Fabela (Alfaro), Isidro (b. June 29, 1882, Atlacomulco, México state, Mexico - d. Aug. 12, 1964, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico), governor of México (1942-45). He was also Mexican minister to Argentina and Brazil (1916-18) and Paraguay and Uruguay (1917-18).
Fabião, Carlos (Soares Alberto Idães) (b. Dec. 9, 1930, Lisbon, Portugal - d. April 2, 2006, Lisbon), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1974).
Fabien-Jean-Louis, Marie-Denise (b. Feb. 14, 1944, Gonaïves, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1991).
Fabini (Bianchi), Juan P(edro) (b. Nov. 6, 1876, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Oct. 3, 1962), chairman of the National Council of Administration of Uruguay (1931-33).
Fabius, Laurent (b. Aug. 20, 1946, Paris, France), prime minister of France (1984-86). A member of the Conseil d'État (1973-81), he was elected first deputy mayor of Grand-Quevilly in Seine-Maritime in 1977, and deputy in the National Assembly for Seine-Maritime in 1978. His membership in the Socialist Party (PS) dated from 1974. He rapidly rose to become one of François Mitterrand's most trusted economic advisers, as well as his principal private secretary when, as a member of the PS national secretariat from 1979, he became its press officer. He managed Mitterrand's presidential campaign in 1981 and was appointed minister-delegate for the budget in Pierre Mauroy's first government and then minister of industry and research in 1983. He was also president of the Regional Council of Haute-Normandie in 1981-82. At the beginning of 1984 his responsibilities were elevated to those of a superminister for industrial restructuring, in which capacity he was given the job of saving the Lorraine steel industry. Mitterrand chose Fabius to succeed Mauroy as premier (at 37, France's youngest) in July 1984. He served until he was defeated in a 1986 election. As National Assembly president in 1988-92, the suave Fabius led the biggest faction in the fractious party, fighting a bitter 1990 power struggle with Lionel Jospin and Michel Rocard which severely weakened the left. He was first secretary of the PS in 1992-93. Then his career was overshadowed by a scandal over AIDS-tainted blood transfusions while he was premier in 1985; he was acquitted of manslaughter and negligence charges in 1999. He was again president of the National Assembly in 1997-2000 and economy, finance, and industry minister in 2000-02. In 2006 he was a candidate in the Socialist primary for the 2007 presidential election, but came third. In 2012 he became foreign minister.
Fabra (Part), Alberto (b. April 6, 1964, Castellón de la Plana, Valencia, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Valencia (2011- ).
Fabre, Jean-Luc (Michel) (b. June 12, 1949, Aix-en-Provence, France), prefect of Guadeloupe (2009-11).
Fabre, Joseph Evariste (b. June 17, 1861, Montmeyan, Var, France - d. 19...), interim administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1913-14).
Fabre, Louis (b. Oct. 5, 1885, Nouméa, New Caledonia - d. March 15, 1936), interim governor of Réunion (1932-34).
Fabre, Robert (b. Dec. 21, 1915, Villefranche-de-Rouergue, Aveyron, France - d. Dec. 23, 2006, Villefranche-de-Rouergue), French politician. He was founder and president (1972-78) of the Movement of the Left Radicals (MRG) and one of the three leading figures in the alliance of Socialists, Communists, and Radicals in the 1970s, though the least prominent. His hostility to the nationalization programme of Communist leader Georges Marchais led to the divorce between the Communists and the Socialist Party of François Mitterrand. In 1981 he backed Mitterrand's successful presidential bid. He was a deputy in the National Assembly from 1962 to 1981 and for 30 years (1953-83) was mayor of Villefranche-de-Rouergue, a small town in the centre west.
Fabvre, Jean Jacques Louis (b. Dec. 31, 1800, Saint-Jean-d'Angély, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. 1864, Brest, Finistère, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1848-49).
Facio Segreda, Gonzalo J(usto) (b. March 28, 1918, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1970-76, 1977-78). He was president of the Legislative Assembly (1953-56) and ambassador to the United States (1956-58, 1962-66, 1990-94), Canada (1962-66), and Mexico (1998-2001).
Facta, Luigi (b. Nov. 16, 1861, Pinerolo, Piedmont, Italy - d. Nov. 5, 1930, Pinerolo), prime minister of Italy (1922). He entered the Chamber as Liberal deputy for Pinerolo in 1892. He was undersecretary of justice and then of the interior in Giovanni Giolitti's coalition cabinet of 1903-05. He became finance minister in the cabinet of Luigi Luzzatti of 1910-11 and in that of Giolitti of 1911-14. At the outbreak of World War I, he stood for Italian neutrality, like Giolitti, but he was afterwards proud of having given a son to his country. During the first six months of 1919 he was minister of justice under Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, and he was once more finance minister in the last Giolitti ministry in 1920-21. Facta formed his own cabinet in February 1922 but was defeated by an anti-Fascist coalition in July for not taking sufficiently strong action against Benito Mussolini's Fascists. No other politician was willing, however, to form a cabinet in a country so dangerously racked by industrial and socialist agitation and by Fascist terrorism, so King Vittorio Emanuele III asked Facta to form a second ministry. Heading a divided cabinet and lacking personal courage, he failed to take decisive action when the Fascists marched on Rome (October 28), even though the chief of staff and the military commandant of Rome were prepared to quell the impending insurrection. Pressured by Liberal leaders, Facta at the last moment proposed to proclaim a state of siege and order the army to protect the government. The king, however, refused to sign the decree, in order to avoid civil war. Facta was forced to resign in favour of Mussolini. He made no open opposition to Fascism, and Mussolini nominated him as senator in 1924.
Fadahunsi, Sir Joseph Odeleye (b. 1901, Ilesha [now in Osun state], Nigeria - d. May 12, 1986, Ilesha), governor of Western Region, Nigeria (1962-66); knighted 1963.
Fadden, Sir Arthur William (b. April 13, 1895, Ingham, Queensland - d. April 21, 1973, Brisbane), prime minister of Australia (1941). In 1932 he agreed to stand as Country Party candidate for the seat of Kennedy at the elections to the Queensland Legislative Assembly. He was elected and became a severe critic of the Labor government. He entered the federal House of Representatives in 1936. In 1940, to resolve a deadlock between Sir Earle Page, John McEwen, and Archie Cameron, Fadden was elected acting leader of the Country Party. In 1941, he was confirmed as leader, having proved his ability to lead and humour men of considerable ability and ambition. As a member of the cabinet he held the position of minister for air and civil aviation (1940) and of treasurer (1940-41). Upon the resignation of Robert Gordon Menzies in 1941, Fadden served for 40 days as prime minister before his government was defeated and Labor took office. He served as leader of the opposition until 1943, when he was succeeded by Menzies. In 1949 Menzies became prime minister again and at once appointed Fadden treasurer and deputy prime minister. Fadden was knighted in 1951 and retired from politics in 1958. During his two periods as treasurer he introduced eleven budgets, the last nine consecutive ones charting Australia through a period of unprecedented growth, when he managed to combat with fair success the dangers first of worldwide inflation and then of an American recession. He served Menzies with the utmost loyalty, enabling the prime minister to leave the country often and for long periods on important government business and know that all would be well on his return. Fadden was acting prime minister on ten separate occasions covering a total period of 19 months.
Fadul, Francisco (José) (b. Dec. 15, 1953, Mansoa, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), prime minister of Guinea-Bissau (1998-2000). He was a presidential candidate in 2005, finishing fourth with 2.9% of the votes.
Fagan, Frank (Frederick) (b. 194...), lieutenant governor of Newfoundland and Labrador (2013- ).
Fagerholm, Karl August (b. Dec. 31, 1901, Siuntio, Finland - d. May 22, 1984, Helsinki), prime minister of Finland (1948-50, 1956-57, 1958). He was chairman (1920-23) of the barbers' union before becoming a Social Democratic member of Parliament in 1930 and served as minister for social affairs from 1937 to 1943. As leader of the Social Democrats, he was prime minister from 1948 to 1950, despite Communist opposition and accusations by the Soviet Union that he intended to undermine the Finnish-Soviet pact by taking Finland into NATO. During his second term, in 1956-57, he visited the Soviet Union, and relations appeared to have improved. After a period out of office he was reelected in August 1958 to head a coalition government against opposition from the Communists, who had become the largest party in Parliament. In December 1958 he was forced to resign after the recall of the Soviet ambassador. Fagerholm was a candidate for the presidency in 1956, but he was narrowly defeated by Urho Kekkonen. He also served several times as speaker of parliament (1945-48, 1950-56, 1957-58, 1958-62, 1965-66).
Fagundes, Miguel Seabra (b. June 30, 1910, Natal, Brazil - d. April 29, 1993, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1945-46). He was also justice and interior minister of Brazil (1954-55).
Fahd (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Faysal Al Saud) (b. 1923?, Riyadh [now in Saudi Arabia] - d. Aug. 1, 2005, Riyadh), king of Saudi Arabia (1982-2005). He was the 11th son of the kingdom's founder, Abdul Aziz, and the first son of Hassa Sudairi after her remarriage to Abdul Aziz. He was named minister of education in 1953 and established a system of public elementary and secondary education. In 1962 he was made minister of the interior and, in 1967, second deputy premier as well. In 1975 his half-brother Khalid, upon acceding the throne, named him crown prince. As an active administrator, he was virtual ruler during Khalid's reign (1975-82). He was a consistent advocate of modernization and established a corps of Western-trained technicians to oversee industrial diversification. He was also the principal architect of Saudi Arabian foreign policy in the 1970s and '80s that sought to counterbalance Soviet influence in the Middle East by providing financial aid to moderate states, notably Egypt. In a highly publicized 1977 trip he met with U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter to discuss peace in the Middle East and the Palestinian problem. He opposed the Camp David Accords (1978) between Israel and Egypt, and in 1980 he called for a jihad (holy war) against Israel following its annexation of East Jerusalem. In 1981, however, he announced an eight-point plan for a Middle East peace settlement that implied recognition of Israel's right to live within secure boundaries; the plan failed to gain Arab endorsement. In 1990, after Iraq's invasion of neighbouring Kuwait, Fahd reversed a long-standing policy and invited Western and Arab forces to deploy in Saudi Arabia in support of the Saudi defense forces. He suffered a stroke in 1995, and thereafter Crown Prince Abdullah assumed a de facto regency.
Fahim, Mohammad (Qasim) (b. 1957 - d. March 9, 2014), defense minister (2001-04) and a vice president (2002-04, 2009-14) of Afghanistan.
Fahmy, Ismail, Arabic Isma`il Fahmi (b. Oct. 2, 1922, Cairo, Egypt - d. Nov. 21, 1997, Cairo), foreign minister of Egypt (1973-77). He was ambassador to Austria in 1968-71. He resigned the foreign minister's post just days before Pres. Anwar as-Sadat's historic trip to Jerusalem on Nov. 19, 1977. During that trip, Sadat addressed the Israeli parliament and launched talks between Egypt and the Jewish state that led to the first peace treaty between an Arab state and Israel in 1979.
Fahmy, (Mohamed) Nabil (b. Jan. 5, 1951, New York), foreign minister of Egypt (2013- ); son of Ismail Fahmy. He was ambassador to Japan (1997-99) and the United States (1999-2008).
Fahmy Pasha, Mustafa, Arabic Mustafa Fahmi Basha (b. 1840, Crete, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. Sept. 14, 1914, Alexandria, Egypt), foreign minister (1879-82) and prime minister (1891-93, 1895-1908) of Egypt.
Faidherbe, Louis (Léon César) (b. June 3, 1818, Lille, France - d. Sept. 29, 1889, Paris), governor of Senegal (1854-61, 1863-65). He joined the corps of military engineers in 1840. He spent three undistinguished years, from 1843 to 1846, in Algeria. In 1847 he was posted to Guadeloupe, where his reserved and prickly temperament and his strong Republican sympathies alienated both the colonists and his fellow officers, and he was recalled. He returned to Algeria in 1849 and assumed his first independent command; his work now won commendation, and after further service in Kabylie he was made chevalier of the Legion of Honour. In 1852 he was transferred to Senegal as deputy director of engineers. Two years later, he was promoted to the rank of major and appointed governor of Senegal. He encouraged experimental farming, founded Dakar, and built Médina on the upper Sénégal River as a base for further expansion inland. When he reassumed the governorship in 1863, after another tour of duty in Algeria, his principal objective was the extension of French power eastward. He left Senegal in 1865 and returned again to Algeria. Recalled to France after the outbreak of the Franco-German War, he was appointed commander in chief of the Army of the North in December 1870. In 1871 the three northern départements of Pas-de-Calais, Somme, and Nord all elected him to the National Assembly with overwhelming majorities, but he resigned almost immediately because of the assembly's anti-Republican proceedings. He was defeated in the senatorial elections of 1876 but was elected Republican senator for the Nord in 1879 and held the seat until 1888. As a final recognition of his services, he was made grand chancellor of the Legion of Honour in 1880.
Fairclough, Ellen Louks, née Louks (b. Jan. 28, 1905, Hamilton, Ont. - d. Nov. 13, 2004, Hamilton), Canadian politician. Her political career began in the 1940s when she was elected to the Hamilton city council, where she served for five years. Elected to the House of Commons on May 15, 1950, as a Progressive Conservative for the riding of Hamilton West, she was reelected in 1953, 1957, and 1958. Between 1950 and 1953 she was the only female MP. She introduced private member's bills for equal pay for work of equal value. She averaged 150 speeches a year in the House of Commons, focusing on housing, income tax, unemployment insurance, the post office, and the status of women. On formation of the Conservative government on June 21, 1957, she was sworn to the privy council and appointed secretary of state. On May 12, 1958, she was named minister for citizenship and immigration - the first woman appointed to the Canadian cabinet. During absences of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker from Ottawa she was acting prime minister, again the first woman to attain such a distinction. This happened despite a certain degree of animosity between the two. Fairclough summed it up in her 1995 autobiography Saturday's Child: Memoirs of Canada's First Female Cabinet Minister: "John Diefenbaker did not like me." Diefenbaker didn't like her stances on some issues and she had never supported his leadership bid. She was named postmaster general in 1962 and was defeated in the 1963 election. However, she remained an involved citizen and, among many awards she received, was named an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1978 and a Companion of that order - the highest level - in 1995.
Fajuyi, (Francis) Adekunle (b. June 26, 1926, Ado-Ekiti - d. [killed] July 29, 1966, Ibadan), governor of Western Region, Nigeria (1966).
Fakafanua, (Kinikinilau) Tutoatasi (b. 1961 - d. Feb. 24, 2006, Nuku'alofa, Tonga), finance minister of Tonga (1995-2001). He became one of the youngest members of the Tongan cabinet when he was made minister of labour, commerce, and industries in August 1991. In May 1995 he was transferred to the finance ministry, and in January 2001 he became minister of education. He resigned from the cabinet in October 2001 after a major scandal involving an American "court jester" allegedly lost millions of dollars from a royal trust fund, of which Fakafanua was one of the trustees. He then moved to New Zealand. He became the seventh holder of the Fakafanua noble title when his father died in Hawaii in May 2004.
Fakhri Pasha, Hussein, Arabic Husayn Fakhri Basha (b. Sept. 25, 1843, Cairo, Egypt - d. Dec. 23, 1910), prime minister of Egypt (1893).
Fakhri Pasha, Mahmoud, Arabic Mahmud Fakhri Basha (b. Nov. 24, 1884 - d. bf. June 7, 1955), foreign minister of Egypt (1922-23); son of Hussein Fakhri Pasha.
Faki (Mahamat), Moussa (b. June 21, 1960, Biltine, Chad), prime minister (2003-05) and foreign minister (2008- ) of Chad. He was also minister of public works and transport (2002-03).
Fakudze, Mtiti, foreign minister of Swaziland (2011-13).
Falcam, Leo A(my) (b. Nov. 20, 1935, Pohnpei, Micronesia), president of the Federated States of Micronesia (1999-2003). He was also governor of Pohnpei (1979-83) and vice president (1997-99).
Falck, Iman Willem (b. March 23, 1736 - d. Feb. 6, 1785), governor of Ceylon (1765-85).
Falcón Briceño, Marcos (b. April 4, 1907, Barcelona, Anzoátegui state, Venezuela - d. April 22, 1998, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1960-64). He was ambassador to the United States (1959-60) and the United Kingdom (1964-65).
Falconí (Benítez), Fander (b. Sept. 19, 1962), foreign minister of Ecuador (2008-10).
Faleiro, Luizinho (b. Aug. 26, 1951, Navelim village, Goa, Portuguese India [now in India]), chief minister of Goa (1998-99).
Falkenhausen, (Ernst) Alexander (Alfred Hermann Freiherr) von (b. Oct. 29, 1878, Blumenthal, Germany [now Kwiatków, Poland] - d. July 31, 1966, Nassau, West Germany), German military governor of Belgium and northern France (1940-44).
Fall, François Lonseny (b. April 21, 1949, Dabola, central Guinea), foreign minister (2002-04, 2012- ) and prime minister (2004) of Guinea. He was also Guinea's permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-02).
Fall, (Cheikh) Ibrahima (b. 1942, Tivaouane, Senegal), foreign minister of Senegal (1984-90). He was also higher education minister (1983-84).
Fälldin, (Nils Olof) Thorbjörn (b. April 24, 1926, Högsjö, Västernorrland county, Sweden), prime minister of Sweden (1976-78, 1979-82). Active within the Centre Party (formerly the Agrarian Party) from his youth, he became its leader in 1971. He rapidly transformed and enlarged it by adopting a pro-environment and antinuclear platform that had considerable appeal. First elected to the Riksdag (parliament) in 1958, he lost his seat in 1964 but regained it in 1967. He served on several standing committees of the Riksdag and was a deputy member of the Nordic Council. In becoming prime minister he overturned (if briefly) a Socialist control of government that had lasted since 1932.
Fallières, (Clément) Armand (b. Nov. 6, 1841, Mézin, Lot-et-Garonne, France - d. June 22, 1931, Loupillon, near Mézin), president of France (1906-13). He began his public career as town councillor at Nérac (1868), and in 1876 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for that town. Fallières stood staunchly for republicanism; he was one of the famous "363" who signed the May 18, 1877, protest against the dissolution decreed by Pres. Patrice Mac-Mahon and voted against the "seize mai" cabinet of Albert, duc de Broglie, on June 19, 1877. After holding a minor office in Jules Ferry's cabinet (1880-81), he attained cabinet rank in 1882 as minister of the interior under Charles Duclerc, and soon gave evidence of the strong hand which made him many enemies. On Jan. 29, 1883, he became premier. He resigned only three weeks later, however, after the Senate rejected his proposed compromise on the expulsion of royalist pretenders. Thereafter he held successively the portfolios of education, interior, justice, education, and justice. In June 1890 he was elected to the Senate and became its president from March 1899 to January 1906, when he was elected president of the republic with 449 votes against 371 for his nearest rival, Paul Doumer. As president he shed his partisan zeal; he confirmed the constitutional limitations of his office and at the same time exercised an influence that left it free of any charge of picturesque uselessness. He contributed to the consolidation of relations with the future allies of France, both by discreet advice to his ministers and through the series of visits he paid to foreign countries. He visited England in May 1908 and a little later joined King Edward and the Russian emperor at Reval; he received the latter at Cherbourg in 1909.
Falvy, Maurice (Émile) (b. March 4, 1888, Reims, France - d. June 2, 1970, Mézy-sur-Seine, Yvelines, France), acting commandant of Chad (1935-36) and lieutenant governor of Niger (1940-42).
Fan Kuang-chun, also known as K.C. Fan, Pinyin Fan Guangjun (b. March 16, 1939, Taiwan), governor of Taiwan (2002-03).
Fan Shouyou (b. 18..., Kaifeng, Henan, China - d. July 24, 1916, most probably Wuhan, Hubei, China), civil governor of Hubei (1916). He was the civil governor of Heilongjiang in the late Qing period, and became the person in charge of military training affairs of Henan province after the foundation of the republic. He held several posts in Hubei before being named as governor. He died in office.
Fan Yaonan (b. 1879, Gongan, Hubei, China - d. July 7, 1928, Dihua [now Urumqi], Xinjiang, China), governor of Xinjiang (1928). He studied law in Japan and was made the dean of the Xinjiang Law and Politics College and later the director of the Dihua municipal court. After that, he became an adviser of the Hubei government and then the president's office. He started his career as a magistrate in Xinjiang province in 1917, being mayor of Aksu and then Dihua. In the 1920s, he was named the director of the Bureau of Military Affairs in Xinjiang, thus getting the chance to control some of Gov. Yang Zengxin's army. He led a coup against Yang Zengxin, killing the latter, in July 1928. But Fan himself was shot in the mutiny that followed.
Fan Yuanlian (b. 1875, Xiangyin, Hunan, China - d. Dec. 23, 1927, Tianjin, China), education minister (1912-13, 1916-17, 1917, 1920-21, 1924) and acting interior minister (1917) of China. He studied in Japan as a teenager and after his return was named an officer in the Qing dynasty education ministry. In 1912, protesting against Pres. Yuan Shikai's premier nomination of Lu Zhengxiang without the permission of parliament, all the Kuomintang members of the cabinet, including Education Minister Cai Yuanpei (the others being Wang Chonghui, Chen Qimei, and Song Jiaoren), resigned. Fan was named to succeed Cai. After he left the cabinet, he became the first president of Beijing Normal University, and later president of the Chinese Education and Cultural Fund Committee.
Fanfani, Amintore (b. Feb. 6, 1908, Pieve Santo Stefano, Tuscany, Italy - d. Nov. 20, 1999, Rome), prime minister of Italy (1954, 1958-59, 1960-63, 1982-83, 1987). He was elected to the Italian Constituent Assembly in 1946. In 1947 he became minister of labour and social security. After having served as minister of agriculture (1951) and of the interior (1953), he formed his own cabinet in January 1954; it fell at the end of the month. In July 1954 he was elected secretary-general of the Christian Democrat Party, whose left wing he led. His party's victory in the 1958 elections allowed him to form another cabinet. As both premier and foreign minister, he visited many foreign capitals and gained Italy's election to the UN Security Council (Oct. 8, 1958). Attacked by the right wing of the Christian Democrat Party, his government fell on Jan. 26, 1959, and on February 1 he resigned as party head. He returned as premier (1960-63) after widespread public reaction against increasing neofascist activity, and in 1962 he reshuffled his cabinet toward the left. He was foreign minister (1965, 1966-68) and president of the UN General Assembly (1965-66). He campaigned unsuccessfully for the national presidency in 1971 but did hold the office as caretaker in 1978 after the resignation of Giovanni Leone. In March 1972 he was appointed a life senator, one of five provided for in the constitution. In 1973-75, he was again Christian Democrat secretary-general. In 1974-75 he campaigned vigorously against the legalization of divorce, declaring that it could lead to lesbian marriages and affairs "in which your wife could run away with your maid." His crusade failed and Italians approved divorce in a referendum. He was president of the Senate in 1968-73, 1976-82, and 1985-87.
Fang Benren (b. 1880, Huanggang, Hubei, China - d. Feb. 15, 1951, Tianjin, China), military governor of Jiangxi (1924-26) and chairman of the government of Hubei (1929). A graduate of the Beijing College of Commanders, he started his military career in the Jiangxi provincial army. He was named commander of the 11th Army as well as a member of the military committee of the National Government in 1926. He was also a member of the Military Senate. He stayed out of public life since World War II.
Fang Shengtao (b. Aug. 15, 1885, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. July 1, 1934, Shanghai, China), governor (1926-27) and chairman of the government (1930-32) of Fujian. He, like most revolutionary activists, joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance when abroad in Japan. He revolted in Sichuan province in 1911. After the founding of the republic, he became an army commander of a brigade and then of a division. He was also a commander of Sun Yat-sen's generalissimo residence garrison as well as commander-in-chief of the Fujian Revolutionary Army and chief of staff of the Guangdong Revolutionary Headquarters. He quit politics upon the Fujian Incident (a rebellion against Chiang Kai-shek) in November 1933.
Fang Yi (b. Feb. 26, 1916, Xiamen, Fujian, China - d. Oct. 17, 1997, Beijing, China), vice-premier of China (1978-82). He joined the Communist Party in the early 1930s. As a veteran of the Long March (1934-35), he was given various administrative posts in Communist-controlled regions. After the Communists came to power in 1949, he served as vice-governor of Fujian before being named vice-minister of finance in 1953. In 1956 he was sent to North Vietnam as foreign aid liaison and in the early 1960s was a vice-chairman of the State Planning Commission and director of an economic commission dealing with foreign countries. In 1971, having survived the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution, he was once again called upon to handle China's economic relations with other nations, this time as minister. Fang's elevation to the Politburo in 1977 foreshadowed his 1978 appointment as vice-premier and head of the State Science and Technology Commission. During the January 1979 visit of Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping to the U.S., Fang negotiated important scientific and educational exchanges. He also concluded similar agreements with France, West Germany, and other countries. Though not trained as a scientist, Fang clearly understood the importance of both technology and basic research and impressed Western scientists with the range and depth of his comprehension. Fang, who was also president of China's Academy of Sciences, was named administrator of China's program to modernize its science and technology in 1979. He believed China could rival the West by the year 2000 if its Four Modernizations were well planned and carried out in progressive stages.
Fang Zhenwu (b. Feb. 26, 1885, Shou county, Anhui, China - d. December 1941, near Zhongshan, Guangdong, China), chairman of the government of Anhui (1929). He took part in the revolutionary rush of 1911, and joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in Japan. He was commander of the 3rd Army, and later of the 4th Army Group, as well as commander of Jinan garrison before receiving the post in Anhui province. As a consequence of his dissatisfaction with Chiang Kai-shek, he was later detained and removed from office in October 1929. He was an organizer of the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army (Chahar Army), being its commander of the North Route, fighting against Japanese invaders in the east of Chahar. However, forced by Chiang Kai-shek, who still wished to reach an agreement with Japan and to devote himself to the war against the Communist Party and its Red Army, he had to move to Hong Kong. He moved out as the Japanese occupied Hong Kong in 1941, but was assassinated by Kuomintang secret agents on his way back to Guangdong with crowds of refugees.
Fanti, Guido (b. May 27, 1925, Bologna, Italy - d. Feb. 11, 2012, Bologna), president of Emilia-Romagna (1970-76). He was mayor of Bologna in 1966-70.
Fantini, Antonio (b. Jan. 31, 1936, Naples, Italy), president of Campania (1983-89).
Far-Far, Ros (F.) (b. Nov. 23, 1956, Katlarat, Maluku, Indonesia), acting governor of Maluku (2013).
Farah, Ali Abdi, Arabic `Ali `Abdi Farah, Somali Cali Cabdi Faarax (b. Feb. 16, 1947), foreign minister of Djibouti (1999-2005). He was also energy (1995-99) and communications (2005-11) minister.
Farah, Hassan Abshir, Somali Xasan Abshir Faarax (b. June 20, 1945, Nugaal region, Somalia), prime minister of Somalia (2001-03). He was also minister of water and mineral resources (2000-01) and fisheries and marine resources (2004-07).
Farah, Moumin Bahdon (b. Oct. 24, 1939, Djibouti, French Somaliland [now Djibouti] - d. Sept. 1, 2009, Paris, France), interior minister (1977-78), foreign minister (1978-93), and justice minister (1993-96) of Djibouti.
Färber, Adolf (b. Nov. 11, 1912, Berlin, Germany - d. Nov. 27, 1987, Karl-Marx-Stadt, East Germany [now Chemnitz, Germany]), first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Suhl (1952-54).
Farès, Abderrahmane, Arabic `Abd ar-Rahman Faris (b. Jan. 30, 1911, Akbou, Kabylie, Algeria - d. May 13, 1991, Zemmouri, east of Algiers, Algeria), chairman of the Provisional Executive of Algeria (1962).
Fargo, Heather (b. Dec. 12, 1952, Oakland, Calif.), mayor of Sacramento (2000-08).
Faria, Juvenal Lamartine de (b. Aug. 9, 1874, Serra Negra do Norte, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. 1956), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1928-30).
Faria, Wilma Maria de (b. Feb. 17, 1945, Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (2003-10).
W.M. de Faria
Farías (Martínez), Luis M(arcelino) (b. June 7, 1920, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. April 1999), governor of Nuevo León (1971-73).
Farid Kuhestani, (Ustad) Abdul Sabur (b. 1952, Chashma Allah Dad Khan village, Parwan province, Afghanistan - d. May 2, 2007, Kabul, Afghanistan), prime minister of Afghanistan (1992). He was prime minister for just over a month as the civil war erupted between the commanders of groups that had recently overthrown the Communist government. He was a member of the radical Islamist Hezb-i-Islami party led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. In December 2005 he was appointed by Pres. Hamid Karzai as a member of the Meshrano Jirga (upper house of parliament). He was shot dead outside his home by unknown assailants.
Farkhutdinov, Igor (Pavlovich) (b. April 16, 1950, Novosibirsk - d. Aug. 20, 2003, Kamchatka), head of the administration (1995-96) and governor (1996-2003) of Sakhalin oblast. From April 1991 to April 1995 he was mayor of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. He died in a helicopter crash over the volcanoes of the Kamchatka peninsula. The chopper was found near the Apachan river, 115 km southeast of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky from where it had taken off.
Farley, James A(loysius) (b. May 30, 1888, Grassy Point, N.Y. - d. June 9, 1976, New York City), U.S. politician. In Stony Point, near his native town, he served as township clerk for three terms (1912-19). His marked political abilities caused him to rise in the Democratic Party ranks, and in 1918, in reward for campaign services that year, he was appointed by Gov. Alfred E. Smith to the post of warden of the port of New York, a job that was abolished the next year. During the 1920s, he served as chairman of the Rockland County Democratic Committee. He served one term in the legislature (1923-24). In 1928 he became secretary of the New York State Democratic Committee and organized Franklin D. Roosevelt's successful gubernatorial campaign. He ran Roosevelt's reelection campaign in 1930, the year he also became chairman of the state committee. Convinced that Roosevelt could win the party's presidential nomination in 1932, Farley travelled the country in his behalf. At the convention, he arranged the deal whereby John N. Garner of Texas received the vice-presidential nomination in return for support of Roosevelt by the Texas and California delegations. As the newly appointed chairman of the Democratic National Committee, Farley directed the 1932 campaign and was rewarded with a cabinet appointment as postmaster general. He repeated his masterful campaign direction in 1936, but a rift between Farley and Roosevelt gradually developed. In 1940 Farley resigned from the cabinet and, because of his opposition to Roosevelt's third-term bid, allowed his own name to go before the convention that year. In 1944, as chairman of the New York State Democratic Committee, he again opposed Roosevelt's reelection bid. Farley then dropped out of politics.
Farmer, John J., Jr. (b. June 24, 1957), acting governor of New Jersey (2002).
Farole, Abdirahman Mohamed (b. 1945, Eyl, Nugaal region [now in Puntland], Somalia), president of Puntland (2009-14).
Faron, Joseph (b. Dec. 12, 1819, Brest, Finistère, France - d. Nov. 19, 1881), acting governor of Cochinchina (1869-70).
Faron, Pierre Aristide (b. April 17, 1814, Brest, Finistère, France - d. 1879), governor of French India (1871-75) and Réunion (1875-79).
Farquhar, Sir Robert Townsend, (1st) Baronet (b. Oct. 14, 1776 - d. March 16, 1830, London), lieutenant governor of Prince of Wales Island (1804-05) and governor of Île Bourbon (1810, 1811) and Mauritius (1810-23). He was created a baronet in 1821.
Farra, Jamal al- (b. 1911, Damascus, Ottoman Empire [now in Syria] - d. Sept. 30, 2005), foreign minister of Syria (1962). He was ambassador to Sweden (also non-resident ambassador to Norway, Denmark, and Finland) in the early 1950s. In 1955, he was appointed ambassador to West Germany and in 1956, ambassador to the U.S.S.R. (also non-resident ambassador to Poland). In 1958, Syria and Egypt merged to form the United Arab Republic (U.A.R.) and he became U.A.R. ambassador to Brazil, holding office until Syria separated again in 1961. After his tenure as foreign minister, he was appointed ambassador to West Germany again, until 1963, and thereafter ambassador to Italy, until retiring from diplomatic activity in 1964.
Farrakhan, Louis (Abdul), original name Louis Eugene Walcott (b. May 11, 1933, Bronx, New York City), leader of the Nation of Islam (1978- ). In 1955 he converted from the Episcopal Church to the Nation of Islam, also called Black Muslims, the unorthodox form of Islam led by Elijah Muhammad. He rose quickly in the movement, recording an original song "A White Man's Heaven is a Black Man's Hell," and writing two plays that were performed in mosques. He assisted Malcolm X at his mosque in Boston, became minister there when Malcolm moved to New York City, and, when Malcolm converted to Sunni Islam, Farrakhan denounced and replaced him as minister of Mosque Number Seven in Harlem, New York City. After Elijah Muhammad died in 1975, his son W.D. Muhammad succeeded him as the principal imam, or leader, of the Nation of Islam and altered the organization's course by gradually integrating the estimated 50,000-member Nation into the orthodox Muslim community. In 1978, however, Farrakhan formed his own sect, which he again called the Nation of Islam and which continued or revived features of its predecessor. He preached the inherent wickedness of whites, particularly Jews; blamed the U.S. government for what he claimed was a conspiracy to destroy black people with AIDS and addictive drugs; and, beginning in the late 1980s, cultivated a relationship with the Libyan dictator Muammar al-Qaddafi. In 1995, he rose to the height of his influence as the most prominent organizer of the "Million Man March" of African-American men in Washington, D.C. At the gathering, several hundred thousand participants affirmed African-American unity and pledged dedication to family values.
Farrell (Plaul), Edelmiro J(ulián) (b. Aug. 12, 1887, Avellaneda, Argentina - d. Oct. 31, 1980, Buenos Aires), Argentine politician. He was an army general who became minister of war and then vice-president under Gen. Pedro Pablo Ramírez. When the latter resigned under pressure, Farrell became president of Argentina. In that capacity (1944-46), he took a historic step when, under pressure from the U.S., he declared war on Germany and Japan during World War II. On June 4, 1946, Juan D. Perón, Farrell's labour minister, was elected president and Farrell retired from public life.
Farrelly, Alexander A(nthony) (b. Dec. 29, 1923, Frederiksted, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands - d. Sept. 10, 2002, Arlington, Va., U.S.), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (1987-95). He was a Caribbean specialist at the United Nations, returned to the territory in 1962 to become an assistant U.S. attorney, and was named a judge of the Municipal Court of the Virgin Islands in 1965 by Gov. Ralph Paiewonsky. In 1966, he was invited by the Unity Democrats to run on their senatorial slate. Running as an at-large candidate for the 7th Legislature, he amassed 7,324 votes, at the time the most ever received by an elected official in the territory. He was returned to the 8th Legislature as a Democratic senator representing St. Thomas-St. John. He was the Democratic candidate in the first election of a Virgin Islands governor, in 1970, losing to Republican Melvin H. Evans. Four years later, he ran again, losing in the runoff to Independent Citizens Movement candidate Cyril E. King. He was elected a Democratic national committeeman for the Virgin Islands in 1976, a position he held until 1998. In 1986 he became the first Democrat to be elected governor. He spearheaded the effort to purchase The West Indian Co. from Danish interests that had owned it from the days before the territory was acquired by the United States from Denmark. The acquisition gave the Virgin Islands control of the cruise ship dock in Havensight and provided future chief executives with a new official residence, on Denmark Hill. His final days in office were mired in controversy as he issued several controversial pardons, including one for Raphael Joseph, one of the men serving multiple life terms in mainland prisons for the 1972 murder of eight people in the "Fountain Valley massacre" on St. Croix.
Faruq I, in full Faruq al-Awwal, Faruq also spelled Faruk or Farouk (b. Feb. 11, 1920, Cairo, Egypt - d. March 18, 1965, Rome, Italy), king of Egypt (1936-52). Faruq, the son and successor of King Fuad I, continued his father's rivalry with the popular-based Wafd party, with which he clashed over many issues, including administrative functions, appointments, and even the form used for his coronation. He was largely able to keep the Wafd out of power. After the outbreak of World War II, Faruq tried to maintain neutrality, despite the presence of British troops in Egypt, but in 1942 the British forced him to name as prime minister the Wafd leader Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha, who was sympathetic to their interests. In October 1944 an-Nahhas negotiated the Alexandria Protocol, a step toward the creation of a league of Arab states. Faruq wanted to place himself at the head of this movement, and he dismissed an-Nahhas, who had lost the support of the British. Egyptian nationalism suffered from a shattering defeat at the hands of the newly created state of Israel (1948) and from the failure to terminate British military occupation of Egypt. The military defeat especially enraged many Egyptian army officers, who saw Faruq's corruption and incompetence as being largely the cause of it. His activities became intolerable in 1952, and the Free Officers, led by Gamal Abdel Nasser, overthrew his regime in July and forced him to abdicate. He was succeeded by his infant son, Fuad II, but less than a year later Egypt became a republic.
Fashola, Babatunde Raji (b. June 28, 1963, Lagos, Nigeria), governor of Lagos (2007- ).
Fasi, Frank F(rancis) (b. Aug. 27, 1920, East Hartford, Conn. - d. Feb. 3, 2010, Honolulu, Hawaii), mayor of Honolulu (1969-81, 1985-94).
Fassi Fihri, Taieb, Arabic al-Tayyib al-Fasi al-Fahri (b. April 9, 1958, Casablanca, Morocco), foreign minister of Morocco (2007-12).
Fasslabend, Werner (b. March 5, 1944, Marchegg, Niederösterreich), defense minister of Austria (1990-2000).
Fässler, (Johann) Josef Anton (Floridus) (b. April 23, 1796, Appenzell, Appenzell-Innerrhoden, Switzerland - d. Nov. 8, 1875, Appenzell), Landammann of Appenzell-Innerrhoden (1843-45, 1847-49, 1851-53).
Fässler, Ulrich (b. 1943), Schultheiss of Luzern (1995, 2002).
Fatemi, Hossein (b. 1917, Isfahan, Iran - d. [executed] Nov. 10, 1954, near Tehran, Iran), foreign minister of Iran (1952-53). An associate of Mohammad Mossadegh, he was condemned to death on Oct. 10, 1954, for rebellion against the monarchy.
Fateyev, Valery (Petrovich) (b. June 2, 1946), head of the administration of Smolensk oblast (1991-93).
Fath Ali Qajar (b. Sept. 5, 1772, Damghan, Persia [Iran] - d. Oct. 23, 1834, Isfahan, Persia), shah of Persia (1797-1834).
Fattouh, Rauhi, Arabic Rawhi Fattuh (b. 1953, Rafah, Gaza Strip), acting president of the Palestinian Authority (2004-05). He served as agriculture minister in 2003-04 and replaced Prime Minister Ahmed Qureia as speaker of the Legislative Council on March 10, 2004, serving until Feb. 18, 2006.
Faubus, Orval E(ugene) (b. Jan. 7, 1910, Greasy Creek, Ark. - d. Dec. 14, 1994, Conway, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1955-67). He was a southern populist who supported New Deal policies. After his election as governor, he appointed six black men to the Democratic State Committee, a move that triggered a charge during his 1956 reelection campaign that he was "soft" on racism. In 1957 - after the entire Arkansas legislature signed the Southern Manifesto, which attacked the Supreme Court's desegregation law as "naked judicial power" - Faubus determined that his political survival depended on stopping desegregation. He called out the Arkansas National Guard to "prevent violence" by blocking the access of nine black students to Little Rock Central High School; his action was countered by Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower, who mobilized 1,200 U.S. Army paratroopers to usher the students into the school. After leaving office in 1967, Faubus made three (1970, 1974, and 1986) unsuccessful bids for the governorship.
Fauché, Pierre (b. March 15, 1913 - d. April 16, 1996), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1958-61).
Faulkner of Downpatrick, (Arthur) Brian (Deane) Faulkner, Baron (b. Feb. 18, 1921, Helen's Bay, County Down, Northern Ireland - d. [horse-riding accident] March 3, 1977, County Down), minister of home affairs (1959-63, 1971-72), prime minister (1971-72), and chief executive (1974) of Northern Ireland. He was made a life peer in 1977.
Fauqueur, Yves (Christian Marie) (b. April 11, 1948, Rabat, Morocco), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (2006-08).
Faure, Edgar (Jean) (b. Aug. 18, 1908, Béziers, France - d. March 30, 1988, Paris), prime minister of France (1952, 1955-56). Entering politics, he joined the centrist Radical Party. During World War II he took part in the resistance movement, joining Gen. Charles de Gaulle's French Committee of National Liberation in Algiers (1943-44). He was a member of the International Military Tribunal at the Nürnberg trials in 1945. He was elected a deputy to the National Assembly in 1946 and from 1949 to 1958 was in almost every cabinet formed, holding portfolios of finance (1949-50, 1953-54, 1958), budget (1950-51), justice (1951-52), and foreign affairs (1955). He was premier for 40 days in 1952 and for 11 months in 1955-56. Then came the collapse of the Fourth Republic and de Gaulle's rise to power in 1958. At first excluded by de Gaulle, he served in the Senate from 1959 to 1966. From 1962 he was given delicate and important missions abroad (he negotiated French diplomatic recognition of China in 1964) and in 1966 was made minister of agriculture. Appointed minister of education after the student rebellion in May-June 1968, he transformed the university system within a year. De Gaulle's resignation in 1969 meant a second downfall for Faure, whose reforms were not approved by Pres. Georges Pompidou. In 1973, however, he became president of the National Assembly and held the post until 1978. He was a member of the European Parliament from 1979 to 1981. He refused a post in Pres. François Mitterrand's cabinet in 1981. Besides various political and social works, he wrote detective novels under the pseudonym Edgar Sanday.
Faure, (François) Félix (b. Jan. 30, 1841, Paris - d. Feb. 16, 1899, Paris), president of France (1895-99). He was elected deputy mayor of Le Havre, and in 1881 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies from the Seine-Inférieure (modern Seine-Maritime) département. He took a seat with the republican followers of Léon Gambetta. After serving as minister of marine (1894-95), Faure became president of France. His victory was unexpected; it came as a rebuff to the political left and its candidate, Henri Brisson. As president he approved the French conquest of Madagascar and exchanged visits with Russian Emperor Nikolay II in 1896 and 1897. The Fashoda conflict, an unsuccessful confrontation with Great Britain in the Sudan (1898), helped to undermine Faure's popularity, but the real dominating issue during his presidency was the Dreyfus Affair. Faure was opposed to reopening the case of Alfred Dreyfus, an army captain falsely accused of treason, and Faure's position encouraged agitation from both the left and the right. He died suddenly, and his funeral was the scene of a confrontation between pro- and anti-Dreyfus groups.
Fauzi, Gamawan (b. Nov. 9, 1957, Alahan Panjang, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Barat (2005-09) and home affairs minister of Indonesia (2009- ).
Favereau, Paul (Louis Marie Célestin) de (b. Jan. 15, 1856, Liége [now Liège], Belgium - d. Sept. 26, 1922, Durbuy, Belgium), foreign minister (1896-1907) and chairman of the Senate (1911-22) of Belgium.
Favon, Georges (b. Feb. 2, 1843, Plainpalais [now part of Geneva], Switzerland - d. May 17, 1902, Plainpalais), president of the National Council of Switzerland (1884) and president of the Council of State of Genève (1900-01).
Favreau, Benjamin (Marcel) (b. Jan. 17, 1915, Falleron, Vendée, France - d. Dec. 20, 1994, Paris), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1958-60).
Fawcus, Sir (Robert) Peter (b. Sept. 30, 1915, Claygate, Surrey, England - d. April 22, 2003), commissioner of Bechuanaland (1963-65); knighted 1964.
Fawtier, Paul (Émile Joseph Casimir) (b. Oct. 22, 1837, Constantine, Algeria - d. March 10, 1903, Monrovia, Liberia), governor of French Guiana (1893).
Fawtier, William Maurice (Vincent Joseph) (b. Dec. 22, 1867, Constantine, Algeria - d. 19...), governor of French Guiana (1909-10) and the French Settlements in Oceania (1913-15).
Fawzi, Mahmoud (b. Sept. 19, 1900, Cairo, Egypt - d. June 12, 1981, Cairo), Egyptian politician. He joined the diplomatic service and served in various posts before his appointment as consul general in Jerusalem (1941-44). He became Egyptian representative at the UN in 1947 and ambassador to Britain in 1952. After the 1952 revolution his linguistic skills and diplomatic experience were invaluable to the new regime; he was foreign minister under Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser from 1952, first of Egypt, then, after the union with Syria, of the United Arab Republic. Fawzi remained a diplomat rather than a politician, and his appointment as Pres. Anwar as-Sadat's prime minister (1970-72) was seen as a compromise, stressing the civilian bias of the new leadership. He stayed on as vice-president of Egypt until his retirement in 1974.
Fawzi, Muhammad (b. 1915 - d. Feb. 16, 2000, Masr al-Jidida, Egypt), Egyptian politician. A 1936 graduate of Egypt's military academy, Fawzi first saw war in 1948 when Egypt fought the newly declared state of Israel. He commanded an artillery unit, and was wounded when a mine exploded under his vehicle. Egypt's Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser named Fawzi commander of the army after the 1967 war, in which Israeli forces captured the Sinai peninsula from Egypt and secured a ceasefire from the Arab armies in just six days. Fawzi's No. 1 task was to rebuild and restore confidence in the shattered army. The next year, Nasser appointed Fawzi to the cabinet as defense minister, and he supervised the so-called war of attrition against Israeli forces along the Suez Canal. In 1971 Nasser's successor, Pres. Anwar as-Sadat, fired and arrested Fawzi, accusing him of taking part in a coup plot. Sadat later pardoned Fawzi. He joined the opposition Arab Nasserite Democratic Party and became a member of its political bureau.
Fayet, Pierre, marquis de, seigneur de Peychaud (d. Aug. 11, 1737, Petit-Goave, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti]), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1732-37).
Fayez, Faisal (Akef) al-, Arabic Faysal (`Akif) al-Fayyiz (b. April 22, 1952, Amman, Jordan), prime minister and defense minister of Jordan (2003-05). He was also minister of the royal court (2003).
Faymann, Werner (b. May 4, 1960, Vienna, Austria), chancellor of Austria (2008- ).
Fayolle, Philippe Athanase Hélène (b. April 22, 1772, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe - d. 18...), commandant and administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1819-25).
Fayose, (Peter) Ayo(dele) (b. Nov. 15, 1960, Ibadan [now in Oyo state], Nigeria), governor of Ekiti (2003-06). He was removed from office after being declared guilty of corruption. The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission accused him of diverting $100,000 to a personal account in the U.S. and he was also accused of receiving kickbacks on a poultry project embarked upon by his state government.
Faysal (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Faysal Al Saud), Faysal also spelled Faisal, Feisal, or Feisul (b. 1906, Riyadh [now in Saudi Arabia] - d. March 25, 1975, Riyadh), king of Saudi Arabia (1964-75). He was a son of King Abdul Aziz and a brother of King Saud. He was appointed foreign minister and viceroy of Hejaz in 1926 after his father conquered that province, in which lies the holy city of Mecca. In 1934 he led a victorious campaign against Yemen. He represented Saudi Arabia at the United Nations Conference of 1945 and was later ambassador to the UN General Assembly. After Saud's accession in 1953, Faysal became crown prince and foreign minister. In 1958, during an economic crisis, Saud gave him full executive powers. He resigned in 1960 but returned in 1962, and in March 1964 he assumed all powers as viceroy, becoming king in November 1964, after Saud was deposed by religious leaders, senior members of the ruling family, and the Council of Ministers. Domestically, Faysal was much more active than his predecessors in economic and educational programs. Although he supported Yemeni royalist forces in their unsuccessful resistance to republicanism, he joined the Arab states in the Arab-Israeli war of 1967. Though in failing health, he remained active in his office until he was shot to death by his nephew Prince Faysal ibn Musad Abdul Aziz. King Faysal was succeeded by his brother Crown Prince Khalid.
Faysal I, in full Faysal ibn Hussein al-Hashimi, Faysal also spelled Faisal (b. May 20, 1885, Mecca - d. Sept. 8, 1933, Bern), king of Iraq (1921-33). He was the son of Hussein ibn Ali, king of the Hejaz from 1916 to 1924. World War I provided an opportunity for rebellion for many Arab leaders who had come to resent Ottoman rule, and when in 1916 the Arab revolt was declared, Faysal played an important part in the military campaigns against the Ottomans. An Arab military force occupied Damascus in September 1918, and he was declared head of government (and in March 1920 king) of Syria in accord with his understanding that Arab support for British military ambitions would be rewarded by British support for the creation of an Arab state consisting of most of Syria. When he went to Paris in 1919 to participate in the peace conference, however, he became clearly aware of French determination to establish a sphere of influence in Lebanon and Syria. When France found reason to invade Faysal's kingdom and occupy Damascus (July 1920), he was forced into exile, eventually going to London at the invitation of the British government. Meanwhile, Britain had established a sphere of influence in Iraq. To ease resistance to British rule, Britain decided in March 1921 to sponsor Faysal as king of an Iraqi government with which Britain would conclude a treaty providing for eventual independence. Faysal accepted the plan and was enthusiastically welcomed in Iraq, where he was crowned in August 1921. As a Pan-Arab leader he had no specific political roots in Iraq, deriving his authority by moderating various conflicting elements. He negotiated with Britain a series of treaties culminating in 1930 with a treaty that enabled Iraq to achieve complete independence by 1932.
Faysal II, in full Faysal ibn Ghazi al-Hashimi, Faysal also spelled Faisal (b. May 2, 1935, Baghdad, Iraq - d. July 14, 1958, Baghdad), king of Iraq (1939-58). He was the son of King Ghazi I, who on April 4, 1939, died in a motorcar accident. In April 1941, at the time of Rashid Ali's rebellion, he was smuggled out of the country by the Queen Mother Aliyah. He was educated in England, at Harrow. His maternal uncle Abdul Ilah, the regent, who was largely responsible for his upbringing and training, was his sole guardian since the death of the queen mother in 1950. On May 2, 1953, having attained his majority, King Faysal II was enthroned at Baghdad. Until the union of Egypt and Syria in February 1958, Faysal and his cousin Hussein of Jordan, who both belonged to the 41st generation of the Hashemite family, were rivals for the leadership of the clan. The issue was decided on February 14 when Faysal became the head of the Arab Federation uniting Iraq and Jordan. When on July 14, 1958, a revolution broke out in Baghdad, Faysal died as an army unit tried to arrest him. He was allegedly shot when the palace guard resisted.
Fayyad, Salam (Khaled Abdullah), Arabic Salam Khalid `Abd Allah Fayyad (b. 1952, Deir al-Ghosoon, near Tulkarem, Jordan [now in West Bank]), finance minister (2002-05, 2007-12), prime minister (2007-13), and foreign minister (2007) of the Palestinian Authority.
Fazal, Mohammed (b. July 2, 1922, Allahabad), governor of Goa (1999-2002, 2004) and Maharashtra (2002-04).
Fazul, Mohamed Said (b. Sept. 18, 1960, Mohéli, Comoros), president of Mohéli (2002- ). He was named governor of Mohéli in March 2001. In November 2001, while on his way to Rabat via Cairo to attend a meeting of French-speaking mayors, he was the victim of mistaken identity. The Egyptian intelligence services mistook him for Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, a Comoran terrorist with links to al-Qaeda, who featured on the FBI's most wanted list. The Egyptians handed him to FBI agents at the American embassy, who proceeded to interrogate him. He was released the following morning after a traveling companion had sounded the alarm and the Americans had ascertained his true identity from the French embassy in Moroni. His incumbent position as island governor and the backing of Pres. Azali Assoumani helped him beat his rival, Mohamed Hassanaly, in the second round of the elections for the presidency of Mohéli on April 7, 2002, although Hassanaly had won more votes in the first round.
Fazy, (Georges Philippe) Henri (b. Jan. 31, 1842, Bern, Switzerland - d. Dec. 22, 1920, Geneva, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Genève (1901-02, 1903-04, 1905-06, 1907-08, 1909-10, 1911-12, 1913-14, 1915-16, 1917-18); distant cousin of James Fazy.
Fazy, James, byname of Jean-Jacob Fazy (b. May 12, 1794, Geneva - d. Nov. 6, 1878, Petit-Saconnex [now part of Geneva]), president of the Council of State of Genève (1846-48, 1849-50, 1851-52, 1855-56, 1857-58, 1859-60) and president of the Council of States of Switzerland (1854).
Fearey, Robert A(ppleton) (b. July 4, 1918 - d. Feb. 28, 2004, Washington, D.C.), civil administrator of Ryukyu (1969-72).
Febres Cordero (Ribadeneyra), León (Esteban Francisco [added at baptism:] de las Mercedes), Ribadeneyra also spelled Rivadeneira (b. March 9, 1931, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. Dec. 15, 2008, Guayaquil), president of Ecuador (1984-88). In 1965 he started his political career as president of Guayaquil's Federation of Industry and also as president of the Association of Latin-American Industrialists. A member of the National Constituent Assembly of 1966, he then served as senator until 1970. During the country's transition back to democracy in the late 1970s, Febres Cordero joined the Social Christian Party and was elected to Congress in 1979. In opposition, he became an outspoken critic of the reformist social programs of the Roldós and Hurtado administrations and assumed the leadership of the National Reconstruction Front at the 1984 presidential election. After two rounds, Febres Cordero narrowly defeated his social democrat opponent, Rodrigo Borja, with 52% of the vote. The victory of his six-party conservative coalition largely represented the triumph of the populous coastal city of Guayaquil and its powerful businesses. Febres Cordero stood for free market policies and believed that the country's recovery lay in bolstering private economic activity. His appeal, however, seemed to reflect Ecuador's tradition of personalist politics rather than popular support for conservative policies. Unlike his predecessor, Febres Cordero did not enjoy a congressional majority. He survived politically despite an earthquake that crippled oil exports for six months, a leftist insurgency, two military rebellions, and a kidnapping by renegade paratroopers who killed three of his bodyguards (he was released 11 hours later after being roughed up). He applied an iron fist to virtually eliminate the urban, Cuban-inspired guerrilla group Alfaro Vive. After leaving the presidency, he dominated the Congress and served as mayor of Guayaquil (1992-2000). He withdrew from politics in 2002.
Febvrier-Despointes, Auguste (b. April 29, 1796, Le Vauclin, Martinique - d. March 5, 1855, on board La Forte off Peru), commandant of New Caledonia (1853-54).
Fechner, Herbert (b. Aug. 27, 1913, Berlin - d. Dec. 28, 1998, Berlin), mayor of East Berlin (1967-74).
Fedini, Jean (b. Aug. 26, 1938), prefect of Guadeloupe (1996-99). He was also prefect of Drôme département (1999-2000).
Fedor, Martin (b. March 4, 1974, Povazská Bystrica, Slovakia), defense minister of Slovakia (2006).
Fedorchuk, Vitaly (Vasilyevich) (b. Dec. 27, 1918, Ognevka village, Zhitomir region, Ukraine - d. Feb. 29, 2008, Moscow, Russia), Soviet interior minister (1982-86). He joined the national security service - then known as NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Dyel) - in 1939. A year later he became a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The secret treaty between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union that preceded World War II mapped a partition of eastern Europe in general and of Poland in particular. The Polish provinces of Eastern Galicia and Volhynia, which had majority Ukrainian populations, were incorporated with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. The Ukrainians, however, dreamed of independence and religious freedom, especially in Eastern Galicia, where they had been Uniate Catholics in communion with Rome. The liquidation of the Uniate Church and its forcible merger with the Russian Orthodox Church was the task of the Committee for State Security (KGB). When in 1970 Fedorchuk became head of the Ukrainian branch of the KGB he had to lead the incessant campaign against the "nationalist bias" in the Ukraine, the homeland of the second largest nationality of the U.S.S.R. Colonel General Fedorchuk's appointment on May 26, 1982, as chairman of the KGB was made by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. only two days after his former chief, Yury Andropov, was elected a secretary of the party Central Committee. Fedorchuk was promoted above two deputy heads of the KGB, and it seemed clear that Andropov had picked him as his successor some time earlier. Then, a month after Andropov succeeded Leonid Brezhnev as general secretary of the Communist Party, came a new promotion for Fedorchuk, when he was appointed interior minister. He was succeeded as KGB chief by Viktor Chebrikov, one of the deputies he had bypassed.
Fedoruk, Sylvia O(lga) (b. May 5, 1927, Canora, Sask. - d. Sept. 26, 2012, Saskatoon, Sask.), lieutenant governor of Saskatchewan (1988-94).
Fehrenbach, Konstantin (b. Jan. 11, 1852, Wellendingen, Baden [now in Baden-Württemberg, Germany] - d. March 26, 1926, Freiburg, Baden [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany), chancellor of Germany (1920-21). He was elected to the Baden Landtag (provincial diet) in 1885 as a member of the Catholic Centre Party, but differences with the party leadership obliged him to resign his seat in 1887. Reelected in 1901, he remained a member until 1913 and in 1907-09 served as president of the assembly. Entering the German Reichstag (national parliament) in 1903, he soon distinguished himself as one of the most brilliant parliamentary speakers. In 1917 he headed the main parliamentary commission and in June 1918 became president of the Reichstag - the last in the history of imperial Germany. Later, following the establishment of a republican government, he presided over the Weimar National Assembly (1919). Although his appointment as chancellor of the republic (June 1920) ushered in the first non-Socialist cabinet of the Weimar period, he nonetheless pledged himself to the continuation of a general program of socialization. His inability to win concessions from the Allies in the matter of war reparations, however, prompted his resignation (May 1921). In 1923 he was elected chairman of the Catholic Centre Party.
Feillet, Paul (Théodore Ernest Marie) (b. April 4, 1857, Paris - d. Sept. 2, 1903, Montpellier, France), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1891-94) and New Caledonia (1894-1902).
Fekter, Maria (Theresia) (b. Feb. 1, 1956, Attnang-Puchheim, Austria), interior minister (2008-11) and finance minister (2011-13) of Austria.
Felber, René (b. March 14, 1933, Biel, Bern, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (1984-85) and foreign minister (1987-93) and president (1992) of Switzerland.
Feldmann, Markus (b. May 21, 1897, Thun, Switzerland - d. Nov. 3, 1958, Bern, Switzerland), president of Switzerland (1956).
Felice Cardot, Carlos (b. June 15, 1913, El Tocuyo, Lara state, Venezuela - d. Feb. 18, 1986, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1958). He was ambassador to Colombia in 1952-58.
Felipe (Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Grecia), príncipe de Asturias (b. Jan. 30, 1968, Madrid, Spain), crown prince of Spain. In 2004 he married Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano (b. Sept. 15, 1972, Oviedo, Spain). They have a daughter, Leonor (b. Oct. 31, 2005, Madrid).
Félix Serna, Faustino (b. May 14, 1913, Pitiquito, Sonora, Mexico - d. April 17, 1986), governor of Sonora (1967-73).
Félix Valdés, Rodolfo (b. May 22, 1922, Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico - d. May 21, 2012, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Sonora (1985-91).
Fell, Richard (Taylor) (b. Nov. 11, 1948), governor of Pitcairn Island (2001-06).
Felli, Roger (Joseph Atoge Tipelli) (b. May 2, 1941, Navrongo, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. [executed] June 26, 1979, near Accra, Ghana), foreign minister of Ghana (1975-79).
Fellner, Eduardo (Alfredo) (b. June 12, 1954, Río Tercero, Córdoba province, Argentina), governor of Jujuy (1998-2007, 2011- ). In 2007-11 he was president of the Chamber of Deputies of Argentina.
Fenech, Tonio (b. May 5, 1969, Birkirkara, Malta), finance minister of Malta (2008-13).
Fenech Adami, Eddie, byname of Edward Fenech Adami (b. Feb. 7, 1934, Birkirkara, Malta), prime minister (1987-96, 1998-2004) and president (2004-09) of Malta. He joined the christian-democratic Nationalist Party in the early 1960s and after unsuccessfully contesting the 1962 and 1966 elections, he was co-opted to Parliament in 1969, following the death of a Nationalist member, and was shadow minister of labour and social services (1971-77). He rapidly gained popularity within the party and, in the 1976 elections, his vote total was surpassed only by the leaders of the two major parties, Giorgio Borg Olivier and Dom Mintoff. He became leader of the Nationalist Party in 1977. He directed a vigorous political campaign to prevent a repetition of the 1981 general elections, when his party obtained an absolute majority of votes but a minority of parliamentary seats. The same result would have emerged from the 1987 elections had not the House of Representatives amended the electoral laws. He became prime minister and applied himself to bringing about national reconciliation in an effort to eliminate the polarization dividing his fellow countrymen. His own residence had been ransacked and members of his family manhandled by Labour supporters on what became known as Black Monday (Oct. 15, 1979). Socialist policies were rolled back and Malta applied for membership in the European Communities in 1990. He led his party to another electoral victory in 1992. The Nationalists lost the 1996 election, but the period in opposition was short-lived, as Labour was unable to retain its majority in Parliament. In 1998 and again in 2003, he led the Nationalists to victory. On his 70th birthday he resigned as party leader and the next month also as prime minister; shortly afterwards he was elected president.
Fénelon, François Louis de Salignac, marquis de (La Mothe-), baron de Loubert (b. Nov. 7, 1722 - d. April 1764, Antilles), governor of Martinique (1763-64).
Feng Anbang (b. 1885, Wudi, Shandong, China - d. Nov. 3, 1938, Hubei province, China), chairman of the government of Ningxia (1929-30). When he was a teenager, he joined the "Boxer" group in 1899 in Shandong province, where the revolt first broke out. After the founding of the republic, he was sent to Feng Yuxiang's troops, taking up the post of a brigade commander after a series of promotions. He became a division commander in 1927, serving in the 28th, 23rd, and later the 27th Division. He joined the war against the Japanese invaders in 1937, fighting in the outskirts of Beijing; he was also a participant of the fierce "Taierzhuang Campaign" that took place in Taierzhuang (south of Zaozhuang, Shandong), trying to keep the enemy from encircling Xuzhou city in Jiangsu. In that campaign, more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, while Chinese forces also suffered great losses. After the campaign he was promoted to commander of the 42nd Army, defending against the Japanese army along the Dabie Range (south of Anhui). After more than 50 days of fighting, his army was sent to Xiangfan city, Hubei, near which Feng was severely wounded; he died soon in an air raid launched by Japanese forces.
Feng Guozhang (b. 1859 [some sources say 1857], Hejian, Zhili [now Hebei], China - d. December 1919, Beijing, China), military and civil governor of Zhili (1912-13), military governor of Jiangsu (1913-17), and president of China (1917-18). Nicknamed "The Dog," he was the leader of the Zhili military group. He was a colleague of Yuan Shikai during his early times serving in the army in the late Qing dynasty. He was leading the northern Qing army fighting against rebel forces in Wuhan, where a republican military government was founded in November 1911. In 1913, he, again standing by Yuan's side, exchanged fire with the revolutionary forces led by Sun Yat-sen in Jiangsu and stayed there after his victory. Upon Yuan's death in 1916 he was elected vice president of China under Pres. Li Yuanhong and succeeded Li as president after the abortive restoration of the Qing dynasty in 1917. In August 1917 he declared war against Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Feng Qinzai (b. 1890, Wanrong, Shanxi, China - d. Jan. 22, 1963, Xian, Shaanxi, China), chairman of the government of Chahar (1941-46). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance and participated in the revolution in 1911. Thereafter he served in the northwestern army. He was named commander of the 71st Division as well as the 42nd Division in 1928. He was also the commander-in-chief of the 27th Route Army. Subordinate to Gen. Yang Hucheng, Feng agreed to take part in the Xian Incident against Chiang Kai-shek in 1936. However, he was bought over by the latter. He not only refused to coordinate the operation, but also executed Yang's delegate in his army. Feng's betrayal caused great trouble to the actions of Zhang Xueliang and Yang Hucheng. In January 1949, Feng declared his revolt against Chiang in Beijing together with Fu Zuoyi, and thus helped the People's Liberation Army to take over Beijing bloodlessly. He was elected a member of the Beijing Municipal Political Consultative Conference (serving as a municipal parliament until 1954). He was determined to be a "rightist" in 1958 and was accused of erroneous actions during the Xian Incident and was arrested the following year. He was posthumously rehabilitated in 1980.
Feng Zhian (b. 1896, Gucheng, Hebei, China - d. Dec. 16, 1954, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Hebei (1936-38). He served in Feng Yuxiang's forces, rising from a chef and common soldier to commander of the 14th Army as well as the 17th Division. His forces exchanged fire with the Japanese in July 1937, after which he was named the commander of the 77th Army and the 33rd Army Group. During the famous Huaihai Campaign in 1948, Feng's subordinate commanders He Jifeng and Zhang Kexia (underground Communist Party member) crossed over to the People's Liberation Army and removed his major forces from him. He flew back to Nanjing and was offered the powerless post of vice-commander of the Nanjing-Shanghai-Hangzhou garrison. He fled to Taiwan together with Chiang Kai-shek in 1949, but was left out in the cold by the latter.
Fentie, Dennis (Gordon) (b. Nov. 8, 1950, Edmonton, Alberta), premier of Yukon (2002-11).
Ferdinand I, in full Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria (b. Feb. 26, 1861, Vienna, Austria - d. Sept. 10, 1948, Coburg, Germany), prince (1887-1908) and king (1908-18) of Bulgaria. The youngest son of Prince Augustus (August) I of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, he was elected prince of Bulgaria as successor to the first ruler of that autonomous principality, Aleksandur, who had abdicated in 1886. Though at first dominated by his prime minister, Stefan Nikolov Stambolov, he became the unquestioned master of national affairs after his minister's humiliating fall from power (1894). Ferdinand's dynastic position, which long suffered from lack of recognition by the Great Powers, was strengthened by his marriage to the Bourbon princess Maria Louisa of Parma (April 1893) and later by his infant son Boris' reception into the Greek Orthodox church (February 1896). On Oct. 5, 1908, he used the occasion of the eve of the Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to proclaim the full independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire and assumed the title of king, or tsar. He spearheaded the formation of the Balkan League (1912) that pursued the partitioning of European Turkey. Ferdinand's territorial ambitions were thwarted when the victorious allies could not agree on the disposition of captured Turkish territory, causing Serbia and Greece to form an alliance against Bulgaria. Joined by the Turks and Romanians, they defeated the Bulgarians (1913) and turned Ferdinand against his Balkan neighbours. His resentments largely determined Bulgaria's participation (1915-18) in World War I on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Following Bulgaria's military defeat in 1918, he was obliged to abdicate in favour of his son Boris III. Thereafter he lived in Coburg.
Ferdinand I, originally Ferdinand Victor Albert Meinrad (b. Aug. 24, 1865, Sigmaringen, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. July 20, 1927, Sinaia, Romania), king of Romania (1914-27). He was the son of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, a brother of Prince Carol, who became King Carol I. Ferdinand was adopted as crown prince of Romania in 1889 by his uncle, whose only child had died. On Jan. 10, 1893, he married Lady Marie, daughter of the Duke of Edinburgh and granddaughter of Queen Victoria and of Emperor Aleksandr II of Russia. Six children were born of this marriage. Ferdinand commanded the army during the Second Balkan War (1913). When his uncle died he succeeded to the Romanian throne in October 1914. It became clear that the sympathies of his people were with the Allied powers in World War I, and in August 1916 he entered the war on their side despite his German background. With the occupation of Bucharest by the Germans late in 1916, he moved his government to Iasi. In March 1918 Romania was forced to surrender to the Central powers but after the Allied victory in November he returned in triumph to his capital on December 1. He was able to incorporate Transylvania, Bessarabia, Bukovina, and part of the Banat into a Greater Romanian state, thus finding his postwar kingdom doubled in size, and on Oct. 15, 1922, he was solemnly crowned king of all Romanians at Alba Iulia. In 1920 he engineered a royal coup that installed Gen. Alexandru Averescu as prime minister, whose government in 1921 finally enacted a measure of the land reform the king had promised in 1917. In 1925 his eldest son, the playboy crown prince Carol, renounced his rights to the throne, and Ferdinand was succeeded by his young grandson, Prince Mihai.
Ferey, Daniel (b. Sept. 24, 1947, Tréauville, Manche, France), prefect of French Guiana (2009-11).
Fergus, Sir Howard A(rchibald) (b. July 22, 1937, Long Ground, Montserrat), speaker of the Legislative Council (1975-2001) and de facto deputy governor (1976-2007) of Montserrat. He served as acting governor in April-May 2001; later that year he was knighted. In 2004 and 2007 he again was acting governor.
Ferguson, James E(dward), byname Pa Ferguson (b. Aug. 31, 1871, near Salado, Bell county, Texas - d. Sept. 21, 1944, Austin, Texas), governor of Texas (1915-17).
Ferguson, Miriam A(manda), née Wallace, byname Ma Ferguson (b. June 13, 1875, Bell county, Texas - d. June 25, 1961, Austin, Texas), governor of Texas (1925-27, 1933-35); wife of James E. Ferguson.
Fergusson (of Kilkerran), Sir Charles, (7th) Baronet (b. Jan. 17, 1865, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Feb. 20, 1951, Kilkerran, Ayrshire, Scotland), governor-general of New Zealand (1924-30); son of Sir James Fergusson. He succeeded his father as baronet in 1907 and was made K.C.M.G. in 1918 and G.C.M.G. in 1924.
Fergusson, George (Duncan Raukawa) (b. Sept. 30, 1955), governor of Pitcairn Island (2006-10) and of Bermuda (2012- ); son of Bernard Fergusson, Baron Ballantrae.
Fergusson (of Kilkerran), Sir James, (6th) Baronet (b. March 18, 1832, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. [killed in earthquake] Jan. 14, 1907, Kingston, Jamaica), governor of South Australia (1869-72), New Zealand (1873-74), and Bombay (1880-85). He succeeded to the baronetcy in 1849 and was made K.C.M.G. in 1875.
Fergusson, Robert G(eorge) (b. May 20, 1911 - d. Aug. 10, 2001), U.S. city commandant of Berlin (1967-70).
Ferizovic, Mersud (b. July 18, 1951, Bosanski Petrovac [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Una-Sana (1995-96).
Fermín (Maldonado), Claudio (Eloy) (b. March 27, 1950, Barinas, Barinas state, Venezuela), Venezuelan presidential candidate (2000).
Fernández, Alberto (Ángel) (b. April 2, 1959, Buenos Aires, Argentina), cabinet chief of Argentina (2003-08).
Fernández, Aníbal (Domingo) (b. Jan. 9, 1957, Quilmes, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), production minister (2002-03), interior minister (2003-07), justice minister (2007-09), and cabinet chief (2009-11) of Argentina.
Fernández (Domínguez), Gonzalo (Daniel) (b. March 21, 1952, Montevideo, Uruguay), foreign minister (2008-09) and defense minister (2009-10) of Uruguay.
Fernández (Mirabal), Jaime David (b. Oct. 15, 1956, Ojo de Agua, Salcedo province, Dominican Republic), vice president of the Dominican Republic (1996-2000). Like Pres. Leonel Fernández, he was a protégé of Juan Bosch. He later became minister of environment and natural resources (2008-11) and sports, physical education, and recreation (2012- ).
Fernández (González), Jaime Manuel (b. Sept. 4, 1920, La Vega Real, Dominican Republic - d. Sept. 6, 1988), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1970-72).
Fernández (Fernández), Javier (b. Jan. 7, 1948, Mieres, Asturias, Spain), president of the government of Asturias (2012- ).
Fernández (Reyna), Leonel (Antonio) (b. Dec. 26, 1953, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), president of the Dominican Republic (1996-2000, 2004-12). An activist with the Dominican Liberation Party (PLD) since 1973, he emerged in 1994 as the vice presidential candidate in the failed presidential bid of PLD founder Juan Bosch. In 1996, after a bitter campaign filled with charges of racism and personal attacks, Fernández, the PLD candidate, became (at 42) the youngest person ever to be elected president of the Dominican Republic. Though he lost in the first round of elections to former Santo Domingo mayor José Francisco Peña Gómez of the Dominican Revolutionary Party, he won the second round by a narrow margin after forming an alliance with the ruling Social Christian Reformist Party of Joaquín Balaguer. Fernández, who represented a "generational change of command" in Dominican politics, appealed to middle-class voters weary of a fractured system. He was elected with the support of both Balaguer and Bosch, who put aside their differences to ensure that Fernández, who was of mixed race, would win over Peña, a Haitian. Fernández vowed to end political corruption and, in one of his first moves as president, increased the salaries of various government officials, including his own, maintaining that if employees were properly paid, they would be less willing to accept bribes. He began to address severe economic problems. Unemployment had prompted approximately one million Dominicans to move to the U.S., sometimes illegally, in order to find work. The economy grew at 7% a year during his presidency. Term limits prevented him from running again in 2000, but the restriction was lifted in 2002, and he was elected again in 2004. Credited with stabilizing the peso, taming inflation, and bringing the country back from an economic crisis sparked by a bank collapse in 2003, he was reelected in 2008.
Fernández (Amunátegui), Mariano (b. April 21, 1945, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (2009-10). He was ambassador to Italy (1992-94), Spain (2000-02), the United Kingdom (2002-06), and the United States (2006-09).
Fernández, Roque (Benjamín) (b. April 30, 1947), economy minister of Argentina (1996-99).
Fernández (Figueroa), Rosario (del Pilar) (b. 1955, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2011). She was also justice minister (2007-09, 2010-11).
Fernández Alonso (Caballero), Severo (b. Aug. 15, 1849, Sucre, Bolivia - d. Aug. 12, 1925, Cotagaita, Potosí department, Bolivia), vice president (1892-96) and president (1896-99) of Bolivia.
Fernández Álvarez, Rafael Luis (b. Oct. 1, 1913, Oviedo, Spain - d. Dec. 18, 2010, Oviedo), president of the Regional Council (1978-81) and president of the government (1981-83) of Asturias.
Fernández (Wilhelm) de Kirchner, Cristina (Elisabet) (b. Feb. 19, 1953, La Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), president of Argentina (2007- ). Married to Néstor Kirchner since 1975, she began her political career as a provincial deputy in Santa Cruz in 1989 and went on to become a national legislator in 1995, gaining notoriety for her vocal battles with Pres. Carlos Menem. Representing Santa Cruz, she served first as a senator, then from 1997 as a deputy, and from 2001 again as a senator. In 2003 she helped her husband get elected president and became first lady. From 2005, she was a senator for the province of Buenos Aires. In 2007, her husband withdrew in her favour, and she became the first woman to be elected president of Argentina (a previous woman president, Isabel Perón, was elevated from the vice presidency), capturing 45% of the vote against a divided opposition. Approval ratings topping 60% for Néstor Kirchner's performance were largely credited with her victory, although she was praised by some for an astute, unorthodox campaign. Refusing to debate any of her rivals and granting few interviews, she preferred to be photographed overseas meeting world leaders projecting a flair for international diplomacy while masking a lack of executive branch experience. She said she would maintain her husband's economic policies, and many of his cabinet ministers retained their positions. She had built a reputation as a skilled negotiator and speaker - something that set her apart from her husband, who was often seen as autocratic and awkward in public. Under both Kirchners Argentina saw strong economic growth while the gap between rich and poor was also reduced. She was easily reelected in 2011.
Fernández de K.
Fernández de Soto (Valderrama), Guillermo (Roque) (b. Sept. 15, 1953, Bogotá, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1998-2002) and secretary-general of the Andean Community (2002-04). He was also ambassador to the Netherlands (2004-07).
Fernández de S.
Fernández de Velasco (y Benavídez), Bernardino, duque de Frías1 (b. July 20, 1783, Madrid, Spain - d. May 28, 1851, Madrid), prime minister of Spain (1838).
1 Full name and titles: Bernardino José Joaquín Andrés Avelino María de la Portería Diego Luis Obispo María de la Soledad Elías Librada María del Milagro Bibiana María de la Paz Francisco de Paula María del Rosario Pascual Elena Fausto Antonio Abad Pedro de Alcántara Juan Nepomuceno Nicolás de Tolentino Gertrudis Pedro Nolasco Domingo de Guzmán Francisco de Borja Ánimas de Purgatorio y Todos los Santos Fernández de Velasco y Benavídez Téllez Girón y Fernández de Córdova, duque de Frías, de Uceda y de Escalona, marqués de Villena, de Belmonte, de Menasalbas, de Cilleruelo, de Fresno, de Villanueva del Fresno, de Jaramillo, de Frechilla, de Villarramiel, de Frómista, de Caracena, de Berlanga, de Toral y del Villar de Granajeros, conde de Haro, de Castilnovo, de Salazar, de Alba de Liste, de la Puebla de Montalbán, de Peñaranda de Bracamonte, de Luna, de Fuensalida, de Colmenar, de Oropesa, de Alcaudete, de Deleitosa, de Pinto y de Pornia, señor de Frías, de Gálvez, de Jumela, de la Casa de Velasco, de los Siete Infantes de Lara, de Moguer, de Villanueva de Barcarrota, de Lillo, de Casa de Montemayor, del Castillo de las Dos Hermanas, de Cebolla, de Almaraz, de Mejorada.
Fernández Durán, Gerardo (b. Oct. 27, 1921, San José, Costa Rica - d. Jan. 27, 2000, San José), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1949).
Fernández Estigarribia, José Félix (b. Feb. 4, 1941), foreign minister of Paraguay (1999-2000, 2012-13). He was permanent representative to the UN (1993-97) and ambassador to Mexico (2002-09), the Dominican Republic (2002-09), Guatemala (2002-09), and El Salvador (2005-09).
Fernández-Galiano (Fernández), Antonio (b. May 17, 1926, Barcelona - d. Nov. 8, 1999, Madrid), president of the Junta of Castilla-La Mancha (1979-82).
Fernández Maldonado Solari, Jorge (b. May 29, 1922, Ilo, Peru - d. 2000), prime minister and war minister of Peru (1976). He was also minister of energy and mines (1969-75).
Fernández-Miranda (y Hevia), Torcuato, from May 31, 1977, duque de Fernández Miranda (b. Nov. 10, 1915, Gijón, Asturias, Spain - d. June 19, 1980, London, England), Spanish politician. In 1936 he had to go into hiding before joining Francisco Franco's army during the Civil War. Under Franco, Fernández-Miranda was appointed to a post in the Ministry of Education and in 1962 became secretary-general of Spain's only legal political organization, the Movimiento. He joined the cabinet of Premier Luis Carrero Blanco and was a leading opponent of political reform. He was acting premier for a few days in 1973 after Carrero Blanco's assassination. When Prince Juan Carlos became king after Franco's death, Fernández-Miranda was appointed president of the Cortes (1975-77). Essentially a pragmatist, he recognized the need for democratic changes and tried to ensure that the fundamental restructuring of the system took place constitutionally. In 1978, however, he resigned from the Union of the Democratic Centre because he disapproved of the liberal constitution voted in that year.
Fernández Saavedra, Gustavo (b. 1938, Cochabamba department, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1979, 1984-85, 2001-02). He was also ambassador to Brazil (1983-84).
G. Fernández S.
G. Fernández V.
Fernández Vara, Guillermo (b. Oct. 6, 1958, Olivenza, Badajoz province, Extremadura, Spain), president of the Junta of Extremadura (2007-11).
Fernández Viagas, Plácido (b. March 29, 1924, Tangier, Morocco - d. 1983), president of the Junta of Andalucía (1978-79).
Fernando, (Maddumage Ebert) Lionel, governor of North Eastern province, Sri Lanka (1993-94).
Fernando, Tyronne (Lisle Delano) (b. Aug. 8, 1941 - d. Feb. 26, 2008, Colombo, Sri Lanka), foreign minister of Sri Lanka (2001-04) and governor of North Eastern province (2004-06). He was also information minister (1993-94).
Férolles, Pierre Eléonore de la Ville, marquis de (b. 16... - d. Aug. 5, 1705), governor of French Guiana (1691-1700, 1701-05).
Ferrara, Maurizio (b. May 29, 1921, Rome - d. April 19, 2000, Rome), president of Lazio (1976-77).
Ferrari, Maxime (b. Jan. 27, 1930, Mahe island, Seychelles), foreign minister of Seychelles (1982-84).
Ferraro, Carlos (Alfonso) (b. 1953), governor of Jujuy (1996-98).
Ferraro, Geraldine (Anne) (b. Aug. 26, 1935, Newburgh, N.Y. - d. March 26, 2011, Boston, Mass.), U.S. vice-presidential candidate (1984). In 1974 she became an assistant district attorney, heading a special bureau dealing with child abuse, sex crimes, and crimes against the elderly. In 1978 Ferraro won election to Congress, representing New York's conservative 9th district. After easily winning reelection in 1980 and 1982, she gained a prominent position in the Democratic Party as platform chair for the 1984 national convention. Walter Mondale's choice of Ferraro as his running mate was announced on July 12. Ferraro became the first woman to run for U.S. vice-president on a major party ticket. Polls taken immediately afterward showed Mondale closing the sizable gap between himself and Pres. Ronald Reagan, but the euphoria was short-lived. During August Ferraro found herself on the defensive as questions regarding her own and her husband's finances became the focus of media coverage. No sooner did she seem to surmount that challenge with an extended and masterly press conference than she faced an onslaught of criticism regarding her position on abortion. As a devout Roman Catholic, Ferraro claimed personal opposition to abortion, but her pro-choice stance and backing of government-subsidized abortions for the poor made her the target of hecklers as well as Catholic clergymen. Postelection analyses showed that Ferraro's presence on the ticket had failed to elicit the support Mondale had hoped for. Catholics, Italian-Americans, blue-collar workers, and women all voted more heavily for the Reagan-Bush ticket in 1984 than they had in 1980.
Ferraz, Artur Ivens (b. Dec. 1, 1870, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Jan. 16, 1933, Lisbon), acting governor-general of Mozambique (1926) and prime minister of Portugal (1929-30). He was also minister of commerce and communications (1927-28), colonies (1928), and interior (1929-30).
Ferré (Aguayo), Luis Alberto (b. Feb. 17, 1904, Ponce, Puerto Rico - d. Oct. 21, 2003, San Juan, Puerto Rico), governor of Puerto Rico (1969-73). His first political office was as representative-at-large in the Legislative Assembly from 1953 to 1957. At that time he was a member of the Statehood Republican Party. He ran unsuccessfully against Governor Luis Muñoz Marín in 1956 and 1960 and lost again to the Popular Democrats' candidate, Roberto Sánchez Vilella, in 1964. He left the Statehood Republican Party in 1967 and formed the New Progressive Party. Aided by a split in the Popular Democratic Party, Ferré was elected governor in 1968, thus ending the Popular Democrats' 20-year control of the governorship and their 28-year domination of the legislature. As governor he increased workers' wages and benefits and began development projects in the southwest region of Puerto Rico which included the construction of roads, beaches, an airport, and copper mines. He also undertook programs to modernize agriculture. He was defeated in his bid for a second term by the Popular Democrat Rafael Hernández Colón, whose party also recovered control of the legislature. Ferré stayed involved in politics, testifying before U.S. congressional panels in favour of statehood and participating in presidential nominating conventions. He remained chairman of the island's branch of the U.S. Republican Party.
Ferreira, José Ignácio (b. May 18, 1939), governor of Espírito Santo (1999-2003).
Ferreira, José (Manuel) Medeiros (b. Feb. 20, 1942, São Miguel, Azores, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1976-77, 1978).
Ferreira Aldunate, Wilson (b. Jan. 28, 1918, Nico Pérez, Uruguay - d. March 15, 1988, Montevideo, Uruguay), Uruguayan politician. Ferreira, who served in Congress for the liberal Blanco Party for 34 years and was agriculture minister from 1963 to 1967, was narrowly defeated in the 1971 presidential election by the Colorado Party candidate, Juan María Bordaberry. He contended that the election was fraudulent and demanded a recount. Bordaberry was installed as president the following year. After the legislature was dissolved in 1973, Ferreira went into exile and lived in Argentina, Spain, and Britain but continued to campaign against human rights abuses in Uruguay. The dictatorship tried to kidnap him in Argentina, and 12 newspapers that reported on his activities were closed. When Ferreira returned to Uruguay in 1984, he was immediately arrested and jailed by the military, who feared that his powerful influence would inhibit their negotiated exit from power. He was released from prison after the election and resumed his post as president of the Blanco Party. Though he lost some favour within the party for his stand on military amnesty, he would have been eligible to run in the 1989 presidential election.
Ferreira do Amaral, João Maria (d. [assassinated] Aug. 22, 1849), governor of Macau (1846-49).
Ferreri, Pietro (b. Jan. 9, 1758, Alassio, Italy - d. 18...), member of the Executive Directory of the Ligurian Republic (1798-99).
Ferrero Costa, Carlos (Ernesto Fernando) (b. Feb. 7, 1941, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2003-05). He was also president of the Congress (2001-03).
Ferrero Costa, Eduardo (José) (b. Oct. 26, 1946, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1997-98); brother of Carlos Ferrero Costa. He was also permanent representative to the OAS (2001-04) and ambassador to the United States (2004-06).
Ferrero-Waldner, Benita (Maria), née Waldner (b. Sept. 5, 1948, Salzburg, Austria), foreign minister of Austria (2000-04). She was Austria's EU commissioner in 2004-10, responsible for external relations.
Ferrier, Johan (Henri Eliza) (b. May 12, 1910, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Jan. 4, 2010, Oegstgeest, Netherlands), prime minister (1955-58), governor (1968-75), and president (1975-80) of Suriname.
Ferriez, François (Aimé Marie Edmond) (b. Sept. 9, 1834, Fort-de-France, Martinique - d. ...), acting commandant-superior of Mayotte (1875) and commandant of Nossi-Bé (1876-78) and Mayotte (1879-85).
Ferry, Jules (François Camille) (b. April 5, 1832, Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, Vosges, France - d. March 17, 1893, Paris, France), mayor of Paris (1870-71), prefect of Seine département (1870-71), and public instruction and fine arts minister (1879-81, 1882, 1883), prime minister (1880-81, 1883-85), foreign minister (1883-85), and president of the Senate (1893) of France.
Festing, (Robert) Matthew (b. 1949, Northumberland, England), grand master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (2008- ).
Feutray, Arthur Paul (b. June 21, 1829, Lorient, Morbihan, France - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1876).
Feyide, (Chief) M(eshach) O(tokiti) (b. March 31, 1926, Ipele [now in Ondo state], Nigeria - d. June 27, 1997), secretary-general of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (1975-76).
Fico, Robert (b. Sept. 15, 1964, Topolcany, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), prime minister of Slovakia (2006-10, 2012- ).
Ficoseco, (José) Carlos (b. Sept. 28, 1954, Jujuy, Argentina), governor of Jujuy (1993-94).
Fielding, William Stevens (b. Nov. 24, 1848, Halifax, Nova Scotia - d. June 23, 1929, Ottawa, Ont.), premier of Nova Scotia (1884-96). An opponent of confederation (Nova Scotia had become a province of Canada in 1867), he represented the forces of discontent in the Maritime provinces and in 1886 won a provincial election on the promise to advocate repeal of the British North America Act. Entering the cabinet of Sir Wilfrid Laurier as finance minister in 1896, Fielding stood for economy, balanced budgets, federal subsidies to industry, and bilateral trade agreements. He introduced a new tariff granting preference to British manufactures and negotiated commercial treaties. The most famous of these, the Canadian-U.S. agreement of 1911, provided for reciprocal free trade in natural products. Its rejection by the Canadian electorate brought down the Laurier administration. During World War I, Fielding broke with Laurier over the conscription issue and supported the Union government. At the national Liberal convention in 1919 Fielding was narrowly defeated for the party leadership by W.L. Mackenzie King, in whose government he again served as finance minister from 1921 to 1925.
Fierlinger, Zdenek (b. July 11, 1891, Olomouc, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. May 2, 1976, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of Czechoslovakia (1945-46). He was also minister (1937-39, 1941-42) and ambassador (1942-45) to the Soviet Union and chairman of the National Assembly (1953-64).
Figgures, Sir Frank E(dward) (b. March 5, 1910, Merton, London, England - d. Nov. 27, 1990, Glaston, Rutland, England), secretary-general of EFTA (1960-65); knighted 1970.
Figir, Vincent A. (b. March 1, 1936), governor of Yap (1995-2003).
Figl, Leopold (b. Oct. 2, 1902, Rust im Tullnerfeld, Niederösterreich - d. May 9, 1965, Vienna), chancellor (1945-53) and foreign minister (1953-59) of Austria.
Fignolé, (Pierre Eustache) Daniel (b. 1914, Pestel, Haiti - d. Aug. 27, 1986, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), provisional president of Haiti (1957).
Figueiredo, João Baptista de Oliveira (b. Jan. 15, 1918, Rio de Janeiro - d. Dec. 24, 1999, Rio de Janeiro), president of Brazil (1979-85). He joined the cavalry in 1935. He was one of the planners of the 1964 coup, which established 21 years of military rule. At the time he was an instructor specializing in intelligence in the military's advanced training schools. Promoted to colonel, he was immediately transferred to intelligence operations. He was promoted to general and chief of the military staff in 1969. His military career culminated with his appointment as chief of the national intelligence service under Pres. Ernesto Geisel in 1974, a post in which he gained the reputation of "minister of silence" due to his inaccessibility and aloofness from public life. Hand-picked by Geisel as his successor, he announced his intention to restore democracy to the country. He relaxed censorship, released political prisoners and allowed those in exile to return, and permitted the creation of new political parties. In contrast to his earlier image, Figueiredo adopted a more outgoing stance after he became president, appearing frequently in public. He faced severe national economic problems when he took office, including an inflation rate of 43% and a grossly unequal distribution of income. He responded to the situation by providing a schedule of workers' pay increases pegged to inflation, by allowing collective bargaining for the first time since the military coup of 1964, and by devaluing the currency and fixing interest rates. But in 1984, the country had a 224% annual inflation rate, a record at the time. His disapproval rate at the end was 70%. In 1985 he was succeeded in office by the first civilian president since 1964; he then retired into seclusion.
Figueiredo (Machado), Luiz Alberto (b. July 17, 1955, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (2013- ).
Figueiredo, Maria Dalva de Souza (b. April 25, 1961, Clevelândia do Norte, Oiapoque municipality, Amapá, Brazil), governor of Amapá (2002-03).
Figueredo (Planchart), Reinaldo, foreign minister of Venezuela (1989-91).
Figueres Ferrer, José (María Hipólito), byname Pepe Figueres (b. Sept. 25, 1906, San Ramón, Costa Rica - d. June 8, 1990, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister (1948) and president (1948-49, 1953-58, 1970-74) of Costa Rica. His criticism of the right-wing government of Rafael Ángel Calderón in July 1942 brought him exile in Mexico for two years. When Calderón was defeated by Otilio Ulate for reelection in 1948, the Legislative Assembly tried to annul the election and reinstall Calderón. Figueres, who had hidden arms and ammunition on his plantation near Cartago, led an uprising in support of Ulate. The two-month civil war ended when Calderón's forces, despite being backed by Nicaraguan strongman Anastasio Somoza, capitulated. A junta dominated by Figueres wrote a new constitution that, among other reforms, abolished the army and granted women the right to vote. The government was turned over to Ulate in 1949. In 1953 he founded the National Liberation Party and was elected president by a landslide. He pledged his government would follow a pro-U.S. policy and described the 1948 uprising as a "revolution of the middle class." He was a firmly anticommunist social democrat, and during this period he instituted many social and economic reforms. When an invasion force crossed the border from Nicaragua in 1955, he appealed to the Organization of American States for assistance. With material assistance from the U.S., Costa Rica successfully repelled the invasion. Elected to his second term in 1970, he was charged with having received financial support from Robert Vesco, a fugitive American financier who settled in Costa Rica in 1972. For decades the National Liberation Party dominated the politics of Costa Rica, which became known as the most stable and democratic country in the region.
Figueres Olsen, José María (b. Dec. 24, 1954, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1994-98); son of José Figueres Ferrer. During his term, production barely kept up with population growth and consumer prices rose 61%. He was also minister of external trade (1988) and agriculture (1988-90).
Figueroa (Figueroa), Rufo (b. 1906, Huitzuco, Guerrero, Mexico - d. June 25, 1967, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Quintana Roo (1964-67).
Figueroa Alcorta, José (María Cornelio) (b. Nov. 20, 1860, Córdoba, Argentina - d. Dec. 27, 1931, Buenos Aires, Argentina), president of Argentina (1906-10). He was also governor of Córdoba (1895-98) and vice president (1904-06).
Figueroa Larraín, Emiliano (b. July 12, 1866, Santiago, Chile - d. [automobile accident] May 16, 1931, Laguna de Aculeo, Chile), president of Chile (1910 [acting], 1925-27). He was also justice minister (1907, 1909-10).
Figueroa Serrano, Carlos (b. Nov. 28, 1930, Angol, Chile), economy minister (1969-70), foreign minister (1994), and interior minister (1994-98) of Chile. He was also ambassador to Argentina (1990-93).
Figures, Sir Colin (Frederick) (b. July 1, 1925, Birmingham, England - d. Dec. 8, 2006), director-general of the Secret Intelligence Service (1982-85); knighted 1983.
Filali, Abdellatif, Arabic `Abd al-Latif al-Filali (b. Jan. 26, 1928, Fès, Morocco - d. March 20, 2009, Paris, France), foreign minister (1971-72, 1985-99) and prime minister (1994-98) of Morocco. He was also ambassador to the Benelux countries (1962-63), China (1965-67), Algeria (1967-68), Spain (1970-71, 1972-78), and the United Kingdom (1980-81), permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-80), and minister of higher education (1968-70) and information (1983-86).
Filat, Vlad(imir Vasile) (b. May 6, 1969, Lapusna, Moldavian S.S.R.), prime minister (2009-13) and acting president (2010) of Moldova.
Filipenko, Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) (b. May 31, 1950, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of the administration (1991-96) and governor (1996-2010) of Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug.
Filipov, Grisha, byname of Georgi Stanchev Filipov (b. July 13, 1919, Kadiyevka, Ukraine - d. [in prison] Nov. 2, 1994), prime minister of Bulgaria (1981-86).
Filipovic, Karlo (b. July 10, 1954, Solakovici, Ilijas municipality, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001-02).
Filippi, Jean (b. Oct. 19, 1905 - d. Jan. 15, 1993), president of the Regional Conucil of Corse (1979-82).
Filippini, Ange Michel (b. Oct. 24, 1834, Corte, Corse [now in Haute-Corse], France - d. Oct. 22, 1887, Saigon, Cochinchina [now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam]), governor of Cochinchina (1886-87).
Fillmore, Millard (b. Jan. 7, 1800, Locke Township, N.Y. - d. March 8, 1874, Buffalo, N.Y.), president of the United States (1850-53). He entered politics in 1828. He was identified with the Anti-Masonic Party until 1834, when he followed his political mentor Thurlow Weed to the Whigs and was soon recognized as an outstanding leader of the party's Northern wing. Following three terms in the state assembly (1829-32), he was elected to Congress (1833-35, 1837-43). Losing the New York gubernatorial election in 1844, he was easily elected the first state comptroller three years later. At the national Whig convention (1848), Zachary Taylor was nominated for president and Fillmore for vice president. When President Taylor died in July 1850, his successor, Fillmore - much as he personally abhorred slavery - felt it must be endured and given constitutional protection until it could be abolished without destroying the Union in the process. Thus he felt obligated to support the provision requiring the federal government to aid in the capture and return of runaway slaves to their former owners. He publicly announced that, if necessary, he would call upon the military to aid in the enforcement of this statute. Although this section of the compromise assuaged the South and postponed the Civil War for 10 years, it also meant political death for Fillmore because of its extreme unpopularity in the North. In 1852 he was one of three presidential candidates of a divided Whig Party in its last national election, which it lost. He also allowed his name to be put forth for president (1856) by the American, or Know-Nothing, Party, which took an ambivalent position on slavery. Overwhelmingly defeated, he never again ran for public office.
Fillon, François (Charles Amand) (b. March 4, 1954, Le Mans, Sarthe, France), prime minister of France (2007-12). Earlier he was minister of higher education and research (1993-95, 2004-05), information technologies and post (1995), labour, social affairs, and solidarity (2002-04), and national education (2004-05) and president of the Regional Council of Pays de la Loire (1998-2002).
Filmon, Gary (Albert) (b. Aug. 24, 1942, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada), premier of Manitoba (1988-99). He was a member of the Winnipeg City Council (1975-79), serving as chairman of the Works and Operations Committee. Elected to the Manitoba legislature to represent first the riding of River Heights (1979-81) and then the riding of Tuxedo, he was minister of consumer and corporate affairs and environment (1981) and minister of housing in the last cabinet of Premier Sterling Lyon. On Dec. 10, 1983, after Lyon's retirement, Filmon won the post of Progressive Conservative Party leader, and thereby leader of the opposition in the Manitoba legislature. Fending off challenges to his party leadership in 1986 and 1987 earned him the right to lead the Conservatives in the April 26, 1988, provincial election. Although the Tories won one seat fewer than they had held before the election was called, they still had enough seats to form a minority government. Thus Filmon capped his political career by becoming Manitoba's 19th premier on May 9. He had won the party leadership because of his popularity with the urban delegates, but the election left his party in the legislature composed mostly of rural members. This, coupled with the fact that the Tories held power by only a narrow margin, meant Filmon needed to exercise great caution to keep from being defeated in a no-confidence vote. Styling himself a fiscal conservative and a social progressive, Filmon endorsed middle-of-the-road policies and practiced moderate pragmatism in his political dealings.
Filmus, Daniel (Fernando) (b. June 3, 1955, Buenos Aires, Argentina), education minister of Argentina (2003-07).
Filov, Bogdan (Dimitrov) (b. 1883, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria - d. [executed] Feb. 2, 1945, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister (1940-43), foreign minister (1942-43), regent (1943), and member of the Regency Council (1943-44) of Bulgaria.
Finau Tuku'aho (b. 1753 - d. [killed] April 21, 1799), chief (Tu'i Kanokupolu) of Tonga (1797-99).
Finau 'Ulukalala I 'i Ma'ufanga (b. 1748 - d. June 12, 1797) chief of Ha'apai-Vava'u (to 1797).
Finau 'Ulukalala II 'i Feletoa (b. c. 1750 - d. 1809, Vava'u), chief of Ha'apai-Vava'u (1799-1809); son of Finau 'Ulukalala I 'i Ma'ufanga.
Finau 'Ulukalala III Moengangongo (b. c. 1786 - d. 1811, Vava'u), chief of Ha'apai-Vava'u (1809-11); son of Finau 'Ulukalala II 'i Feletoa.
Finau 'Ulukalala IV Tuabayi (d. March 1833, Vava'u), chief of Ha'apai-Vava'u (1811-33); son of Finau 'Ulukalala II 'i Feletoa.
Finet, Paul (b. Nov. 4, 1897 - d. May 18, 1965), president of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (1958-59).
Fini, Gianfranco (b. Jan. 3, 1952, Bologna, Italy), Italian politician. He ran for mayor of Rome in 1993 and lost to Francesco Rutelli. He created a mainstream right-wing party out of the old Italian Social Movement (MSI), the misty-eyed heirs of dictator Benito Mussolini, which he led from 1991. Through strength of character, he was able to push through reforms and win over doubters on the far right to change more than just the party's name. When the new National Alliance party was born in 1994, he told hardliners to get in line or get out. Some did leave to form the extreme right Fiamma Tricolore party, but the majority saw credibility and a better future under Fini. Well-dressed, well-spoken, and well-versed in the political language of the 21st century, Fini is the antithesis of some of the skinhead supporters who say they belong to his National Alliance. He transformed his post-fascist party into an accepted ally of the centre-right opposition bloc led by Silvio Berlusconi. He dislikes the tag "post-fascist" attached to his party, insisting his National Alliance is a modern, democratic party fighting for Italy on a national and world level. He describes the thuggish supporters who can sometimes be seen hanging around party offices as "empty heads" and "kids from the suburbs who understand nothing." On Mussolini, Fini only goes so far as to describe him as an historical figure to be judged by history. He also went a long way to erasing some of the ugliest traces of the Mussolini years, declaring racial laws which discriminated against Jews to have been wrong. In the 2001 campaign he made clear his top priority was to clamp down on illegal immigration, but emphasized that immigrants legally admitted to Italy were not the problem. Under Berlusconi he was deputy prime minister (2001-06) and foreign minister (2004-06). In 2008-13 he was speaker of the Chamber of Deputies.
Finikaso, Taukelina (b. Jan. 10, 1959), foreign minister of Tuvalu (2013- ). He was also minister of communications (2006-10).
Finletter, Thomas K(night) (b. Nov. 11, 1893, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. April 24, 1980, New York City), U.S. secretary of the Air Force (1950-53). From 1941 to 1944 he served as an adviser to the State Department on international economic affairs. He again came into public service in July 1947, when Pres. Harry S. Truman appointed him chairman of a five-man air policy commission to study aerial defense needs. The commission's report, "Survival in the Air Age," recommended a 70-group air force. In 1948 and 1949 Finletter served as chief of the European Cooperation Administration mission to England. President Truman selected him to succeed W. Stuart Symington as air force secretary in April 1950.
Finnbogadóttir, Vigdís (b. April 15, 1930, Reykjavík), president of Iceland (1980-96). The 1980 presidential campaign was one not of issues but of personalities. Although the presidential race was nonpolitical, she apparently enjoyed greater support from the political left and, above all, from women. She projected herself during the campaign with warmth, wit, and much grace, unflinchingly responding to questions about her private life (she was divorced), her health, her political views, and her nine-year-old adopted daughter. The presidency was a largely powerless post, as in most parliamentary democracies, but she saw it as one through which national unity and cultural heritage could and should be fostered. Running against three male candidates in the June 30 election, she succeeded in gaining a narrow plurality of votes, 33.6%, over her nearest rival with 32.1%. She took office on August 1 as the fourth president of the Icelandic republic. She was the first woman in the world to be elected head of state in a parliamentary democracy. She was elected unopposed in 1984 for a second term. In 1988 she faced a rival candidate and won a sweeping victory. In 1992 she was reelected unopposed for the fourth term. In late 1995 she announced that she would not seek reelection in 1996. During her time in office, she consistently enjoyed unparalleled levels of popular support, while at the same time overseeing radical changes in the function and perception of her office. She travelled extensively as her nation's ambassador on the world stage. Wherever she went she boosted Iceland's international standing and was a staunch supporter of the country's exporting sector.
Finney, Joan (Marie), née McInroy (b. Feb. 12, 1925, Topeka, Kan. - d. July 28, 2001, Topeka), governor of Kansas (1991-95). In 1972, after serving as the Shawnee County election commissioner, she ran for Congress as a Republican and lost in the primary. Two years later, she won the state treasurer's race as a Democrat. She served as treasurer for 16 years before becoming governor. When she began her run for governor in 1990, many reporters and political activists didn't see her low-budget campaign as a serious threat to the leading contender for the Democratic nomination, former Gov. John Carlin. Finney said she won by keeping in touch with voters. She fought to let voters put proposed laws and constitutional amendments on the ballot without going through the legislature, but lawmakers rejected her proposals to amend the state constitution to allow initiatives and referendums. She did not seek reelection in 1994 and lost a U.S. Senate primary two years later.
Fino, Bashkim (Muhamet) (b. Oct. 12, 1962, Gjirokastër, southern Albania), prime minister of Albania (1997). As mayor of Gjirokastër (1992-96), Fino gained popularity for his generally even-handed approach. Even the insurgents who took over the city in 1997 praised his style. With a reputation as a moderate able to appeal to both the hardline and reform-oriented wings of the opposition Socialist Party, the former Communists, he was chosen as interim prime minister during the 1997 turmoil. In 1997-98 he was deputy prime minister.
Fiorini, Matteo (b. Feb. 10, 1978, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2011-12).
Fiorini, Mauro (b. June 7, 1956), captain-regent of San Marino (1989).
Firmin, (Joseph Auguste) Anténor (b. Oct. 18, 1850, Petite-Anse, near Cap-Haïtien, Haiti - d. Sept. 19, 1911, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies [now U.S. Virgin Islands]), Haitian politician. He was foreign minister (1889-91, 1896) and finance minister (1889-91, 1896-97) and served as Haitian minister in Paris (1900-02) and London. He is noted as the author of L'Égalité des Races Humaines (1885), which challenged the dominant racist views of his day.
Fischer (Brusoni), Carlos L(orenzo) (b. 1903 - d. Aug. 7, 1969), president of the National Council of Government of Uruguay (1958-59).
Fischer, Heinz (b. Oct. 9, 1938, Graz, Austria), science minister (1983-87), president of the National Council (1990-2002), and president (2004- ) of Austria.
Fischer, Jan (b. Jan. 2, 1951, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister (2009-10) and finance minister (2013-14) of the Czech Republic. He served as director of the Czech Statistical Office in 2003-09.
Fischer, Joschka, byname of Joseph Martin Fischer (b. April 12, 1948, Gerabronn [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany), vice chancellor and foreign minister of Germany (1998-2005). His political views were galvanized in 1967 when a student was shot dead by police following a political demonstration in Berlin; he himself was often involved in fights with the police. In 1983, at the height of the protest movement against the U.S. deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles, he was elected one of the Green party's first MPs in Bonn on a platform advocating the immediate shutdown of nuclear plants, a shorter workweek, withdrawal from NATO, and the dismantling of the German army. From his seat in the Bundestag (parliament), he was a gadfly, often heckling the government with wicked and humorous remarks. In 1985-87 and 1991-94 he was environment and energy minister in Hessen. He emerged as the clear leader of the Greens after the party failed to win seats in the Bundestag in 1990. His realist (Realo) faction wanted the Greens to work within the political system, pursuing environmental goals but with more flexibility. The fundamentalist (Fundi) faction advocated a purist ideological posture and pushed to maintain its extraparliamentary roots and campaign for change at the local level. Fischer saw Germany bound militarily to the West, if not through NATO, then through a European alliance. That seemed to some a betrayal, but the Greens returned to parliament in 1994 with 7.3% of the vote. A remarkable political transformation became apparent when he entered government in 1998 as foreign minister: the former street orator against NATO missiles became a strong backer of NATO's war on Belgrade in 1999 and of the U.S. intervention in Afghanistan in 2001 (though he opposed the Iraq war of 2003). Fischer was Germany's most popular politician for some years until 2005 when he was blamed for relaxed visa regulations which supposedly allowed organized criminal gangs to smuggle a large number of people into Germany (especially from Ukraine). He left office when the Red-Green government lost the 2005 elections; in 2006 he finally left politics, resigning his Bundestag seat.
Fischer, Oskar (b. March 19, 1923, Asch, Czechoslovakia [now As, Czech Republic]), foreign minister of East Germany (1975-90).
Fischer, Tim(othy Andrew) (b. May 3, 1946, Lockhart, N.S.W.), Australian politician. He saw military service in Vietnam as a platoon commander and transport officer in the First Royal Australian Regiment in 1967. He entered the federal parliament in 1984, representing the interests of farmers and country people, after a career in New South Wales politics, where he was National Party member in the House of Assembly. He rose through the ranks of the federal National Party and became its leader in 1990. He was reelected leader after the Nationals won two additional seats from the Australian Labor Party in the March 1993 general election. As chief of the right-of-centre party representing rural and regional Australia, he was seldom out of the headlines in 1993, jumping in where others feared to tread. In a speech in Western Australia, Fischer claimed that taxpayers spent about $A1.3 billion a year on the small Aboriginal population but that this generosity was never acknowledged. He warned that people in rural areas would soon begin to resent such generosity. He particularly complained that "the poor struggling farmers couldn't get anywhere near a brand new four-wheel drive, air-conditioned vehicle, but local Aboriginal communities had plenty and replaced them every two years." Fischer also narrowly escaped a serious mauling by the press when he made statements to the effect that Australia's foreign policy was rather too anti-Arab and pro-Israel. His annual (since 1984) "Tumbatrek" tour of his beloved Tumbarumba region in Australia's southeastern Snowy Mountains country always attracted a flock of journalists, and the occasional member of the public, eager to get to know Fischer and observe him in his preferred environment. In 1996-99 he was deputy prime minister. He stepped down as party leader in 1999.
Fischer-Willimann, Margrit (b. Nov. 8, 1947), Schultheiss of Luzern (2003).
Fisher, Andrew (b. Aug. 29, 1862, Crosshouse, Ayrshire, Scotland - d. Oct. 22, 1928, London), prime minister of Australia (1908-09, 1910-13, 1914-15). He was elected to the state legislature in 1893. In 1901 he served in the first federal Parliament and, briefly, in the first Labor government in 1904, assuming party leadership in 1907. His second term as prime minister was a fruitful one, advancing on the program of his predecessor, Alfred Deakin. Legislation was passed that created a commonwealth bank and a land tax to break up large estates, extended the Navigation Act to protect Australian shipping, and started a national navy. Fisher also brought about the provision of maternity allowances, the extension of judicial arbitration for labour disputes, and the beginning of a transcontinental railroad. On reelection in 1914, Fisher led Australia into World War I, having pledged his country's support for Great Britain to "the last man and the last shilling" in a famous election campaign declaration. Strain imposed by the war, however, forced him to resign his ministry in 1915, after which he served as Australian high commissioner in London from 1916 to 1921.
Fisher, Linda J(ane) (b. June 26, 1952, Saginaw, Mich.), acting administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003).
Fissore, Henri (b. Jan. 2, 1953, Monaco), finance minister (1995-2000) and foreign minister (2006-07) of Monaco. He was also ambassador to Italy (2000-06).
Fitial, Benigno R(epeki) (b. Nov. 27, 1945, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands), governor of the Northern Mariana Islands (2006-13).
Fitouri, Mohamed, Arabic Muhammad al-Fituri (b. April 14, 1925, Kairouan, Tunisia - d. April 10, 2006), justice minister (1970-71), finance minister (1971-77), and foreign minister (1977-80) of Tunisia.
Fitto, Raffaele (b. Aug. 28, 1969, Maglie, Puglia, Italy), president of Puglia (2000-05); son of Salvatore Fitto.
Fitto, Salvatore (b. Jan. 2, 1941, Maglie, Puglia, Italy - d. [car crash] Aug. 31, 1988), president of Puglia (1985-88).
FitzGerald, Garret (Michael Desmond), Irish Gearóid Mac Gearailt (b. Feb. 9, 1926, Dublin, Ireland - d. May 19, 2011, Dublin), prime minister of Ireland (1981-82, 1982-87). He was elected to the Dáil (parliament) in 1969. He became minister of foreign affairs in the coalition government of Prime Minister Liam Cosgrave (1973-77). During his period in office he greatly enhanced Ireland's status in the eyes of his European colleagues and was remembered particularly for his work in completing the complex Lomé Convention negotiations with African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries. A high point in this period was Ireland's presidency of the European Communities' Council of Ministers in the first half of 1975, during which time he introduced many new initiatives in the decision-making mechanism of the Communities. When the coalition government was resoundingly defeated in the general elections of 1977, Cosgrave yielded leadership of Fine Gael to FitzGerald, who proceeded to modernize and strengthen the party at the grass roots. In his prime ministry, FitzGerald pushed for liberalization of Irish laws on divorce, abortion, and contraception and also strove to build bridges to the Protestants in Northern Ireland. In 1985 he and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher signed the Hillsborough (or Anglo-Irish) Accord, giving Ireland a consultative role in the governing of Northern Ireland. After his party lost in the election of 1987, he resigned as its leader.
Fitzgerald, John Francis, byname Honey Fitz (b. Feb. 11, 1863, Boston, Mass. - d. Oct. 2, 1950, Boston), mayor of Boston (1906-07, 1910-13).
Fitzgerald, Maurice A. (d. Aug. 25, 1951), borough president of Queens (1950-51).
Fitzgerald, William (Sinton) (b. Oct. 6, 1880, Washington, D.C. - d. Oct. 3, 1937), mayor of Cleveland (1920-21).
Fitzpatrick, Sir (Geoffrey Richard) Desmond (b. Dec. 14, 1912, Ash Vale, Hampshire, England - d. Oct. 12, 2002), lieutenant governor of Jersey (1974-79); knighted 1965.
Flaherty, Jim, byname of James Michael Flaherty (b. Dec. 30, 1949 - d. April 10, 2014, Ottawa, Ont.), finance minister of Canada (2006-14).
Flaherty, Peter F(rancis) (b. June 25, 1924, Pittsburgh, Pa. - d. April 18, 2005, Mount Lebanon, Pa.), mayor of Pittsburgh (1970-77). A Democrat, he was elected mayor in 1969 after touting himself as "Nobody's Boy," a reference to not being controlled by the Democratic machine that helped elect past mayors. He served as deputy U.S. attorney general for less than a year, stepping down in December 1977 to run for Pennsylvania governor. He lost the 1978 election to Richard Thornburgh. He also lost U.S. Senate bids to Richard Schweiker in 1974 and Arlen Specter in 1980. He was elected as Allegheny County commissioner in 1983, serving in that position until 1995.
Flamarique, (Mario) Alberto (b. 1951?, Mendoza), labour minister of Argentina (1999-2000).
Flandin, Étienne (Jean Marie) (b. April 1, 1853, Paris - d. Sept. 20, 1922, Paris), resident-general of Tunisia (1918-21).
Flandin, (Gaston) Pierre Étienne (b. April 12, 1889, Paris - d. June 13, 1958, Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, Alpes-Maritimes), French politician; son of Étienne Flandin. In May 1914 he was elected a member of the Chamber of Deputies sitting as a républicain de gauche, or Conservative. At the beginning of 1920 he was made undersecretary of state for aeronautics in the Alexandre Millerand cabinet. He served in many cabinets as minister of posts and telegraphs (1924), commerce and industry (1924, 1929-30, 1930), finance (1931-32), and public works (1934). He was premier in 1934-35 and minister of state in 1935-36. During January-June 1936 he served as foreign minister in the Albert Sarraut cabinet. When in March 1936 the Germans sent their troops into the Rhineland, Flandin suggested the use of French armed forces to evict them, but he was supported by only a minority of ministers. His failure to induce the French and British governments to act convinced him that Germany would dominate Europe and that France should accept the inevitable. After Munich, in September 1938, he sent Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain, and Daladier telegrams congratulating them as peacemakers. In the Vichy regime Flandin was associated with the more moderate collaborators. They succeeded in bringing him into the government as deputy premier and foreign minister (December 1940), but his inclusion lasted only until February 1941, when Adm. François Darlan replaced him. Flandin reached Algeria in October 1942, was arrested there in the following year, and in July 1946, the high court of justice acquitted him of treason and sentenced him to five years of "national unworthiness" but remitted this sentence on account of some services he had rendered to the Résistance.
Flangini (Ximénez), (Miguel) Alberto (b. 1824 - d. 1900), acting president of Uruguay (1882).
Flaxman, Sir Hubert (James Marlowe) (b. July 22, 1893 - d. June 23, 1976), British resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1950-55); knighted 1962. He was chief justice of Gibraltar in 1955-65.
Fleming, Donald (Methuen) (b. May 23, 1905, Exeter, Ontario - d. Dec. 31, 1986, Toronto, Ontario), finance minister of Canada (1957-62). In 1938 he was elected to the Toronto Board of Education and the City Council, and in 1945 he was first elected to the House of Commons, representing Eglinton. During the 1956 session he was suspended from the chamber for part of a sitting when he ignored the speaker's request to remain seated while trying to speak on a point of order during a pipeline debate. Reelected to the House of Commons in 1957 for the third time, on June 21 he was sworn to the privy council as minister of finance and receiver-general. On June 27 he was appointed governor of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and of the International Monetary Fund. Fleming was reelected to the House of Commons at the general election of March 31, 1958. In September he was chairman of the Commonwealth Trade and Economic Conference at Montreal. As finance minister until 1962, he presented five budgets and through them ran up a deficit of almost $3,000,000,000. He also caused considerable controversy when, after a period of letting the Canadian dollar seek its own level, he devalued it to the extent of pegging its value at 92.5 cents to the U.S. dollar. He was justice minister in 1962-63, and later became a governor of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. He tried unsuccessfully to win the national Conservative leadership in 1948, 1956, and 1967.
Fleming, (Hugues) Élie, mayor of Saint-Martin (1949-59, 1977-83); son of Emmanuel Fleming.
Fleming, (Louis) Emmanuel, mayor of Saint-Martin (1919-25).
Fleming, Sir Francis (b. 1842 - d. Dec. 4, 1922), governor of Sierra Leone (1892-94) and the Leeward Islands (1895-1901); knighted 1892.
Fleming, Iolanda Lima, acting governor of Acre (1986-87).
Fleming, Louis Constant (d. 1949), mayor of Saint-Martin (1928-49); son of Emmanuel Fleming.
Fleming, Louis Constant (b. Dec. 1, 1946), president of the Territorial Council of Saint-Martin (2007-08); son of Louis Constant Fleming.
Fleming, Osbourne (Berlington) (b. Feb. 18, 1940, East End, Anguilla), chief minister of Anguilla (2000-10).
Fleming, Robert J(ohn, Jr.) (b. Jan. 13, 1907, Fort Robinson, Neb. - d. July 14, 1984), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1962-67). He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1928 and from the U.S. Army Engineering School in 1935. Early in World War II, he served in the Central Pacific area. Fleming was supervisor of the construction program for the U.S. Army of Occupation after the war ended. From 1947 to 1950 he served in the Office of the Chief of Engineer in Washington, first as Chief, Engineer Organization and Training Division, and then as Assistant Chief of Engineers for Military Operations. From 1950 to 1951, Fleming was a student at the National War College in Washington and from 1951 to 1954 was Engineer, Army Field Forces, Fort Monroe, Va. During 1954 he was District Engineer at Philadelphia, then served until April 1957 as Division Engineer at New England Division, before returning to Europe for a 3-year stay in France. Fleming was appointed governor of the Panama Canal Zone by Pres. John F. Kennedy in 1962, served in that position for five years. As governor, Fleming had to confront one of the most sensitive aspect of the relations between the United States and Panama: the riots of Jan. 9, 1964, when Panamanian students tried to raise the Panama flag at Balboa High School, producing more than 24 deaths. Under his tenure the Thatcher Ferry Bridge was inaugurated on Oct. 12, 1962; the first canal newspaper, the Panama Canal Spillway, was published on June 20, 1962, and studies of the Isthmian Canal were initiated in 1964 with the purpose of increasing canal capacity.
Flemming, Arthur S(herwood) (b. June 12, 1905, Kingston, N.Y. - d. Sept. 7, 1996, Alexandria, Va.), U.S. politician. In 1939, Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him as a Republican member on the old Civil Service Commission. He later served on the Hoover Commission on Government Organization. In 1953 he was director of the Office of Defense Mobilization in the waning days of the Korean War. After serving as secretary of Health, Education and Welfare from 1958 until 1961, Flemming headed the U.S. Commission on Aging in 1973-78. He also chaired the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights from 1974 until 1982, when Pres. Ronald Reagan fired him after Flemming's six-member panel issued a report harshly critical of the administration's record on desegregation. Despite his ouster, Flemming found it impossible to remain silent on what he feared was an attempt by the Reagan administration to roll back on America's civil rights record. Following his final government stint, Flemming lent his name and considerable prestige to the Save Our Security Coalition, a group of more than 100 organizations that sought to protect Social Security. At the same time, he also chaired the National Health Care Campaign, a group that advocated comprehensive health-care and long-term medical care for all Americans long before it became a hot political topic. He also served on the Citizen's Commission on Civil Rights, a private, bipartisan panel of former civil rights officials. In between - and sometimes coinciding with - his main government jobs, Flemming served posts in the Labor Department, Atomic Energy Commission, the Peace Corps, and other panels. In 1994, Pres. Bill Clinton awarded Flemming the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honour.
Flesch, Colette (b. April 16, 1937, Dudelange, Luxembourg), foreign minister of Luxembourg (1980-84).
Fletcher, Ernie, byname of Ernest Lee Fletcher (b. Nov. 12, 1952, Mt. Sterling, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (2003-07).
Fleuriot de Langle, Alphonse Jean René, vicomte (b. May 16, 1809, Pradalon manor, Plouigneau, Finistère, France - d. July 22, 1881, Paris), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1866-68).
Fleury, Luiz Antônio, Filho (b. March 30, 1949, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (1991-95).
Floissac, Sir Vincent (Frederick) (b. July 31, 1928 - d. Sept. 25, 2010), acting governor-general of Saint Lucia (1987-88); knighted 1992. He was chief justice of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court in 1991-96.
Floquet, Charles (Thomas) (b. Oct. 2, 1828, Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port, Basses-Pyrénées, France - d. Jan. 18, 1896, Paris), prefect of Seine département (1882) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1885-88, 1889-93) and prime minister and interior minister (1888-89) of France.
Flor (Valle), Miguel Ángel de la (b. March 11, 1924, Ferreñafe, Lambayeque, Peru - d. Jan. 12, 2010, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1972-76).
Florentín Bogado, Dido (b. April 28, 1930), foreign minister of Paraguay (1998-99). He was ambassador to Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (1984-91), Argentina (1991-94), and Brazil (1994-97).
Florentín Peña, Ángel (b. March 1, 1898, Concepción, northern Paraguay - d. ...), foreign minister of Paraguay (1952-53). He was ambassador to Argentina (1949-50) and Chile (1957-59).
Flores, Ángel (b. Oct. 2, 1883, San Pedro [according to other sources Lo de Sauceda], Navolato municipality, Sinaloa, Mexico - d. [possible suicide] March 31, 1926, Culiacán, Sinaloa, Mexico), governor of Sinaloa (1920-24).
Flores (Pérez), Francisco (Guillermo) (b. Oct. 17, 1959, Santa Ana, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (1999-2004). During El Salvador's civil war Flores was studying political science and then philosophy in Massachusetts and California, and he spent time in India with the Hindu swami Sai Baba, who advocates nonviolence and tolerance, as well as patriotism and the observance of established religions. Flores is a Roman Catholic. He took no part in the civil war, but was scarred by the conflict that killed some 70,000 people: his grandfather and father-in-law died as a result of leftist attacks. He joined the government as an administrator in 1990 and ran for congress in 1994. He was the head of ARENA's congressional delegation when he was nominated to succeed businessman Armando Calderón Sol as president. During the campaign, he called for further openings of El Salvador's economy, for a battle against rising crime and for expanded, often privately run efforts to help the 40% of Salvadorans who live in poverty.
Flores, Joseph F. (b. Aug. 12, 1900, Agana, Guam - d. Dec. 19, 1981, California), governor of Guam (1960-61). He was the first Chamorro to serve in the position.
Flores (Nano), Lourdes (Celmira Rosario) (b. Oct. 7, 1959, Lima, Peru), Peruvian presidential candidate (2001, 2006).
Flores (Maldonado Martínez de Angulo y Bodquín), Manuel Antonio (b. 1723, Sevilla, Spain - d. March 20, 1799, Madrid, Spain), viceroy of New Granada (1776-82) and New Spain (1787-89).
Flores Bermúdez, Roberto (b. Aug. 15, 1949, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (1999-2002). He has been ambassador to the UN (1990-92), the U.S. (1994-98, 2006-09), Great Britain (1998-99), Germany (2002-06), and Belgium and Sweden (2012- ).
Flores Facussé, Carlos Roberto (b. March 1, 1950, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), president of Honduras (1998-2002). He was also minister of the presidency (1982-84) and president of the National Congress (1994-98).
Florijancic, Joze (b. Jan. 9, 1935, Otocec ob Krki, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), finance minister of Yugoslavia (1982-83).
Floris, Mario (b. Sept. 20, 1937, Cagliari, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (1989-91, 1999-2001).
Florit, Carlos Alberto (b. April 13, 1929, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Jan. 18, 2010, San Isidro, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), foreign minister of Argentina (1958-59).
Flosse, Gaston (b. June 24, 1931, Rikitea, Mangareva island, French Polynesia), vice president of the Government Council (1982-84), president of the government (1984-87, 1991-2004), and president (2004, 2004-05, 2008, 2013- ) of French Polynesia.
Flottes de Pouzols, (Jacques) Marie Alphonse (b. March 12, 1884 - d. Aug. 26, 1935), acting governor of Ivory Coast (1935).