Index Di-Do

Di Bartolomeo, Luigi, byname Gino Di Bartolomeo (b. Jan. 7, 1943, Campobasso, Italy - d. Feb. 18, 2022, Campobasso), president of Molise (1992-94). He was also mayor of Campobasso (2009-14).

Di Campello, Pompeo (b. Feb. 15, 1803, Spoleto, Papal State [now in Italy] - d. June 24, 1884, Spoleto), foreign minister of Italy (1867).

Di Laura Frattura, Fernando (b. May 24, 1932, Alfedena, Abruzzo, Italy - d. Sept. 9, 2015, Campobasso, Molise, Italy), president of Molise (1988-90).

Di Laura Frattura, Paolo (b. July 4, 1962, Campobasso, Molise, Italy), president of Molise (2013-18); son of Fernando Di Laura Frattura.

Di Maio

Di Rupo
Di Maio, Luigi (b. July 6, 1986, Avellino, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (2019-22). Leader of the Five Star Movement (2017-20), he was also deputy prime minister and minister of economic development, labour, and social policies (2018-19).

Di Paola, Giampaolo (b. Aug. 15, 1944, Torre Annunziata, Napoli province, Italy), defense minister of Italy (2011-13). He was also chief of the defense staff (2004-08).

Di Rupo, Elio (b. July 18, 1951, Morlanwelz, Belgium), minister-president of Wallonia (1999-2000, 2005-07, 2019- ) and prime minister of Belgium (2011-14). He has also been a deputy prime minister (1994-99), minister of communications and public enterprises (1994-95), economy and telecommunications (1995-99), and foreign trade (1998-99), and mayor of Mons (2001- ). When he took office as prime minister to end a record 18-month government crisis, he became the first Francophone since 1979 and first Socialist since 1974 in that office and also the first openly gay head of government in the EU.

Di Tella
Di Tella (Robiola), Guido (José Mario) (b. June 12, 1931, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Dec. 31, 2001, Buenos Aires), defense minister (1991) and foreign minister (1991-99) of Argentina. In the 1970s he began an association with the Peronist party, the country's preeminent political force, and steadily rose through the ranks. In 1989-91 he was ambassador to the United States. As foreign minister under Pres. Carlos Menem, he helped mend relations with Britain after the 1982 Falkland Islands war. His diplomacy was credited for the emotional 1998 visit Menem paid to Britain, the first by an Argentine leader after the war.

Dia, Amadou Cissé (b. June 2, 1915, Saint-Louis, Senegal - d. Nov. 1, 2002, Dakar, Senegal), armed forces minister (1962-65) and interior minister (1965-68) of Senegal. He was also minister of health and social affairs (1961-62) and technical cooperation (1962) and president of the National Assembly (1968-83).

Mamadou Dia
Dia, Mamadou (b. July 18, 1910, Kombolé, Senegal - d. Jan. 25, 2009, Dakar, Senegal), prime minister (1958-62) and defense minister (1961-62) of Senegal and vice premier of the Mali Federation (1959-60). After a coup attempt in 1962, he was imprisoned until 1974. He returned to politics in the 1980s, but with little success; in the 1983 presidential elections, he won only 1.4% of the vote.

Dia, Modou (b. March 27, 1950, Dakar, Senegal), Senegalese politician. He was ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2000-06) and a minor presidential candidate (2007).

Dia, Oumar Khassimou (b. July 8, 1940, Lobaly, Senegal), Senegalese politician. He was minister of planning (2000-01) and a minor presidential candidate (2012).

Diab, Hassan (b. Jan. 6, 1959, Beirut, Lebanon), prime minister of Lebanon (2020-21). He was also education minister (2011-14).

C. Diaconescu
Diaconescu, Cristian (Mihai) (b. July 2, 1959, Bucharest, Romania), justice minister (2004) and foreign minister (2008-09, 2012) of Romania.

Diaconescu, Gheorghe (b. March 12, 1915, Falticeni, Romania), justice minister of Romania (1955-61). He was also ambassador to Poland (1961-66) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-71).

Diacov, Dumitru (b. Feb. 10, 1952, Kargapolye, Kurgan oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), Moldovan politician. He was president of the Movement for a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova (1997-2000)/Democratic Party (2000-09) and chairman of parliament (1998-2001).

Diagana, Sidi Mohamed, finance minister (1968-70) and defense minister (1971-75) of Mauritania. He was also minister of health, labour, and social affairs (1965-66), construction, public works, transport, and posts and telegraphs (1966), equipment (1966-68), industrialization and mines (1970-71), and the presidency (1975-77).

Diagne, Mouhamed El Moustapha (b. 1953, Saint-Louis, Senegal), finance minister of Senegal (1998-2000).

Diah, Burhanudin Mohamad (b. April 7, 1917, Koetaradja, Netherlands East Indies [now Banda Aceh, Indonesia] - d. June 10, 1996, Jakarta, Indonesia), Indonesian diplomat. He was ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1959-62), the United Kingdom (1962-64), and Thailand (1964-66) and minister of information (1966-68).

Diakité, Moussa (b. 1927, Diarakourou, near Kankan, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. [executed] July 8, 1985), finance minister (1960-63) and interior minister (1972-79) of Guinea; brother-in-law of Ahmed Sékou Touré. He was also governor of the Central Bank (1960-63) and minister of foreign trade and banking (1963-68) and environment and town planning (1979-84).

Diakité, Noumou (b. 1943, Boulouli, French Sudan [now Mali]), Malian diplomat. He was ambassador to Ghana, Nigeria, Benin, and Togo (1979-80), Ivory Coast, Niger, and Upper Volta (1980-82), France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy (1983-84), and Gabon (1998-2002) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-92).

Diakité, Yoro (b. Oct. 17, 1932, Bangassi village, Kita cercle, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. July 20, 1973, Taoudenni, northern Mali), prime minister (1968-69) and defense and interior minister (1970) of Mali. He was also minister of transport, telecommunications, and tourism (1969-70). Accused of having organized a plot on March 9, 1971, he was condemned to forced labour for life on July 31, 1972, and died in the salt mines of Taoudenni.

Diallo, Abdou Salam (b. Aug. 19, 1963, Koungheul, Senegal), Senegalese diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-14) and ambassador to Spain (2014-16), Russia (2016-21), and South Korea (2022- ).

Diallo, Abdoulaye (b. 1924), Nigerien diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1972-74).

Diallo, Abdoulaye Daouda (b. 1965?), interior minister (2013-17) and finance minister (2019-22) of Senegal. He has also been minister of infrastructure, land transport, and opening-up of territory (2017-19), director of the presidential cabinet (2022-23), and president of the Economic, Social, and Environmental Council (2023- ).

Diallo, Absa Claude (b. March 21, 1942, Hanoi, Vietnam), Senegalese diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-91) and ambassador to Sweden (1992-93), Norway (1993), Russia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Ukraine, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia (1993-95), and Switzerland (1996-2002).

Diallo, Alpha Ibrahima Mongo (b. June 12, 1932, Ditinn, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. Sept. 12, 2014, Conakry, Guinea), Guinean diplomat/politician. He was ambassador to Algeria (1967-71) and Egypt (1971-74), permanent representative to the United Nations (1983-85), and minister of communication and culture (1997-99).

Diallo, Boubacar Ali (b. Feb. 6, 1906, Niamey, Niger - d. May 11, 1965), Nigerien politician. He was minister of health (1958-60), justice (1961-62), and labour and social affairs (1962-64).

C.D. Diallo
Diallo, (El Hadj Mamadou) Cellou Dalein (b. Feb. 3, 1952, Dalein village, near Labé, French Guinea [now Guinea]), prime minister of Guinea (2004-06). He was also minister of transport, telecommunications, and tourism (1996-97), equipment, transport, public works, environment, and telecommunications (1997-99), public works and transport (1999-2004), and fishing and aquaculture (2004) and a presidential candidate (2010, 2015, 2020).

Diallo, Daouda (b. June 9, 1939, Dosso, Niger - d. June 28, 2014, Niamey, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (1979-83). He was also minister of information (1983-87) and culture and communications (1985-87).

Diallo, Hama Arba (b. March 23, 1939 - d. Oct. 1, 2014), foreign minister of Upper Volta (1983-84). He was also chargé d'affaires in Nigeria (1976-79), ambassador to China, India, and Japan (1988-89), and a presidential candidate (2010).

M.A.B. Diallo
Diallo, Mariam Aladji Boni (b. 1952?, Kandi, northeastern Dahomey [now Benin]), foreign minister of Benin (2006-07).

Diallo, (El Hadj) Saifoulaye (b. July 1, 1923, Diari, near Labé, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. Sept. 25, 1981, Conakry, Guinea), finance minister (1964-69) and foreign minister (1969-72) of Guinea. He was also president of the National Assembly (1958-63) and minister of justice (1963-64) and health (1979-81).

Diallo, Salif (b. May 9, 1957, Ouahigouya, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. Aug. 19, 2017, Paris, France), Burkinabe politician. He was minister of employment, labour, and social security (1991), minister in charge of special duties at the presidency (1992-95), minister of environment and water (1995-99), agriculture (2000-08), and water and fisheries resources (2002-08), ambassador to Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Croatia (2009-14), and president of the National Assembly (2015-17).

Diallo, Sory Mamadou (b. Dec. 27, 1927), interior minister of Niger (1976-79). He was also minister of justice (1974-75), posts and telecommunications (1974-75, 1976, 1979-81), and civil service and labour (1975-76) and ambassador to Egypt (1981-87).

Diamantino, Antonio de Cerqueira Caldas, barão de (b. May 28, 1818, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. July 14, 1892, Cuiabá), acting president of Mato Grosso (1870, 1871, 1874-75). He was made baron in 1871.

Diamantopoulou, Anna (b. Feb. 26, 1959, Kozani, Greece), Greek politician. She was EU commissioner for employment and social affairs (1999-2004) and minister of education, lifelong learning, and religious affairs (2009-12) and development, competitiveness, and shipping (2012).

Diana, José Francisco (b. 1841, Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. 1916, Uruguay), foreign minister of Brazil (1889).

Dianderas (Ottone), (Juan) Fernando (b. Sept. 16, 1945, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (2000). He was also director-general of the National Police (1997-2000).

Dianderas (Chumbiauca), Roberto (b. April 29, 1911, Chincha, Ica, Peru - d. ...), war minister of Peru (1968). He was also minister of public works and development (1955-56).

Diane, Aly, Guinean diplomat. He was ambassador to Canada (2004-07, 2020-21) and Switzerland (2013-19) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2021-22).

Diarra, Amadou Baba (b. 1933, Diena, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. May 15, 2008), finance and commerce minister of Mali (1970-73, 1978-79). He was also minister of planning (1975-78).

C.M. Diarra

S. Diarra
Diarra, Cheick (Mohamed Abdoulaye Souad dit) Modibo (b. 1952, Nioro du Sahel, French Sudan [now Mali]), interim prime minister of Mali (2012); son-in-law of Moussa Traoré. An astrophysicist and former chairman of Microsoft Africa (2006-11), he was also a presidential candidate in 2013 and 2018.

Diarra, Cheick Sidi (b. May 31, 1957, Kayes, French Sudan [now Mali]), Malian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-07) and UN high representative for the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing states (2007-12).

Diarra, Oumar Baba (b. Dec. 30, 1929, Bamako, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. Sept. 3, 2009, Bamako), Malian politician. He was minister of labour (1965-67).

Diarra, Seydou (Elimane) (b. Nov. 23, 1933, Katiola, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. July 19, 2020, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), prime minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2000, 2003-05). He was also ambassador to Brazil (1971-77), Belgium (1977-83), and the United Kingdom (1983-86).

Á.F. Dias

J.W.B. Dias
Dias, Álvaro Fernandes (b. Dec. 7, 1944, Quatá, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Paraná (1987-91). He was a minor presidential candidate in 2018.

Dias, Anthony Lancelot (b. March 13, 1910 - d. Sept. 22, 2002, Mumbai, India), chief commissioner of Tripura (1970-71) and governor of West Bengal (1971-77).

Dias, Cristóvão Avelino, governor of Angola (1823-24).

Dias, José Carlos (b. April 30, 1939, São Paulo, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (1999-2000).

Dias, José Wellington Barroso de Araújo (b. March 5, 1962, Oeiras, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Piauí (2003-10, 2015-22). He has also been Brazilian minister of social development and assistance, family, and fight against hunger (2023- ).

Dias, Manoel Moreira (b. April 7, 1862, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Dec. 29, 1908, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), acting governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1906-07).

Dias, Satyro de Oliveira (b. Jan. 12, 1844, Inhambupe, Bahia, Brazil - d. Aug. 19, 1913), president of Amazonas (1880-81), Rio Grande do Norte (1881-82), and Ceará (1883-84).

Diasamidze, David (Dursunovich) (b. 1925 - d. 1989), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Adzhar A.S.S.R. (1969-89).

Diatta, Joseph (b. May 15, 1948, Fadama, Niger - d. April 19, 2020), Nigerien diplomat. He was ambassador to Ethiopia (1979-82), the United States (1982-88, 1997-2005), and China (1988-90) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-88, 1997-99).

Diawara, Mohamed (Tiécoura) (b. May 23, 1928, Dori, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. June 13, 2004, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), Ivorian politician. He was minister of planning (1968-77).

A. Díaz
Díaz (Recinos), Adolfo (b. July 15, 1875, Alajuela, Costa Rica - d. Jan. 29, 1964, San José, Costa Rica), vice president (1910-11) and president (1911-17, 1926-29) of Nicaragua.

Díaz (Figueroa), Alfredo (Javier) (b. Aug. 3, 1969, Porlamar, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela), governor of Nueva Esparta (2017-21). He was also mayor of Mariño municipality (2008-17).

Diaz, Armando, (from 1921) duca della Vittoria (b. Dec. 5, 1861, Naples, Italy - d. Feb. 29, 1928, Rome, Italy), war minister of Italy (1922-24). He was also army chief of staff (1917-19).

Díaz (Corbelle), Nicomedes-Pastor (b. Sept. 15, 1811, Vivero, Lugo province, Spain - d. March 22, 1863, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1856). He was also minister of commerce, education, and public works (1847) and justice (1863).

Díaz (de Obaldía), Pedro Antonio (del Carmen) (b. July 5, 1854 - d. 1919), acting president of Panama (1918). He was second vice president (1918).

P. Díaz
Díaz (Mori), (José de la Cruz) Porfirio (b. Sept. 15, 1830, Oaxaca, Mexico - d. July 2, 1915, Paris, France), president of Mexico (1877-80, 1884-1911). He joined the army in 1846. An illustrious military career followed, including service in the War of the Reform (1857-60) and the struggle against the French in 1861-67. In 1867 he was military governor of the Distrito Federal. He resigned his command when peace was restored but soon became dissatisfied with the Benito Juárez administration. He led an unsuccessful protest against the 1871 reelection of Juárez, who died in 1872. He continued his protests in an unsuccessful revolt against Pres. Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada in 1876, after which he fled to the U.S. Six months later, however, he returned and defeated the government forces at the Battle of Tecoac (November 1876), and in May 1877 he was formally elected president. He began a slow process of consolidation of power and built up a strong political machine. He decided not to run for another term himself but handpicked his successor, Gen. Manuel González, and became minister of development (1880-81) and governor of Oaxaca (1881-83). Dissatisfied with González, he ran for the presidency again in 1884 and was elected. He produced an orderly and systematic government with a military spirit. He succeeded in destroying local and regional leadership until the majority of public employees answered directly to him. Even the legislature was composed of his friends, and the press was muffled. On Feb. 17, 1908, he announced his retirement. Immediately opposition and pro-government groups began to scramble to find suitable presidential candidates. Then he decided not to retire but to allow Francisco Madero to run against him. Madero lost the election, but when he resorted to a military revolution, the government proved surprisingly weak and collapsed. Díaz resigned and went into exile.

Díaz, Rodolfo (Alejandro) (b. May 30, 1943, Godoy Cruz, Mendoza, Argentina), labour minister of Argentina (1991-92).

S. Díaz
Díaz (Pacheco), Susana (b. Oct. 18, 1974, Sevilla, Spain), president of the Junta of Andalucía (2013-19).

Díaz Arosemena, Domingo (del Rosario) (b. June 25, 1875, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. Aug. 23, 1949, Panama City), president of Panama (1948-49). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1936.

I. Díaz
Díaz Ayuso, Isabel (b. Oct. 17, 1978, Madrid, Spain), president of the government of Madrid (2019- ).

Díaz Aztaraín, Rolando (b. 1924?), finance minister of Cuba (1960-62). He was also minister for recovery of misappropriated property (1959-61) and navy chief (1962-65).

Díaz-Canel (Bermúdez), Miguel (Mario) (b. April 20, 1960, Santa Clara, Cuba), president of the Council of State and Council of Ministers (2018-19), president (2019- ), and first secretary of the Communist Party (2021- ) of Cuba. He was also minister of higher education (2009-12), a vice president of the Council of Ministers (2012-13), and first vice president of the Council of State and Council of Ministers (2013-18).

Díaz-Casanueva, Humberto (b. Dec. 8, 1907 - d. Oct. 22, 1992), Chilean diplomat. He was ambassador to Algeria (1965-68) and the United Arab Republic (1968-70) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-73). He was also known as a writer.

Díaz de León, Carlos Enrique (b. 1915 - d. 2014), provisional president of Guatemala (1954). He was chief of the armed forces (1951-54).

Díaz Dulanto, Federico (b. Aug. 9, 1888, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 7, 1954, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1948-49). He was also minister of marine and aviation (1931, 1939-45) and ambassador to France (1950-54).

Díaz Granados Alzamora, José Ignacio (b. April 26, 1927, Santa Marta, Colombia - d. Aug. 13, 1996, Barranquilla, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Senate (1980-81).

Díaz Ordaz
Díaz Ordaz (Bolaños Cacho), Gustavo (b. March 12, 1911, Ciudad Serdán, Puebla, Mexico - d. July 15, 1979, Mexico City), president of Mexico (1964-70). A descendant of José María Díaz Ordaz, associate of 19th-century Mexican leader Benito Juárez, Díaz Ordaz gained a reputation as a labour-law specialist while serving as president of Mexico's Central Council of Conciliation and Arbitration. He served as supreme court president in his native state of Puebla before being elected to the Mexican Senate in 1946. He was named to a post in the interior ministry in 1952, and in 1958 was appointed interior minister by Pres. Adolfo López Mateos. In July 1964 he was elected to the presidency as the Partido Revolucionario Institucional candidate to succeed López Mateos. Díaz Ordaz's administration emphasized economic development for Mexico. On Oct. 2, 1968, government troops and riot policemen engaged student demonstrators in a bloody clash that became known as the "Massacre at Tlatelolco." Although the official death toll included only 40 students killed when troops opened fire on the demonstrators, other reports claimed that hundreds died. He continued to provoke strong public reaction years after he left office. In 1977 when he was named ambassador to Spain, the novelist Carlos Fuentes resigned as ambassador to France, and Mexican newspapers again unfavourably reiterated the drastic measures taken at the Massacre at Tlatelolco. Four months after assuming his post, Díaz Ordaz announced his resignation, which his spokesman said was "strictly due to eye trouble."

Díaz Ordóñez, Virgilio (b. May 5, 1895, San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. April 30, 1968, Washington, D.C.), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1947-53). He was also minister to Cuba (1943-47), ambassador to Peru (1947), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1954-56).

Díaz Pérez, Yolanda (b. May 6, 1971, Fene, La Coruña province, Spain), a deputy prime minister of Spain (2021- ). She has also been minister of labour and social economy (2020- ).

Díaz Rodríguez, Manuel (b. Feb. 28, 1871, Chacao, Miranda state, Venezuela - d. Aug. 23, 1927, New York City), foreign minister of Venezuela (1913-14). A notable writer, he was also minister of development (1916), minister to Italy (1919-23), and president of Nueva Esparta (1925-26) and Sucre (1926).

Díaz Suárez, Adolfo (b. Dec. 20, 1937, Havana, Cuba - d. Feb. 22, 2010), a vice premier of Cuba (1988-96). He was also minister of agriculture (1983-88).

Dibba, Lamin B(aba), Gambian politician. He has been minister of environment, climate change, and natural resources (2017-22) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Dibba, Sheriff Mustapha (b. Jan. 10, 1937, Salikene, Gambia - d. June 2, 2008, Banjul, The Gambia), Gambian politician. He entered politics in 1960 and was elected as member of parliament for Central Baddibu constituency. He was appointed minister of local government and lands in 1962, minister of works and communication in 1966, and minister of finance in 1968, all in the then People's Progressive Party (PPP) regime. He was the country's first vice president, as well as minister of finance, in 1970-72, then resigned and became ambassador to Belgium (1972-74). He rejoined the cabinet in 1974 as minister of economic planning up to July 1975 when he resigned again from Pres. Sir Dawda Jawara's government; on Sept. 7, 1975, he formed the National Convention Party (NCP). In the aftermath of the 1981 abortive coup led by Kukoi Samba Sanyang he was detained for 11 months, charged with treason, only to be acquitted and discharged in 1982. Although his party fiercely contested elections in 1977, 1982, 1987, and 1992, he was never successful in defeating Jawara's PPP. Following the 1994 military coup that toppled the PPP government, the NCP went into decline as the military junta banned party politics. Dibba was criticized for not having condemned the coup. The NCP resurfaced in 2001 and contested the general elections, but failed dismally. In 2002 he was appointed by Pres. Yahya Jammeh as speaker of the National Assembly but he was removed unceremoniously for his alleged involvement in the March 2006 foiled coup led by army chief Col. Ndure Cham. On April 20, 2006, Dibba called on President Jammeh at State House to reaffirm his allegiance and loyalty to the government.

Dibela, Sir Kingsford (b. March 16, 1932, Wedau village, Papua [now in Milne Bay province, Papua New Guinea] - d. March 22, 2002, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (1983-89); knighted 1983. He was speaker of parliament in 1977-80.

Dibrova, Pyotr (Akimovich), also appearing as Pavel T. Dibrova, original surname Khailo (b. 1901 - d. 1971), Soviet city commandant of Berlin (1953-56).

Diby, Charles Koffi (b. Sept. 7, 1957, Bouaké, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. Dec. 7, 2019, Abdijan, Côte d'Ivoire), finance minister (2007-12) and foreign minister (2012-16) of Côte d'Ivoire.

DiCarlo, Rosemary A(nne) (b. Sept. 26, 1947, Providence, R.I.), acting U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (2013).

Dickel, Friedrich (b. Dec. 9, 1913, Vohwinkel [now part of Wuppertal], Germany - d. Oct. 23, 1993, Berlin, Germany), interior minister of East Germany (1963-89).

Dickerson, Denver S(ylvester) (b. Jan. 24, 1872, Millville, Calif. - d. Nov. 28, 1925, Carson City, Nev.), acting governor of Nevada (1908-11).

Dickerson, G(lenn) R(obert) (b. July 26, 1927, Kansas - d. Aug. 29, 2019, Leesburg, Va.), director of the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (1979-82).

Dickerson, Mahlon (b. April 17, 1770, Hanover Neck [now East Hanover], New Jersey - d. Oct. 5, 1853, Succasunna, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1815-17) and U.S. secretary of the Navy (1834-38).

Dickerson, Philemon (b. June 26, 1788, Succasunna, N.J. - d. Dec. 10, 1862, Paterson, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1836-37); brother of Mahlon Dickerson.

Dickey, Arthur Rupert (b. Aug. 18, 1854, Amherst, Nova Scotia - d. [drowning] July 3, 1900, Amherst Shore, N.S.), defence minister of Canada (1895-96). He was also secretary of state (1894-95) and justice minister (1896).

Dickinson, Jacob M(cGavock) (b. Jan. 30, 1851, Columbus, Miss. - d. Dec. 13, 1928, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of war (1909-11).

Dickinson, John (b. Nov. 8, 1732, Maryland - d. Feb. 14, 1808, Wilmington, Del.), president of Delaware (1781-83) and president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania (1782-85).

Dickinson, Luren D(udley) (b. April 15, 1859, Niagara county, N.Y. - d. April 22, 1943, Charlotte, Mich.), governor of Michigan (1939-41).

Dickson, Bill, byname of William Andrew Dickson (b. Dec. 17, 1950), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (2001-04). He was also British ambassador to Mongolia (2009-11).

Dickson, Harold Richard Patrick (b. Feb. 4, 1881 - d. June 14, 1959), British political agent in Bahrain (1919-20) and Kuwait (1929-36, 1941).

Dickson, John Quayle (b. Nov. 10, 1860, Castletown, Isle of Man - d. Dec. 17, 1944, Durban, South Africa), resident commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1909-13).

Dickson, Robert (b. Nov. 27, 1843, Göteborg, Sweden - d. April 14, 1924, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Jönköping (1888-92), Malmöhus (1892-1901), and Stockholm city (1902-11).

Dickson, Yohanna (Mamman) (b. Dec. 28, 1950, Kaningkon-Kafanchan [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria - d. July 14, 2015, Kaduna, Kaduna, Nigeria), administrator of Taraba (1993-96).

Didelot, Octave François Charles, baron (b. Dec. 2, 1812, Paris, France - d. Sept. 27, 1886, Kervaly castle, near Brest, France), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1861-63).

Didelot, Pierre Jean Henri (b. May 12, 1870, Paris, France - d. Oct. 30, 1941), administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1908-11) and governor of French Guiana (1911-14, 1916), Senegal (1921-25), and French India (1926-28).

Didi, Abdul Sattar Moosa, also called Amir Abdul Sattar Faamudheyri Kilegefaanu (b. June 18, 1936 - d. Nov. 27, 2015, Bangkok, Thailand), finance minister of Maldives (1971-75). He was also minister of education (1959-60, late 1970s), fisheries (1980s), and health and welfare (early 1990s), representative (1960-66) and ambassador (1966-67) to Ceylon, permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-70), and ambassador to the United States (1968-70).

A. Afif Didi
Didi, Abdullah Afif (b. 1916, Hithadhoo, Maldives - d. 1993, Seychelles), president of the United Suvadiva Republic (1959-63).

Didi, Ahmad Kamil, Maldivian politician. He was minister of home and religious affairs and education (1932-33) and justice (1956-58) and attorney-general (1951-55).

Didi, Ahmed Hilmy, Maldivian diplomat. He was representative (1951-53) and ambassador (1967-71) to Ceylon and permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-66).

Didi, Amin Abdul Majid (b. 1873, Male, Maldives - d. Feb. 21, 1952, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), sultan of Maldives (1945-52). He was also grand vizier (1925-32), prime minister, home affairs minister, and mayor of Male (1933-35), and plenipotentiary representative in Ceylon (1944-45). Though proclaimed sultan, he was never formally installed and returned to the Maldives only for the signing of a new protectorate agreement with Britain in 1948.

Didi, Amir Ahmad Muhammad Amin (b. July 20, 1910 - d. Jan. 19, 1954, Male, Maldives), prime minister (1944-53), chairman of the Council of Regency (1952-53), and president (1953) of Maldives. He was also minister of trade, customs, and posts (1932-33) and home affairs (1942-44).

Didi, Hassan Farid (d. [on torpedoed ship] March 27, 1944, off Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), finance minister (1932-33) and home affairs minister (1935-39) of Maldives; son of Amin Abdul Majid Didi; brother of Muhammad Farid Didi. He was also plenipotentiary representative in Ceylon (1942-44).

Didi, Ibrahim Muhammad (b. 1915? - d. 198...), vice president (1953) and acting president (1953-54) of Maldives. He was also minister of agriculture (1952-53).

Didi, Muhammad Farid (b. 1901, Male, Maldives - d. May 1969, Male), prime minister (1932-33) and sultan (1954-68) of Maldives; son of Amin Abdul Majid Didi. He was also speaker of the Majlis (1933-42).

Didier, Alfred (b. Sept. 23, 1842, Geneva, Switzerland - d. March 31, 1903, Geneva), president of the Council of State of Genève (1899, 1902-03).

R. Didier
Didier, Richard (b. Feb. 23, 1961, Chatou, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (2006-08) and high commissioner of French Polynesia (2011-12). He was also prefect of Haute-Loire département (2008-11).

Didigov, Tamerlan (Muratovich) (b. March 16, 1937, Nasyr-Kort, Nazran rayon, Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Ingushetia, Russia] - d. Oct. 23, 2003, Nazran, Ingushetia), prime minister of Ingushetia (1993-94).

Diebolt, Marcel (Auguste) (b. Feb. 7, 1912, Saargemünd, Alsace-Lorraine, Germany [now Sarreguemines, Moselle, France] - d. Sept. 1, 2002), prefect of Paris département (1969-71). He was also prefect of Haute-Marne (1956-58), Basses-Pyrénées (1962-64), and Puy-de-Dôme (1964-69).

Dieckmann, Johannes (b. Jan. 19, 1893, Fischerhude, near Bremen, Germany - d. Feb. 22, 1969, East Berlin), acting president of East Germany (1949, 1960). He was president of the Volkskammer from 1949 to 1969.

Diederichs, Georg (b. Sept. 2, 1900, Northeim, Prussia [now in Niedersachsen], Germany - d. June 19, 1983, Laatzen, Niedersachsen, West Germany), minister-president of Niedersachsen (1961-70).

Diederichs, Nicolaas J(ohannes), byname Nico Diederichs (b. Nov. 17, 1903, Ladybrand, Orange River Colony [now Free State, South Africa] - d. Aug. 21, 1978, Cape Town, South Africa), president of South Africa (1975-78). He was a founder of the Afrikaner nationalist movement which led to the establishment of the Afrikaner National Party. This organization enforced apartheid, a policy of white supremacy based on legalized discrimination against non-Europeans in South Africa. He was minister for economic affairs (1958-67) and mines (1961-64) but was especially influential as the country's finance minister (1967-75). Diederichs was nicknamed "Mr. Gold" because he fought to keep gold, South Africa's major export, as the international monetary standard. He became president on April 19, 1975, and died in office.

Diefenbacher, Alfred (b. March 5, 1915, Saargemünd, Alsace-Lorraine, Germany [now Sarreguemines, Moselle, France] - d. Feb. 22, 2015, Paris, France), prefect of Réunion (1963-66). He was also prefect of the French départements of Tlemcen (1960-62), Essonne (1966-67), and Allier (1967-68).

M. Diefenbacher
Diefenbacher, Michel (b. July 15, 1947, Sarrebourg, Moselle, France - d. Oct. 10, 2017, Birac-sur-Trec, Lot-et-Garonne, France), prefect of Guadeloupe (1994-96). He was also prefect of the départements of Lot-et-Garonne (1992-94), Haute-Vienne (1996-2000), and Vienne (2000).

Diefenbaker, John G(eorge) (b. Sept. 18, 1895, Neustadt, Grey county, Ont. - d. Aug. 16, 1979, Ottawa, Ont.), prime minister of Canada (1957-63). In 1936 he was chosen as leader of the Saskatchewan Conservative Party, serving at that post until 1940, when he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons for the constituency of Lake Centre. His quest for leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1948 was unsuccessful, but he became party leader on Dec. 14, 1956. The general election of June 1957 brought victory for the Conservatives, breaking a 22-year Liberal monopoly, and Diefenbaker succeeded Louis Saint Laurent as prime minister. He was the first head of government to come from outside the British and French communities (his ancestors were German). He was also foreign minister until September 1957. In the 1958 election the Conservatives won an unprecedented 208 of the 265 House seats. In the next election, however, in 1962, the Conservatives lost their majority. As prime minister, "Dief the Chief" urged increased independence from the U.S. and refused to arm Canada's NATO force with U.S. nuclear weapons. Diefenbaker also pushed for the development of Canada's natural resources and its vast Arctic northlands. A crisis over the proposed manufacture of nuclear weapons in Canada caused several ministerial resignations and forced Diefenbaker to call an election in 1963, when Lester B. Pearson, leading the Liberals, became prime minister. After struggling to retain party leadership, Diefenbaker resigned in 1967 and was succeeded by Robert Stanfield (September 9). He continued to occupy a seat on the opposition front bench and remained an acerbic critic of Liberal governments. He was elected to the House of Commons for a record 13th term in May 1979.

Diéguez (Lara), Manuel M(acario) (b. March 10, 1874, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico - d. [executed] April 21, 1924, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico), governor of Jalisco (1914, 1915-17).

Diego (Palacios), (Juan) Ignacio (b. May 18, 1960, Castro Urdiales, Cantabria, Spain), president of the Council of Government of Cantabria (2011-15).

Diego (Iglesias), Mario de (b. April 17, 1908, Panama City, Panama - d. ...), foreign minister of Panama (1947-48). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1948-50).

Diego Paredes (Paramoto), Victoriano de (b. 1804, Piedecuesta, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. 1893), foreign minister of New Granada (1849-51) and president of Santander (1866-68). He was also chargé d'affaires in the United States (1852-55).

Diekmann, Bruno (b. April 19, 1897, Kiel, Germany - d. Jan. 11, 1982, Kiel), minister-president of Schleswig-Holstein (1949-50).

Dieleman, Petrus (b. Nov. 9, 1873, Axel, Netherlands - d. Jan. 19, 1961, Amersfoort, Netherlands), provincial commissioner of Zeeland (1940-44).

Diendéré, Gilbert (b. July 3, 1958, Yako, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), head of the National Council of Democracy of Burkina Faso (2015).

Dieng, Madieng Khary (b. Nov. 21, 1932, Coki, Senegal - d. Nov. 27, 2020, Rabat, Morocco), interior minister (1991-93) and defense minister (1993-95) of Senegal. He was also ambassador to The Gambia (1996-98).

Dieng, Ousmane Tanor (b. Jan. 2, 1947, Nguéniène, Senegal - d. July 15, 2019, Bordeaux, France), Senegalese politician. He was first secretary of the Socialist Party (1996-2019) and a presidential candidate (2007, 2012).

Dienstbier, Jirí (b. April 20, 1937, Kladno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. Jan. 8, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic), foreign minister of Czechoslovakia (1989-92). He was also a deputy premier (1990-92).

Diepgen, Eberhard (b. Nov. 13, 1941, Berlin, Germany), governing mayor of Berlin (1984-89 [West Berlin], 1991-2001).

Dierckx, Octave (Victor Anna) (b. Oct. 15, 1882, Antwerp, Belgium - d. March 21, 1955, Uccle, Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1937-38). He was also minister of transport (1934) and education (1938-39).

Diergaardt, Hans, byname of Johannes Gerard Adolf Diergaardt (b. Sept. 16, 1927, Rehoboth, central South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. Feb. 12, 1998, Rehoboth), captain of the Basters (1979-98) and chairman of the Transitional Government of National Unity of Namibia (1985).

Diestel, Peter-Michael (b. Feb. 14, 1952, Prora, Mecklenburg [now Mecklenburg-Vorpommern], East Germany), interior minister of East Germany (1990).

Diete-Spiff, Alfred (Papapreye) (b. July 30, 1942, Nembe [now in Rivers state], Nigeria), governor of Rivers (1968-75).

Diethelm, (Maurice) André (b. July 3, 1896, Bourg, Ain, France - d. Jan. 11, 1954, Paris, France), Free French commissioner of interior (1941-42), economy and finances (1942-43), and war (1944) and French war minister (1944-45). He was also Free French commissioner of information and labour (1941-42), pensions (1942-43), commerce (1943), and production and supply (1943-44).

Dietrich, Charles Henry (b. Nov. 26, 1853, Aurora, Ill. - d. April 10, 1924, Hastings, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1901). He was also a U.S. senator from Nebraska (1901-05).

Dietrich, Hermann R(obert) (b. Dec. 14, 1879, Oberprechtal, Baden [now part of Elzach, Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. March 6, 1954, Stuttgart, West Germany), vice chancellor (1930-32) and finance minister (1930-32) of Germany. He was also minister of food and agriculture (1928-30) and economy (1930).

Dietrich, Tadeusz (Barnaba) (b. June 14, 1905, Lódz, Poland - d. July 28, 1960, Warsaw, Poland), finance minister of Poland (1952-60). He was also chairman of the Central Planning Office (1948-49) and minister of internal trade (1949-52).

Dievoet, Emile (Josse) van (b. June 10, 1886, Lombeek-Sainte-Catherine, Belgium - d. June 24, 1967, Leuven, Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1939). He was also minister of agriculture (1931-32).

Dièye, Cheikh Abdoulaye (b. Jan. 9, 1938, Saint-Louis, Senegal - d. March 27, 2002), Senegalese politician. He was a minor presidential candidate in 2000.

Dièye, Cheikh Bamba, byname of Cheikh Mamadou Abiboulaye Dièye (b. Nov. 12, 1965, Saint-Louis, Senegal), Senegalese politician; son of Cheikh Abdoulaye Dièye. He was a minor presidential candidate (2007, 2012), mayor of Saint-Louis (2009-14), and minister of regional planning and local government (2012) and communication, telecommunications, and digital economy (2012-14).

Diez Canseco (y Corbacho), Francisco (b. March 21, 1821, Arequipa, Peru - d. May 15, 1884, Lima, Peru), second vice president (1868-72) and acting president (1872) of Peru; brother of Pedro Diez Canseco and Manuel Diez Canseco; brother-in-law of Ramón Castilla.

Diez Canseco (Cisneros), Javier (b. March 24, 1948, Lima, Peru - d. May 4, 2013, Lima), Peruvian politician; cousin of Raúl Diez Canseco. He was a minor presidential candidate in 2006.

Diez Canseco (y Corbacho), Manuel (José) (b. 1819, Arequipa, Peru - d. March 9, 1864, Paris, France), war and navy minister of Peru (1856-57); brother of Pedro Diez Canseco; brother-in-law of Ramón Castilla.

Diez Canseco (y Corbacho), Pedro (Nolasco) (b. Jan. 31, 1815, Arequipa, Peru - d. April 3, 1893, Chorrillos, Peru), second vice president (1862-65) and acting president (1863, 1865, 1868) of Peru; brother-in-law of Ramón Castilla.

Diez Canseco (Terry), Raúl (b. Jan. 23, 1948, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), Peruvian politician; son of cousin of Fernando Belaúnde Terry. He was a minor presidential candidate (1995), first vice-president (2001-04), and minister of industry, tourism, integration, and international trade negotiations (2001-02) and foreign trade and tourism (2002-03).

Diez de Medina, Federico (b. 1839, La Paz, Bolivia - d. June 13, 1904, La Paz), foreign minister of Bolivia (1900-02).

Diez de Medina, Mario (b. Jan. 16, 1910, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Dec. 3, 1971, La Paz), defense minister (1958-60) and interior minister (1960) of Bolivia. He was also ambassador to Italy (1961-62).

Diez de Medina Lertora, Alberto (b. Sept. 11, 1877, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Dec. 31, 1932, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister of Bolivia (1930); son of Federico Diez de Medina. He was also chargé d'affaires in Brazil (1907-08), prefect of Oruro (1913-14), and minister to Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela (1917-19), Paraguay (1920), Brazil (1923-25), and Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, and Peru (1925-28).

Diez de Medina Lertora, Eduardo (b. Feb. 8, 1882, La Paz, Bolivia - d. 1955), foreign minister of Bolivia (1923, 1925-26, 1937-39); son of Federico Diez de Medina; brother of Alberto Diez de Medina Lertora. He was also chargé d'affaires in Chile (1911-13) and minister to the United States, Mexico, and Cuba (1928-31).

Diez Gutiérrez (y López Portillo), Carlos (b. May 23, 1836, Ciudad del Maíz, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. Aug. 18, 1898, San Luis Potosí, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (1877-81, 1885-98) and interior minister of Mexico (1880-84).

Díez Gutiérrez (y López Portillo), Pedro (baptized May 28, 1845, Ciudad del Maíz, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. March 5, 1894, San Luis Potosí, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (1881-85); brother of Carlos Diez Gutiérrez.

Diez Urzúa, Sergio (Eduardo) (b. April 2, 1925, Curicó, Chile - d. June 29, 2015, Santiago, Chile), Chilean diplomat/politician. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-81) and president of the Senate (1996-97).

DiFrancesco, Donald T(homas) (b. Nov. 20, 1944, Scotch Plains, N.J.), acting governor of New Jersey (2001-02). By a law passed in 2006, he was retroactively recognized as full governor.

Digeon, Alexandre (Elisabeth Michel), vicomte (b. June 26, 1771, Paris, France - d. Aug. 2, 1826, Bullion, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France), interim war minister of France (1823). He was created viscount in 1816.

Dighe, Madhukar (b. 1923, Dhar [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. July 27, 2014, Gurgaon [now Gurugram], Haryana, India), governor of Meghalaya (1990-95) and Arunachal Pradesh (1993).

Digneffe, Émile (Edouard Charles Henri) (b. Dec. 20, 1858, Liége [now Liège], Belgium - d. June 16, 1937, Liége), chairman of the Senate of Belgium (1932-34). He was also mayor of Liége (1921-27).

Digo, Yves (Jean) (b. April 4, 1897, Nantes, Loire-Inférieure [now Loire-Atlantique], France - d. March 6, 1974, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France), commissioner of Togo and Cambodia (1951-52) and governor of Gabon (1952-58).

Digvijaysinhji Ranjitsinhji Jadeja (b. Sept. 18, 1895, Sarodar, Nawanagar [now in Gujarat], India - d. Feb. 3, 1966, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), maharaja of Nawanagar (1933-47) and rajpramukh of Saurashtra (1948-56); nephew of Sir Ranjitsinhji Vibhoji.

Dihigo (y López Trigo), Ernesto (b. Jan. 23, 1896, Havana, Cuba - d. February 1991, U.S.), foreign minister of Cuba (1950-51). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1951-52) and ambassador to the United States (1959-60).

Dijckmeester, Herman Jacob (b. Feb. 1, 1771, Tiel, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. June 16, 1850, Tiel), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the Second Chamber (1835-36).

Dijckmeester, Herman Jacob (b. Feb. 16, 1847, Arnhem, Netherlands - d. Feb. 1, 1942, The Hague, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Zeeland (1906-21); grandson of the above.

Dijk, Jannes Johannes Cornelis van (b. Dec. 1, 1871, Leeuwarden, Netherlands - d. Feb. 9, 1954, The Hague, Netherlands), war/defense minister of the Netherlands (1921-25, 1937-39). He was also navy minister (1921-22).

Dijk, Kees van, byname of Cornelis Pieter van Dijk (b. July 25, 1931, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Dec. 29, 2008, Rotterdam), interior minister of the Netherlands (1986-87, 1987-89). He was also minister without portfolio (1981-82, 1987).

Dijke, Pieter van (b. Sept. 25, 1920, Vlaardingen, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. May 9, 2003, Zeist, Utrecht), queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1980-85). He was also mayor of Gouda (1969-73).

Dijkhoff, Klaas (Henricus Dominicus Maria) (b. Jan. 13, 1981, Soltau, Niedersachsen, West Germany), defense minister of the Netherlands (2017).

Dijkstal, Hans, byname of Henri Frans Dijkstal (b. Feb. 28, 1943, Port Said, Egypt - d. May 9, 2010, Wassenaar, Netherlands), interior minister and a deputy prime minister of the Netherlands (1994-98). He was also leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (1998-2002).

Dijmarescu, Eugen (b. Feb. 11, 1948, Bucharest, Romania), finance minister of Romania (1991). He was also ambassador to Japan (1994-99).

Dijoud, Paul (Charles Louis) (b. June 25, 1938, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France), minister of state of Monaco (1994-97). He was also French ambassador to Colombia (1988-91), Mexico (1992-94), and Argentina (1997-2003).

Dijsselbloem, Jeroen (René Victor Anton) (b. March 29, 1966, Eindhoven, Netherlands), finance minister of the Netherlands (2012-17). He has also been mayor of Eindhoven (2022- ).

Dijxhoorn, Adriaan Quirinus Hendrik (b. Sept. 10, 1889, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Jan. 22, 1953, De Steeg, Rheden municipality, Gelderland, Netherlands), defense minister of the Netherlands (1939-41).

Dik, Pavel (Vladimirovich), Belarusian Pavel (Uladzimiravich) Dzik (b. 1955), finance minister of Belarus (1995-97).

Dikambayev, Kazy (Dikambayevich) (b. Dec. 1 [Nov. 18, O.S.], 1913, Taldy-Su, Semirechye oblast, Russia [now in Issyk-Kul oblast, Kyrgyzstan] - d. Feb. 16, 2010, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan), foreign minister (1944-49) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1958-61) of the Kirgiz S.S.R. He was also a deputy premier (1940-44, 1948-49), people's commissar of state control (1940-44), first secretary of the party committee of Frunze oblast (1951-58), and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1953-55).

Dikaucic, Marjan (b. October 1981), justice minister of Slovenia (2021-22).

Dikko, (Alhaji) Umaru (b. Dec. 31, 1936, Wamba, near Zaria [now in Kaduna state], northern Nigeria - d. July 1, 2014, London, England), Nigerian politician. After the fall of Gen. Yakubu Gowon's regime in 1975, he was found guilty of corruption, but this did not prevent his political reappearance when the return to civilian rule took place in 1979. He was made minister of transport by Pres. Alhaji Shehu Shagari, and because of his closeness to the president he became one of the most powerful politicians in the country. He was derided by his enemies for never having personally won an election. Dikko achieved the height of power as the manager of Shagari's 1983 election campaign, but by that time he had made many enemies and, it was said, was reappointed as minister of transport only because of Shagari's gratitude over the election result. Dikko's return to power was seen by many as a denial of Shagari's claim that he would make an independent new start and root out corruption. Dikko was known as Shagari's "third ear," and it was rumoured that most important contracts required his approval. When the military, headed by Maj.Gen. Muhammadu Buhari, seized power again at the end of 1983, Dikko left the country and said he had "declared war" on the new regime. In Nigeria he was accused of setting aside $300 million (presumably of ill-gotten gains) to finance a mercenary-led expedition against the new government. The two chief charges against him were that he had received kickbacks while in office and that he had rigged the 1983 elections. A spectacular but unsuccessful attempt was made by Nigerians to kidnap Dikko from Britain in a crate from Stansted Airport in July 1984. As a result, relations between Britain and Nigeria were temporarily brought to a low ebb. He returned to Nigeria in 1994 when the administration of Gen. Sani Abacha nominated him to participate in a constitutional conference.

Dikov, Diko (Dimitrov) (b. Nov. 2, 1910, Berkovitsa, Bulgaria - d. April 14, 1985), interior minister of Bulgaria (1962-68). He was also ambassador to Cuba (1969-72).

Dikov, Ivan (Mikhailovich) (b. July 29 [July 17, O.S.], 1833, Kherson province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Oct. 13 [Sept. 30, O.S.], 1914, Petrograd [now St. Petersburg], Russia), Russian navy minister (1907-09).

S. Dikshit

U.S. Dikshit
Dikshit, Sheila, Dikshit also spelled Dixit (b. March 31, 1938, Kapurthala, Punjab, India - d. July 20, 2019, New Delhi, India), chief minister of Delhi (1998-2013) and governor of Kerala (2014); daughter-in-law of Uma Shankar Dikshit.

Dikshit, Uma Shankar, Dikshit also spelled Dixit (b. Jan. 12, 1901, Ugoo, Unnao district [now in Uttar Pradesh] - d. May 30, 1991, New Delhi), home affairs minister of India (1973-74) and governor of Karnataka (1976-77) and West Bengal (1984-86). He was also minister of works and housing (1971-73), health and family planning (1971-73), without portfolio (1974-75), and transport and shipping (1975).

Dileita, Dileita Mohamed, Arabic Dilayta Muhammad Dilayta (b. March 12, 1958, Tadjoura, French Somaliland [now Djibouti]), prime minister of Djibouti (2001-13). He was also ambassador to Ethiopia (1997-2001).

Dilhorne, Reginald Manningham-Buller, (1st) Viscount (b. Aug. 1, 1905, Amersham, Buckinghamshire, England - d. Sept. 7, 1980, Knoydart, Inverness-shire, Scotland), British lord chancellor (1962-64). He was also solicitor general (1951-54) and attorney general (1954-62). He was knighted in 1951, succeeded as (4th) Baronet in 1956, and was made baron in 1962 and viscount in 1964.

Diliberto, Oliviero (b. Oct. 13, 1956, Cagliari, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1998-2000). He was also national secretary of the Communist Party (2000-13).

Dillingham, Paul (b. Aug. 10, 1799, Shutesbury, Mass. - d. July 26, 1891, Waterbury, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1865-67).

Dillingham, William P(aul) (b. Dec. 12, 1843, Waterbury, Vt. - d. July 12, 1923, Montpelier, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1888-90); son of Paul Dillingham.

Dillo Djérou, Yaya (b. Dec. 18, 1974, Kaoura, Chad - d. [killed] Feb. 28, 2024, N'Djamena, Chad), Chadian politician; nephew of Idriss Déby Itno. He was minister of mines and energy (2008-09).

Dillon, Arthur (Richard), comte (b. Sept. 3, 1750, Braywick, Ireland - d. [beheaded] April 13, 1794, Paris, France), governor of Tobago (1786-89).

C.D. Dillon
Dillon, C(larence) Douglas (b. Aug. 21, 1909, Geneva, Switzerland - d. Jan. 10, 2003, New York City), U.S. treasury secretary (1961-65). In 1953, Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower plucked him from private life to begin a six-year stint as U.S. ambassador to France. He became undersecretary of state for economic affairs in 1959 and was serving in that role when tapped unexpectedly to join the new Democratic administration in 1961. As an original member of John F. Kennedy's cabinet, he was one of its two high-profile Republicans - along with Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara - surrounded by Democrats. Dillon also was among the cabinet officers who stayed on at the behest of Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson after Kennedy's assassination in November 1963. He returned to private life in 1965. Under both presidents he led the Alliance for Progress, a program to spur economic development in Latin America, an effort he had earlier spearheaded as a founder of the Inter-American Development Bank. Known as a staunch advocate of free trade, Dillon as treasury secretary developed policies aimed at reducing the U.S. trade deficit by controlling inflation and expanding exports, and backed U.S. cooperation with the European Common Market. He also strongly advocated a massive tax cut program to spur economic growth. The tax measure was pending at the time of Kennedy's death, and Dillon won Johnson's support for its passage by Congress in 1964. In 1989 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Closely identified with the Rockefellers, he was a patron of the arts and served as chairman of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's board of trustees in 1977-83.

J. Dillon
Dillon, James (Mathew) (b. Sept. 26, 1902, Dublin, Ireland - d. Feb. 10, 1986, Ballaghadeerreen, County Mayo, Ireland), Irish politician. His family was distinguished in the cause of Irish independence; his grandfather John Blake Dillon had been a member of the Young Ireland movement in the 1840s, and his father, John Dillon, a nationalist member of the Westminster Parliament (1880-83 and 1885-1918). Dillon served in the Dáil as member for County Donegal (1932-37) and for County Monaghan (1937-69). He early became deputy leader of Fine Gael, the main opposition to Eamon de Valera's party, Fianna Fáil, but in 1942 he resigned because of Fine Gael's support for Irish neutrality during World War II. Dillon's first tenure of the post of minister of agriculture (1948-51) was as an independent, but he rejoined Fine Gael in 1951. He served again as minister of agriculture in 1954-57. As party leader (1959-65), Dillon improved Fine Gael's standing in the 1961 general election by opposing a proposal for the compulsory use of Gaelic in school and public service examinations. He refused nomination as president in 1966.

Dillon (Cabezas), Luis Napoleón (b. Aug. 6, 1875, Quito, Ecuador - d. March 31, 1929, Quito), foreign minister (1913-14) and finance minister (1925-26) of Ecuador. He was also education minister (1912-13).

Dillon, Richard C(harles) (b. June 24, 1877, St. Louis, Mo. - d. Jan. 4, 1966, Albuquerque, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1927-31).

Diman, Byron (b. Aug. 5, 1795, Bristol, R.I. - d. Aug. 1, 1865, Bristol), governor of Rhode Island (1846-47).

Dimas, Stavros (Konstantinou), also appearing as Stavros C. Dimas (b. April 30, 1941, Athens, Greece), foreign minister of Greece (2011-12). He was also minister of commerce (1980-81), agriculture (1989-90), and industry, energy, and technology (1990-91) and European commissioner for employment and social affairs (2004) and environment (2004-10).

Dimassi, Houcine (b. Nov. 18, 1948, Ksar Hellal, Tunisia), finance minister of Tunisia (2011-12). He was also minister of vocational training and employment (2011).

Dimitrakopoulos, Nikolaos (b. Jan. 28, 1864, Karytaina, Greece - d. Dec. 21, 1921, Vienna, Austria), provisional foreign minister (1910) and justice minister (1910-12) of Greece.

Dimitri, also spelled Dymytriy, secular name Volodymyr Yarema (b. Dec. 9, 1915, eastern Poland [now western Ukraine] - d. Feb. 25, 2000), patriarch of the schismatic Orthodox Church of Ukraine (1993-2000). He served in the Polish army in 1938-39. During World War II he was a prisoner of war in Germany. He was ordained to the deaconate Aug. 3, 1947, and to the priesthood August 10 of that same year. In 1989 the then Very Reverend Father Volodymyr Yarema proclaimed that his parish in the city of Lviv was to come under the jurisdiction of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine headed by Patriarch Mstyslav. After the death of Patriarch Mstyslav, Dimitri was tonsured a monk, ordained bishop, and elected head of the church by a vote of the Second All-Ukrainian Sobor on Sept. 7, 1993. He was enthroned on Oct. 14, 1993.

Dimitriev, Emil (b. March 19, 1979, Probistip, Macedonia), prime minister of Macedonia (2016-17).

Dimitrios I
Dimitrios I, also spelled Demetrios, original name Dimitrios Papadopoulos (b. Sept. 8, 1914, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Oct. 2, 1991, Istanbul), patriarch of Constantinople (1972-91). He was ordained a priest in 1942, served for a few years as a parish administrator in northern Greece, and was later appointed chaplain to the small Greek community in Tehran. He was consecrated bishop in 1964 and on Feb. 15, 1972, was appointed metropolitan of Imroz Adasi and Bozca Ada, two Turkish islands in the Aegean Sea that were formerly Greek and that have Greek populations. On July 16, 1972, in Istanbul, the Holy Synod of the Eastern Orthodox church elected Metropolitan Dimitrios the 269th patriarch of Constantinople (i.e., ecumenical patriarch), succeeding Athinagoras I.

Dimitriu, Constantin D. (b. Dec. 9, 1872, Târgoviste, Romania - d. Oct. 27, 1945, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. He was minister of public works (1927), communications (1927-28), and labour, health, and social welfare (1933-34) and president of the Senate (1935-36).

Dimitriu, Sergey (Vasilyevich) (b. 1892 - d. [executed] 1937), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Moldavian A.S.S.R. (1928-32).

Dimitrov, Aleksandar (b. Nov. 29, 1949, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), foreign minister of Macedonia (1998-2000).

Dimitrov, Aleksandur (Tenev), byname Bradata (b. 1878, Slokoshtitsa, Bulgaria - d. [killed] Oct. 22, 1921, Konyavska mountain, Bulgaria), interior minister (1919-21) and war minister (1921) of Bulgaria. He was also minister of railways, posts, and telegraphs (1921).

Dimitrov, Boyko (Georgiev), originally Boyko (Kostov) Zlatarev (b. June 5, 1941, Pleven, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1989-90); adopted son of Georgi Dimitrov. He was also ambassador to Cuba (1978-83), Panama (1979-81), Jamaica (1979-84), and Guyana (1979-81).

F. Dimitrov
Dimitrov, Filip (Dimitrov) (b. March 31, 1955, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister of Bulgaria (1991-92). On Dec. 11, 1990, he succeeded Petur Beron as the chair of the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF) National Coordinating Council. Dimitrov had no tolerance for the Communists as he was known for not accepting any compromise with the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP). Dimitrov believed in "shock therapy" for the economy. On Nov. 4, 1991, he was appointed prime minister by Pres. Zhelyu Zhelev. Dimitrov failed in solving Bulgaria's most important problems such as the privatization of the state firms, inflation, and unemployment. All of this failure was mainly due to the non-cooperation of the BSP, but it was also due to his stubbornness. He also did not succeed in keeping his party united as the UDF began to split into factions. On Oct. 28, 1992, he resigned his cabinet after he lost the necessary parliamentary support of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF). He tried to appoint a new cabinet, but it was not approved. A cabinet of experts was formulated under the leadership of Lyuben Berov. This government was supported by the BSP and the MRF. Dimitrov made numerous efforts to oust this group from power, but after the 1994 parliamentary elections, in which the UDF lost badly, Ivan Kostov replaced Dimitrov as the UDF chair on Dec. 29, 1994. Dimitrov served as permanent representative to the United Nations in 1997-98 and as ambassador to the United States in 1998-2002.

G. Dimitrov
Dimitrov (Mihailov), Georgi (b. June 30 [June 18, O.S.], 1882, Kovachevtsi, Bulgaria - d. July 2, 1949, Barvikha, near Moscow, U.S.S.R.), prime minister of Bulgaria (1945-49). His oratorical gifts secured him the secretaryship of the Bulgarian Trade Union Confederation in 1904. Elected to the Sabranie in 1913, he led the socialist parliamentary opposition to the voting of national war credits in 1915. He was briefly imprisoned for sedition in 1917-18 and played a major role in the formation of the Bulgarian Communist Party in 1919. He journeyed to the Soviet Union, where he was elected to the executive committee of the Comintern (Communist International) in 1921. In 1923 he fostered a Communist revolt in Bulgaria that ended in bloodshed and defeat. He escaped to Yugoslavia, but soon moved to Vienna, where he lived until 1929, when he moved to Berlin. After the Reichstag fire of Feb. 27, 1933, which provided Adolf Hitler, the new German chancellor, with an excuse for a decree outlawing his Communist opponents, Dimitrov was accused with other Communist leaders of plotting the fire. At his trial Dimitrov thoroughly bested the Nazi prosecution and was acquitted. He settled in Moscow and, as secretary-general of the Comintern's executive committee (1935-43), encouraged the formation of popular-front movements against the Nazi menace, except when his patron, Iosif Stalin, and Hitler were cooperating. During 1944 he directed the resistance to Bulgaria's Axis satellite government, and in 1945 he returned to Bulgaria, where he was immediately appointed prime minister of a Communist-dominated Fatherland Front government. He effected the Communist consolidation of power, relying on his fiery oratory for gaining and holding great authority even among the strongly individual Bulgarian peasantry.

N. Dimitrov
Dimitrov, Nikola (b. Sept. 30, 1972, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), foreign minister of (North) Macedonia (2017-20). He has also been deputy prime minister for European affairs (2020- ).

Dimitrov, Stefan (Dimitrov) (b. Sept. 24, 1966), foreign minister of Bulgaria (2024). He was also ambassador to Montenegro (2023-24).

Dimond, Francis M(oore) (b. June 6, 1796, Bristol, R.I. - d. April 23, 1859, Bristol), acting governor of Rhode Island (1853-54).

Dimov (Vergilov), Vergil (b. Oct. 25, 1901, Ayazlar [now Svetlen], Bulgaria - d. Dec. 1, 1979), interior minister of Bulgaria (1944). He was also minister of public works (1932-34) and railways, posts, and telegraphs (1944).

Dimovska, Dosta (b. Feb. 17, 1954, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia] - d. April 4, 2011, Sofia, Bulgaria), interior minister of Macedonia (1999-2001). She was also director of the Intelligence Agency (2002-03).

Dinbergs, Anatols (b. March 3, 1911, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Nov. 9, 1993, Washington, D.C.), Latvian diplomat. He was head of the Latvian diplomatic service in exile (1970-91), permanent representative to the United Nations (1991), and ambassador to the United States (1991-93).

Dinca, Ion (b. Nov. 3, 1928, Cobia, Dâmbovita county, Romania), Romanian politician. He was first secretary of the party committee and chairman of the executive committee of Arges county (1973-76), first secretary of the party committee and mayor of Bucharest (1976-79), minister of industrial construction and a deputy premier (1979-80), and a first deputy premier (1980-89).

Dinçer, Hasan (Hamdi) (b. 1910, Sandikli, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. April 24, 2001), a deputy prime minister (1962-63), defense minister (1965), and justice minister (1965-69) of Turkey.

Dindy, Emmanuel (b. Dec. 25, 1929, Bangui, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), Central African Republic politician. He was minister of health (1959-61), social affairs (1959-64), labour (1961-64), and youth and sports (1961-63) and ambassador to Cameroon (1970-72).

Dine, Fiqri (b. Aug. 3, 1897, Dibër, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. Nov. 26, 1960, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister and interior minister of Albania (1944).

Dinevska, Tanja, Macedonian diplomat. She was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2017-19).

Ding Mou-shih
Ding Mou-shih, Pinyin Ding Maoshi (b. Oct. 10, 1925, Binchuan county, Yunnan province, China), foreign minister of Taiwan (1987-88). Earlier he was Taiwan's ambassador to Rwanda (1964-67), Congo (Kinshasa) (1967-71), and South Korea (1979-82) and chief representative in the United States (1988-94).

Ding Weifen, Wade-Giles Ting Wei-fen (b. 1874, Rizhao, Shandong, China - d. May 12, 1954, Taipei, Taiwan), Chinese politician. He studied abroad in Japan in 1904 and joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905. He became a member of the House of Representatives upon the founding of the republic, later participating in several movements against Pres. Yuan Shikai. He started his senior career in the Kuomintang in 1924, holding membership in its Central Political Committee. Years later, he was nominated as head of the Department of Youth, subsequently Propaganda and Training. He became vice president of the Control Yuan in 1932.

Dingley, Nelson, Jr. (b. Feb. 15, 1832, Durham, Maine - d. Feb. 13, 1899, Washington, D.C.), governor of Maine (1874-76).

Dinguizli, Mustapha, Arabic Mustafa al-Dinqizli (b. 1865 - d. Oct. 20, 1926), prime minister of Tunisia (1922-26). He was also mayor of Tunis (1912-15).

Dinh Tien Dung (b. May 10, 1961, Ninh Binh province, North Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), finance minister of Vietnam (2013-21). He has also been chairman of the People's Committee of Dien Bien province (2008-10) and secretary of the party committees of Ninh Binh province (2010-11) and Hanoi city (2021- ).

Dini, Lamberto (b. March 1, 1931, Florence, Italy), prime minister (1995-96) and foreign minister (1996-2001) of Italy. He held high-flying jobs at the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, and the Bank of Italy. He became treasury minister under Silvio Berlusconi in 1994 and was named a technocrat prime minister in January 1995 (also keeping the treasury portfolio) after Berlusconi's government fell. Since then Dini, nicknamed "The Toad" in Italy because of his appearance, developed an unexpected flair for politics as the leader of the small Italian Renewal Party. As foreign minister during the Romano Prodi administration, Dini made a series of overtures to "rogue" Islamic countries including Iran, Libya, and Algeria, and also made the first visit by a high-ranking European Union official to Cuba. In 1997, when anarchy broke out in Albania, he played a key role in mustering international support for an Italian-led multinational force to restore stability.

Diniz, Alberto Augusto (Oliveira) (b. 1868? - d. Oct. 17?, 1956, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Acre (1926).

Diniz, Antero Alves Monteiro (b. Feb. 29, 1936, Vila Pouca de Aguiar, northern Portugal), minister of the republic (1997-2006) and representative of the republic (2006-11) in Madeira.

Dinkic, Mladjan (b. Dec. 20, 1964, Belgrade, Serbia), finance minister (2004-06, 2012-13) and a deputy prime minister (2008-11) of Serbia. He was also political director (1999-2000) and president (2006-14) of G-17 Plus (from 2013 United Regions of Serbia), governor of the National Bank of Yugoslavia (2000-03) and of Serbia (2003), and minister of economy (2007-11, 2012-13) and regional development (2007-11).

Dinkins, David (Norman) (b. July 10, 1927, Trenton, N.J. - d. Nov. 23, 2020, New York City), mayor of New York City (1990-94). He served in the U.S. Marine Corps during the Korean conflict. In 1965 he was elected to the New York state assembly. In 1973 he was named New York City's deputy mayor for planning, but he was forced to withdraw under the shadow of his having neglected to file income tax returns from 1969 to 1972. From 1975 to 1985 he served as city clerk and was then elected Manhattan borough president. On Sept. 12, 1989, he defeated incumbent Ed Koch in the Democratic Party mayoral primary. Then on November 7, Dinkins again seized victory when he defeated his Republican opponent, former U.S. attorney Rudolph Giuliani, to become New York City's first black mayor. He won the election with the support of a large number of blacks and Hispanics and with nearly one-third of the white vote. A far cry from the flamboyant, acerbic Koch, Dinkins had a soft-spoken, unassuming style that seemed to be just what New Yorkers were looking for to lead them into the 1990s. Accompanying Dinkins' sweet taste of victory was the bitter reality of the many problems that he would have to face. In addition to the $1 billion deficit, there were the 50,000 homeless, the AIDS and drug problems, and racial tensions. Prior to the election he was credited with staying neutral concerning a racially motivated killing in Brooklyn, and asking for calm. Racial harmony became a campaign issue, and Dinkins vowed to "bring New York City together." After the primary Dinkins had told supporters, "You voted your hopes and not your fears." With his easygoing style, he did ease racial tensions but mounting fiscal crises and a persistent crime rate led to his defeat at the hands of Giuliani in 1993.

Dinmukhamedov, Galey (Afzaletdinovich) (b. 1892, Novo-Ibraykino, Kazan province [now in Tatarstan republic], Russia - d. Aug. 20, 1951, Kazan, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1937-38) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938-51) of the Tatar A.S.S.R. He was also people's commissar of workers' and peasants' inspection of the Bashkir A.S.S.R. (193...-34).

Dinnyés, Lajos (b. April 16, 1901, Alsódabas, Hungary - d. May 3, 1961, Budapest, Hungary), defense minister (1947) and prime minister (1947-48) of Hungary.

Dino, Xhemil Bej (b. 1894, Preveza, Greece - d. July 2, 1972, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Albania (1939); son-in-law of Shefqet Bej Vërlaci. He was also minister to Italy (1926-31) and the United Kingdom (1932-33).

Dinsmoor, Samuel (b. July 1, 1766, Windham, New Hampshire - d. March 15, 1835, Keene, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1831-34).

Dinsmoor, Samuel (b. May 8, 1799, Keene, N.H. - d. Feb. 24, 1869, Keene), governor of New Hampshire (1849-52); son of the above.


Dinwiddy, Bruce (Harry) (b. Feb. 1, 1946, Epsom, England - d. April 1, 2021), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1996-98) and governor of the Cayman Islands (2002-05). He was also British high commissioner to Tanzania (1998-2001).

Diodoros I, original name Damianos (Georgiou) Karivalis (b. Aug. 14, 1923, Chios island, Greece - d. Dec. 19, 2000, Jerusalem), patriarch of Jerusalem (1981-2000). He moved to what was then British-mandated Palestine in 1938. He became a monk in 1944 and was renamed Diodoros. Three years later he became a priest, then an archbishop in 1962, and he was named patriarch in 1981. In 2000, Diodoros met with Pope John Paul II during the pontiff's visit to the Holy Land. The pope said then he hoped the Vatican and the Orthodox church could overcome theological differences, such as disagreements over the nature of Christ and the extent of the authority of the papacy.

Diogo, Bornito de Sousa Baltazar (b. July 23, 1953, Quéssua, Malanje, Angola), vice president of Angola (2017- ). He was also minister of territorial administration (2010-17).

L. Diogo
Diogo, Luísa (Dias) (b. April 11, 1958, Mágoè district, Mozambique), finance minister (2000-05) and prime minister (2004-10) of Mozambique.

Diokno, Benjamin (Estoista) (b. March 31, 1948, Taal, Batangas, Philippines), finance secretary of the Philippines (2022-24). He was also governor of the Central Bank (2019-22).

Diokno, Jose (Wright) (b. Feb. 26, 1922, Manila, Philippines - d. Feb. 27, 1987, Quezon City, Philippines), justice secretary of the Philippines (1961-62). He was also chairman of the Presidential Committee on Human Rights (1986-87).

Diomi (Ndongala), Gaston (b. 1922, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. 19...), president of secessionist Congo province (1960) and of Léopoldville province (1962).

Diomidis(-Kyriakos), Alexandros (Nikolaou) (b. 1875, Athens, Greece - d. Nov. 11, 1950, Athens), prime minister of Greece (1949-50); grandson of Diomidis Kyriakos. He joined Eleftherios Venizelos' Liberal government as minister of finance (1912-15). After World War I he retired from politics, but served as minister without portfolio and acting foreign minister (1918-19) and briefly again as finance minister (1922) and in 1923 was elected governor of the National Bank, at that time still the bank of issue; he negotiated important public loans, besides conducting negotiations which led to the creation of the Bank of Greece as the bank of issue (1928). Retiring from public life in 1930, he was honorary president of the Supreme Economic Council before World War II and from 1945 president of the Supreme Reconstruction Board. On Jan. 20, 1949, Diomidis joined the coalition government of Themistoklis Sophoulis as a non-party deputy prime minister and minister without portfolio, and on the death of Sophoulis succeeded him on June 30 as prime minister of a Populist-Liberal coalition cabinet. He resigned on Jan. 5, 1950.

Dion, Sir Leo (b. 1950), governor of East New Britain (2000-12); knighted 2016. He was also Papua New Guinean deputy prime minister and minister of inter-government relations (2012-17).

S. Dion
Dion, Stéphane (Maurice) (b. Sept. 28, 1955, Québec, Que.), foreign minister of Canada (2015-17). First elected to the House of Commons in a 1996 by-election, he became minister of intergovernmental affairs (1996-2003), the highlight of his tenure being the creation of the so-called Clarity Act (passed in 2000), which makes it much harder for Quebec to break away from Canada. Dion said the act was one of his finest accomplishments, but some in Quebec never forgave him, one cartoonist regularly portraying him as a rat. In 2004-06 he was environment minister. In December 2006 he was elected leader of the Liberal Party, defeating Michael Ignatieff on the fourth ballot. He came into the leadership convention in fourth place but swayed delegates by giving perhaps the most impassioned speech of the leading contenders in which he stressed energy conservation. In the October 2008 elections he led the Liberals to a historic low, and soon afterwards said he would turn over the reins of the party to the winner of a leadership convention in May 2009. However, in December 2008 he helped engineer a coalition deal with the New Democratic Party and the Bloc Québécois designed to remove the Conservative minority government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper and install Dion as prime minister. But Harper, whose public support increased after the opposition's manoeuvring, forestalled a defeat by getting parliament prorogued until January, and Dion, who remained unpopular with Canadians, then announced he would resign early; he was replaced by Ignatieff on December 10. In 2017 he became ambassador to Germany; in 2022 he was appointed ambassador to France.

Dion Ngute

Dion Ngute, Joseph (b. March 12, 1954, Bongongo Barombi, British Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), prime minister of Cameroon (2019- ).

Dionne, Mohamed (Boun Abdallah), Mohamed also spelled Mahammed (b. Sept. 22, 1959, Gossas, Senegal - d. April 5, 2024, France), prime minister of Senegal (2014-19). He was also secretary-general of the presidency (2019-20).

Diop (1952- )

Diop (1965- )
Diop, Abdoulaye (b. Sept. 10, 1952, Thiès, Senegal), finance minister of Senegal (2001-12). He is not to be confused with another Senegalese politician of the same name who was minister of employment (2017-19) and culture and communication (2019-22).

Diop, Abdoulaye (b. Sept. 17, 1965, Brazzaville, Congo [Brazzaville]), foreign minister of Mali (2014-17, 2021- ). He was also ambassador to the United States (2003-09).

Diop, Abdourahmane (b. Feb. 18, 1917, Dakar, Senegal), justice minister of Senegal (1968-71). He was also minister of civil service and labour (1963-68).

Diop, Bécaye (b. 1945), defense minister (2002-09, 2010-11) and interior minister (2009-10) of Senegal.

Diop, Ousmane Socé (b. Oct. 31, 1911, Rufisque, Senegal - d. Oct. 27, 1973, Dakar, Senegal), Senegalese politician. Also known as a writer, he was mayor of Rufisque (1936-45, 1960-64), minister of planning (1958-59), and permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1960-68).

Diop, Serigne (b. Jan. 3, 1953, Thiès, Senegal), justice minister of Senegal (1998-2000, 2002-05). He was also minister of employment, labour, and professional training (1993-95) and communication (1995-98) and médiateur (ombudsman) (2009-15).

Diop, Serigne Lamine (b. April 28, 1935, Dakar, Senegal - d. Dec. 16, 2008, Dakar), economy and finance minister of Senegal (1988-90). He was also minister of commerce (1980-81), rural development (1981-83), industrial development and crafts (1983-88), and justice (1990-93).

Diorditsa, Aleksandr (Filipovich) (b. Sept. 12 [Aug. 30, O.S.], 1911, Gandrabury, Russia [now in Odessa oblast, Ukraine] - d. April 1, 1996, Moscow, Russia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1958-70). He was also finance minister (1946-55) and a deputy premier (1955-58).

Dioré, (Claude) Élie (b. May 26, 1727, Saint-Denis, Île Bourbon [now Réunion] - d. Aug. 2, 1803, Saint-André, Réunion), governor of Île Bourbon (1785-88); son of Hélie Dioré.

Dioré, Hélie (b. Sept. 22, 1677, La Rochelle, France - d. bf. July 1741), governor of Île Bourbon (1725-27).

Diori, Hamani (b. June 6, 1916, Soudouré, Niger - d. April 23, 1989, Rabat, Morocco), president of Niger (1960-74). He was a founder member (1946) of the Rassemblement Démocratique Africain and founder of its local branch, the Niger Progressive Party (PPN), and represented Niger in the French National Assembly (1946-51, 1956-58). During the transition period before Niger's independence, the French government banned (1959) all political parties except the PPN and chose Diori to serve as Niger's prime minister (1958-60) and president (1960). On Nov. 11, 1960, he was formally voted into office in the first postindependence elections. Despite pressure from France, he supported Nigeria during the secession (1967-70) of Biafra, and he gained worldwide respect for his attempts to negotiate a peaceful settlement in the conflict. Diori's administration, however, was rife with corruption, and he was unable to implement much-needed reforms or to alleviate the widespread famine brought on by the Sahelian drought of the early 1970s. He was deposed by the army chief of staff, Lt.Col. Seyni Kountché, on April 15, 1974. Diori was released from prison in 1980, but he remained under house arrest until April 1987.

A. Diouf
Diouf, Abdou (b. Sept. 7, 1935, Louga, northern Senegal), president of Senegal (1981-2000). He joined the civil service in 1960, and over the next years, he was appointed to a succession of posts: governor of the Sine-Saloum region (1961-62), secretary-general to the presidency (1964-68, a key post that he took over at the remarkably young age of 29), and minister of planning and industry (1968-70). He quickly established a reputation for fair-mindedness when he oversaw the liberalization of the political system. In 1970 he became prime minister, a post that had only just been created through a change in the constitution. In 1970-72 he was also defense minister. He retained the premiership for 11 years and upon the retirement of Pres. Léopold Sédar Senghor and in accordance with the constitution, he succeeded to the presidency (Jan. 1, 1981). He was elected in his own right two years later, was reelected in 1988, and won a third term in multiparty elections in March 1993. He has also served as secretary-general (1981-96) and president (1996- ) of the Socialist Party of Senegal. In 1982-89 he was also president of the Senegambia confederation. Diouf gained international prominence as a delegate to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1983, when he played a key role at the June 1983 summit meeting, and as that organization's chairman in 1985-86, when his decisive leadership and moderation restored confidence in that troubled body. He served a second term as OAU chairman in 1992-93 and he also served as chairman of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Islamic Conference, and the G-15 nations. He stepped down as president willingly after losing the 2000 elections to Abdoulaye Wade, a move that brought him respect in a continent where leaders tend to cling to power. In 2003-14 he was secretary-general of La Francophonie.

Diouf, Coumba Ndoffène (b. Dec. 29, 1932), foreign minister of Senegal (1972-73). He was also civil service and labour minister (1970-72) and public health and social affairs minister (1973-75).

Diouf, Jacques (b. Aug. 1, 1938, Saint-Louis, Senegal - d. Aug. 17, 2019, Paris, France), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1994-2011).

Diouf, Madior (b. 1939, Fimela, Senegal), Senegalese politician. He was a minor presidential candidate (1993) and minister of higher education (2000-01) and culture (2001).

Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva (b. June 27, 1971, Kathmandu - d. June 4, 2001, Chauni, near Kathmandu), king of Nepal (2001). He was the eldest son of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva and was declared heir apparent in 1972 after his father became king. After his early education in Kathmandu, Dipendra, like his father, went to Eton College in Britain. There, he was reportedly excused from chapel when he turned 18. According to Nepali tradition, the prince effectively became a god on his birthday and he could not be seen worshipping another. Known as "Dippy" to his friends, Dipendra returned to Kathmandu to study at Tribhuvan University. He later joined the Royal Nepal Military Academy. In 1990, he was commissioned as the colonel-in-chief of the Royal Nepalese Army, an honorary title given to the heir to the throne. At a banquet during Prince Charles' 1998 visit to Nepal, Dipendra told him of his country's sorrow at the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Dipendra also praised Eton for giving him a sense of "fair play and discipline." Childhood classmates remember him as friendly and intelligent, and always at the top of the class. He was often seen in the streets without his bodyguards. He was a flying enthusiast who enjoyed helicopters, reading, and writing poetry. He also held a black belt in kung fu. On June 1, 2001, Dipendra shot his parents and seven other royals before turning the gun on himself. He was widely believed to be angered by an ancient tradition in Nepal: the arranged marriage. Palace officials and local media reports said Queen Aishwarya rejected Dipendra's choice of a bride because of her clan, providing an apparent motive for the shooting spree. He initially survived, though in a coma, and was proclaimed king, but died three days after the massacre.

Dipico, Manne (Emsley) (b. April 21, 1959, Greenpoint township, Kimberley, Cape province [now in Northern Cape]), premier of Northern Cape (1994-2004).

DiPrete, Edward D(aniel) (b. July 8, 1934, Cranston, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1985-91). He pleaded guilty in December 1998 to bribery, extortion, and racketeering, admitting he accepted $250,000 from architects, engineers, and others in exchange for state contracts. DiPrete's son Dennis was fined $1,000 after pleading guilty to playing the middleman for his Republican father.

Direk Jayanama (b. Jan. 18, 1905, Phitsanulok, Siam [now Thailand] - d. May 1, 1967), foreign minister (1941, 1943-44, 1946-47) and finance minister (1945-46) of Thailand. He was also justice minister (1945), deputy prime minister (1946-47), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1947-48) and West Germany (1959-65).

Direko, (Isabella) Winkie (b. Nov. 27, 1929, Botshabelo, near Bloemfontein, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa - d. Feb. 16, 2012, Bloemfontein), premier of the Free State (1999-2004).

Diria, Ahmed Hassan (b. July 13, 1937, Raha Leo, Zanzibar [now in Tanzania] - d. March 13, 2005, Germany), foreign minister of Tanzania (1990-93). He was also ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1965-68), Congo (Kinshasa) (1968-70), Japan (1979-83), and West Germany (1983-89), high commissioner to India (1971-78), and information minister (1989-90).

Dirir, Saleh (Haji) Farah (b. May 6, 1937, French Somaliland [now Djibouti] - d. Oct. 13, 2011), Djiboutian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-87) and ambassador to the United States (1981-87) and Saudi Arabia (1987-90).

Dirmantas, Stasys (b. Nov. 14 [Nov. 2, O.S.], 1887, Raseiniai, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Jan. 26, 1975, Chicago, Ill.), defense minister of Lithuania (1935-38).

Diro, Ted, byname of Edward Ramu Diro (b. Dec. 14, 1942, Boku village, Rigo subdistrict, Central district, Papua [now in Papua New Guinea]), foreign minister (1986-87) and deputy prime minister (1990-91) of Papua New Guinea and governor of Central province (1997-99). He was also minister of forests (1985-86) and public service (1990-91) and special minister of state (1989-90).

Dirvana, Ibrahim Ethem, until Jan. 1, 1935, Ibrahim Edhem Bey (b. 1864, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. late April 1959), Ottoman official. He was governor of Beirut (1908-10, 1912-13) and Aydin (1918) and minister of posts and telegraphs (1919) and commerce (1919).

Dirzinskaite(-Piliusenko), Leokadija (b. Jan. 20, 1921, Anclaukys, Vilkaviskis region, Lithuania - d. January 2008, Vilnius, Lithuania), foreign minister (1960-61, 1961-76) and first deputy chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1976-85) of the Lithuanian S.S.R. She was also first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Siauliai city (1958-60).

DiSalle, Michael V(incent) (b. Jan. 6, 1908, New York City - d. Sept. 15, 1981, Pescara, Abruzzo, Italy), mayor of Toledo (1948-50) and governor of Ohio (1959-63). He served in the Ohio legislature in 1937 and 1938, and was assistant city law director of Toledo from 1939 to 1941. DiSalle was a member of the Toledo city council from 1942 and served two terms as the city's vice-mayor before being elected mayor in 1947 and again in 1949. He served as chairman of the advisory board of the U.S. Conference of Mayors. He was also chairman of the Toledo Labor-Management Citizens Committee which attracted national attention for keeping industrial peace during World War II. Pres. Harry S. Truman named him director of price stabilization Nov. 30, 1950. He was defeated for the Democratic nomination for the U.S. Senate in 1950; he won the nomination in 1952, but lost the election in that year's Republican landslide. He won the governorship in 1958 with ease, but was defeated for a second term in 1962. As governor, he overcame Republican opposition in pushing through considerable social legislation in Ohio.

Disele, Kebatshabile (Lorato) (b. June 18, 1924, Kanye, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. bf. 2012), home affairs minister of Botswana (1979-84).

Disha, Qemal (Vehbi) (b. Feb. 25, 1951, Dibër, Albania), finance minister of Albania (1990-91).

Dishnica, Piro (Gaqo) (b. Dec. 3, 1957, Tiranë, Albania), finance minister of Albania (1993-94).

Dishnica, Ymer (b. Feb. 21, 1912, Dishnicë, near Korçë, Albania - d. Sept. 22, 1998), Albanian politician. He was minister of health (1944-46) and chairman of the People's Assembly (1946-47).

Dissanayake, Berty Premalal (b. July 15, 1954 - d. Sept. 27, 2013, Colombo, Sri Lanka), chief minister of North Central province (1999-2012). He was also Sri Lankan minister of social services (1997-99).

Dissanayake, (Lionel) Gamini (b. March 20, 1942, Kotmale, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. [assassinated] Oct. 24, 1994, Colombo, Sri Lanka), Sri Lankan presidential candidate (1994). He was also minister of irrigation, power, and highways (1977-78), lands, land development, and Mahaweli development (1978-89), and plantation industries (1989-90).

Dissanayake, Navin (Eranjan) (b. Sept. 9, 1969), governor of Sabaragamuwa (2023- ). He was also Sri Lankan minister of investment promotion (2007-10), public management reforms (2010-14), tourism and sports (2015), and plantation industries (2015-19).

Dissanayake, W(eerasooriya) M(udiyanselage) P(unchi) B(anda) (b. April 16, 1927 - d. May 29, 2003), chief minister of Central province, Sri Lanka (1988-98, 2002-03).

Distaso, Salvatore (b. May 16, 1937, Bari, Italy - d. March 19, 2008, Bari), president of Puglia (1995-2000).

Disterlo, Baldvins, German Balduin Baron von Düsterlohe (b. April 13, 1869, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. May 12, 1937, Riga), justice minister of Latvia (1928-29).

Dith Munty (b. Nov. 15, 1941, Kampot, Cambodia), Cambodian politician. He has been ambassador to India (1981-86), minister of information (1992-93), and president of the Supreme Court (1998- ).

Ditleff, Niels Christian (b. Oct. 29, 1881, Larvik, Norway - d. [traffic accident] June 18, 1956, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian diplomat; son-in-law of Edvard Hagerup Bull. He was minister to Poland and Czechoslovakia (1930-45), Romania (1935-37), and Finland (1945-50).

Ditlev-Simonsen, Per (b. June 12, 1932, Oslo, Norway), defense minister of Norway (1989-90). He was also mayor of Oslo (1995-2007).

Dittmer, Joachim von (b. 1681, Narva, Sweden [now in Estonia] - d. Feb. 11, 1755, Almesåkra socken, Jönköping, Sweden), governor of Nyslott och Kymmenegård (1738-41). He was ennobled (adding the "von") in 1727.

Divan, B(ipinchandra) J(ivanlal) (b. Aug. 20, 1919, Ahmedabad [now in Gujarat], India - d. March 12, 2012, Ahmedabad), acting governor of Andhra Pradesh (1977). He was chief justice of Gujarat High Court (1973-76, 1977-81) and Andhra Pradesh High Court (1976-77).

Divulgane, (Herath Mudiyanselage) Karunarathna, governor of North Central province, Sri Lanka (2006-15).

Diwakar, Ranganath Ramachandra (b. Sept. 30, 1894, Dharwar [now Dharwad, Karnataka], India - d. Jan. 15, 1990, Belgaum [now Belagavi], Karnataka, India), governor of Bihar (1952-57). He was also Indian minister of state for information and broadcasting (1949-52).

Dix, John Adams (b. July 24, 1798, Boscawen, N.H. - d. April 21, 1879, New York City), U.S. secretary of the treasury (1861) and governor of New York (1873-75). He was also minister to France (1866-69).

Dix, John Alden (b. Dec. 25, 1860, Glens Falls, N.Y. - d. April 9, 1928, New York City), governor of New York (1911-13).

Dixon, Frank M(urray) (b. July 25, 1892, Oakland, Calif. - d. Oct. 11, 1965, Birmingham, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1939-43).

Dixon, Joseph M(oore) (b. July 31, 1867, Snow Camp, N.C. - d. May 22, 1934, Missoula, Mont.), governor of Montana (1921-25).

Dixon, Michael Grey (b. June 24, 1910, India - d. 1974, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England), acting British political agent in Bahrain (1943).

Dixon, Sir Owen (b. April 28, 1886, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Victoria - d. July 7, 1972, Hawthorn), Australian jurist/diplomat; knighted 1941. He was minister to the United States (1942-44) and chief justice (1952-64).

Dixon, Sir Pierson (John), byname Bob Dixon (b. Nov. 13, 1904, Englefield Green, Surrey, England - d. April 22, 1965, Egham, Surrey), British diplomat; knighted 1950. He was ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1948-50) and France (1960-65) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1954-60).

Diya, (Donaldson) Oladipo (b. April 3, 1944, Odogbolu [now in Ogun state], Nigeria - d. March 26, 2023), Nigerian political figure. He was commissioned in March 1967, just in time to fight on the federal side in the Nigerian civil war. He attended the U.S. Army School of Infantry at Fort Benning in 1971-72, returning to hold several command positions. From 1979 to 1980 Diya commanded the Nigerian contingent of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. After the military overthrew the Second Republic government of Pres. Shehu Shagari in December 1983, Diya was appointed military governor of Ogun state (1984-85). There he introduced a controversial tax on the lavish social parties for which southwestern Nigeria is famous. Diya, an infantry officer, opposed the military's annulment of a presidential poll in June 1993 believed to have been won by his Yoruba kinsman Moshood Abiola. During the crisis following the annulment of the election, Diya was the intermediary between the military and largely-Yoruba pro-democracy activists who urged Sani Abacha, as the most senior officer at the time, to seize power and hand over to Abiola. Diya, who became chief of defense staff in September 1993, was the strongman behind Abacha when he seized power in November 1993 and an early pillar of his administration, but his influence waned once Abacha consolidated power. Diya, a lawyer, also convinced three prominent Yoruba leaders to join Abacha's cabinet, helping to give the government credibility, but all three were eventually sacked. Diya was arrested in 1997. Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar, who took over after Abacha's death in 1998, immediately freed a number of political prisoners but for unexplained reasons did not free Lieutenant General Diya and other serving military men sentenced for alleged coup attempts against Abacha. However, Diya was the chief beneficiary of a 1999 amnesty granted to 95 people accused of plotting against Abacha.


Dizdarevic, Raif (b. 1926, Fojnica, Bosnia), Yugoslav politician. He was president of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1978-82) and then president of the Federal Assembly (1982-83), foreign minister (1984-87), and president of the Presidency (1988-89) of Yugoslavia.

Djá, Baciro (b. Jan. 31, 1973), defense minister (2011-12) and prime minister (2015, 2016) of Guinea-Bissau. He was a minor presidential candidate in 2012 and 2019.

Djabir (Boina Mbafoumou), Ahmed (b. 1943, Mitsamiouli, Grande Comore, Comoros - d. Feb. 15, 2023, Marseille, France), Comoran diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1997-2002).

Djaló, (Mamadu) Iaia (b. 1962? - d. Dec. 20, 2021, Dakar, Senegal), foreign minister of Guinea-Bissau (2000-01). He was also a minor presidential candidate (2005, 2009, 2014, 2019) and minister of justice and human rights (2018-19, 2021) and commerce and industry (2019-20).

Djamous, Issakha Malloua, armies minister of Chad (2024- ). He was also governor of Ennedi-Est (2021-23).

Djanggola, Longki (L.) (b. Nov. 11, 1952, Palu [now in Sulawesi Tengah], Indonesia), governor of Sulawesi Tengah (2011-21).

Djangone-Bi, Djessan Philippe (b. Jan. 1, 1946, Vrigrita, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. May 21, 2020, Abdijan, Côte d'Ivoire), Ivorian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-07) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2007-11).

Djani, Dian Triansyah (b. July 9, 1962, Jakarta, Indonesia), Indonesian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2016-22).

Djankov, Simeon (Denchev), also spelled Dyankov (b. July 13, 1970, Sofia, Bulgaria), finance minister and a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (2009-13).

Djapo, Mirsad (b. Nov. 2, 1953, Brcko, Bosnia and Herzegovina), mayor of Brcko (2004-09).

Djédjé, (Ilahiri) Alcide (b. 1956), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2010-11; under Pres. Laurent Gbagbo). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 2007-10.

Djédjé Mady, Alphonse (b. 1945, Gazéhio, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), Ivorian politician. He was minister of public health and population (1983-89).

Djelic, Bozidar (b. April 1, 1965, Belgrade, Serbia), finance minister (2001-04) and a deputy prime minister (2007-11) of Serbia. He was also minister of science and technological development (2008-11).

Djengbot, Guillaume Lucien (b. c. 1947), Central African Republic politician. He was ambassador to Nigeria (1978-81) and minister of armed forces, veterans, water resources, and energy (1985-86).

Djerad, Abdelaziz (b. Feb. 12, 1954, Khenchela, Algeria), prime minister of Algeria (2019-21). He was appointed ambassador to Sweden in 2021.

Djergenia, Anri (Mikhailovich), also spelled Dzhergenia or Jergenia (b. Aug. 8, 1941, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia] - d. Jan. 5, 2020, Moscow, Russia), prime minister of Abkhazia (2001-02). He was also prosecutor-general (1992-2001) and a minor presidential candidate (2004).

Djeric, Branko (b. Nov. 20, 1948), prime minister of the Republika Srpska (1992-93).

Djermakoye, Issoufou Saïdou (b. July 10, 1920, Dosso, Niger - d. June 30, 2000, Paris, France), Nigerien politician. He was justice minister (1959-61, 1963-65), permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-62, 1965-66), and ambassador to the United States (1961-62).

Djermakoye, Moumouni Adamou (b. May 22, 1939, Dosso, Niger - d. June 14, 2009, Niamey, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (1974-79). He was also minister of youth, sports, and culture (1979-81) and public health and social affairs (1981-83), prefect of Zinder département (1983-88), ambassador to the U.S. and permanent representative to the UN (1988-91), and president of the National Assembly (1993-95). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2004.

Djibo, Salou (b. April 15, 1965, Namaro, Niger), chairman of the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy of Niger (2010-11). He was a minor presidential candidate in 2020.

Djibril, Ibrahim Idriss (b. May 15, 1948, Obock, French Somaliland [now Djibouti] - d. Oct. 12, 2017, Djibouti, Djibouti), Djiboutian politician. He was minister of public works (1990-93), civil service and administrative reform (1997), agriculture (1997-99), and justice (1999-2001).

Djilas, Dragan (b. Feb. 22, 1967, Belgrade, Serbia), Serbian politician. He was minister without portfolio and coordinator for the National Investment Plan (2007-08), mayor of Belgrade (2008-13), and president of the Democratic Party (2012-14).

Djilas, Milovan (b. June 12, 1911, Podbisce, near Kolasin, Montenegro - d. April 20, 1995, Belgrade, Serbia), Yugoslav politician. He was a vice premier and president of the Federal Assembly (1953-54). He became a critic of the Communist system and was imprisoned in 1956-61 and 1962-66.

Djindjic, Zoran (b. Aug. 1, 1952, Bosanski Samac, Bosnia - d. March 12, 2003, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister of Serbia (2001-03). He was never a member of the long-ruling Communist party. Having fled to West Germany to avoid prison after being accused of activities against the state, he returned to Belgrade in 1989, co-founding the Democratic Party which he led inside the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) umbrella alliance. Djindjic was usually perceived as a pragmatic politician but did not enjoy the same broad popularity of the other leading figure in the DOS, Vojislav Kostunica. He was frequently branded a traitor by allies of Pres. Slobodan Milosevic and media outlets they controlled. In 1996, after Milosevic ignored an opposition victory in local elections, Djindjic organized three months of daily protest rallies in Belgrade. Milosevic eventually relented, and Djindjic became the first non-Communist mayor of the city. But he lasted less than a year in the post before the coalition that nominated him split up and he was voted out in September 1997. He was long a leading figure in anti-Milosevic campaigns. He spearheaded a drive to oust the Yugoslav strongman in late 2000. He took office as Serbian prime minister in January 2001. He faced hyperinflation and a chaotic government system where public sector workers often had to wait months to be paid. He stood for a market economy and said that Serbia's future lay in closer integration with the West. Milosevic's arrest and deportation led to a rift between Djindjic and Kostunica, who was shocked at the way that Djindjic used the law to seal Milosevic's fate. Djindjic was shot dead in front of the government building, apparently by members of an organized crime syndicate known as the Zemun Clan.

Djindjolia, Sokrat (Rachevich), also spelled Dzhindzholia or Jinjolia (b. Dec. 11, 1937, Tkuarchal [Tkvarcheli], Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister and foreign minister of Abkhazia (1993-94). He was also speaker of parliament (1994-2002).

Djodan, Sime (b. Dec. 27, 1927, Rodaljice, Dalmatia, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Oct. 2, 2007, Dubrovnik, Croatia), defense minister of Croatia (1991).

Djogo, Djibril Negue (b. Feb. 2, 1932, Fort-Archambault [now Sarh], Chad), finance minister of Chad (1975-76). He was also minister of health, labour, and social affairs (1976-79), justice (1986-88), and transport and civil aviation (1988-90).

Djohan, Djohermansyah (b. Dec. 21, 1954, Padang [now in Sumatera Barat], Indonesia), acting governor of Riau (2013-14).

Djohan, Erzaldi Rosman (b. Oct. 31, 1969, Pangkalpinang, Sumatera Selatan [now in Bangka-Belitung], Indonesia), governor of Bangka-Belitung (2017-22).

Djohar, Said Mohamed (b. Aug. 22, 1918, Majunga, Madagascar - d. Feb. 22, 2006, Mitsamiouli, Grande Comore, Comoros), president of the Comoros (1989-95, 1996); half-brother of Ali Soilih. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1972) and president of the Supreme Court (1988-89).

Djojohadikusumo, Sumitro (b. May 29, 1917, Kebumen, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. March 9, 2001, Jakarta, Indonesia), finance minister of Indonesia (1952-53, 1955-56). He was also chargé d'affaires in the United States (1950), minister of economic affairs (1950-51) and commerce (1958 [rebel government], 1968-73), and minister of state for research (1973-78).

Djojomartono, (Mohammad) Muljadi (b. May 3, 1898, Surakarta, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Oct. 23, 1967, Jakarta, Indonesia), a deputy first minister of Indonesia (1962-63). He was also minister of social affairs (1957-59, 1966) and minister (1959-62) and coordinating minister (1962-66) for people's welfare.

Djokic, Dragomir, Yugoslav diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1992-95).

Djordjevic, Mihailo Kr. (b. 1850, Belgrade, Serbia - d. 1901, Belgrade), foreign minister of Serbia (1891-92). He was also justice minister (1890-91, 1892, 1894-95), interior minister (1896-97), and minister to France (1892-94).

Djordjevic, Vladan (b. Nov. 21, 1844, Belgrade, Serbia - d. Aug. 31, 1930, Baden, near Vienna, Austria), prime minister and foreign minister of Serbia (1897-1900). He was also mayor of Belgrade (1884-88), minister of education (1888-91), and minister to Greece (1891-94) and the Ottoman Empire (1894-97).

Djotodia, Michel (Am Nondroko) (b. 1949?), defense minister (2013-14), president (2013), and transitional head of state (2013-14) of the Central African Republic. His mainly Muslim Seleka coalition rose up against the government in December 2012 and overthrew Pres. François Bozizé, a Christian, in March 2013. But even after he officially dissolved the Seleka coalition in September, Djotodia remained unable to end the violence in the country. Bowing to pressure from regional leaders in the Economic Community of Central African States, he resigned in January 2014 and went into exile in Benin.

Djoudi, Hocine (b. May 4, 1930, Constantine département, Algeria - d. April 13, 2023, Paris, France), Algerian diplomat. He was ambassador to Spain (1978-79), Portugal (1979-82), Mozambique and Lesotho (1982-84), and France (1993-97) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-91).

Djoudi, Karim (b. July 13, 1958, Montpellier, France - d. May 13, 2022), finance minister of Algeria (2007-14); son of Hocine Djoudi.

Djoumbe, Maitine (b. Jan. 1, 1953, Moukoulou, Chad), Chadian diplomat. He has been ambassador to Zaire (1982-87), Sudan (1987-89), Algeria (1989-91), the Central African Republic (2001-03), Ethiopia (2003-07), Belgium (2007-10), the United States and Canada (2012-13), and China (2019- ) and minister of mines and geology (2010-11).

Djoussouf, Abbas (b. March 22, 1942, Moroni, Comoros - d. June 13, 2010, Port Louis, Mauritius), prime minister of the Comoros (1998-99). He led the umbrella Forum of National Recovery. He lost to Mohamed Taki in presidential elections in March 1996. He worked towards reconciliation with Anjouan and Mohéli, which declared independence in 1997, and opposed Taki's hard line on the secessionists. His opposition movement proposed a "Federated Republics of Comoros" under which each island would have substantial autonomy, with a central government on Grande Comore retaining limited powers. After Taki's death, he was named prime minister by Interim Pres. Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde.

Djukanovic, Milo (b. Feb. 15, 1962, Niksic, Montenegro), prime minister (1991-98, 2003-06, 2008-10, 2012-16) and president (1998-2002, 2018-23) of Montenegro. Hand-picked by Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic, Djukanovic rose to power while still in his 20s. As prime minister of Montenegro, he publicly stuck with Milosevic through the Croatian and Bosnian wars in 1991-95, and only broke with the Yugoslav leader in 1996. Djukanovic's skills as a black-market trader during the wars and under subsequent sanctions turned him into a hero among Montenegrins. In a bitter TV debate before the 1997 presidential election, the two candidates - Djukanovic and incumbent Momir Bulatovic - tried to outdo each other with tales of corruption and smuggling to prove their worthiness to be president. Djukanovic was leader of the Democratic Party of Socialists from 1998 to 2023.

Dj. Djukic

Djukic Dejanovic
Djukic, Djordje (b. Jan. 16, 1948, Gospodjinci, Srem region, Vojvodina, Serbia), chairman of the Executive Council of Vojvodina (2000-04).

Djukic, Ilija (b. Jan. 4, 1930, Novi Rujac, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Oct. 22, 2002, Belgrade, Serbia), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1992-93). He was Yugoslav ambassador to Bulgaria (1983-87) and China (1990-92, 2001-02).

Djukic Dejanovic, Slavica (b. July 4, 1951, Raca, Serbia), acting president of Serbia (2012). She has been minister of family care (2000-01), health (2012-14), and education (2023- ), president of the National Assembly (2008-12), and a minister without portfolio (2016-20).

Djunaidi, Arinal (b. June 17, 1956, Tanjungkarang-Telukbetung, Sumatera Selatan [now Bandar Lampung, Lampung], Indonesia), governor of Lampung (2019-24).

Djupedal, Øystein (Kåre) (b. May 5, 1960, Oslo, Norway), governor of Aust-Agder (2009-15). He was also Norwegian minister of education and research (2005-07).

Djuranovic, Veselin (b. May 17, 1925, Martinici village, near Danilovgrad, Montenegro - d. Aug. 30, 1997, Martinici?), chairman of the Executive Council (1963-66), secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (1968-77), and president of the Presidency (1982-83) of Montenegro and president of the Federal Executive Council (1977-82) and of the Presidency (1984-85) of Yugoslavia.

Djurhuus, Hákun (b. Dec. 11, 1908, Tórshavn, Faeroe Islands - d. Sept. 22, 1987), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (1963-67). He was also chairman of the Lagting (1950-51) and a minister (1951-57).

Djurhuus, Kristian (b. Feb. 12, 1895, Tórshavn, Faeroe Islands - d. Nov. 20, 1984, Tvøroyri, Faeroe Islands), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (1950-59, 1968-70). He was also chairman of the Lagting (1945) and minister of taxation (1959-63), justice (1959-63), fisheries (1959-63, 1967-68), finance (1967-70), and agriculture (1967-70).

Djuric, Marko (b. June 25, 1983, Belgrade, Serbia), foreign minister and a deputy prime minister of Serbia (2024- ). He was also ambassador to the United States (2020-24).

Djurklou, Nils friherre (b. Sept. 20, 1686, Västmanland, Sweden - d. Dec. 24, 1758, Knapegården, Kalmar, Sweden), governor of Kalmar (1755-57). He was created friherre (baron) in 1751.

Djurovic, Dragan (b. Oct. 31, 1959, Danilovgrad, Montenegro - d. June 27, 2024), acting foreign minister (2002-03) and interior minister (2003-05) of Montenegro. He was also a deputy prime minister (2001-06).

Djuvara, Alexandru G. (b. Dec. 20, 1858, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. Feb. 1, 1913, Bucharest), foreign minister of Romania (1909-11). He was also minister of justice (1897-98) and industry and commerce (1909).


A.M. Dlamini
Dladla, Thuli(sile), foreign minister (2018-23) and deputy prime minister (2023- ) of Eswatini.

Dlamini, Ambrose Mandvulo (b. March 5, 1968 - d. Dec. 13, 2020, South Africa), prime minister of Eswatini (2018-20).

Dlamini, Bheki (R.) (b. 1952?), acting prime minister of Swaziland (2008). He was chief officer of the King's Office in 2006-13.

Dlamini, Prince Bhekimpi (Alpheus) (b. Nov. 26, 1924, Hhohho district, Swaziland [now Eswatini] - d. Nov. 1, 1999, Mbabane, Swaziland), prime minister of Swaziland (1983-86).

C. Dlamini
Dlamini, Cleopas (Sipho), prime minister of Eswatini (2021-23).

Dlamini, Prince Jameson Mbilini (b. Aug. 5, 1932, Hhohho district, Swaziland [now Eswatini] - d. June 5, 2008, Hhohho district), prime minister of Swaziland (1993-96).

Dlamini, Khanyakwezwe Henry (b. Manzini district, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), foreign minister of Swaziland (1971-72). He was also minister of establishments and training (1972-73) and civil service (1973-79?).

L. Dlamini
Dlamini, Lutfo (Ephraim) (b. July 1960, Nkamanzi, northern Swaziland [now Eswatini]), foreign minister of Swaziland (2008-11). He was also minister for enterprise and employment (1998-2008) and labour and social security (2011-13).

Dlamini, Prince Mabandla N(dawombili) F(red) (b. Nov. 11, 1930, Hhohho district, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), prime minister of Swaziland (1979-83).

Dlamini, Mabili (David) (b. April 10, 1957, Mankayane, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), foreign minister of Swaziland (2003-06). He was also high commissioner to Malaysia (2000-03) and minister of housing and urban development (2006-08).

Dlamini, Prince Makhosini (Jameson) (b. 1914, near Hlatikulu, Swaziland [now Eswatini] - d. April 28, 1978), prime minister (1967-76) and foreign minister (1968-70) of Swaziland.

Dlamini, Maphevu (Harry) (b. March 31, 1922 - d. Oct. 25, 1979), prime minister of Swaziland (1976-79).

Dlamini, Mboni Naph (b. Nov. 20, 1928, Nkhungwini, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), Swazi diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-72).

Dlamini, Moses Mathendele, foreign minister of Swaziland (2006-08). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-2000), ambassador to Taiwan (2000-03), and president of the Senate (2003-06).

Dlamini, Obed (Mfanyana) (b. April 4, 1937, Mhlosheni, Shiselweni district, Swaziland [now Eswatini] - d. Jan. 18, 2017, Johannesburg, South Africa), prime minister of Swaziland (1989-93).

Dlamini, Phesheya Mbongeni (b. Jan. 1, 1966, Lobamba, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), Swazi official. He was attorney general (1999-2005) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-08).

Dlamini, Richard Velaphi (b. Oct. 22, 1932, Mbabane, Swaziland [now Eswatini] - d. August 1984), foreign minister of Swaziland (1982-84).

R. Dlamini
Dlamini, Russell (Mmiso), prime minister of Eswatini (2023- ).

S.B. Dlamini

T. Dlamini
Dlamini, Sibusiso Barnabas, also called Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini (b. May 15, 1942 - d. Sept. 28, 2018, Manzini, Eswatini), finance minister (1984-93) and prime minister (1996-2003, 2008-18) of Swaziland/Eswatini.

Dlamini, Solomon (Mnukwa), foreign minister of Swaziland (1993-95). He was also education minister (1995-98), high commissioner to Kenya (1999-2006) and South Africa (2010-14), and ambassador to Belgium (2006-10).

Dlamini, Sotsha (Ernest) (b. May 27, 1940, Mankayane, Swaziland [now Eswatini] - d. Feb. 7, 2017, Mankayane), prime minister of Swaziland (1986-89).

Dlamini, Thamie (b. 1980), Eswatini diplomat. He has been ambassador to Taiwan (2014-22) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Dlamini, (Absalom) Themba (b. Dec. 1, 1950), prime minister of Swaziland (2003-08).

Dlamini, Timothy Lutfo Lucky (b. May 15, 1952, Manzini, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), Swazi diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-94) and non-resident high commissioner to Singapore (2000-05).

Dlamini-Zuma, Nkosazana (Clarice) (b. Jan. 28, 1949, Pietermaritzburg, Natal [now in KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), foreign minister (1999-2009) and home affairs minister (2009-12) of South Africa; former wife of Jacob Zuma. An ardent anti-smoker, she was health minister from 1994 to 1999. Her drive to deliver health services to the poor increased her stature in the African National Congress. Dlamini-Zuma was said to be the most powerful woman politician in the country after Nelson Mandela's former wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. But Dlamini-Zuma won few friends in the pharmaceutical industry after pushing through legislation to allow parallel imports of drugs and she failed to stem the AIDS epidemic sweeping the country - her one main effort to fund an anti-AIDS musical ending in scandal over tendering irregularities. In 2012-17 she was chairperson of the Commission of the African Union. Later she was minister of cooperative governance and traditional affairs (2019-23) and women, youth, and persons with disabilities (2023-24).

Dlodlo, Ayanda (b. 1962, Soweto, Transvaal [now in Gauteng], South Africa), home affairs minister of South Africa (2017-18). She was also minister of communications (2017), public service and administration (2018-19, 2021-22), and state security (2019-21).

Dmitrin, Aleksandr (Grigoryevich) (b. 1914, Kyshtym, Yekaterinburg province, Russia - d. February 2001, Moscow, Russia), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Komi A.S.S.R. (1957-65).

Dmitriy, secular name Maksim (Andreyevich) Verbitsky (b. Aug. 16 [Aug. 4, O.S.], 1869, Gadyach, Poltava province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Feb. 1, 1932, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), metropolitan of Kiev (1930-32). He was also bishop (1910-21) and archbishop (1925-30) of Uman and bishop of Belaya Tserkov (1921-25).

Dmitriyenko, Dmitry (Vladimirovich) (b. Aug. 17, 1963), governor of Murmansk oblast (2009-12).

Dmitriyev, Gennady (Nikolayevich) (b. Jan. 1, 1935, Novaya Kazmaska, Udmurt A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Feb. 27, 2012, Izhevsk, Udmurtia, Russia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Udmurt A.S.S.R. (1988-90). He was also minister of communal services (1972-88).

Dmitriyev, Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. Sept. 21 [Sept. 10, O.S.], 1760, Bogorodskoye, Kazan province [now in Samara oblast], Russia - d. Oct. 15 [Oct. 3, O.S.], 1837, Moscow, Russia), justice minister of Russia (1810-14); nephew of Nikita Beketov. He was also a poet.

Dmitry (Konstantinovich), Veliky Knyaz (Grand Duke) (b. June 13 [June 1, O.S.], 1860, Strelna, St. Petersburg province, Russia - d. [executed] Jan. 28, 1919, Petrograd [St. Petersburg], Russia), Russian official; son of Veliky Knyaz Konstantin (Nikolayevich). He was head of the Chief Administration of State Horse Breeding (1897-1905).

Dmowski, Roman (b. Aug. 9, 1864, Warsaw, Poland - d. Jan. 2, 1939, Drozdowo, Poland), Polish politician. He was famous as founder (1897) of the National Democratic Party, which represented in particular the interests of the middle classes. Radically anti-German, he sought cooperation with tsarist Russia, carrying his nationalist ideas to the point of forthright anti-Semitism. He represented Warsaw in the Duma from 1906, but in 1912, his collaborationist policy having been largely discredited, he failed to be elected. He left Russia before the revolution and in 1917 formed in Paris a National Committee to represent Polish interests with the Allied Powers. At the peace conference he was permanent Polish delegate and signed the Treaty of Versailles. He subsequently sat in the constituent Sejm (Polish national assembly) until 1922 and for a short time in 1923 was foreign minister. As editor of Przeglad Wszechpolski ("All Polish Review") from 1895, and in notable books, including Niemcy, Rosya i kwestya polska (1908; "Germany, Russia, and the Polish Question"), he sought to educate his own nation, and indeed outsiders as well, to face the demands of modern cultural and political life. Largely on account of ill-health he played little part in the public life of the restored Poland.

Do Muoi
Do Muoi, original name Nguyen Duy Cong (b. Feb. 2, 1917, Hanoi, Tonkin [now in Vietnam] - d. Oct. 1, 2018, Hanoi), general secretary of the Vietnamese Communist Party (1991-97). He joined the emergent Vietnamese nationalist movement in 1936 and the Communist Party of Indochina three years later. In 1941, at the age of 24, he was arrested by the French colonial government and sentenced to 10 years in prison. Upon escaping in March 1945, he rejoined the independence struggle. Little was known of Do Muoi's activities during the Indochina war, which resulted in the partitioning of the country in 1954, or during the Vietnam war. Following the latter conflict he held a variety of bureaucratic and administrative positions in the Hanoi governments of both the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and, after 1976, the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Serving as a deputy premier (1969-88) and minister of construction (1973-77) and capital construction, industry, communications, and transport (1977-82), he supervised construction of the mausoleum of revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh. He became an alternate member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam in 1976 and a full member in 1982. He became premier in 1988 but resigned soon after he was named general secretary at the party's Seventh Congress in 1991. On June 27, 1991, the newly elected party leader announced his intention to extend the economic reforms introduced by his predecessor, Nguyen Van Linh. In both an address to the National Assembly and his first news conference, Do Muoi appealed to the international community for assistance in alleviating the "poor and backward" condition of his country.

Do Quang Trung (b. Jan. 20, 1946, Ha Tay province [now part of Hanoi], North Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), interior minister of Vietnam (2002-07). He was also minister-head of the Government Organization and Personnel Commission (1996-2002).

Doan Duy Thanh (b. Sept. 15, 1929, Cong Hoa village, Kim Mon district, Hai Hung province, Tonkin [now in Vietnam]), a deputy premier of Vietnam (1987-88). He was also mayor (1979-82) and secretary of the party committee (1982-86) of Haiphong, minister of foreign trade (1986-88) and foreign economic relations (1988-90), and chairman of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (1993-2002).

Doan Khue (b. Oct. 29, 1923, Trieu Phong district, Quang Tri province, Annam [now in Vietnam] - d. Jan. 16, 1998, Hanoi, Vietnam), Vietnamese politician. He began revolutionary activities in 1939 and was captured and imprisoned by colonial French forces a year later. He joined the People's Army in 1945 and rose to become vice defense minister in 1980. He joined the ruling Communist party's politburo in December 1986. He was named chief of staff in 1987 and was promoted to four-star general in 1990. He became defense minister in 1991. But party sources said he suffered political setbacks after a 1997 trip to France when he boasted to French president Jacques Chirac that the next time they met it would be as equals. In September of that year he failed in a bid for the presidency when he lost out to Tran Duc Luong and was then replaced as defense minister. He retained his seat on the politburo, but with his health ailing soon faded from public view. Khue's feisty rhetoric as defense minister portrayed a man who was still deeply suspicious of the world outside his Communist fatherland. As a former military chief of staff, Khue was seen as a conservative who advocated a leading role for the army in guiding socialism, but who supported expanded business interests among the armed forces. In speeches towards the end of his career he issued vociferous warnings that heightened vigilance was needed against possible "riots to overthrow the government undertaken by opposition forces." In a 1994 speech to mark the 50th anniversary of an army which defeated the French and U.S.-backed South Vietnam, he warned party leaders and bemedalled war veterans that Vietnam should not lower its guard now that the country was at peace. He was given the Ho Chi Minh Medal, Vietnam's highest honour, shortly before his death.

Dobbie, Sir William (George Shedden) (b. July 12, 1879, Madras [now Chennai], India - d. Oct. 3, 1964, London, England), governor of Malta (1940-42); knighted 1941.

Dobbs, Sir Henry Robert Conway (b. Aug. 26, 1871, London, England - d. May 30, 1934, Cappoquin, County Waterford, Ireland), chief commissioner of Baluchistan (1917-19) and high commissioner of Iraq (1923-29); knighted 1921.

Dobi, István (b. Dec. 31, 1898, Szöny [now part of Komárom], Hungary - d. Nov. 24, 1968, Budapest, Hungary), prime minister (1948-52) and chairman of the Presidential Council (1952-67) of Hungary. He was also a minister of state (1945-46) and agriculture minister (1946, 1948).

Dobkevicius, Jonas, surname until 1885 Daukus (b. Dec. 6, 1866, Mieliunai village, Rokiskis district, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. July 23, 1934, Medemrode, Siauliai district, Lithuania), finance minister of Lithuania (1922).

Dobkin, Mykhailo (Markovych) (b. Jan. 26, 1970, Kharkov [Kharkiv], Ukrainian S.S.R.), Ukrainian politician. He was mayor of Kharkiv (2006-10), governor of Kharkiv oblast (2010-14), and a minor presidential candidate (2014).

Doble, Denis Henry (b. Oct. 2, 1936), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1982-85).

Dobles Sánchez, Luis (b. June 2, 1925, Milwaukee, Wis. - d. Aug. 5, 2000, San José, Costa Rica), Costa Rican diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires (1949-51), minister (1952-53), and ambassador (1953) to Brazil, ambassador to Peru (1960-62), Bolivia (1961-62), and France (1975-79), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-70).

Doblhoff-Dier, Anton Freiherr von (baron of) (b. Nov. 10, 1800, Vienna, Austria - d. April 16, 1872, Vienna), acting prime minister (1848) and interior minister (1848) of Austria. He was also ambassador to the Netherlands (1849-58).

Dobozendi, Hugues (b. Jan. 27, 1938, Mbaïki, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. Dec. 29, 2018, Bangui, Central African Republic), finance minister of the Central African Empire (1977-78) and justice minister of the Central African Republic (1990). He was also minister of posts and communications (1989-90) and president of the National Assembly (1993-98).

Dobrescu, Dimitrie (b. 1852 - d. Feb. 13, 1934, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. He was justice minister (1918) and president of the Senate (1918).

Dobrescu, Emilian (b. May 22, 1933, Bucharest, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1981-82). He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee (1981-82).

Dobrev, Nikolay (Kirilov) (b. Oct. 19, 1947, Gotse Delchev, Bulgaria - d. April 17, 1999), interior minister of Bulgaria (1996-97).

Dobritoiu, Corneliu (b. Sept. 18, 1955, Bucharest, Romania), defense minister of Romania (2006 [acting], 2012).

Dobrovolska, Evelina (b. Aug. 16, 1988, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), justice minister of Lithuania (2020- ).

Dobrovolsky, Nikolay (Aleksandrovich) (b. March 22 [March 10, O.S.], 1854, Valday, Novgorod province, Russia - d. Oct. 21, 1918, Pyatigorsk, Russia), justice minister of Russia (1917). He was also governor of Grodno (1899-1900).

Dobrovský, Lubos, original surname Hamerschlag (b. Feb. 3, 1932, Kolín, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. Jan. 30?, 2020), defense minister of Czechoslovakia (1990-92). He was also Czech ambassador to Russia (1996-2000).

Dobryakov, Anatoly (Alekseyevich) (b. Feb. 23, 1939), head of the administration of Pskov oblast (1991-92).

Dobrzanski, Stanislaw (b. March 22, 1949, Hrubieszów, Poland), defense minister of Poland (1996-97).

Dobson, Sir William Lambert (b. April 24, 1833, Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, England - d. March 17, 1898, Hobart, Tasmania), acting governor of Tasmania (1886-87, 1892-93); knighted 1886. He was chief justice (1886-98).

Dockery, Alexander M(onroe) (b. Feb. 11, 1845, near Gallatin, Mo. - d. Dec. 26, 1926, Gallatin), governor of Missouri (1901-05).

Dockery, Nerys (Nakia), née Chiverton, Saint Kitts and Nevis diplomat. She was permament representative to the United Nations (2022-23).

Docking, George (b. Feb. 23, 1904, Clay Center, Kan. - d. Jan. 20, 1964, Kansas City, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1957-61).

Docking, Robert (b. Oct. 9, 1925, Kansas City, Mo. - d. Oct. 8, 1983, Arkansas City, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1967-75); son of George Docking.

Docko, Michel, Central African Republic politician. He was president of the National Assembly (1989-91) and minister for relations with parliament (1996-97, 2001-03).

Doda, Preng Bib (b. 1860 - d. [assassinated] March 22, 1919), foreign minister of Albania (1914). He was also a deputy prime minister (1913-14, 1918-19).

Dodangoda, Amarasiri (Gardiye Hewawasam) (b. Oct. 18, 1942, Dodangoda, near Baddegama, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. May 30, 2009, Colombo, Sri Lanka), chief minister of Southern province (1993-94, 1994) and home affairs minister (1994, 2004-05) and justice minister (2005-09) of Sri Lanka. He was also minister of provincial councils and cooperatives (1994), vocational training (1997-2001), rural industries (1997-2000), and human resources development and technical and vocational education (2001).

Dodd, Chris(topher John) (b. May 27, 1944, Willimantic, Conn.), U.S. politician; son of Thomas J. Dodd. He was a representative (1975-81) and senator (1981-2011) from Connecticut, general chairman of the Democratic National Committee (1995-97), and a candidate for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination.

Dodd, Norris E(dward) (b. July 20, 1879, Chickasaw county, Iowa - d. June 23, 1968, Phoenix, Ariz.), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1948-53).

Dodd, Thomas J(oseph) (b. May 15, 1907, Norwich, Conn. - d. May 24, 1971, Old Lyme, Conn.), U.S. politician. He was a representative (1953-57) and senator (1959-71) from Connecticut.

Dodds, Sir John Stokell (b. 1848, Durham, England - d. June 23, 1914, Hobart, Tas.), acting governor of Tasmania (1900-01, 1904, 1909, 1913); knighted 1900. He was chief justice (1898-1914) and lieutenant governor (1903-14).

Dode, Petro (b. April 16, 1924, Korçë district, Albania), Albanian politician. He was first secretary of the party committees of Korçë (1965-66), Vlorë (1968-71), Shkodër (1983-86), and Durrës (1986-87) districts, chairman of the executive committee of Korçë district (1966-68), a deputy premier (1975-78), chairman of the State Planning Commission (1975-82), and chairman of the People's Assembly (1987-91).

Dodge, Augustus C(aesar) (b. Jan. 2, 1812, Ste. Genevieve, Mo. - d. Nov. 20, 1883, Burlington, Iowa), U.S. politician; son of Henry Dodge. He was a delegate to the House of Representatives (1840-46), member of the Senate (1848-55), minister to Spain (1855-59), and mayor of Burlington, Iowa (1874-75).

Dodge, Henry (b. Oct. 12, 1782, Post Vincennes [now Vincennes], Ind. - d. June 19, 1867, Burlington, Iowa), governor of Wisconsin (1836-41, 1845-48).

Dodik, Milorad (b. March 12, 1959, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister (1998-2001, 2006-10) and president (2010-18, 2022- ) of the Republika Srpska. At the height of the Bosnian war, he spoke out in favour of peace plans and dared to attack Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic as corrupt. As prime minister of Bosnia's Serb republic, Dodik turned Bosnian politics on its head and threw his ultra-nationalist rivals into disarray. The former businessman secured millions of dollars in international aid, sacked directors at state enterprises, persuaded striking teachers to go back to work, and moved to cut off smuggling rackets linked to hardliners. He was elected to the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2018 and held its rotating chairmanship (2018-19, 2020-21).

Dodkhudoyev, Nazarsho (b. Dec. 20 [Dec. 7, O.S.], 1915, Derzud village, Badakhshan region, Russia [now in Tajikistan] - d. June 30, 2000), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1950-56) and chairman of the Council of Ministers and foreign minister (1956-61) of the Tadzhik S.S.R. He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast (1949-50).

Dodon, Igor (Nikolayevich) (b. Feb. 18, 1975, Sadova village, Calarasi district, Moldavian S.S.R.), president of Moldova (2016-20). He was also minister of economy and trade (2006-09) and first deputy prime minister (2008-09).

Dodonov, Aleksandr (Dmitriyevich) (b. Nov. 18, 1946, Ashkhabad, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan] - d. Jan. 10, 2018), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (1996-98). He was also minister of irrigation and water management (1996-98).

Dodsworth, Henrique de Toledo (b. Sept. 17, 1895, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 14, 1975, Rio de Janeiro), federal interventor/prefect of Distrito Federal (1937-45). He was also Brazilian ambassador to Portugal (1946).

Dodun de Kéroman, Henri (Valentin, comte) (b. 1837 - d. Feb. 12, 1899, Quimperlé, Finistère, France), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1892-93, 1895).

Doe, Samuel K(anyon) (b. May 6, 19511, Tuzon, Liberia - d. Sept. 9, 1990, Monrovia, Liberia), president of Liberia (1980-90). A member of the Krahn (Wee) tribe, he enlisted in the army in 1969. He was promoted from private to corporal and first sergeant within two days in 1975, and became a master sergeant in 1979. Like other indigenous Liberians, he resented the privilege and power granted the Americo-Liberians, descendants of the freed American slaves who founded the colony in 1821. Before dawn on April 12, 1980, Doe led a group of 17 Krahn soldiers to the Liberian executive mansion, where they killed 30 officials and guards and Pres. William R. Tolbert, Jr., a member of the Americo-Liberian elite. Later, 13 prominent Tolbert associates were summarily tried and executed. After the coup Doe assumed the rank of general and established a People's Redemption Council (PRC) composed of himself and 14 other low-ranking officers to rule the country. He suspended the nation's constitution until 1984, when a new constitution was approved by referendum. In 1985 he was voted president in what opponents denounced as a rigged election. He defeated a coup attempt that November and took the oath of office on Jan. 6, 1986. His term of office was burdened by deteriorating economic conditions, and his life was continually threatened by assassination attempts and plots, which he suppressed with considerable brutality. These actions, along with Doe's favouritism toward his own Krahn tribe, sparked a rebellion against him that began in eastern Liberia in late 1989. By July 1990 the rebel forces had advanced into the capital city of Monrovia, but Doe refused to yield power. As the civil war continued, he was captured and killed by the rebel forces of Prince Yormie Johnson.
1 Since one of the clauses of the 1984 constitution stipulated that the new president was to be at least 35 years of age, Doe had his official birth year changed to 1950.

Doer, Gary (Albert) (b. March 31, 1948, Winnipeg, Manitoba), premier of Manitoba (1999-2009). In 2009-16 he was Canadian ambassador to the United States.

Does de Willebois, (Pieter) Joseph (August Marie) van der (b. Feb. 17, 1816, 's-Hertogenbosch, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Sept. 15, 1892, The Hague, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Limburg (1856-74) and foreign minister of the Netherlands (1874-77, 1883-85).

Doga, (María) Nélida (b. June 27, 1947, Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province), minister of social development of Argentina (2002-03).

Dogan, (Hüseyin) Hüsnü (b. 1944, Malatya, Turkey), defense minister of Turkey (1990-91); adopted nephew of Turgut Özal. He was also minister of agriculture, forestry, and rural affairs (1983-89) and energy and natural resources (1996) and a minister of state (1989-90).

Dogolea, Enoch (b. 1951? - d. June 23, 2000, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), vice president of Liberia (1997-2000). Dogolea, who in the 1980s went into exile as an opposition campaigner against the rule of Pres. Samuel K. Doe, later joined Charles Taylor's fledgling rebel group which fought a brutal seven-year civil war against several factions. Relative calm was restored in 1996 and Taylor won elections a year later. For nearly all of the war, Dogolea served as Taylor's deputy and he became vice-president immediately after the election. Officials said Dogolea died after going into a coma at a private hospital in Abidjan, where he was flown after falling sick the previous week. One official, speaking on condition of anonymity, said Dogolea suffered a stroke, although this could not be independently confirmed. The state radio station said President Taylor ordered an autopsy in order to refute "speculation" the vice president had been either "poisoned or beaten to death by presidential guards." Dogolea paid a private visit to Taylor's farm shortly before his death, some officials said. Taylor dismissed the rumours of foul play as "the work of detractors to tarnish his image and cause national instability," the station said. A group representing University of Liberia students from Dogolea's home region of Nimba County, meanwhile, accused the government of denying Dogolea access to proper medical care, but did not give details. "Our call is prompted by widespread speculation about the cause of Mr. Dogolea's illness," the group said in a statement broadcast on the radio station.

Dogou, Alain, dit Maurice Goba (b. July 16, 1964, Aboisso, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), defense minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2010-11, Gbagbo government).

Dogsom, Dansranbilegiyn (b. 1884, in present Bayan-Ovoo district, Khentiy province, Mongolia - d. [executed] July 27, 1941, Soviet Union), chairman of the Presidium of the State Little Khural of Mongolia (1936-39). He was also ambassador to Tannu Tuva (1933-34).

Dogu, Hüseyin Barlas (b. 1936, Safranbolu, Turkey), defense minister of Turkey (1991).

Doguzhiyev, Vitaly (Khusseynovich) (b. Dec. 25, 1935, Yenakiyevo, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Yenakiyeve, Ukraine] - d. Oct. 3, 2016, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was minister of general machine building (1988-89), a deputy premier (1989-91), and a first deputy premier (1991).

Doherty, Sean, Irish Seán Ó Dochartaigh (b. June 29, 1944, Roscommon, Ireland - d. June 7, 2005, Donegal, Ireland), justice minister of Ireland (1982) and chairman of the Seanad Éireann (1989-92). First elected to the Dáil in Fianna Fáil's avalanche win of 1977, he was an ardent supporter of Charles Haughey and when Haughey became prime minister two years later he appointed Doherty as a junior minister. As justice minister he was embroiled in controversy when it emerged that he had ordered the tapping of the phones of journalists Geraldine Kennedy, Bruce Arnold, and Vincent Browne. Ten years later Doherty revealed that Haughey had approved the tapping; this revelation led to Haughey's resignation, paving the way for Albert Reynolds to become prime minister. Although Doherty lost his Dáil seat in 1989, he regained it in 1992. He retired 10 years later.

Dohnanyi, Klaus (Karl Anton) von (b. June 23, 1928, Hamburg, Germany), first mayor of Hamburg (1981-88). He was also West German minister of education and science (1972-74).

Dohou, Frédéric (b. 1961, Cotonou, Dahomey [now Benin]), acting foreign minister of Benin (2006). He was minister of culture, handicrafts, and tourism (2003-05), communication and promotion of new technologies (2005-06), and industry and commerce (2016).

Doi, Akoka (b. 1951, Moro, Papua and New Guinea [now Papua New Guinea]), foreign minister (1987-88) and deputy prime minister (1988-90, 1991-92) of Papua New Guinea. He was also speaker of parliament (1987) and minister of public service (1988-90) and fisheries and marine resources (1990-92).

T. Doi
Doi, Takako (b. Nov. 30, 1928, Kobe, Japan - d. Sept. 20, 2014), Japanese politician. She was first elected to the Diet in 1969 after serving as vice-chairman of the Japan Socialist Party (JSP) for three years. With the support of every faction of the JSP, Doi won 83% of the votes in September 1986 party elections and thereby became the first Japanese woman ever chosen to lead a major political party. Her victory followed the resignation of Masashi Ishibashi, who felt obliged to step aside as chairman of the central executive committee after the JSP suffered a disastrous defeat in national elections to the Diet two months earlier. The Socialists had long represented the strongest political alternative to the ruling Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP), but in July they lost 25 of their 111 seats in the lower house and had an approval rating of only about 10%. Doi became the party's only celebrity when she led a group of politically inexperienced housewives to victory in the July 23, 1989, elections to the upper house. With the startling defeat of the LDP, the premiership seemed open for Doi. Her "Madonna strategy" capitalized on the voters' anger at corruption and male chauvinism within the ruling party. The then agriculture minister's comment that "women are useless in politics. Their right place is in the home" inadvertently supported her case. The JSP increased its parliamentary strength in the 1990 lower house elections, but the LDP remained in power. Doi resigned on June 21, 1991, one day after the JSP adopted a draft reform platform calling for major changes in policy toward foreign affairs, defense, and energy development. In 1993-96, Doi was speaker of the House of Representatives. She then was again leader (1996-2003) of what was now called the Social Democratic Party.

Doidge, Sir Frederick Widdowson (b. Feb. 26, 1884, Cootamundra, New South Wales - d. May 26, 1954, London, England), foreign minister of New Zealand (1949-51); knighted 1953. He was also minister of island territories (1949-51) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1951-54).

Doig Sánchez, Julio (César Nicolás) (b. Dec. 6, 1910, Callao, Peru - d. June 30, 1980), war minister of Peru (1967-68). He was also general commander of the army (1965-67) and ambassador to Brazil (1968-70) and Belgium (1970-75).

Doiron, Joseph Aubin (b. June 10, 1922, North Rustico, P.E.I. - d. Jan. 28, 1995), lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island (1980-85).

Dokle, Namik (b. March 11, 1946, Durrës, Albania), Albanian politician. He was chairman of the Assembly (2001-02) and deputy prime minister (2003-05).

Dokmanovic, Slavko (b. Dec. 14, 1949, Trpinja, Croatia - d. June 28, 1998, The Hague, Netherlands), president of the Srem-Baranja District (1995-96). He committed suicide in his cell in The Hague where he was awaiting the verdict at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and was known to suffer from severe depression (he was supposed to be under close watch).

Doko, Jerko (b. Sept. 14, 1952), defense minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1990-92).

Dokouna, Emmanuel (d. Jan. 8, 2018, Rabat, Morocco), finance minister of the Central African Republic (1992-97).

Dokshokov, Musa (Ilyasovich) (b. Sept. 3, 1932, Sarmakovo, Kabardino-Balkar autonomous oblast [now Kabardino-Balkariya republic], Russia - d. Feb. 19, 2015, Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkariya), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kabardino-Balkar A.S.S.R. (1984-88). He was also first deputy premier (1969-74).

Dolanský, Jaromír (b. Feb. 25, 1895, Prague, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. July 16, 1973, Prague), finance minister (1946-49), a deputy premier (1951-53, 1960-63), and a first deputy premier (1953-60) of Czechoslovakia. He was also chairman of the State Planning Commission (1949-51).

Dolanský, Josef (b. Jan. 7, 1868, Jitschin, Austria [now Jicín, Czech Republic] - d. Nov. 30, 1943, Brno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), justice minister of Czechoslovakia (1921-25). He was also minister of supply (1925-26).

Dolchanmaa, Bay-Kara (Sholzhubeyevna) (b. March 15, 1916, Bayan-Kol, Uryankhay kray [now Tuva republic], Russia - d. 2002), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Tuva A.S.S.R. (1962-77).

Dolcini, Mirko (b. Nov. 13, 1973, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2020-21).

B. Dole
Dole, Bob, byname of Robert Joseph Dole (b. July 22, 1923, Russell, Kan. - d. Dec. 5, 2021, Washington, D.C.), U.S. presidential candidate (1996). From 1951 to 1953 he was a Republican member of the Kansas state legislature, thereafter serving four terms as the Russell county prosecuting attorney. From 1961 to 1969 he worked against the policies of presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1968 he won the first of five terms in the Senate, eventually becoming the Republican head, as both majority (1985-87, 1995-96) and minority (1987-95) leader. He also chaired the Republican National Committee from 1971 to 1973. Dole generally advocated conservative fiscal policies, but on other issues he took stands that ranged from right of centre to moderate. He supported civil-rights and voting-rights bills and food-stamp programs but voted against proposals for other social programs, including the original bill establishing Medicare. He was the vice presidential candidate in Pres. Gerald R. Ford's unsuccessful 1976 campaign. After losing his own bids for the presidential nomination in 1980 and 1988, he stumbled early in 1996, then quickly won a series of primary victories. Before the Republican national convention, he resigned from the Senate and chose former secretary of housing and urban development Jack Kemp as his running mate. Despite vigorous campaigning, which included the promise of a 15% tax cut and emphasized themes such as character and honesty, the Dole-Kemp ticket went down to defeat. Dole was not able to exploit the vulnerabilities of his Democratic opponent, Pres. Bill Clinton, and gain a significant number of votes outside the core of his own party; he took 41% of the total vote. Despite his identity as an "establishment" Republican, he endorsed populist Donald Trump in 2016 and 2020 and was the only former GOP nominee to attend the 2016 convention.

E. Dole
Dole, (Mary) Elizabeth (Alexander Hanford), née Hanford (b. July 29, 1936, Salisbury, N.C.), U.S. politician; wife of Bob Dole. Her first government appointment came in 1966 when she was made a staff assistant to the secretary of health, education, and welfare. From 1969 to 1971 she served as executive director of the President's Commission on Consumer Interests. From 1971 to 1973 she was employed at the White House Office of Consumer Affairs. In 1973 Pres. Richard Nixon appointed her to a seven-year term on the five-member Federal Trade Commission. She married Bob Dole in 1975. In 1976 she took a leave of absence from her FTC post to campaign for her husband, who was Pres. Gerald Ford's vice-presidential running mate. Three years later, when Senator Dole was seeking the presidency, she resigned from the commission. After her husband withdrew, she went to work in Ronald Reagan's campaign organization. On Dec. 20, 1980, President-elect Reagan appointed her to a key White House post, assistant to the president for public liaison. Although her appointment in early 1983 as secretary of transportation came amid criticism from women's groups that she was not vocal enough regarding women's rights, she was loudly praised by Congress and the press. Serving in that post until 1987, she was secretary of labor under Pres. George Bush from January 1989 to November 1990. She became president of the American Red Cross in 1991 and took a year's leave of absence in 1995 to help her husband's presidential bid. She gave an electrifying speech to the Republican National Convention in 1996, wading into the audience with a microphone in a way that broke new ground in political speechmaking. She left the Red Cross in 1999 to run for president herself but dropped out of the race on October 20. She was elected to the U.S. Senate in 2002 but defeated for reelection in 2008.

S.B. Dole
Dole, Sanford Ballard (b. April 23, 1844, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands - d. June 9, 1926, Honolulu), president of the Republic of Hawaii (1894-1900). The son of American missionaries, he was twice elected to the Hawaiian legislature (1884, 1886). He was a leader of the reform movement which forced King Kalakaua's signature to the so-called Bayonet Constitution of 1887, which caused the king to resign many of his royal prerogatives. That same year he became a justice of the Supreme Court of Hawaii. In January 1893 he became the leader of the committee, acting for Hawaiian sugar interests and their American allies, that was formed to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani (who had succeeded her brother, Kalakaua, in 1891) and to seek annexation of Hawaii by the United States. The committee deposed the queen and installed a provisional government with Dole as president (Jan. 17, 1893). In response to the queen's protest, Pres. Grover Cleveland sent James H. Blount of Georgia to the islands as "commissioner paramount" to investigate conditions in Hawaii. A demand was made on Dole to restore Liliuokalani to the throne, but Dole and his backers denied the right of the U.S. to interfere. They established the Republic of Hawaii (1894), with Dole as president, and continued to seek annexation. In 1898 he made a visit to Washington in behalf of the movement and annexation was effected later that year. When, in 1900, Congress created the Territory of Hawaii, Dole was appointed the first territorial governor by Pres. William McKinley. In 1903 he resigned to become judge of the U.S. district court of Hawaii, serving until his retirement in 1915.

Dolez, Hubert (b. Feb. 20, 1834, Mons, Belgium - d. Feb. 17, 1898, Brussels, Belgium), Belgian diplomat; son of Hubert Joseph Dolez. He was minister to the Ottoman Empire (1877-78).

Dolez, Hubert Joseph (b. March 16, 1808, Mons, France [now in Belgium] - d. March 17, 1880, Brussels, Belgium), Belgian politician. He was chairman of the Chamber of Representatives (1867-70).

Dolganov, Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) (b. Aug. 26, 1944 - d. Nov. 29, 2011, Penza, Russia), chairman of the government of Penza oblast (1999).

Dolghieru, Vasile (b. Oct. 15, 1966), justice minister of Moldova (2003-04).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Aleksey (Alekseyevich) (b. May 14, 1767 - d. Aug. 11, 1834, St. Petersburg, Russia), justice minister of Russia (1827-29); grandson of Knyaz Aleksey (Grigoryevich) Dolgoruky. He was also governor of Simbirsk (1808-15) and Moscow (1815-17).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Aleksey (Grigoryevich) (b. 16... - d. Sept. 30, 1734, Berezov, Tobolsk province, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730); son of Knyaz Grigory Dolgoruky. He was also governor of Smolensk (1713-23) and president of the Chief Magistracy (1723-27).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Dmitry (Ivanovich) (b. Aug. 21 [Aug. 10, O.S.], 1797, Moscow, Russia - d. Oct. 31 [Oct. 19, O.S.], 1867, Moscow), Russian diplomat; son of Knyaz Ivan Dolgoruky. He was minister to Persia (1845-54).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Grigory (Fyodorovich) (b. Oct. 7, 1657 - d. Aug. 15, 1723, Kronshtadt [now part of St. Petersburg], Russia), Russian diplomat; brother of Knyaz Yakov Dolgoruky. He was ambassador to Poland (1701-06, 1709-12, 1715-21).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Ivan (Mikhailovich) (b. April 18 [April 7, O.S.], 1764, Moscow, Russia - d. Dec. 16 [Dec. 4, O.S.], 1823, Moscow), governor of Vladimir (1802-12); great-grandson of Knyaz Aleksey (Grigoryevich) Dolgoruky.

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Mikhail (Vladimirovich) (b. Nov. 24 [Nov. 14, O.S.], 1667 - d. Dec. 2 [Nov. 11, O.S.], 1750, Moscow, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also governor of Siberia (1724-28), Astrakhan (1730), and Kazan (1730-31).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Nikolay (Andreyevich) (b. 1792 or 1794 - d. [suicide] April 23 [April 11, O.S.], 1847), governor-general of Lithuania (1831-40) and Chernigov, Poltava, and Kharkov (1840-47).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Nikolay (Sergeyevich) (b. May 10 [April 28, O.S.], 1840 - d. March 13 [Feb. 28, O.S.], 1913), Russian diplomat; son of Knyaz Sergey (Alekseyevich) Dolgoruky. He was minister to Persia (1886-89) and ambassador to Italy (1909-12).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Pyotr (Petrovich) (b. May 29 [May 18, O.S.], 1744 - d. March 9 [Feb. 25, O.S.], 1815, Speshnevo, Tula province [now in Oryol oblast], Russia), governor of Kaluga (1792-93) and Moscow (1793-96); grandson of Knyaz Sergey (Petrovich) Dolgoruky; great-grandson of Danylo Apostol and Knyaz Pyotr Golitsyn; brother-in-law of Nikolay Laptev.

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Sergey (Alekseyevich) (b. Sept. 14 [Sept. 2, O.S.], 1809 - d. Sept. 28 [Sept. 16, O.S.], 1891), governor of Kovno (1848) and Vitebsk (1848-49); brother of Knyaz Yury Dolgoruky; son of Knyaz Aleksey (Alekseyevich) Dolgoruky.

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Sergey (Grigoryevich) (d. [executed] Nov. 19 [Nov. 8, O.S.], 1739, Novgorod [now Veliky Novgorod], Russia), Russian diplomat; son of Knyaz Grigory Dolgoruky; brother of Knyaz Aleksey (Grigoryevich) Dolgoruky. He was ambassador to Poland (1721-24, 1728-29) and Great Britain (1738).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Sergey (Petrovich) (b. Nov. 2, 1696 - d. May 5, 1761), Russian diplomat. He was ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1755-61).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vasily (Andreyevich) (b. March 7 [Feb. 24, O.S.], 1804, Moscow, Russia - d. Jan. 17 [Jan. 5, O.S.], 1868, St. Petersburg, Russia), war minister of Russia (1852-56); brother of Knyaz Nikolay (Andreyevich) Dolgoruky; son-in-law of Graf Karl Sen-Pri. He was also chief of gendarmes (1856-66).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vasily (Lukich) (b. c. 1670 - d. [executed] Nov. 19 [Nov. 8, O.S.], 1739, Novgorod [now Veliky Novgorod], Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also ambassador to Poland (1706-07, 1724-26), Denmark (1707-20), France (1720-22), and Sweden (1726-27) and governor of Siberia (1730).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vasily (Mikhailovich) (b. Jan. 19 [Jan. 7, O.S.], 1840 - d. Feb. 14 [Feb. 1, O.S.], 1910), governor of Radom (1880-83), Yekaterinoslav (1883-84), and Vitebsk (1884-94); great-great-great-grandson of Knyaz Aleksey (Grigoryevich) Dolgoruky; brother-in-law of Aleksandr II.

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vasily (Vladimirovich) (b. January 1667, Russia - d. Feb. 22 [Feb. 11, O.S.], 1746, St. Petersburg, Russia), member of the Supreme Privy Council of Russia (during throne vacancy 1730). He was also president of the War Collegium (1730-31, 1741-46).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vladimir (Andreyevich) (b. July 15 [July 3, O.S.], 1810, Moscow, Russia - d. July 1, 1891, Paris, France), governor-general of Moscow (1865-91); brother of Knyaz Nikolay (Andreyevich) Dolgoruky and Knyaz Vasily (Andreyevich) Dolgoruky.

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vladimir (Petrovich) (b. 1708 - d. 1761, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia]), governor of Reval (1753-58) and Riga (1758-61).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Vladimir (Sergeyevich) (b. 1717? - d. March 6 [Feb. 22, O.S.], 1803), Russian diplomat; son of Knyaz Sergey (Petrovich) Dolgoruky. He was ambassador to Prussia (1762-86).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Yakov (Fyodorovich) (b. Aug. 3 [July 24, O.S.], 1639, Moscow, Russia - d. July 1 [June 20, O.S.], 1720, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian official. He was president of the Collegium of Accounting (1717-20).

Dolgoruky, Knyaz (Prince) Yury (Alekseyevich) (b. Feb. 24 [Feb. 12, O.S.], 1807, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. March 18 [March 6, O.S.], 1882, Moscow, Russia), governor of Vilna (1838-40), Olonets (1851-53), and Voronezh (1853-57); son of Knyaz Aleksey (Alekseyevich) Dolgoruky.

Dolisie, (Louis Henri) Albert (b. Dec. 22, 1856, Mutzig, Bas-Rhin, France - d. Jan. 22, 1899, Orléans, France), chief administrator of French Congo (1894-99).

Dolland, Franklyn (O'Brien) (b. Nov. 21, 1944, Aruba), Grenadian politician. He was minister of labour and youth development (1974-77), permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-78), and ambassador to the United States (1977-78).

Dollfuss, Engelbert (b. Oct. 4, 1892, Texing, Niederösterreich, Austria - d. July 25, 1934, Vienna, Austria), chancellor of Austria (1932-34). A member of the clerical-conservative Christian Social Party, he rose rapidly in Austrian politics, becoming president of the federal railways in 1930 and minister of agriculture in 1931. He became chancellor in May 1932, heading a conservative coalition; he also became foreign minister and kept the agriculture portfolio. Faced with a severe economic crisis caused by the worldwide depression, he decided against joining Germany in a customs union, a course advocated by many Austrians. Severely criticized by both Social Democrats and nationalists, he dispensed with parliamentary government in March 1933 and began to rule by decree. Benito Mussolini became his principal foreign ally. Italy guaranteed Austrian independence at Riccione (August 1933), but in return Austria had to reform its constitution on the Fascist model. In September 1933 he permanently abolished the legislature and formed a corporate state based on his Vaterländische Front (Fatherland Front), which was to replace Austria's political parties. He also became defense minister in addition to his other portfolios. By converting Austria virtually into an Italian satellite state he hoped to prevent Austria's incorporation into Nazi Germany. On Oct. 4, 1933, he narrowly escaped assassination when a Nazi fired two shots at him. In February 1934 paramilitary formations loyal to Dollfuss crushed Austria's Social Democrats in bloody encounters. With a new constitution of May 1934, his regime became completely dictatorial. In June Germany incited Austrian Nazis to civil war. The following month he was killed in a Nazi coup attempt.

Dolman, Dick, byname of Dirk Dolman (b. July 2, 1935, Empe, Brummen municipality, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. Jan. 23, 2019), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the Second Chamber (1979-89).

Dologuélé, Anicet Georges (b. April 17, 1957, Bozoum, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), finance minister (1997-99) and prime minister (1999-2001) of the Central African Republic. He was a presidential candidate in 2016 and 2020.

Doma, (Alhaji) Aliyu Akwe (b. Sept. 1, 1942, in present Doma local government area, Nasarawa state, Nigeria - d. March 6, 2018, Israel), governor of Nasarawa (2007-11).

Domanski, Andrzej (Jan) (b. Aug. 27, 1981, Kraków, Poland), finance minister of Poland (2023- ).

Dombo, Simon Diedong (b. March 3, 1923, Duori, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. March 18, 1998, London, England), interior minister of Ghana (1969-71). He was also minister of health (1971-72).

Dombrovskis, Valdis (b. Aug. 5, 1971, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), finance minister (2002-04) and prime minister (2009-14) of Latvia. He has also been a vice-president of the European Commission, responsible for the euro and social dialogue (2014-19) and financial stability, financial services, and capital markets union (2016-19), an executive vice-president of the Commission, responsible for An Economy that Works for People (2019- ), and commissioner for trade (2020- ).

Domec, Pierre Marie Jean (b. Jan. 2, 1891 - d. March 17, 1984), administrator of Kwangchowan (1942-43).

Domenech Benítez, Joel, a vice premier of Cuba (1974-94). He was also minister of industry (1965-67) and basic industry (1967-74, 1980-83).

Domenici, Pete V(ichi), originally Pietro Vichi Domenici (b. May 7, 1932, Albuquerque, N.M. - d. Sept. 13, 2017, Albuquerque), chairman of the City Commission of Albuquerque (1967-70). He was also a U.S. senator (1973-2009).

Domeracki, Lech (Korneliusz) (b. Sept. 17, 1929, Poznan, Poland - d. Oct. 4, 2020), justice minister of Poland (1983-88).

Domett, Alfred (b. May 20, 1811, Camberwell, Surrey, England - d. Nov. 2, 1887, London, England), premier of New Zealand (1862-63).

Domic, Anto (b. Feb. 19, 1967, Brcko, Bosnia and Herzegovina), mayor of Brcko (2012-16 and [acting] 2020).

Domingo y Morales del Castillo, Andrés (Antonio) (b. Sept. 4, 1892, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba - d. June 1, 1979, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister and acting president of Cuba (1954-55). He was minister of the treasury in Pres. Fulgencio Batista's 1940-44 term, and became secretary to the president when Batista took power again in 1952. When Batista campaigned for the presidency in 1954, the constitution forbade him to hold the office in that period. The constitutional succession was for the minister of state (foreign minister) to act as president and Domingo was then appointed to that office.

Domingue, Michel (b. Les Cayes, Haiti - d. June 24, 1877, Kingston, Jamaica), president of the Southern State of Haiti (1868-69) and of Haiti (1874-76).

Domínguez (Velasco), Arsenio (Antonio) (b. Nov. 18, 1970, Panama City, Panama), secretary-general of the International Maritime Organization (2024- ).

Dominguez, Carlos, III, in full Carlos Garcia Dominguez, byname Sonny Dominguez (b. Sept. 16, 1945, Zamboanga City, Philippines), finance secretary of the Philippines (2016-22). He was also minister of environment and natural resources (1986-87) and secretary of agriculture (1987-90).

Domínguez, Jorge (Manuel Rogelio) (b. March 20, 1945 - d. Aug. 24, 2022, Buenos Aires, Argentina), mayor of Buenos Aires (1994-96) and defense minister of Argentina (1996-99).

Domínguez, Julián (Andrés) (b. Nov. 24, 1963, Chacabuco, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), Argentinian politician. He was agriculture minister (2009-11, 2021-22) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (2011-15).

Domínguez, Luis L(orenzo) (b. May 15, 1819, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. July 20, 1898, London, England), finance minister of Argentina (1870-74). He was also minister to Peru (1874-76), Brazil (1876-82), the United States (1882-86), and the United Kingdom (1886-98).

Domínguez (Trujillo1), Miguel (Ramón Sebastián)2 (b. Jan. 20, 1756, Mexico City, New Spain [now Mexico] - d. April 22, 1830, Mexico City, Mexico), member of the Supreme Executive Power of Mexico (1823-24).
1 The metronym also appears as de Alemán. While some documents suggest that his mother Josefa was the daughter of José de Alemán, others contradict this and record her as Josefa Trujillo (her mother was Micaela Trujillo).
2 He appears sometimes as José Miguel Domínguez, but the name José does not appear in his baptismal record (though it could have been added at confirmation).

Domínguez, Roberto (Rubén) (b. March 15, 1948, Salta, Argentina - d. April 12, 1998, Tilcara, Jujuy, Argentina), governor of Jujuy (1991-93).

Domínguez Pascual, Lorenzo (b. 1863, Sevilla, Spain - d. Dec. 9, 1926, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1920-21). He was also minister of education and fine arts (1903-04) and governor of the Bank of Spain (1913-16, 1917).

Domínguez Servién, Francisco (b. Aug. 11, 1966, Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (2015-21). He was also mayor of Querétaro (2009-11).

Dominici, Porfirio (b. July 30, 1899, Barahona, Dominican Republic - d. ...), Dominican Republic diplomat. He was ambassador to Spain (1966-71) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-75).

Dominijanni, Bruno (b. July 15, 1922, Sant'Andrea Ionio, Calabria, Italy - d. Feb. 5, 2004, Catanzaro, Calabria, Italy), president of Calabria (1980-84).

Dominik, Jacek (b. July 15, 1969), Polish official. He was EU commissioner for financial programming and budget (2014).

Dominy, Floyd (Elgin) (b. Dec. 24, 1909, Adams county, Neb. - d. April 20, 2010, Boyce, Va.), U.S. commissioner of reclamation (1959-69).

Domitien, Elisabeth (b. 1925, Lobaye region, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. April 26, 2005, Bimbo, near Bangui, Central African Republic), prime minister of the Central African Republic (1975-76). She was closely connected with politics all her life, and joined the independence movement at the age of 20, proving a brilliant orator and leading the national women's organization for independence. She won the support of the women for Jean-Bédel Bokassa before his coup in 1966. She accompanied him on his tours abroad and in January 1975 he appointed her prime minister. Although she was a mere puppet in the newly-created post, she was removed from office and placed under house arrest in April 1976. Nevertheless, she remained vice president of the Mouvement d'Evolution Sociale de l'Afrique Noire (MESAN), the country's only political organization, from 1975 to 1979. After the coup which deposed Bokassa in September 1979, Domitien was arrested in February 1980 and brought to trial on charges of covering up extortion committed by Bokassa during her tenure as prime minister. She served a brief prison term, after which she was prohibited from returning to politics.

Domki, Ali Mardan Khan (b. Oct. 13, 1972), interim chief minister of Balochistan (2023- ); grandson of Sardar Akbar Khan Bugti.

Domljan, Zarko (b. Sept. 14, 1932, Imotski, Dalmatia, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Sept. 5, 2020), president of the Sabor of Croatia (1990-92).

Domnick, Charles (Takao), finance minister (1982) and foreign minister (1987-88) of the Marshall Islands. He was also minister of public works (1982-87).

Domö, (Johan) Fritiof, surname until 1937 Gustafsson (b. Aug. 30, 1889, Hakarp socken, Jönköping, Sweden - d. Nov. 23, 1961), governor of Skaraborg (1951-56). He was also Swedish minister of commerce (1939-41), fuel (konsultativt statsråd, 1941-44), and communications (1944-45) and leader of the Conservative National Organization (1944-50).

Domoto, Akiko (b. July 31, 1932), governor of Chiba (2001-09).

Dompok, Tan Sri Bernard (Giluk) (b. Oct. 7, 1949, Penampang, British North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), chief minister of Sabah (1998-99). He was also Malaysian minister of plantation industries and commodities (2009-13) and ambassador to the Vatican (2016-18). He received the titles Datuk (1987) and Tan Sri (1997).

Dona-Fologo, Laurent (b. Dec. 12, 1939, Sinématiali, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. Feb. 5, 2021, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), Ivorian politician. He was minister of information (1974-78, 1986-89), youth and sports (1978-88), culture (1986-88), national integration (1993-96), and national solidarity (1996-99).

Donaghey, George W(ashington) (b. July 1, 1856, Oakland, La. - d. Dec. 15, 1937, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1909-13).

Donahey, A(lvin) V(ictor) (b. July 7, 1873, near Cadwallader, Tuscarawas county, Ohio - d. April 8, 1946, Columbus, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1923-29).

Donahoe, Richard Alphonsus, byname Dick Donahoe (b. Sept. 27, 1909 - d. April 25, 2000), mayor of Halifax (1952-55).

Donald, Alan Hilliard (b. April 14, 1917, India - d. December 1996, Hastings, East Sussex, England), commissioner (1956-59) and administrator (1959-60) of the Cayman Islands.

Donald, Sir John Stuart (b. Sept. 8, 1861, Ferozepore [now Firozpur], Punjab, India - d. July 30, 1948, near Kyperounta, Cyprus), acting chief commissioner of the North-West Frontier Province (1913-15); knighted 1915.

Donaldson, John S(tanley) (b. March 30 or 31, 1936, Trinidad and Tobago - d. March 19, 2013, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago), foreign minister (1976-81) and national security minister (1976-85) of Trinidad and Tobago. In 1973-76 he was ambassador to Algeria, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Guinea, and Liberia and high commissioner to Nigeria, Ghana, and Sierra Leone (resident in Lagos, Nigeria).

Donaurov, Pyotr (Mikhailovich) (b. March 1 [Feb. 17, O.S.], 1801 - d. Aug. 3 [July 22, O.S.], 1863), governor of Vladimir (1842-51) and St. Petersburg (1851-55); son-in-law of Aleksey Khitrovo.

Donchev, Tomislav (Peykov) (b. Aug. 6, 1973, Gabrovo, Bulgaria), a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (2014-17, 2017-21). He was also mayor of Gabrovo (2007-10), minister without portfolio (2010-13), and minister of EU funds and economic policy (2014-17).

Dondelinger, Jean (b. July 4, 1930, Luxembourg, Luxembourg - d. Oct. 21, 2004, Brussels, Belgium), Luxembourg politician. He was was European commissioner for audiovisual and cultural affairs and information (1989-92) and ambassador to Greece (1993-95).

Dondon-Konamabaye, Luc Apollinaire (b. 1939, Bobani, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. May 20, 2015, Sweden), Central African Republic politician. He was ambassador to Senegal (1974-76) and Liberia (1976-79) and president of the National Assembly (1999-2005).

Dondra, Henri Marie (b. Aug. 14, 1966), finance minister (2016-21) and prime minister (2021-22) of the Central African Republic.

Dondukov-Korsakov, Knyaz (Prince) Aleksandr (Mikhailovich) (b. Sept. 24 [Sept. 12, O.S.], 1820, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. April 27 [April 15, O.S.], 1893, Polonoye, Pskov province, Russia), commander-in-chief of the civil administration of the Caucasus (1882-90); great-great-great-grandson of Donduk-Ombo (Kalmyk khan 1737-41). He was also governor-general of Kiev, Podolia, and Volyn (1869-78) and interim governor-general of Kharkov (1880-81) and Odessa (1881-82).

Donegan, Patrick S(arsfield) (b. Oct. 29, 1923, Drogheda, County Louth, Ireland - d. Nov. 26, 2000, Monasterboice, County Louth), defence minister of Ireland (1973-76). He was also minister of lands (1976-77) and fisheries (1977).

Donelson, Andrew Jackson (b. Aug. 25, 1799, near Nashville, Tenn. - d. June 26, 1871, Memphis, Tenn.), U.S. diplomat; nephew-in-law of Andrew Jackson. He was chargé d'affaires in Texas (1844-45) and minister to Prussia (1846-49) and Germany (1848-49).

Donev, Gulub (Spasov) (b. Feb. 28, 1967, Sofia, Bulgaria), interim prime minister of Bulgaria (2022-23). He was also minister of labour and social policy (2017, 2021) and a deputy prime minister (2021).

Dong Jun (b. 1961, Yantai, Shandong, China), defense minister of China (2023- ).

Dong Sy Nguyen (also spelled Dong Si Nguyen), original name Nguyen Huu Vu, also called Nguyen Van Dong (b. March 1, 1923, Quang Trung commune, Quang Trach district [now Ba Don town], Quang Binh province, Annam [now in Vietnam] - d. April 4, 2019, Hanoi, Vietnam), a deputy premier of Vietnam (1982-91). He was also minister of construction (1977-82) and transport (1982-86).

Dönges, Theophilus (Ebenhaezer), byname Eben Dönges (b. March 8, 1898, Klerksdorp, Transvaal [now in North West province, South Africa] - d. Jan. 10, 1968, Cape Town, South Africa), interior minister (1948-58), finance minister (1958-67), and acting prime minister (1966) of South Africa. He was also minister of posts and telegraphs (1948-49) and mines (1949-50). On Feb. 28, 1967, he was elected state president for the term to begin June 1, 1967, but he was too ill to ever take office and resigned by proxy after he was declared incapacitated on Dec. 6, 1967.

Dönhoff, August (Heinrich Hermann) Graf von (b. Oct. 10, 1797, Potsdam, Prussia [now in Brandenburg, Germany] - d. April 1, 1874, Friedrichstein, Germany [now Kamenka, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia]), foreign minister of Prussia (1848). He was also minister to Bavaria (1833-42) and the German Confederation (1842-48).

Donigi, Peter (Dickson) (b. Dec. 19, 1950 - d. Jan. 30, 2014, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), Papua New Guinean diplomat. He was ambassador to Germany and the Vatican (1992-95) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2002).

Dönitz, Karl (b. Sept. 16, 1891, Grünau [now part of Berlin], Germany - d. Dec. 22, 1980, Aumühle, Schleswig-Holstein, West Germany), president of Germany (1945). He entered the German navy in 1910 and during World War I served as a submarine officer in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. After the war he continued his naval career first as commander of a torpedo boat and later of the cruiser Emden. In the aftermath of Adolf Hitler's accession to power, despite the Versailles Treaty's absolute ban on German submarine construction, Dönitz clandestinely supervised the creation of a new U-boat fleet, over which he was subsequently appointed commander (1936). Because of the shortage of materials and the priority Hitler gave to the Luftwaffe, Germany had only 25 U-boats capable of service in the Atlantic at the outbreak of World War II. By the end of the war, however, around 1,000 U-boats had been built and placed in service, more than half of which were destroyed by the Allies. Out of 39,000 men who served aboard German U-boats, 27,082 perished. In the midst of World War II, in January 1943, he was called to replace Adm. Erich Raeder as commander in chief of the German navy. His loyalty and ability soon won him the confidence of Hitler. On April 20, 1945, shortly before the collapse of the Nazi regime, Hitler appointed Dönitz head of the northern military and civil command. Finally - in his last political testament - Hitler named Dönitz his successor as president of the Reich, minister of war, and supreme commander of the armed forces. Assuming the reins of government on May 2, 1945, Dönitz retained office for only a few days. In 1946 he was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment by the International Military Tribunal at Nürnberg. He was released from prison in 1956.

Donk, Wim van de, byname of Wilhelmus Bernhard Henricus Josephus van de Donk (b. May 17, 1962, Veghel, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands), queen's/king's commissioner of Noord-Brabant (2009-20).

Donker, Leendert Antonie (b. Sept. 7, 1899, Almkerk [now part of Altena], Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Feb. 4, 1956, Rotterdam, Netherlands), justice minister of the Netherlands (1952-56).

Donker Curtius, Dirk (b. Oct. 19, 1792, 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands - d. July 17, 1864, Spa, Belgium), justice minister of the Netherlands (1848-49, 1853-56).

Donne, Sir Gaven (John) (b. May 8, 1914, Christchurch, New Zealand - d. March 28, 2010, Otaramarae, near Rotorua, New Zealand), queen's representative of the Cook Islands (1975-84); knighted 1978. He served as chief justice of Western Samoa (1972-73), Niue (1974-82), the Cook Islands (1975-82), and Nauru and Tuvalu (1985-2001).

Donnéa (de Hamoir), François-Xavier (Gustave Marie Joseph Corneille Hubert) de (b. April 29, 1941, Edegem, Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1985-88) and minister-president of Brussels-Capital (2000-03). He was also mayor of Brussels (1995-2000).

Donnell, Forrest C. (b. Aug. 20, 1884, Quitman, Mo. - d. March 3, 1980, St. Louis, Mo.), governor of Missouri (1941-45). He was also a U.S. senator from Missouri (1945-51).

Donnelly, Brian (John) (b. November 1949, Auckland, N.Z. - d. Sept. 25, 2008, Auckland), high commissioner of the Cook Islands (2008).

Donnelly, Phil(ip) M(atthew) (b. March 6, 1891, Lebanon, Mo. - d. Sept. 12, 1961, Lebanon), governor of Missouri (1945-49, 1953-57).

Donner, Jan (b. Feb. 3, 1891, Assen, Netherlands - d. Feb. 2, 1981, The Hague, Netherlands), justice minister of the Netherlands (1926-33). He was also president of the Supreme Court (1947-61).

Donner, Johan Gustaf af (b. Jan. 1, 1730, Kalmar county, Sweden - d. July 31, 1808, near Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (1789-95). He was ennobled (adding "af") in 1772.

Donner, Piet Hein, byname of Jan Pieter Hendrik Donner (b. Oct. 20, 1948, Amsterdam, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (2010-11); grandson of Jan Donner. He was also minister of justice (2002-06) and social affairs and employment (2007-10).

Donoghue, David (b. 1952, Dublin, Ireland), Irish diplomat. He was ambassador to Russia, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan (1999-2001), Austria (2004-06), and Germany (2006-09) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-17).

Donohoe, Paschal (b. Sept. 19, 1974, Dublin, Ireland), finance minister of Ireland (2017-22). He has also been minister of transport, tourism, and sport (2014-16) and public expenditure and reform (2016-20, 2022- ).

Donoso Vergara, Gregorio (b. 1843 - d. 1926), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1890); brother of Ramón Donoso Vergara.

Donoso Vergara, Ramón (b. 1837?, Talca, Chile - d. May 2, 1914, Santiago, Chile), war and marine minister (1888-89) and interior minister (1889) of Chile.

Donovan, James Francis (b. Nov. 13, 1923, Kurri Kurri, N.S.W.), acting administrator of Norfolk Island (1964).

Donovan, Raymond J(ames) (b. Aug. 31, 1930, Bayonne, N.J. - d. June 2, 2021, New Vernon, N.J.), U.S. labor secretary (1981-85).

Donovan, William J(oseph), byname Wild Bill Donovan (b. Jan. 1, 1883, Buffalo, N.Y. - d. Feb. 8, 1959, Washington, D.C.), U.S. coordinator of information (1941-42) and director of strategic services (1942-45). He was also ambassador to Thailand (1953-54).

Dontsop, Paul (b. 1937, Bafou, French Cameroons [now in West province, Cameroon] - d. Jan. 10, 2018, Yaoundé, Cameroon), foreign minister of Cameroon (1980-83). He was also minister of labour and social security (1975-80) and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1983-84).

Dooge, James (Clement Ignatius), Irish Séamus Ó Dubhthaigh (b. July 30, 1922, Birkenhead, England - d. Aug. 20, 2010, Dublin, Ireland), chairman of the Senate (1973-77), member of the Presidential Commission (1974, 1976), and foreign minister (1981-82) of Ireland.

Dookeran, Winston (Chandarbhan) (b. June 24, 1943, Rio Claro, Trinidad and Tobago), finance minister (2010-12) and foreign minister (2012-15) of Trinidad and Tobago. He was also governor of the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago (1997-2002).

Doorly, Sir Charles William (b. Jan. 20, 1875 - d. Feb. 5, 1942), administrator of Saint Lucia (1928-35) and acting governor of the Windward Islands (1933-35); knighted 1935.

Doorn, Elisa Cornelis Unico van (b. Oct. 13, 1799, Oisterwijk, Noord-Brabant, Batavian Republic [now Netherlands] - d. Aug. 2, 1882, Maarn, Utrecht), finance minister of the Netherlands (1853-54) and king's commissioner of Utrecht (1860-80). He was also minister of affairs of Reformed and other worship, except Roman Catholic (1853-54).

Doorn (from 1810: van Westcapelle), Henri baron van, byname of Hendrik Jacob baron van Doorn van Westcapelle (b. Aug. 23, 1786, Vlissingen, Zeeland, Netherlands - d. Jan. 18, 1853, The Hague), governor of Zeeland (1818-26) and Oost-Vlaanderen (1826-30) and interior minister (1830-36) and secretary of state (1836-40) of the Netherlands.

Doppelmayer, Grigory (Gavrilovich) (b. 1789 - d. [suicide] 1849), governor of Vilna (1832-36), Grodno (1836-42), and Minsk (1842-44).

Dorado, Mariano, foreign minister of Peru (1869-70). He was also justice minister (1867 and [acting] 1867).

Doralta, Djiriabaye, until 1973 Bruno Bohiadi (b. Dec. 12, 1922, Bekoi, Chad), foreign minister of Chad (1973-75). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1965-68), permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-71), and minister of national education and culture (1971-73).

Dorcély, Gérard (b. April 20, 1911, Jérémie, Haiti - d. ...), foreign minister of Haiti (1978-79).

d'Orchimont, Wilhelm Albrecht (b. June 28, 1783, Marstrand, Göteborg och Bohus [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Dec. 20, 1861, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Örebro (acting, 1834-35) and Skaraborg (1837-51).

Dorda, Abuzed Omar, Arabic Abu Zid `Umar Durda (b. April 4, 1944, Rhebat, Libya - d. Feb. 28, 2022, Cairo, Egypt), Libyan politician. He served as governor of Misurata province from 1970 to 1972 and was Libya's minister for information and culture from 1972 to 1974. After serving as an undersecretary in the ministry of foreign affairs from 1974 to 1976, he served as minister of municipalities from 1976 to 1979. Dorda was secretary for economy (1979-82) and for agriculture (1982-86) of the General People's Committee. He also was secretary of the People's Committee for the municipality of Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi from 1986 to 1990. From 1990 to 1994, he was head of the Libyan government as secretary of the General People's Committee. From 1994 to 1995 he served as assistant secretary of the General People's Congress. Subsequently he became permanent representative of Libya to the United Nations (1996-2003).

Doré, Jean-Marie (b. June 12, 1938, Bossou, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. Jan. 29, 2016), prime minister of Guinea (2010). He was also a minor presidential candidate (1993, 1998).

Doret, Louis Isaac Pierre Hilaire (b. Jan. 13, 1789, Cognac, Charente, France - d. Feb. 1, 1866, Paris, France), governor of Réunion (1851-52).

Dorey, Sir Graham (Martyn) (b. Dec. 15, 1932 - d. June 25, 2015), bailiff of Guernsey (1992-99); knighted 1993. Earlier he was solicitor general (1973-77), attorney general (1977-82), and deputy bailiff (1982-92).

Dória, Antônio de Sampaio (b. March 25, 1883, Belo Monte, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Dec. 26, 1964, São Paulo, Brazil), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1945-46).

Doria, Bernardo Machado da Costa (b. March 12, 1811, Propriá, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Sept. 5, 1878, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Norte (1857-58).

Doria, João Agripino da Costa, Júnior (b. Dec. 16, 1957, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (2019-22). He was also mayor of São Paulo (2017-18).

Dória, João de Menezes (b. Oct. 27, 1857, Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil - d. Dec. 4, 1934, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Paraná (1894).

Dória, João de Seixas (b. Feb. 23, 1917, Propriá, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Jan. 31, 2012, Aracaju, Sergipe), governor of Sergipe (1963-64).

Dória, José Rodrigues da Costa (b. June 25, 1859, Propriá, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Feb. 14, 1938, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1908-11).

Dorion, Sir Antoine Aimé (b. Jan. 17, 1818, Sainte-Anne-de-la-Peráde, Lower Canada [now Que.] - d. May 31, 1891, Montreal, Que.), joint premier of Canada (1858, 1863-64); knighted 1877. He was also minister of justice and attorney general (1873-74).

Doriot, Jacques (b. Sept. 26, 1898, Bresles, Oise, France - d. Feb. 23, 1945, Mengen, Württemberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany), French politician. He was mayor of Saint-Denis (1931-37) and the founder and leader of the French Popular Party (1936-45). A Communist until 1934, he turned fascist and in early 1945 was based in Germany as leader of a "French Liberation Committee." He was killed in an Allied air raid.

Dorj, Batyn (b. Sept. 17, 1914, Barzan, Aldarkhaan soum, Zavkhan province, Mongolia - d. 1982), defense minister (1956-59, 1969-78) and security minister (1959-61) of Mongolia. He was also ambassador to North Korea (1961-63), East Germany (1963-66), and Yugoslavia (1966-68).

Dorje, Lyonpo Rinzin (b. June 26, 1964), foreign minister of Bhutan (2013-15). He was also governor of Samtse (2009-10) and Haa (2011-13) districts.

Dorji, Lyonpo Chenkyab (b. 1943, Haa district, western Bhutan), secretary-general of SAARC (2005-08). He was also Bhutanese minister of planning (1991-98), chairman of the National Environment Commission (1992-98), and ambassador to Thailand, Singapore, and Australia (1999-2005).

Damcho Dorji
Dorji, Lyonpo Damcho (b. June 23, 1965, Khailo, Gasa district, Bhutan), home affairs minister (2013-15) and foreign minister (2015-18) of Bhutan. He was also attorney general (2006-07).

Dorji, Dasho Lhendup, Dzongkha Drag-shos lHun-sgrub rDo-rje (b. Oct. 6, 1935, Kalimpong, India - d. April 15, 2007, Lungtenphu, Bhutan), acting prime minister of Bhutan (1964); brother of Jigme Palden Dorji. He was conferred the red scarf (and thus the title Dasho) by King Jigme Dorji Wangchuk in 1958. The first Bhutanese to have studied in the United States, he became secretary-general to the government and one of three regents (together with the king's half-brother Dasho Wangchuk and Brig. Chabra Namgyal Bahadur) during a prolonged absence of the king in Switzerland for medical treatment. During that absence his brother, the prime minister, was assassinated in April 1964, and he was named acting prime minister. The king appointed a new Council of Regency consisting of Dorji, Dasho Wangchuk, and Queen Ashi Kheshang (Brigadier Namgyal Bahadur was executed for complicity in the assassination). However, he was dismissed in November after he reportedly demanded to be made sole regent. He then went into exile. He denied, however, that he had been in any way involved in a palace revolution. He returned to Bhutan in 1974.

Dorji, Jigme Palden, Dzongkha 'Jigs-med dPal-ldan rDo-rje (b. Dec. 14, 1919, Kalimpong, Bengal [now in West Bengal], India - d. [assassinated] April 5, 1964, Phuntsholing, Bhutan), chief minister (1952-58) and prime minister (1958-64) of Bhutan; son of Raja Sonam Tobgay Dorji; grandson of Raja Ugyen Dorji.

Dorji (Khangsarpa), Kazi Lhendup (b. 1904, Pakyong, East Sikkim district, Sikkim [now in India] - d. July 28, 2007, Kalimpong, West Bengal, India), prime minister (1974-75) and chief minister (1975-79) of Sikkim.

L.K. Dorji

L.T. Dorji
Dorji, Lyonpo Kinzang (b. Feb. 19, 1951, Chhali, Mongar dzongkhag [district], Bhutan), prime minister of Bhutan (2002-03, 2007-08). He was also speaker of the National Assembly (1997-98), agriculture minister (1998-2003), and minister of works and human settlements (2003-08).

Dorji, Pema Lektup, Bhutanese diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2024- ).

Dorji, Raja Sonam Tobgay, Dzongkha bSod-nams sTobs-rgyas rDo-rje (b. 1896 - d. Sept. 24, 1953, Kalimpong, West Bengal, India), chief minister of Bhutan (1917-52).

Dorji, Lyonpo Tandi (b. Sept. 2, 1968), foreign minister (2018-23) and acting home minister (2021) of Bhutan.

Dorji, Raja Ugyen, Dzongkha O-rgyan rDo-rje (b. 1855, Paro, Bhutan - d. June 22, 1916, Kalimpong, Bengal [now in West Bengal], India), chief minister of Bhutan (1907-16).

Dorlodot des Essarts, Frédéric Jean (b. Sept. 22, 1832, Arras, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. Jan. 8, 1899, Paris, France), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1881-83).

Dorman, Sir Maurice Henry (b. Aug. 7, 1912, Stafford, England - d. Oct. 26, 1993, Overton, Wiltshire, England), governor (1956-61) and governor-general (1961-62) of Sierra Leone and governor (1962-64) and governor-general (1964-71) of Malta; knighted 1957.

Dorman-Smith, Sir Reginald Hugh (b. March 10, 1899, Bellamont Forest, County Cavan, Ireland - d. March 20, 1977, Easebourne, Sussex, England), governor of Burma (1941-46); knighted 1937. He was also British minister of agriculture and fisheries (1939-40).

Dormoy, Marx (b. Aug. 1, 1888, Montluçon, Allier, France - d. [assassinated] July 26, 1941, Montélimar, Vaucluse, France), interior minister of France (1936-38, 1938). He was also mayor of Montluçon (1926-40).

Dorn, Ludwik (Stanislaw) (b. June 5, 1954, Warsaw, Poland - d. April 7, 2022), interior minister (2005-07) and a deputy prime minister (2005-07) of Poland. In 2007 he was marshal of the Sejm.


Dornan, Robert (Kenneth), byname B-1 Bob (b. April 3, 1933, New York City), U.S. politician. He was a member of the House of Representatives (1977-83, 1985-97) and a candidate for the 1996 Republican presidential nomination.

Dornelles, Ernesto (b. Sept. 20, 1897, São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. July 30, 1964, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1943-45 [federal interventor], 1951-55); cousin of Getúlio Vargas. He was also Brazilian minister of agriculture (1956).

Dornelles, Francisco (Oswaldo Neves) (b. Jan. 7, 1935, Belo Horizonte, Brazil - d. Aug. 23, 2023, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1985) and acting governor of Rio de Janeiro (2016, 2018-19); nephew of Tancredo de Almeida Neves and Ernesto Dornelles; cousin of Aécio Neves da Cunha. He was also minister of industry, commerce, and tourism (1996-98) and labour and employment (1999-2002).

Dorr, Noel (b. Nov. 1, 1933, Limerick, Ireland), Irish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-83) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1983-87).

Dors, Christian (b. April 30, 1954, Montpellier, Hérault, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (1991-96) and of Wallis and Futuna (1998-2000).

Dorset, Lionel Cranfield Sackville, (1st) Duke of (b. Jan. 18, 1688, Sevenoaks, Kent, England - d. Oct. 9, 1765, Sevenoaks), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1731-37, 1751-55). He was also British lord president of the council (1745-51). He was created duke in 1720.

Dorsey, Hugh M(anson) (b. July 10, 1871, Fayetteville, Ga. - d. June 11, 1948, Atlanta, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1917-21).

Dorticós Torrado, Osvaldo (b. April 17, 1919, Cienfuegos, Cuba - d. June 23, 1983, Havana), president of Cuba (1959-76). He became a leader of the underground revolutionary cause in 1957, acting as a coordinator in the Cienfuegos region and ensuring that food reached the rebels. He was arrested in 1958 and expelled from Cuba, going to Mexico. When Fidel Castro first seized power, Dorticós was appointed minister of laws and decrees with responsibility for creating laws for the new government, but in July Castro forced Manuel Urrutia Lleó to resign as president and appointed Dorticós his successor. Though Dorticós was viewed as a figurehead president, he had a commanding knowledge of law and economics and travelled widely in order to project Cuban policy. Because of his dignified and conservative appearance, he was regarded as somewhat of a bourgeois Communist. In 1964 he also became economy minister and chairman of the Central Planning Board and by 1965 he was recognized as the country's undisputed economic planner. In 1976 Castro took over the presidency himself under a new constitution. Dorticós remained a member of the Politburo and became a deputy prime minister. At the time of his death he was also justice minister. Depressed by the death of his wife and a serious spinal disease, he committed suicide.

Dørum, Odd Einar (b. Oct. 12, 1943, Oslo, Norway), justice minister of Norway (1999-2000, 2001-05). He was also chairman of the Liberal Party (1982-86, 1992-96) and minister of transport and communications (1997-99).

Dorvillé, Ernandi Lopes (b. June 2, 1919 - d. July 26, 1995), governor of Alagoas (1978).

Dorward, Sir Arthur Robert Ford (b. July 13, 1848, Ootacamund, Madras [now Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu], India - d. March 25, 1934), commissioner of Weihaiwei (1899-1901); knighted 1901.

Dorzhdeyev, Aleksandr (Vladimirovich) (b. May 21, 1958, Nizhnevartovsk, Tyumen oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Kalmykia (1999-2003).

Dorzhiyev, Dazhup (Dansaranovich) (b. 1901 - d. [executed] 1938), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1929-37) and of the Central Executive Committee (1934) of the Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. He was also people's commissar of agriculture (192...-29).

dos Santos, Carlos (b. July 8, 1961, Manhiça, Lourenço Marques [now Maputo] province, Mozambique), Mozambican diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-2003), ambassador to Germany and the Vatican (2006-11) and the United States (2016-23), and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2011-15).

dos Santos (Bedoya), José Antonio (b. 1964, Asunción, Paraguay), Paraguayan diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Canada (1997-99) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-14). In 2021 he was appointed ambassador to the United States.

J.E. dos Santos
dos Santos, José Eduardo (b. Aug. 28, 1942, Luanda, Angola - d. July 8, 2022, Barcelona, Spain), president of Angola (1979-2017). From his youth he showed himself to be a militant nationalist, joining the Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in 1961 and founding a youth organization within it. He served for a time as an active fighter with the MPLA's Second Military Front in Cabinda, the oil province of Angola. He frequently represented the MPLA at international forums. In 1974 he was elected to the executive committee of the movement's political bureau. After the country achieved independence in 1975, he became Angola's first foreign minister (until 1976). In 1978 he became planning minister. Although dos Santos remained firmly committed to his Marxist ideas, he proved himself in government to be a pragmatist and flexible in his approach to the difficult problems that faced Angola after its independence. He was a firm supporter of Pres. Agostinho Neto's policy of developing close economic ties with the Western nations without abandoning Angola's strong friendship with the U.S.S.R. and Cuba. Before his death, Neto promoted dos Santos to a position which marked him as his chosen successor. As president, he pursued national and international efforts to bring about peace in Angola. His involvement resulted in the successful withdrawal of South African forces from Angola, the repatriation of Cuban forces, and the independence of Namibia. He signed the Bicesse Accords in 1991 which allowed for the country's first democratic elections in 1992. The president and his party won the election and the results were accredited by UN and international observers; however, the UNITA rebels contested the results and the country returned to war for another decade. He stepped down as president in 2017 and as MPLA leader in 2018.

Dosanjh, Ujjal (Singh) (b. Sept. 9, 1947, Dosanjh Kalan village, Jalandhar district, Punjab, India), premier of British Columbia (2000-01). He left India for England on Dec. 31, 1964, and moved to Canada in 1969. He has been active in Sikh religious politics and was viciously beaten with an iron bar in 1985 for speaking out against violent efforts to achieve an independent Sikh homeland. He was first elected as member of the British Columbia legislature for Vancouver Kensington in 1991 and twice served as chairman. He also chaired the Select Standing Committee on Parliamentary Reform, Ethical Conduct, Standing Orders and Private Bills. He served as minister of government services and minister responsible for multiculturalism, human rights, sports and immigration in 1995 and then as attorney general from August 1995 to February 2000, when he was elected leader of the province's New Democratic Party (NDP) government, becoming Canada's first Indo-Canadian premier. He took over a government that had seen its popularity plunge over its handling of the economy and scandals that led to the resignation of Premier Glen Clark. Though his personal approval ratings were high, he proved unable to distance himself from the Clark scandals, and the NDP was soundly defeated in 2001. He lost his own seat, and resigned as NDP leader. In 2004 he was elected to the federal House of Commons as a Liberal and was made minister of health (until 2006).

Dosayev, Yerbolat (Askarbekovich) (b. May 21, 1970, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), finance minister of Kazakhstan (2003-04) and head of Almaty city (2022- ). He was also minister of health (2004-06), economic development and trade (2012-13), economy and budget planning (2013-14), and national economy (2014-16), a deputy prime minister (2017-19), and chairman of the National Bank of Kazakhstan (2019-22).

Doskozil, Hans Peter (b. June 21, 1970, Vorau, Steiermark, Austria), defense minister of Austria (2016-17) and Landeshauptmann of Burgenland (2019- ). He was declared chairman of the Social Democratic Party in 2023 but two days later it was found the results of the vote had been mixed up and he lost to Andreas Babler.

Dosmukhambetov, Makhambet (Dzholdasgaliyevich) (b. Dec. 25, 1960, Guryev [now Atyrau], Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Atyrau oblast (2019-22).

Dosmukhambetov, Temirkhan (Mynaydarovich) (b. March 8, 1949, Kustanay [now Kostanay] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. - d. Nov. 1?, 2021), head of Astana city (2003-04). He was also Kazakh minister of youth, tourism, and sports (1996-97) and tourism and sports (2006-11).

Dosnazarov, Allayar (Karazovich) (b. 1896, Chimbay district, Syrdarya oblast, Russia [now in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan] - d. [executed] Dec. 8, 1937, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Karakalpak autonomous oblast (1924-25).

Dossar, Mohamed Bacar, finance minister (2010-11) and foreign minister (2016-17) of the Comoros.

Dossou, François, justice minister of Benin (1982-84). He was also minister of planning, statistics, and foreign aid (1976-81) and transport and communications (1981-82).

Dossou, Paul, finance minister of Benin (1991-96). He was also planning minister (1990-91).

Dossou, Robert (S.M.) (b. May 13, 1939, Covè, Dahomey [now Benin]), foreign minister of Benin (1993-95). He was also a minor presidential candidate (1991) and president of the Constitutional Court (2008-13).

Dost, Shah Mohammad (b. 1929, Kabul, Afghanistan), foreign minister of Afghanistan (1979-86). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-89).

Dost Mohammad Khan (Mohammadzay) (b. 1789, Afghanistan - d. June 9, 1863, Herat, Afghanistan), regent (1826-36) and emir (1836-39, 1842-63) of Afghanistan (Kabul).

Doté, Élie (b. July 9, 1948, Bangui, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), prime minister (2005-08) and finance minister (2006-07) of the Central African Republic.

Doty, James D(uane) (b. Nov. 5, 1799, Salem, N.Y. - d. June 13, 1865, Salt Lake City, Utah), governor of Wisconsin (1841-44) and Utah (1863-65).

Dotz, Alexander, Russian Aleksandr (Ivanovich) Dotts (b. 1890, Yekaterinenshtadt, Saratov province [now Marks, Saratov oblast], Russia - d. af. 1965), chairman of the Executive Committee of the Volga German Workers' Commune (1920).

Doualeh, Mohamed Siad (b. December 1968), Djiboutian diplomat. He has been ambassador of Switzerland (2006-15) and the United States (2016- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2015- ).

Doubane, Charles Armel (b. Nov. 12, 1966, Zémio, Central African Republic), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (2013, 2016-18). He was also minister for relations with parliament (1997-99), minister of national education, literacy, higher education, and research (2006-08), permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-14), and a minor presidential candidate (2015). He did not take up the foreign minister's post in 2013.

Doublet, Maurice (Charles Henri) (b. April 8, 1914, Saint-Maixent-l'École, Deux-Sèvres, France - d. April 14, 2001), prefect of Seine département (1966-67) and Paris département (1968-69). He was also prefect of Tarn (1958-59) and Isère (1961-66).

Doublet, Pierre Jean Louis Ovide (b. Aug. 26, 1754, Orléans, France - d. Feb. 4, 1824, Valletta, Malta), civil commissioner of Malta (1799-1800).

Douchina, Ahmed Attoumani (b. Jan. 2, 1955, Mayotte), president of the General Council of Mayotte (2008-11).

Doudart de Lagrée, Ernest (Marc Louis de Gonzague) (b. March 31, 1823, Saint-Vincent-de-Mercuze, Isère, France - d. March 12, 1868, Dongchuan, Yunnan, China), French representative in Cambodia (1863-66).


Doudou, Émile Boga (b. 1952, Domaboué, near Lakota, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. [killed] Sept. 19, 2002, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire), interior minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2000-02).

Dougan, Carlyle, attorney general and justice minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1995-96).

Dougan, Dame Susan (Dilys), née Ryan (b. March 3, 1955, Colonarie, Saint Vincent), governor-general of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2019- ); knighted 2020.

Douglas, (William) Bloomfield (b. Sept. 25, 1822, Aberystwyth, Wales - d. March 5, 1906, Halifax, N.S., Canada), government resident of the Northern Territory (Australia) (1870-73) and British resident of Selangor (1876-82).

D. Douglas
Douglas, Denzil (Llewellyn) (b. Jan. 14, 1953, St. Paul's, St. Kitts), prime minister (1995-2015) and foreign minister (1995-2000, 2008-10, 2022- ) of St. Kitts and Nevis. He was leader of the St. Kitts-Nevis Labour Party (1989-2021).

Douglas, Francis William (b. Dec. 31, 1874 - d. Dec. 21, 1953), acting British resident in Brunei (1913-15).

Douglas, Gustaf greve (b. May 23, 1648, Stockholm, Sweden - d. July 24, 1705, Stockholm), governor of Västerbotten (1692-1705).

Douglas, James H(enderson, Jr.) (b. March 11, 1899, Cedar Rapids, Iowa - d. Feb. 24, 1988), U.S. government official. He was an assistant to the secretary of the treasury in 1932-33 during the Herbert Hoover administration. Pres Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed him undersecretary of the air force early in 1953. On March 26, 1957, Eisenhower promoted Douglas to head the air force department, to succeed Donald A. Quarles, and his appointment was confirmed by the Senate on April 9. After taking office Douglas was reported to have protested against Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson's order that the armed forces should make no purchase commitments on an "installment" basis in anticipation of forthcoming funds from Congress. In 1958 Douglas upheld the court-martial verdict of 1925 against Brig.Gen. William ("Billy") Mitchell (1879-1936), pioneer exponent of air power, despite a recommendation by an air force board of review that the conviction be reversed. Douglas agreed that Mitchell's views had been amply vindicated but said that the court-martial had been held rather over the question of insubordination to superior officers.

Douglas, James Robson (b. March 27, 1876, Amherst, N.S. - d. Dec. 17, 1934, Montreal, Que.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1925).

Douglas, Jim, byname of James Holley Douglas (b. June 21, 1951, Springfield, Mass.), governor of Vermont (2003-11).

Douglas, John (b. March 6, 1828, London, England - d. July 23, 1904, Thursday Island, Qld.), premier of Queensland (1877-79) and special commissioner of British New Guinea (1886-88).

Douglas, Ludvig (Wilhelm August greve) (b. Nov. 26, 1849, Riesbach, Zürich canton, Switzerland - d. July 20, 1916, Lysekil, Bohuslän, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1895-99) and governor of Uppsala (1893-95) and Östergötland (1901-12); great-great-great-grandnephew of Graf Otton Gustav Duglas.

Douglas, Michael (Anthony) (b. April 26, 1940, Dominica - d. April 30, 1992), finance minister of Dominica (1979-80). He was also minister of agriculture (1975-76, 1979-80) and communications and works (1976-78), deputy prime minister (1979-80), and leader of the Labour Party (1985-92).

Douglas, Montagu William (b. Nov. 23, 1863 - d. Feb. 24, 1957), chief commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1913-20).

Roger Douglas
Douglas, Sir Roger (Owen) (b. Dec. 5, 1937, Auckland, N.Z.), finance minister of New Zealand (1984-89). He was elected MP for Manukau (from 1978 Manurewa) in 1969. During a Labour government he was minister of broadcasting (1972-75), housing (1974-75), and customs (1975) and postmaster-general (1972-74). In opposition again, he moved from the shadow portfolios of trade and industry, and overseas trade, to his abiding interest, finance, in 1983. In 1984 he became finance minister. Reform of the tax system, removal of subsidies and controls, conversion of many government departments into corporations in the name of efficiency, removal of import barriers, and introduction of other open market concepts - these were some of the changes introduced by Douglas. The policies were so closely identified with him that they spawned a new term in finance jargon: "Rogernomics." Because they strained relations with the Labour Party's powerful trade-union wing, the government had a great deal riding on the Douglas doctrine that moneymakers must be free to make money before government can use it to provide for the underprivileged. In 1989-90 he was minister of police and immigration. After retiring from parliament in 1990, he was knighted in 1991. In 1993 he founded the Association of Consumers and Taxpayers, which went on to become ACT New Zealand, for which party he returned to parliament in 2008-11.

Rosie Douglas
Douglas, Rosie, byname of Roosevelt Bernard Douglas (b. Oct. 15, 1941, Portsmouth, Dominica - d. Oct. 1, 2000, Portsmouth), prime minister and foreign minister of Dominica (2000); brother of Michael Douglas. While a student at McGill University, Montreal, Canada, he was the charismatic leader of the "Sir George Williams Computer Riot." A dispute over charges of racism levelled against a professor led to the occupation of several floors of the Henry F. Hall Building (then part of the Sir George Williams University) and erupted into violence on Feb. 11, 1969. The computer centre was badly damaged by fire, many of the university's records were lost, and the damages mounted to $2.5 million. The riot still stands as the most dramatic and costly student protest in Canadian history. After police moved in, 97 students were arrested. Douglas was charged with obstructing the use of private property, and found guilty in a jury trial. In 1973-74, he served 18 months of a two-year prison sentence and was then deported. He helped lead the Caribbean's black power movement and fight for Dominica's independence from Britain. He briefly became a senator after independence in 1978. He was dismissed after he invited Cuban troops to help Dominica following 1979's Hurricane David. In the 1980 election he was defeated; he won a seat in 1985, but lost it again in 1990. After the death of his brother Michael in 1992, Douglas succeeded him as leader of the Democratic Labour Party. He won a by-election and held on to the seat till his death. In 2000 the DLP won 10 of 21 seats and formed a government with the conservative Dominica Freedom Party. Soon after he came to power, Douglas announced an ambitious plan to bring Dominica into membership of the European Union, given its location between the French islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. He died in office.

S.A. Douglas
Douglas, Stephen A(rnold) (b. April 23, 1813, Brandon, Vt. - d. June 3, 1861, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. presidential candidate (1860). He quickly rose to a position of leadership in the Illinois Democratic Party. In 1843 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and in 1846 to the U.S. Senate, in which he served until his death. As chairman of the Committee on Territories, he was particularly prominent in the bitter debates between North and South on the extension of slavery westward. A strong contender for the Democratic presidential nomination in both 1852 and 1856, he was too outspoken to be chosen by a party that was still trying to bridge the North-South gap. In 1858 he engaged in a number of widely publicized debates with Abraham Lincoln in a close contest for the Senate seat in Illinois, and although Lincoln won the popular vote, Douglas was elected 54 to 46 by the legislature. Southern opposition to Douglas intensified, and he was denied reappointment to the committee chairmanship he had previously held in the Senate. When the "regular" (Northern) Democrats nominated him for president in 1860, the Southern wing broke away and supported a separate ticket headed by John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. Although Douglas received only 12 electoral votes, he was second to Lincoln in the number of popular votes polled. Douglas then urged the South to acquiesce in the results of the election. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he denounced secession as criminal and was one of the strongest advocates of maintaining the integrity of the Union at all costs. At Lincoln's request, he undertook a mission to the Border States and to the Northwest to rouse Unionist sentiments among their citizenry.

T.C. Douglas
Douglas, Thomas Clement, byname Tommy Douglas (b. Oct. 20, 1904, Falkirk, Scotland - d. Feb. 24, 1986, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada), Canadian politician. He was the head of the socialist Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). Elected to the Canadian House of Commons in 1935, he served there until 1944, when he was elected premier of Saskatchewan, leading the first socialist government in North America. During his tenure as premier, his innovative administration introduced government-financed health care (which became the model for Canada's socialized health-insurance scheme), public-sector collective bargaining, trade union laws, rural electrification, and government-sponsored automobile insurance. His provincial government also organized an excellent educational system and formed government-owned corporations. He resigned as premier in 1961 to serve as the first federal leader of Canada's New Democratic Party, the successor to the CCF as the country's primary socialist party. In 1971 Douglas retired as party leader, but he continued to sit in the House of Commons until 1979.

Douglas, Sir William (Randolph) (b. Sept. 24, 1921, Barbados - d. Aug. 12, 2003, Pau, France), acting governor-general of Barbados (1976, 1984). He was chief justice in 1965-86 and ambassador to the United States in 1987-91. He was knighted in 1969.

Douglas, William L(ewis) (b. Aug. 22, 1845, Plymouth, Mass. - d. Sept. 17, 1924, Brockton, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1905-06).

Douglas of Barloch (of Maxfield, Sussex), Francis Campbell Ross Douglas, (1st) Baron (b. Oct. 21, 1889, Manitoba - d. March 30, 1980), governor of Malta (1946-49). He was knighted in 1947 and created a baron in 1950.

Douglas of Kirtleside, (William) Sholto Douglas, (1st) Baron (b. Dec. 23, 1893, Oxford, England - d. Oct. 29, 1969, Northampton, England), military governor of the British zone of Germany (1946-47). He was knighted in 1941 and created baron in 1948.

Douglass, Frederick, original name Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey (b. February 1818, Talbot county, Md. - d. Feb. 20, 1895, Washington, D.C.), U.S. diplomat. The foremost African-American public figure of the 19th century, he was minister resident in Haiti (1889-91) and chargé d'affaires in the Dominican Republic (1890-91).

Douie, Sir James McCrone (b. March 8, 1854, Largs, Ayrshire, Scotland - d. March 18, 1935), acting lieutenant governor of Punjab (1911); knighted 1911.

Douiri, M'hamed (b. Dec. 26, 1926, Fès, Morocco), economy and finance minister of Morocco (1960-63). He was also minister of public works (1955-58), equipment and national promotion (1977-81), and planning, executive training, and vocational training (1981-84).

Doumba, Joseph-Charles (b. Feb. 2, 1936, Beten, near Bertoua, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon] - d. March 5, 2017, Yaoundé, Cameroon), Cameroonian politician. He was minister of information and culture (1974-75) and justice (1975-79), minister at the presidency in charge of special missions (1979-88), and secretary-general of the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement (1992-2007).

Doumbouya, Mamadi (b. 1980?, Kankan, Guinea), transitional president of Guinea (2021- ).

Doumer, Paul, byname of Joseph Athanase Doumer (b. March 22, 1857, Aurillac, Cantal, France - d. May 7, 1932, Paris, France), president of France (1931-32). He was elected as a Radical deputy from Aisne département in 1888 and from Yonne in 1891. His reputation as a fiscal expert led to his appointment (1895) as finance minister in the government of Léon Bourgeois. His efforts to introduce a national income tax failed when the Senate refused the measure, and the government had to resign in 1896. He was then appointed governor-general of Indochina and was one of the most active and, from the French point of view, effective holders of that office. Unlike many of his predecessors and successors he occupied the post for a sustained period (1897-1902) and had clearly defined aims. He strengthened the hold of the governor-general over the administrators of the various components of Indochina and placed the colonial economy on a sound basis. While this latter development was welcomed by the French, it involved rigorous imposition of taxes on the local population, which caused deep resentment. Doumer returned to the Chamber of Deputies in 1902 and was its president in 1905-06. In 1906 he unsuccessfully stood for the presidency of the republic. In 1912 he moved to the Senate as representative of Corsica. In 1927-31 he was president of the Senate and chairman of the important budget commission. In addition, he served as finance minister in the Aristide Briand cabinets of 1921-22 and 1925-26. Doumer's election to the presidency on May 13, 1931, was popularly received and he successfully weathered ministerial crises caused by the deaths of Briand and André Maginot. On May 6, 1932, he was fatally shot by a Russian émigré, Pavel Gorgulov (though he died only on May 7, at 4:37 AM).

Doumergue, (Pierre Paul Henri) Gaston (b. Aug. 1, 1863, Aigues-Vives, Gard, France - d. June 18, 1937, Aigues-Vives), president of France (1924-31). In 1890 he went out to Indochina as a magistrate. He returned in 1893 and was appointed a juge de paix in Algeria. A visit to his home in the same year led to his being invited to stand for parliament, and he was shortly afterwards returned as a Radical-Socialist deputy for Nîmes. He was minister of the colonies (1902-05), labour (1906), commerce and industry (1906-08), and public instruction and fine arts (1908-10). In 1910 he was elected to the Senate. On Dec. 13, 1913, he formed his own cabinet and also took the foreign affairs portfolio. His ministry collapsed within seven months, and thereafter he served again as foreign minister (1914) and minister of the colonies (1914-17). He then returned to the Senate and was its president from 1923 until his election to the presidency of the republic on June 13, 1924. His presidential victory came as a rebuff to the Cartel des Gauches, a coalition of leftist parties, which had won a substantial victory in parliamentary elections and then forced Pres. Alexandre Millerand to resign. Doumergue's term was marked by constant ministerial problems - there were 15 different cabinets - as well as severe social tensions caused by the beginning of the Great Depression. After leaving the presidency, he emerged momentarily in January 1932 by his appointment as a director of the Suez Canal Company. In February 1934, after 24 hours of riot and bloodshed in Paris, he was called upon to form a new government, but his plans for a Union Nationale, a broad-based coalition of all parties, and constitutional reforms were unsuccessful. He resigned Nov. 8, 1934, and retired completely from political life.

Dounia, Marc (b. April 17, 1916, Koumra, Chad - d. March 6, 1979, N'Djamena, Chad), interior minister of Chad (1962-64).

Dountas, Michalis (b. 1932, Athens, Greece - d. Dec. 2, 2006), Greek diplomat. He was ambassador to Cyprus (1974-79), Norway (1980-82), and the Soviet Union (1987-88) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-87).

Douri, Mohamed A. al- (b. 1942, Baghdad, Iraq), Iraqi diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-03).

Dousset, Maurice (Guy Gilbert) (b. Feb. 26, 1930, Lutz-en-Dunois, Eure-et-Loir, France - d. Oct. 20, 2007, Paris, France), president of the Regional Council of Centre (1985-98).

Douste-Blazy, Philippe (Jean Georges Marie) (b. Jan. 1, 1953, Lourdes, Hautes-Pyrénées, France), foreign minister of France (2005-07). Earlier he was minister of culture (1995-97), health and social protection (2004), and solidarities, health, and family (2004-05). He was also mayor of Lourdes (1989-2000) and of Toulouse (2001-04).

Doustin, Daniel (Marius) (b. Feb. 25, 1920, Bayonne, Basses-Pyrénées [now Pyrénées-Atlantiques], France - d. Dec. 24, 2004), high commissioner of Chad (1959-60). He was also prefect of the French départements of Charente-Maritime (1964-69), Puy-de-Dôme (1969-72), and Gironde (1972-76).

Douzima, Marcel (b. Dec. 20, 1926, Batangafo, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. Feb. 2, 2012, Bangui, Central African Republic), justice minister of the Central African Republic (1964-66). He was also minister of labour (1958), agriculture, livestock, water, and forestry (1958-59), public works, transport, and mines (1959-60), public service (1960-63), planning (1961-63), and information and tourism (1963-64).

Dovas, Konstantinos (b. Dec. 20, 1898, Konitsa, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. July 24, 1973), interim prime minister of Greece (1961). He was also chief of the general staff (1954-59).

Dovgalevsky, Valerian (Savelyevich) (b. Nov. 23, 1885, Ukraine - d. July 14, 1934, Paris, France), Soviet politician. He was people's commissar of posts and telegraphs of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1921-23) and Soviet ambassador to Sweden (1924-27), Japan (1927), and France (1928-34).

Dovo, Eloi Alphonse Maxime (b. 1957?), foreign minister of Madagascar (2018-19). He was also ambassador to Russia (2003-18).

Dow, Sir Hugh (b. May 8, 1886 - d. Nov. 20, 1978), governor of Sind (1941-46) and Bihar (1946-47); knighted 1940.

N. Dow
Dow, Neal (S.) (b. March 20, 1804, Portland, Maine - d. Oct. 2, 1897, Portland), U.S. politician. His Quaker parents and his own observations as Portland city overseer of the poor, as well as the excess of drunkenness that was then commonplace, influenced his attitude toward liquor. His resolve to bring the temperance movement into politics was formed after an unsuccessful attempt to persuade a saloon keeper not to sell liquor to a friend of his who was being ruined by drinking habits. "Very well, my friend," said Dow, "the people of the state of Maine will see how long you will go on selling." He organized the Maine Temperance Union in 1838. In 1839 he persuaded the aldermen of Portland to submit to a direct vote of the citizens the question whether any liquor licenses should be issued that year. The citizens rejected the proposal by 599 to 564 votes, but four years later municipal prohibition - not for one year alone - was sanctioned by a majority of 440. In 1850 he introduced a prohibition bill in the Maine legislature which since became known as the "Maine Law"; it obtained majorities in both chambers in 1851, replacing a weaker statute of 1846, for which he also had been partly responsible. He was mayor of Portland in 1851-52 and 1855-56. Illegal liquor selling, which had grown to large proportions, was checked, and the sewers were flushed with confiscated alcohol. A "rum riot" took place, the city hall was besieged, one of the crowd was killed, and Dow was charged with responsibility. His trial, however, ended in an acquittal, and a few years later he was elected to the state legislature. After serving in the Civil War he resumed his temperance activities and in 1880 ran for president as the Prohibition Party candidate, receiving 10,366 votes.

Dow, Unity, née Diswai (b. April 23, 1959, Mochudi, Kgatleng district, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), foreign minister of Botswana (2018-20). The first female High Court judge in Botswana (1998-2009), she was also minister of education and skills development (2015-16), basic education (2016-18), and infrastructure and housing development (2018).

Dowden, Sir Oliver (James) (b. Aug. 1, 1978, Park Street, Hertfordshire, England), British deputy prime minister (2023-24); knighted 2024. He was also paymaster general and minister for the Cabinet Office (2019-20), secretary of state for digital, culture, media, and sport (2020-21), a minister without portfolio (2021-22), and chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (2022-24).

E. Dowdeswell
Dowdeswell, Elizabeth (b. 1944), lieutenant governor of Ontario (2014-23). She was also executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme (1993-98).

Dowdeswell, William (b. March 12, 1721 - d. Feb. 6, 1775, Nice, France), British chancellor of the exchequer (1765-66).

B. Dowiyogo
Dowiyogo, Bernard (Dabarnen Annen Auwen) (b. Feb. 14, 1946, Nauru - d. March 9, 2003, Washington, D.C. [March 10, Nauru time]), president of Nauru (1976-78, 1989-95, 1996, 1998-99, 2000-01, 2003, 2003). First elected to Nauru's 18-seat parliament in 1973, he first became president in 1976, ousting the island's head chief and first president, Hammer DeRoburt. Over the next 27 years, Dowiyogo navigated the unpredictable Nauruan political landscape - serving as president for as long as six years and as little as 8 days. The ministerial portfolios he held during his parliamentary career include those of justice (1976-78, 1983-86, 1986, 1986-89), health and education (1989), island development and industry, public service, and civil aviation (1989-95, 1998-99), finance and education (1998-99), and finance and economic reform, public service, human resources, development, employment, and telecommunications (2000-01). He was a strong voice in the Pacific on environmental issues including nuclear testing, fishing, climate control, and plutonium shipments. In 1994 he was chairman of the South Pacific Forum. He was known as one of the more pragmatic leaders of Nauru but could not stem the waste and corruption on an island that has been environmentally devastated by decades of phosphate mining and is now facing economic collapse. Nauru is almost completely dependent on phosphate deposits, mined as fertilizer for use around the world. The mining produced a great deal of wealth for Nauruans but much of the money has been squandered and the phosphate supply nearly exhausted. In 2001 Nauru agreed to accept hundreds of refugees from Afghanistan, Iraq, and elsewhere who had traveled by boat to seek asylum in Australia. In exchange, Nauru received U.S.$10.6 million a year in aid from Australia. Since returning to the presidency for a sixth time in January 2003, Dowiyogo's health deteriorated and he died while on official business in the United States.

Dowiyogo, Valdon (Kape) (b. Aug. 31, 1968 - d. Dec. 8, 2016, Russia), Nauruan politician; son of Bernard Dowiyogo. He was speaker of parliament (2005-07) and minister of education, health, and sport (2011-12) and health, transport, sport, and fisheries (2013-16).

Downarowicz, Stanislaw (Józef Marian) (b. March 28, 1874, Lochów, Poland - d. March 11, 1941, Auschwitz concentration camp, near Oswiecim, Poland), interior minister of Poland (1921-22). He was also governor of Wolynskie (1921) and Poleskie (1922-24) województwa.

A. Downer
Downer, Alexander (John Gosse) (b. Sept. 9, 1951, Adelaide, S.Aus.), foreign minister of Australia (1996-2007); son of Sir Alexander Downer. He served as a diplomat in Australian embassies in Belgium and Luxembourg. In December 1984 he was elected to parliament as Liberal MP for Mayo, South Australia. After holding several senior positions on the opposition frontbench, he became leader of the (conservative) Liberal Party on May 23, 1994. Opinion polls soon put Downer and his party ahead of Prime Minister Paul Keating and his Australian Labor Party government. Downer made a series of mistakes in his handling of Aboriginal policy, however, which reversed the trend. What he saw during a visit to settlements in the Alice Springs area so unnerved him that he made a series of contradictory and confusing statements, causing his approval rating of 53% at the beginning of the trip to dive to only 34% by the time he returned home. But more resolved than ever to bring true former prime minister Bob Hawke's prophecy that Downer would be Australia's next prime minister, the Liberal leader took up an aggressive position, replying to ridicule in kind and drawing attention to Keating's 1994 purchase of a $2 million home in which to house his French clock collection. In January 1995, Downer resigned after only eight months as party leader and was succeeded by John Howard. When a Liberal-National government led by Howard took office following the 1996 elections, Downer became foreign minister, serving until the end of the Howard government in 2007, making him Australia's longest-serving foreign minister. He oversaw Australia's successful intervention in East Timor in 1999, then worked to repair Australia's relations with Indonesia. After the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the U.S., he supported military action in Afghanistan. He also played a leading role in committing Australia to support the U.S. decision to invade Iraq in 2003. After the defeat of the Howard government he resigned from parliament and was appointed a part-time UN special envoy to Cyprus. In 2014-18 he was high commissioner to the United Kingdom.

Downer, Sir Alexander (Russell), byname Alick Downer (b. April 7, 1910, Adelaide, S.Aus. - d. March 30, 1981, Adelaide), Australian politician; knighted 1965; son of Sir John Downer. He was minister of immigration (1958-63) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1964-72).

Downer, Sir John (William) (b. July 5, 1844, Adelaide, South Australia - d. Aug. 2, 1915, Adelaide), premier of South Australia (1885-87, 1892-93); knighted 1887.

Downey, John G(ately) (b. June 24, 1827, County Roscommon, Ireland - d. March 1, 1894, Los Angeles, Calif.), governor of California (1860-62).

Doyle, Sir Charles Hastings (b. April 10, 1804, London, England - d. March 19, 1883, London), acting governor of Nova Scotia (1863-64, 1865), lieutenant governor of New Brunswick (1866-67) and Nova Scotia (1867-73), and acting governor general of Canada (1872); knighted 1869.

Doyle, David (Charles) (b. April 26, 1960), acting lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (2011, 2016). He was second deemster (2003-10) and first deemster (2010-18).

Doyle, Jim, byname of James Edward Doyle, Jr. (b. Nov. 23, 1945, Washington, D.C.), governor of Wisconsin (2003-11).

Doynov, Ognyan (Nakov) (b. Oct. 15, 1935, Gara Bov, near Sofia, Bulgaria - d. Feb. 13, 2000, Vienna, Austria), Bulgarian politician. He served as a vice premier (1974-76, 1986-87), president of the Bulgarian Chamber for Industry and Trade (1980-84), and minister of machine building (1984-86). In 1981 he became a member of the policy-making Politburo of the then-ruling Communist Party and held that post until 1988 when his relations with dictator Todor Zhivkov deteriorated, and he was appointed ambassador to Norway. He was recalled to Bulgaria after the collapse of Zhivkov's regime in 1989. The following year he left for Vienna where he opened a consulting company. He never came back to Bulgaria. In 1992 Doynov was indicted along with other former top Communist officials on charges of impoverishing Bulgaria by giving millions of dollars to Communist movements in the developing world. The prosecutor general requested Doynov be extradited, but Austrian authorities refused to do so.

Doyon, J(oseph) Michel (b. April 20, 1943, Québec, Que.), lieutenant governor of Quebec (2015-24).