Drachevsky, Leonid (Vadimovich) (b. April 5, 1942, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), plenipotentiary of the president in Sibirsky federal district (2000-04). He was also Russian ambassador to Poland (1996-98) and minister of Commonwealth of Independent States affairs (1999-2000).
Draganescu, Emil (b. Dec. 18, 1919, Galati, Romania), a deputy premier of Romania (1968-78). He was also minister of electric power (1965-68), transport and telecommunications (1972-74), and tourism and sports (1978-82) and chairman of the State Planning Committee (1974).
Draganov, Purvan (Draganov) (b. Feb. 5, 1890, Lom, Bulgaria - d. [executed] Feb. 1, 1945, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1944). He was also minister to Austria (1936-38), Germany (1938-42), and Spain (1942-44).
Draghici, Alexandru (b. Sept. 27, 1913, Tisau, Romania - d. Dec. 12, 1993, Budapest, Hungary), interior minister of Romania (1952, 1957-65). He was also president of the Grand National Assembly (1949-50), minister of state security (1952-53), head of the State Department of Security (1953-57), and a deputy premier (1961-65, 1967-68).
Dragnea, Liviu (Nicolae) (b. Oct. 28, 1962, Gratia, Teleorman county, Romania), interior minister of Romania (2009). He has also been prefect of Teleorman (1996-2000), a deputy prime minister and minister of regional development and public administration (2012-15), president of the Social Democratic Party (2015- ), and president of the Chamber of Deputies (2016- ). A two-year suspended sentence for attempting to rig a 2012 referendum to impeach the president barred him from becoming prime minister after his party won the most votes in parliamentary elections in 2016, but he was considered the most powerful politician in the country. In 2018 he was sentenced to 3½ years in prison in a case involving fake public jobs for party workers; his appeal was rejected in 2019.
Drago, Luis María (b. May 6, 1859, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. June 9, 1921, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1902-03). Prompted by European powers' blockade of Venezuelan ports in 1902, he formulated the Drago Doctrine, which opposed the forcible collection of debts through military intervention in any South American republic.
Drago (Pennano), Mariano José (b. May 3, 1896, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Sept. 28, 1966), foreign minister of Argentina (1962). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-58).
Dragomirov, Mikhail (Ivanovich) (b. Nov. 20 [Nov. 8, O.S.], 1830, near Konotop, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Sumy oblast, Ukraine] - d. Oct. 28 [Oct. 15, O.S.], 1905, Konotop), governor-general of Kiev, Podolia, and Volyn (1898-1904).
Dragoumis, Nikolaos (Markou) (b. April 10, 1809, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. March 9, 1879, Athens, Greece), foreign minister of Greece (1862).
Dragoumis, Philippos (Stephanou) (b. Jan. 14 [Jan. 2, O.S.], 1890, Athens, Greece - d. Jan. 2, 1980, Athens), defense minister (1946-47, 1963) and foreign minister (1952) of Greece; son of Stephanos Dragoumis. He was also general administrator of Macedonia (1932-33, 1933-34).
Dragoumis, Stephanos (Nikolaou) (b. Jan. 14, 1842, Athens, Greece - d. Sept. 17, 1923), foreign minister (1886-90, 1892-93), interior minister (1888-90, 1910), prime minister (1910), and finance minister (1910, 1915-16) of Greece; son of Nikolaos Dragoumis. He was also general administrator of Crete (1912-13) and Macedonia (1913-14).
Drahos, Jirí (b. Feb. 20, 1949, Ceský Tesín, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czech presidential candidate (2018). He was president of the Czech Academy of Sciences (2009-17).
Drake, Heinrich (Hermann Wilhelm) (b. Dec. 20, 1881, Lemgo, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. June 12, 1970, Detmold, Nordrhein-Westfalen, West Germany), chairman of the State Presidium (1920-21, 1921-32) and president of the state government (1932-33) of Lippe, minister of Schaumburg-Lippe (1945-46), and state president of Lippe-Detmold (1946-47).
Drakeford, Mark (b. 1954, Carmarthen, Wales), first minister of Wales (2018- ).
Dramaliev, Kiril (Georgiev) (b. Feb. 22, 1892, Sofia, Bulgaria - d. Dec. 20, 1961, Sofia), Bulgarian politician. He was education minister (1947-52) and ambassador to Poland (1952-54) and East Germany (1957-58).
Dramé, Tiébilé (b. June 9, 1955, Nioro, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (1991-92, 2019- ). He was also minister of arid and semi-arid regions (1996-97) and a minor presidential candidate (2002, 2007).
Drammeh, Habib Saihou, interior minister of The Gambia (2017-18). He has also been ambassador to Spain (2019- ).
Drapeau, Jean (b. Feb. 18, 1916, near Montreal - d. Aug. 12, 1999, Montreal), mayor of Montreal (1954-57, 1960-86). After running unsuccessfully for the Canadian parliament and the Quebec National Assembly, he found his niche in Montreal civic politics. He acted as the prosecutor for the Caron Inquiry into Montreal civic corruption (1949-50) and in 1954 was elected mayor. Defeated in the 1957 election, he formed the Parti Civique de Montréal to serve as his political vehicle, and in 1960 he was returned to office. He was known as a showman, a master of circumlocution and charm, and a manager with iron determination. He believed that the populace drafted a leader and entrusted the fate of the city to him. His Parti Civique admitted no members besides its city councillors and never had a stated platform. All major plans for Montreal were made by the mayor in consultation with six members of the City Council executive committee and presented to the council for rubber-stamp approval. He created underground shopping plazas, a subway system, an art centre, and the Olympic Stadium. In 1969 he brought major league baseball to Montreal with the Montreal Expos, but his two most grandiose achievements were the 1967 world's fair, Expo 67, and the 1976 Summer Olympics. In 1965 he received an award from the trade and industry departments of the Canadian provinces for contributing most to industrial development in Canada. In 1967 he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada, and in 1984, a Commander of the French Legion of Honour. When he announced that he would not run for a ninth term in 1986, he made it clear that this was not his choice but a concession to his health problems. He lived four years in Paris as Canada's ambassador to UNESCO (until 1991).
Draper, Eben(ezer) S(umner) (b. June 17, 1858, Hopedale, Mass. - d. April 9, 1914, Greenville, S.C.), governor of Massachusetts (1909-11); brother of William F. Draper.
Draper, Gordon (Michael) (b. 1949, Arima, Trinidad - d. Aug. 12, 2004, London, England), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1995). He was also minister of public administration and information (1991-95).
Draper, William (Henry) (b. March 11, 1801, near London, England - d. Nov. 3, 1877, Yorkville [now part of Toronto]), joint premier of Canada (1841-42, 1843-47). He came to Canada in 1820. From 1836 to 1840 he represented Toronto in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and he was appointed a member of the Executive Council of the province in 1836. He served as aide-de-camp to Sir Francis Bond Head, the lieutenant governor, during the rebellion of 1837. The same year he was appointed solicitor-general for the province, and in 1840, attorney-general. In 1841, as Conservative leader, he was chosen as joint premier of Canada, along with Reform Party leader Robert Baldwin. Baldwin abandoned his post after less than a year in power, but Draper continued to serve until his party was voted out of favour in 1842. He regained his position in 1843, serving jointly with Denis Benjamin Viger (1843-46) and Louis-Joseph Papineau (1846-47). He was a persuasive speaker, earning the sobriquet of "Sweet William." The stresses of governing with a small majority led to his resignation from politics in 1847. From then on he held a succession of judicial posts: puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench in Upper Canada (1847-56), chief justice of the Common Pleas (1856-63), chief justice of Upper Canada (1863-69), and president of the Court of Error and Appeal (1869-77).
Draper, William F(ranklin) (b. April 9, 1842, Lowell, Mass. - d. Jan. 28, 1910, Washington, D.C.), U.S. diplomat. He was ambassador to Italy (1897-1900).
Draskovic, Vuk (b. Nov. 29, 1946, Medja, Banat region, Vojvodina, Serbia, Yugoslavia), Yugoslav politician. Expelled from the Communist party in 1982, he rose to prominence by espousing Serbian nationalism and in 1990 founded the Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO). He became the most prominent opposition figure for much of the 1990s. When Pres. Slobodan Milosevic brought him on board as deputy prime minister in January 1999, he gave the government a more pro-Western voice, counterbalancing the ultranationalism of the Radical Party leader and Serbian deputy prime minister, Vojislav Seselj. On April 28, 1999, Draskovic, who vowed when he joined the government to reform it from within, was back in opposition - he was relieved of all duties a day after calling for an international peace force for Kosovo under UN control. Draskovic, who had co-led huge street protests against Milosevic two years earlier, was always a maverick figure. He continued to insist he was in opposition to Milosevic throughout his time as a deputy prime minister. At the same time, he opposed the NATO attacks against Yugoslavia and even after his dismissal he said Serbs were united. For a long time many Serbs saw Draskovic as the most charismatic and important opposition figure to Milosevic. He claimed the SPO was the largest opposition party in Serbia. However, he was widely perceived to have made several disastrous tactical mistakes and in elections following Milosevic's overthrow in 2000 his party failed to overcome the 5% barrier needed to gain representation in parliament. Analysts saw his main blunders as his decision to keep his party outside the Democratic Opposition of Serbia alliance and earlier to have accepted the government post offered by Milosevic. His party returned to parliament in 2003, however, and joined the government. He was foreign minister of Serbia and Montenegro from 2004 until the end of the union in 2006, then foreign minister of Serbia until 2007.
Drayton, Sir Henry (Lumley) (b. April 27, 1869, Kingston, Ont. - d. Aug. 28, 1950, Muskoka, Ont.), finance minister of Canada (1919-21 and [acting] 1926); knighted 1915. He was also acting secretary of state (1921), acting minister of railways and canals (1926), and minister without portfolio and acting minister of immigration and colonization (1926).
Drees, Willem (b. July 5, 1886, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. May 14, 1988, The Hague), prime minister of the Netherlands (1948-58). He joined the Social Democratic (later Labour) Party at the age of 18. He served on the city council in The Hague from 1913 and in 1933 was elected to the Second (principal) Chamber of the States-General. During World War II he was arrested for anti-German activities and was briefly interned (1940-41) in the Buchenwald concentration camp; he joined the resistance movement after his release. As minister of social affairs (1945-48) and then as prime minister, Drees introduced such social welfare programs as old-age pensions, unemployment compensation, and national health care. In 1948 he sent troops to the Netherlands East Indies, which had declared its independence in 1945, in order to reestablish Dutch sovereignty. The action was widely supported in the Netherlands, but it attracted international condemnation, and in 1949 Drees reluctantly acknowledged the independence of Indonesia. During his tenure, the Caribbean Dutch possessions of Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles also moved toward self-government. Under his leadership the Netherlands joined both NATO and the European Economic Community. He retired in 1958 after the coalition he headed broke apart in a dispute over proposed tax increases. In 1971 he denounced the increasingly leftist Labour policies and resigned from the party. The issue of whether to deploy NATO cruise missiles on Dutch soil marked his final public clash with his successors in the Labour Party. Drees sharply criticized the Labour leadership for its unconditional opposition to deployment.
Dreifuss, Ruth (b. Jan. 9, 1940, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland), president of Switzerland (1999). When Dreifuss, a member of the left-of-centre Social Democrats, joined the cabinet as interior minister in 1993, she became its first Jewish member, and she was only the second female cabinet member in Switzerland, which gave women the right to vote on the federal level only in 1971. Radical Democrat Elisabeth Kopp, the first female to join the cabinet in 1984, resigned in 1989 after being accused of violating the official secrets act. On Dec. 9, 1998, Dreifuss was elected as Switzerland's first female president. But she said she refused to be a fig-leaf for a male-dominated government. "I won't be satisfied if I'm the last woman [president] for decades. I'm just opening the door for other women," she said. On Sept. 30, 2002, she announced her resignation as interior minister for the end of the year.
Drenteln, Aleksandr (Romanovich) (b. March 19 [March 7, O.S.], 1820, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. July 27 [July 15, O.S.], 1888, Kiev), governor-general of Kiev, Podolia, and Volyn (1881-88). He was also Russian chief of gendarmes (1878-80).
Drew, George Alexander (b. May 7, 1894, Guelph, Ont. - d. Jan. 4, 1973, Toronto, Ont.), Canadian politician. He became mayor of his native city Guelph at the age of 31. In 1938 he became leader of the Ontario Conservative Party, in 1939 member of the Ontario legislature, and in 1943 premier of Ontario and minister of education. After five years as provincial premier, he was chosen leader of the national Progressive Conservative Party (Oct. 2, 1948) and was elected to parliament (Dec. 20, 1948). After unsuccessful election campaigns against the Liberals in 1949 and 1953 he resigned the leadership in 1956. In 1957 he was appointed Canadian high commissioner to London; he spent seven years in the ambassadorial post.
Dreyer, Malu, byname of Marie-Luise Dreyer (b. Feb. 6, 1961, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, West Germany), minister-president of Rheinland-Pfalz (2013- ).
Dreyer, Pierre (b. June 3, 1924, Villars-sur-Glâne, Fribourg, Switzerland - d. July 28, 2005), president of the Council of State of Fribourg (1973, 1979) and president of the Council of States of Switzerland (1982).
Dreyfus (Morales), Enrique (b. Sept. 26, 1930, Managua, Nicaragua), foreign minister of Nicaragua (1990-92).
Driscoll, Matt(hew John) (b. Feb. 7, 1958), mayor of Syracuse (2001-09).
Driss, Rachid (b. Jan. 27, 1917, Tunis, Tunisia - d. Sept. 5, 2009), Tunisian politician. He was minister of posts, telegraphs, and telephones (1957-64), ambassador to the United States and Mexico (1964-69), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-76).
Drizen, Karl-Vilgelm (Karlovich), German Wilhelm Karl Heinrich Baron von der Oest gen. Driesen (b. May 13, 1746, Wesel, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. Feb. 17, 1827, Mitava, Russia [now Jelgava, Latvia]), governor of Courland (1798-1800).
Drljevic, Sekula (b. Sept. 7, 1884, Ravni, Montenegro - d. [assassinated] 1945, Judenburg, Steiermark, Austria), prime minister of Montenegro (1941). He was also minister of justice (1909-10) and finance (1912-13).
Drnovsek, Janez (b. May 17, 1950, Celje, Slovenia - d. Feb. 23, 2008, Zaplana, Slovenia), prime minister (1992-2000, 2000-02) and president (2002-07) of Slovenia. He was elected to the Slovenian parliament in 1986 and became Slovenia's representative on Yugoslavia's collective presidency in May 1989, immediately taking up its rotating chairmanship for a year. By this time the old Communist system was crumbling, and Drnovsek called upon the parliament to allow multiparty elections, release all political prisoners, and adopt a Western-style free-market economy. Such reforms only hastened the onset of ethnic nationalism, and Yugoslavia disintegrated in a deluge of secessionism and civil war. In October 1990 he withdrew from the presidency in protest at its manipulation by Serbia. A founding member in November 1990 of the centre-left Liberal Democratic Party (LDS; from 1994 Liberal Democracy of Slovenia), he helped secure independence for Slovenia in 1991, acting as Slovenia's main negotiator in the independence talks with the Yugoslav army. When Prime Minister Lojze Peterle lost a vote of confidence in 1992, Drnovsek advanced to succeed him. He methodically pursued a reform agenda, building a competitive market economy and commencing membership talks with the European Union. Described as singularly uncharismatic, he called himself "not very ideological," adding: "People demanded vision. I hate vision. The cemetery of history is full of visionaries." He briefly lost office in 2000 when general elections gave a majority to centre-right parties. However, the coalition quickly broke down and fresh elections returned the centre-left coalition parties to power. In 2002 he successfully ran for president and thereafter laid down the chairmanship of the LDS he held since 1992. His presidency was marked by a major personal transformation caused by recurrent cancer. In 2006 he left the LDS and established the non-political, altruistic Movement for Justice and Development. He boycotted state occasions, disappeared for weeks at a time, and talked like a New Age mystic of his quest for "higher consciousness" and "inner balance."
Drobnjak, Vladimir (b. March 5, 1956, Zagreb, Croatia), Croatian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-05, 2013-19).
Drobotov, Anatoliy (Ivanovych) (b. May 21, 1951, Stary Kadak, Dnepropetrovsk oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), prime minister of Crimea (1995).
Dromi, (José) Roberto (b. 1945), public works minister of Argentina (1989-91).
Dronjic, Ivica, Bosnian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2018-19).
Drouet, Jean-Baptiste, (from Jan. 28, 1809) comte d'Erlon (b. July 29, 1765, Reims, France - d. Jan. 25, 1844, Paris, France), governor-general of Algeria (1834-35).
Drouhet, (Julien) Théodore (b. April 4, 1817, La Rochelle, France - d. Oct. 18, 1904, Paris, France), governor of French India (1881-84).
Drouyn de Lhuys, Édouard (b. Nov. 19, 1805, Paris, France - d. March 1, 1881, Paris), foreign minister of France (1848-49, 1851, 1852-55, 1862-66). He was also ambassador the United Kingdom (1849-51).
Droz, (Louis) Édouard (b. May 12, 1854, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchâtel - d. Feb. 11, 1915, Neuchâtel), president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (1901-02, 1906-07, 1910-11).
Droz, Numa (b. Jan. 27, 1844, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchâtel - d. Dec. 15, 1899, Bern), president of the Council of States (1875-76), interior minister (1876-78), trade and agriculture minister (1879-80, 1882-86), president (1881, 1887), and foreign minister (1888-92) of Switzerland.
Drozdenko, Aleksandr (Yuryevich) (b. Nov. 1, 1964, Dzhambul oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), governor of Leningrad oblast (2012- ).
Drozdenko, Vasily (Ivanovich) (b. Jan. 14, 1924, Kharkovo, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Kharkove, Chernihiv oblast, Ukraine] - d. Nov. 30, 1982), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the party committees of Kiev city (1960-62) and Kiev oblast (1962-66) and ambassador to Romania (1971-82).
Druc, Mircea (Gheorghe) (b. July 25, 1941, Pochumbeuts, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Pociumbauti, Moldova]), prime minister of Moldova (1990-91). He was also a Romanian presidential candidate (1992).
Druey, (Daniel) Henri (b. April 12, 1799, Faoug, Vaud, Helvetic Republic [now Switzerland] - d. March 29, 1855, Bern, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Vaud (1842-43, 1845-46) and justice and police minister (1848-49, 1852), president (1850), and finance minister (1851, 1853-55) of Switzerland.
Drufva, (Peter) Thure (Gerhard) friherre (b. Jan. 22, 1767, Håtuna socken, Uppsala, Sweden - d. Oct. 6, 1822, Håtuna socken), governor of Västmanland (1816-22). He was made friherre (baron) in 1815.
Drury, Charles (Mills), byname Bud Drury (b. May 7 or 17, 1912, Westmount, Que. - d. Jan. 12, 1991, Gatineau, Que.), acting defence minister (1970, 1972) and acting finance minister (1975) of Canada. He was also minister of defense production (1963-68), industry (1963-68), trade and commerce (1968), and public works (1974-76) and president of the Treasury Board (1968-74).
Druzhinin, Vladimir (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 25 [Dec. 12, O.S.], 1907, Moscow, Russia - d. Aug. 20, 1976, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of Crimea oblast (1959-65 [1963-64 industrial]). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Ternopol (1948-51), Kherson (1954-56), and Drogobych (1956-59) oblasti.
Dryagin, Mikhail (Nikolayevich) (b. Nov. 1, 1852 - d. af. 1917), governor of Batum oblast (1903-05).
D'Souza, Wilfred (Anthony), also spelled de Souza (b. April 23, 1927, Anjuna, Bardez county, Goa, Portuguese India [now in India] - d. Sept. 4, 2015, Panaji, Goa), chief minister of Goa (1993-94, 1994, 1998).
du Boulay, Sir Roger (William Houssemayne) (b. March 30, 1922), British resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1973-75); knighted 1982.
Du Cane, Sir Charles (b. Dec. 5, 1825, Ryde, Isle of Wight, England - d. Feb. 25, 1889, Witham, Essex, England), governor of Tasmania (1869-74); knighted 1875.
Du Chaylard, Jean Marie Guy Georges (b. Feb. 24, 1844, Siorac, Dordogne, France - d. 1923), French official. He was prefect of the départements of Hautes-Alpes (1885-86) and Loir-et-Cher (1886-87) and minister to Uruguay (1902-04).
du Plessis, Barend (Jacobus) (b. Jan. 19, 1940, Johannesburg, South Africa), finance minister of South Africa (1984-92). He was also minister of education and training (1983-84).
du Plessis, Wentzel Christoffel, byname Wennie du Plessis (b. March 5, 1904, South Africa - d. April/May 1988, Pretoria, South Africa), administrator of South West Africa (1963-68). He was also South African permanent representative to the United Nations (1954-56) and ambassador to the United States (1956-60).
Du Rietz af Hedensberg, Anders (Rudolf) friherre (b. Feb. 16, 1720, Moscow, Russia - d. Oct. 21, 1792, Tillberga socken, Västmanland, Sweden), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1772-90). He was made friherre (baron) in 1778.
Du Xigui (b. Dec. 12, 1874, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. Dec. 27, 1933), navy minister (1924, 1925-27) and acting premier and acting president (1926) of China. He graduated from Nanjing Navy College as a teenager and then served in the Chinese (Qing dynasty) warship Jiangzhen of the Yangtze River Fleet, which declared its "independence" from the imperial government in 1911. He was appointed the 2nd Fleet commander upon the founding of the republic and then commander-in-chief of the navy. In 1929, he was sent to the West as a special envoy, inspecting their navy units.
Du Xijun (b. 1880, Gucheng, Hebei, China - d. Aug. 22, 1951), civil governor of Hubei (1926). Having graduated from the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he returned and joined the "Modern Army" of Hubei province under Li Yuanhong, serving as the commander of the 2nd Brigade. He turned to Wang Zhanyuan after Li lost his influence in Hubei, and then to Wu Peifu, after Wang's quitting. In 1926, he was nominated by Wu as Hubei governor, but was replaced by Liu Zuolong a week later. He moved to Tianjin as Wu was defeated. He was designated general of the Japanese-backed "Security Garrison of North China" in 1938 and was later executed as a traitor.
Duale, Elmi Ahmed (b. 1935, Bulo-Burte, Hiran, Somalia), Somali diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-16).
Dualeh, Ahmed Yusuf, Somali Axmed Yuusuf Ducaale (b. 1935, Hargeysa, British Somaliland [now Republic of Somaliland]), foreign minister of Somalia (1964-67).
Duan Qirui, Wade-Giles Tuan Ch'i-jui (b. March 6, 1865, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. Nov. 2, 1936, Shanghai, China), governor of Hubei (1911), acting military governor of Hubei (1913-14) and Henan (1914), and army minister (1912-15, 1916-17, 1917), acting premier (1913), secretary of state (1916), premier (1916-17, 1917, 1918), and provisional chief executive (1924-26) of China. He served in the Beiyang Army, whose commander was Yuan Shikai. During Yuan's presidential term, Duan's post as army minister allowed him to gain great prestige and influence in the military field. After Yuan died in 1916, Duan (nicknamed "the Tiger") started to control the government, with the assistance of governors and generals. In 1917, the government started to decide whether to join World War I; Duan preferred to take part on the Allied side, as his protector Japan wished to gain control over the Chinese forces via the war. However, Pres. Li Yuanhong, backed by the U.K. and U.S. who feared such an attempt by Japan and tried to maintain their interests in China, insisted on remaining neutral. Duan then organized a "coalition of military governors," led by Anhui Gov. Ni Sichong, which vowed to join the war. Later Li sacked Duan as premier and Duan called Gen. Zhang Xun, who was stationed in Xuzhou, Jiangsu, to mediate the dispute. Zhang Xun thought the opportunity for restoration finally came, so he led his "Pigtail Army" all the way to Beijing, expelled Li from office, and restored the Great Qing Empire (July 1). Duan recovered Beijing on July 12; considered a hero, he became premier again, and the president became his puppet. Duan kept receiving support from Japan, which offered him endless loans to improve his army, but despite that, he suffered a great defeat in the civil war against the Zhili Military Group led by Cao Kun and Wu Peifu in 1920. After Feng Yuxiang launched the Beijing Coup of 1924, detained Pres. Cao Kun, and dissolved parliament, Duan was invited to become head of state. He was expelled in 1926 as Zhang Zuolin gained control over the outskirts of Beijing. In 1935, Chiang Kai-shek nominated him as a councillor of the national government.
Duan Zhigui (b. 1869, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. March 12, 1925, Tianjin, China), governor of Chahar (1912-13), military governor of Hubei (1914-15), and military and civil governor of Fengtian (1915-16). Nicknamed "Adopted Prince" (of Yuan Shikai), he was a general and Yuan's everlasting military supporter. He had gained the post of Heilongjiang governor in the late Qing dynasty. After Duan Qirui, his fellow townsman, gained domination over the Beijing government in 1917, he was appointed army minister and commander of the guard of the capital city. Upon the fall of Duan Qirui's armed forces in 1920, he fled to the Japanese embassy. He was remitted in 1922 and from then on stayed in Tianjin.
Duarte, Abílio (Augusto Monteiro) (b. Feb. 16, 1931, Praia, Cape Verde - d. Aug. 20, 1996, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Cape Verde (1975-80). He was also president of the National People's Assembly (1975-91).
Duarte (Fuentes), José Napoleón (b. Nov. 23, 1925, San Salvador, El Salvador - d. Feb. 23, 1990, San Salvador), president of El Salvador (1984-89). He helped to found the Christian Democratic Party in the 1960s. In 1964 he was elected to the first of three successive two-year terms as mayor of San Salvador, and his administration was instrumental in building new schools and providing such basic services as street lighting, sewerage systems, and trash collection. He ran for president in 1972; when his election seemed likely the military halted the election and declared Col. Arturo Molina the winner. Following a radio broadcast supporting a coup, Duarte was arrested by the army; three of his fingertips were cut off, and his face was beaten so severely with rifle butts that his right cheekbone was crushed and he nearly lost an eye. He was sent into exile and spent more than seven years in Venezuela. He returned in 1980, amid civil war, to join a military-civilian junta and became its president; he could not halt the brutal repression by the army and police that resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people. The idealistic Duarte, when criticized for presiding over this reign of terror, replied that the actions would be worse without his presence. He was forced to resign in May 1982 following a shift of the balance of power to the right but he was elected president in May 1984 over Roberto D'Aubuisson, a right-wing extremist, and became the country's first democratically elected president in over half a century. He attempted to stabilize the economy and end the war, helped by massive aid from the United States. But his attempts to distribute land to the peasants and to end the activity of leftist rebels and right-wing death squads were failures.
Duarte, Juan Pablo (b. Jan. 26, 1813, Santo Domingo, Santo Domingo [now Dominican Republic] - d. July 15, 1876, Caracas, Venezuela), Dominican Republic independence leader. He became determined to free the eastern part of Hispaniola from Haitian domination. In 1838, Duarte and two others, Francisco de Rosario Sánchez and Ramón Mella, formed La Trinitaria, a secret society whose goal was independence. The first attempt to oust the Haitians in 1843 collapsed, and he fled the country; but he returned in February 1844, when his followers succeeded in overthrowing the Haitians and the Dominican Republic proclaimed its independence. His idealism soon alienated him from the more militaristic leaders, however, and power fell to a local caudillo (military dictator), Pedro Santana. The defeated Duarte was exiled and, after a brief stay in Germany, took up residence in Caracas, Venezuela. He left Caracas for his homeland only once, during the War of Restoration (1864) against Spain; once more unable to participate in the provisional government, he was sent on a diplomatic mission for one year.
Duarte, Samuel Vital (b. 1904, Alagoa Nova, Paraíba, Brazil - d. 1979), governor of Paraíba (1945). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (1947-49).
Duarte, Teófilo (b. Oct. 6, 1898, Oledo, Idanha-a-Nova municipality, Portugal - d. May 16, 1958, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Cape Verde (1918-19) and Portuguese Timor (1926-28).
Duarte Frutos, (Óscar) Nicanor (b. Oct. 11, 1956, Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (2003-08). He was also education minister (1993-98, 1999-2001) and ambassador to Argentina (2013-16).
Duarte Valverde, Ángel (b. Oct. 29, 1934, Guayaquil, Ecuador), Ecuadorian presidential candidate (1984, 1988). He was also minister of agriculture (1969-70) and governor of Guayas (1992-95).
Duba, Garba (b. 1942), governor of Bauchi (1978-79) and Sokoto (1984-85).
Duban, Nixon (Philip) (b. Sept. 8, 1976), Papua New Guinea politician. He was minister of police (2012-13, 2014), petroleum and energy (2014-16, 2016-17), and transport and infrastructure (2016).
Dubcek, Alexander (b. Nov. 27, 1921, Uhrovec, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia] - d. Nov. 7, 1992, Prague), Czechoslovak politician. During World War II he took part in the underground resistance to Nazi occupation and after the war he rose through the Communist Party ranks, becoming in 1963 a full member of the Central Committee's Presidium and first secretary of the Slovak party. At a Central Committee meeting of October 1967 he rallied the support of reformers against the leadership of Antonín Novotný, who was forced to resign as first secretary on Jan. 5, 1968. Dubcek replaced him and almost immediately began to loosen the stringent control that had defined Communist political life in Eastern Europe. In April a reform program called "Czechoslovakia's Road to Socialism" was promulgated that envisaged economic reforms and wide-ranging democratization. The Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies invaded the country on August 21, and Dubcek and five other Presidium members were seized and taken to Moscow. On his return to Prague Dubcek gave an emotional address to his countrymen, requesting their cooperation in the curtailment of his reforms. In April 1969 he was demoted from first secretary of the party to president of the Federal Assembly. In January 1970 he was appointed ambassador to Turkey, but in June, after being expelled from the party, he was made an inspector of the forestry administration in Bratislava. He returned to prominence in national affairs in late 1989 after the Communist Party had given up its monopoly on power and agreed to participate in a coalition government. On December 28 he was elected chairman of the Federal Assembly. In March 1992 he became the leader of the Slovak Social Democrats. He died of injuries suffered in a car accident on Sept. 1, 1992.
Dube, Alfred Uyapo Majaye (b. June 8, 1949), Botswanan diplomat. He was ambassador to Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, and the Soviet Union/Russia (1989-93), China (1996-2002), Japan (1996-98), and North Korea and South Korea (1997-2002), high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1993-96), Malaysia (1997-2002), and Singapore (1998-2002), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2002-05).
Dubé, Jean-Eudes (b. Nov. 6, 1926, Matapédia, Que. - d. Jan. 5, 2019, Ottawa, Ont.), acting defence minister of Canada (1972). He was also minister of veterans affairs (1968-72) and public works (1972-74).
Düben, Carl Wilhelm greve von (b. Feb. 2, 1724, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Dec. 29, 1790, Stockholm), chancellery president of Sweden (1788-90); cousin and son-in-law of Joachim friherre von Düben.
Düben, Joachim friherre von, also called Joachim von Düben d.y. (the younger) (b. Oct. 21, 1708, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Jan. 27, 1786, Botkyrka socken, Södermanland, Sweden), chancellery president of Sweden (1772).
Dubey, Bindeshwari (b. Feb. 14, 1921 - d. Jan. 20, 1993, Madras [now Chennai], India), chief minister of Bihar (1985-88). He was also Indian minister of justice (1988) and labour (1988-89).
Dubey, Hari Shankar (b. March 15, 1926, Aligarh, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), lieutenant governor of Mizoram (1983-86).
Dubief, Fernand (Jean-Baptiste) (b. Oct. 14, 1850, Varenne-lès-Mâcon, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. June 4, 1916, Asnières, Seine [now Asnières-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine], France), interior minister of France (1905-06). He was also minister of commerce, industry, posts and telegraphs (1905) and president of the Radical Party (1902-03).
Dubinin, Valentin (Stepanovich) (b. Jan. 15, 1946), acting governor of Primorsky kray (2001).
Dubinin, Yury (Vladimirovich) (b. Oct. 7, 1930, Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkar autonomous oblast [now Kabardino-Balkariya republic], Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Dec. 20, 2013, Moscow, Russia), Soviet/Russian diplomat. He was ambassador to Spain (1978-86), the United States (1986-90), France (1990-91), and Ukraine (1996-99) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1986).
Dubois, André (Louis) (b. March 8, 1903, Bône [now Annaba], Algeria - d. Nov. 12, 1998), prefect of police of Paris (1954-55) and French resident-general of Morocco (1955-56). He was also prefect of the départements of Seine-et-Marne (1947-50) and Moselle (1950-54).
Dubois, Guillaume Cardinal (b. Sept. 6, 1656, Brive-la-Gaillarde [now in Corrèze département], France - d. Aug. 10, 1723, Versailles, France), foreign minister of France (1718-23). He was also archbishop of Cambrai (1720-23); he became a cardinal in 1721.
Dubois-Chabert, André (b. Aug. 5, 1913, Ferryville, Tunisia - d. 1992), prefect of French Guiana (1958-60). He was also prefect of the départements of Hautes-Alpes (1960-63), Manche (1963-67), and Indre-et-Loire (1967-70).
Dubosc-Taret, (Marie Joseph Emmanuel Henri) Roger (b. May 8, 1886, Garlin, Basses-Pyrénées, France - d. 19...), lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1910-11) and acting governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1911).
Duboule, Charles (b. Feb. 3, 1895, Petit-Saconnex [now part of Geneva], Switzerland - d. Oct. 18, 1956, Geneva), president of the Council of State of Genève (1948-49, 1953-54).
Duboule, Gilbert (b. Jan. 26, 1925, Geneva, Switzerland - d. Nov. 6, 1983, Portugal), president of the Council of State of Genève (1968-69, 1973-74); son of Charles Duboule.
Dubrovsky, Boris (Aleksandrovich) (b. Nov. 22, 1958, Magnitogorsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Chelyabinsk oblast (2014-19).
Dubs, (Johann) Jakob (b. July 26, 1822, Affoltern, Zürich - d. Jan. 13, 1879, Lausanne, Vaud), president of the government of Zürich (1856, 1858, 1860) and president of the National Council (1854), of the Council of States (1856), and of the Federal Tribunal (1857), justice and police minister (1861-63, 1866), president (1864, 1868, 1870), interior minister (1865, 1871-72), and posts minister (1867, 1869) of Switzerland.
Duc-Dufayard, André (Pierre François) (b. May 22, 1908 - d. Feb. 17, 1987), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (1964-66).
Duca, Constantin Gheorghe, byname Duculet (b. 16... - d. c. 1704), prince of Moldavia (1693-95, 1700-03); son-in-law of Constantin Pavel Basarab Cantacuzino Brâncoveanu.
Duca, Ion (Gheorghe) (b. 1879, Bucharest, Romania - d. [assassinated] Dec. 29, 1933), foreign minister (1922-26) and prime minister (1933) of Romania. He was also minister of education and culture (1914-18), agriculture and domains (1918-19), and interior (1927-28).
Ducarme, Daniel (G.L.E.Gh.) (b. March 8, 1954, Liège, Belgium - d. Aug. 27/28, 2010), minister-president of Brussels-Capital (2003-04).
Ducaru, Sorin (Dumitru) (b. June 22, 1964, Baia Mare, Romania), Romanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-01) and ambassador to the United States (2001-06).
Ducasse, Jean-Baptiste (baptized Aug. 2, 1646, Saubusse, Landes, France - d. June 25, 1715, Bourbon-L'Archambault, Allier, France), governor of Saint-Domingue (1691-1700).
Ducens, Janis (b. Jan. 17, 1888, Jaunpiebalga parish, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Oct. 7, 1925, Riga, Latvia), defense minister of Latvia (1923-24).
Duchesne, Pierre (b. Feb. 27, 1940, La Malbaie, Quebec), lieutenant governor of Quebec (2007-15).
Duckworth, Antony (George Dyce) (b. Nov. 20, 1946, England), tenant of Jethou (1984-91).
Ducký, Ján (b. Jan. 30, 1944, Lehota, Slovakia - d. [assassinated] Jan. 11, 1999, Bratislava, Slovakia), economy minister of Slovakia (1993-94, 1994-96).
Duclerc, (Charles Théodore) Eugène (b. Nov. 9, 1812, Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Hautes-Pyrénées, France - d. July 21, 1888, Paris, France), finance minister (1848) and prime minister and foreign minister (1882-83) of France.
Ducoing (Gamba), Luis H(umberto) (b. 1937, San Luis de la Paz, Guanajuato, Mexico), governor of Guanajuato (1973-79).
Ducos, Alexandre (Antoine Étienne Gustave) (b. Jan. 12, 1851, Auch, Gers, France - d. Sept. 29, 1908, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France), lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1895-97) and resident-superior of Cambodia (1897-1900).
Duda, Andrzej (Sebastian) (b. May 16, 1972, Kraków, Poland), president of Poland (2015- ).
Dudás, Miklós (b. Oct. 27, 1902, Máriapócs, Hungary - d. July 15, 1972, Nyíregyháza, Hungary), bishop of Hajdúdorog (head of the [Byzantine-rite] Hungarian Catholic Church) (1939-72).
Dudau, Nicolae (b. Dec. 19, 1945, Grinauti, Moldavian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Moldova (2001-04). He was also ambassador to Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan (1994-97), Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (1998-2001), and Italy (2004-07).
Dudayev, Dzhokhar (Musayevich) (b. April 15, 1944, Pervomayskoye, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Yalkhoroy, Chechnya, Russia] - d. April 21, 1996, near Gekhi-Chu village, southwest of Grozny, Chechnya), president of Chechnya (1991-96). He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1968. In November 1990 he was elected head of the Executive Committee of the unofficial opposition All-National Congress of the Chechen People, which advocated sovereignty for Chechnya as a separate republic within the U.S.S.R. When the Communist leadership of the Chechen-Ingush republic publicly expressed its support for the Moscow putsch in August 1991, it was forced to step down. Dudayev was elected Chechen president in October 1991 and unilaterally declared Chechnya's secession from the Russian Federation. Russia refused to recognize this move, but hesitated to use force against the secessionists. Dudayev's aggressively nationalistic, anti-Russian policies soon began to undermine Chechnya's economy and, Russian observers claimed, transformed the region into a gangsters' paradise. In 1993 the Chechen parliament attempted to organize a referendum on public confidence in Dudayev on the grounds that he had failed to consolidate Chechnya's independence. He retaliated by dissolving parliament and other organs of power. Beginning in early summer 1994, armed Chechen opposition groups with Russian military and financial backing tried repeatedly, but without success, to depose Dudayev by force. In late November, Russian president Boris Yeltsin issued an ultimatum to Dudayev and the opposition to lay down their arms. Russian tanks and troops entered Chechnya to quell the rebellion in December but found the tough mountain people an even match. Fierce fighting, most of it centred in Grozny, continued, and in 1996 Dudayev was killed in a Russian rocket attack.
Dudka, Vyacheslav (Dmitriyevich) (b. April 25, 1960), governor of Tula oblast (2005-11).
Dudley, Richard H(ouston) (b. July 29, 1836, near Shelbyville, Tenn. - d. Aug. 30, 1914, Nashville, Tenn.), mayor of Nashville (1897-1900).
Dudley, Thomas (b. Oct. 12, 1576, Yardley-Hastings, Northamptonshire, England - d. July 31, 1653, Roxbury, Massachusetts), governor of Massachusetts (1634-35, 1640-41, 1645-46, 1650-51). He received a captain's commission in the army in 1596 and he and his company of volunteers went to France and fought on the side of Henry IV, king of France, at the siege of Amiens in 1597. After his return to England he converted to Puritanism. During the 1620s, relations between the Church of England and the Puritans worsened, and continuing pressure caused many Puritans to emigrate. In 1629 Dudley entered into an agreement with other Lincolnshire gentlemen to form the Massachusetts Bay Company. They obtained a royal charter allowing them to control their own government and elect their own magistrates. In April 1630 the main fleet of eleven vessels carrying 700 people left Southampton for America. The party included Dudley, John Winthrop (the newly appointed governor), and Simon Bradstreet. The fleet arrived in Salem in June. Not approving of Salem as the capital, Winthrop ordered the fleet south along the coast to Charlestown, ultimately settling at Newtown (later Cambridge). Dudley was elected deputy governor 13 times between 1629 and 1650, and served as governor four times. Winthrop's decision to make Boston instead of Newtown the capital precipitated the first of many quarrels between the two and prompted Dudley to move his residence to Roxbury. Whereas Winthrop was tolerant and liberal, Dudley favoured the expulsion of any person he considered to be a heretic. When the New England Federation was formed in 1643, Dudley was one of the two commissioners chosen by Massachusetts to confer with those of the other colonies.
Dudley, William Humble Ward, (2nd) Earl of (b. May 25, 1867, London, England - d. June 29, 1932, London), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1902-05) and governor-general of Australia (1908-11). He succeeded as earl in 1885.
Dudnikov, M. (K.), president of the Pamir Bureau of the Communist Party (1925-26).
Dudorov, Nikolay (Pavlovich) (b. May 22, 1906 - d. 1977), interior minister of the Soviet Union (1956-60).
Dudov, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) (b. Jan. 1, 1952), governor of Magadan oblast (2002-13).
Due, Reidar (b. Nov. 4, 1922, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Sør-Trøndelag (1986-93).
Duerr, Al(fred Herman) (b. Jan. 29, 1951), mayor of Calgary (1989-2001).
Dufaure, Jules Armand (Stanislas) (b. Dec. 4, 1798, Saujon, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. June 27, 1881, Rueil, Seine-et-Oise [now in Hauts-de-Seine], France), prime minister of France (1871-73, 1876, 1877-79). He was also minister of public works (1839-40), interior (1848, 1849, 1876), and justice (1871-73, 1875-76, 1877-79).
Dufay, Marie-Guite, byname of Marie-Marguerite Dufay (b. May 21, 1949), president of the Regional Council of Franche-Comté (2008-15) and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté (2016- ).
Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, (1st) Marquess of,
Earl of Ava, Earl of Dufferin, Viscount Clandeboye, Baron Clandeboye (of Clandeboye, County Down), (5th) Baron Dufferin and Clandeboye of Ballyleidy and Killyleagh (b. June 21, 1826, Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany [Italy] - d. Feb. 12, 1902, Clandeboye, near Belfast, Ireland), governor general of Canada (1872-78) and viceroy of India (1884-88). He succeeded his father as Baron Dufferin and Clandeboye in the peerage of Ireland in 1841. In 1850 he was created Baron Clandeboye in the peerage of the United Kingdom. He was undersecretary for India (1864-66) and undersecretary for war (1866) and was William Ewart Gladstone's chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, outside the cabinet, from 1868 to 1872. He was created Earl of Dufferin and Viscount Clandeboye in 1871. As governor general of Canada, he did much to unite the newly formed dominion. In February 1879 he was appointed British ambassador to Russia. In 1881 he was transferred to the Ottoman Empire and dealt with the problems raised by the British occupation of the Ottoman dependency of Egypt. He succeeded the Marquess of Ripon as viceroy of India in 1884 and placated the British community there, which had been antagonized by Ripon's reforms. He made his regency famous by the deposition of King Thibaw of Awa (Burma) and the annexation of Burma to British India (1886). For this exploit he was made Marquess of Dufferin and Ava and Earl of Ava when, in 1888, he retired from India. He then served as Britain's ambassador to Italy (1888-91) and France (1891-96) before he retired.
Duffuor, Kwabena, finance minister of Ghana (2009-13). He was also governor of the Bank of Ghana (1997-2001).
Duffus, Sir Herbert (George Holwell) (b. Aug. 30, 1908, St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica - d. October 2002), acting governor-general of Jamaica (1973); knighted 1966. He was chief justice of Jamaica in 1968-73.
Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan (b. April 12, 1816, Monaghan, Ireland - d. Feb. 9, 1903, Nice, France), premier of Victoria (1871-72); knighted 1873.
Duffy, George Gavan, Irish Seoirse Ghabháin Uí Dhubhthaigh (b. Oct. 21, 1882, Cheshire, England - d. June 10, 1951, Dublin, Ireland), foreign minister of Ireland (1922); son of Sir Charles Gavan Duffy. In 1918 he was elected Sinn Féin MP for South Dublin and sat in the first Dáil Éireann. The following year he was sent to join Sean T. O'Kelly in Paris with the object of securing recognition of the republic which had been working secretly for some time. They were unsuccessful in securing even a place at the conference table, for the nations could scarcely accept their credentials without affronting Britain. Duffy remained in Paris and sought to advance his cause by press and similar propaganda. In September 1920, however, he was given notice to leave France within 24 hours unless he ceased anti-British propaganda. After a period as envoy at Rome he was selected as one of the Irish plenipotentiaries to go to London to negotiate peace. For over six weeks the negotiations dragged on, and then Prime Minister David Lloyd George presented his ultimatum - two hours to decide whether they would accept dominion status or face a resumption of war. Later the same month, and before the Dáil debate on its ratification took place, he was appointed foreign minister in the Provisional Government, but when as a result of the ratification Sinn Féin split into Free Staters and Republicans, and the latter prepared to resist the treaty by force of arms, Duffy returned his portfolio, and his association with active politics lapsed at the next general election in 1923. During William Thomas Cosgrave's government his public activities were confined to the courts, but with the rise of Fianna Fáil he again became a political power. He was appointed a judge of the High Court in 1936 and in 1946 became its president.
Dufour, Jean-Étienne (b. April 30, 1840, Plainpalais [now part of Geneva], Switzerland - d. Sept. 7, 1893, Yverdon, Vaud, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Genève (1892-93).
Dufrénil, Paul Edgar (b. July 18, 1856, Fort-de-France, Martinique - d. 19...), administrator of Kwangchowan (1908-10).
Duga Kugbe Toro, (Ferdinand), governor of Shaba (1973-75, 1985-86) and Kasaï Oriental (1983-85).
Dugalic, Veroljub (b. 1955, Studenica, Serbia), acting finance minister of Yugoslavia (2002-03).
Dugan of Victoria (and of Lurgan in the County of Armagh), Winston (Joseph) Dugan, (1st) Baron (Dugan pronounced Duggan) (b. May 8, 1877, Parsonstown, Ireland - d. Aug. 17, 1951, London, England), governor of South Australia (1934-39) and Victoria (1939-49) and acting governor-general of Australia (1944-45, 1947). He was knighted in 1934 and created a baron in 1949.
Dügersüren, Mangalyn (b. Feb. 15, 1922, Galuut district, Bayanhongor province, Mongolia - d. 2002), foreign minister of Mongolia (1963-68, 1976-88). He was also ambassador to India, Burma, and Nepal (1958-62) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-72, 1988-91).
Duggal, Vinod Kumar (b. Nov. 26, 1944), governor of Manipur (2013-14) and Mizoram (2014).
Duglas, Graf Otton Gustav, Swedish Gustaf Otto greve Douglas (b. Feb. 23, 1687, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Feb. 2, 1771, Reval, Russia [now Tallinn, Estonia]), governor-general of Finland (1717-21) and governor of Reval (1736-40).
Dugonjic, Rato(mir) (b. Jan. 10, 1916, Trebinje, Austria-Hungary [now in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. June 28, 1987, Sarajevo [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), president of the People's Assembly (1963-67) and of the Presidency (1974-78) of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He was also Yugoslav ambassador to Poland (1958-59) and the United Arab Republic (1959-61).
Duh Tyzz-jiun, also called Woody Duh (b. Oct. 23, 1959), governor of Fujian province (Taiwan) (2014-16). He was also minister of economic affairs (2014), minister without portfolio (2014-15), minister of the National Development Council (2015-16), and vice premier (2016) of Taiwan.
Duhalde (Maldonado), Eduardo (Alberto) (b. Oct. 5, 1941, Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), president of Argentina (2002-03). By age 30, he won his first election as a councilman in his hometown of Lomas de Zamora. When democracy was interrupted by a 1976 military coup, Duhalde already was mayor, a position he resumed when democracy returned in 1983. Then his political career soared. In 1987, he entered Congress as a deputy in the lower house. Two years later, Carlos Menem picked him as his presidential running mate and the Peronist duo won easily. In 1991, he resigned and won the first of two Buenos Aires gubernatorial terms, which were marred by a heavy debt run-up and widespread allegations of corruption. He ran for president in 1999, but was defeated by Fernando de la Rúa. He led the Peronists' sweeping victory in legislative elections in October 2001, and after the political chaos following de la Rúa's resignation in December 2001, Congress on Jan. 1, 2002, named Duhalde president to complete de la Rúa's term to 2003. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2011.
Duhalde Vásquez, Alfredo (b. June 30, 1898, Río Bueno, Chile - d. April 10, 1985, Santiago, Chile), defense minister (1940, 1942-43), interior minister (1945-46), and acting president (1946) of Chile. He was also ambassador to Peru (1939).
Duisenberg, Wim, byname of Willem Frederik Duisenberg (b. July 9, 1935, Heerenveen, Netherlands - d. July 31, 2005, Faucon, near Avignon, France), finance minister (1973-77) and president of the central bank (1982-97) of the Netherlands and president of the European Monetary Institute (1997-98) and of the European Central Bank (1998-2003).
Dukakis, Michael (Stanley) (b. Nov. 3, 1933, Brookline, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1975-79, 1983-91) and U.S. presidential candidate (1988). He became active in Massachusetts Democratic politics and served eight years (1963-71) in the state's House of Representatives. He lost a bid for the Massachusetts lieutenant governorship in 1970 but in 1974 won election to the governorship over an incumbent Republican. He coped with a serious budgetary crisis and restored the state's fiscal health. He lost his bid for reelection in 1978 to Edward King, an antitax maverick Democrat. Again elected governor in 1982, Dukakis seemed less aloof and more persuasive than in earlier campaigns. During his second term he coordinated the government's policies so as to greatly strengthen the state's economic base, saving old industries and encouraging the growth of new ones. He was overwhelmingly reelected in 1986. Partly as a result of his efforts, Massachusetts for a brief time had one of the nation's healthiest state economies. In April 1987 Dukakis declared his candidacy for the presidency. He emerged as the most popular candidate in the 1988 Democratic primaries and won his party's nomination for president. Attacked by his Republican opponent George Bush as a "liberal," deficient in patriotism and soft on crime and defense, Dukakis at first seemed uncertain how to respond. He accused Bush of negative campaigning but responded in kind. He embarked on a whirlwind tour of the nation and seemed to be gaining some support, but in the election on November 8, he carried only ten states and the District of Columbia. He later announced that he would not run again for governor.
Duke, Donald (b. Sept. 30, 1961, Calabar, Nigeria), governor of Cross River (1999-2007).
Dukes, Alan (Martin) (b. April 22, 1945, Dublin, Ireland), Irish politician. Elected to the Dáil (parliament) for the constituency of Kildare on his first attempt in June 1981, he was appointed to the cabinet immediately, serving as minister for agriculture in the Fine Gael-Labour Party coalition's short-lived administration. On the formation of another coalition government involving the same parties in December 1982, he was appointed minister for finance, a post he held until February 1986, when he became minister for justice. Dukes was regarded as an extremely able man, with a cool, aloof manner. As a former member of the Irish commissioner's cabinet in Brussels (1977-80), he was much respected by his peers in the European Communities (EC) for his calm and rational approach to debates of national importance. Following the sudden resignation of Garret FitzGerald as leader of Fine Gael, Dukes was elected to the post on March 21, 1987. He assumed the leadership at a time of enormous difficulty for the party. After a crushing defeat in the February general elections, Fine Gael was experiencing a crisis of identity that was hard to resolve. Dukes came from the party's more liberal wing. He faced difficulties in reconciling the traditional values held by the older members of the party with the liberal and social ethos associated with FitzGerald. He soon ran into criticism on economic policy when he pledged the party's support for the policies of fiscal rectitude being adopted by the Fianna Fáil government. The 1989 elections saw Fine Gael increase its representation, but after a disappointing performance by the Fine Gael candidate, Austin Currie, in the presidential election of 1990, Dukes relinquished the party leadership in November 1990. He was minister of transport, energy, and communications in 1996-97.
Dukhovskoy, Sergey (Mikhailovich) (b. Oct. 19 [Oct. 7, O.S.], 1838, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. March 14 [March 1, O.S.], 1901, St. Petersburg), governor-general of Priamurye (1893-98) and Turkestan (1898-1901).
Dukuly-Tolbert, Neh Rita Sangai, Liberian diplomat; widow of Stephen A. Tolbert. She was ambassador to France (1977-80), Switzerland and Spain (1978-80), and China (2005-10) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2001).
Dulce (y Guerrero Garay y Sáez), Domingo, (from 1860) marqués de Castell-Florite (b. May 7, 1808, Sotés, La Rioja, Spain - d. Nov. 23, 1869, Amélie-les-Bains, Pyrénées-Orientales, France), governor of Cuba (1862-66, 1869). He was captain-general of Catalonia in 1854-55 and 1858-62.
Dulles, Allen W(elsh) (b. April 7, 1893, Watertown, N.Y. - d. Jan. 28, 1969, Washington, D.C.), director of the Central Intelligence Agency (1953-61); brother of John Foster Dulles. He served in various diplomatic posts until he was named chief of the State Department's Near Eastern Division in 1922. When the United States entered World War II, Dulles was recruited by Col. William J. Donovan for the new intelligence agency, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). From October 1942 to May 1945 he served as chief of the OSS office in Bern, playing, in particular, a notable role in the events that led to the surrender of German troops in northern Italy. In 1948 Dulles was made chairman of a three-man committee charged with surveying the U.S. intelligence system. After the CIA was established, he was appointed (Aug. 23, 1951) deputy director under Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, and on Feb. 9, 1953, he was appointed director by Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower. The agency was effective in a number of major operations, notably the overthrow of the governments of Mohammad Mossadegh in Iran in 1953 and Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala in 1954. It also succeeded in obtaining a copy of Nikita Khrushchev's secret speech of 1956 denouncing Stalin. There was a first setback when a U-2 spy plane over the Soviet Union was brought down in 1960. The incident led Khrushchev to call off a scheduled summit conference. Reappointed by Pres. John F. Kennedy, Dulles was involved in what was the biggest blow yet to the CIA's stature, the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in April 1961. He was replaced later that year.
Dulles, John Foster (b. Feb. 25, 1888, Washington, D.C. - d. May 24, 1959, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of state (1953-59); grandson of John W. Foster; nephew of Robert Lansing. In World War I he served as a major on the army general staff and after the war, at 30 years of age, he was named by Pres. Woodrow Wilson as legal counsel to the U.S. delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference; afterward he served as a member of the war reparations commission. In World War II, he helped prepare the United Nations charter at Dumbarton Oaks, in Washington, D.C., and in 1945 served as a senior adviser at the San Francisco United Nations conference. When it became apparent that a peace treaty with Japan acceptable to the United States could not be concluded with the participation of the Soviet Union, Pres. Harry Truman and his secretary of state, Dean Acheson, decided not to call a peace conference to negotiate the treaty. Instead, they assigned to Dulles the difficult task of personally negotiating and concluding the treaty. Dulles traveled to the capitals of many of the nations involved, and in 1951 the previously agreed to treaty was signed in San Francisco by Japan and 48 other nations. Dulles prepared the foreign policy plank of the Republican Party platform in 1952 and after the national election of that year was designated Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower's secretary of state. Passionate hostility to Communism was the leitmotiv of his policy. He seemed to derive personal satisfaction from pushing the Soviet Union to the brink. Seriously ill, he resigned his cabinet position on April 15, 1959. Shortly before he died in the following month, he was awarded the Medal of Freedom.
Dulloo, Madan (Murlidhar) (b. Sept. 20, 1949), foreign minister of Mauritius (1986, 1990, 2005-08). He was also minister of agriculture, fisheries, and natural resources (1986-93) and agriculture and natural resources and justice (1993-94).
Dumas, Pierre Benoît (b. September 1668, Estibeaux [now in Landes département], France - d. 1745), governor of Île Bourbon (1727-35), Île de France (1729), and French India (1735-41).
Dumas, Roland (b. Aug. 23, 1922, Limoges, France), French politician. He was the son of a civil servant who was shot by Nazi occupation forces in World War II for taking part in the resistance movement. Dumas joined the resistance. He first met François Mitterrand in the 1950s and became his adviser after Mitterrand's 1981 presidential election victory. He was European affairs minister (1983-84) and twice foreign minister (1984-86, 1988-93) during Mitterrand's presidency. In 2000 he saw his standing shattered by corruption allegations levelled by a former mistress. The suave Socialist stepped down as president of the Constitutional Council, a post that made him the top legal authority in the land and to which he was appointed by Mitterrand shortly before his presidential term ended in 1995. Dumas had previously refused to step down, saying that to do so would imply he was guilty of charges that have filled French news and gossip columns for more than two years. That defense crumbled after two magistrates ruled on February 18 that he and ex-lover Christine Deviers-Joncour should stand trial in a criminal court for alleged corruption involving the oil company Elf Aquitaine. The scandal began when Deviers-Joncour admitted receiving 66 million French francs ($9.75 million) from Elf to lobby Dumas to approve the controversial 1991 sale of six frigates to Taiwan by another state-controlled firm. Deviers-Joncour, who published some of her charges in a book entitled "The Whore of the Republic," also said she showered Dumas with lavish presents financed by Elf and gave him the run of the luxury flat provided for her by the oil company. He was given a six-month prison term in 2001, but an appeals court overturned the verdict in 2003.
Dumec, Roger (b. March 25, 1930, Paris, France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (1988-90).
Dumitrescu, Florea (b. April 4, 1927, Necsesti, Romania - d. April 16, 2018, Bucharest, Romania), finance minister of Romania (1969-78). He was also ambassador to China (1978-83) and Burma (1979-83) and governor of the National Bank (1984-89).
Dumont, Augustin Ernest (b. Sept. 26, 1835, Falaise, Calvados, France - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1879-80).
Dumont, Charles (Émile Étienne) (b. Aug. 31, 1867, Ajaccio, Corse, France - d. April 22, 1939, Meulan, Seine-et-Oise [now Meulan-en-Yvelines, Yvelines], France), finance minister of France (1913, 1930). He was also minister of public works, posts, and telegraphs (1911) and marine (1931-32).
Dumont, Dame Ivy (Leona), née Turnquest (b. Oct. 2, 1930, Roses, Long Island, Bahamas), Bahamian politician. A founding member and secretary-general of The Bahamas Union of Teachers, she served in the ministry of education and culture between 1948 and 1975 as a student-teacher, classroom teacher, head teacher, education officer, and deputy director of education. She served as deputy permanent secretary in the ministry of works and utilities from 1975 to 1978. She also served as secretary-general of the Free National Movement (FNM). Following the FNM victory in the Aug. 19, 1992, general elections, she was appointed to the Senate and sworn in as minister of health and environment (August 24); she was one of three females appointed to the cabinet. On Jan. 9, 1995, she was appointed minister of education and training, and was reappointed to that post on March 18, 1997, after the FNM's second consecutive victory in the March 14 general elections. Prime Minister Hubert Ingraham revered her as "always a source of good counsel, advice, and guidance, Dame Ivy never shied away from disagreement. She offered her critiques freely, making them all the more valuable." Just prior to her retirement as minister of education, youth and sports on Jan. 30, 2001, Dame Ivy said she was looking forward to her retirement from the public service. But in November she was appointed acting governor-general, following the retirement of Sir Orville Turnquest, becoming the first woman in that position. She had been sworn in on two occasions before to serve as deputy to the governor-general. She was confirmed as governor-general on Jan. 1, 2002. She retired on Nov. 30, 2005.
Dumont, Norbert (b. Feb. 7, 1883, Mersch, Luxembourg - d. 1956), interior minister of Luxembourg (1926-36). He was also justice minister (1925-36).
Dumont, René (Fernand) (b. March 13, 1904, Cambrai, France - d. June 18, 2001, Fontenay-sous-Bois, near Paris, France), French politician. He was the first candidate ever to run for president on an environmental platform, winning 1.3% of the vote in the 1974 election. His influence helped shape the Green Party, which was founded nine years later. He was a champion of healthy farming, redistribution of wealth, and international cooperation to help poor nations.
Dumouriez, Charles (François) du Perier, dit (b. Jan. 25, 1739, Cambrai, France - d. March 14, 1823, Turville Park, Buckinghamshire, England), foreign minister (1792) and war minister (1792) of France.
Dunayev, Arman (Galyaskarovich) (b. Oct. 7, 1966, Kugaly, Taldy-Kurgan oblast [now in Almaty oblast], Kazakh S.S.R.), finance minister of Kazakhstan (2004-06).
Duncan, Charles W(illiam), Jr. (b. Sept. 9, 1926, Houston, Texas), U.S. energy secretary (1979-81). In 1977 he was appointed deputy secretary of defense, in charge of that department's financial management. In the summer of 1979 he became energy secretary. From the start, his brisk businessman's approach was viewed as a sharp contrast to the sometimes chaotic rule of James Schlesinger, who had headed the cabinet department since its creation in 1977. Schlesinger was under fire from all sides when he resigned, and the department had been severely criticized for its confusing and contradictory policies. Duncan's main asset appeared to be the professional management approach he brought to the job.
Duncan, Daniel Kablan (b. June 30, 1943, Ouellé, Ivory Coast), prime minister (1993-99, 2012-17), foreign minister (2011-12), finance minister (2012-17), and vice president (2017- ) of Côte d'Ivoire.
Duncan (Guillén-Arosemena), Jeptha B(rawner) (b. Feb. 20 or 22, 1885, Las Cascadas, Panama - d. Aug. 23, 1977, Panama City), president of Panama in rebellion (1945).
Duncan, John (Stewart) (b. April 17, 1958, Dundee, Scotland), acting governor of the Falkland Islands (2014) and governor of the British Virgin Islands (2014-17).
Duncan, John Spenser Ritchie, byname Jock Duncan (b. July 26, 1921, Glencarse, Perthshire, Scotland - d. Sept. 12, 2006, Oxford, England), British political agent in Qatar (1958-59) and consul-general in Muscat and Oman (1963-65). He was high commissioner to Zambia (1971-74) and the Bahamas (1978-81) and ambassador to Morocco (1975-78).
Duncan, Pat(ricia) (b. April 8, 1960, Edmonton, Alberta), premier of Yukon Territory (2000-02). In 1984 she became Special Assistant Constituency Affairs to then MP Erik Nielsen. She held a variety of posts in the late '80s and '90s, including Yukon member of the Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women, chair of the City of Whitehorse Environmental Health Board, and member of the Yukon Advisory Council on Health and Social Services. Duncan was first elected as member of the Yukon Legislative Assembly for Porter Creek South in the general election of Sept. 30, 1996. She succeeded Ken Taylor as leader of the Yukon Liberal Party in 1998. She was reelected in the general election of April 17, 2000, when she led her party to victory, becoming the Yukon's first Liberal and first female head of government. An early general election occurred in November 2002 after three Liberal MLAs left the party, accusing Duncan of dictatorial leadership. She was the only Liberal to win a seat and was replaced as premier by Dennis Fentie of the Yukon Party. She stepped down from the Liberal Party leadership in 2005.
Duncan, Sir Patrick (b. Dec. 21, 1870, Fortrie, Banffshire, Scotland - d. July 17, 1943, Pretoria, South Africa), interior minister (1921-24) and governor-general (1937-43) of South Africa; knighted 1937. He was also minister of education and health (1921-24) and mines (1933-36).
Duncan-Sandys (of the City of Westminster), Duncan (Edwin) Duncan-Sandys, Baron, original name Duncan (Edwin) Sandys (b. Jan. 24, 1908, London, England - d. Nov. 26, 1987, London), British politician; son-in-law of Winston Churchill. He was Conservative member of Parliament for Norwood (1935-45) and for Streatham (1950-74). In World War II he served with the expedition force sent to Norway (1940) but left the Army after injury in an accident in 1941. He was financial secretary to the War Office (1941-43) and to the Ministry of Supply (1943-44). Sandys distinguished himself as chairman of the war cabinet's committee for defense against German flying bombs (1943-45), and he entered the cabinet (December 1944) as minister of works. While his party was out of office (1945-51) - and he was out of Parliament (1945-50) - he worked enthusiastically to promote European unity. As minister of supply (1951-54) he denationalized the iron and steel industry, and as minister of housing and local government (1954-57) he abolished rent-restriction laws. As minister of defence (1957-59) he inaugurated the policy of reliance upon nuclear deterrents rather than conventional forces. After serving as minister of aviation (1959-60) he became secretary of state for Commonwealth relations (1960-64) and colonies (1962-64) and assisted British colonies as they prepared for independence. He was created a life peer in 1974, and then also changed his name by deed poll from Sandys to Duncan-Sandys.
Duncan Smith, Sir (George) Iain (b. April 9, 1954, Edinburgh, Scotland), British politician. He first stood for Parliament in 1987. In 1992 he entered the House of Commons as MP for Chingford, a strongly Conservative middle-class constituency on the outskirts of London. He quickly established himself as a member of the anti-EU "awkward squad" of Conservative backbench MPs who attacked their own party's government for signing the EU's Maastricht Treaty and who frequently voted against the government on European issues. He established himself as a right-winger also by arguing that the role of the state should be curbed significantly and that taxes should be sharply reduced. In 1997 he was reelected for the redrawn constituency of Chingford and Woodford Green. The Conservatives lost power in those elections, and the new party leader, William Hague, appointed Duncan Smith to his shadow cabinet as official spokesman on social security. He became shadow defense secretary in 1999, but he continued to be best known for his uncompromising views on Europe. When Hague resigned following the party's disastrous performance in the general election of June 7, 2001, Duncan Smith stood for the party leadership (to be decided for the first time by all party members), promising that he would "never" support the entry of Britain into the EU's single currency. Of five candidates he was alone in never having served before as a government minister. In the final runoff against his pro-European (and far more experienced) rival, Kenneth Clarke, Duncan Smith's views proved to be far more in tune with the party membership, and on September 13 he was declared the winner with 61% of the votes cast. But he ultimately failed to unite the party behind him, and the Tory MPs ousted him by a 90-75 vote on Oct. 29, 2003. In 2010-16 he was work and pensions secretary in David Cameron's government. He was knighted in 2019.
Dundas, Thomas (b. June 30, 1750 - d. June 3, 1794), governor of Guadeloupe (1794); cousin of Thomas Dundas, Baron Dundas of Aske.
Dundas of Aske, Thomas Dundas, (1st) Baron (b. Feb. 16, 1741 - d. June 14, 1820, Aske Hall mansion, near Richmond, North Yorkshire, England), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1793). He was created baron on Aug. 13, 1794.
Dunderdale, Kathy, byname of Kathleen Mary Margaret Dunderdale, née Warren (b. February 1952, Burin, Newfoundland), premier of Newfoundland and Labrador (2010-14).
Dungs, John (David) (b. Feb. 3, 1952, Riyom [now in Plateau state], Nigeria - d. May 2, 2014, Jos, Plateau, Nigeria), administrator of Delta (1996-98).
Dunkel, Arthur (b. Aug. 26, 1932, Lisbon, Portugal - d. June 8, 2005, Geneva, Switzerland), director-general of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1980-93).
Dunkley, Michael (Henry) (b. June 18, 1958), premier of Bermuda (2014-17). In 2012-14 he was deputy premier and minister of public safety.
Dunlop, John T(homas) (b. July 5, 1914, Placerville, Calif. - d. Oct. 2, 2003, Boston, Mass.), U.S. labor secretary (1975-76). He was dean of Harvard's faculty of arts and sciences from 1969 to 1973. When he took the job as labor secretary for Pres. Gerald Ford, he had previously served on numerous national boards and commissions studying labour disputes and had advised the Labor Department dating back to the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration. He resigned his cabinet post in January 1976 after a communications mix-up with the White House. He left a meeting with Ford under the impression the president supported legislation backed by labour groups that allowed picketing at certain kinds of construction sites. Dunlop endorsed the legislation in testimony on Capitol Hill, angering some Republicans. When Ford vetoed the legislation, Dunlop resigned. He remained active as a labour negotiator, working to resolve disputes between Harvard and its employees, and between the city of Boston and its firefighters, among others.
Dunmore, John Murray, (4th) Earl of, (4th) Viscount Fincastle, (4th) Lord Murray of Blair, Moulin, and Tillimet (b. 1732, Taymouth, Perthshire, Scotland - d. Feb. 25 or March 5, 1809, Ramsgate, Kent, England), governor of New York (1770-74), Virginia (1771-75), and the Bahamas (1787-96). He succeeded to his father's titles in 1756.
Dunning, Charles (Avery) (b. July 31, 1885, Croft, Leicestershire, England - d. Oct. 2, 1958, Montreal, Que.), premier of Saskatchewan (1922-26) and finance minister of Canada (1929-30, 1935-39). He was also Canadian minister of railways and canals (1926, 1926-29).
Dunrossil (of Vallaquie in the Isle of North Uist and County of Inverness), John William Morrison, (2nd) Viscount (b. May 22, 1926, London, England - d. March 22, 2000, Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain), governor of Bermuda (1983-88); son of William Shepherd Morrison, Viscount Dunrossil. He was appointed governor of Bermuda in July 1983, following postings as British high commissioner to Fiji, Nauru, and Tuvalu (1978-82) and Barbados (1982-83). In Bermuda, he became actively involved with community organizations, including the St. John Ambulance Brigade, which named their Paget headquarters, Dunrossil House, after him. In retirement he served on various boards and was active in the House of Lords as a crossbencher watching out for the interests of the Scottish islands, and sitting on various select committees. He was lord lieutenant of the Western Isles from 1993.
Dunrossil (of Vallaquie in the Isle of North Uist and County of Inverness), William Shepherd Morrison, (1st) Viscount (b. Aug. 10, 1893, Torinturk, near Oban, Scotland - d. Feb. 3, 1961, Canberra, Australia), governor-general of Australia (1960-61). He was also British minister of agriculture and fisheries (1936-39), food (1939-40), and town and country planning (1943-45), chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1939-40), postmaster general (1940-43), and speaker of the House of Commons (1951-59). He was created a viscount in 1959.
Dunsmuir, James (b. July 8, 1851, Fort Vancouver, Wash. - d. June 6, 1920, Cowichan, B.C.), premier (1900-02) and lieutenant governor (1906-09) of British Columbia. He was first elected to the legislature in 1898 from the riding of Comox (in subsequent elections he would represent South Nanaimo). Following a vote of no confidence in against Premier Joseph Martin, Lieutenant Governor Thomas Robert McInnes named Dunsmuir premier as the only person with enough support to form a government: at this politically unsettled time, party allegiance was weak and no leader commanded a strong following in the legislature. Dunsmuir was a controversial choice - a prominent Vancouver businessman whose family had made a fortune through the B.C. mining industry, he was identified with brutal labour practices and his mines were considered the most dangerous in the world. His conservative, business-oriented administration was marked by continual squabbling, exacerbated by his leadership style, which was autocratic and intolerant of opposition. Repeated clashes with organized labour, Asian immigrants, and Ottawa plagued his government and forced him into an early resignation after two years. In 1906 he was appointed lieutenant governor but once again he did not enjoy public office and resigned prematurely.
Dunstan, Donald Allan (b. Sept. 21, 1926, Suva, Fiji - d. Feb. 6, 1999, Adelaide, S.Aus.), premier of South Australia (1967-68, 1970-79). He began his political career in Adelaide handing out how-to-vote cards for the conservatives in 1943, when he was still at school, but soon changed his views ("I've often been described as a congenital rebel - in fact my headmaster at St. Peter's [College] repeated that phrase on more than one occasion"). He entered state parliament in 1953. He moved at Labor's 1965 Federal Conference in Sydney that the words "White Australia" be dropped from the party's policy. After leading Labor to defeat at the 1968 South Australian state election, Dunstan won four elections in a row in the 1970s. His period in office was marked by social reforms including the decriminalization of homosexuality, making his the first state in the country to do so. He was also known for supporting the arts and established Aboriginal land rights for the first time in the country. The Dunstan era was one of major reform that turned conservative South Australia into one of the nation's most progressive states in the 1970s. One day in 1972, Dunstan defied convention and attended parliament wearing pink shorts instead of the traditional gray suit. Dunstan said he had sought to inject some panache into the conservative corridors of power. He was one of Australia's most popular politicians.
Dunstan, Sir Donald Beaumont (b. Feb. 18, 1923, Murray Bridge, S.Aus. - d. Oct. 15, 2011, Adelaide, S.Aus.), governor of South Australia (1982-91); knighted 1980. He was also Australian chief of the General Staff (1977-82).
Duong Van Minh (b. Feb. 16, 1916, My Tho, Mekong delta - d. Aug. 6, 2001, Pasadena, Calif.), Vietnamese politician. He joined the French colonial army in the 1940s when he was one of 50 Vietnamese officers to be commissioned in the French colonial army. After France left Vietnam in 1954, he rose through the ranks of a newly formed South Vietnamese army, where he was known as "Big Minh" because fellow troops were dwarfed by his six-foot frame, and to distinguish him from other officers with the same name. In 1963 he was involved in the U.S.-backed coup that toppled and then assassinated South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963. Afterwards Duong, the second-highest ranking general at the time, briefly served as head of state under a military junta. Two months later, Gen. Nguyen Khanh deposed the junta and took control of the country. Duong went into exile. He reappeared in 1971 when he challenged Pres. Nguyen Van Thieu but dropped out of the race when he realized he would lose. Nguyen Van Thieu then ran unopposed. Duong was widely regarded as the potential leader of a "third force" that could find an accommodation with the North to avoid an armed takeover, but the effort was stifled by Nguyen's government. When North Vietnamese troops poured into Saigon as South Vietnamese troops broke ranks and fled in 1975, Nguyen resigned on April 21 and handed power to Tran Van Huong who stayed in office for a week before handing power over to Duong on April 28. Although Duong was thought to be a leader acceptable to the Communists, he was unable to seek a reconciliation with the North. On April 30 he surrendered unconditionally. He spent time in detention and was then allowed to emigrate to Paris in 1983. After several years, he moved to southern California.
Duperré, Victor Auguste, baron (b. Aug. 4, 1825, Paris, France - d. March 26, 1900, Paris), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1869-70) and governor of Cochinchina (1874-77).
Dupeyrat, Jean Baptiste Adolphe François Joseph, original surname (until 1895) Cruchon, then (1895-1919) Cruchon-Dupeyrat (b. Nov. 23, 1868, Libourne, Gironde, France - d. af. 1929), French official. He was prefect of the départements of Hautes-Pyrénées (1905-07), Oise (1907), Aude (1907-08), and Maine-et-Loire (1908-09).
Dupleix, Joseph François (b. Jan. 1, 1697, Landrecies [now in Nord département], France - d. Nov. 10, 1763, Paris, France), governor of French India (1742-54).
Duplessis, Maurice (Le Noblet) (b. April 20, 1890, Trois-Rivières, Quebec - d. Sept. 7, 1959, Schefferville, Quebec), premier of Quebec (1936-39, 1944-59). He was first elected to the Quebec legislature as a Conservative for his home town in 1927. Six years later he became provincial leader of his party, but in 1936 he formed his own party, the Union Nationale, advocating French-Canadian autonomy. He was triumphantly elected that year, putting an end to a long Liberal reign. In 1939 he made his only really bad misjudgment of the political state of Quebec in trying to turn to account latent French-Canadian isolationism at the outbreak of World War II. The federal Liberal Party under Mackenzie King threw all its resources into the provincial election of that year and the Union Nationale was defeated. But Duplessis returned to power in 1944 and since then, in three further elections (1948, 1952, 1956), consolidated his hold on his party and the province by virtue of his commanding personality and his appeals to provincial interests. Although he had campaigned on an anti-corruption, anti-big business platform, he soon made peace with the Canadian and U.S. interests he had denounced. His methods of government were considered by many as questionable. Such legislation as the controversial "Padlock Law" (which gave the attorney general - a portfolio Duplessis reserved for himself - authority to lock up any premises he believed were being used for the propagation of Communism, and which was invalidated by the Supreme Court of Canada in 1958) struck many people as an encroachment on civil liberties. With his death, the Union Nationale went into rapid decline.
Dupoizat (de Villemont), Georges (Benoît Antoine) (b. July 7, 1909, Lyon, France - d. Sept. 8, 1975, Bourg-en-Bresse, Ain, France), acting prime minister of Tunisia (1954). He served as secretary-general of the Tunisian government (1953-55) and was also prefect of Belfort (1949-53), Tlemcen (1956-59), and Ain (1962-73) departments.
Dupong, Pierre (b. Nov. 1, 1885, Heisdorf, Luxembourg - d. Dec. 22, 1953, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), finance minister (1926-53), prime minister (1937-53), and defense minister (1937-47, 1948-51) of Luxembourg. He was also agriculture minister (1951-53).
Dupont, Clifford (Walter) (b. Dec. 6, 1905, Hackney borough, London, England - d. June 28, 1978, Salisbury, Rhodesia [now Harare, Zimbabwe]), deputy prime minister and foreign minister (1964-65), defense minister (1965), officer administering the government (1965-70), and president (1970-75) of Rhodesia.
Dupont, Jacques (Pierre) (b. Oct. 22, 1929, Troyes, Aube, France - d. November 2002), minister of state of Monaco (1991-94). He was also French ambassador to Israel (1982-86) and South Africa (1988-91).
Dupont de l'Eure, Jacques Charles (b. Feb. 27, 1767, Le Neubourg [now in Eure département], France - d. March 2, 1855, Rouge-Perriers, Eure), president of the Provisional Government of France (1848). He was also justice minister (1830).
Duport, Jean-Pierre (Maurice) (b. July 11, 1942, Saint-Sever, Landes, France), prefect of Paris département (1998-2002). He was also prefect of Seine-Saint-Denis (1993-97).
Duportail, Louis Le Bègue (du Presle) (b. 1743, Pithiviers, Loiret, France - d. 1802, at sea), French minister of war (1790-91). He was also chief engineer of the U.S. Continental Army (1777-83).
Dupré, Jacques (b. Feb. 12, 1773, Opelousas, Louisiana - d. Sept. 14, 1846), governor of Louisiana (1830-31).
Dupré, Marie Jules (b. Nov. 25, 1813, Albi, Tarn, France - d. Feb. 8, 1881, Paris, France), governor of Réunion (1865-69) and Cochinchina (1871-74).
Dupuis, Guy (Henri) (b. Dec. 1, 1937, Le Puy [now Le Puy-en-Velay], Haute-Loire, France), prefect of Mayotte (1986). He was also prefect of the départements of Charente (1989-92) and Côtes-d'Armor (1992-94).
Dupuis, Thomas (Joseph) (b. May 31, 1813, Sainte-Marthe, Eure, France - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1852-53, 1856-58).
Dupuy, Albert (b. Feb. 1, 1947, Alicante, Spain), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (2005-06) and high commissioner of New Caledonia (2010-13). He was also prefect of the départements of Vosges (2007-09) and Isère (2009-10).
Dupuy, Charles (Alexandre), also called Charles-Dupuy (b. Nov. 5, 1851, Le Puy [now Le Puy-en-Velay], France - d. July 23, 1923, Ille-sur-Têt), prime minister (1893, 1894-95, 1898-99) and acting president (1894, 1895, 1899) of France. In 1885 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies from the Haute-Loire département and joined Jules Ferry's moderate republicans. He served as minister of public instruction and fine arts (1892-93), worship (1892-93, 1894-95, 1898-99), and interior (1893, 1894-95, 1898-99). He formed his first government in April 1893 but resigned at the end of November and on December 5 was elected president of the Chamber of Deputies. He had hardly been in office a week before the anarchist Auguste Vaillant threw a bomb at him. Dupuy remained perfectly calm and his announcement "Messieurs, la séance continue," made a profound impression. Having again become premier in May 1894, he accompanied Pres. Sadi Carnot on his visit to Lyon in June and was by his side when the president was assassinated. It was under this government that Capt. Alfred Dreyfus was arrested and, two months later, condemned (December 1894). In November 1898, and after the Dreyfus case had at last been remitted to the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal, Dupuy formed a government of republican concentration. A special law was passed that transferred the decision from the criminal section to the Court of Appeal sitting as a whole (toutes chambres réunies). The latter decided that there must be a new court-martial, for the bordereau, the document that had led to Dreyfus' court-martial, was the work of Maj. Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. This infuriated the anti-Dreyfusards, who staged demonstrations and insulted Pres. Émile Loubet at Auteuil. Dupuy resigned on June 12, 1899. From June 1900 until his death he was senator for Haute-Loire.
Dupuy, Michel (b. Jan. 11, 1930, Paris, France), Canadian diplomat/politician; son of Pierre Dupuy. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-81), ambassador to France (1981-85), and minister of communications, multiculturalism, and citizenship (1993-96).
Dupuy, Pierre (b. July 9, 1896, Montreal, Que. - d. May 21, 1969, Cannes, France), Canadian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires to the governments-in-exile of France, Belgium, and the Netherlands (1940-42), minister (1945-47) and ambassador (1947-52) to the Netherlands, and ambassador to Italy (1952-58) and France (1958-63).
Duque (Márquez), Iván (b. Aug. 1, 1976, Bogotá, Colombia), president of Colombia (2018- ); son of Iván Duque Escobar.
Duque (Duque), Pedro (Francisco) (b. March 14, 1963, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. The first Spanish astronaut, he has been minister of science, innovation, and universities (2018- ).
Duque Escobar, Iván (b. May 20, 1937, Gómez Plata, Antioquia, Colombia - d. July 3, 2016, Medellín, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was governor of Antioquia (1981-82) and minister of development (1984-85) and mines and energy (1985-86).
Duque Gómez, Maximiliano (b. April 14, 1894, Tello, Huila, Colombia - d. Feb. 1, 1983, Neiva, Huila), Colombian politician. He was governor of Huila (1929-30).
Duque Palma, Max Francisco (b. March 10, 1935, Neiva, Huila, Colombia), Colombian politician; son of Maximiliano Duque Gómez; brother of Olga Duque Palma de Ospina. He was governor of Huila (1966-68).
Duque Palma de Ospina, Olga (b. July 14, 1930, Neiva, Huila, Colombia - d. Sept. 16, 2019, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician; daughter of Maximiliano Duque Gómez; daughter-in-law of Mariano Ospina Pérez. She was governor of Huila (1974-75) and minister of education (1995-96).
Duquesne, (Michel) Ange Duquesne de Menneville, marquis (b. 1702, Toulon, France - d. Sept. 17, 1778, Antony [now in Hauts-de-Seine], France), governor-general of New France (1752-55).
Durafour, Antoine (b. Aug. 12, 1876, Saint-Étienne, France - d. April 25, 1932, Saint-Étienne), French minister of labour, hygiene, welfare work, and social security provisions (1925-26) and mayor of Saint-Étienne (1930-32).
Durafour, Michel (André François) (b. April 11, 1920, Saint-Étienne, France - d. July 27, 2017), mayor of Saint-Étienne (1964-77), French minister of labour (1974-76) and of civil service and administrative reforms (1988-91), and president of the Regional Council of Rhône-Alpes (1980-81); son of Antoine Durafour.
Durakovic, Nijaz (b. Jan. 1, 1949, Stolac [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. Jan. 29, 2012, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1989-90).
Durán (Aché), Armando (b. Feb. 5, 1938, Havana, Cuba), foreign minister of Venezuela (1991-92). He was also minister of information and tourism (1984) and ambassador to Uruguay (1985-86) and Spain (1992-94).
Durán (Neumann), Julio (Antonio Gastón) (b. March 20, 1918, Santiago, Chile - d. Sept. 27, 1990, Richmond, Va.), Chilean politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1955-57) and a presidential candidate (1964).
Durán Ballén (Cordovez), Sixto (Alfonso) (b. July 14, 1921, Boston, Mass. - d. Nov. 15, 2016, Quito, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1992-96); son of Sixto (Enrique) Durán Ballén (Romero). He began his career as minister of public works (1956-60), and in the 1960s he worked for the Inter-American Development Bank. He was mayor of Quito during oil-boom years (1970-78), overseeing its growth from sleepy highland town to prosperous capital city. In July 1978 he made his first bid for the presidency as the candidate of a coalition of rightist parties. He finished second in the initial round of voting; the second round was delayed nine months because of political tensions, and Durán lost that election by a large margin. He ran again in 1988 for the Social Christian Party (PSC), finishing third in the initial balloting. In 1991 he founded the Republican Unity Party (PUD) when the PSC chose his rival Jaime Nebot to contest the 1992 election. He was elected president on July 5, 1992, winning about 58% of the vote in the runoff against Nebot, and took office August 10. By the end of his term, deep apathy and pessimism had taken hold in the small Andean nation of 11 million, as the country's economic and social problems had deepened. Durán's austerity measures reduced annual inflation from 50% to 25%, but his efforts to privatize state enterprises and modernize the economy stalled because of strong labour and political opposition. Corruption scandals, including one that forced his vice president to resign, also undercut his authority. The economy stagnated and Ecuador failed to attract foreign investment to boost economic growth. Foes accused Durán of being a weak, vacillating leader. His popularity was the lowest of any president since democracy was restored in 1979 after a seven-year military dictatorship. Later he served as ambassador to the U.K. (2001-03).
Durán Ballén (C.)
Durán Ballén (Romero), Sixto (Enrique) (b. Nov. 29, 1899, Paris, France - d. 1986?), Ecuadorian diplomat. He was ambassador to Venezuela (1945), Panama (1951-53), Colombia (1953-55), and West Germany (1955-60).
Durán Dussán, Hernando (b. June 17, 1920, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Sept. 4, 1998, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), finance minister of Colombia (1965). He was also minister of mines and petroleum (1960-61) and education (1974-77) and mayor of Bogotá (1978-82).
Durand, Jean (Alexandre) (b. Jan. 8, 1865, Les Cammazes, Tarn, France - d. Oct. 11, 1936, Castelnaudary, Aude, France), interior minister of France (1926). He was also minister of agriculture (1925-26) and public instruction and fine arts (1930).
Durand, Jean Pierre Thomas (b. Aug. 29, 1810, Villeneuve-sur-Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, France - d. ...), commandant of Sainte-Marie de Madagascar (1853-55) and New Caledonia (1859-60).
Durand, Oswald (b. Feb. 9, 1888 - d. Feb. 18, 1982), lieutenant governor of Mauritania (1936-38) and governor of Senegal (1946-47) and Ivory Coast (1947-48).
Durando, Giacomo (b. Feb. 4, 1807, Mondovì, France [now in Italy] - d. Aug. 21, 1894, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (1862). He was also minister of war of Sardinia (1855-56) and president of the Senate (1884-87).
Durão, Albano Augusto Portugal (b. March 22, 1871, Sertã, Portugal - d. Nov. 13, 1925, Lisbon, Portugal), finance minister (1922) and foreign minister (1925) of Portugal. He was also minister of agriculture (1921).
Durazzo, Girolamo Luigi Francesco (Giuseppe Maria) (b. May 20, 1739, Genoa - d. Jan. 21, 1809, Genoa), member of the Commission of Government (1799-1800, 1800, 1800) and doge (1802-05) of the Ligurian Republic. He was made count by Napoléon on April 26, 1808.
D'Urban, Sir Benjamin (b. 1777, Halesworth, near Norwich, Norfolk, England - d. May 25, 1849, Montreal, Canada East [now Quebec]), governor of the Cape Colony (1834-38). As a soldier he began his service in 1793 and fought in the Napoleonic Wars, winning distinction in the Peninsular War. In 1819 he became major general and in 1837 lieutenant general. In 1819 he was sent to the West Indies as governor of Antigua. In 1824 he became lieutenant governor of Demerara-Essequibo, where in 1831 he carried out the amalgamation with Berbice to form British Guiana, of which he was the first governor (1831-33). In January 1834 he took office as governor and commander in chief of the Cape Colony. His administration was complicated by the exodus of Dutch farmers to the far north and east (known as the Great Trek) and the outbreak of the Cape Frontier War of 1834-35 created by incursions of Bantu-speaking Xhosa peoples. He drove back the invaders and annexed the territory between the Keiskamma and Great Kei (Groot-Kei) rivers. Port Natal was renamed Durban in June 1835 in his honour. Although he was popular with the colonists, his treatment of the Africans disturbed the missionaries and humanitarians, who had great influence with Lord Glenelg, the colonial secretary. In a despatch dated May 1, 1837, Glenelg dismissed D'Urban, who remained governor until the arrival of his successor in January 1838 and continued in his military capacity in South Africa until 1846. In 1842 he declined a high military appointment in India offered him by Sir Robert Peel. In January 1847 he took up command of British forces in Canada.
Durdynets, Vasyl (Vasylyovych) (b. Sept. 27, 1937, Romochevytsia village, Carpatho-Ukraine, Czechoslovakia [now in Ukraine]), acting prime minister of Ukraine (1997). He was first deputy prime minister (1995, 1996-97) and deputy prime minister (1995-96).
Durham, John George Lambton, (1st) Earl of (b. April 12, 1792, London, England - d. July 28, 1840, Cowes, Isle of Wight, England), governor of Canada (1838-39); son-in-law of Charles Grey, Earl Grey. He was also British lord privy seal (1830-33) and ambassador to Russia (1835-37). He was created Baron Durham in 1828 and earl in 1833.
Duri Mohammed (b. July 15, 1936, Harar, Ethiopia - d. April 24, 2015), Ethiopian politician. He was minister of planning and economic development (1991-95) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-2000).
Durie, Sir David (Robert Campbell) (b. Aug. 21, 1944), governor of Gibraltar (2000-03); knighted 2003.
Durin, Hasan Basri (b. Jan. 15, 1935, Jaho, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Barat, Indonesia] - d. July 9, 2016, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Barat (1987-97). He was also mayor of Jambi (1966-68) and Padang (1971-83) and Indonesian minister of agrarian affairs (1998-99).
Düring, Johan Christoffer greve von (b. July 22, 1695, Horneburg, Bremen-Verden [now in Niedersachsen, Germany] - d. Jan. 5, 1759, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Stockholm city (1753-59). He was made friherre (baron) in 1719 and greve (count) in 1751.
Durnovo, Ivan (Nikolayevich) (b. March 16 [March 4, O.S.], 1834 - d. June 11 [May 29, O.S.], 1903), interior minister (1889-95) and chairman of the Committee of Ministers (1895-1903) of Russia. He was also governor of Yekaterinoslav (1870-82).
Durnovo, Pyotr (Nikolayevich) (b. 1842 or 1845, Moscow or Tver, Russia - d. Sept. 24 [Sept. 11, O.S.], 1915, Petrograd [St. Petersburg], Russia), interior minister of Russia (1905-06). He was also director of the Department of Police (1884-93) and deputy interior minister (1900-05).
Durnovo, Pyotr (Pavlovich) (b. Dec. 18 [Dec. 6, O.S.], 1835 - d. 1919), governor of Kharkov (1866-70) and Moscow (1872-78) and governor-general of Moscow (1905); grandson of Knyaz Pyotr Volkonsky.
Durón, Jorge Fidel (b. April 23, 1902, Comayagüela, Honduras - d. Sept. 20, 1995), foreign minister of Honduras (1957, 1963-65). He was also education minister (1956-57).
Dürr, Markus (b. May 1, 1947), Schultheiss (2003) and president of the government (2008) of Luzern.
Durrani, Akram Khan (b. March 1, 1960, Bannu [now in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], Pakistan), chief minister of North-West Frontier Province (2002-07).
Durrant, Mignonette Patricia (b. May 30, 1943), Jamaican diplomat. She was ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany, the Vatican, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Israel (1987-92) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-2002).
Durrer, Adalbert (b. Nov. 17, 1950 - d. April 19, 2008), Landammann of Obwalden (1993-94, 1995-96). He was president of the Christian Democratic People's Party in 1997-2001.
Durrieu, Louis (François Alfred), baron (b. Jan. 10, 1812, Hamburg, France [now in Germany] - d. Sept. 30, 1877, Paris, France), acting governor-general of Algeria (1870).
Dürst, Marianne (b. Jan. 24, 1961), Landammann of Glarus (2008-10).
Durubi Basha, Ala al-Din al-, also spelled Ala al-Din Droubi Pasha (b. 18... - d. [assassinated] Aug. 21, 1920, Hauran region, Syria), prime minister, foreign minister, and acting head of state of Syria (1920).
Dusa, Mircea (b. April 1, 1955, Toplita, Harghita county, Romania), interior minister (2012) and defense minister (2012-15) of Romania.
Dusong, Monika (b. Sept. 1, 1945), president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (2001-02).
Dusseaulx, Roger (Armand) (b. July 18, 1913, Paris, France - d. May 28, 1988, Rosay-sur-Lieure, Eure, France), French minister of public works and transports (1962).
Dussey, Robert (b. 1972, Bangui, Central African Republic), foreign minister of Togo (2013- ).
Duterte, Rodrigo (Roa), byname Rody Duterte, or Digong (b. March 28, 1945, Maasin [now in Southern Leyte province], Philippines), president of the Philippines (2016- ). He was also mayor of Davao City (1988-98, 2001-10, 2013-16). His election to the presidency with 39% of the vote, made possible by the Philippine electoral system combined with the ineptitude of the established parties to unite on an alternative candidate, brought about a shocking civilizational break. He has been compared to Donald Trump, except that he is even more brutish, vulgar, sexist, blatantly nepotistic, and disconnected from rationality. On his first day in office he made a statement that in other countries might (as criminal incitement to murder) have been immediate grounds for removal from office, when he called on people to kill any drug addicts they know, "as getting their parents to do it would be too painful." Later he compared himself to Adolf Hitler and said "there's three million drug addicts... I'd be happy to slaughter them." Thousands of drug dealers and addicts were in fact killed. As mayor he had already been known to use death squads and fight crime by any extralegal means he considered effective (he said he had himself shot dead three men as mayor, another time telling how he stabbed someone to death as a teenager "over a look"); many residents of Davao thought the results justified his methods. As president, likewise, his drug war was widely approved of, and, as he launched a massive infrastructure program and the economy was doing well, his approval ratings reached around 80%, a phenomenon reminiscent only of the German people's suspension of basic morality when they succumbed to the leadership of Adolf Hitler.
Dutra, Eurico Gaspar (b. May 18, 18831, Cuiaba, Brazil - d. June 11, 1974, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Brazil (1946-51). He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the cavalry in 1910 and received routine assignments and promotions for the next 22 years. He consistently supported the established government against all revolutionary movements. Dutra thus opposed Getúlio Vargas, who seized power in a coup in 1930, but he later defended Vargas in the 1932 São Paulo revolt. In 1935 he put down a Communist revolt in Rio de Janeiro. Vargas made him minister of war in 1936 and he became one of the principal figures in devising the constitution of 1937. In October 1945, when Vargas tried to forestall elections and remain in power, Dutra led a successful coup and was elected president in December with the support of the Social Democratic Party. He also gained the support of rural workers and, on Vargas' recommendation, of the Brazilian Labour Party. Dutra governed conservatively, banning the Communist Party in 1947 and breaking off diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. He strove to improve relations with the United States through the Organization of American States. His administration, however, lacked direction in its economic policy, and in the 1950 presidential election the discontented voters turned back to the more flamboyant politics of Vargas. In 1964, as a retired officer, Dutra supported the coup that brought a military government to power.
1 Actual birth date. Being of somewhat weak constitution in his teen years, he failed the physical for enrollment in the army, so his father arranged to have his birth year recorded as 1885 to approximate Eurico's physical condition to his re-computed age. He failed again, but it did not keep him from eventually becoming a general, and 1885 remained his "official" birth year.
Dutra, Olívio (de Oliveira) (b. June 10, 1941, Bossoroca, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1999-2003).
Dutschke, Rudi, byname of Alfred Willi Rudolf Dutschke (b. March 7, 1940, Schönefeld, near Berlin, Germany - d. Dec. 24, 1979, Århus [now Aarhus], Denmark), West German political activist. Disillusioned with the version of Marxism applied in Soviet-dominated East Germany, he evaded military service by moving to West Berlin shortly before the Berlin Wall was built in 1961 and helped to found the Socialist Student League there. When the "grand coalition" of Social Democrats and Christian Democrats was formed in Bonn in 1966, he began an "extraparliamentary opposition." Henceforth, Dutschke was in the vanguard of student demonstrations throughout West Germany. He was attracted by the theories of Herbert Marcuse, especially by his criticism of the Soviet system. Soon after returning to West Berlin from a visit to Prague in the spring of 1968, he was shot in the head and seriously wounded. The attempt to assassinate him was followed by violent student demonstrations throughout Western Europe. He partly regained his health. His Lenin, Try to Get Your Feet (1974) outlined a program for a Marxism with a human face. Later he became involved with the West German "Green" movement.
Dutt, Shekhar (b. Dec. 20, 1945), governor of Chhattisgarh (2010-14).
Dutton, Sir James (Benjamin) (b. Feb. 21, 1954), governor of Gibraltar (2013-15); knighted 2010.
Duval, (Émile Gustave) Ferdinand (b. April 20, 1827, Paris, France - d. April 26, 1896, Paris), prefect of Seine département (1873-79). He was also prefect of Gironde département (1871-73).
Duval, Sir (Charles) Gaëtan (b. Oct. 9, 1930, Rose Hill, Mauritius - d. May 5, 1996), foreign minister (1969-73) and deputy prime minister (1983-88) of Mauritius; knighted 1981.
Duval, (Charles Gaëtan) Xavier-Luc (b. Jan. 28, 1958), finance minister of Mauritius (2011-14); son of Sir Gaëtan Duval. He has also been minister of industry and industrial technology and tourism (1995), industry, commerce, corporate affairs, and financial services (1999-2000), tourism, leisure, and external communications (2005-10), social integration and economic empowerment (2010-11), and tourism and external communications (2014-16), a vice prime minister (2005-14), deputy prime minister (2014-16), and leader of the opposition (2016- ).
Duvalier, François, byname Papa Doc (b. April 14, 1907, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. April 21, 1971, Port-au-Prince), president of Haiti (1957-71). A supporter of Pres. Dumarsais Estimé, he was appointed underminister of labour in 1948 and the following year became minister of public health and labour, a post that he retained until May 10, 1950, when Estimé was overthrown by a military junta under Paul E. Magloire, who was subsequently elected president. Duvalier began organizing the resistance to Magloire. By 1954 he had become the central opposition figure and went underground. After the resignation of Magloire in December 1956, Duvalier's followers participated in most of the six governments that were formed in the succeeding 10 months. Running on a program of popular reform and black nationalism, he was elected president in September 1957. Setting about to consolidate his power, he reduced the size of the army and, with his chief aide, Clément Barbot, organized the Tontons Macoutes ("Bogeymen"), a private force responsible for terrorizing and assassinating alleged foes of the regime. When he was stricken by a heart attack in 1959, Barbot acted in his stead. Upon recovery, he promptly imprisoned his aide. His manipulation of legislative elections in 1961 to have his term extended to 1967 and other corrupt and despotic measures precipitated a termination of U.S. aid to Haiti. In 1963 he had Barbot murdered, after the latter, on his release from prison, had attempted an insurrection. Late in 1963 he moved further toward an absolutist regime, promoting a cult of his person as the semidivine embodiment of the Haitian nation. In June 1964 he was declared president for life. On his death, he was succeeded by his son, Jean-Claude ("Baby Doc").
Duvalier, Jean-Claude, byname Baby Doc, French Bébé Doc (b. July 3, 1951, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. Oct. 4, 2014, Port-au-Prince), president of Haiti (1971-86). He was the only son of Pres. François Duvalier ("Papa Doc"), who in early 1971, when he began to sense that his illness was terminal, announced that he would be succeeded by Jean-Claude. When the father died on April 21, the son became at age 19 the youngest president in the world. He at first was only a figurehead for a regency that ruled the country under the magic aegis of the Duvalier name. This regency included his mother, Simone Ovide Duvalier; Defense and Interior Minister Luckner Cambronne; Gen. Claude Raymond, commander of the army, and his brother, Foreign Minister Adrien Raymond; and Minister of Coordination and Information Fritz Cinéas. The advisers soon concluded that Haiti needed a new image to attract economic assistance, tourism, and investment. Some political prisoners were released, press censorship eased, and a policy of "gradual democratization of institutions" was professed. But in fact no sharp changes from previous policies occurred. No political opposition was tolerated, and all important political officials and judges were still appointed by the president. Haiti continued a semi-isolationist approach to foreign relations, although the government actively solicited foreign aid. In 1980 Duvalier married Michèle Bennett, who later supplanted his hardline mother in Haitian politics. In the face of increasing social unrest, however, Duvalier and his wife left the country early in 1986, and a six-member council replaced him. He fled to southern France where he lived in luxury in Cannes until his wife left him and took his children and most of their cash. He later lived in modest circumstances in Paris and returned to Haiti in January 2011.
Duvieusart, Jean (Pierre) (b. April 10, 1900, Frasnes-lez-Gosselies, Belgium - d. Oct. 10, 1977, Couillet, Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1950). He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1944 and entered the Senate in 1949. He was twice minister of economic affairs and of the middle classes (1947-50, 1952-54). The vexed problem of the return of King Léopold III, violently opposed by many Belgians, was still undecided when Prime Minister Gaston Eyskens resigned in March 1950. After some weeks of strikes and uncertainty a general election was held on June 4 and the Christian Democrats, by gaining three seats, obtained an absolute majority over the left and were able to form a single-party government. Duvieusart, the new premier, proposed the ending of the regency and the return of the king. After protracted debates a bill embodying this proposal was passed and Duvieusart flew to Switzerland to inform the king. On July 22 Léopold with his sons, the princes Baudouin and Albert, flew to Belgium. There followed demonstrations and counter-demonstrations and a protest march was planned for August 1. To restore peace, the king thereupon announced that he would transfer his royal powers to Prince Baudouin as a step towards enabling the prince to come to the throne when he was of age. On August 11, Prince Baudouin took the constitutional oath and a few days later Duvieusart resigned. In 1964-65 he was president of the European Parliament.
Duyn van Maasdam, Frans-Adam graaf van der, byname of Adam François Jules Armand graaf van der Duyn van Maasdam (b. April 13, 1771, Deventer, Netherlands - d. Dec. 19, 1848, The Hague, Netherlands), governor of Zuid-Holland (1817-44).
Duysheyev, Arstanbek (Duysheyevich) (b. Sept. 16, 1932, Kichi-Kemin, Kirgiz A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Chuy oblast, Kyrgyzstan] - d. June 30, 2003, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1979-81) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1981-86) of the Kirgiz S.S.R. He was also first secretary of the party committee of Issyk-Kul oblast (1971-79).
Dvorák, Richard (b. Dec. 28, 1913, Kresice, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. May 13, 2009, Prague, Czech Republic), finance minister of Czechoslovakia (1963-64). He was also minister of foreign trade (1952-59) and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1959-63), India (1967-71), and East Germany (1971-76).
Dvorkovich, Arkady (Vladimirovich) (b. March 26, 1972, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), a deputy prime minister of Russia (2012-18). In 2018 he became president of the World Chess Federation (FIDE).
Dwinell, Lane (b. Nov. 14, 1906, Newport, Vt. - d. March 27, 1997, Hanover, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1955-59). After serving as state House speaker and Senate president, Dwinell was elected governor. He left state government in 1959 and was appointed by Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower to be assistant secretary of state for administration, overseeing the department's budget, personnel and embassy operations. He left the job in 1961, but in 1969 was appointed by Pres. Richard Nixon to be administrator of the Agency for International Development. He was chairman of Nixon's reelection campaign in New Hampshire in 1972, and Nixon officially announced his intention to seek a second term in a personal letter to Dwinell, who was authorized to make it public. Dwinell served as Ronald Reagan's state chairman in 1980 and 1984.
Dwivedi, Surendra Nath (b. Feb. 11, 1913, Khandasahi, Cuttack district, Orissa [now Odisha], India - d. Oct. 1, 2001, Rourkela, Orissa), governor of Arunachal Pradesh (1991-93).
Dworak, James J. (b. Sept. 4, 1925 - d. Nov. 6, 2002), mayor of Omaha (1961-65). He was indicted on bribery and conspiracy charges in 1965 in a sensational trial involving secret tape recordings. He was acquitted by an all-female jury, but his co-conspirators were convicted, and he was ruined in politics.
Dworakowski, Wladyslaw (b. Sept. 10, 1908, Oblasy, Poland - d. Nov. 17, 1976, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1952-54). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Lódz city (1948-50) and województwo (1949-50) and chairman of the Committee for Public Security (1954-56).
Dwyer, Sir John Patrick (b. June 24, 1879, Aberfeldy, Victoria - d. Aug. 25, 1966, Shenton Park, Perth, W.Aus.), acting governor of Western Australia (1951); knighted 1946. He was chief justice (1946-59).
Dyachenko, Sergey (Aleksandrovich) (b. Sept. 18, 1952, Shortandy, Akmolinsk [now Akmola] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. - d. Oct. 26, 2016), head of Akmola oblast (2010-12). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Kokchetav city (1985-91).
Dyachenko, Vladimir (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 24, 1948, Blagoveshchensk, Amur oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Amur oblast (1994-96).
Dyakonov, Vasily (Nikolayevich) (b. July 25, 1946 - d. Sept. 5, 2012, Moscow, Russia), head of the administration of Krasnodar kray (1991-92).
Dyakov, Anatoly (Fyodorovich) (b. Nov. 10, 1936, Stavropol kray, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Aug. 12, 2015, Moscow, Russia), energy and fuels minister of Russia (1991).
Dyakov, Pyotr (Nikolayevich) (b. May 17, 1788 - d. May 1, 1860, Warsaw, Poland), governor-general of Vitebsk, Mogilyov, and Smolensk (1836-45); nephew-in-law of Gavrila Derzhavin.
Dybenko, Nikolay (Kirillovich) (b. 1928 - d. June 19, 2002, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the party committee of Novosibirsk city (1964-66) and ambassador to Mozambique (1986-91).
Dybsjord, Arnold G(erhard) (b. Oct. 7, 1897, Sem [now part of Tønsberg municipality], Jarlsberg og Larvik amt [now in Vestfold og Telemark fylke], Norway - d. Oct. 19, 1962), governor of Buskerud (1950-62).
Dyer, Elisha (b. July 20, 1811, Providence, R.I. - d. May 17, 1890, Providence), governor of Rhode Island (1857-59).
Dyer, Elisha (b. Nov. 29, 1839, Providence, R.I. - d. Nov. 29, 1906, Providence), governor of Rhode Island (1897-1900) and mayor of Providence (1906); son of the above.
Dyer, George L(eland) (b. Aug. 26, 1849, Calais, Maine - d. April 2, 1914, Winter Park, Fla.), governor of Guam (1904-05).
Dymshits, Veniamin (Emmanuilovich) (b. Sept. 28 [Sept. 15, O.S.], 1910, Feodosiya, Tavrida province [now in Crimea republic], Russia - d. May 23, 1993, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was a deputy premier (1962-85), chairman of the State Planning Committee (1962), and chairman of the State Committee for Material-Technical Supply (1965-76).
Dyrssen, Gerhard (b. Feb. 18, 1854, Fänneslunda socken, Älvsborg [now part of Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. April 3, 1938, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Värmland (1901-21). He was also Swedish minister of sea defense (1898-1901).
Dyson, David J. (d. March 14, 1949, Winnipeg, Man.), mayor of Winnipeg (1917).
Dyugamel, Aleksandr (Osipovich) (b. Feb. 7 [Jan. 26, O.S.], 1801, Mitava, Courland, Russia [now Jelgava, Latvia] - d. June 9 [May 28, O.S.], 1880, Noskovtsy, Podolia province, Russia [now in Vinnytsia oblast, Ukraine]), governor-general of West Siberia (1861-66); son of Osip Dyugamel. He was also Russian minister to Persia (1838-41).
Dyugamel, Osip (Osipovich), French Joseph Duhamel (b. Aug. 2, 1768, Warsaw, Poland - d. Jan. 1, 1841 [Dec. 20, 1840, O.S.], St. Petersburg, Russia), governor of Livonia (1811-27).
Dyumin, Aleksey (Gennadiyevich) (b. Aug. 28, 1972, Kursk, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Tula oblast (2016- ).
Dzang, Chemogoh (Kuukpeng) Kevin (b. July 27, 1941, Nandom, Gold Coast [now in Ghana] - d. February 2010), defense minister of Ghana (1983-84). He was also chief of naval staff (1973-74, 1975-77), high commissioner to Australia (1978-82), and ambassador to Japan (1994-98).
Dzasokhov, Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) (b. April 3, 1934, Ordzhonikidze, North Ossetian autonomous oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia]), president of North Ossetia-Alania (1998-2005). After his resignation he became North Ossetia's representative in the Federation Council of Russia (2005-10). He was also Soviet ambassador to Syria (1986-88) and first secretary of the party committee of the North Ossetian A.S.S.R. (1988-90).
Dzhafarov, Saftar (Mamed ogly) (b. June 1900, Baku, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. Nov. 18, 1961, Baku), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1959-61). He was also people's commissar/minister of justice (1932-35) and agriculture (1940-47), and chairman of the Executive Committee of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R. (1937).
Dzhaksybekov, Adilbek (Ryskeldinovich) (b. July 26, 1954, Burly village, Kustanay [now Kostanay] oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), defense minister of Kazakhstan (2009-14). He was also akim of Astana city (1997-2003, 2014-16), minister of industry and commerce (2003-04), head of the administration of the president (2004-08, 2016-18), and ambassador to Russia (2008-09).
Dzhakupov, Kabibulla (Kabenovich) (b. Sept. 16, 1949, Kaztalovka, Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (1993-2000). In 2014-16 he was chairman of the Mazhilis (lower house of Kazakh parliament).
Dzhalilov, Afetdin (Dzhalil ogly), or Afiyaddin Jalilov (b. 1946 - d. [killed] Sept. 29, 1994, Baku, Azerbaijan), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1989-90), first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1990-91), and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1990-91) of the Nakhichevan A.S.S.R.
Dzharbusynova, Madina (Bineshovna) (b. Nov. 10, 1954, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), Kazakh diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to Cuba (1999-2003).
Dzharimov, Aslan (Aliyevich) (b. Nov. 7, 1939, Yegerukhai village, Adygey autonomous oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), president of Adygeya (1992-2002). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Adygey autonomous oblast (1989-91).
Dzharty, Vasyl (Heorhiyovych) (b. June 3, 1958, Starobeshivsky district, Donetsk oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. Aug. 17, 2011, Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine), prime minister of Crimea (2010-11). He was also Ukrainian environment minister (2006-07).
Dzhashi, Irakly (Azizovich), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Adzhar A.S.S.R. (1975-77).
Dzhashi, Makary (Ivanovich) (b. 1902, Vani, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. ...), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Adzhar A.S.S.R. (1953-54). He was also people's commissar of state control (1940-43), deputy premier (1940-43), first deputy premier (1943-...), and minister of forestry (1947-53) of the Georgian S.S.R.
Dzhatiyev, Aleksandr (Mikhailovich) (b. Aug. 2, 1891, Sba, Tiflis province, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. [in labour camp] Dec. 31, 1942), chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (192...-22), chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1922-24), and executive secretary of the Communist Party committee (1924-25) of South Ossetia.
Dzhavakhishvili, Givi (Dmitriyevich) (b. Sept. 18 [Sept. 5, O.S.], 1912, Tiflis, Russia [now Tbilisi, Georgia] - d. Nov. 10, 1985, Tbilisi), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Georgian S.S.R. (1953-75). He was also mayor of Tbilisi (1952-53) and a deputy premier (1953).
Dzhavov, Grizi (b. 1916), chairman of the Executive Committee (1957-61) and first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1961-63) of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast. He was also chairman of the State Committee for Labour of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1977-87).
Dzhidzhoyev, Ivan (Petrovich) (d. [executed] 1937), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast (1936?-37).
Dzhioyev, Kosta (Kargoyevich) (b. 1916), chairman of the Executive Committee of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast (1965-72).
Dzhioyev, Murat (Kuzmich) (b. Oct. 1, 1955, Buzala, South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of South Ossetia (1998-2012, 2016-17).
Dzhumanazarov, Mateke (b. 1906, Syrdarya oblast, Russia [roughly modern Uzbekistan] - d. 1966), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Karakalpak A.S.S.R. (1941-55, 1956-60).
Dzhurov, Dobri (Marinov) (b. Jan. 5, 1916, Vrabevo, near Troyan, Bulgaria - d. June 17, 2002, Sofia, Bulgaria), defense minister of Bulgaria (1962-90). He was a commander of a guerrilla brigade that fought governments who allied Bulgaria to Nazi Germany during World War II. He played a key role in the 1944 coup which paved the way for the Communist takeover in Bulgaria. He became a four-star army general. Under him Bulgarian troops were dispatched as part of a Warsaw Pact force to quash an abortive pro-democracy revolt in Czechoslovakia in 1968. He sat on the ruling Politburo and helped unseat strongman Todor Zhivkov in an internal party coup on Nov. 10, 1989, that unleashed democratic changes in Bulgaria. From 1990 until late 1991, Dzhurov was a lawmaker for the Socialist Party in the first post-Communist parliament.
Dzhussoyev, Georgy (Nikolayevich) (b. 1926), chairman of the Executive Committee (1964-65) and first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1965-73) of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast.
Dzierzbicki, Stanislaw (b. April 18, 1854, Badków, Poland - d. Sept. 10, 1919, Krzywonos, Poland), acting prime minister of Poland (1918). He was also minister of agriculture (1918).
Dziho, Sefkija (b. 1947, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), governor of Herzegovina-Neretva (2001-02).
Dzon, Mathias (b. 1947, Ingouélé, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1997-2002). He was a presidential candidate in 2009.
Dzotsenidze, Georgy (Samsonovich) (b. Feb. 23 [Feb. 10, O.S.], 1910, Kutaisi, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. May 5, 1976, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian S.S.R. (1959-76). He was also known as a geologist.
Dzundev, Igor (b. June 12, 1963), Macedonian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-07).
Dzurinda, Mikulás (b. Feb. 4, 1955, Spissky Stvrtok, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), prime minister (1998-2006) and foreign minister (2010-12) of Slovakia. He joined the Christian Democratic Movement (KDH) when it was formed soon after the fall of Communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989. His first government experience was in 1991 when he served as a deputy minister of transport and telecomunications in the government led by Ján Carnogurský, then chairman of the KDH. He became the party's economic spokesman in 1993. He returned to the transport ministry again in 1994, this time as a minister in the cabinet of Jozef Moravcik. Moravcik's government lost an election in September 1994 and Dzurinda became one of the fiercest opposition critics of the administration led by strongman Prime Minister Vladimír Meciar. Dzurinda said one of the main priorities of his Slovak Democratic Coalition (SDK) was to ensure Slovakia regained its place among the leading contenders in accession talks with the European Union and NATO. He was elected SDK leader in 1998 after the party formally registered as a single political entity. The SDK was initially formed as a coalition of five parties but became one party after parliament approved a controversial new election law in May 1998 that made it harder for coalitions to get into parliament. Unlike Meciar, whose extravagant election campaign featured foreign celebrities such as Gérard Depardieu and Claudia Cardinale, Dzurinda held small rallies across Slovakia and toured the country on a bicycle. He was one of the strongest supporters of the creation of a coalition of opposition parties whose main aim was to beat Meciar's populist-nationalist government. He often complained that the KDH, his original party, was too narrowly based and relied too much on conservative supporters. In 2000 he founded his own party, the Slovak Democratic and Christian Union (SDKÚ). Confounding most expectations, he piloted the government to the end of its term and again pieced together a majority in 2002. When he balked at allowing public service doctors to refuse to perform abortions in 2006, the KDH stormed out of the coalition and forced early elections. His government was defeated, as eight years of austere economic reforms had led to public discontent, although the belt-tightening helped bring Slovakia into the EU in 2004.