Di Laura Frattura, Fernando (b. May 24, 1932, Alfedena, Abruzzo, Italy - d. Sept. 9, 2015, Campobasso, Molise, Italy), president of Molise (1988-90).
Di Laura Frattura, Paolo (b. July 4, 1962, Campobasso, Molise, Italy), president of Molise (2013- ); son of Fernando Di Laura Frattura.
Di Paola, Giampaolo (b. Aug. 15, 1944, Torre Annunziata, Napoli province, Italy), defense minister of Italy (2011-13). He was also chief of the defense staff (2004-08).
Di Rupo, Elio (b. July 18, 1951, Morlanwelz, Belgium), minister-president of Wallonia (1999-2000, 2005-07) and prime minister of Belgium (2011-14). He was also a deputy prime minister (1994-99) and minister of communications and public enterprises (1994-95), economy and telecommunications (1995-99), and foreign trade (1998-99). When he took office as prime minister to end a record 18-month government crisis, he became the first Francophone since 1979 and first Socialist since 1974 in that office and also the first openly gay head of government in the EU.
Di Tella (Robiola), Guido (José Mario) (b. June 12, 1931, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Dec. 31, 2001, Buenos Aires), defense minister (1991) and foreign minister (1991-99) of Argentina. In the 1970s he began an association with the Peronist party, the country's preeminent political force, and steadily rose through the ranks. In 1989-91 he was ambassador to the United States. As foreign minister under Pres. Carlos Menem, he helped mend relations with Britain after the 1982 Falkland Islands war. His diplomacy was credited for the emotional 1998 visit Menem paid to Britain, the first by an Argentine leader after the war.
Dia, Mamadou (b. July 18, 1910, Kombolé, Senegal - d. Jan. 25, 2009, Dakar, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (1958-62) and vice premier of the Mali Federation (1959-60). After a coup attempt in 1962, he was imprisoned until 1974. He returned to politics in the 1980s, but with little success; in the 1983 presidential elections, he won only 1.4% of the vote.
Diaconescu, Cristian (Mihai) (b. July 2, 1959, Bucharest, Romania), justice minister (2004) and foreign minister (2008-09, 2012) of Romania.
Diaconescu, Gheorghe (b. March 12, 1915), Romanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-71).
Diakité, Yoro (b. Oct. 17, 1932, Bangassi village, Kita cercle, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. July 20, 1973, Taoudenni, northern Mali), prime minister (1968-69) and defense and interior minister (1970) of Mali. Accused of having organized a plot on March 9, 1971, he was condemned to forced labour for life on July 31, 1972, and died in the salt mines of Taoudenni.
Diallo, Boubacar Ali (b. Feb. 6, 1906, Niamey, Niger - d. May 11, 1965), Nigerien politician. He was minister of health (1958-60), justice (1961-62), and labour and social affairs (1962-64).
Diallo, (El Hadj Mamadou) Cellou Dalein (b. Feb. 3, 1952, Dalein village, near Labé, French Guinea [now Guinea]), prime minister of Guinea (2004-06). He was also minister of transport, telecommunications, and tourism (1996-97), equipment, transport, public works, environment, and telecommunications (1997-99), public works and transport (1999-2004), and fishing and aquaculture (2004) and a presidential candidate (2010, 2015).
Diallo, Daouda (b. June 9, 1939, Dosso, Niger - d. June 28, 2014, Niamey, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (1979-83). He was also minister of information (1983-87) and culture and communications (1985-87).
Diallo, Hama Arba (b. March 23, 1939 - d. Oct. 1, 2014), foreign minister of Upper Volta (1983-84). He was also chargé d'affaires in Nigeria (1976-79), ambassador to China, India, and Japan (1988-89), and a presidential candidate (2010).
Diallo, Mariam Aladji Boni (b. 1952?, Kandi, northeastern Dahomey [now Benin]), foreign minister of Benin (2006-07).
Diallo, (El Hadj) Saifoulaye (b. July 1, 1923, Diari, near Labé, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. Sept. 25, 1981, Conakry, Guinea), finance minister (1964-69) and foreign minister (1969-72) of Guinea. He was also president of the National Assembly (1958-63) and justice minister (1963-64).
Diallo, Sory Mamadou, interior minister of Niger (1976-79). He was also minister of justice (1974-75), posts and telecommunications (1974-75, 1976, 1979-81), and civil service and labour (1975-76) and ambassador to Egypt (1981-87).
Diarra, Cheikh (Mohamed Abdoulaye Souad dit) Modibo (b. 1952, Nioro du Sahel, French Sudan [now Mali]), interim prime minister of Mali (2012).
Diarra, Seydou (Elimane) (b. Nov. 23, 1933, Katiola, Ivory Coast), prime minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2000, 2003-05). He was also ambassador to Brazil (1971-77).
Dias, Álvaro Fernandes (b. Dec. 7, 1944, Quatá, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Paraná (1987-91).
Dias, Anthony Lancelot (b. March 13, 1910 - d. Sept. 22, 2002, Mumbai, India), chief commissioner of Tripura (1970-71) and governor of West Bengal (1971-77).
Dias, José Wellington Barroso de Araújo (b. March 5, 1962, Oeiras, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Piauí (2003-10, 2015- ).
Díaz (Recinos), Adolfo (b. July 15, 1875, Alajuela, Costa Rica - d. Jan. 29, 1964, San José, Costa Rica), vice president (1910-11) and president (1911-17, 1926-29) of Nicaragua.
Díaz (de Obaldía), Pedro Antonio (del Carmen) (b. July 5, 1854 - d. 1919), acting president of Panama (1918).
Díaz (Mori), (José de la Cruz) Porfirio (b. Sept. 15, 1830, Oaxaca, Mexico - d. July 2, 1915, Paris, France), president of Mexico (1877-80, 1884-1911). He joined the army in 1846. An illustrious military career followed, including service in the War of the Reform (1857-60) and the struggle against the French in 1861-67. He resigned his command when peace was restored but soon became dissatisfied with the Benito Juárez administration. He led an unsuccessful protest against the 1871 reelection of Juárez, who died in 1872. He continued his protests in an unsuccessful revolt against Pres. Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada in 1876, after which he fled to the U.S. Six months later, however, he returned and defeated the government forces at the Battle of Tecoac (November 1876), and in May 1877 he was formally elected president. He began a slow process of consolidation of power and built up a strong political machine. He decided not to run for another term himself but handpicked his successor, Gen. Manuel González, who also soon dissatisfied him. Therefore, in 1884, he ran for the presidency again and was elected. He produced an orderly and systematic government with a military spirit. He succeeded in destroying local and regional leadership until the majority of public employees answered directly to him. Even the legislature was composed of his friends, and the press was muffled. On Feb. 17, 1908, he announced his retirement. Immediately opposition and pro-government groups began to scramble to find suitable presidential candidates. Then he decided not to retire but to allow Francisco Madero to run against him. Madero lost the election, but when he resorted to a military revolution, the government proved surprisingly weak and collapsed. Díaz resigned and went into exile.
Díaz, Rodolfo (Alejandro), labour minister of Argentina (1991-92).
Díaz (Pacheco), Susana (b. Oct. 18, 1974, Sevilla, Spain), president of the Junta of Andalucía (2013- ).
Díaz Arosemena, Domingo (del Rosario) (b. June 25, 1875, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. Aug. 23, 1949, Panama City), president of Panama (1948-49). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1936.
Díaz Aztaraín, Rolando (b. 1924?), finance minister of Cuba (1960-62). He was also minister for recovery of misappropriated property (1959-61) and navy chief (1962-65).
Díaz-Casanueva, Humberto (b. Dec. 8, 1907 - d. Oct. 22, 1992), Chilean diplomat. He was ambassador to Algeria (1965-68) and the United Arab Republic (1968-70) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-73). He was also known as a writer.
Díaz Dulanto, Federico (b. Aug. 9, 1888, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 7, 1954, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1948-49). He was also minister of marine and aviation (1931, 1939-45).
Díaz Ordaz (Bolaños Cacho), Gustavo (b. March 12, 1911, Ciudad Serdán, Puebla, Mexico - d. July 15, 1979, Mexico City), president of Mexico (1964-70). A descendant of José María Díaz Ordaz, associate of 19th-century Mexican leader Benito Juárez, Díaz Ordaz gained a reputation as a labour-law specialist while serving as president of Mexico's Central Council of Conciliation and Arbitration. He served as supreme court president in his native state of Puebla before being elected to the Mexican Senate in 1946. He was named to a post in the interior ministry in 1952, and in 1958 was appointed interior minister by Pres. Adolfo López Mateos. In July 1964 he was elected to the presidency as the Partido Revolucionario Institucional candidate to succeed López Mateos. Díaz Ordaz's administration emphasized economic development for Mexico. On Oct. 2, 1968, government troops and riot policemen engaged student demonstrators in a bloody clash that became known as the "Massacre at Tlatelolco." Although the official death toll included only 40 students killed when troops opened fire on the demonstrators, other reports claimed that hundreds died. He continued to provoke strong public reaction years after he left office. In 1977 when he was named ambassador to Spain, the novelist Carlos Fuentes resigned as ambassador to France, and Mexican newspapers again unfavourably reiterated the drastic measures taken at the Massacre at Tlatelolco. Four months after assuming his post, Díaz Ordaz announced his resignation, which his spokesman said was "strictly due to eye trouble."
Díaz Ordóñez, Virgilio (b. May 5, 1895, San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. April 30, 1968, Washington, D.C.), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1947-53). He was minister to Cuba (1943-47) and ambassador to Peru (1947).
Díaz Rodríguez, Manuel (b. Feb. 28, 1871, Chacao, Miranda state, Venezuela - d. Aug. 23, 1927, New York City), foreign minister of Venezuela (1913-14). He was also minister of development (1916), minister to Italy (1919-23), and president of Nueva Esparta (1925-26) and Sucre (1926).
Dibba, Sheriff Mustapha (b. Jan. 10, 1937, Salikene, Gambia - d. June 2, 2008, Banjul, The Gambia), Gambian politician. He entered politics in 1960 and was elected as member of parliament for Central Baddibu constituency. He was appointed minister of local government and lands in 1962, minister of works and communication in 1966, and minister of finance in 1968, all in the then People's Progressive Party (PPP) regime. He was the country's first vice president, as well as minister of finance, in 1970-72, then resigned and became ambassador to Belgium (1972-74). He rejoined the cabinet in 1974 as minister of economic planning up to July 1975 when he resigned again from Pres. Sir Dawda Jawara's government; on Sept. 7, 1975, he formed the National Convention Party (NCP). In the aftermath of the 1981 abortive coup led by Kukoi Samba Sanyang he was detained for 11 months, charged with treason, only to be acquitted and discharged in 1982. Although his party fiercely contested elections in 1977, 1982, 1987, and 1992, he was never successful in defeating Jawara's PPP. Following the 1994 military coup that toppled the PPP government, the NCP went into decline as the military junta banned party politics. Dibba was criticized for not having condemned the coup. The NCP resurfaced in 2001 and contested the general elections, but failed dismally. In 2002 he was appointed by Pres. Yahya Jammeh as speaker of the National Assembly but he was removed unceremoniously for his alleged involvement in the March 2006 foiled coup led by army chief Col. Ndure Cham. On April 20, 2006, Dibba called on President Jammeh at State House to reaffirm his allegiance and loyalty to the government.
Dibela, Sir Kingsford (b. March 16, 1932, Wedau village, Papua [now in Milne Bay province, Papua New Guinea] - d. March 22, 2002, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (1983-89); knighted 1983. He was speaker of parliament in 1977-80.
Dibrova, Pyotr (Akimovich), also appearing as Pavel T. Dibrova, original surname Khailo (b. 1901 - d. 1971), Soviet city commandant of Berlin (1953-56).
Diby, Charles Koffi (b. Sept. 7, 1957, Bouaké, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), finance minister (2007-12) and foreign minister (2012-16) of Côte d'Ivoire.
DiCarlo, Rosemary A(nne) (b. Sept. 26, 1947, Providence, R.I.), acting U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (2013).
Dickerson, Mahlon (b. April 17, 1770, Hanover Neck [now East Hanover], New Jersey - d. Oct. 5, 1853, Succasunna, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1815-17) and U.S. secretary of the Navy (1834-38).
Dickson, Yohanna (Mamman) (b. Dec. 28, 1950, Kaningkon-Kafanchan [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria - d. July 14, 2015, Kaduna, Kaduna, Nigeria), administrator of Taraba (1993-96).
Didelot, Octave François Charles, baron (b. Dec. 2, 1812, Paris, France - d. Sept. 27, 1886, Kervaly castle, near Brest, France), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1861-63).
Didelot, Pierre Jean Henri (b. May 12, 1870, Paris, France - d. Oct. 30, 1941), administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1908-11) and governor of French Guiana (1911-14, 1916), Senegal (1921-25), and French India (1926-28).
Didi, Abdullah Afif (b. 1916, Hithadhoo, Maldives - d. 1993, Seychelles), president of the United Suvadiva Republic (1959-63).
A. Afif Didi
Didi, Amir Ahmad Muhammad Amin (b. July 20, 1910 - d. Jan. 19, 1954, Male, Maldives), prime minister (1944-53), chairman of the Council of Regency (1952-53), and president (1953) of Maldives.
Didi, Ibrahim Muhammad (b. 1915? - d. 198...), vice president (1953) and acting president (1953-54) of Maldives.
Didier, Alfred (b. Sept. 23, 1842, Geneva, Switzerland - d. March 31, 1903, Geneva), president of the Council of State of Genève (1899, 1902-03).
Didier, Richard (b. Feb. 23, 1961, Chatou, Yvelines, France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (2006-08) and high commissioner of French Polynesia (2011-12). He was also prefect of Haute-Loire département (2008-11).
Diebolt, Marcel (Auguste) (b. Feb. 7, 1912, Saargemünd, Alsace-Lorraine, Germany [now Sarreguemines, Moselle, France] - d. Sept. 1, 2002), prefect of Paris département (1969-71). He was also prefect of Haute-Marne (1956-58), Basses-Pyrénées (1962-64), and Puy-de-Dôme (1964-69).
Dieckmann, Johannes (b. Jan. 19, 1893, Fischerhude, near Bremen, Germany - d. Feb. 22, 1969, East Berlin), acting president of East Germany (1949, 1960). He was president of the Volkskammer from 1949 to 1969.
Diederichs, Nicolaas J(ohannes) (b. Nov. 17, 1903, Ladybrand, Orange Free State - d. Aug. 21, 1978, Cape Town), president of South Africa (1975-78). He was a founder of the Afrikaner nationalist movement which led to the establishment of the Afrikaner National Party. This organization enforced apartheid, a policy of white supremacy based on legalized discrimination against non-Europeans in South Africa. He was appointed minister for economic affairs in 1958 but was especially influential as the country's finance minister (1967-75). Diederichs was nicknamed "Mr. Gold" because he fought to keep gold, South Africa's major export, as the international monetary standard. He became president on April 19, 1975, and died in office.
Diefenbacher, Alfred (b. March 5, 1915, Saargemünd, Alsace-Lorraine, Germany [now Sarreguemines, Moselle, France] - d. Feb. 22, 2015, Paris, France), prefect of Réunion (1963-66). He was also prefect of the French départements of Tlemcen (1960-62), Essonne (1966-67), and Allier (1967-68).
Diefenbacher, Michel (b. July 15, 1947, Sarrebourg, Moselle, France), prefect of Guadeloupe (1994-96). He was also prefect of the départements of Lot-et-Garonne (1992-94), Haute-Vienne (1996-2000), and Vienne (2000).
Diefenbaker, John G(eorge) (b. Sept. 18, 1895, Neustadt, Grey county, Ont. - d. Aug. 16, 1979, Ottawa, Ont.), prime minister of Canada (1957-63). In 1936 he was chosen as leader of the Saskatchewan Conservative Party, serving at that post until 1940, when he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons for the constituency of Lake Centre. His quest for leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1948 was unsuccessful, but he became party leader on Dec. 14, 1956. The general election of June 1957 brought victory for the Conservatives, breaking a 22-year Liberal monopoly, and Diefenbaker succeeded Louis Saint Laurent as prime minister. He was the first head of government to come from outside the British and French communities (his ancestors were German). He was also foreign minister until September 1957. In the 1958 election the Conservatives won an unprecedented 208 of the 265 House seats. In the next election, however, in 1962, the Conservatives lost their majority. As prime minister, "Dief the Chief" urged increased independence from the U.S. and refused to arm Canada's NATO force with U.S. nuclear weapons. Diefenbaker also pushed for the development of Canada's natural resources and its vast Arctic northlands. A crisis over the proposed manufacture of nuclear weapons in Canada caused several ministerial resignations and forced Diefenbaker to call an election in 1963, when Lester B. Pearson, leading the Liberals, became prime minister. After struggling to retain party leadership, Diefenbaker resigned in 1967 and was succeeded by Robert Stanfield (September 9). He continued to occupy a seat on the opposition front bench and remained an acerbic critic of Liberal governments. He was elected to the House of Commons for a record 13th term in May 1979.
Diego (Palacios), (Juan) Ignacio (b. May 18, 1960, Castro Urdiales, Cantabria, Spain), president of the Council of Government of Cantabria (2011-15).
Diego (Iglesias), Mario de (b. April 17, 1908, Panama City, Panama), foreign minister of Panama (1947-48). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1948-50).
Dieleman, Petrus (b. Nov. 9, 1873, Axel, Netherlands - d. Jan. 19, 1961, Amersfoort, Netherlands), provincial commissioner of Zeeland (1940-44).
Diendéré, Gilbert (b. 1960?), head of the National Council of Democracy of Burkina Faso (2015).
Dienstbier, Jirí (b. April 20, 1937, Kladno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. Jan. 8, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic), foreign minister of Czechoslovakia (1989-92).
Dierckx, Octave (Victor Anna) (b. Oct. 15, 1882, Antwerp, Belgium - d. March 21, 1955, Uccle, Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1937-38). He was also minister of transport (1934) and education (1938-39).
Diergaardt, Hans, byname of Johannes Gerard Adolf Diergaardt (b. Sept. 16, 1927, Rehoboth, central South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. Feb. 12, 1998, Rehoboth), captain of the Basters (1979-98) and chairman of the Transitional Government of National Unity of Namibia (1985).
Diete-Spiff, Alfred (Papapreye) (b. 1942), governor of Rivers (1968-75).
Dievoet, Emile (Josse) van (b. June 10, 1886, Lombeek-Sainte-Catherine, Belgium - d. June 24, 1967, Leuven, Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1939). He was also minister of agriculture (1931-32).
Diez Canseco (y Corbacho), Francisco (b. March 21, 1821, Arequipa, Peru - d. May 15, 1884, Lima, Peru), acting president of Peru (1872); brother of Pedro Diez Canseco; brother-in-law of Ramón Castilla.
Diez Canseco (y Corbacho), Pedro (Nolasco) (b. Jan. 31, 1815, Arequipa, Peru - d. April 3, 1893, Chorrillos, Peru), acting president of Peru (1863, 1865, 1868); brother-in-law of Ramón Castilla.
Diez de Medina, Federico (b. 1839, La Paz, Bolivia - d. June 13, 1904, La Paz), foreign minister of Bolivia (1900-02).
Diez de Medina Lertora, Alberto (b. Sept. 11, 1877, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Dec. 31, 1932, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister of Bolivia (1930); son of Federico Diez de Medina. He was also chargé d'affaires in Brazil (1907-08), prefect of Oruro (1913-14), and minister to Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela (1917-19), Paraguay (1920), Brazil (1923-25), and Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, and Peru (1925-28).
Diez de Medina Lertora, Eduardo (b. Feb. 8, 1882, La Paz, Bolivia - d. 1955), foreign minister of Bolivia (1923, 1925-26, 1937-39); son of Federico Diez de Medina. He was also chargé d'affaires in Chile (1911-13) and minister to the United States, Mexico, and Cuba (1928-31).
Diez Gutiérrez (y López Portillo), Carlos (b. May 23, 1836, Ciudad del Maíz, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. Aug. 18, 1898, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí), governor of San Luis Potosí (1877-81, 1885-98) and interior minister of Mexico (1880-84).
Diez Urzúa, Sergio (Eduardo) (b. April 2, 1925, Curicó, Chile - d. June 29, 2015, Santiago, Chile), Chilean diplomat/politician. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-81) and president of the Senate (1996-97).
DiFrancesco, Donald T(homas) (b. Nov. 20, 1944, Scotch Plains, N.J.), acting governor of New Jersey (2001-02). By a law passed in 2006, he was retroactively recognized as full governor.
Dighe, Madhukar (b. 1923, Dhar [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. July 27, 2014, Gurgaon, Haryana, India), governor of Meghalaya (1990-95) and Arunachal Pradesh (1993).
Digneffe, Émile (Edouard Charles Henri) (b. Dec. 20, 1858, Liége [now Liège], Belgium - d. June 16, 1937, Liége), chairman of the Senate of Belgium (1932-34). He was also mayor of Liége (1921-27).
Digo, Yves (Jean) (b. April 4, 1897, Nantes, Loire-Inférieure [now Loire-Atlantique], France - d. March 6, 1974, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France), commissioner of Togo and Cambodia (1951-52) and governor of Gabon (1952-58).
Digvijaysinhji Ranjitsinhji Jadeja (b. Sept. 18, 1895, Sarodar - d. Feb. 3, 1966, Bombay [now Mumbai]), maharaja of Nawanagar (1933-47) and rajpramukh of Saurashtra (1948-56).
Dihigo (y López Trigo), Ernesto (b. Jan. 23, 1896, Havana, Cuba - d. February 1991, U.S.), foreign minister of Cuba (1950-51). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1951-52) and ambassador to the United States (1959-60).
Dijckmeester, Herman Jacob (b. Feb. 16, 1847, Arnhem, Netherlands - d. Feb. 1, 1942, The Hague, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Zeeland (1906-21).
Dijke, Pieter van (b. Sept. 25, 1920, Vlaardingen, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. May 9, 2003, Zeist, Utrecht), queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1980-85). He was also mayor of Gouda (1969-73).
Dijoud, Paul (Charles Louis) (b. June 25, 1938, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France), minister of state of Monaco (1994-97). He was also French ambassador to Colombia (1988-91), Mexico (1992-94), and Argentina (1997-2003).
Dik, Pavel (Vladimirovich), Belarusian Pavel (Uladzimiravich) Dzik (b. 1955), finance minister of Belarus (1995-97).
Dikambayev, Kazy (Dikambayevich) (b. Dec. 1 [Nov. 18, O.S.], 1913, Taldy-Su, Semirechye oblast, Russia [now in Issyk-Kul oblast, Kyrgyzstan] - d. Feb. 16, 2010, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan), foreign minister (1944-49) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1958-61) of the Kirgiz S.S.R. He was also a deputy premier (1940-44, 1948-49), people's commissar of state control (1940-44), first secretary of the party committee of Frunze oblast (1951-58), and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1953-55).
Dikko, (Alhaji) Umaru (b. Dec. 31, 1936, Wamba, near Zaria [now in Kaduna state], northern Nigeria - d. July 1, 2014, London, England), Nigerian politician. After the fall of Gen. Yakubu Gowon's regime in 1975, he was found guilty of corruption, but this did not prevent his political reappearance when the return to civilian rule took place in 1979. He was made minister of transport by Pres. Alhaji Shehu Shagari, and because of his closeness to the president he became one of the most powerful politicians in the country. He was derided by his enemies for never having personally won an election. Dikko achieved the height of power as the manager of Shagari's 1983 election campaign, but by that time he had made many enemies and, it was said, was reappointed as minister of transport only because of Shagari's gratitude over the election result. Dikko's return to power was seen by many as a denial of Shagari's claim that he would make an independent new start and root out corruption. Dikko was known as Shagari's "third ear," and it was rumoured that most important contracts required his approval. When the military, headed by Maj.Gen. Muhammadu Buhari, seized power again at the end of 1983, Dikko left the country and said he had "declared war" on the new regime. In Nigeria he was accused of setting aside $300 million (presumably of ill-gotten gains) to finance a mercenary-led expedition against the new government. The two chief charges against him were that he had received kickbacks while in office and that he had rigged the 1983 elections. A spectacular but unsuccessful attempt was made by Nigerians to kidnap Dikko from Britain in a crate from Stansted Airport in July 1984. As a result, relations between Britain and Nigeria were temporarily brought to a low ebb. He returned to Nigeria in 1994 when the administration of Gen. Sani Abacha nominated him to participate in a constitutional conference.
Dikov, Diko (Dimitrov) (b. Nov. 2, 1910, Berkovitsa, Bulgaria - d. April 14, 1985), interior minister of Bulgaria (1962-68). He was also ambassador to Cuba (1969-72).
Dikshit, Sheila, Dikshit also spelled Dixit (b. March 31, 1938, Kapurthala, Punjab), chief minister of Delhi (1998-2013) and governor of Kerala (2014); daughter-in-law of Uma Shankar Dikshit.
Dikshit, Uma Shankar, Dikshit also spelled Dixit (b. Jan. 12, 1901, Ugoo, Unnao district [now in Uttar Pradesh] - d. May 30, 1991, New Delhi), home affairs minister of India (1973-74) and governor of Karnataka (1976-77) and West Bengal (1984-86). He was also minister of works and housing (1971-73), health and family planning (1971-73), without portfolio (1974-75), and transport and shipping (1975).
Dileita, Dileita Mohamed, Arabic Dilayta Muhammad Dilayta (b. March 12, 1958, Tadjoura, French Somaliland [now Djibouti]), prime minister of Djibouti (2001-13). He was also ambassador to Ethiopia (1997-2001).
Dillon, Arthur (Richard), comte (b. Sept. 3, 1750, Braywick, Ireland - d. [beheaded] April 13, 1794, Paris, France), governor of Tobago (1786-89).
Dillon, C(larence) Douglas (b. Aug. 21, 1909, Geneva, Switzerland - d. Jan. 10, 2003, New York City), U.S. treasury secretary (1961-65). In 1953, Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower plucked him from private life to begin a six-year stint as U.S. ambassador to France. He became undersecretary of state for economic affairs in 1959 and was serving in that role when tapped unexpectedly to join the new Democratic administration in 1961. As an original member of John F. Kennedy's cabinet, he was one of its two high-profile Republicans - along with Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara - surrounded by Democrats. Dillon also was among the cabinet officers who stayed on at the behest of Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson after Kennedy's assassination in November 1963. He returned to private life in 1965. Under both presidents he led the Alliance for Progress, a program to spur economic development in Latin America, an effort he had earlier spearheaded as a founder of the Inter-American Development Bank. Known as a staunch advocate of free trade, Dillon as treasury secretary developed policies aimed at reducing the U.S. trade deficit by controlling inflation and expanding exports, and backed U.S. cooperation with the European Common Market. He also strongly advocated a massive tax cut program to spur economic growth. The tax measure was pending at the time of Kennedy's death, and Dillon won Johnson's support for its passage by Congress in 1964. In 1989 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Closely identified with the Rockefellers, he was a patron of the arts and served as chairman of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's board of trustees in 1977-83.
Dillon, James (Mathew) (b. Sept. 26, 1902, Dublin, Ireland - d. Feb. 10, 1986, Ballaghadeerreen, County Mayo, Ireland), Irish politician. His family was distinguished in the cause of Irish independence; his grandfather John Blake Dillon had been a member of the Young Ireland movement in the 1840s, and his father, John Dillon, a nationalist member of the Westminster Parliament (1880-83 and 1885-1918). Dillon served in the Dáil as member for County Donegal (1932-37) and for County Monaghan (1937-69). He early became deputy leader of Fine Gael, the main opposition to Eamon de Valera's party, Fianna Fáil, but in 1942 he resigned because of Fine Gael's support for Irish neutrality during World War II. Dillon's first tenure of the post of minister of agriculture (1948-51) was as an independent, but he rejoined Fine Gael in 1951. He served again as minister of agriculture in 1954-57. As party leader (1959-65), Dillon improved Fine Gael's standing in the 1961 general election by opposing a proposal for the compulsory use of Gaelic in school and public service examinations. He refused nomination as president in 1966.
Dimas, Stavros (Konstantinou), also appearing as Stavros C. Dimas (b. April 30, 1941, Athens, Greece), foreign minister of Greece (2011-12). He was also minister of commerce (1980-81), agriculture (1989-90), and industry, energy, and technology (1990-91) and a European commissioner (2004-10).
Dimassi, Houcine (b. Nov. 18, 1948, Ksar Hellal, Tunisia), finance minister of Tunisia (2011-12). He was also minister of vocational training and employment (2011).
Dimitri, also spelled Dymytriy, secular name Volodymyr Yarema (b. Dec. 9, 1915, eastern Poland [now western Ukraine] - d. Feb. 25, 2000), patriarch of the schismatic Orthodox Church of Ukraine (1993-2000). He served in the Polish army in 1938-39. During World War II he was a prisoner of war in Germany. He was ordained to the deaconate Aug. 3, 1947, and to the priesthood August 10 of that same year. In 1989 the then Very Reverend Father Volodymyr Yarema proclaimed that his parish in the city of Lviv was to come under the jurisdiction of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine headed by Patriarch Mstyslav. After the death of Patriarch Mstyslav, Dimitri was tonsured a monk, ordained bishop, and elected head of the church by a vote of the Second All-Ukrainian Sobor on Sept. 7, 1993. He was enthroned on Oct. 14, 1993.
Dimitriev, Emil (b. March 19, 1979, Probistip, Macedonia), prime minister of Macedonia (2016- ).
Dimitrios I, also spelled Demetrios, original name Dimitrios Papadopoulos (b. Sept. 8, 1914, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Oct. 2, 1991, Istanbul), patriarch of Constantinople (1972-91). He was ordained a priest in 1942, served for a few years as a parish administrator in northern Greece, and was later appointed chaplain to the small Greek community in Tehran. He was consecrated bishop in 1964 and on Feb. 15, 1972, was appointed metropolitan of Imroz Adasi and Bozca Ada, two Turkish islands in the Aegean Sea that were formerly Greek and that have Greek populations. On July 16, 1972, in Istanbul, the Holy Synod of the Eastern Orthodox church elected Metropolitan Dimitrios the 269th patriarch of Constantinople (i.e., ecumenical patriarch), succeeding Athinagoras I.
Dimitriu, Constantin D. (b. Dec. 9, 1872, Târgoviste, Romania - d. Oct. 27, 1945, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. He was minister of public works (1927), communications (1927-28), and labour, health, and social welfare (1933-34) and president of the Senate (1935-36).
Dimitrov, Aleksandar (b. Nov. 29, 1949, Skopje, Macedonia), foreign minister of Macedonia (1998-2000).
Dimitrov, Aleksandur (Tenev), byname Bradata (b. 1878, Slokoshtitsa, Bulgaria - d. [killed] Oct. 22, 1921, Konyavska mountain, Bulgaria), interior minister (1919-21) and war minister (1921) of Bulgaria. He was also minister of railways, posts, and telegraphs (1921).
Dimitrov, Boiko (Georgiev) (b. June 5, 1941, Pleven, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1989-90); adopted son of Georgi Dimitrov. He was also ambassador to Cuba (1978-83), Panama (1979-81), Jamaica (1979-84), and Guyana (1979-81).
Dimitrov, Filip (Dimitrov) (b. March 31, 1955, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister of Bulgaria (1991-92). On Dec. 11, 1990, he succeeded Petur Beron as the chair of the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) National Coordinating Council. Dimitrov had no tolerance for the communists as he was known for not accepting any compromise with the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). Dimitrov believed in "shock therapy" for the economy. On Nov. 4, 1991, he was appointed prime minister by Pres. Zhelyu Zhelev. Dimitrov failed in solving Bulgaria's most important problems such as the privatization of the state firms, inflation, and unemployment. All of this failure was mainly due to the non-cooperation of the BSP, but it was also due to his stubbornness. He also did not succeed in keeping his party united as the UDF began to split into factions. On Oct. 28, 1992, he resigned his cabinet after he lost the necessary parliamentary support of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF). He tried to appoint a new cabinet, but it was not approved. A cabinet of experts was formulated under the leadership of Lyuben Berov. This government was supported by the BSP and the MRF. Dimitrov made numerous efforts to oust this group from power, but after the 1994 parliamentary elections, in which the UDF lost badly, Ivan Kostov replaced Dimitrov as the UDF chair on Dec. 29, 1994. Dimitrov served as permanent representative to the United Nations in 1997-98 and as ambassador to the United States in 1998-2002.
Dimitrov (Mihailov), Georgi (b. June 30 [June 18, O.S.], 1882, Kovachevtsi, Bulgaria - d. July 2, 1949, Barvikha, near Moscow, U.S.S.R.), prime minister of Bulgaria (1945-49). His oratorical gifts secured him the secretaryship of the Bulgarian Trade Union Confederation in 1904. Elected to the Sabranie in 1913, he led the socialist parliamentary opposition to the voting of national war credits in 1915. He was briefly imprisoned for sedition in 1917-18 and played a major role in the formation of the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1919. He journeyed to the Soviet Union, where he was elected to the executive committee of the Comintern (Communist International) in 1921. In 1923 he fostered a Communist revolt in Bulgaria that ended in bloodshed and defeat. He escaped to Yugoslavia, but soon moved to Vienna, where he lived until 1929, when he moved to Berlin. After the Reichstag fire of Feb. 27, 1933, which provided Adolf Hitler, the new German chancellor, with an excuse for a decree outlawing his Communist opponents, Dimitrov was accused with other Communist leaders of plotting the fire. At his trial Dimitrov thoroughly bested the Nazi prosecution and was acquitted. He settled in Moscow and, as secretary-general of the Comintern's executive committee (1935-43), encouraged the formation of popular-front movements against the Nazi menace, except when his patron, Iosif Stalin, and Hitler were cooperating. During 1944 he directed the resistance to Bulgaria's Axis satellite government, and in 1945 he returned to Bulgaria, where he was immediately appointed prime minister of a Communist-dominated Fatherland Front government. He effected the Communist consolidation of power, relying on his fiery oratory for gaining and holding great authority even among the strongly individual Bulgarian peasantry.
Dimov (Vergilov), Vergil (b. Oct. 25, 1901, Ayazlar [now Svetlen], Bulgaria - d. Dec. 1, 1979), interior minister of Bulgaria (1944). He was also minister of public works (1932-34) and railways, posts, and telegraphs (1944).
Dimovska, Dosta (b. Feb. 17, 1954, Skopje, Macedonia - d. April 4, 2011, Sofia, Bulgaria), interior minister of Macedonia (1999-2001).
Dinbergs, Anatols (b. March 3, 1911, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Nov. 9, 1993, Washington, D.C.), Latvian diplomat. He was head of the Latvian diplomatic service in exile (1970-91), permanent representative to the United Nations (1991), and ambassador to the United States (1991-93).
Ding Mou-shih, Pinyin Ding Moushi (b. Oct. 10, 1925, Binchuan county, Yunnan province, China), foreign minister of Taiwan (1987-88). Earlier he was Taiwan's ambassador to Rwanda (1964-67), Congo (Kinshasa) (1967-71), and South Korea (1979-82).
Ding Weifen, Wade-Giles Ting Wei-fen (b. 1874, Rizhao, Shandong, China - d. May 12, 1954, Taipei, Taiwan), Chinese politician. He studied abroad in Japan in 1904 and joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905. He became a member of the House of Representatives upon the founding of the republic, later participating in several movements against Pres. Yuan Shikai. He started his senior career in the Kuomintang in 1924, holding membership in its Central Political Committee. Years later, he was nominated as head of the Department of Youth, subsequently Propaganda and Training. He became vice president of the Control Yuan in 1932.
Dinguizli, Mustapha, Arabic Mustafa al-Dinqizli (b. 1865 - d. Oct. 20, 1926), prime minister of Tunisia (1922-26).
Dini, Lamberto (b. March 1, 1931, Florence, Italy), prime minister (1995-96) and foreign minister (1996-2001) of Italy. He held high-flying jobs at the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, and the Bank of Italy. He became treasury minister under Silvio Berlusconi in 1994 and was named a technocrat prime minister in January 1995 (also keeping the treasury portfolio) after Berlusconi's government fell. Since then Dini, nicknamed "The Toad" in Italy because of his appearance, developed an unexpected flair for politics as the leader of the small Italian Renewal Party. As foreign minister during the Romano Prodi administration, Dini made a series of overtures to "rogue" Islamic countries including Iran, Libya, and Algeria, and also made the first visit by a high-ranking European Union official to Cuba. In 1997, when anarchy broke out in Albania, he played a key role in mustering international support for an Italian-led multinational force to restore stability.
Diniz, Antero Alves Monteiro (b. Feb. 29, 1936, Vila Pouca de Aguiar, northern Portugal), minister of the republic (1997-2006) and representative of the republic (2006-11) in Madeira.
Dinkins, David (Norman) (b. July 10, 1927, Trenton, N.J.), mayor of New York City (1990-94). He served in the U.S. Marine Corps during the Korean conflict. In 1965 he was elected to the New York state assembly. In 1973 he was named New York City's deputy mayor for planning, but he was forced to withdraw under the shadow of his having neglected to file income tax returns from 1969 to 1972. From 1975 to 1985 he served as city clerk and was then elected Manhattan borough president. On Sept. 12, 1989, he defeated incumbent Ed Koch in the Democratic Party mayoral primary. Then on November 7, Dinkins again seized victory when he defeated his Republican opponent, former U.S. attorney Rudolph Giuliani, to become New York City's first black mayor. He won the election with the support of a large number of blacks and Hispanics and with nearly one-third of the white vote. A far cry from the flamboyant, acerbic Koch, Dinkins had a soft-spoken, unassuming style that seemed to be just what New Yorkers were looking for to lead them into the 1990s. Accompanying Dinkins' sweet taste of victory was the bitter reality of the many problems that he would have to face. In addition to the $1 billion deficit, there were the 50,000 homeless, the AIDS and drug problems, and racial tensions. Prior to the election he was credited with staying neutral concerning a racially motivated killing in Brooklyn, and asking for calm. Racial harmony became a campaign issue, and Dinkins vowed to "bring New York City together." After the primary Dinkins had told supporters, "You voted your hopes and not your fears." With his easygoing style, he did ease racial tensions but mounting fiscal crises and a persistent crime rate led to his defeat at the hands of Giuliani in 1993.
Dino, Xhemil Bej (b. 1894, Preveza, Greece - d. July 2, 1972, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Albania (1939); son-in-law of Shefqet Bej Vërlaci. He was also minister to Italy (1926-31) and the United Kingdom (1932-33).
Dinwiddy, Bruce (Harry) (b. Feb. 1, 1946, Epsom, England), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1996-98) and governor of the Cayman Islands (2002-05).
Diodoros I, original name Damianos (Georgiou) Karivalis (b. Aug. 14, 1923, Chios island, Greece - d. Dec. 19, 2000, Jerusalem), patriarch of Jerusalem (1981-2000). He moved to what was then British-mandated Palestine in 1938. He became a monk in 1944 and was renamed Diodoros. Three years later he became a priest, then an archbishop in 1962, and he was named patriarch in 1981. In 2000, Diodoros met with Pope John Paul II during the pontiff's visit to the Holy Land. The pope said then he hoped the Vatican and the Orthodox church could overcome theological differences, such as disagreements over the nature of Christ and the extent of the authority of the papacy.
Diogo, Luísa (Dias) (b. April 11, 1958, Mágoè district, Mozambique), finance minister (2000-05) and prime minister (2004-10) of Mozambique.
Diomi (Ndongala), Gaston (b. 1922, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. 19...), president of secessionist Congo province (1960) and of Léopoldville province (1962).
Diomidis(-Kyriakos), Alexandros (Nikolaou) (b. 1875, Athens, Greece - d. Nov. 11, 1950, Athens), prime minister of Greece (1949-50). He joined Eleftherios Venizelos' Liberal government as minister of finance (1912-14). After World War I he retired from politics and in 1923 was elected governor of the National Bank, at that time still the bank of issue, and negotiated important public loans, besides conducting negotiations which led to the creation of the Bank of Greece as the bank of issue (1928). Retiring from public life in 1930, he was honorary president of the Supreme Economic Council before World War II and from 1945 president of the Supreme Reconstruction Board. On Jan. 20, 1949, Diomidis joined the coalition government of Themistoklis Sophoulis as a nonparty deputy premier, and on the death of Sophoulis succeeded him on June 30 as prime minister of a Populist-Liberal coalition cabinet. He resigned on Jan. 5, 1950.
Dion, Sir Leo (b. 1950), governor of East New Britain (2000-12); knighted 2016. He has also been Papua New Guinean deputy prime minister and minister of inter-government relations (2012- ).
Dion, Stéphane (Maurice) (b. Sept. 28, 1955, Québec, Que.), foreign minister of Canada (2015-17). First elected to the House of Commons in a 1996 by-election, he became minister of intergovernmental affairs (1996-2003), the highlight of his tenure being the creation of the so-called Clarity Act (passed in 2000), which makes it much harder for Quebec to break away from Canada. Dion said the act was one of his finest accomplishments, but some in Quebec never forgave him, one cartoonist regularly portraying him as a rat. In 2004-06 he was environment minister. In December 2006 he was elected leader of the Liberal Party, defeating Michael Ignatieff on the fourth ballot. He came into the leadership convention in fourth place but swayed delegates by giving perhaps the most impassioned speech of the leading contenders in which he stressed energy conservation. In the October 2008 elections he led the Liberals to a historic low, and soon afterwards said he would turn over the reins of the party to the winner of a leadership convention in May 2009. However, in December 2008 he helped engineer a coalition deal with the New Democratic Party and the Bloc Québécois designed to remove the Conservative minority government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper and install Dion as prime minister. But Harper, whose public support increased after the opposition's manoeuvring, forestalled a defeat by getting parliament prorogued until January, and Dion, who remained unpopular with Canadians, then announced he would resign early; he was replaced by Ignatieff on December 10.
Dionne, Mohamed (Boun Abdallah), Mohamed also spelled Mahammed (b. Sept. 22, 1959, Gossas, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (2014- ).
Diop, Abdoulaye (b. Sept. 10, 1952, Thiès, Senegal), finance minister of Senegal (2001-12).
Diop (1952- )
Diop (1965- )
Diop, Abdoulaye (b. Sept. 17, 1965, Brazzaville, Congo [Brazzaville]), foreign minister of Mali (2014- ). He was also ambassador to the United States (2003-09).
Diorditsa, Aleksandr (Filipovich) (b. Sept. 12 [Aug. 30, O.S.], 1911, Gandrabury, Russia [now in Odessa oblast, Ukraine] - d. April 1, 1996, Moscow, Russia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1958-70). He was also finance minister (1946-55) and a deputy premier (1955-58).
Dioré, (Claude) Élie (b. May 26, 1727, Saint-Denis, Île Bourbon [now Réunion] - d. Aug. 2, 1803, Saint-André, Réunion), governor of Île Bourbon (1785-88); son of Hélie Dioré.
Dioré, Hélie (b. Sept. 22, 1677, La Rochelle, France - d. bf. July 1741), governor of Île Bourbon (1725-27).
Diori, Hamani (b. June 6, 1916, Soudouré, Niger - d. April 23, 1989, Rabat, Morocco), president of Niger (1960-74). He was a founder member (1946) of the Rassemblement Démocratique Africain and founder of its local branch, the Niger Progressive Party (PPN), and represented Niger in the French National Assembly (1946-51, 1956-58). During the transition period before Niger's independence, the French government banned (1959) all political parties except the PPN and chose Diori to serve as Niger's prime minister (1958-60) and president (1960). On Nov. 11, 1960, he was formally voted into office in the first postindependence elections. Despite pressure from France, he supported Nigeria during the secession (1967-70) of Biafra, and he gained worldwide respect for his attempts to negotiate a peaceful settlement in the conflict. Diori's administration, however, was rife with corruption, and he was unable to implement much-needed reforms or to alleviate the widespread famine brought on by the Sahelian drought of the early 1970s. He was deposed by the army chief of staff, Lieut. Col. Seyni Kountché, on April 15, 1974. Diori was released from prison in 1980, but he remained under house arrest until April 1987.
Diouf, Abdou (b. Sept. 7, 1935, Louga, northern Senegal), president of Senegal (1981-2000). He joined the civil service in 1960, and over the next years, he was appointed to a succession of posts: governor of the Sine-Saloum region (1961-62), secretary-general to the presidency (1964-68, a key post that he took over at the remarkably young age of 29), and minister of planning and industry (1968-70). He quickly established a reputation for fair-mindedness when he oversaw the liberalization of the political system. In 1970 he became prime minister, a post that had only just been created through a change in the constitution. He retained that position for 11 years and upon the retirement of Pres. Léopold Sédar Senghor and in accordance with the constitution, he succeeded to the presidency (Jan. 1, 1981). He was elected in his own right two years later, was reelected in 1988, and won a third term in multiparty elections in March 1993. He has also served as secretary-general (1981-96) and president (1996- ) of the Socialist Party of Senegal. In 1982-89 he was also president of the Senegambia confederation. Diouf gained international prominence as a delegate to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1983, when he played a key role at the June 1983 summit meeting, and as that organization's chairman in 1985-86, when his decisive leadership and moderation restored confidence in that troubled body. He served a second term as OAU chairman in 1992-93 and he also served as chairman of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Islamic Conference, and the G-15 nations. He stepped down as president willingly after losing the 2000 elections to Abdoulaye Wade, a move that brought him respect in a continent where leaders tend to cling to power. In 2003-14 he was secretary-general of La Francophonie.
Diouf, Coumba Ndoffène (b. Dec. 29, 1932), foreign minister of Senegal (1972-73). He was also civil service and labour minister (1970-72) and public health and social affairs minister (1973-75).
Diouf, Jacques (b. Aug. 1, 1938, Saint-Louis, Senegal), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1994-2011).
Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva (b. June 27, 1971, Kathmandu - d. June 4, 2001, Chauni, near Kathmandu), king of Nepal (2001). He was the eldest son of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva and was declared heir apparent in 1972 after his father became king. After his early education in Kathmandu, Dipendra, like his father, went to Eton College in Britain. There, he was reportedly excused from chapel when he turned 18. According to Nepali tradition, the prince effectively became a god on his birthday and he could not be seen worshipping another. Known as "Dippy" to his friends, Dipendra returned to Kathmandu to study at Tribhuvan University. He later joined the Royal Nepal Military Academy. In 1990, he was commissioned as the colonel-in-chief of the Royal Nepalese Army, an honorary title given to the heir to the throne. At a banquet during Prince Charles' 1998 visit to Nepal, Dipendra told him of his country's sorrow at the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Dipendra also praised Eton for giving him a sense of "fair play and discipline." Childhood classmates remember him as friendly and intelligent, and always at the top of the class. He was often seen in the streets without his bodyguards. He was a flying enthusiast who enjoyed helicopters, reading, and writing poetry. He also held a black belt in kung fu. On June 1, 2001, Dipendra shot his parents and seven other royals before turning the gun on himself. He was widely believed to be angered by an ancient tradition in Nepal: the arranged marriage. Palace officials and local media reports said Queen Aishwarya rejected Dipendra's choice of a bride because of her clan, providing an apparent motive for the shooting spree. He initially survived, though in a coma, and was proclaimed king, but died three days after the massacre.
Dipico, Manne (Emsley) (b. April 21, 1959, Greenpoint township, Kimberley, Cape province [now in Northern Cape]), premier of Northern Cape (1994-2004).
DiPrete, Edward D(aniel) (b. July 8, 1934, Cranston, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1985-91). He pleaded guilty in December 1998 to bribery, extortion, and racketeering, admitting he accepted $250,000 from architects, engineers, and others in exchange for state contracts. DiPrete's son Dennis was fined $1,000 after pleading guilty to playing the middleman for his Republican father.
Direko, (Isabella) Winkie (b. Nov. 27, 1929, Botshabelo, near Bloemfontein, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa - d. Feb. 16, 2012, Bloemfontein), premier of the Free State (1999-2004).
Diria, Ahmed Hassan (b. July 13, 1937, Raha Leo, Zanzibar - d. March 13, 2005, Germany), foreign minister of Tanzania (1990-93). He was also ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1965-68) and Congo (Kinshasa) (1968-70), high commissioner to India (1971-78), and information minister (1989-90).
Diro, Ted, byname of Edward Ramu Diro (b. Dec. 14, 1942, Boku village, Rigo subdistrict, Central district, Papua [now in Papua New Guinea]), foreign minister (1986-87) and deputy prime minister (1990-91) of Papua New Guinea and governor of Central province (1997-99). He was also minister of forests (1985-86) and public service (1990-91) and special minister of state (1989-90).
Dirzinskaite(-Piliusenko), Leokadija (b. Jan. 20, 1921, Anclaukis, Vilkaviskis region, Lithuania - d. January 2008), foreign minister (1960-61, 1961-76) and first deputy chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1976-85) of the Lithuanian S.S.R.
DiSalle, Michael V(incent) (b. Jan. 6, 1908, New York City - d. Sept. 15, 1981, Pescara, Abruzzo, Italy), mayor of Toledo (1948-50) and governor of Ohio (1959-63). He served in the Ohio legislature in 1937 and 1938, and was assistant city law director of Toledo from 1939 to 1941. DiSalle was a member of the Toledo city council from 1942 and served two terms as the city's vice-mayor before being elected mayor in 1947 and again in 1949. He served as chairman of the advisory board of the U.S. Conference of Mayors. He was also chairman of the Toledo Labor-Management Citizens Committee which attracted national attention for keeping industrial peace during World War II. Pres. Harry S. Truman named him director of price stabilization Nov. 30, 1950. He was defeated for the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate in 1950; he won the nomination in 1952, but lost the election in that year's Republican landslide. He won the governorship in 1958 with ease, but was defeated for a second term in 1962. As governor, he overcame Republican opposition in pushing through considerable social legislation in Ohio.
Dissanayake, Berty Premalal (b. July 15, 1954 - d. Sept. 27, 2013, Colombo, Sri Lanka), chief minister of North Central province (1999-2012). He was also Sri Lankan minister of social services (1997-99).
Dissanayake, (Lionel) Gamini (b. March 20, 1942, Kotmale, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. [assassinated] Oct. 24, 1994, Colombo, Sri Lanka), Sri Lankan presidential candidate (1994). He was also minister of irrigation, power, and highways (1977-78), lands, land development, and Mahaweli development (1978-89), and plantation industries (1989-90).
Dissanayake, W(eerasooriya) M(udiyanselage) P(unchi) B(anda) (b. April 16, 1927 - d. May 29, 2003), chief minister of Central province, Sri Lanka (1988-98, 2002-03).
Distaso, Salvatore (b. May 16, 1937, Bari, Italy - d. March 19, 2008, Bari), president of Puglia (1995-2000).
Divan, B(ipinchandra) J(ivanlal) (b. Aug. 20, 1919, Ahmedabad [now in Gujarat], India - d. March 12, 2012, Ahmedabad), acting governor of Andhra Pradesh (1977). He was chief justice of Gujarat High Court (1973-76, 1977-81) and Andhra Pradesh High Court (1976-77).
Divulgane, (Herath Mudiyanselage) Karunarathna, governor of North Central province, Sri Lanka (2006-15).
Diwakar, Ranganath Ramachandra (b. Sept. 30, 1894, Dharwar [now Dharwad, Karnataka], India - d. Jan. 15, 1990, Belgaum, Karnataka, India), governor of Bihar (1952-57). He was also Indian minister of state for information and broadcasting (1949-52).
Dix, John Adams (b. July 24, 1798, Boscawen, N.H. - d. April 21, 1879, New York City), U.S. secretary of the treasury (1861) and governor of New York (1873-75). He was also minister to France (1866-69).
Dix, John Alden (b. Dec. 25, 1860, Glens Falls, N.Y. - d. April 9, 1928, New York City), governor of New York (1911-13).
Dixon, Sir Pierson (John), byname Bob Dixon (b. Nov. 13, 1904, Englefield Green, Surrey, England - d. April 22, 1965, Egham, Surrey), British diplomat; knighted 1950. He was ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1948-50) and France (1960-65) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1954-60).
Diya, (Donaldson) Oladipo (b. April 3, 1944, Lagos, Nigeria), Nigerian political figure. He was commissioned in March 1967, just in time to fight on the federal side in the Nigerian civil war. He attended the U.S. Army School of Infantry at Fort Benning in 1971-72, returning to hold several command positions. From 1979 to 1980 Diya commanded the Nigerian contingent of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. After the military overthrew the Second Republic government of Pres. Shehu Shagari in December 1983, Diya was appointed military governor of Ogun state in southwestern Nigeria. There he introduced a controversial tax on the lavish social parties for which southwestern Nigeria is famous. Diya, an infantry officer, opposed the military's annulment of a presidential poll in June 1993 believed to have been won by his Yoruba kinsman Moshood Abiola. During the crisis following the annulment of the election, Diya was the intermediary between the military and largely-Yoruba pro-democracy activists who urged Sani Abacha, as the most senior officer at the time, to seize power and hand over to Abiola. Diya was the strongman behind Abacha when he seized power in November 1993 and an early pillar of his administration, but his influence waned once Abacha consolidated power. Diya, a lawyer, also convinced three prominent Yoruba leaders to join Abacha's cabinet, helping to give the government credibility, but all three were eventually sacked. Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar, who took over after Abacha's death in 1998, immediately freed a number of political prisoners but for unexplained reasons did not free Lieutenant General Diya and other serving military men sentenced for alleged coup attempts against Abacha. However, Diya was the chief beneficiary of a 1999 amnesty granted to 95 people accused of plotting against Abacha.
Dizdarevic, Raif (b. 1926, Fojnica, Bosnia), Yugoslav politician. He was president of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1978-82) and then president of the Federal Assembly (1982-83), foreign minister (1984-87), and president of the Presidency (1988-89) of Yugoslavia.
Djá, Baciro (b. Jan. 31, 1973), defense minister (2011-12) and prime minister (2015, 2016) of Guinea-Bissau. He was a minor presidential candidate in 2012.
Djaló, (Mamadu) Iaia (b. 1962?), foreign minister of Guinea-Bissau (2000-01). He was an independent presidential candidate in 2005, winning 1.6% of the vote.
Djanggola, Longki (L.) (b. Nov. 11, 1952, Palu [now in Sulawesi Tengah], Indonesia), governor of Sulawesi Tengah (2011- ).
Djankov, Simeon (Denchev), also spelled Dyankov (b. July 13, 1970, Sofia, Bulgaria), finance minister and a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (2009-13).
Djapo, Mirsad (b. Nov. 2, 1953, Brcko, Bosnia and Herzegovina), mayor of Brcko (2004-09).
Djédjé, (Ilahiri) Alcide (b. 1956), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2010-11; under Pres. Laurent Gbagbo). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 2007-10.
Djengbot, Guillaume Lucien (b. c. 1947), Central African Republic politician. He was ambassador to Nigeria (1978-81) and minister of armed forces, veterans, water resources, and energy (1985-86).
Djergenia, Anri (Mikhailovich), also spelled Dzhergenia or Jergenia (b. Aug. 8, 1941, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), prime minister of Abkhazia (2001-02).
Djeric, Branko (b. Nov. 20, 1948), prime minister of the Republika Srpska (1992-93).
Djermakoye, Moumouni Adamou (b. May 22, 1939, Dosso, Niger - d. June 14, 2009, Niamey, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (1974-79). He was also minister of youth, sports, and culture (1979-81) and public health and social affairs (1981-83), prefect of Zinder département (1983-88), ambassador to the U.S. and permanent representative to the UN (1988-91), and president of the National Assembly (1993-95). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2004.
Djibo, Salou (b. April 15, 1965, Namaro, Niger), chairman of the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy of Niger (2010-11).
Djilas, Dragan (b. Feb. 22, 1967, Belgrade, Serbia), mayor of Belgrade (2008- ). He was minister without portfolio and coordinator for the National Investment Plan of Serbia in 2007-08.
Djindjic, Zoran (b. Aug. 1, 1952, Bosanski Samac, Bosnia - d. March 12, 2003, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister of Serbia (2001-03). He was never a member of the long-ruling Communist party. Having fled to West Germany to avoid prison after being accused of activities against the state, he returned to Belgrade in 1989, co-founding the Democratic Party which he led inside the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) umbrella alliance. Djindjic was usually perceived as a pragmatic politician but did not enjoy the same broad popularity of the other leading figure in the DOS, Vojislav Kostunica. He was frequently branded a traitor by allies of Pres. Slobodan Milosevic and media outlets they controlled. In 1996, after Milosevic ignored an opposition victory in local elections, Djindjic organized three months of daily protest rallies in Belgrade. Milosevic eventually relented, and Djindjic became the first non-communist mayor of the city. But he lasted less than a year in the post before the coalition that nominated him split up and he was voted out in September 1997. He was long a leading figure in anti-Milosevic campaigns. He spearheaded a drive to oust the Yugoslav strongman in late 2000. He took office as Serbian prime minister in January 2001. He faced hyperinflation and a chaotic government system where public sector workers often had to wait months to be paid. He stood for a market economy and said that Serbia's future lay in closer integration with the West. Milosevic's arrest and deportation led to a rift between Djindjic and Kostunica, who was shocked at the way that Djindjic used the law to seal Milosevic's fate. Djindjic was shot dead in front of the government building, apparently by members of an organized crime syndicate known as the Zemun Clan.
Djindjolia, Sokrat (Rachevich), also spelled Dzhindzholia or Jinjolia (b. Dec. 11, 1937, Tkuarchal [Tkvarcheli], Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister and foreign minister of Abkhazia (1993-94). He was also speaker of parliament (1994-2002).
Djodan, Sime (b. Dec. 27, 1927, Rodaljice, Dalmatia, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Oct. 2, 2007, Dubrovnik, Croatia), defense minister of Croatia (1991).
Djohan, Djohermansyah (b. Dec. 21, 1954, Padang [now in Sumatera Barat], Indonesia), acting governor of Riau (2013-14).
Djohar, Said Mohamed (b. Aug. 22, 1918, Majunga, Madagascar - d. Feb. 22, 2006, Mitsamiouli, Grande Comore, Comoros), president of the Comoros (1989-95, 1996); half-brother of Ali Soilih. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies in 1972.
Djokic, Dragomir, Yugoslav diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1992-95).
Djordjevic, Mihailo Kr. (b. 1850, Belgrade, Serbia - d. 1901, Belgrade), foreign minister of Serbia (1891-92). He was also justice minister (1890-91, 1892, 1894-95), interior minister (1896-97), and minister to France (1892-94).
Djordjevic, Vladan (b. Nov. 21, 1844, Belgrade, Serbia - d. Aug. 31, 1930, Baden, near Vienna, Austria), prime minister and foreign minister of Serbia (1897-1900). He was also mayor of Belgrade (1884-88), minister of education (1888-91), and minister to Greece (1891-94) and the Ottoman Empire (1894-97).
Djotodia, Michel (Am Nondroko) (b. 1949?), defense minister (2013-14), president (2013), and transitional head of state (2013-14) of the Central African Republic. His mainly Muslim Seleka coalition rose up against the government in December 2012 and overthrew Pres. François Bozizé, a Christian, in March 2013. But even after he officially dissolved the Seleka coalition in September, Djotodia remained unable to end the violence in the country. Bowing to pressure from regional leaders in the Economic Community of Central African States, he resigned in January 2014 and went into exile in Benin.
Djoudi, Hocine (b. May 4, 1930), Algerian diplomat. He was ambassador to Spain (1978-79), Portugal (1979-82), Mozambique and Lesotho (1982-84), and France (1993-97) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-91).
Djoudi, Karim (b. July 13, 1958, Montpellier, France), finance minister of Algeria (2007-14); son of Hocine Djoudi.
Djoumbe, Maitine (b. Jan. 1, 1953, Moukoulou, Chad), Chadian diplomat. He was ambassador to Zaire (1982-87), Sudan (1987-89), Algeria (1989-91), the Central African Republic (2001-03), Ethiopia (2003-07), Belgium (2007-10), and the United States and Canada (2012-13) and minister of mines and geology (2010-11).
Djoussouf, Abbas (b. March 22, 1942, Moroni, Comoros - d. June 13, 2010, Port Louis, Mauritius), prime minister of the Comoros (1998-99). He led the umbrella Forum of National Recovery. He lost to Mohamed Taki in presidential elections in March 1996. He worked towards reconciliation with Anjouan and Mohéli, which declared independence in 1997, and opposed Taki's hard line on the secessionists. His opposition movement proposed a "Federated Republics of Comoros" under which each island would have substantial autonomy, with a central government on Grande Comore retaining limited powers. After Taki's death, he was named prime minister by Interim Pres. Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde.
Djukanovic, Milo (b. Feb. 15, 1962, Niksic, Montenegro), prime minister (1991-98, 2003-06, 2008-10, 2012-16) and president (1998-2002) of Montenegro. Hand-picked by Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic, Djukanovic rose to power while still in his 20s. As prime minister of Montenegro, he publicly stuck with Milosevic through the Croatian and Bosnian wars in 1991-95, and only broke with the Yugoslav leader in 1996. Djukanovic's skills as a black-market trader during the wars and under subsequent sanctions turned him into a hero among Montenegrins. In a bitter TV debate before the 1997 presidential election, the two candidates - Djukanovic and incumbent Momir Bulatovic - tried to outdo each other with tales of corruption and smuggling to prove their worthiness to be president.
Djukic, Djordje (b. Jan. 16, 1948, Gospodjinci, Srem region, Vojvodina, Serbia), chairman of the Executive Council of Vojvodina (2000-04).
Djukic, Ilija (b. Jan. 4, 1930, Novi Rujac, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Oct. 22, 2002, Belgrade, Serbia), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1992-93). He was Yugoslav ambassador to Bulgaria (1983-87) and China (1990-92, 2001-02).
Djukic Dejanovic, Slavica (b. July 4, 1951, Raca, Serbia), acting president of Serbia (2012). She has been president of the National Assembly (2008-12), health minister (2012-14), and a minister without portfolio (2016- ).
Djuranovic, Veselin (b. May 17, 1925, Martinici village, near Danilovgrad, Montenegro - d. Aug. 30, 1997, Martinici?), chairman of the Executive Council (1963-66), secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (1968-77), and president of the Presidency (1982-83) of Montenegro and president of the Federal Executive Council (1977-82) and of the Presidency (1984-85) of Yugoslavia.
Djurovic, Dragan (b. Oct. 31, 1959, Danilovgrad, Montenegro), acting foreign minister (2002-03) and interior minister (2003-05) of Montenegro.
Dlamini, Bheki (R.) (b. 1952?), acting prime minister of Swaziland (2008). He was chief officer of the King's Office in 2006-13.
Dlamini, Prince Bhekimpi (Alpheus) (b. Nov. 26, 1924, Hhohho district, Swaziland - d. Nov. 1, 1999, Mbabane, Swaziland), prime minister of Swaziland (1983-86).
Dlamini, Prince Jameson Mbilini (b. Aug. 5, 1932, Hhohho district, Swaziland - d. June 5, 2008, Hhohho district), prime minister of Swaziland (1993-96).
Dlamini, Lutfo (Ephraim) (b. July 1960, Nkamanzi, northern Swaziland), foreign minister of Swaziland (2008-11). He was also minister for enterprise and employment (1998-2008) and labour and social security (2011-13).
Dlamini, Prince Mabandla N(dawombili) F(red) (b. Nov. 11, 1930, Hhohho district, Swaziland), prime minister of Swaziland (1979-83).
Dlamini, Mabili (David) (b. April 10, 1957, Mankayane, Swaziland), foreign minister of Swaziland (2003-06). Earlier he was high commissioner to Malaysia.
Dlamini, Prince Makhosini (Jaheso) (b. 1914, near Hlatikulu, Swaziland - d. April 28, 1978), prime minister (1967-76) and foreign minister (1968-70) of Swaziland.
Dlamini, Maphevu (Harry) (b. March 31, 1922 - d. Oct. 25, 1979), prime minister of Swaziland (1976-79).
Dlamini, Moses Mathendele, foreign minister of Swaziland (2006-08). Earlier he was ambassador to Taiwan and president of the Senate. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-2000).
Dlamini, Obed (Mfanyana) (b. April 4, 1937, Mhlosheni, Shiselweni district, Swaziland - d. Jan. 18, 2017, Johannesburg, South Africa), prime minister of Swaziland (1989-93).
Dlamini, Richard Velaphi (b. Oct. 22, 1932, Mbabane, Swaziland - d. August 1984), foreign minister of Swaziland (1982-84).
Dlamini, Sibusiso Barnabas, also called Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini (b. May 15, 1942), finance minister (1984-93) and prime minister (1996-2003, 2008- ) of Swaziland.
Dlamini, Solomon (Mnukwa), foreign minister of Swaziland (1993-95). He was also education minister (1995-98), high commissioner to Kenya (1999-2006) and South Africa (2010-14), and ambassador to Belgium (2006-10).
Dlamini, Sotsha (Ernest) (b. May 27, 1940, Mankayane, Swaziland - d. Feb. 7, 2017, Mankayane), prime minister of Swaziland (1986-89).
Dlamini, (Absalom) Themba (b. Dec. 1, 1950), prime minister of Swaziland (2003-08).
Dlamini-Zuma, Nkosazana (Clarice) (b. Jan. 28, 1949, Pietermaritzburg, Natal [now in KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), foreign minister (1999-2009) and home affairs minister (2009-12) of South Africa; former wife of Jacob Zuma. An ardent anti-smoker, she was health minister from 1994 to 1999. Her drive to deliver health services to the poor increased her stature in the African National Congress. Dlamini-Zuma was said to be the most powerful woman politician in the country after Nelson Mandela's former wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. But Dlamini-Zuma won few friends in the pharmaceutical industry after pushing through legislation to allow parallel imports of drugs and she failed to stem the AIDS epidemic sweeping the country - her one main effort to fund an anti-AIDS musical ending in scandal over tendering irregularities. In 2012-17 she was chairperson of the Commission of the African Union.
Dmitriyenko, Dmitry (Vladimirovich) (b. Aug. 17, 1963), governor of Murmansk oblast (2009-12).
Dmitriyev, Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. Sept. 21 [Sept. 10, O.S.], 1760, Bogorodskoye, Kazan province [now in Samara oblast], Russia - d. Oct. 15 [Oct. 3, O.S.], 1837, Moscow, Russia), justice minister of Russia (1810-14). He was also a poet.
Dmowski, Roman (b. Aug. 9, 1864, Warsaw, Poland - d. Jan. 2, 1939, Drozdowo, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (1923).
Do Muoi (b. Feb. 2, 1917, Hanoi, Vietnam), general secretary of the Vietnamese Communist Party (1991-97). He joined the emergent Vietnamese nationalist movement in 1936 and the Communist Party of Indochina three years later. In 1941, at the age of 24, he was arrested by the French colonial government and sentenced to 10 years in prison. Upon escaping in March 1945, he rejoined the independence struggle. Little was known of Do Muoi's activities during the Indochina war, which resulted in the partitioning of the country in 1954, or during the Vietnam war. Following the latter conflict he held a variety of bureaucratic and administrative positions in the Hanoi governments of both the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and, after 1976, the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam. As vice-chairman and minister of buildings from 1974 to 1976, he supervised construction of the mausoleum of revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh. He became vice-chairman of the republic, as well as minister of construction, in 1976. Additionally, during the late 1970s, he held ministerial posts in the Departments of Industry, Communication, and Transport and Postal Services. He became an alternate member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam in 1976 and a full member in 1982. He became premier in 1988 but resigned soon after he was named general secretary at the party's Seventh Congress in 1991. On June 27, 1991, the newly elected party leader announced his intention to extend the economic reforms introduced by his predecessor, Nguyen Van Linh. In both an address to the National Assembly and his first news conference, Do Muoi appealed to the international community for assistance in alleviating the "poor and backward" condition of his country.
Doan Khue (b. 1923? - d. Jan. 16, 1998, Hanoi), Vietnamese politician. He began revolutionary activities in 1939 and was captured and imprisoned by colonial French forces a year later. He joined the People's Army in 1945 and rose to become vice defense minister in 1980. He joined the ruling communist party's politburo in December 1986. He was named chief of staff in 1987 and was promoted to four-star general in 1990. He became defense minister in 1991. But party sources said he suffered political setbacks after a 1997 trip to France when he boasted to French Pres. Jacques Chirac that the next time they met it would be as equals. In September of that year he failed in a bid for the presidency when he lost out to Tran Duc Luong and was then replaced as defense minister. He retained his seat on the politburo, but with his health ailing soon faded from public view. Khue's feisty rhetoric as defense minister portrayed a man who was still deeply suspicious of the world outside his communist fatherland. As a former military chief of staff, Khue was seen as a conservative who advocated a leading role for the army in guiding socialism, but who supported expanded business interests among the armed forces. In speeches towards the end of his career he issued vociferous warnings that heightened vigilance was needed against possible "riots to overthrow the government undertaken by opposition forces." In a 1994 speech to mark the 50th anniversary of an army which defeated the French and U.S.-backed South Vietnam, he warned party leaders and bemedalled war veterans that Vietnam should not lower its guard now that the country was at peace. He was given the Ho Chi Minh Medal, Vietnam's highest honour, shortly before his death.
Dobbs, Sir Henry Robert Conway (b. Aug. 26, 1871, London - d. May 30, 1934, Cappoquin, County Waterford, Ireland), chief commissioner of Baluchistan (1917-19) and high commissioner of Iraq (1923-28); knighted 1921.
Dobi, István (b. Dec. 31, 1898, Szony, Hungary - d. Nov. 24, 1968, Budapest, Hungary), prime minister (1948-52) and chairman of the Presidential Council (1952-67) of Hungary. He was also a minister of state (1945-46) and agriculture minister (1946, 1948).
Dobles Sánchez, Luis (b. 1925 - d. 2000), Costa Rican diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires (1949-51), minister (1952-53), and ambassador (1953) to Brazil, ambassador to Peru (1960-62) and Bolivia (1961-62), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-70).
Dobrescu, Dimitrie (b. 1852 - d. Feb. 13, 1934, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. He was justice minister (1918) and president of the Senate (1918).
Dobrev, Nikolay (Kirilov) (b. Oct. 19, 1947, Gotse Delchev, Bulgaria - d. April 17, 1999), interior minister of Bulgaria (1996-97).
Dobrovolsky, Nikolay (Aleksandrovich) (b. March 22 [March 10, O.S.], 1854, Valday, Novgorod province, Russia - d. Oct. 21, 1918, Pyatigorsk, Russia), justice minister of Russia (1916-17). He was also governor of Grodno (1899-1900).
Dobryakov, Anatoly (Alekseyevich) (b. Feb. 23, 1939), head of the administration of Pskov oblast (1991-92).
Dodangoda, Amarasiri (Gardiye Hewawasam) (b. Oct. 18, 1942, Dodangoda, near Baddegama, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. May 30, 2009, Colombo, Sri Lanka), chief minister of Southern province (1993-94, 1994) and home affairs minister (1994, 2004-05) and justice minister (2005-09) of Sri Lanka. He was also minister of provincial councils and cooperatives (1994), vocational training (1997-2001), rural industries (1997-2000), and human resources development and technical and vocational education (2001).
Dodd, Norris E(dward) (b. July 20, 1879, Chickasaw county, Iowa - d. June 23, 1968, Phoenix, Ariz.), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1948-53).
Dodik, Milorad (b. March 12, 1959, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister (1998-2001, 2006-10) and president (2010- ) of the Republika Srpska. At the height of the Bosnian war, he spoke out in favour of peace plans and dared to attack Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic as corrupt. As prime minister of Bosnia's Serb republic, Dodik turned Bosnian politics on its head and threw his ultra-nationalist rivals into disarray. The former businessman secured millions of dollars in international aid, sacked directors at state enterprises, persuaded striking teachers to go back to work, and moved to cut off smuggling rackets linked to hardliners.
Dodkhudoyev, Nazarsho (b. Dec. 20 [Dec. 7, O.S.], 1915, Derzud village, Badakhshan region, Russia [now in Tajikistan] - d. June 30, 2000), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1950-56) and chairman of the Council of Ministers and foreign minister (1956-61) of the Tadzhik S.S.R. He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast (1948-50).
Dodon, Igor (Nikolayevich) (b. Feb. 18, 1975, Sadova village, Calarasi district, Moldavian S.S.R.), president of Moldova (2016- ). He was also minister of economy and trade (2006-09) and first deputy prime minister (2008-09).
Dodun de Kéroman, Henri (Valentin, comte) (b. 1837 - d. Feb. 12, 1899, Quimperlé, Finistère, France), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1892-93, 1895).
Doe, Samuel K(anyon) (b. May 6, 19511, Tuzon, Liberia - d. Sept. 9, 1990, Monrovia), president of Liberia (1980-90). A member of the Krahn (Wee) tribe, he enlisted in the army in 1969. He was promoted from private to corporal and first sergeant within two days in 1975, and became a master sergeant in 1979. Like other indigenous Liberians, he resented the privilege and power granted the Americo-Liberians, descendants of the freed American slaves who founded the colony in 1821. Before dawn on April 12, 1980, Doe led a group of 17 Krahn soldiers to the Liberian executive mansion, where they killed 30 officials and guards and Pres. William R. Tolbert, Jr., a member of the Americo-Liberian elite. Later, 13 prominent Tolbert associates were summarily tried and executed. After the coup Doe assumed the rank of general and established a People's Redemption Council (PRC) composed of himself and 14 other low-ranking officers to rule the country. He suspended the nation's constitution until 1984, when a new constitution was approved by referendum. In 1985 he was voted president in what opponents denounced as a rigged election. He defeated a coup attempt that November and took the oath of office on Jan. 6, 1986. His term of office was burdened by deteriorating economic conditions, and his life was continually threatened by assassination attempts and plots, which he suppressed with considerable brutality. These actions, along with Doe's favouritism toward his own Krahn tribe, sparked a rebellion against him that began in eastern Liberia in late 1989. By July 1990 the rebel forces had advanced into the capital city of Monrovia, but Doe refused to yield power. As the civil war continued, he was captured and killed by the rebel forces of Prince Yormie Johnson.
1 Since one of the clauses of the 1984 constitution stipulated that the new president was to be at least 35 years of age, Doe had his official birth year changed to 1950.
Doer, Gary (Albert) (b. March 31, 1948, Winnipeg, Manitoba), premier of Manitoba (1999-2009). In 2009-16 he was Canadian ambassador to the United States.
Does de Willebois, (Pieter) Joseph (August Marie) van der (b. Feb. 17, 1816, 's-Hertogenbosch, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Sept. 15, 1892, The Hague, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Limburg (1856-74) and foreign minister of the Netherlands (1874-77, 1883-85).
Doga, (María) Nélida (b. June 27, 1947, Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province), minister of social development of Argentina (2002-03).
Dogolea, Enoch (b. 1951? - d. June 23, 2000, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), vice president of Liberia (1997-2000). Dogolea, who in the 1980s went into exile as an opposition campaigner against the rule of Pres. Samuel K. Doe, later joined Charles Taylor's fledgling rebel group which fought a brutal seven-year civil war against several factions. Relative calm was restored in 1996 and Taylor won elections a year later. For nearly all of the war, Dogolea served as Taylor's deputy and he became vice-president immediately after the election. Officials said Dogolea died after going into a coma at a private hospital in Abidjan, where he was flown after falling sick the previous week. One official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said Dogolea suffered a stroke, although this could not be independently confirmed. The state radio station said President Taylor ordered an autopsy in order to refute "speculation" the vice president had been either "poisoned or beaten to death by presidential guards." Dogolea paid a private visit to Taylor's farm shortly before his death, some officials said. Taylor dismissed the rumours of foul play as "the work of detractors to tarnish his image and cause national instability," the station said. A group representing University of Liberia students from Dogolea's home region of Nimba County, meanwhile, accused the government of denying Dogolea access to proper medical care, but did not give details. "Our call is prompted by widespread speculation about the cause of Mr. Dogolea's illness," the group said in a statement broadcast on the radio station.
Doguzhiyev, Vitaly (Khusseynovich) (b. Dec. 25, 1935, Yenakiyevo, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Yenakiyeve, Ukraine] - d. Oct. 3, 2016, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was minister of general machine building (1988-89), a deputy premier (1989-91), and a first deputy premier (1991).
Doherty, Sean, Irish Seán Ó Dochartaigh (b. June 29, 1944, Roscommon, Ireland - d. June 7, 2005, Donegal, Ireland), justice minister of Ireland (1982) and chairman of the Seanad Éireann (1989-92). First elected to the Dáil in Fianna Fáil's avalanche win of 1977, he was an ardent supporter of Charles Haughey and when Haughey became prime minister two years later he appointed Doherty as a junior minister. As justice minister he was embroiled in controversy when it emerged that he had ordered the tapping of the phones of journalists Geraldine Kennedy, Bruce Arnold, and Vincent Browne. Ten years later Doherty revealed that Haughey had approved the tapping; this revelation led to Haughey's resignation, paving the way for Albert Reynolds to become prime minister. Although Doherty lost his Dáil seat in 1989, he regained it in 1992. He retired 10 years later.
Dohou, Frédéric, acting foreign minister of Benin (2006). He has been minister of culture, handicrafts, and tourism (2003-05), communication and promotion of new technologies (2005-06), and industry and commerce (2016- ).
Doi, Takako (b. Nov. 30, 1928, Kobe, Japan - d. Sept. 20, 2014), Japanese politician. She was first elected to the Diet in 1969 after serving as vice-chairman of the Japan Socialist Party (JSP) for three years. With the support of every faction of the JSP, Doi won 83% of the votes in September 1986 party elections and thereby became the first Japanese woman ever chosen to lead a major political party. Her victory followed the resignation of Masashi Ishibashi, who felt obliged to step aside as chairman of the central executive committee after the JSP suffered a disastrous defeat in national elections to the Diet two months earlier. The Socialists had long represented the strongest political alternative to the ruling Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP), but in July they lost 25 of their 111 seats in the lower house and had an approval rating of only about 10%. Doi became the party's only celebrity when she led a group of politically inexperienced housewives to victory in the July 23, 1989, elections to the upper house. With the startling defeat of the LDP, the premiership seemed open for Doi. Her "Madonna strategy" capitalized on the voters' anger at corruption and male chauvinism within the ruling party. The then agriculture minister's comment that "women are useless in politics. Their right place is in the home" inadvertently supported her case. The JSP increased its parliamentary strength in the 1990 lower house elections, but the LDP remained in power. Doi resigned on June 21, 1991, one day after the JSP adopted a draft reform platform calling for major changes in policy toward foreign affairs, defense, and energy development. In 1993-96, Doi was speaker of the House of Representatives. She then was again leader (1996-2003) of what was now called the Social Democratic Party.
Doidge, Sir Frederick Widdowson (b. Feb. 26, 1884, Cootamundra, New South Wales - d. May 26, 1954, London, England), foreign minister of New Zealand (1949-51); knighted 1953. He was also minister of island territories (1949-51) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1951-54).
Dokmanovic, Slavko (b. Dec. 14, 1949, Trpinja, Croatia - d. June 28, 1998, The Hague, Netherlands), president of the Srem-Baranja District (1995-96). He committed suicide in his cell in The Hague where he was awaiting the verdict at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and was known to suffer from severe depression (he was supposed to be under close watch).
Doko, Jerko (b. Sept. 14, 1952), defense minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1990-92).
Dokouna, Emmanuel, finance minister of the Central African Republic (1992-97).
Dole, Bob, byname of Robert Joseph Dole (b. July 22, 1923, Russell, Kan.), U.S. presidential candidate (1996). From 1951 to 1953 he was a Republican member of the Kansas state legislature, thereafter serving four terms as the Russell county prosecuting attorney. From 1961 to 1969 he worked against the policies of presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1968 he won the first of five terms in the Senate, eventually becoming the Republican head, as both majority (1985-87, 1995-96) and minority (1987-95) leader. He also chaired the Republican National Committee from 1971 to 1973. Dole generally advocated conservative fiscal policies, but on other issues he took stands that ranged from right of centre to moderate. He supported civil rights and voting rights bills and food stamp programs but voted against proposals for other social programs, including the original bill establishing Medicare. He was the vice presidential candidate in Pres. Gerald R. Ford's unsuccessful 1976 campaign. After losing his own bids for the presidential nomination in 1980 and 1988, he stumbled early in 1996, then quickly won a series of primary victories. Before the Republican national convention, he resigned from the Senate and chose former secretary of housing and urban development Jack Kemp as his running mate. Despite vigorous campaigning, which included the promise of a 15% tax cut and emphasized themes such as character and honesty, the Dole-Kemp ticket went down to defeat. Dole was not able to exploit the vulnerabilities of his Democratic opponent, Pres. Bill Clinton, and gain a significant number of votes outside the core of his own party; he took 41% of the total vote.
Dole, (Mary) Elizabeth (Alexander Hanford), née Hanford (b. July 29, 1936, Salisbury, N.C.), U.S. politician; wife of Bob Dole. Her first government appointment came in 1966 when she was made a staff assistant to the secretary of health, education, and welfare. From 1969 to 1971 she served as executive director of the President's Commission on Consumer Interests. From 1971 to 1973 she was employed at the White House Office of Consumer Affairs. In 1973 Pres. Richard Nixon appointed her to a seven-year term on the five-member Federal Trade Commission. She married Bob Dole in 1975. In 1976 she took a leave of absence from her FTC post to campaign for her husband, who was Pres. Gerald Ford's vice-presidential running mate. Three years later, when Senator Dole was seeking the presidency, she resigned from the commission. After her husband withdrew, she went to work in Ronald Reagan's campaign organization. On Dec. 20, 1980, President-elect Reagan appointed her to a key White House post, assistant to the president for public liaison. Although her appointment in early 1983 as secretary of transportation came amid criticism from women's groups that she was not vocal enough regarding women's rights, she was loudly praised by Congress and the press. Serving in that post until 1987, she was secretary of labor under Pres. George Bush from January 1989 to November 1990. She became president of the American Red Cross in 1991 and took a year's leave of absence in 1995 to help her husband's presidential bid. She gave an electrifying speech to the Republican National Convention in 1996, wading into the audience with a microphone in a way that broke new ground in political speechmaking. She left the Red Cross in 1999 to run for president herself but dropped out of the race on October 20. She was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2002 but defeated for reelection in 2008.
Dole, Sanford Ballard (b. April 23, 1844, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands - d. June 9, 1926, Honolulu), president of the Republic of Hawaii (1894-1900). The son of American missionaries, he was twice elected to the Hawaiian legislature (1884, 1886). He was a leader of the reform movement which forced King Kalakaua's signature to the so-called Bayonet Constitution of 1887, which caused the king to resign many of his royal prerogatives. That same year he became a justice of the Supreme Court of Hawaii. In January 1893 he became the leader of the committee, acting for Hawaiian sugar interests and their American allies, that was formed to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani (who had succeeded her brother, Kalakaua, in 1891) and to seek annexation of Hawaii by the United States. The committee deposed the queen and installed a provisional government with Dole as president (Jan. 17, 1893). In response to the queen's protest, Pres. Grover Cleveland sent James H. Blount of Georgia to the islands as "commissioner paramount" to investigate conditions in Hawaii. A demand was made on Dole to restore Liliuokalani to the throne, but Dole and his backers denied the right of the U.S. to interfere. They established the Republic of Hawaii (1894), with Dole as president, and continued to seek annexation. In 1898 he made a visit to Washington in behalf of the movement and annexation was effected later that year. When, in 1900, Congress created the Territory of Hawaii, Dole was appointed the first territorial governor by Pres. William McKinley. In 1903 he resigned to become judge of the U.S. district court of Hawaii, serving until his retirement in 1915.
Dolgorukov, Aleksey (Alekseyevich) (b. May 14, 1767 - d. Aug. 11, 1834, St. Petersburg, Russia), justice minister of Russia (1827-29). He was also governor of Simbirsk (1808-15) and Moscow (1815-17).
Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Aleksey (Grigoryevich) (b. 16... - d. Sept. 30, 1734, Berezov, Tobolsk province, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also governor of Smolensk (1713-23) and president of the Chief Magistracy (1723-27).
Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Mikhail (Vladimirovich) (b. Nov. 14, 1667 - d. Nov. 11, 1750, Moscow, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also governor of Siberia (1724-28), Astrakhan (1730), and Kazan (1730-31).
Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Sergey (Grigoryevich) (d. [executed] Nov. 19 [Nov. 8, O.S.], 1739, Novgorod, Russia), Russian diplomat; brother of Aleksey (Grigoryevich) Dolgoruky. He was ambassador to Poland (1721-24, 1728-29) and Great Britain (1738).
Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vasily (Lukich) (b. c. 1670 - d. [executed] Nov. 19 [Nov. 8, O.S.], 1739, Novgorod, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also ambassador to Poland (1706-07, 1724-26), Denmark (1707-20), France (1720-22), and Sweden (1726-27) and governor of Siberia (1730).
Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vasily (Vladimirovich) (b. January 1667, Russia - d. Feb. 22 [Feb. 11, O.S.], 1746, St. Petersburg, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also president of the War Collegium (1730-31, 1741-46).
Dolisie, (Louis Henri) Albert (b. Dec. 22, 1856, Mutzig, Bas-Rhin, France - d. Jan. 22, 1899, Orléans, France), chief administrator of French Congo (1894-99).
Dollfuss, Engelbert (b. Oct. 4, 1892, Texing, Niederösterreich, Austria - d. July 25, 1934, Vienna, Austria), chancellor of Austria (1932-34). A member of the clerical-conservative Christian Social Party, he rose rapidly in Austrian politics, becoming president of the federal railways in 1930 and minister of agriculture in 1931. He became chancellor in May 1932, heading a conservative coalition; he also became foreign minister and kept the agriculture portfolio. Faced with a severe economic crisis caused by the worldwide depression, he decided against joining Germany in a customs union, a course advocated by many Austrians. Severely criticized by both Social Democrats and nationalists, he dispensed with parliamentary government in March 1933 and began to rule by decree. Benito Mussolini became his principal foreign ally. Italy guaranteed Austrian independence at Riccione (August 1933), but in return Austria had to reform its constitution on the Fascist model. In September 1933 he permanently abolished the legislature and formed a corporate state based on his Vaterländische Front (Fatherland Front), which was to replace Austria's political parties. He also became defense minister in addition to his other portfolios. By converting Austria virtually into an Italian satellite state he hoped to prevent Austria's incorporation into Nazi Germany. On Oct. 4, 1933, he narrowly escaped assassination when a Nazi fired two shots at him. In February 1934 paramilitary formations loyal to Dollfuss crushed Austria's Social Democrats in bloody encounters. With a new constitution of May 1934, his regime became completely dictatorial. In June Germany incited Austrian Nazis to civil war. The following month he was killed in a Nazi coup attempt.
Dologuélé, Anicet Georges (b. April 17, 1957, Bozoum, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), finance minister (1997-99) and prime minister (1999-2001) of the Central African Republic. He was a presidential candidate in 2016.
Doma, (Alhaji) Aliyu Akwe (b. Sept. 1, 1942), governor of Nasarawa (2007-11).
Dombo, Simon Diedong (b. March 3, 1923, Duori, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. March 18, 1998, London, England), interior minister of Ghana (1969-71). He was also minister of health (1971-72).
Dombrovskis, Valdis (b. Aug. 5, 1971, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), finance minister (2002-04) and prime minister (2009-14) of Latvia. In 2014 he was named a vice president of the European Commission.
Domec, Pierre Marie Jean (b. Jan. 2, 1891 - d. March 17, 1984), administrator of Kwangchowan (1942-43).
Domic, Anto (b. Feb. 19, 1967, Brcko, Bosnia and Herzegovina), mayor of Brcko (2012-16).
Domingo y Morales del Castillo, Andrés (Antonio) (b. Sept. 4, 1892, Santiago de Cuba - d. June 1, 1979, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister and acting president of Cuba (1954-55). He was minister of the treasury in Pres. Fulgencio Batista's 1940-44 term, and became secretary to the president when Batista took power again in 1952. When Batista campaigned for the presidency in 1954, the constitution forbade him to hold the office in that period. The constitutional succession was for the minister of state (foreign minister) to act as president and Domingo was then appointed to that office.
Domingue, Michel (b. Les Cayes, Haiti - d. June 24, 1877, Kingston, Jamaica), president of the Southern State of Haiti (1868-69) and of Haiti (1874-76).
Domínguez, Jorge (Manuel Rogelio) (b. March 20, 1945), intendant of the city of Buenos Aires (1994-96) and defense minister of Argentina (1996-99).
Domínguez (Trujillo1), Miguel (Ramón Sebastián)2 (b. Jan. 20, 1756, Mexico City, New Spain [now Mexico] - d. April 22, 1830, Mexico City, Mexico), member of the Supreme Executive Power of Mexico (1823-24).
1 The metronym also appears as de Alemán. While some documents suggest that his mother Josefa was the daughter of José de Alemán, others contradict this and record her as Josefa Trujillo (her mother was Micaela Trujillo).
2 He appears sometimes as José Miguel Domínguez, but the name José does not appear in his baptismal record (though it could have been added at confirmation).
Domínguez, Roberto (Rubén) (b. March 15, 1948, Salta, Argentina - d. April 12, 1998, Tilcara, Jujuy, Argentina), governor of Jujuy (1991-93).
Domínguez Servién, Francisco (b. Aug. 11, 1966, Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (2015- ). He was also mayor of Querétaro (2009-11).
Dominijanni, Bruno (b. July 15, 1922, Sant'Andrea Ionio, Calabria, Italy - d. Feb. 5, 2004, Catanzaro, Calabria, Italy), president of Calabria (1980-84).
Dominy, Floyd (Elgin) (b. Dec. 24, 1909, Adams county, Neb. - d. April 20, 2010, Boyce, Va.), U.S. commissioner of reclamation (1959-69).
Domitien, Elisabeth (b. 1925, Lobaye region, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. April 26, 2005, Bimbo, near Bangui, Central African Republic), prime minister of the Central African Republic (1975-76). She was closely connected with politics all her life, and joined the independence movement at the age of 20, proving a brilliant orator and leading the national women's organization for independence. She won the support of the women for Jean-Bédel Bokassa before his coup in 1966. She accompanied him on his tours abroad and in January 1975 he appointed her prime minister. Although she was a mere puppet in the newly-created post, she was removed from office and placed under house arrest in April 1976. Nevertheless, she remained vice president of the Mouvement d'Evolution Sociale de l'Afrique Noire (MESAN), the country's only political organization, from 1975 to 1979. After the coup which deposed Bokassa in September 1979, Domitien was arrested in February 1980 and brought to trial on charges of covering up extortion committed by Bokassa during her tenure as prime minister. She served a brief prison term, after which she was prohibited from returning to politics.
Domljan, Zarko (b. Aug. 14, 1932, Imotski, Dalmatia, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), president of the Sabor of Croatia (1990-92).
Domoto, Akiko (b. July 31, 1932), governor of Chiba (2001-09).
Dompok, Tan Sri Bernard (Giluk) (b. Oct. 7, 1949, Penampang, British North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), chief minister of Sabah (1998-99). He has also been Malaysian minister of plantation industries and commodities (2009-13) and ambassador to the Vatican (2016- ). He received the titles Datuk (1987) and Tan Sri (1997).
Donahoe, Richard Alphonsus, byname Dick Donahoe (b. Sept. 27, 1909 - d. April 25, 2000), mayor of Halifax (1952-55).
Donaldson, John S(tanley) (b. March 30 or 31, 1936, Trinidad and Tobago - d. March 19, 2013, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago), foreign minister (1976-81) and national security minister (1976-85) of Trinidad and Tobago. In 1973-76 he was ambassador to Algeria, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Guinea, and Liberia and high commissioner to Nigeria, Ghana, and Sierra Leone (resident in Lagos, Nigeria).
Dönges, Theophilus (Ebenhaezer) (b. March 8, 1898, Klerksdorp, Transvaal [now in North West province, South Africa] - d. Jan. 10, 1968, Cape Town, South Africa), interior minister (1948-58), finance minister (1958-67), and acting prime minister (1966) of South Africa. On Feb. 28, 1967, he was elected state president for the term to begin June 1, 1967, but he was too ill to ever take office and resigned by proxy after he was declared incapacitated on Dec. 6, 1967.
Dönitz, Karl (b. Sept. 16, 1891, Grünau bei Berlin, Germany - d. Dec. 22, 1980, Aumühle, Schleswig-Holstein, West Germany), president of Germany (1945). He entered the German Navy in 1910 and during World War I served as a submarine officer in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. After the war he continued his naval career first as commander of a torpedo boat and later of the cruiser Emden. In the aftermath of Adolf Hitler's accession to power, despite the Versailles Treaty's absolute ban on German submarine construction, Dönitz clandestinely supervised the creation of a new U-boat fleet, over which he was subsequently appointed commander (1936). Because of the shortage of materials and the priority Hitler gave to the Luftwaffe, Germany had only 25 U-boats capable of service in the Atlantic at the outbreak of World War II. By the end of the war, however, around 1,000 U-boats had been built and placed in service, more than half of which were destroyed by the Allies. Out of 39,000 men who served aboard German U-boats, 27,082 perished. In the midst of World War II, in January 1943, he was called to replace Adm. Erich Raeder as commander in chief of the German Navy. His loyalty and ability soon won him the confidence of Hitler. On April 20, 1945, shortly before the collapse of the Nazi regime, Hitler appointed Dönitz head of the northern military and civil command. Finally - in his last political testament - Hitler named Dönitz his successor as president of the Reich, minister of war, and supreme commander of the armed forces. Assuming the reins of government on May 2, 1945, Dönitz retained office for only a few days. In 1946 he was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment by the International Military Tribunal at Nürnberg. He was released from prison in 1956.
Donk, Wim van de, byname of Wilhelmus Bernhard Henricus Josephus van de Donk (b. May 17, 1962, Veghel, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands), queen's/king's commissioner of Noord-Brabant (2009- ).
Donne, Sir Gaven (John) (b. May 8, 1914, Christchurch, New Zealand - d. March 28, 2010, Otaramarae, near Rotorua, New Zealand), queen's representative of the Cook Islands (1975-84); knighted 1978. He served as chief justice of Western Samoa (1972-73), Niue (1974-82), the Cook Islands (1975-82), and Nauru and Tuvalu (1985-2001).
Donnéa (de Hamoir), François-Xavier (Gustave Marie Joseph Corneille Hubert) de (b. April 29, 1941, Edegem, Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1985-88) and minister-president of Brussels-Capital (2000-03).
Donnelly, Brian (John) (b. November 1949, Auckland, New Zealand - d. Sept. 25, 2008, Auckland), high commissioner to the Cook Islands (2008).
Donoghue, David (b. 1952, Dublin, Ireland), Irish diplomat. He has been ambassador to Russia, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan (1999-2001), Austria (2004-06), and Germany (2006-09) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2013- ).
Dontsop, Paul (b. 1937, Bafou, French Cameroons [now in West province, Cameroon]), foreign minister of Cameroon (1980-83). He was also minister of labour and social security (1975-80) and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1983-84).
Dooge, James (Clement Ignatius), Irish Séamus Ó Dubhthaigh (b. July 30, 1922, Birkenhead, England - d. Aug. 20, 2010, Dublin, Ireland), chairman of the Senate (1973-77), member of the Presidential Commission (1974, 1976), and foreign minister (1981-82) of Ireland.
Dookeran, Winston (Chandarbhan) (b. June 24, 1943, Rio Claro, Trinidad and Tobago), finance minister (2010-12) and foreign minister (2012-15) of Trinidad and Tobago. He was also governor of the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago (1997-2002).
Doorly, Sir Charles William (b. Jan. 20, 1875 - d. Feb. 5, 1942), administrator of Saint Lucia (1928-35); knighted 1935.
Doorn, Elisa Cornelis Unico van (b. Oct. 13, 1799, Oisterwijk, Noord-Brabant, Batavian Republic [now Netherlands] - d. Aug. 2, 1882, Maarn, Utrecht), finance minister of the Netherlands (1853-54) and king's commissioner of Utrecht (1860-80).
Doorn (from 1810: van Westcapelle), Henri baron van, byname of Hendrik Jacob baron van Doorn van Westcapelle (b. Aug. 23, 1786, Vlissingen, Zeeland, Netherlands - d. Jan. 18, 1853, The Hague), governor of Zeeland (1818-26) and interior minister (1830-36) and secretary of state (1836-40) of the Netherlands.
Doralta, Djiriabaye, until 1973 Bruno Bohiadi (b. Dec. 12, 1922, Bekoi, Chad), foreign minister of Chad (1973-75). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1965-68), permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-71), and minister of national education and culture (1971-73).
Dorcély, Gérard (b. April 20, 1911, Jérémie, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1978-79).
Dorda, Abuzed Omar, Arabic Abu Zid `Umar Durda (b. April 4, 1944, Rhebat, Libya), Libyan politician. He served as governor of Misurata province from 1970 to 1972 and was Libya's minister for information and culture from 1972 to 1974. After serving as an undersecretary in the ministry of foreign affairs from 1974 to 1976, he served as minister of municipalities from 1976 to 1979. Dorda was secretary for economy (1979-82) and for agriculture (1982-86) of the General People's Committee. He also was secretary of the People's Committee for the municipality of Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi from 1986 to 1990. From 1990 to 1994, he was head of the Libyan government as secretary of the General People's Committee. From 1994 to 1995 he served as assistant secretary of the General People's Congress. Subsequently he became permanent representative of Libya to the United Nations (1996-2003).
Doré, Jean-Marie (b. June 12, 1938, Bossou, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. Jan. 29, 2016), prime minister of Guinea (2010).
Doret, Louis Isaac Pierre Hilaire (b. Jan. 13, 1789, Cognac, Charente, France - d. Feb. 1, 1866, Paris, France), governor of Réunion (1851-52).
Dorey, Sir Graham (Martyn) (b. Dec. 15, 1932 - d. June 25, 2015), bailiff of Guernsey (1992-99); knighted 1993. Earlier he was solicitor general (1973-77), attorney general (1977-82), and deputy bailiff (1982-92).
Dorj, Batyn (b. Sept. 17, 1914, Barzan, Aldarkhaan soum, Zavkhan province, Mongolia - d. 1982), defense minister (1956-59, 1969-78) and security minister (1959-61) of Mongolia. He was also ambassador to North Korea (1961-63), East Germany (1963-66), and Yugoslavia (1966-68).
Dorje, Lyonpo Rinzin (b. June 26, 1964), foreign minister of Bhutan (2013-15). He was also governor of Samtse (2009-10) and Haa (2011-13) districts.
Dorji, Lyonpo Chenkyab (b. 1943, Haa district, western Bhutan), secretary-general of SAARC (2005-08). He was also Bhutanese minister of planning (1991-98), chairman of the National Environment Commission (1992-98), and ambassador to Thailand, Singapore, and Australia (1999-2005).
Dorji, Lyonpo Damcho (b. June 23, 1965, Khailo, Gasa district, Bhutan), home affairs minister (2013-15) and foreign minister (2015- ) of Bhutan. He was also attorney general (2006-07).
Dorji, Dasho Lhendup, Dzongkha Drag-shos lHun-sgrub rDo-rje (b. Oct. 6, 1935, Kalimpong, India - d. April 15, 2007, Lungtenphu, Bhutan), acting prime minister of Bhutan (1964); brother of Jigme Palden Dorji. He was conferred the red scarf (and thus the title Dasho) by King Jigme Dorji Wangchuk in 1958. The first Bhutanese to have studied in the United States, he became secretary-general to the government and one of three regents (together with the king's half-brother Dasho Wangchuk and Brig. Chabra Namgyal Bahadur) during a prolonged absence of the king in Switzerland for medical treatment. During that absence his brother, the prime minister, was assassinated in April 1964, and he was named acting prime minister. The king appointed a new Council of Regency consisting of Dorji, Dasho Wangchuk, and Queen Ashi Kheshang (Brigadier Namgyal Bahadur was executed for complicity in the assassination). However, he was dismissed in November after he reportedly demanded to be made sole regent. He then went into exile. He denied, however, that he had been in any way involved in a palace revolution. He returned to Bhutan in 1974.
Dorji, Jigme Palden, Dzongkha 'Jigs-med dPal-ldan rDo-rje (b. 1919 - d. [assassinated] April 5, 1964, Phuntsholing, Bhutan), chief minister (1952-58) and prime minister (1958-64) of Bhutan; son of Raja Sonam Tobgay Dorji; grandson of Raja Ugyen Dorji.
Dorji (Khangsarpa), Kazi Lhendup (b. 1904, Pakyong, East Sikkim district, Sikkim [now in India] - d. July 28, 2007, Kalimpong, West Bengal, India), prime minister (1974-75) and chief minister (1975-79) of Sikkim.
Dorji, Lyonpo Kinzang (b. Feb. 19, 1951, Chhali, Mongar dzongkhag [district], Bhutan), prime minister of Bhutan (2002-03, 2007-08). He was also speaker of the National Assembly (1997-98), agriculture minister (1998-2003), and minister of works and human settlements (2003-08).
Dorji, Raja Sonam Tobgay, Dzongkha bSod-nams sTobs-rgyas rDo-rje (b. 1896 - d. September 1953, Paro, Bhutan), chief minister of Bhutan (1917-52).
Dorji, Raja Ugyen, Dzongkha O-rgyan rDo-rje, chief minister of Bhutan (1907-17).
Dorlodot des Essarts, Frédéric Jean (b. Sept. 22, 1832, Arras, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. ...), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1881-83).
Dorn, Ludwik (Stanislaw) (b. June 5, 1954, Warsaw, Poland), deputy prime minister (2005-07) and interior minister (2005-07) of Poland. In 2007 he was marshal of the Sejm.
Dornan, Robert (Kenneth) (b. April 3, 1933, New York City), U.S. politician. He was member of the House of Representatives (1977-83, 1985-97) and a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in 1996.
Dorr, Noel (b. Nov. 1, 1933, Limerick, Ireland), Irish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-83) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1983-87).
Dors, Christian (b. April 30, 1954, Montpellier, Hérault, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (1991-96) and of Wallis and Futuna (1998-2000).
Dorticós Torrado, Osvaldo (b. April 17, 1919, Cienfuegos, Cuba - d. June 23, 1983, Havana), president of Cuba (1959-76). He became a leader of the underground revolutionary cause in 1957, acting as a coordinator in the Cienfuegos region and ensuring that food reached the rebels. He was arrested in 1958 and expelled from Cuba, going to Mexico. When Fidel Castro first seized power, Dorticós was appointed minister of laws and decrees with responsibility for creating laws for the new government, but in July Castro forced Manuel Urrutia Lleó to resign as president and appointed Dorticós his successor. Though Dorticós was viewed as a figurehead president, he had a commanding knowledge of law and economics and travelled widely in order to project Cuban policy. Because of his dignified and conservative appearance, he was regarded as somewhat of a bourgeois Communist. In 1964 he also became economy minister and chairman of the Central Planning Board and by 1965 he was recognized as the country's undisputed economic planner. In 1976 Castro took over the presidency himself under a new constitution. Dorticós remained a member of the Politburo and became a deputy prime minister. At the time of his death he was also justice minister. Depressed by the death of his wife and a serious spinal disease, he committed suicide.
Dorzhdeyev, Aleksandr (Vladimirovich) (b. May 21, 1958, Nizhnevartovsk, Tyumen oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Kalmykia (1999-2003).
dos Santos (Bedoya), José Antonio (b. 1964, Asunción, Paraguay), Paraguayan diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Canada (1997-99) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-14).
dos Santos, José Eduardo (b. Aug. 28, 1942, Luanda, Angola), president of Angola (1979- ). From his youth he showed himself to be a militant nationalist, joining the Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in 1961 and founding a youth organization within it. He served for a time as an active fighter with the MPLA's Second Military Front in Cabinda, the oil province of Angola. He frequently represented the MPLA at international forums. In 1974 he was elected to the executive committee of the movement's political bureau. After the country achieved independence in 1975, he became Angola's first foreign minister (until 1976). In 1978 he became planning minister. Although dos Santos remained firmly committed to his Marxist ideas, he proved himself in government to be a pragmatist and flexible in his approach to the difficult problems that faced Angola after its independence. He was a firm supporter of Pres. Agostinho Neto's policy of developing close economic ties with the Western nations without abandoning Angola's strong friendship with the U.S.S.R. and Cuba. Before his death, Neto promoted dos Santos to a position which marked him as his chosen successor. As president, he pursued national and international efforts to bring about peace in Angola. His involvement resulted in the successful withdrawal of South African forces from Angola, the repatriation of Cuban forces, and the independence of Namibia. He signed the Bicesse Accords in 1991 which allowed for the country's first democratic elections in 1992. The president and his party won the election and the results were accredited by UN and international observers; however, the UNITA rebels contested the results and the country returned to war.
J.E. dos Santos
Dosanjh, Ujjal (Singh) (b. Sept. 9, 1947, Dosanjh Kalan village, Jalandhar district, Punjab, India), premier of British Columbia (2000-01). He left India for England on Dec. 31, 1964, and moved to Canada in 1969. He has been active in Sikh religious politics and was viciously beaten with an iron bar in 1985 for speaking out against violent efforts to achieve an independent Sikh homeland. He was first elected as member of the British Columbia legislature for Vancouver Kensington in 1991 and twice served as chairman. He also chaired the Select Standing Committee on Parliamentary Reform, Ethical Conduct, Standing Orders and Private Bills. He served as minister of government services and minister responsible for multiculturalism, human rights, sports and immigration in 1995 and then as attorney general from August 1995 to February 2000, when he was elected leader of the province's New Democratic Party (NDP) government, becoming Canada's first Indo-Canadian premier. He took over a government that had seen its popularity plunge over its handling of the economy and scandals that led to the resignation of Premier Glen Clark. Though his personal approval ratings were high, he proved unable to distance himself from the Clark scandals, and the NDP was soundly defeated in 2001. He lost his own seat, and resigned as NDP leader. In 2004 he was elected to the federal House of Commons as a Liberal and was made minister of health (until 2006).
Dosayev, Yerbolat (Askarbekovich) (b. May 21, 1970, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), finance minister of Kazakhstan (2003-04). He has also been minister of health (2004-06), economic development and trade (2012-13), economy and budget planning (2013-14), and national economy (2014- ).
Dosmukhambetov, Temirkhan (Mynaydarovich) (b. March 8, 1949, Kustanay [now Kostanay] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Astana city (2003-04). He was also Kazakh minister of youth, tourism, and sports (1996-97) and tourism and sports (2006-11).
Dossar, Mohamed Bacar, finance minister (2010-11) and foreign minister (2016- ) of the Comoros.
Dossou, Robert (S.M.) (b. May 13, 1939, Covè, Dahomey [now Benin]), foreign minister of Benin (1993-95). He was also president of the Constitutional Court (2008-13).
Dost, Shah Mohammad (b. 1929, Kabul, Afghanistan), foreign minister of Afghanistan (1979-86). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-89).
Doté, Élie (b. July 9, 1948, Bangui, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), prime minister (2005-08) and finance minister (2006-07) of the Central African Republic.
Doubane, Charles Armel (b. Nov. 12, 1966, Zémio, Central African Republic), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (2013, 2016- ). He was also minister of national education, literacy, higher education, and research (2006-08) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-14). He did not take up the foreign minister's post in 2013.
Doublet, Maurice (Charles Henri) (b. April 8, 1914, Saint-Maixent-l'École, Deux-Sèvres, France - d. April 14, 2001), prefect of Seine département (1966-67) and Paris département (1968-69). He was also prefect of Tarn (1958-59) and Isère (1961-66).
Doublet, Pierre Jean Louis Ovide (b. Aug. 26, 1754, Orléans, France - d. Feb. 4, 1824, Valletta, Malta), civil commissioner of Malta (1799-1800).
Douchina, Ahmed Attoumani (b. Jan. 2, 1955, Mayotte), president of the General Council of Mayotte (2008-11).
Doudart de Lagrée, Ernest (Marc Louis de Gonzague) (b. March 31, 1823, Saint-Vincent-de-Mercuze, Isère, France - d. March 12, 1868, Dongchuan, Yunnan, China), French representative in Cambodia (1863-66).
Doudou, Émile Boga (b. 1952, Domaboué, near Lakota, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. [killed] Sept. 19, 2002, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), interior minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2000-02).
Douglas, (William) Bloomfield (b. Sept. 25, 1822, Aberystwyth, Wales - d. March 5, 1906, Halifax, N.S., Canada), government resident of the Northern Territory (Australia) (1870-73) and British resident of Selangor (1876-82).
Douglas, Denzil (Llewellyn) (b. Jan. 14, 1953, St. Paul's, St. Kitts), prime minister (1995-2015) and foreign minister (1995-2000, 2008-10) of St. Kitts and Nevis.
Douglas, James H(enderson, Jr.) (b. March 11, 1899, Cedar Rapids, Iowa - d. Feb. 24, 1988), U.S. government official. He was an assistant to the secretary of the treasury in 1932-33 during the Herbert Hoover administration. Pres Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed him undersecretary of the air force early in 1953. On March 26, 1957, Eisenhower promoted Douglas to head the air force department, to succeed Donald A. Quarles, and his appointment was confirmed by the Senate on April 9. After taking office Douglas was reported to have protested against Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson's order that the armed forces should make no purchase commitments on an "installment" basis in anticipation of forthcoming funds from Congress. In 1958 Douglas upheld the court-martial verdict of 1925 against Brig.Gen. William ("Billy") Mitchell (1879-1936), pioneer exponent of air power, despite a recommendation by an air force board of review that the conviction be reversed. Douglas agreed that Mitchell's views had been amply vindicated but said that the court-martial had been held rather over the question of insubordination to superior officers.
Douglas, Ludvig (Wilhelm August greve) (b. Nov. 26, 1849, Riesbach, Zürich canton, Switzerland - d. July 20, 1916, Lysekil, Bohuslän, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1895-99) and governor of Uppsala (1893-95) and Östergötland (1901-12).
Douglas, Sir Roger (Owen) (b. Dec. 5, 1937, Auckland, New Zealand), finance minister of New Zealand (1984-89). He was elected MP for Manukau (now Manurewa) in 1969. During the Labour government of 1972-75 he was given the portfolios of broadcasting and the post office, and in the 1974 reshuffle he took on housing in place of the post office. In opposition again, he moved from the shadow portfolios of trade and industry, and overseas trade, to his abiding interest, finance, in 1983. In 1984 he became finance minister. Reform of the tax system, removal of subsidies and controls, conversion of many government departments into corporations in the name of efficiency, removal of import barriers, and introduction of other open market concepts - these were some of the changes introduced by Douglas. The policies were so closely identified with him that they spawned a new term in finance jargon: "Rogernomics." Because they strained relations with the party's powerful trade union wing, the government had a great deal riding on the Douglas doctrine that moneymakers must be free to make money before government can use it to provide for the underprivileged. After retiring from parliament in 1990, he was knighted in 1991. In 1993 he founded the Association of Consumers and Taxpayers, which went on to become ACT New Zealand, for which party he returned to parliament in 2008.
Douglas, Rosie, byname of Roosevelt Bernard Douglas (b. Oct. 15, 1941, Portsmouth, Dominica - d. Oct. 1, 2000, Portsmouth), prime minister and foreign minister of Dominica (2000). While a student at McGill University, Montreal, Canada, he was the charismatic leader of the "Sir George Williams Computer Riot." A dispute over charges of racism levelled against a professor led to the occupation of several floors of the Henry F. Hall Building (then part of the Sir George Williams University) and erupted into violence on Feb. 11, 1969. The computer centre was badly damaged by fire, many of the university's records were lost, and the damages mounted to $2.5 million. The riot still stands as the most dramatic and costly student protest in Canadian history. After police moved in, 97 students were arrested. Douglas was charged with obstructing the use of private property, and found guilty in a jury trial. In 1973-74, he served 18 months of a two-year prison sentence and was then deported. He helped lead the Caribbean's black power movement and fight for Dominica's independence from Britain. He briefly became a senator after independence in 1978. He was dismissed after he invited Cuban troops to help Dominica following 1979's Hurricane David. In the 1980 election he was defeated; he won a seat in 1985, but lost it again in 1990. After the death of his brother Michael in 1992, Douglas succeeded him as leader of the Democratic Labour Party. He won a by-election and held on to the seat till his death. In 2000 the DLP won 10 of 21 seats and formed a government with the conservative Dominica Freedom Party. Soon after he came to power, Douglas announced an ambitious plan to bring Dominica into membership of the European Union, given its location between the French islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. He died in office.
Douglas, Stephen A(rnold) (b. April 23, 1813, Brandon, Vt. - d. June 3, 1861, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. presidential candidate (1860). He quickly rose to a position of leadership in the Illinois Democratic Party. In 1843 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and in 1846 to the U.S. Senate, in which he served until his death. As chairman of the Committee on Territories, he was particularly prominent in the bitter debates between North and South on the extension of slavery westward. A strong contender for the Democratic presidential nomination in both 1852 and 1856, he was too outspoken to be chosen by a party that was still trying to bridge the North-South gap. In 1858 he engaged in a number of widely publicized debates with Abraham Lincoln in a close contest for the Senate seat in Illinois, and although Lincoln won the popular vote, Douglas was elected 54 to 46 by the legislature. Southern opposition to Douglas intensified, and he was denied reappointment to the committee chairmanship he had previously held in the Senate. When the "regular" (Northern) Democrats nominated him for president in 1860, the Southern wing broke away and supported a separate ticket headed by John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. Although Douglas received only 12 electoral votes, he was second to Lincoln in the number of popular votes polled. Douglas then urged the South to acquiesce in the results of the election. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he denounced secession as criminal and was one of the strongest advocates of maintaining the integrity of the Union at all costs. At Lincoln's request, he undertook a mission to the Border States and to the Northwest to rouse Unionist sentiments among their citizenry.
Douglas, Thomas Clement, byname Tommy Douglas (b. Oct. 20, 1904, Falkirk, Scotland - d. Feb. 24, 1986, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), Canadian politician. He was the head of the socialist Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). Elected to the Canadian House of Commons in 1935, he served there until 1944, when he was elected premier of Saskatchewan, leading the first socialist government in North America. During his tenure as premier, his innovative administration introduced government-financed health care (which became the model for Canada's socialized health-insurance scheme), public-sector collective bargaining, trade union laws, rural electrification, and government-sponsored automobile insurance. His provincial government also organized an excellent educational system and formed government-owned corporations. He resigned as premier in 1961 to serve as the first federal leader of Canada's New Democratic Party, the successor to the CCF as the country's primary socialist party. In 1971 Douglas retired as party leader, but he continued to sit in the House of Commons until 1979.
Douglas, Sir William (Randolph) (b. Sept. 24, 1921, Barbados - d. Aug. 12, 2003, Pau, France), acting governor-general of Barbados (1976, 1984). He was chief justice in 1965-86 and ambassador to the United States in 1987-91. He was knighted in 1969.
Douglas of Barloch (of Maxfield, Sussex), Francis Campbell Ross Douglas, Baron (b. Oct. 21, 1889, Manitoba - d. March 30, 1980), governor of Malta (1946-49). He was knighted in 1947 and created a baron in 1950.
Doumer, Paul, byname of Joseph Athanase Doumer (b. March 22, 1857, Aurillac, Cantal, France - d. May 7, 1932, Paris, France), president of France (1931-32). He was elected as a Radical deputy from Aisne département in 1888 and from Yonne in 1891. His reputation as a fiscal expert led to his appointment (1895) as finance minister in the government of Léon Bourgeois. His efforts to introduce a national income tax failed when the Senate refused the measure, and the government had to resign in 1896. He was then appointed governor-general of Indochina and was one of the most active and, from the French point of view, effective holders of that office. Unlike many of his predecessors and successors he occupied the post for a sustained period (1897-1902) and had clearly defined aims. He strengthened the hold of the governor-general over the administrators of the various components of Indochina and placed the colonial economy on a sound basis. While this latter development was welcomed by the French, it involved rigorous imposition of taxes on the local population, which caused deep resentment. Doumer returned to the Chamber of Deputies in 1902 and was its president in 1905-06. In 1906 he unsuccessfully stood for the presidency of the republic. In 1912 he moved to the Senate as representative of Corsica. In 1927-31 he was president of the Senate and chairman of the important budget commission. In addition, he served as finance minister in the Aristide Briand cabinets of 1921-22 and 1925-26. Doumer's election to the presidency on May 13, 1931, was popularly received and he successfully weathered ministerial crises caused by the deaths of Briand and André Maginot. On May 6, 1932, he was fatally shot by a Russian anarchist, Pavel Gorgulov (though he died only on May 7, at 4:37 AM).
Doumergue, (Pierre Paul Henri) Gaston (b. Aug. 1, 1863, Aigues-Vives, Gard, France - d. June 18, 1937, Aigues-Vives), president of France (1924-31). In 1890 he went out to Indochina as a magistrate. He returned in 1893 and was appointed a juge de paix in Algeria. A visit to his home in the same year led to his being invited to stand for parliament, and he was shortly afterwards returned as a Radical-Socialist deputy for Nîmes. He was minister of the colonies (1902-05), labour (1906), commerce and industry (1906-08), and public instruction and fine arts (1908-10). In 1910 he was elected to the Senate. On Dec. 13, 1913, he formed his own cabinet and also took the foreign affairs portfolio. His ministry collapsed within seven months, and thereafter he served again as foreign minister (1914) and minister of the colonies (1914-17). He then returned to the Senate and was its president from 1923 until his election to the presidency of the republic on June 13, 1924. His presidential victory came as a rebuff to the Cartel des Gauches, a coalition of leftist parties, which had won a substantial victory in parliamentary elections and then forced Pres. Alexandre Millerand to resign. Doumergue's term was marked by constant ministerial problems - there were 15 different cabinets - as well as severe social tensions caused by the beginning of the Great Depression. After leaving the presidency, he emerged momentarily in January 1932 by his appointment as a director of the Suez Canal Company. In February 1934, after 24 hours of riot and bloodshed in Paris, he was called upon to form a new government, but his plans for a Union Nationale, a broad-based coalition of all parties, and constitutional reforms were unsuccessful. He resigned Nov. 8, 1934, and retired completely from political life.
Dountas, Michalis (b. 1932, Athens, Greece), Greek diplomat. He was ambassador to Cyprus (1974-79), Norway (1980-82), and the Soviet Union (1987-88) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-87).
Dousset, Maurice (b. Feb. 26, 1930, Lutz-en-Dunois, Eure-et-Loir, France - d. Oct. 19/20, 2007, Paris, France), president of the Regional Council of Centre (1985-98).
Douste-Blazy, Philippe (b. Jan. 1, 1953, Lourdes, Hautes-Pyrénées, France), foreign minister of France (2005-07). Earlier he was minister of culture (1995-97), health and social protection (2004), and solidarities, health, and family (2004-05). He was also mayor of Lourdes (1989-2000) and of Toulouse (2001-04).
Doustin, Daniel (Marius) (b. Feb. 25, 1920, Bayonne, Basses-Pyrénées [now Pyrénées-Atlantiques], France - d. Dec. 24, 2004), high commissioner of Chad (1959-60).
Dovgalevsky, Valerian (Savelyevich) (b. Nov. 23, 1885, Ukraine - d. July 14, 1934, Paris, France), Soviet politician. He was people's commissar of posts and telegraphs of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1921-23) and Soviet ambassador to Sweden (1924-27), Japan (1927), and France (1928-34).
Dow, Neal (b. March 20, 1804, Portland, Maine - d. Oct. 2, 1897, Portland), U.S. politician. His Quaker parents and his own observations as Portland city overseer of the poor, as well as the excess of drunkenness that was then commonplace, influenced his attitude toward liquor. His resolve to bring the temperance movement into politics was formed after an unsuccessful attempt to persuade a saloon keeper not to sell liquor to a friend of his who was being ruined by drinking habits. "Very well, my friend," said Dow, "the people of the state of Maine will see how long you will go on selling." He organized the Maine Temperance Union in 1838. In 1839 he persuaded the aldermen of Portland to submit to a direct vote of the citizens the question whether any liquor licenses should be issued that year. The citizens rejected the proposal by 599 to 564 votes, but four years later municipal prohibition - not for one year alone - was sanctioned by a majority of 440. In 1850 he introduced a prohibition bill in the Maine legislature which since became known as the "Maine Law"; it obtained majorities in both chambers in 1851, replacing a weaker statute of 1846, for which he also had been partly responsible. He was mayor of Portland in 1851-52 and 1855-56. Illegal liquor selling, which had grown to large proportions, was checked, and the sewers were flushed with confiscated alcohol. A "rum riot" took place, the city hall was besieged, one of the crowd was killed, and Dow was charged with responsibility. His trial, however, ended in an acquittal, and a few years later he was elected to the state legislature. After serving in the Civil War he resumed his temperance activities and in 1880 ran for president as the Prohibition Party candidate, receiving 10,366 votes.
Dowdeswell, Elizabeth (b. 1944), lieutenant governor of Ontario (2014- ).
Dowiyogo, Bernard (Dabarnen Annen Auwen) (b. Feb. 14, 1946, Nauru - d. March 9, 2003, Washington, D.C. [March 10, Nauru time]), president of Nauru (1976-78, 1989-95, 1996, 1998-99, 2000-01, 2003, 2003). First elected to Nauru's 18-seat parliament in 1973, he first became president in 1976, ousting the island's head chief and first president, Hammer DeRoburt. Over the next 27 years, Dowiyogo navigated the unpredictable Nauruan political landscape - serving as president for as long as six years and as little as 8 days. The ministerial portfolios he held during his parliamentary career include those of justice (1983-89), health and education (1989), and finance and economic reform (2000-01). He was a strong voice in the Pacific on environmental issues including nuclear testing, fishing, climate control, and plutonium shipments. In 1994 he was chairman of the South Pacific Forum. He was known as one of the more pragmatic leaders of Nauru but could not stem the waste and corruption on an island that has been environmentally devastated by decades of phosphate mining and is now facing economic collapse. Nauru is almost completely dependent on phosphate deposits, mined as fertilizer for use around the world. The mining produced a great deal of wealth for Nauruans but much of the money has been squandered and the phosphate supply nearly exhausted. In 2001 Nauru agreed to accept hundreds of refugees from Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere who had traveled by boat to seek asylum in Australia. In exchange, Nauru received U.S.$10.6 million a year in aid from Australia. Since returning to the presidency for a sixth time in January 2003, Dowiyogo's health deteriorated and he died while on official business in the United States.
Dowiyogo, Valdon (Kape) (b. Aug. 31, 1968 - d. Dec. 8, 2016, Russia), Nauruan politician; son of Bernard Dowiyogo. He was speaker of parliament (2005-07) and minister of education, health, and sport (2011-12) and health, transport, sport, and fisheries (2013-16).
Downer, Alexander (John Gosse) (b. Sept. 9, 1951, Adelaide, S.Aus.), foreign minister of Australia (1996-2007); grandson of Sir John Downer. He served as a diplomat in Australian embassies in Belgium and Luxembourg. In December 1984 he was elected to parliament as Liberal MP for Mayo, South Australia. After holding several senior positions on the opposition frontbench, he became leader of the (conservative) Liberal Party on May 23, 1994. Opinion polls soon put Downer and his party ahead of Prime Minister Paul Keating and his Australian Labor Party government. Downer made a series of mistakes in his handling of Aboriginal policy, however, which reversed the trend. What he saw during a visit to settlements in the Alice Springs area so unnerved him that he made a series of contradictory and confusing statements, causing his approval rating of 53% at the beginning of the trip to dive to only 34% by the time he returned home. But more resolved than ever to bring true former prime minister Bob Hawke's prophecy that Downer would be Australia's next prime minister, the Liberal leader took up an aggressive position, replying to ridicule in kind and drawing attention to Keating's 1994 purchase of a $2 million home in which to house his French clock collection. In January 1995, Downer resigned after only eight months as party leader and was succeeded by John Howard. When a Liberal-National government led by Howard took office following the 1996 elections, Downer became foreign minister, serving until the end of the Howard government in 2007, making him Australia's longest-serving foreign minister. He oversaw Australia's successful intervention in East Timor in 1999, then worked to repair Australia's relations with Indonesia. After the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the U.S., he supported military action in Afghanistan. He also played a leading role in committing Australia to support the U.S. decision to invade Iraq in 2003. After the defeat of the Howard government he resigned from parliament and was appointed a part-time UN special envoy to Cyprus. In 2014 he was appointed high commissioner to the United Kingdom.
Downer, Sir John (William) (b. July 5, 1844, Adelaide, South Australia - d. Aug. 2, 1915), premier of South Australia (1885-87, 1892-93); knighted 1887.
Doyle, Jim, byname of James Edward Doyle, Jr. (b. Nov. 23, 1945, Washington, D.C.), governor of Wisconsin (2003-11).
Doynov, Ognyan (Nakov) (b. Oct. 15, 1935, Gara Bov, near Sofia, Bulgaria - d. Feb. 13, 2000, Vienna, Austria), Bulgarian politician. He served as vice premier in 1974 and 1984-86 and president of the Bulgarian Chamber for Industry and Trade in 1980-84. In 1981 he became a member of the policy-making Politburo of the then-ruling communist party and held that post until 1988 when his relations with dictator Todor Zhivkov deteriorated, and he was appointed ambassador to Norway. He was recalled to Bulgaria after the collapse of Zhivkov's regime in 1989. The following year he left for Vienna where he opened a consulting company. He never came back to Bulgaria. In 1992 Doynov was indicted along with other former top communist officials on charges of impoverishing Bulgaria by giving millions of dollars to communist movements in the developing world. The prosecutor general requested Doynov be extradited, but Austrian authorities refused to do so.
Doyon, J(oseph) Michel (b. April 20, 1943, Québec, Que.), lieutenant governor of Quebec (2015- ).