Jan 1878 - 31 Dec 1879 James Russell McCoy (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1880 - 31 Dec 1880 Thursday October Christian II (7th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1881 Moses Young (4th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1882 - 31 Dec 1882 Thursday October Christian II (8th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1883 James Russell McCoy (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1884 - 31 Dec 1885 Benjamin Stanley Young (1st time) (b. 1851 - d. 1934) 1 Jan 1886 - 31 Dec 1889 James Russell McCoy (4th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1890 - 31 Dec 1891 Charles Carleton Vieder Young (b. 1850 - d. 1941) 1 Jan 1892 - 31 Dec 1892 Benjamin Stanley Young (2nd time) (s.a.) Presidents of the Council 1 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1896 James Russell McCoy (1st time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1897 William Alfred Young (1st time) (b. 1863 - d. 1911) 1 Jan 1898 - 1904 James Russell McCoy (2nd time) (s.a.) 1904 William Alfred Young (2nd time) (s.a.) Chief magistrates 1904 - 31 Dec 1906 James Russell McCoy (5th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1907 - 31 Dec 1907 Arthur Herbert Young (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1943) 1 Jan 1908 - 31 Dec 1908 William Alfred Young (s.a.) 1 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1909 Matthew Edmond McCoy (b. 1868 - d. 1929) 1 Jan 1910 - Jun 1919 Gerard Bromley Robert Christian (b. 1870 - d. 1919) 1 Jan 1920 - 31 Dec 1920 Charles Richard Parkin Christian (1st time) (b. 1883 - d. 1971) 1 Jan 1921 - 31 Dec 1921 Frederick Martin Christian (1st time) (b. 1883 - d. 1971) 1 Jan 1922 - 31 Dec 1922 Charles Richard Parkin Christian (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1923 - 31 Dec 1924 Edgar Allen Christian (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1960) 1 Jan 1925 - 31 Dec 1925 Charles Richard Parkin Christian (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1926 - 31 Dec 1929 Edgar Allen Christian (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1930 - 31 Dec 1931 Arthur Herbert Young (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1932 - 31 Dec 1932 Edgar Allen Christian (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1933 - 31 Dec 1934 Charles Richard Parkin Christian (4th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1935 - 31 Dec 1939 Edgar Allen Christian (4th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1940 - 31 Dec 1940 Andrew Clarence David Young (b. 1899 - d. 1988) 1 Jan 1941 - 31 Dec 1941 Frederick Martin Christian (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1942 - 31 Dec 1942 Charles Richard Parkin Christian (5th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1943 - 31 Dec 1943 Frederick Martin Christian (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1944 - 31 Dec 1944 Charles Richard Parkin Christian (6th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1945 - 31 Dec 1948 Norris Henry Young (b. 1887 - d. 1974) 1 Jan 1949 - 31 Dec 1949 Charles Richard Parkin Christian (7th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1950 - 31 Dec 1951 Warren Clive Christian (1st time) (b. 1914 - d. 2003) 1 Jan 1952 - 31 Dec 1954 John Lorenzo Christian (1st time) (b. 1895 - d. 1984) 1 Jan 1955 - 31 Dec 1957 Charles Richard Parkin Christian (8th time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1958 - 31 Dec 1960 Warren Clive Christian (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1966 John Lorenzo Christian (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1967 - 31 Dec 1975 Pervis Ferris Young (b. 1928 - d. 2003) 1 Jan 1976 - 31 Dec 1984 Ivan Christian (b. 1919 - d. 1991) 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1990 Brian Young (b. 1954) 1 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1999 Jay Warren (b. 1956) Mayors 1 Jan 2000 - 30 Oct 2004 Steve Christian (b. 1951) 8 Nov 2004 - 31 Dec 2004 Brenda Christian (f) (b. 1953) 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2007 Jay Warren (s.a.) 1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2013 Mike Warren (b. 1964) 1 Jan 2014 - Shawn Christian (b. 1975)

Poland

        501                legendary date of foundation of Polish Principality
        964                reign of first documented prince (Mieszko I)
25 Dec 1024                Polish Kingdom
       1031                Polish Principality
25 Dec 1076                Polish Kingdom
   Jun 1079                Polish Principality
28 Oct 1138                divisions into several principalities, until 1180 under
                           nominal coordination by one of the princes, styled Senior
                           Polish Prince
26 Jun 1295 -  8 Feb 1296  Przemysl II styled Polish King
20 Jan 1320                all Poland, except for Silesia, reunited into Polish Kingdom
       1370                kingship becomes elective, but de facto the Diet chooses
                           the kings in hereditary order until 1572
 4 Jul 1569                Accord of Lublin, colloquially known as "Union of Lublin,"
                           joining Poland and Lithuania officially, but not
                           constitutionally, into United Commonwealth of the Two
                           Nations, in short, The Commonwealth
 6 Jul 1572                last hereditary Polish king dies; power to elect the king
                           moves from the Diet to the whole nobility; election as
                           Polish king and grand prince of Lithuania is carried out
                           jointly, but conduct of interregnum is separate
 3 May 1791                constitution gives formal sanction to the union with Lithuania
 7 Jan 1795                incorporated into Russia
 9 Jul 1807                Duchy of Warsaw
20 Jun 1815 -  5 Nov 1916  Polish Kingdom, in (nominally personal, actually
                           subordinate) union with Russia, established by the Congress
                           of Vienna (thus often referred to by historians as
                           Congress Poland)
25 Jan 1831 - 26 Sep 1831  "First Insurrection"
22 Jan 1863 -    Apr 1865  "Second Insurrection"
14 Jan 1917                Polish Kingdom
 6 Nov 1918                Polish State
22 Nov 1918                Polish Republic
 1 Sep 1939                German invasion
17 Sep 1939                Soviet invasion
 6 Oct 1939                last Polish troops capitulate; the German-occupied area
                           is partly annexed to Germany, the other part becomes the
                           General Government of Poland on 12 Oct 1939
   Jun 1941                Germany takes over the Soviet-occupied areas; they are
                           divided between the General Government and the
                           Reichskommissariate Ostland and Ukraine, while the
                           Bialystok district is "attached" (but not incorporated)
                           to East Prussia
 1 Jan 1944                Polish Republic
 1 Aug 1952                Polish People's Republic
30 Dec 1989                Polish Republic

General secretaries (from 17 Mar 1954, first secretaries) of the Polish Workers'
(Communist) Party (from 20 Dec 1948, Polish United Workers' Party)
23 Nov 1943 -  3 Sep 1948  Wladyslaw Gomulka (1st time)       (b. 1905 - d. 1982)
 3 Sep 1948 - 12 Mar 1956  Boleslaw Bierut                    (b. 1892 - d. 1956)
                           (20 Dec 1948 - 17 Mar 1954 chairman Central Committee)
20 Mar 1956 - 21 Oct 1956  Edward Ochab                       (b. 1906 - d. 1989)
21 Oct 1956 - 20 Dec 1970  Wladyslaw Gomulka (2nd time)       (s.a.)
20 Dec 1970 -  6 Sep 1980  Edward Gierek                      (b. 1913 - d. 2001)
 6 Sep 1980 - 18 Oct 1981  Stanislaw Kania                    (b. 1927)
18 Oct 1981 - 29 Jul 1989  Wojciech Jaruzelski                (b. 1923 - d. 2014)
29 Jul 1989 - 27 Jan 1990  Mieczyslaw Rakowski                (b. 1926 - d. 2008)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 29 Dec 1989)

Kings¹ 15 Sep 1697 - 16 Feb 1704 August II "Mocny" (1st time) (b. 1670 - d. 1733) (election proclaimed 17 Jun 1697) (continues in opposition to 24 Sep 1706) 16 Feb 1704 - 4 Oct 1705 Augustyn Michal Stefan Radziejowski (Interrex) (b. 1645 - d. 1705) 4 Oct 1705 - 8 Aug 1709 Stanislaw I Leszczynski (1st time) (b. 1677 - d. 1766) (election proclaimed 12 Jul 1704) 8 Aug 1709 - 1 Feb 1733 August II "Mocny" (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Feb 1733 - 12 Sep 1733 Teodor Andrzej Potocki (Interrex) (b. 1664 - d. 1738) 12 Sep 1733 - 30 Jun 1734 Stanislaw I Leszczynski (2nd time) (s.a.) (abdicates 27 Jan 1736) 30 Jun 1734 - 5 Oct 1763 August III (b. 1696 - d. 1763) (election proclaimed 5 Oct 1733) (in opposition from 17 Jan 1734) 5 Oct 1763 - 25 Nov 1764 Wladyslaw Aleksander Lubienski (b. 1703 - d. 1764) (Interrex) 25 Nov 1764 - 7 Jan 1795 Stanislaw II August Poniatowski (b. 1732 - d. 1798) (election proclaimed 8 Sep 1764) Chairman of the Governing Commission 14 Jan 1807 - 9 Jul 1807 Stanislaw Malachowski (b. 1736 - d. 1809) Duke of Warsaw - Wettin dynasty - 9 Jul 1807 - 14 Mar 1813 Fryderyk August (b. 1750 - d. 1827) Chairman of the Supreme Provisional Council of the Duchy of Warsaw 14 Mar 1813 - 9 Jun 1815 Wasilij Lanskoj (b. 1754 - d. 1831) Kings 20 Jun 1815 - 5 Nov 1916 the emperors of Russia Viceroys Dec 1815 - 28 Jul 1826 Józef Zajaczek (b. 1752 - d. 1826) 1826 - 1832 vacant 3 Apr 1832 - 1 Feb 1856 Ivan Paskevich (b. 1782 - d. 1856) 1853 - 1855 Graf Fyodor Ridiger (b. 1783 - d. 1856) (acting for Paskevich) 1 Feb 1856 - 3 Apr 1856 Wincenty Krasinski (acting) (b. 1782 - d. 1858) 3 Apr 1856 - 30 May 1861 Knyaz Mikhail Gorchakov (b. 1792 - d. 1861) 30 May 1861 - 18 Aug 1861 Nikolay Sukhozanet (acting) (b. 1794 - d. 1871) 18 Aug 1861 - 21 Oct 1861 Graf Karl Lambert (acting) (b. 1815 - d. 1865) 21 Oct 1861 - 28 Jun 1862 Aleksey Liders (acting) (b. 1790 - d. 1874) 28 Jun 1862 - 31 Oct 1863 Veliky Knyaz Konstantin (b. 1827 - d. 1892) 31 Oct 1863 - 18 Jan 1874 Graf Fyodor Berg (b. 1794 - d. 1874) Governors-general of Warsaw 23 Jan 1874 - 30 May 1880 Pavel Kotsebu (from Jun 1874, Graf Pavel Kotsebu) (b. 1801 - d. 1884) 30 May 1880 - 31 May 1883 Pyotr Albedinsky (b. 1828 - d. 1883) 19 Jun 1883 - 18 Dec 1894 Iosif Gurko (b. 1828 - d. 1901) 25 Dec 1894 - 24 Dec 1896 Graf Pavel Shuvalov (b. 1830 - d. 1908) 13 Jan 1897 - 29 Jan 1900 Knyaz Aleksandr Bagration-Imeretinsky (b. 1838 - d. 1900) 1900 - 24 Mar 1901 Ivan Podgorodnikov (acting) (b. 1841 - d. 1910) 6 Apr 1901 - 2 Mar 1905 Mikhail Chertkov (b. 1829 - d. 1905) 4 Mar 1905 - 28 Aug 1905 Konstantin Maksimovich (b. 1849 - d. 1921) 28 Aug 1905 - 14 Feb 1914 Georgy Skalon (b. 1847 - d. 1914) 14 Feb 1914 - 4 Mar 1914 Antony Essen (1st time) (acting) (b. 1863 - d. 1919) 17 Mar 1914 - 16 Sep 1914 Yakov Zhilinsky (b. 1853 - d. 1918) 16 Sep 1914 - 5 Jan 1915 Antony Essen (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 5 Jan 1915 - 18 Aug 1915 Knyaz Pavel Yengalychev (b. 1864 - d. 1944) (in exile to Mar 1917) Presidents of the National Government 25 Jan 1831 - 30 Jan 1831 Wladyslaw Tomasz hrabia Ostrowski (b. 1790 - d. 1869) (Marshal of the Diet) + Adam Jerzy ksiaze Czartoryski (b. 1770 - d. 1861) (President of the Senate) 30 Jan 1831 - 17 Aug 1831 Adam Jerzy ksiaze Czartoryski (s.a.) 17 Aug 1831 - 7 Sep 1831 Jan Stefan Krukowiecki (b. 1772 - d. 1850) 7 Sep 1831 - 26 Sep 1831 Bonawentura Niemojowski (b. 1787 - d. 1835) 22 Jan 1863 - 10 Mar 1863 Stefan Bobrowski (b. 1841 - d. 1863) (chairman Executive Commission of the Central National Committee acting as Provisional National Government) together with Ludwik Mieroslawski (b. 1814 - d. 1878) (dictator and commander-in-chief of the Polish Insurrection; in exile to 17 Feb 1863) 10 Mar 1863 - 19 Mar 1863 Marian Langiewicz (dictator) (b. 1827 - d. 1887) 19 Mar 1863 - 20 Mar 1863 Executive Dictatorial Commission - Józef Kajetan Janowski (b. 1832 - d. 1914) - Agaton Giller (b. 1831 - d. 1887) - Stefan Bobrowski (s.a.) 21 Mar 1863 - 24 May 1863 Central National Committee acting as Provisional National Government - Józef Kajetan Janowski (s.a.) - Agaton Giller (s.a.) - Stefan Bobrowski (s.a.) (to 12 Apr 1863; chairman Mar - 12 Apr 1863) - Karol Ruprecht (b. 1821 - d. 1875) (from Mar 1863) - Oskar Awejde (b. 1837 - d. 1897) (from 12 Apr 1863) - Edward Siwinski (b. 1831 - d. 1897) (from Apr 1863) Chairmen of the National Government 24 May 1863 - 1863 Piotr Wysocki (b. 1797 - d. 1874) 1863 - 14 Jun 1863 Franciszek Dobrowolski (1st time) (b. 1830 - d. 1896) 14 Jun 1863 - 17 Sep 1863 Karol Majewski (b. 1833 - d. 1897) 17 Sep 1863 - 17 Oct 1863 Franciszek Dobrowolski (2nd time) (s.a.) Head of the National Government (also styled Dictator) 17 Oct 1863 - 10 Apr 1864 Romuald Traugutt (b. 1826 - d. 1864) President of the National Government 10 Apr 1864 - Apr 1865 Bronislaw Brzezinski (b. ... - d. c.1865) Chairmen of the Provisional Council of State 14 Jan 1917 - 25 Aug 1917 Waclaw Niemojowski (b. 1864 - d. 1939) 25 Aug 1917 - 27 Oct 1917 Józef Mikulowski Pomorski (acting) (b. 1868 - d. 1935) 27 Oct 1917 - 14 Nov 1918 Regency Council - Aleksander Kakowski (b. 1862 - d. 1938) - Prince Zdzislaw Lubomirski (b. 1865 - d. 1943) - Józef hrabia Ostrowski (b. 1850 - d. 1923) Head of State 14 Nov 1918 - 14 Dec 1922 Józef Pilsudski (b. 1867 - d. 1935) (provisional to 20 Feb 1919) Presidents 14 Dec 1922 - 16 Dec 1922 Gabriel Narutowicz (b. 1865 - d. 1922) 16 Dec 1922 - 20 Dec 1922 Maciej Rataj (1st time) (acting) (b. 1884 - d. 1940) 20 Dec 1922 - 15 May 1926 Stanislaw Wojciechowski (b. 1869 - d. 1953) 15 May 1926 - 4 Jun 1926 Maciej Rataj (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 4 Jun 1926 - 30 Sep 1939 Ignacy Moscicki (b. 1867 - d. 1946) (in Romania exile from 17 Sep 1939) Governor-general 12 Oct 1939 - 17 Jan 1945 Hans Frank (b. 1900 - d. 1946) Chief of civil administration in the Bialystok district 15 Aug 1941 - Aug 1944 Erich Koch (b. 1896 - d. 1986) Chairman of the Presidium (from 31 Dec 1944, president) of the National Council of the Homeland 1 Jan 1944 - 4 Feb 1947 Boleslaw Bierut (s.a.) (Jul 1944 - 1 Feb 1945 in Lublin) 4 Feb 1947 Franciszek Trabalski (b. 1870 - d. 1964) (Marshal of the Constituent Sejm) 4 Feb 1947 - 5 Feb 1947 Wladyslaw Kowalski (b. 1894 - d. 1958) (Marshal of the Constituent Sejm) President 5 Feb 1947 - 20 Nov 1952 Boleslaw Bierut (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of State 20 Nov 1952 - 7 Aug 1964 Aleksander Zawadzki (b. 1899 - d. 1964) 7 Aug 1964 - 12 Aug 1964 Edward Ochab (s.a.) + Stanislaw Kulczynski (b. 1895 - d. 1975) + Oskar Ryszard Lange (b. 1904 - d. 1965) + Boleslaw Podedworny (b. 1898 - d. 1972) (acting) 12 Aug 1964 - 11 Apr 1968 Edward Ochab (s.a.) 11 Apr 1968 - 23 Dec 1970 Marian Spychalski (b. 1906 - d. 1980) 23 Dec 1970 - 28 Mar 1972 Józef Cyrankiewicz (b. 1911 - d. 1989) 28 Mar 1972 - 6 Nov 1985 Henryk Jablonski (b. 1909 - d. 2003) 6 Nov 1985 - 19 Jul 1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (s.a.) Presidents 19 Jul 1989 - 22 Dec 1990 Wojciech Jaruzelski (s.a.) 22 Dec 1990 - 23 Dec 1995 Lech Walesa (b. 1943) 23 Dec 1995 - 23 Dec 2005 Aleksander Kwasniewski (b. 1954) 23 Dec 2005 - 10 Apr 2010 Lech Kaczynski (b. 1949 - d. 2010) 10 Apr 2010 - 8 Jul 2010 Bronislaw Komorowski (1st time) (b. 1952) (acting) 8 Jul 2010 Bogdan Borusewicz (acting) (b. 1949) 8 Jul 2010 - 6 Aug 2010 Grzegorz Schetyna (acting) (b. 1963) 6 Aug 2010 - 6 Aug 2015 Bronislaw Komorowski (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Aug 2015 - Andrzej Duda (b. 1972)
Grand marshals (chief ministers) 19 Feb 1676-16/17Jan 1702 Stanislaw Herakliusz Lubomirski (b. 1642 - d. 1702) 17 Jan 1702 - 15 Dec 1702 Józef Karol Lubomirski (b. 1638 - d. 1702) (acting to 25 Feb 1702) 15 Dec 1702 - 24 Mar 1713 Kazimierz Ludwik Bielinski (b. 16... - d. 1713) (acting to 20 Dec 1702) 24 Mar 1713 - 2 Apr 1713 Wojciech Andrzej Dambski (acting) (b. 1676 - d. 1725) 2 Apr 1713 - 20 May 1742 Józef Wandalin Mniszech (b. 1670 - d. 1747) 21 May 1742 - 8 Oct 1766 Franciszek Bielinski (b. c.1683 - d. 1766) 10 Oct 1766 - 12 Aug 1783 Stanislaw Lubomirski (b. c.1720 - d. 1783) 12 Aug 1783 - 23 Aug 1783 Franciszek Rzewuski (b. c.1730 - d. 1800) (acting to 19 Aug 1783) 23 Aug 1783 - 8 Jul 1793 Michal Jerzy Mniszech (b. 1742 - d. 1806) 1793 Fryderyk Józef Moszynski (b. 1738 - d. 1817) Prime ministers 7 Dec 1917 - 27 Feb 1918 Jan Kucharzewski (1st time) (b. 1876 - d. 1952) 27 Feb 1918 - 4 Apr 1918 Antoni Ponikowski (b. 1878 - d. 1949) 4 Apr 1918 - 5 Sep 1918 Jan Kanty Steczkowski (b. 1862 - d. 1929) 5 Sep 1918 - 30 Sep 1918 Stanislaw Dzierzbicki (acting) (b. 1854 - d. 1919) 30 Sep 1918 - 2 Oct 1918 Bohdan Broniewski (1st time) (b. 1855 - d. 1922) (acting) 2 Oct 1918 - 9 Oct 1918 Jan Kucharzewski (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 9 Oct 1918 - 26 Oct 1918 Bohdan Broniewski (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 26 Oct 1918 - 4 Nov 1918 Józef Swiezynski (b. 1864 - d. 1948) 4 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 Wladyslaw Wróblewski (acting) (b. 1875 - d. 1951) Head of the Provisional People's Government (at Lublin) 7 Nov 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 Ignacy Daszynski (b. 1866 - d. 1936) Prime ministers 17 Nov 1918 - 19 Jan 1919 Jedrzej Moraczewski (b. 1870 - d. 1944) 19 Jan 1919 - 13 Dec 1919 Ignacy Paderewski (b. 1860 - d. 1941) 13 Dec 1919 - 23 Jun 1920 Leopold Skulski (b. 1878 - d. af.1939) 23 Jun 1920 - 24 Jul 1920 Wladyslaw Grabski (1st time) (b. 1874 - d. 1938) 24 Jul 1920 - 19 Sep 1921 Wincenty Witos (1st time) (b. 1874 - d. 1945) 19 Sep 1921 - 26 Jun 1922 Antonin Ponikowski (b. 1878 - d. 1949) 26 Jun 1922 - 16 Jul 1922 Artur Sliwinski (b. 1877 - d. 1953) 16 Jul 1922 - 31 Jul 1922 Wojciech Korfanty (b. 1873 - d. 1939) 31 Jul 1922 - 16 Dec 1922 Julian Ignacy Nowak (b. 1865 - d. 1946) 16 Dec 1922 - 29 May 1923 Wladyslaw Sikorski (b. 1881 - d. 1943) 29 May 1923 - 19 Dec 1923 Wincenty Witos (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Dec 1923 - 20 Nov 1925 Wladyslaw Grabski (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Nov 1925 - 10 May 1926 Aleksander hrabia Skrzynski (b. 1882 - d. 1931) 10 May 1926 - 17 May 1926 Wincenty Witos (3rd time) (s.a.) 17 May 1926 - 2 Oct 1926 Kazimierz Bartel (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1941) 2 Oct 1926 - 27 Jun 1928 Józef Pilsudski (1st time) (s.a.) 27 Jun 1928 - 14 Apr 1929 Kazimierz Bartel (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Apr 1929 - 29 Dec 1929 Kazimierz Switalski (b. 1886 - d. 1962) 29 Dec 1929 - 29 Mar 1930 Kazimierz Bartel (3rd time) (s.a.) 29 Mar 1930 - 25 Aug 1930 Walery Slawek (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1939) 25 Aug 1930 - 4 Dec 1930 Józef Pilsudski (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Dec 1930 - 27 May 1931 Walery Slawek (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 May 1931 - 12 May 1933 Aleksander Prystor (b. 1874 - d. 1941) 12 May 1933 - 15 May 1934 Janusz Jedrzejewicz (b. 1885 - d. 1951) 15 May 1934 - 28 Mar 1935 Leon Kozlowski (b. 1892 - d. 1944) 28 Mar 1935 - 12 Oct 1935 Walery Slawek (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Oct 1935 - 15 May 1936 Marian Zyndram-Koscialkowski (b. 1892 - d. 1946) 15 May 1936 - 30 Sep 1939 Felicjan Slawoj-Skladkowski (b. 1885 - d. 1962) (in Romania exile from 17 Sep 1939) 21 Jul 1944 - 4 Feb 1947 Edward Osóbka-Morawski (b. 1909 - d. 1997) (chairman Committee of National Liberation to 31 Dec 1944; to 1 Feb 1945 in Lublin) 7 Feb 1947 - 20 Nov 1952 Józef Cyrankiewicz (1st time) (s.a.) 20 Nov 1952 - 19 Mar 1954 Boleslaw Bierut (s.a.) 19 Mar 1954 - 23 Dec 1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Dec 1970 - 18 Feb 1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz (b. 1909 - d. 1992) 18 Feb 1980 - 24 Aug 1980 Edward Babiuch (b. 1927) 24 Aug 1980 - 9 Feb 1981 Józef Pinkowski (b. 1929 - d. 2000) (acting to 5 Sep 1980) 9 Feb 1981 - 6 Nov 1985 Wojciech Jaruzelski (s.a.) 6 Nov 1985 - 27 Sep 1988 Zbigniew Messner (b. 1929 - d. 2014) 27 Sep 1988 - 2 Aug 1989 Mieczyslaw Rakowski (s.a.) 2 Aug 1989 - 24 Aug 1989 Czeslaw Kiszczak (b. 1925 - d. 2015) 24 Aug 1989 - 4 Jan 1991 Tadeusz Mazowiecki (b. 1927 - d. 2013) 4 Jan 1991 - 5 Dec 1991 Jan Krzysztof Bielecki (b. 1951) 6 Dec 1991 - 5 Jun 1992 Jan Olszewski (b. 1930) 5 Jun 1992 - 8 Jul 1992 Waldemar Pawlak (1st time) (b. 1959) 8 Jul 1992 - 26 Oct 1993 Hanna Suchocka (f) (b. 1946) 26 Oct 1993 - 6 Mar 1995 Waldemar Pawlak (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Mar 1995 - 7 Feb 1996 Józef Oleksy (b. 1946 - d. 2015) 7 Feb 1996 - 17 Oct 1997 Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz (b. 1950) 17 Oct 1997 - 31 Oct 1997 Marek Belka (1st time) (acting) (b. 1952) 31 Oct 1997 - 19 Oct 2001 Jerzy Buzek (b. 1940) 19 Oct 2001 - 2 May 2004 Leszek Miller (b. 1946) 2 May 2004 - 31 Oct 2005 Marek Belka (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Oct 2005 - 14 Jul 2006 Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (b. 1959) 14 Jul 2006 - 16 Nov 2007 Jaroslaw Kaczynski (b. 1949) 16 Nov 2007 - 22 Sep 2014 Donald Tusk (b. 1957) 22 Sep 2014 - 16 Nov 2015 Ewa Kopacz (f) (b. 1956) 16 Nov 2015 - 11 Dec 2017 Beata Szydlo (f) (b. 1963) 11 Dec 2017 - Mateusz Morawiecki (b. 1968)

Polish Republic in exile²

Presidents
30 Sep 1939 -  6 Jun 1947  Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz              (b. 1885 - d. 1947)
 9 Jun 1947 -  7 Apr 1972  August Zaleski                     (b. 1883 - d. 1972)
 3 Aug 1954 -        1972    Council of Three (in opposition)
                             - Eduard Andrzej hrabia
                               Raczynski                      (b. 1891 - d. 1993)
                             - Wladyslaw Anders               (b. 1892 - d. 1970)
                               (to 12 May 1970)
                             - Tomasz Arciszewski             (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
                               (to 20 Nov 1955)
                             - Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski         (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
                               (1956 - 24 Aug 1966)
                             - Roman Odzierzynski (1966-68)   (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
                             - Stanislaw Mglej (1968-69)      (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
                             - Alfred Urbanski (from 1969)    (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
                             - Stanislaw Kopanski (from 1970) (b. 1895 - d. 1976)
 9 Apr 1972 - 24 Mar 1979  Stanislaw Ostrowski                (b. 1892 - d. 1982)
 8 Apr 1979 -  8 Apr 1986  Eduard Andrzej hrabia Raczynski    (s.a.)
 8 Apr 1986 - 19 Jul 1989  Kazimierz Sabbat                   (b. 1913 - d. 1989)
19 Jul 1989 - 22 Dec 1990  Ryszard Kaczorowski                (b. 1919 - d. 2010)

Prime ministers 30 Sep 1939 - 4 Jul 1943 Wladyslaw Sikorski (s.a.) 5 Jul 1943 - 29 Nov 1944 Stanislaw Mikolajczyk (b. 1901 - d. 1966) 29 Nov 1944 - 2 Jul 1947 Tomasz Arciszewski (s.a.) 2 Jul 1947 - 7 Apr 1949 Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski (s.a.) 7 Apr 1949 - 25 Sep 1950 Tadeusz Tomaszewski (b. 1881 - d. 1950) 25 Sep 1950 - 18 Jan 1954 Roman Odzierzynski (s.a.) 18 Jan 1954 - 8 Jun 1954 Jerzy Hryniewski (b. 1895 - d. 1978) 8 Jun 1954 - 8 Aug 1955 Stanislaw Mackiewicz (b. 1896 - d. 1966) 8 Aug 1955 - 11 Sep 1955 Hugon Hanke (b. 1904 - d. 1964) 11 Sep 1955 - 25 Jun 1965 Antoni Pajak (b. 1893 - d. 1965) 25 Jun 1965 - 16 Jul 1970 Aleksander Zawisza (b. 1896 - d. 1977) 16 Jul 1970 - Aug 1972 Zygmunt Muchniewski (b. 1896 - d. 1979) Aug 1972 - Aug 1976 Alfred Urbanski (s.a.) Aug 1976 - 7 Apr 1986 Kazimierz Sabbat (s.a.) 7 Apr 1986 - 22 Dec 1990 Edward Szczepanik (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
¹Under the elective kingship, a king assumed office upon his coronation at the Coronation Diet. The record also includes the date of proclamation of the election at the Election Diet. From 6 Jan 1573, during vacancies in the elective kingship the primate of Poland ex officio (occasionally another prelate, in emergency situations) headed the state with the style Interrex. In the United Commonwealth of Two Nations, the Polish king also had the style of Grand Prince of Lithuania, and the two countries were governed together and were represented on the Diets. Although de jure the Polish Interrex only dealt with Poland during a vacancy in the kingship (the Lithuanian Council of State dealing with Lithuania), this is de facto a spurious distinction. The full style of Polish kings from 1573 was Dei Gratiae Rex Poloniae, Magnus Dux Lituaniae, Russiae, Prussiae, Masoviae, Samogithiae, Kiioviae, Volhyniae, Podoliae, Podlachiae, Livoniae, Smolensciae, Severiae, Czernichoviaeque (official Latin style) or Z Bozej laski Król Polski, Wielki Ksiaze Litewski, Ruski, Pruski, Mazowiecki, Zmudzki, Kijowski, Wolynski, Podolski, Podlaski, Inflancki, Smolenski, Siewierski i Czernihowski (Polish) ("By the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Russia, Prussia, Mazovia, Samogitia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk, Severia and Chernigov").
²The Polish government in exile lost the diplomatic recognition of the Western Allies on 5 Jul 1945.

Cracow

       1815 -  3 Mar 1846  "Free, Independent, and Strictly Neutral City of
                           Cracow With Its Territory" (often styled Cracow Republic)
 3 Mar 1846 - 15 Oct 1918  subject to Austria; from 16 Nov 1846 styled Grand Duchy
                           of Cracow, under the emperor of Austria; from the
                           Ausgleich of 21 Dec 1867 that established the
                           Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a territory in the Austrian
                           half of the Monarchy

Chairmen of the Governing Senate of the Cracow Republic
 2 Nov 1815 - 18 Jan 1831  Stanislaw hrabia Wodzicki          (b. 1759 - d. 1843)
18 Jan 1831 - 24 Mar 1833  no permanent chairman
24 Mar 1833 - 26 Feb 1836  Kacper Wieloglowski
26 Feb 1836 - 27 Apr 1839  Józef Haller de Hallenburg         (b. 1783 - d. 1850)
27 Apr 1839 - 27 Oct 1839  Antoni Bystrzonowski (1st time)    (b. 1769 - d. 1848)
                           (acting)
27 Oct 1839 - 27 Dec 1839  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1802 - d. 1890)
27 Dec 1839 - 27 Feb 1840  Antoni Bystrzonowski (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
27 Feb 1840 - 27 Apr 1840  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
27 Apr 1840 - 27 Jun 1840  Antoni Bystrzonowski (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
27 Jun 1840 - 27 Aug 1840  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler
                           (3rd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
27 Aug 1840 - 27 Oct 1840  Antoni Bystrzonowski (4th time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
27 Oct 1840 - 27 Dec 1840  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler
                           (4th time) (acting)                (s.a.)
27 Dec 1840 - 27 Feb 1841  Antoni Bystrzonowski (5th time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
27 Feb 1841 - 22 Feb 1846  Jan Chrzciciel Schindler
                           (5th time) (acting to 2 Mar 1841)  (s.a.)
22 Feb 1846                Józef Wincenty hrabia Wodzicki
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1775 - d. 1847)
                           (chairman Committee of Safety)
22 Feb 1846 - 24 Feb 1846  National Government of the Polish Republic
                           - Ludwik Gorzkowski                (b. 1811 - d. bf.1857)
                           - Jan Józef Tyssowski              (b. 1811 - d. 1857)
                           - Aleksander Górka-Grzegorzewski   (b. 1806 - d. 1855)
24 Feb 1846 -  2 Mar 1846  Jan Józef Tyssowski                (s.a.)
                           (Dictator of the Polish Republic)
 2 Mar 1846 -  3 Mar 1846  Józef Wincenty hrabia Wodzicki
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (chairman Committee of Safety)

Danzig

 9 Jul 1807                Free City of Danzig (theoretically under the joint
                           protection of Prussia and Saxony, but actually a French
                           protectorate)
13 Feb 1814                part of Prussia/Germany
10 Jan 1920                under the authority of the Principal Allied and Associated
                           Powers
15 Nov 1920                Free City of Danzig (under League of Nations auspices)
 1 Sep 1939                incorporated into Germany
 1 Nov 1939                united with occupied parts of Poland as Reichsgau Westpreussen
   Jan 1940                renamed Danzig-Westpreussen
 2 Apr 1945                incorporated into Poland

Governors
       1807 -    Jan 1814  Jean Rapp (from Mar 1809, Comte
                           Jean Rapp)                         (b. 1772 - d. 1821)
   Jan 1814 -    Feb 1814  Friedrich von Massenbach           (b. 1753 - d. 1819)
High commissioners
12 Nov 1919 -  7 Sep 1920  Sir Reginald Thomas Tower (U.K.)   (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
15 Nov 1920 - 10 Dec 1920  Edward Lisle Strutt (U.K.)         (b. 1874 - d. 1948)
                           (acting)
10 Dec 1920 - 24 Jan 1921  Bernardo Attolico (Italy)          (b. 1880 - d. 1942)
24 Jan 1921 -    Jan 1923  Sir Richard Cyril Byrne Haking
                           (U.K.)                             (b. 1862 - d. 1945)
 6 Mar 1923 -    Nov 1925  Mervyn Sorley McDonnell (U.K.)     (b. 1880 - d. 1949)
13 Dec 1925 - 22 Jun 1929  Joost Adriaan van Hamel (Neth.)    (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
                           (assumes office 2 Feb 1926)
22 Jun 1929 - 19 Sep 1932  Manfredi conte di Gravina
                           dei principi di Ramacca (Italy)    (b. 1883 - d. 1932)
16 Oct 1932 - 15 Jan 1934  Helmer Rostgaard Gommesen Rosting
                           (Denmark)                          (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
15 Jan 1934 -    Jan 1937  Seán Lester (Ireland)              (b. 1888 - d. 1959)
13 Apr 1937 -  1 Sep 1939  Carl Jakob Burckhardt
                           (Switzerland)                      (b. 1891 - d. 1974)

Presidents of the Senate 21 Jul 1807 - 14 Mar 1808 Karl Friedrich von Gralath (b. 1741 - d. 1818) 17 Mar 1808 - 16 Mar 1809 Daniel Andreas Zernecke (1st time) (b. 1745 - d. 1821) 16 Mar 1809 - 21 Mar 1810 Karl Renner (b. 1739 - d. 1819) 21 Mar 1810 - 18 Mar 1811 Jacob Ernst Schumann (1st time) (b. 1749 - d. 1823) 18 Mar 1811 - 18 Mar 1812 Gottlieb Hufeland (b. 1760 - d. 1817) 18 Mar 1812 - 18 Mar 1813 Daniel Andreas Zernecke (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Mar 1813 - 13 Feb 1814 Jacob Ernst Schumann (2nd time) (s.a.) Lord mayor 10 Jan 1920 - 5 Mar 1920 Heinrich Sahm (b. 1877 - d. 1939) Chairman of the Council of State 5 Mar 1920 - 6 Dec 1920 Heinrich Sahm (s.a.) Presidents of the Senate 6 Dec 1920 - 10 Jan 1931 Heinrich Sahm (s.a.) 10 Jan 1931 - 20 Jun 1933 Ernst Ziehm (b. 1867 - d. 1962) 20 Jun 1933 - 23 Nov 1934 Hermann Rauschning (b. 1887 - d. 1982) 23 Nov 1934 - 23 Aug 1939 Arthur Greiser (b. 1897 - d. 1946) (acting to 28 Nov 1934) Head of State 23 Aug 1939 - 1 Sep 1939 Albert Forster (b. 1902 - d. 1948) Chief of civil administration 1 Sep 1939 - 26 Oct 1939 Albert Forster (s.a.) Reichsstatthalter 1 Nov 1939 - 2 Apr 1945 Albert Forster (s.a.)

Portugal

       1093                County of Portugal
27 Jul 1139                Kingdom of Portugal (from 1253 sometimes Kingdom of
                           Portugal and of the Algarves)
 1 Feb 1808 - 30 Aug 1808  ruler and dynasty deposed in Portugal (but not in
                           Brazil, etc.), and state governed in the name of France¹
16 Dec 1815                United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazil, and Algarves
26 Feb 1821                United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarve
 2 Jun 1823                United Kingdom of Portugal, and of Brazil, and Algarves
13 May 1825                Kingdom of Portugal (separated de jure from Brazil)
 5 Oct 1910                Portuguese Republic

Kings/Queens²
- Bragança dynasty - (from 15 Nov 1853 actually Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, but
continues to be officially styled Bragança)
12 Sep 1683 -  9 Dec 1706  Pedro II                           (b. 1648 - d. 1706)
 9 Dec 1706 - 31 Jul 1750  João V                             (b. 1689 - d. 1750)
31 Jul 1750 - 24 Feb 1777  José I                             (b. 1706 - d. 1777)
24 Feb 1777 - 20 Mar 1816  Maria I (f)                        (b. 1734 - d. 1816)
                           (left Portugal 27 Nov 1807; arrived in Brazil 7 Mar 1808)
20 Mar 1816 - 10 Mar 1826  João VI "o Clemente"               (b. 1767 - d. 1826)
                           (regent for incapacitated Maria I 15 Jul 1799 - 20 Mar 1816)
 6 Mar 1826 - 26 Feb 1828    Isabel Maria (f)                 (b. 1801 - d. 1876)
                             (president of the Council of Regency)
10 Mar 1826 -  3 Mar 1828  Pedro IV                           (b. 1798 - d. 1834)
                           (regent for Maria II 3 Mar - 3 Jul 1828
                           and 15 Mar 1830 - 20 Sep 1834)
 3 Mar 1828 - 11 Jul 1828  Maria II da Glória (f) (1st time)  (b. 1819 - d. 1853)
11 Jul 1828 - 26 May 1834  Miguel I                           (b. 1802 - d. 1866)
                           (regent for Pedro IV 26 Feb - 3 Mar 1828
                           and for Maria II 3-11 Jul 1828)
26 May 1834 - 15 Nov 1853  Maria II da Glória (f) (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (beginning in rebellion in the Azores and parts of Portugal
                           15 Mar 1830)
15 Nov 1853 - 11 Nov 1861  Pedro V                            (b. 1837 - d. 1861)
19 Dec 1853 - 16 Sep 1855    Fernando II                      (b. 1816 - d. 1885)
                             (titular king, regent for Pedro V)
11 Nov 1861 - 19 Oct 1889  Luís I "o Popular"                 (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
19 Oct 1889 -  1 Feb 1908³ Carlos I                           (b. 1863 - d. 1908)
 1 Feb 1908 -  5 Oct 1910  Manuel II                          (b. 1889 - d. 1932)
Presidents
 5 Oct 1910 - 24 Aug 1911  Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1843 - d. 1924)
                           (president of Provisional Government)
24 Aug 1911 - 29 May 1915  Manuel José de Arriaga Brum da
                           Silveira e Peyrelongue             (b. 1840 - d. 1917)
29 May 1915 -  5 Oct 1915  Joaquim Teófilo Fernandes Braga
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 5 Oct 1915 - 12 Dec 1917  Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1851 - d. 1944)
12 Dec 1917 - 14 Dec 1918  Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da
                           Silva Pais                         (b. 1872 - d. 1918)
                           (president of Revolutionary Junta 8-27 Dec 1917; acting
                           president 27 Dec 1917 - 9 May 1918)
14 Dec 1918 - 15 Dec 1918  Council of Ministers (acting)
                           - João do Canto e Castro Silva
                             Antunes                          (b. 1862 - d. 1934)
                           - António Bernardino de Sousa
                             Ferreira
                           - António Caetano de Abreu Freire
                             Egas Moniz                       (b. 1874 - d. 1955)
                           - Álvaro César de Mendonça         (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
                           - Jorge Couceiro da Costa          (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
                           - João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa  (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
                           - Alexandre José Botelho de
                             Vasconcelos e Sá                 (b. 1872 - d. 1929)
                           - João Alberto Pereira de Azevedo
                             Neves                            (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
                           - José Alfredo Mendes de Magalhães (b. 1870 - d. 1957)
                           - Eduardo Fernandes de Oliveira    (b. 1882 - d. 1943)
                           - Henrique Forbes de Bessa
                           - José João Pinto da Cruz Azevedo  (b. 1888 - d. 1964)
15 Dec 1918 -  5 Oct 1919  João do Canto e Castro Silva
                           Antunes (acting to 16 Dec 1918)    (s.a.)
 5 Oct 1919 -  5 Oct 1923  António José de Almeida            (b. 1866 - d. 1929)
 5 Oct 1923 - 11 Dec 1925  Manuel Teixeira Gomes              (b. 1860 - d. 1941)
11 Dec 1925 -  2 Jun 1926  Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 2 Jun 1926 - 19 Jun 1926  José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior       (b. 1883 - d. 1965)
                           (acting)
19 Jun 1926 -  9 Jul 1926  Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa  (b. 1863 - d. 1929)
                           (acting)
 9 Jul 1926 - 18 Apr 1951  António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona   (b. 1869 - d. 1951)
                           (acting to 29 Nov 1926; interim 29 Nov 1926 - 15 Apr 1928)
18 Apr 1951 -  9 Aug 1951  António de Oliveira Salazar        (b. 1889 - d. 1970)
                           (acting)
 9 Aug 1951 -  9 Aug 1958  Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes    (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
 9 Aug 1958 - 25 Apr 1974  Américo de Deus Rodrigues Tomás    (b. 1894 - d. 1987)
25 Apr 1974 - 30 Sep 1974  António de Spínola                 (b. 1910 - d. 1996)
                           (chairman Junta of National Salvation to 15 May 1974)
30 Sep 1974 - 14 Jul 1976  Francisco da Costa Gomes           (b. 1914 - d. 2001)
14 Jul 1976 -  9 Mar 1986  António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes   (b. 1935)
 9 Mar 1986 -  9 Mar 1996  Mário Soares                       (b. 1924 - d. 2017)
 9 Mar 1996 -  9 Mar 2006  Jorge Sampaio                      (b. 1939)
 9 Mar 2006 -  9 Mar 2016  Aníbal Cavaco Silva                (b. 1939)
 9 Mar 2016 -              Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa            (b. 1948)

Prime ministers 24 Sep 1834 - 27 May 1835 Pedro de Sousa Holstein, marquês e conde de Palmela (1st time) (b. 1781 - d. 1850) 27 May 1835 - 18 Nov 1835 João Carlos Gregório Domingues Vicente Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun, marquês e conde de Saldanha (1st time) (b. 1790 - d. 1876) 18 Nov 1835 - 20 Apr 1836 José Jorge Loureiro (b. 1791 - d. 1860) 20 Apr 1836 - 10 Sep 1836 António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, duque de Terceira, marquês e conde de Vila Flor (1st time) (b. 1792 - d. 1860) 10 Sep 1836 - 4 Nov 1836 José Manuel Inácio da Cunha Faro Meneses Portugal da Gama Carneiro e Sousa, conde de Lumiares (b. 1788 - d. 1849) 4 Nov 1836 - 5 Nov 1836 José Bernardino de Portugal e Castro, marquês de Valença, conde de Vimioso (b. 1780 - d. 1840) 5 Nov 1836 - 2 Jun 1837 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, visconde e barão de Sá da Bandeira (1st time) (b. 1795 - d. 1876) 2 Jun 1837 - 10 Aug 1837 António Dias de Oliveira (b. 1804 - d. 1863) 10 Aug 1837 - 18 Apr 1839 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, visconde e barão de Sá da Bandeira (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Apr 1839 - 26 Sep 1839 Rodrigo Pinto Pizarro Pimentel de Almeida Carvalhais, barão da Ribeira de Sabrosa (b. 1788 - d. 1841) 26 Sep 1839 - 9 Jul 1841 José Lúcio Travassos Valdez, conde e barão de Bonfim (b. 1787 - d. 1862) 9 Jul 1841 - 7 Feb 1842 Joaquim António de Aguiar (1st time) (b. 1792 - d. 1884) 7 Feb 1842 - 9 Feb 1842 Pedro de Sousa Holstein, duque, marquês e conde de Palmela (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Feb 1842 - 20 May 1846 António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, duque de Terceira, marquês e conde de Vila Flor (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 May 1846 - 6 Oct 1846 Pedro de Sousa Holstein, duque, marquês e conde de Palmela (3rd time) (s.a.) 6 Oct 1846 - 18 Jun 1849 João Carlos Gregório Domingues Vicente Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun, duque (from 4 Nov 1846), marquês e conde de Saldanha (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Jun 1849 - 26 Apr 1851 António Bernardo da Costa Cabral, conde de Tomar (b. 1803 - d. 1889) 26 Apr 1851 - 1 May 1851 António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, duque de Terceira, marquês e conde de Vila Flor (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 May 1851 - 6 Jun 1856 João Carlos Gregório Domingues Vicente Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun, duque, marquês e conde de Saldanha (3rd time) (s.a.) 6 Jun 1856 - 16 Mar 1859 Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim de Moura Barreto, marquês de Loulé, conde de Vale de Reis (1st time) (b. 1804 - d. 1875) 16 Mar 1859 - 1 May 1860 António José de Sousa Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha, duque de Terceira, marquês e conde de Vila Flor (4th time) (s.a.) 1 May 1860 - 4 Jul 1860 Joaquim António de Aguiar (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Jul 1860 - 17 Apr 1865 Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim de Moura Barreto, duque (from 3 Oct 1862) e marquês de Loulé, conde de Vale de Reis (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Apr 1865 - 4 Sep 1865 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, marquês, visconde e barão de Sá da Bandeira (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Sep 1865 - 4 Jan 1868 Joaquim António de Aguiar (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Jan 1868 - 22 Jul 1868 António José de Ávila, conde de Ávila (1st time) (b. 1806 - d. 1881) 22 Jul 1868 - 11 Aug 1869 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, marquês, visconde e barão de Sá da Bandeira (4th time) (s.a.) 11 Aug 1869 - 19 May 1870 Nuno José Severo de Mendoça Rolim de Moura Barreto, duque e marquês de Loulé, conde de Vale de Reis (3rd time) (s.a.) 19 May 1870 - 29 Aug 1870 João Carlos Gregório Domingues Vicente Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun, duque, marquês e conde de Saldanha (4th time) (s.a.) 30 Aug 1870 - 29 Oct 1870 Bernardo de Sá Nogueira de Figueiredo, marquês, visconde e barão de Sá da Bandeira (5th time) (s.a.) 29 Oct 1870 - 13 Sep 1871 António José de Ávila, marquês de Ávila e Bolama, conde de Ávila (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Sep 1871 - 6 Mar 1877 António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo (1st time) (b. 1819 - d. 1887) 6 Mar 1877 - 26 Jan 1878 António José de Ávila, marquês de Ávila e Bolama, conde de Ávila (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 Jan 1878 - 29 May 1879 António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 May 1879 - 23 Mar 1881 Anselmo José Braamcamp (b. 1819 - d. 1885) 23 Mar 1881 - 14 Nov 1881 António Rodrigues Sampaio (b. 1806 - d. 1882) 14 Nov 1881 - 16 Feb 1886 António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo (3rd time) (s.a.) 16 Feb 1886 - 14 Jan 1890 José Luciano de Castro Pereira Corte-Real (1st time) (b. 1834 - d. 1914) 14 Jan 1890 - 11 Oct 1890 António de Serpa Pimentel (b. 1825 - d. 1900) 11 Oct 1890 - 18 Jan 1892 João Crisóstomo de Abreu e Sousa (b. 1811 - d. 1895) 18 Jan 1892 - 22 Feb 1893 José Dias Ferreira (b. 1837 - d. 1909) 22 Feb 1893 - 5 Feb 1897 Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro (1st time) (b. 1849 - d. 1907) 5 Feb 1897 - 26 Jul 1900 José Luciano de Castro Pereira Corte-Real (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jul 1900 - 20 Oct 1904 Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Oct 1904 - 19 Mar 1906 José Luciano de Castro Pereira Corte-Real (3rd time) (s.a.) 19 Mar 1906 - 19 May 1906 Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro (3rd time) (s.a.) 19 May 1906 - 4 Feb 1908 João Franco (b. 1855 - d. 1929) 4 Feb 1908 - 26 Dec 1908 Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral (b. 1844 - d. 1923) 26 Dec 1908 - 11 Apr 1909 Artur Alberto de Campos Henriques (b. 1853 - d. 1922) 11 Apr 1909 - 14 May 1909 Sebastião Custódio de Sousa Teles (b. 1847 - d. 1921) 14 May 1909 - 22 Dec 1909 Venceslau de Sousa Pereira de Lima (b. 1858 - d. 1919) 22 Dec 1909 - 26 Jun 1910 Francisco António de Veiga Beirão (b. 1841 - d. 1916) 26 Jun 1910 - 4 Oct 1910 António Teixeira de Sousa (b. 1857 - d. 1917) 4 Sep 1911 - 13 Nov 1911 João Pinheiro Chagas (b. 1863 - d. 1925) 13 Nov 1911 - 16 Jun 1912 Augusto César de Almeida Vasconcelos Correia (b. 1867 - d. 1951) 16 Jun 1912 - 9 Jan 1913 Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva (b. 1864 - d. 1950) 9 Jan 1913 - 9 Feb 1914 Afonso Augusto da Costa (1st time) (b. 1871 - d. 1937) 9 Feb 1914 - 12 Dec 1914 Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães (1st time) (s.a.) 12 Dec 1914 - 28 Jan 1915 Vítor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho (b. 1871 - d. 1955) 28 Jan 1915 - 14 May 1915 Joaquim Pereira Pimenta de Castro (b. 1846 - d. 1918) 14 May 1915 - 17 May 1915 Constitutional Junta - José Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos (b. 1867 - d. 1955) - António Maria da Silva (b. 1872 - d. 1950) - José de Freitas Ribeiro (b. 1868 - d. 1929) - Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso (b. 1864 - d. 1950) - Álvaro de Castro (b. 1878 - d. 1928) 17 May 1915 - 29 Nov 1915 José de Castro (b. 1848 - d. 1929) 29 Nov 1915 - 16 Mar 1916 Afonso Augusto da Costa (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Mar 1916 - 25 Apr 1917 António José de Almeida (s.a.) 25 Apr 1917 - 8 Dec 1917 Afonso Augusto da Costa (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Dec 1917 - 9 May 1918 Sidónio Bernardino Cardoso da Silva Pais (s.a.) 15 Dec 1918 - 16 Dec 1918 João do Canto e Castro Silva Antunes (s.a.) 23 Dec 1918 - 27 Jan 1919 João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa (s.a.) 19 Jan 1919 - 13 Feb 1919 Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro (b. 1861 - d. 1944) (chairman Governing Junta of the Kingdom of Portugal [in the name of Manuel II], in Porto and much of the North) 27 Jan 1919 - 30 Mar 1919 José Carlos de Mascarenhas Relvas (b. 1858 - d. 1929) 30 Mar 1919 - 30 Jun 1919 Domingos Leite Pereira (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1956) 30 Jun 1919 - 21 Jan 1920 Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso (s.a.) 21 Jan 1920 - 8 Mar 1920 Domingos Leite Pereira (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Mar 1920 - 6 Jun 1920 António Maria Baptista (b. 1866 - d. 1920) 6 Jun 1920 - 26 Jun 1920 José Ramos Preto (acting) (b. 1871 - d. 1949) 26 Jun 1920 - 19 Jul 1920 António Maria da Silva (1st time) (s.a.) 19 Jul 1920 - 20 Nov 1920 António Joaquim Granjo (1st time) (b. 1881 - d. 1921) 20 Nov 1920 - 30 Nov 1920 Álvaro de Castro (1st time) (s.a.) 30 Nov 1920 - 2 Mar 1921 Liberato Damião Ribeiro Pinto (b. 1880 - d. 1949) 2 Mar 1921 - 23 May 1921 Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 May 1921 - 30 Aug 1921 Tomé José de Barros Queirós (b. 1872 - d. 1926) 30 Aug 1921 - 19 Oct 1921 António Joaquim Granjo (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Oct 1921 - 5 Nov 1921 Manuel Maria Coelho (b. 1857 - d. 1943) 5 Nov 1921 - 16 Dec 1921 Carlos Henrique da Silva Maia Pinto (b. 1866 - d. 1932) 16 Dec 1921 - 7 Feb 1922 Francisco Pinto da Cunha Leal (b. 1888 - d. 1970) 7 Feb 1922 - 15 Nov 1923 António Maria da Silva (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Nov 1923 - 18 Dec 1923 António Ginestal Machado (b. 1874 - d. 1940) 18 Dec 1923 - 7 Jul 1924 Álvaro de Castro (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Jul 1924 - 22 Nov 1924 Alfredo Rodrigues Gaspar (b. 1865 - d. 1938) 22 Nov 1924 - 15 Feb 1925 José Domingues dos Santos (b. 1885 - d. 1958) 15 Feb 1925 - 1 Jul 1925 Vitorino Máximo de Carvalho Guimarães (b. 1876 - d. 1957) 1 Jul 1925 - 1 Aug 1925 António Maria da Silva (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Aug 1925 - 18 Dec 1925 Domingos Leite Pereira (3rd time) (s.a.) 18 Dec 1925 - 30 May 1926 António Maria da Silva (4th time) (s.a.) 30 May 1926 - 19 Jun 1926 José Mendes Cabeçadas Júnior (s.a.) 19 Jun 1926 - 9 Jul 1926 Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa (s.a.) 9 Jul 1926 - 18 Apr 1928 António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona (s.a.) 18 Apr 1928 - 8 Jul 1929 José Vicente de Freitas (b. 1869 - d. 1952) 8 Jul 1929 - 21 Jan 1930 Artur Ivens Ferraz (b. 1870 - d. 1933) 21 Jan 1930 - 5 Jul 1932 Domingos Augusto Alves da Costa e Oliveira (b. 1873 - d. 1957) 5 Jul 1932 - 27 Sep 1968 António de Oliveira Salazar (s.a.) 27 Sep 1968 - 25 Apr 1974 Marcelo Caetano (b. 1906 - d. 1980) 16 May 1974 - 18 Jul 1974 Adelino da Palma Carlos (b. 1905 - d. 1992) 18 Jul 1974 - 19 Sep 1975 Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves (b. 1921 - d. 2005) 19 Sep 1975 - 23 Jul 1976 José Baptista Pinheiro de Azevedo (b. 1917 - d. 1983) 24 Jun 1976 - 23 Jul 1976 Vasco Almeida e Costa (b. 1932 - d. 2010) (acting for Azevedo) 23 Jul 1976 - 28 Aug 1978 Mário Soares (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Aug 1978 - 22 Nov 1978 Alfredo Nobre da Costa (b. 1923 - d. 1996) 22 Nov 1978 - 1 Aug 1979 Carlos Mota Pinto (b. 1936 - d. 1985) 1 Aug 1979 - 3 Jan 1980 Maria de Lurdes Pintassilgo (f) (b. 1930 - d. 2004) 3 Jan 1980 - 4 Dec 1980 Francisco Sá Carneiro (b. 1934 - d. 1980) 4 Dec 1980 - 9 Jan 1981 Diogo Freitas do Amaral (acting) (b. 1941) 9 Jan 1981 - 9 Jun 1983 Francisco Pinto Balsemão (b. 1937) 9 Jun 1983 - 6 Nov 1985 Mário Soares (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Nov 1985 - 30 Oct 1995 Aníbal Cavaco Silva (s.a.) 30 Oct 1995 - 6 Apr 2002 António Guterres (b. 1949) 6 Apr 2002 - 17 Jul 2004 José Manuel Durão Barroso (b. 1956) 17 Jul 2004 - 12 Mar 2005 Pedro Santana Lopes (b. 1956) 12 Mar 2005 - 21 Jun 2011 José Sócrates (b. 1957) 21 Jun 2011 - 26 Nov 2015 Pedro Passos Coelho (b. 1964) 26 Nov 2015 - António Costa (b. 1961)
¹The immediate agent of French authority (apparently without a specific style) was Jean-Andoche Junot (b. 1771 - d. 1813), titled duc d'Abrantès (duque de Abrantes).
²The style of the ruler was:
(a) 1499 - 16 Dec 1815, 13 May 1825 - 10 Sep 1836, 10 Feb 1842 - 5 Oct 1910: Por graça de Deus, Rei/Rainha de Portugal e dos Algarves de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor/Senhora de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia ("By the grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord/Lady of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India");
(b) 16 Dec 1815 - 26 Feb 1821, 2 Jun 1823 - 13 May 1825: Por graça de Deus, Rei/Rainha do Reino Unido de Portugal, e do Brasil, e Algarves de aquém e de além mar em África, Senhor/Senhora de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia;
(c) 26 Feb 1821 - 2 Jun 1823: Por graça de Deus e pela constituição da monarquia, Rei do Reino-Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarve de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia;
(d) 10 Sep 1836 - 10 Feb 1842: Por graça de Deus e pela constituição da monarquia, Rei/Rainha de Portugal e Algarves de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor/Senhora de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia.

³The heir apparent, Luís Filipe (b. 1887 - d. 1908), assassinated with Carlos I on 1 Feb 1908, outlived Carlos I by minutes, but was neither proclaimed nor recorded as king.

Azores

       1427                Portuguese possessions (Terceira, Faial-Pico, São Miguel,
                           Flores-Corvo, Graciosa, Santa Maria)
 2 Aug 1766                islands united (Captaincy-General of the Azores)
 4 Jun 1832                overseas province
28 Jun 1833                divided into two overseas provinces (Oriental and Ocidental)
18 Jul 1835                status changed to districts
28 Mar 1836                divided into three districts (Angra do Heroísmo, Horta,
                           Ponta Delgada)
27 Aug 1975                Regional Junta governs all islands
27 Aug 1976                autonomous region

Captains-general
 7 Oct 1766 -        1776  Antão de Almada                    (b. 1718 - d. 1797)
21 Apr 1776 -  3 Dec 1793  Dinis Gregório de Melo Castro e
                           Mendonça                           (b. ... - d. 1793)
   Dec 1793 -        1795  José da Avé Maria Leite da Costa
                           e Silva                            (b. 1727 - d. 1799)
                           (head of interim government)
       1795 -        1798  Luís de Moura Furtado
                           (head of interim government)
30 Oct 1799 -    Oct 1804  Lourenço José Boaventura de
                           Almada, conde de Almada            (b. 1757 - d. 1815)
17 Oct 1804 -        1806  José António de Melo da Silva
                           César de Meneses, marquês de
                           Sabugosa                           (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
10 May 1806 -        1810  Miguel António de Melo             (b. 1766 - d. 1836)
 9 Sep 1810 - 14 May 1817  Aires Pinto de Sousa Coutinho
14 May 1817 -        1820  Francisco António de Araújo
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1772 - d. 1821)
18 Oct 1820 -  2 Apr 1821  Francisco de Borja Garção Stockler
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1759 - d. 1829)
 2 Apr 1821 -  4 Apr 1821  Francisco António de Araújo
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1821 - 21 May 1821  Francisco de Borja Garção Stockler
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
15 May 1821 -    Aug 1823  Provisional Junta of Supreme Government
                           - José Leite Botelho de Teive
                           - José Francisco do Canto e Castro
                           - Alexandre de Gamboa Loureiro
                           - António Maria Osório Cabral      (b. 1785 - d. 1858)
   Aug 1823 - 19 Nov 1823  Interim Government Junta
                           - João Pereira Forjaz de Lacerda   (b. 1771 - d. 1841)
                           - Roberto Luís de Mesquita
                             Pimentel                         (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
                           - Luís de Meireles do Canto e
                             Castro                           (b. 1785 - d. 1854)
19 Nov 1823 -    Jul 1824  Francisco de Borja Garção
                           Stockler, barão da Vila da Praia
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
   Jul 1824 - 22 Jun 1828  Manuel Vieira de Albuquerque
                           Touvar                             (b. 1776 - d. 1833)
       1828 -        1831  Henrique da Fonseca de Sousa Prego
                           (for the Miguelist party, in Ponta Delgada)
23 Jun 1829 -  4 Jun 1832  António José de Sousa Manoel de
                           Menezes Severim de Noronha,
                           marquês e conde de Vila Flor       (b. 1792 - d. 1860)
                           (for the Liberal party, in Angra do Heroísmo)
Ministers of the Republic
27 Aug 1976 - 11 Sep 1978  Octávio de Carvalho Galvão de
                           Figueiredo
11 Sep 1978 - 28 Apr 1981  Henrique Afonso da Silva Horta     (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
28 Apr 1981 - 12 Jul 1986  Tomás George Conceição e Silva
12 Jul 1986 - 20 Apr 1991  Vasco Rocha Vieira                 (b. 1939)
20 Apr 1991 -  7 Oct 1997  Mário Fernando de Campos Pinto
 7 Oct 1997 - 27 Mar 2003  Alberto Manuel de Sequeira Leal
                           Sampaio da Nóvoa
27 Mar 2003 - 30 Mar 2006  Álvaro Laborinho Lúcio             (b. 1941)
Representatives of the Republic
30 Mar 2006 - 11 Apr 2011  José António Mesquita              (b. 1936)
11 Apr 2011 -              Pedro Manuel dos Reis Alves
                           Catarino                           (b. 1941)

President of the Regional Junta 27 Aug 1975 - 8 Sep 1976 Altino Pinto de Magalhães (b. 1922) Presidents of the Government 8 Sep 1976 - 20 Oct 1995 João Bosco Soares Mota Amaral (b. 1943) 20 Oct 1995 - 9 Nov 1996 Alberto Romão Madruga da Costa (b. 1940) 9 Nov 1996 - 6 Nov 2012 Carlos César (b. 1956) 6 Nov 2012 - Vasco Cordeiro (b. 1973)

Madeira

       1420                Portuguese colonies (Funchal, Machico, Porto Santo)
       1580                Madeira a united colony
       1801 -        1802  British occupation
       1807 -        1814  British occupation
       1834                overseas district
27 Aug 1976                autonomous region

Captains-general
27 Apr 1695 -        1701  António Jorge de Melo
12 Jun 1701 -  8 Mar 1704  João da Costa de Ataíde e Azevedo  (b. 16... - d. 1704)
29 Apr 1704 -        1712  Duarte Sodré Pereira
 1 Oct 1712 -        1715  Pedro Álvares da Cunha             (b. 1658 - d. 1728)
27 Jun 1715 -        1718  João de Saldanha da Gama
 5 Oct 1718 - 27 Jul 1724  Jorge Martins de Sousa e Meneses
27 Jul 1724 - 27 Sep 1727  Francisco da Costa Freire
27 Sep 1727 - 21 Apr 1734  Filipe de Alarção Mascarenhas
21 Apr 1734 -  6 Jun 1737  João de Abreu Castelo Branco
 6 Jun 1737 - 27 May 1747  Francisco Pedro de Meneses Gurjão
27 May 1747 - 22 Aug 1751  João do Nascimento
22 Aug 1751 - 15 May 1754  Álvaro José Xavier Botelho de
                           Távora                             (b. 1708 - d. 1789)
16 May 1754 -        1756  Manuel de Saldanha e Albuquerque   (b. 1712 - d. 1771)
13 Feb 1757 - 27 May 1759  Gaspar Afonso da Costa Brandão     (b. ... - d. 1784)
27 May 1759 -        1767  José Correia de Sá
       1767 -        1777  João António de Sá Pereira         (b. 1730 - d. 1804)
       1777 -        1781  João Gonçalves da Camâra Coutinho
       1781 -        1798  Diogo Pereira Fojarz Coutinho
       1798 -        1800  ...
       1800 -        1803  José Manuel de Camâra
   Jul 1801 -    Mar 1802    Sir William Clinton              (b. 1769 - d. 1846)
                             (British governor)
       1803 -        1807  Ascenso de Sequeira Freire
       1807 -        1813  Pedro Facundes Bacelar de Antas
                           e Meneses
   Nov 1807 -    May 1809    William Carr Beresford           (b. 1768 - d. 1854)
                             (British governor)
       1813 -        1814  Luís Beltrão de Gouveia e Almeida
       1815 -        1819  Floréncio José Correia de Melo
       1819 -        1821  Sebastião Xavier Botelho           (b. 1768 - d. 1840)
       1821 -        1822  António Manuel de Noronha          (b. 1772 - d. 18...)
       1822 -        1827  Manuel de Portugal e Castro
       1827 -        1828  José Lúcio Travassos Valdês
       1828 -        1830  José Maria Monteiro
       1830 -        1834  Álvaro da Costa de Sousa de Macedo (b. 1789 - d. 18...)
Ministers of the Republic
27 Aug 1976 - 31 Oct 1991  Lino Dias Miguel                   (b. 1936)
31 Oct 1991 -  7 Oct 1997  Artur Aurélio Teixeira Rodrigues
                           Consolado                          (b. 1932)
 7 Oct 1997 - 30 Mar 2006  Antero Alves Monteiro Diniz        (b. 1936)
Representatives of the Republic
30 Mar 2006 - 11 Apr 2011  Antero Alves Monteiro Diniz        (s.a.)
11 Apr 2011 -              Ireneu Cabral Barreto              (b. 1941)

Presidents of the Government 19 Nov 1976 - 17 Mar 1978 Jaime Ornelas Camacho (b. 1921 - d. 2016) 17 Mar 1978 - 20 Apr 2015 Alberto João Jardim (b. 1943) 20 Apr 2015 - Miguel Albuquerque (b. 1961)

Portuguese Guinea: see Guinea-Bissau.
Portuguese India: see under India.
Prussia: see under German states before 1945.

Puerto Rico

       1508                Spanish colony
25 Jul 1898                occupied by U.S.
10 Dec 1898                ceded to U.S. by Spain; spelled Porto Rico until 17 May 1932
 2 Mar 1917                U.S. territory
25 Jul 1952                commonwealth status

Governors
17 Oct 1699 - 21 Jun 1700  Gaspar de Arredondo (2nd time)
                           (acting)
21 Jun 1700 - 23 Jul 1703  Gabriel Gutiérrez de Riva          (b. 16... - d. 1703)
23 Jul 1703 - 12 Oct 1703  Diego Jiménez de Villarán (acting)
12 Oct 1703 - 25 Oct 1703  Gaspar de Olivares
                           + Andrés Montañez
                           (alcaldes ordinarios)
25 Oct 1703 - 27 Jul 1705  Francisco Sánchez Calderón (acting)
27 Jul 1705 - 26 Mar 1706  Pedro de Arroyo Guerrero (acting)
26 Mar 1706 - 24 Dec 1708  Juan López de Morla (acting)
24 Dec 1708 - 18 Jul 1711  Francisco Danío Granados (1st time)
18 Jul 1711 -  3 May 1716  Juan de Rivera
 3 May 1716 - 30 Aug 1716  José Francisco Carreño (acting)
30 Aug 1716 -  7 Apr 1720  Alberto Bertodano
 7 Apr 1720 - 22 Aug 1724  Francisco Danío Granados (2nd time)
22 Aug 1724 - 11 Oct 1731  José Antonio de Mendizábal
11 Oct 1731 - 28 Jun 1743  Matías de Abadía
28 Jun 1743 - 29 Oct 1743  Domingo Pérez de Nandares (acting)
29 Oct 1743 - 11 Aug 1750  Juan José Colomo
11 Aug 1750 -  8 Jul 1751  Agustín de Pareja                  (b. ... - d. 1751)
 8 Jul 1751 -  1 May 1753  Esteban Bravo de Rivero (1st time)
                           (acting)
 1 May 1753 - 30 Aug 1757  Felipe Ramírez de Estenos
30 Aug 1757 -  3 Jun 1759  Esteban Bravo de Rivero (2nd time)
                           (acting)
 3 Jun 1759 -  7 Mar 1760  Mateo de Guazo Calderón            (b. ... - d. 1760)
 7 Mar 1760 - 29 Nov 1760  Esteban Bravo de Rivero (3rd time)
                           (acting)
29 Nov 1760 - 12 Mar 1766  Ambrosio de Benavides              (b. 1718 - d. 1787)
12 Mar 1766 - 28 Oct 1766  Marcos de Vergara
28 Oct 1766 - 31 Jul 1770  José Tentor (acting)
31 Jul 1770 -  2 Jun 1776  Miguel de Muesas                   (b. 1715 - d. 1789)
 2 Jun 1776 -  6 Apr 1783  José Dufresne
 6 Apr 1783 - 27 May 1789  Juan Dabán                         (b. 1724 - d. 1793)
27 May 1789 -  8 Jul 1789  Francisco Torralbo (1st time)
                           (acting)
 8 Jul 1789 - 27 Mar 1792  Miguel Antonio de Ustariz          (b. ... - d. 1792)
27 Mar 1792 -        1794  Francisco Torralbo (2nd time)
                           (acting)
       1794 - 21 Mar 1795  Enrique Grimarest
21 Mar 1795 - 12 Nov 1804  Ramón de Castro y Gutiérrez
12 Nov 1804 - 30 Jun 1809  Toribio de Montes                  (b. 1749 - d. 1829)
30 Jun 1809 - 24 Mar 1820  Salvador Meléndez Bruna            (b. 1764 - d. 1840)
24 Mar 1820 -  7 Aug 1820  Juan Vasco y Pascual
 7 Aug 1820 - 12 Feb 1822  Gonzalo de Aróstegui y Herrera     (b. 1771 - d. 1828)
12 Feb 1822 - 30 May 1822  José de Navarro (acting)
30 May 1822 -  4 Dec 1823  Francisco González de Linares
 4 Dec 1823 - 14 Jan 1837  Miguel de la Torre, (from 1836)
                           conde de Torrepando                (b. 1786 - d. 1843)
14 Jan 1837 - 15 Dec 1837  Francisco Javier de Moreda y
                           Prieto
15 Dec 1837 -  2 Oct 1840  Miguel Lopéz de Baños
 2 Oct 1840 - 24 Apr 1844  Santiago Méndez de Vigo            (b. 1790 - d. 1860)
24 Apr 1844 - 15 Dec 1847  Rafael de Arístegui y Vélez,
                           conde de Mirasol                   (b. 1794 - d. 1863)
15 Dec 1847 -  5 Sep 1848  Juan Prim y Prats, conde de Reus,
                           vizconde del Bruch                 (b. 1814 - d. 1870)
 5 Sep 1848 - 21 Apr 1851  Juan de la Pezuela y Cevallos,
                           marqués de la Pezuela              (b. 1809 - d. 1906)
21 Apr 1851 -  4 May 1852  Enrique de España y Taberner,
                           marqués de España, barón de
                           Ramefort
 4 May 1852 - 31 Jan 1855  Fernando de Norzagaray y Escudero  (b. 1808 - d. 1860)
31 Jan 1855 - 23 Aug 1855  Andrés García Camba                (b. 1793 - d. 1861)
23 Aug 1855 - 28 Jan 1857  José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y
                           Gonzáles                           (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
28 Jan 1857 - 13 Jul 1860  Fernando Cotoner y Chacón          (b. 1810 - d. 1888)
13 Jul 1860 - 19 Aug 1860  Sabino Gamir Maladen (acting)
19 Aug 1860 - 12 Mar 1862  Rafael de Echagüe Bermingham       (b. 1815 - d. 1887)
12 Mar 1862 - 29 Apr 1862  Rafael Izquierdo Gutiérrez         (b. 1820 - d. 1882)
                           (acting)
29 Apr 1862 - 18 Nov 1865  Félix María de Messina Iglesias    (b. 1798 - d. 1872)
18 Nov 1865 - 17 Dec 1867  José María Marchesi Oleaga         (b. 1801 - d. 1882)
17 Dec 1867 - 30 Dec 1868  Julián Juan Pavía Lacy
30 Dec 1868 - 28 May 1870  José Laureano Sanz y Posse
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1822 - d. 1898)
28 May 1870 - 13 Sep 1871  Gabriel Baldrich i Palau           (b. 1814 - d. 1885)
13 Sep 1871 - 30 Jul 1872  Ramón Gómez Pulido                 (b. 1811 - d. 1875)
30 Jul 1872 - 25 Nov 1872  Simón de la Torre                  (b. 1803 - d. 1886)
25 Nov 1872 - 14 Feb 1873  Joaquín Enrile Hernán (acting)
14 Feb 1873 - 14 Apr 1873  Juan Martínez Plowes
14 Apr 1873 -  2 Feb 1874  Rafael Primo de Rivera y
                           Sobremonte                         (b. 1813 - d. 1902)
 2 Feb 1874 - 15 Dec 1875  José Laureano Sanz y Posse
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
15 Dec 1875 - 25 Oct 1877  Segundo de la Portilla Gutiérrez
                           (1st time)
25 Oct 1877 - 26 Apr 1878  Manuel de la Serna y Hernández
                           Pinzón, marqués de Irún            (b. 1804 - d. 1878)
26 Apr 1878 - 24 Jun 1878  José Gamir Maladen (1st time)
                           (acting)
24 Jun 1878 -  6 Jul 1881  Eulogio Despujol y Dusay, conde
                           de Caspe                           (b. 1834 - d. 1907)
 6 Jul 1881 - 23 Nov 1882  Segundo de la Portilla Gutiérrez
                           (2nd time)
23 Nov 1882 - 31 Jul 1884  Miguel de la Vega Inclán, marqués
                           de la Vega Inclán                  (b. 1820 - d. 1884)
31 Jul 1884 - 19 Sep 1884  Carlos Suances Campos (1st time)
                           (acting)
19 Sep 1884 -  1 Nov 1884  Ramón Fajardo Izquierdo
 1 Nov 1884 - 23 Nov 1884  Carlos Suances Campos (2nd time)
                           (acting)
23 Nov 1884 - 10 Jan 1887  Luis Dabán y Ramírez de Arellano   (b. 1841 - d. 1892)
10 Jan 1887 - 23 Mar 1887  Juan Contreras Martínez (1st time) (b. 1834 - d. 1907)
23 Mar 1887 - 11 Nov 1887  Romualdo Palacio González          (b. 1827 - d. 1908)
11 Nov 1887 - 23 Feb 1888  Juan Contreras Martínez (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (acting)
23 Feb 1888 - 18 Apr 1890  Pedro Ruiz Dana
18 Apr 1890 - 21 Apr 1890  José Pascual Bonanza (acting)      (b. 1834 - d. 1892)
21 Apr 1890 - 15 Nov 1892  José Lasso y Pérez
15 Nov 1892 - 10 Jan 1893  Manuel Delgado Zuleta (acting)
10 Jan 1893 - 20 Jun 1895  Antonio Dabán y Ramírez de
                           Arellano                           (b. 1844 - d. 1902)
20 Jun 1895 - 17 Jan 1896  José Gamir Maladen (2nd time)
17 Jan 1896 - 15 Feb 1896  Emilio March (acting)
Governors-general
15 Feb 1896 -  4 Jan 1898  Sabas Marín                        (b. 1831 - d. 1901)
 4 Jan 1898 - 11 Jan 1898  Ricardo de Ortega (1st time)       (b. 1838 - d. 1917)
                           (acting)
11 Jan 1898                Andrés González Muñoz              (b. 1840 - d. 1898)
11 Jan 1898 -  3 Feb 1898  Ricardo de Ortega (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 3 Feb 1898 - 14 Oct 1898  Manuel Macías Casado               (b. 1845 - d. 1937)
14 Oct 1898 - 18 Oct 1898  Ricardo de Ortega (3rd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
Governors
25 Jul 1898 - 21 Oct 1898  Nelson A. Miles                    (b. 1839 - d. 1925)
                           (military commandant)
21 Oct 1898 -  9 Dec 1898  John Ruller Brooke                 (b. 1838 - d. 1926)
 9 Dec 1898 -  9 May 1899  Guy Vernor Henry                   (b. 1839 - d. 1899)
 9 May 1899 -  1 May 1900  George Whitefield Davis            (b. 1839 - d. 1918)
 1 May 1900 - 15 Sep 1901  Charles Herbert Allen              (b. 1848 - d. 1934)
15 Sep 1901 -  4 Jul 1904  William Henry Hunt                 (b. 1857 - d. 1949)
 4 Jul 1904 - 18 Apr 1907  Beekman Winthrop                   (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
18 Apr 1907 -  6 Nov 1909  Regis Henry Prost                  (b. 1870 - d. 1944)
 6 Nov 1909 - 15 Nov 1913  George Radcliffe Colton            (b. 1866 - d. 1916)
15 Nov 1913 - 15 May 1921  Arthur Yager                       (b. 1857 - d. 1941)
15 May 1921 - 30 Jul 1921  José E. Benedicto (acting)         (b. 1880 - d. 1924)
30 Jul 1921 -    Mar 1923  Emmet Montgomery Reily             (b. 1866 - d. 1954)
   Mar 1923 -  6 Apr 1923  Juan Bernardo Huyke (acting)       (b. 1880 - d. 1961)
 6 Apr 1923 - 29 Sep 1929  Horace Mann Towner                 (b. 1855 - d. 1937)
29 Sep 1929 -  7 Oct 1929  James R. Beverley (1st time)       (b. 1894 - d. 1967)
                           (acting)
 7 Oct 1929 - 30 Jan 1932  Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.            (b. 1887 - d. 1944)
30 Jan 1932 -  1 Jul 1933  James R. Beverley (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1933 - 12 Jan 1934  Robert Hayes Gore                  (b. 1886 - d. 1972)
12 Jan 1934 -  5 Feb 1934  Benjamin Jason Horton (acting)     (b. 1873 - d. 1963)
 5 Feb 1934 - 25 Jun 1939  Blanton C. Winship                 (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
25 Jun 1939 - 11 Sep 1939  José E. Colom (acting)             (b. 1889 - d. 1973)
11 Sep 1939 - 28 Nov 1940  William D. Leahy                   (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
28 Nov 1940 -  3 Feb 1941  José Miguel Gallardo (1st time)    (b. 1897 - d. 1976)
                           (acting)
 3 Feb 1941 - 24 Jul 1941  Guy J. Swope                       (b. 1892 - d. 1969)
24 Jul 1941 - 19 Sep 1941  José Miguel Gallardo (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
19 Sep 1941 -  3 Sep 1946  Rexford Guy Tugwell                (b. 1891 - d. 1979)
 3 Sep 1946 -  2 Jan 1949  Jesús Toribio Piñero               (b. 1897 - d. 1952)
 2 Jan 1949 -  2 Jan 1965  Luis Muñoz Marín                   (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
 2 Jan 1965 -  2 Jan 1969  Roberto Sánchez Vilella            (b. 1913 - d. 1997)
 2 Jan 1969 -  2 Jan 1973  Luis Alberto Ferré                 (b. 1904 - d. 2003)
 2 Jan 1973 -  2 Jan 1977  Rafael Hernández Colón (1st time)  (b. 1936)
 2 Jan 1977 -  2 Jan 1985  Carlos Romero Barceló              (b. 1932)
 2 Jan 1985 -  2 Jan 1993  Rafael Hernández Colón (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 2 Jan 1993 -  2 Jan 2001  Pedro Rosselló                     (b. 1944)
 2 Jan 2001 -  2 Jan 2005  Sila María Calderón (f)            (b. 1942)
 2 Jan 2005 -  2 Jan 2009  Aníbal Acevedo Vilá                (b. 1962)
 2 Jan 2009 -  2 Jan 2013  Luis Fortuño                       (b. 1960)
 2 Jan 2013 -  2 Jan 2017  Alejandro García Padilla           (b. 1971)
 2 Jan 2017 -              Ricardo Rosselló                   (b. 1979)

Presidents of the Cabinet 11 Feb 1898 - 21 Jul 1898 Francisco Mariano Quiñones (b. 1830 - d. 1908) 21 Jul 1898 - 6 Feb 1899 Luis Muñoz Rivera (b. 1859 - d. 1916)