Rulers

Countries Cr-Cz

Contents of this page:
Croatia - Cuba - Curaçao - Cyprus - Czech Republic

Cracow: see under Poland.
Crete: see under Greece.
Crimea: see under Ukraine.

Croatia

        925                Kingdom of Croatia
       1102                personal union with Hungary
21 Dec 1867                part of the Hungarian half of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
29 Oct 1918                independence (State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs)
 1 Dec 1918                merged into Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
                           (see under Serbia)
26 Aug 1939                autonomy (Banovina of Croatia)
10 Apr 1941 -  6 May 1945  Independent State of Croatia (under Italo-German control)¹
 4 Dec 1943                reincorporation into Yugoslavia
       1945                People's Republic of Croatia
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Croatia
   Aug 1990                Republic of Croatia
25 Jun 1991                independence declared
 8 Jul 1991 -  8 Oct 1991  independence suspended

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
       1945 -        1947  Djuro Spoljaric
       1948 -        1969  Vladimir Bakaric                   (b. 1912 - d. 1983)
       1969 -    Dec 1971  Savka Dabcevic-Kucar (f)           (b. 1923 - d. 2009)
14 Dec 1971 -    May 1982  Milka Planinc (f)                  (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
   May 1982 -  1 Jul 1983  Jure Bilic                         (b. 1922 - d. 2006)
 1 Jul 1983 - 15 May 1984  Josip Vrhovec                      (b. 1926 - d. 2006)
15 May 1984 -    May 1986  Mika Spiljak                       (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
   May 1986 -    Dec 1989  Stanko Stojcevic                   (b. 1929)
13 Dec 1989 -  3 Nov 1990  Ivica Racan                        (b. 1944 - d. 2007)

Bans (viceroys) 26 Aug 1693 - 7 Sep 1703 Adam Batthyány (b. 1662 - d. 1703) 24 Jan 1704 - 17 Feb 1732 Ivan Pálffy (b. 1664 - d. 1751) 17 Feb 1732 - 4 Jan 1733 Ivan Draskovic V (b. 1660 - d. 1733) 13 Aug 1733 - 25 Jun 1741 Josip Eszterházy (b. 1682 - d. 1748) 1741 - 1742 György Branyng (b. 1677 - d. 1748) 16 Mar 1743 - 6 Jul 1756 Karlo Batthyány (b. 1698 - d. 1772) 1756 - 1783 Franjo Leopold Nádasdy (b. 1708 - d. 1783) 1783 - 1785 Franjo Esterházy (b. 1715 - d. 1785) + Franjo Széchenyi (b. 1754 - d. 1820) 1785 - 1790 Franjo de Gyarmath Balassa (b. 1736 - d. 1807) 1790 - 30 Mar 1806 Ivan Erdödy (b. 1760 - d. 1806) 1806 - 1831 Ignjat Gyulay Maros-Nemeth (b. 1763 - d. 1831) 10 Feb 1832 - 16 May 1840 Franjo Vlasic (b. 1766 - d. 1840) 1840 - 16 Jun 1842 Juraj Haulik de Varalaj (1st time) (b. 1788 - d. 1869) (acting) 16 Jun 1842 - 1845 Franjo Haller (b. 1796 - d. 1875) 1845 - 23 Mar 1848 Juraj Haulik de Varalaj (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 23 Mar 1848 - 19 May 1859 Josip Jelacic (b. 1801 - d. 1859) 28 Jul 1859 - 19 Jun 1860 Ivan Coronini (b. 1794 - d. 1880) 19 Jun 1860 - 27 Jun 1867 Josip Sokcevic (b. 1811 - d. 1896) 27 Jun 1867 - 26 Jan 1871 Levin Rauch (b. 1819 - d. 1890) (acting to 8 Dec 1868) 26 Jan 1871 - 12 Feb 1872 Koloman Bedekovic (b. 1818 - d. 1889) 8 Oct 1871 - 11 Oct 1871 Eugen Kvaternik (b. 1825 - d. 1871) (in rebellion, at Rakovica) 17 Feb 1872 - 20 Sep 1873 Antun Vakanovic (acting) (b. 1808 - d. 1894) 20 Sep 1873 - 21 Feb 1880 Ivan Mazuranic (b. 1814 - d. 1890) 21 Feb 1880 - 4 Sep 1883 Ladislav Pejacevic (b. 1824 - d. 1901) 4 Sep 1883 - 1 Dec 1883 Hermann Ramberg (acting) (b. 1820 - d. 1899) 4 Dec 1883 - 27 Jun 1903 Károly Khuen-Héderváry (b. 1849 - d. 1918) 1 Jul 1903 - 26 Jun 1907 Teodor Pejacevic (b. 1855 - d. 1928) 26 Jun 1907 - 8 Jan 1908 Aleksandar Rakodczaj (b. 1848 - d. 1924) 8 Jan 1908 - 5 Feb 1910 Pavao Rauch (b. 1865 - d. 1933) 5 Feb 1910 - 19 Jan 1912 Nikola Tomasic (b. 1864 - d. 1918) 19 Jan 1912 - 21 Jul 1913 Slavko Cuvaj (b. 1851 - d. 1931) (acting from 5 Apr 1912) 21 Jul 1913 - 29 Jun 1917 Ivan Skerlecz (b. 1873 - d. 1951) (acting to 27 Nov 1913) 29 Jun 1917 - 20 Jan 1919 Antun Mihalovic (b. 1868 - d. 1949) 20 Jan 1919 - 24 Nov 1919 Ivan Palecek 24 Nov 1919 - 22 Feb 1920 Tomislav Tomljenovic (1st time) 22 Feb 1920 - 11 Dec 1920 Matko Laginja (b. 1852 - d. 1930) 23 Dec 1920 - 2 Mar 1921 Teodor Bosnjak (acting) (b. 1876 - d. 1942) 2 Mar 1921 - 3 Jul 1921 Tomislav Tomljenovic (2nd time) Provincial Commissioners 3 Jul 1921 - 23 Dec 1922 Juraj Demetrovic (b. 1885 - d. 1945) 23 Dec 1922 - 1 Mar 1924 Ernest Cimic (b. 1876 - d. 19...) Ban 26 Aug 1939 - 10 Apr 1941 Ivan Subasic (b. 1892 - d. 1955) Chairman of the Presidency of the People's Assembly of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs 29 Oct 1918 - 1 Dec 1918 Anton Korosec (b. 1872 - d. 1940) Leader (poglavnik) 12 Apr 1941 - 8 May 1945 Ante Pavelic (b. 1889 - d. 1959) (Head of State to 15 Apr 1941) Presidents of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (until 25 Aug 1945, chairman of the Anti-Fascist Council of People's Liberation) 13 Jun 1943 - 15 Jun 1949 Vladimir Nazor (b. 1876 - d. 1949) 15 Oct 1949 - 1952 Karlo-Gaspar Mrazovic (b. 1902 - d. 1987) 1952 - 6 Feb 1953 Vicko Krstulovic (b. 1905 - d. 1989) Presidents of the Assembly 6 Feb 1953 - 18 Dec 1953 Zlatan Sremec (b. 1898 - d. 1971) 18 Dec 1953 - 27 Jun 1963 Vladimir Bakaric (s.a.) 27 Jun 1963 - 1967 Ivan Krajacic (b. 1906 - d. 1987) 1967 - 8 May 1974 Jakov Blazevic (b. 1912 - d. 1996) Presidents of the Presidency 8 May 1974 - 1982 Jakov Blazevic (s.a.) 1982 - May 1983 Marijan Cvetkovic (b. 1920 - d. 1990) May 1983 - 10 May 1984 Milutin Baltic (b. 1920 - d. 2013) 10 May 1984 - 10 May 1985 Jaksa Petric (b. 1922 - d. 1993) 10 May 1985 - 20 Nov 1985 Pero Car (b. 1920 - d. 1985) 20 Nov 1985 - 10 May 1986 Ema Derosi-Bjelajac (f) (b. 1926) 10 May 1986 - May 1988 Ante Markovic (b. 1924 - d. 2011) May 1988 - 30 May 1990 Ivo Latin (b. 1929 - d. 2002) Presidents 30 May 1990 - 10 Dec 1999 Franjo Tudjman (b. 1922 - d. 1999) 26 Nov 1999 - 2 Feb 2000 Vlatko Pavletic (b. 1930 - d. 2007) (acting [for Tudjman to 10 Dec 1999]) 2 Feb 2000 - 18 Feb 2000 Zlatko Tomcic (acting) (b. 1945) 18 Feb 2000 - 18 Feb 2010 Stipe Mesic (b. 1934) 18 Feb 2010 - Ivo Josipovic (b. 1957)
Prime ministers 17 Apr 1941 - 2 Sep 1943 Ante Pavelic (s.a.) 2 Sep 1943 - 6 May 1945 Nikola Mandic (b. 1869 - d. 1945) 14 Apr 1945 - 6 Feb 1953 Vladimir Bakaric (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council 6 Feb 1953 - 18 Dec 1953 Vladimir Bakaric (s.a.) 18 Dec 1953 - 1962 Jakov Blazevic (s.a.) 1962 - 1963 Zvonko Brkic (b. 1912 - d. 1977) 1963 - 1967 Mika Spiljak (s.a.) 1967 - 1969 Savka Dabcevic-Kucar (f) (s.a.) 1969 - Dec 1971 Dragutin Haramija (b. 1923 - d. 2012) Dec 1971 - Apr 1974 Ivo Perisin (b. 1925 - d. 2008) Apr 1974 - 9 May 1978 Jakov Sirotkovic (b. 1922 - d. 2002) 9 May 1978 - 1982 Petar Flekovic (b. 1932?) 1982 - May 1986 Ante Markovic (s.a.) 10 May 1986 - 30 May 1990 Antun Milovic (b. 1934) Prime ministers 30 May 1990 - 24 Aug 1990 Stipe Mesic (s.a.) 24 Aug 1990 - 3 Aug 1991 Josip Manolic (b. 1920) 3 Aug 1991 - 8 Sep 1992 Franjo Greguric (b. 1939) 8 Sep 1992 - 29 Mar 1993 Hrvoje Sarinic (b. 1935) 29 Mar 1993 - 4 Nov 1995 Nikica Valentic (b. 1950) 4 Nov 1995 - 27 Jan 2000 Zlatko Matesa (b. 1949) 27 Jan 2000 - 23 Dec 2003 Ivica Racan (s.a.) 23 Dec 2003 - 6 Jul 2009 Ivo Sanader (b. 1953) 6 Jul 2009 - 23 Dec 2011 Jadranka Kosor (f) (b. 1953) 23 Dec 2011 - Zoran Milanovic (b. 1966)
¹King Tomislav II (b. 1900 - d. 1948), proclaimed 18 May 1941, abdicated 31 Jul 1943, was not installed.

Fiume

21 Dec 1867                "Corpus separatum" of the Hungarian Crown
28 Oct 1918                status indeterminate, under the Principal Allied and
                           Associated Powers
 8 Sep 1920                Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro
31 Dec 1920                Independent State of Fiume
16 Mar 1924                incorporated into Italy
10 Feb 1947                incorporated into Yugoslavia/Croatia

Governors
 6 Apr 1867 - 29 Jul 1870  Ede Cseh de Szentkatolna           (b. 181... - d. 1887)
29 Jul 1870 -  5 Dec 1872  József gróf Zichy de Zich et
                           Vásonkeö                           (b. 1841 - d. 1924)
26 Feb 1873 -  1 Nov 1883  Géza gróf Szapáry de Szapár        (b. 1827 - d. 1898)
 1 Nov 1883 -  6 Mar 1892  Ágost gróf Zichy                   (b. 1852 - d. 1925)
 6 Mar 1892 -  2 Oct 1896  Lajos gróf Batthyány de Nemetujvár (b. 1860 - d. 1951)
 2 Oct 1896 - 14 Jul 1897  Rezsö báró Abele de Lilienberg     (b. 1851 - d. 1923)
14 Jul 1897 - 23 Nov 1897  Tibor Gaal de Hatvan (1st time)    (b. 1861 - d. 1917)
                           (acting)
23 Nov 1897 -  2 Aug 1903  László gróf Szapáry de Szapár      (b. 1864 - d. 1939)
 2 Aug 1903 - 10 Dec 1903  Tibor Gaal de Hatvan (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
10 Dec 1903 - 17 Feb 1905  Ervin báró Roszner                 (b. 1852 - d. 1928)
17 Feb 1905 - 17 Oct 1905  Tibor Gaal de Hatvan (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
17 Oct 1905 - 26 Dec 1905  Pál gróf Szapáry de Szapár         (b. 1873 - d. 1917)
26 Dec 1905 - 24 May 1906  Tibor Gaal de Hatvan (4th time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 4 Apr 1906 - 29 Apr 1906  György gróf Károlyi de Nagykároly  (b. 1871 - d. 1954)
24 May 1906 -  7 Dec 1909  Sándor gróf Nákó de
                           Nagyszentmiklós                    (b. 1871 - d. 1923)
 7 Dec 1909 - 31 Jul 1917  István gróf Wickenburg de Capelló  (b. 1859 - d. 1931)
                           (acting to 13 Nov 1910)
31 Jul 1917 - 29 Oct 1918  Zoltán Jekelfalussy de Jekel- és
                           Margitfalva                        (b. 1862 - d. 1945)
President of the Italian National Council of Fiume
28 Oct 1918 -  8 Sep 1920  Antonio Grossich                   (b. 1849 - d. 1926)
29 Oct 1918 - 17 Nov 1918    Rikard Lenac                     (b. 1868 - d. 1943)
                             (Croatian administrator [veliki zupan], in opposition)
14 Sep 1919 -  8 Sep 1920    Gabriele D'Annunzio (Commander)  (b. 1863 - d. 1938)
Primo Rettore
 8 Sep 1920 - 29 Dec 1920  Gabriele D'Annunzio                (s.a.)
President of the Municipal Council of Fiume
29 Dec 1920 - 31 Dec 1920  Riccardo Gigante                   (b. 1881 - d. 1945)
Chairman of the Provisional Government of the State
31 Dec 1920 - 27 Apr 1921  Antonio Grossich                   (s.a.)
President of the Provisional Directory of Fiume
27 Apr 1921 - 28 Apr 1921  Riccardo Gigante                   (s.a.)
Commissioner Extraordinary
28 Apr 1921 - 13 Jun 1921  Salvatore Bellasich                (b. 1890 - d. 1946)
High commissioners
13 Jun 1921 -        1921  Antonio Foschini¹                  (b. 1872 - d. 1965)
       1921 -  5 Oct 1921  Luigi Amantea¹                     (b. 1869 - d. 1949)
Presidents
 5 Oct 1921 -  4 Mar 1922  Riccardo Zanella                   (b. 1876 - d. 1959)
 4 Mar 1922 -  9 Mar 1922  Committee of National Defense
 9 Mar 1922 - 16 Mar 1922  Giovanni Giuriati (provisional)    (b. 1876 - d. 1970)
Provisional Head of State
17 Mar 1922 - 17 Sep 1923  Attilio Depoli                     (b. 1887 - d. 1963)
Military Governor
17 Sep 1923 - 16 Mar 1924  Gaetano Giardino¹                  (b. 1864 - d. 1935)
¹These persons were appointed on behalf of the Kingdom of Italy.

Krajina

19 Dec 1991                independence declared (Serb Republic of Krajina)
 7 Aug 1995                retaken by Croatia; an independent government remains in
                           the eastern part (Srem-Baranja District) until 1997
15 Jan 1996 - 15 Jan 1998  United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern
                           Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem (UNTAES)

Presidents
19 Dec 1991 - 16 Feb 1992  Milan Babic                        (b. 1956 - d. 2006)
16 Feb 1992 - 26 Feb 1992  Mile Paspalj (acting)              (b. 1953)
26 Feb 1992 -    Feb 1994  Goran Hadzic                       (b. 1958)
   Feb 1994 -  7 Aug 1995  Milan Martic                       (b. 1954)

Prime ministers Dec 1991 - 26 Feb 1992 Dusan Vjestica 26 Feb 1992 - 27 Mar 1993 Zdravko Zecevic 27 Mar 1993 - 17 Mar 1994 Djordje Bjegovic (b. 1941) 17 Mar 1994 - 27 Jul 1995 Borislav Mikelic (b. 1939) 27 Jul 1995 - 7 Aug 1995 Milan Babic (s.a.)

Srem-Baranja District

Presidents
       1995 -        1996  Slavko Dokmanovic                  (b. 1949 - d. 1998)
       1996 -        1997  Goran Hadzic                       (s.a.)

Prime ministers 1995 - 1996 Borislav Drzajic 1996 - 1997 Vojislav Stanimirovic (b. 1953) UNTAES administrators 17 Jan 1996 - 1 Aug 1997 Jacques Paul Klein (U.S.) (b. 1939) 1 Aug 1997 - 15 Jan 1998 William Walker (U.S.) (b. 1935)

Cuba

       1511                Spanish colony
13 Aug 1762 -  8 Jul 1763  occupied by Britain
10 Oct 1868                independence declared as Republic of Cuba, in insurrection
                           against colonial power Spain (this insurrection is
                           referred to retrospectively as República de Cuba en armas)
 1 Jan 1899                Spain cedes colonial authority to U.S.
                           (de jure 11 Apr 1899)
20 May 1902                Republic of Cuba
29 Sep 1906 - 28 Jan 1909    U.S. occupation

First secretaries of the Communist Party of Cuba
 3 Oct 1965 - 19 Apr 2011  Fidel Castro                       (b. 1926)
31 Jul 2006 -              Raúl Castro                        (b. 1931)
                           (acting for Fidel Castro to 19 Apr 2011)

Governors 1696 - 1702 Diego de Córdoba Lasso de la Vega, marqués del Vado (b. 16... - d. 1720) 20 Sep 1702 - 4 Dec 1704 Pedro Nicolás Benítez de Lugo (b. 16... - d. 1705) 4 Dec 1704 - 13 May 1706 Nicolás Chirino y de Vandeval (b. 16... - d. 1710) (acting) 13 May 1706 - 8 Jun 1706 Pedro Álvarez de Villamarín (b. 16... - d. 1706) 8 Jun 1706 - 18 Jan 1708 Luis Chacón y Castellón (1st time) (b. 1670 - d. 1716) (acting) 18 Jan 1708 - 18 Feb 1711 Laureano José de Torres Ayala y Quadros Castellanos, marqués de Casa Torres (b. 1645 - d. 1722) 18 Feb 1711 - 26 May 1711 Luis Chacón y Castellón (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 26 May 1711 - 23 Aug 1717 Vicente de Raja (b. 16... - d. 1717) 23 Aug 1717 - 23 Jun 1718 Gómez Maraver Ponce de León (acting) 23 Jun 1718 - 29 Sep 1724 Gregorio Guazo y Calderón Fernández de la Vega (b. 1675 - d. 1726) 29 Sep 1724 - 18 Mar 1734 Dionisio Martínez de la Vega (b. 167... - d. 1741) 18 Mar 1734 - 22 Apr 1746 Francisco de Güemes y Horcasitas Gordón de Saenz de Villamolinedo, conde de Revillagigedo (b. 1681 - d. 1776) 22 Apr 1746 - 21 Jul 1746 Juan Antonio Tineo y Fuertes (b. 169... - d. 1746) 21 Jul 1746 - 9 Jun 1747 Diego Peñalosa (acting) 9 Jun 1747 - 18 May 1760 Francisco Antonio Cagigal de la Vega (b. 1695 - d. 1777) 18 May 1760 - 7 Feb 1761 Pedro Alonso (acting) 7 Feb 1761 - 13 Aug 1762 Juan de Prado Mayeza Portocarrero y Luna 13 Aug 1762 - 1 Jan 1763 George Keppel, Earl of Albemarle (b. 1724 - d. 1772) 1 Jan 1763 - 8 Jul 1763 William Keppel (b. 1727 - d. 1782) 8 Jul 1763 - 27 Jun 1765 Ambrosio Funes Villalpando Abarca de Bolea, conde de Ricla (b. 1720 - d. 1780) 27 Jun 1765 - 24 Jul 1765 Diego Manrique (b. 17... - d. 1765) 24 Jul 1765 - 11 Mar 1766 Pascual Jiménez de Cisneros (b. 1709 - d. 1784) (acting) 11 Mar 1766 - 14 Aug 1771 Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa Hinostrosa Lasso de la Vega (b. 1717 - d. 1779) 14 Aug 1771 - 18 Nov 1771 Diego José Navarro y García de Valladares (1st time) (acting) (b. 1708 - d. 1784) 18 Nov 1771 - 12 Jun 1777 Felipe de Fonsdeviela y Ondeano, marqués de la Torre (b. 1725 - d. 1784) 12 Jun 1777 - 12 Feb 1782 Diego José Navarro y García de Valladares (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Feb 1782 - 29 Dec 1782 Juan Manuel de Cagigal y Montserrat (b. 1739 - d. 1811) 29 Dec 1782 - 1 Feb 1785 Luis de Unzaga y Amezaga (b. 1721 - d. 1793) 1 Feb 1785 - 7 Apr 1785 Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y Galardo, conde de Gálvez (b. 1746 - d. 1786) 7 Apr 1785 - 1 Dec 1785 Bernardo Troncoso Martínez del Rincón (acting) (b. 1730 - d. 1804) 1 Dec 1785 - 18 Apr 1789 José de Ezpeleta (b. 1741 - d. 1823) 18 Apr 1789 - 8 Jul 1790 Domingo Cabello y Robles (acting) (b. c.1725 - d. 1801) 8 Jul 1790 - 6 Dec 1796 Luis de las Casas y Arragorri (b. 1745 - d. 1800) 6 Dec 1796 - 13 May 1799 Juan Procopio Bassecourt y Bryas, conde de Santa Clara (b. 1740 - d. 1820) 13 May 1799 - 14 Apr 1812 Salvador de Muro y Salazar, marqués de Someruelos (b. 1754 - d. 1813) 14 Apr 1812 - 1 Jul 1816 Juan Ruiz de Apodaca (b. 1754 - d. 1835) 1 Jul 1816 - 29 Aug 1819 José Cienfuegos (b. 1763 - d. 1825) 29 Aug 1819 - 3 Mar 1821 Juan Manuel de Cagigal y Martínez (b. 1757? - d. 1823) 3 Mar 1821 - 13 Jul 1822 Nicolás de Mahy y Romo (b. 1757 - d. 1822) 13 Jul 1822 - 2 May 1823 Sebastián Kindelán y Oregón (b. 1763 - d. 1836) (acting) 2 May 1823 - 15 May 1832 Francisco Dionisio Vives (b. 1775 - d. 1840) 15 May 1832 - 1 Jun 1834 Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca (b. 1776 - d. 1846) 1 Jun 1834 - 20 Apr 1838 Miguel Tacón (b. 1775 - d. 1855) 20 Apr 1838 - 10 Jan 1840 Joaquín de Ezpeleta (b. 1786 - d. 1863) 10 Jan 1840 - 7 Mar 1841 Pedro Téllez Girón (b. 1776 - d. 1851) 7 Mar 1841 - 13 Sep 1843 Jerónimo Valdés (b. 1784 - d. 1855) 13 Sep 1843 - 20 Oct 1843 Francisco Javier de Ulloa (acting) (b. 1777 - d. 1855) 20 Oct 1843 - 20 Feb 1848 Leopoldo O'Donnell (b. 1809 - d. 1867) 20 Feb 1848 - 11 Nov 1850 Federico Roncali (b. 1801? - d. 1857) 11 Nov 1850 - 16 Apr 1852 José Gutiérrez de la Concha (1st time) (b. 1809 - d. 1895) 16 Apr 1852 - 3 Dec 1853 Valentín Cañedo (b. 1806 - d. 1856) 3 Dec 1853 - 21 Sep 1854 Juan González de la Pezuela (b. 1809 - d. 1906) 21 Sep 1854 - 24 Nov 1859 José Gutiérrez de la Concha (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Nov 1859 - 10 Dec 1862 Francisco Serrano y Domínguez, duque de la Torre (b. 1810 - d. 1885) 10 Dec 1862 - 30 May 1866 Domingo Dulce (1st time) (b. 1808 - d. 1869) 30 May 1866 - 3 Nov 1866 Francisco de Lersundi y Ormaechea (1st time) (b. 1817 - d. 1874) 3 Nov 1866 - 24 Sep 1867 Joaquín del Manzano (b. 1805 - d. 1867) 24 Sep 1867 - 21 Dec 1867 Blas Villate (1st time) (acting) (b. 1824 - d. 1882) 21 Dec 1867 - 4 Jan 1869 Francisco de Lersundi y Ormaechea (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Jan 1869 - 2 Jun 1869 Domingo Dulce (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Jun 1869 - 28 Jun 1869 Felipe Ginovés del Espinar (acting) 28 Jun 1869 - 13 Dec 1870 Antonio Caballero y Fernández de Rodas (b. 1816 - d. 1876) 13 Dec 1870 - 11 Jul 1872 Blas Villate (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Jul 1872 - 18 Apr 1873 Francisco Ceballos y Vargas (b. 1814 - d. 1883) (acting) 18 Apr 1873 - 4 Nov 1873 Cándido Pieltaín (b. 1822 - d. 1888) 4 Nov 1873 - 6 Apr 1874 Joaquín Jovellar y Soler (1st time) (b. 1819 - d. 1892) 6 Apr 1874 - 1 Mar 1875 José Gutiérrez de la Concha (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Mar 1875 - 8 Mar 1875 Buenaventura Carbó (acting) (b. 1819 - d. 18...) 8 Mar 1875 - 18 Jan 1876 Blas Villate (3rd time) (s.a.) 18 Jan 1876 - 17 Jun 1876 Joaquín Jovellar y Soler (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Jun 1876 - 5 Feb 1879 Arsenio Martínez Campos (1st time) (b. 1831 - d. 1900) 5 Feb 1879 - 17 Apr 1879 Cayetano Figueroa (acting) 17 Apr 1879 - 28 Nov 1881 Ramón Blanco y Erenas, marqués de Peña Plata (1st time) (b. 1833 - d. 1906) 28 Nov 1881 - 4 Aug 1883 Luis Prendergast y Gordon, marqués de Victoria de las Tunas (b. 1823 - d. 1892) 5 Aug 1883 - 28 Sep 1883 Tomás de Reyna y Reyna (acting) (b. 1821 - d. 1896) 28 Sep 1883 - 8 Nov 1884 Ignacio María del Castillo (b. 1817 - d. 1893) 8 Nov 1884 - 5 Mar 1886 Ramón Fajardo (b. 1826 - d. 1888) 5 Mar 1886 - 30 Mar 1886 Sabas Marín (1st time) (acting) (b. 1828 - d. 1901) 30 Mar 1886 - 15 Jul 1887 Emilio Calleja (1st time) (b. 1830 - d. 1906) 15 Jul 1887 - 13 Mar 1889 Sabas Marín (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Mar 1889 - 6 Feb 1890 Manuel Salamanca y Negrete (b. 1831 - d. 1891) 6 Feb 1890 - 4 Apr 1890 José Sánchez Gómez (acting) 4 Apr 1890 - 24 Aug 1890 José Chinchilla (b. 1839 - d. 1898) 24 Aug 1890 - 20 Jun 1892 Camilo García de Polavieja y del Castillo (b. 1838 - d. 1914) 20 Jun 1892 - 15 Jul 1893 Alejandro Rodríguez Arias (b. 1838 - d. 1893) 15 Jul 1893 - 16 Sep 1893 José Arderius (acting) 16 Sep 1893 - 16 Apr 1895 Emilio Calleja (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Apr 1895 - 11 Jan 1896 Arsenio Martínez Campos (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Jan 1896 - 31 Oct 1897 Valeriano Weyler (b. 1838 - d. 1930) 31 Oct 1897 - 30 Nov 1898 Ramón Blanco y Erenas, marqués de Peña Plata (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Nov 1898 - 1 Jan 1899 Adolfo Jiménez Castellanos (b. 1844 - d. 1929) Presidents 10 Oct 1868 - 27 Oct 1873 Carlos Manuel de Céspedes (b. 1819 - d. 1874) (provisional to 12 Apr 1869) 27 Oct 1873 - 1 Jul 1875 Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt, marqués de Santa Lucía (1st time) (b. 1848 - d. 1914) (acting) 1 Jul 1875 - 29 Mar 1876 Juan Bautista Spotorno (acting) (b. 1832 - d. 1917) 29 Mar 1876 - 19 Oct 1877 Tomás Estrada Palma (1st time) (b. 1835 - d. 1908) 19 Oct 1877 - 13 Dec 1877 Francisco Javier de Céspedes (b. 1821 - d. 1903) (interim) 13 Dec 1877 - 10 Feb 1878 Vicente García y González (b. 1833 - d. 1886) 10 Feb 1878 - 16 Mar 1878 Spanish control reasserted 16 Mar 1878 - 28 May 1878 Manuel de Jesús Calvar (b. 1832 - d. 1895) (chairman Provisional Government) 28 May 1878 - 18 Sep 1895 Spanish control reasserted 18 Sep 1895 - 30 Oct 1897 Salvador Cisneros y Betancourt, marqués de Santa Lucía (2nd time) (s.a.) (chairman Government Council) 30 Oct 1897 - 7 Nov 1898 Bartolomé Masó (b. 1830 - d. 1907) Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Assembly of Representatives of the Cuban Revolution 7 Nov 1898 - 10 Nov 1898 Domingo Méndez Capote (b. 1863 - d. 1933) (chairman Assembly) 10 Nov 1898 - 4 Apr 1899 Rafael Portuondo Tamayo (b. 1840 - d. 1908) 4 Apr 1899 - 30 Jun 1899 José Lacret (b. 1848 - d. 1904) Governors 1 Jan 1899 - 23 Dec 1899 John Ruller Brooke (b. 1838 - d. 1926) 23 Dec 1899 - 20 May 1902 Leonard Wood (b. 1868 - d. 1927) President 20 May 1902 - 28 Sep 1906 Tomás Estrada Palma (2nd time) (s.a.) Provisional governors 29 Sep 1906 - 13 Oct 1906 William Howard Taft (b. 1857 - d. 1930) 13 Oct 1906 - 28 Jan 1909 Charles E. Magoon (b. 1861 - d. 1920) Presidents 28 Jan 1909 - 20 May 1913 José Miguel Gómez (b. 1858 - d. 1921) 20 May 1913 - 20 May 1921 Mario García Menocal (b. 1868 - d. 1941) 20 May 1921 - 20 May 1925 Alfredo Zayas y Alfonso (b. 1861 - d. 1934) 20 May 1925 - 24 Aug 1933 Gerardo Machado y Morales (b. 1871 - d. 1939) (left Cuba 12 Aug 1933) 13 Aug 1933 - 5 Sep 1933 Carlos Manuel de Céspedes (b. 1871 - d. 1939) (provisional [acting for Machado to 24 Aug 1933]) 5 Sep 1933 - 10 Sep 1933 Executive Commission of the Provisional Government - Ramón Grau San Martín (b. 1887 - d. 1969) - Guillermo Portela y Möller (b. 1886 - d. 1958) - José Miguel Irisarri y Gamio (b. 1895 - d. 1968) - Sergio Carbó y Morera (b. 1891 - d. 1971) - Porfirio Franca y Álvarez de la Campa (b. 1878 - d. 1950) 10 Sep 1933 - 15 Jan 1934 Ramón Grau San Martín (1st time) (s.a.) 15 Jan 1934 - 18 Jan 1934 Carlos Hevia y de los Reyes Gavilán (provisional) (b. 1900 - d. 1964) 18 Jan 1934 (hours) Manuel Márquez Sterling y Loret de Mola (acting) (b. 1872 - d. 1934) 18 Jan 1934 - 11 Dec 1935 Carlos Mendieta y Montefur (b. 1873 - d. 1960) (provisional) 11 Dec 1935 - 20 May 1936 José Agripino Barnet y Vinageras (b. 1864 - d. 1945) (acting to 13 Dec 1935, provisional from 13 Dec 1935) 20 May 1936 - 24 Dec 1936 Miguel Mariano Gómez y Arias (b. 1889 - d. 1950) 24 Dec 1936 - 10 Oct 1940 Federico Laredo Brú (b. 1875 - d. 1946) 10 Oct 1940 - 10 Oct 1944 Fulgencio Batista (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1973) 10 Oct 1944 - 10 Oct 1948 Ramón Grau San Martín (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Oct 1948 - 10 Mar 1952 Carlos Prío Socarrás (b. 1903 - d. 1977) 10 Mar 1952 - 1 Jan 1959 Fulgencio Batista (2nd time) (s.a.) (Head of State to 4 Apr 1952) 14 Aug 1954 - 24 Feb 1955 Andrés Domingo y Morales del Castillo (acting for Batista) (b. 1892 - d. 1979) 1 Jan 1959 - 2 Jan 1959 Anselmo Alliegro y Milá (acting) (b. 1899 - d. 1961) 2 Jan 1959 (hours) Carlos Manuel Piedra y Piedra (b. 1895? - d. 1988) (interim) 3 Jan 1959 - 17 Jul 1959 Manuel Urrutia Lleó (b. 1901 - d. 1981) 18 Jul 1959 - 2 Dec 1976 Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado (b. 1919 - d. 1983) Presidents of the Council of State 3 Dec 1976 - 24 Feb 2008 Fidel Castro (s.a.) 31 Jul 2006 - Raúl Castro (s.a.) (acting for Fidel Castro to 24 Feb 2008)
President of the Cabinet 1 Jan 1898 - 1898 José María Gálvez (b. 1834 - d. 1906) Premiers 10 Oct 1940 - 16 Aug 1942 Carlos Saladrigas y Zayas (b. 1900 - d. 1956) 16 Aug 1942 - 16 Mar 1944 Ramón Zaydín y Márquez Sterling (b. 1895 - d. 1968) 16 Mar 1944 - 10 Oct 1944 Anselmo Alliegro y Milá (s.a.) 10 Oct 1944 - 13 Oct 1945 Félix Lancís Sánchez (1st time) (b. 1900 - d. ...) 13 Oct 1945 - 1 May 1947 Carlos Prío Socarrás (s.a.) 1 May 1947 - 10 Oct 1948 Raúl López del Castillo 10 Oct 1948 - 6 Oct 1950 Manuel Antonio de Varona y Loredo (b. 1908 - d. 1992) 6 Oct 1950 - 1 Oct 1951 Félix Lancís Sánchez (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Oct 1951 - 10 Mar 1952 Óscar B. Gans y López Martínez (b. 1903 - d. 1965) 24 Feb 1955 - 26 Mar 1957 Jorge García Montes (b. 1898 - d. 1982) 26 Mar 1957 - 6 Mar 1958 Andrés Rivero Agüero (b. 1905 - d. 1997) 6 Mar 1958 - 12 Mar 1958 Emilio Núñez Portuondo (b. 1898 - d. 1978) 12 Mar 1958 - 1 Jan 1959 Gonzalo Güell y Morales de los Ríos (b. 1895 - d. 1985) 5 Jan 1959 - 13 Feb 1959 José Miró Cardona (b. 1902 - d. 1974) 16 Feb 1959 - 2 Dec 1976 Fidel Castro (s.a.) Presidents of the Council of Ministers 3 Dec 1976 - 24 Feb 2008 Fidel Castro (s.a.) 31 Jul 2006 - Raúl Castro (s.a.) (acting for Fidel Castro to 24 Feb 2008)

Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

   Jun 1898                U.S. occupation
10 Dec 1903                Guantanamo Bay Naval Station leased to U.S.
 1 Apr 1941                renamed Guantanamo Bay Naval Operating Base
18 Jun 1952                renamed Guantanamo Bay Naval Base

Commandants
10 Dec 1903 -    May 1904  William H. Allen
17 May 1904 -    Sep 1906  Charles C. Rogers
 8 Sep 1906 -    Jul 1907  Albert A. Ackerman
   Aug 1907 -    May 1908  Clark D. Stearns (acting)
   May 1908 -    Apr 1909  Charles H. Harlow
   May 1909 -    Nov 1909  Myles Joyce (acting)
   Nov 1909 -    Jan 1912  Walter Ball                        (b. 1872 - d. 1944)
18 Jan 1912 -    Jun 1913  George W. Kline
   Jun 1913 -    Jan 1914  Merritt S. Corning (acting)
   Jan 1914 -    Oct 1914  Hilary Williams
   Dec 1914 -    May 1916  John M. Luby
 4 May 1916 -    Sep 1917  Dudley W. Knox                     (b. 1877 - d. 1960)
   Sep 1917 -    Nov 1918  E.E. Wright
   Dec 1918 -    Sep 1920  Guy Whitlock                       (b. ... - d. 1922?)
   Sep 1920 -    Jun 1921  John J. Hannigan
   Jun 1921 -    May 1923  Robert T. Menner
   May 1923 -    Jun 1924  Ward K. Wortman
   Jun 1924 -    Jun 1926  Charles M. Tozer
   Jun 1926 -    Aug 1928  Charles C. Soule, Jr.
   Aug 1928 -    Jun 1930  Charles S. McWhorter
   Aug 1930 -    Feb 1931  Alfred H. Miles                    (b. 1883 - d. 1956)
   Feb 1931 -    May 1933  Thomas L. Johnson
   Jun 1933 -    Jun 1934  Edward C. Raguet
   Jun 1934 -    Apr 1936  Charles M. Cooke, Jr.              (b. 1886 - d. 1970)
   May 1936 -    Jun 1938  Mark L. Hersey, Jr.
   Jun 1938 -    Aug 1940  Worrall R. Carter                  (b. 1885 - d. 1975)
   Sep 1940 -    Mar 1944  George L. Weyler                   (b. 1886 - d. 1971)
Commanders
   Apr 1944 -    Oct 1944  Frank Alfred Braisted              (b. 1889 - d. 1981)
   Oct 1944 -    Dec 1945  J.J. Mahoney
   Jan 1946 -    May 1948  C.E. Battle, Jr.
   Jun 1948 -    Jun 1950  W.K. Phillips
   Jun 1950 -    Dec 1950  A.M. Bledsoe
   Dec 1950 -    Jan 1953  M.E. Murphy
   Jan 1953 -    Dec 1953  C.L.C. Atkeson                     (b. 1899 - d. 1975)
   Feb 1954 -    Sep 1955  E.B. Taylor
   Sep 1955 -    Oct 1956  W.G. Cooper
   Dec 1956 -    Nov 1958  R.B. Ellis
   Nov 1958 -    Oct 1960  Frank W. Fenno                     (b. 1902 - d. 1973)
   Dec 1960 -    Dec 1962  Edward J. O'Donnell                (b. 1907 - d. 1991)
   Dec 1962 -    Dec 1963  J.W. Davis
   Dec 1963 -    Jun 1966  John Duncan Bulkeley               (b. 1911 - d. 1996)
   Jun 1966 -    Jul 1968  E.R. Crawford
   Jul 1968 -    Jun 1970  James B. Hildreth                  (b. 1920 - d. 2006)
   Jun 1970 -    Aug 1972  B. McCauley
   Aug 1972 -    Jun 1973  Leo B. McCuddin                    (b. 1917 - d. 1983)
   Jun 1973 -    Jul 1975  Ralph M. Ghormley                  (b. 1927 - d. 2012)
   Jul 1975 -    Jun 1977  J.H. McConnell
   Jun 1977 -    Feb 1979  D.W. DeCook
   Feb 1979 -    Mar 1981  John H. Fetterman, Jr.             (b. 1932 - d. 2006)
   Mar 1981 -    Oct 1983  M.D. Fitzgerald
   Oct 1983 -    Oct 1985  R.A. Allen
   Oct 1985 -    Apr 1988  John R. Condon
   Apr 1988 -    Jun 1990  John S. Boyd
   Jun 1990 -    Aug 1992  W.C. McCamy, Jr.
   Aug 1992 -    Sep 1994  W.M. DeSpain
   Sep 1994 -    Sep 1995  James F. Boland, Jr.
   Sep 1995 -    Apr 1997  Jim Cannon
   Apr 1997 - 12 May 2000  Larry E. Larson
12 May 2000 - 27 Mar 2003  Robert A. Buehn                    (b. 1951?)
27 Mar 2003 -  9 Jul 2005  Leslie J. McCoy
 9 Jul 2005 - 22 Sep 2005  Lawrence S. Cotton
22 Sep 2005 - 25 Sep 2008  Mark Leary
25 Sep 2008 - 23 Sep 2010  Steven Blaisdell
23 Sep 2010 - 29 Jun 2012  Kirk R. Hibbert
29 Jun 2012 -              John R. Nettleton

Cuenca: see under Ecuador.
Cundinamarca: see under Colombia.

Curaçao

       1634                Dutch colony
       1800 -        1803  British rule
       1807 -        1816  British rule
       1828                united with other Dutch territories
                           (see Netherlands Antilles, below)
10 Oct 2010                autonomous country

Directors
       1692 -        1700  Bastiaan Bernagie (acting to 1694)
       1700 -        1704  Nicolaas van Beek (acting to 1701)
       1704                Jeremias van Collen (1st time)
                           (acting)
       1704                Gerard Luls (acting)
       1704 -        1709  Jacob Beck
       1709                Jeremias van Collen (2nd time)
                           (acting)
       1709 -        1710  Abraham Beck
       1710 -        1715  Jeremias van Collen (3rd time)
                           (acting to 1711)
       1715 -        1720  Jonathan van Beuningen
                           (acting to 1716)
       1720                Jan van Beuningen
       1720 -        1721  Cornelis Anderman van der Burgh
                           + Juan Pedro van Collen (1st time)
                           + Frederick Eck
                           (acting)
       1721 -        1730  Jan Noach du Faij
       1731 -        1738  Juan Pedro van Collen (2nd time)
       1738 -        1740  Jan Gales
       1740 -        1758  Isaäc Faesch
       1758 -        1761  Jean Isai Claris Rodier de la
                           Bruguière (1st time) (acting)
       1761 -        1762  Jacob van Bosveld
       1762 -        1781  Jean Isai Claris Rodier de la
                           Bruguière (2nd time)
                           (acting to 1762)
       1781 -        1782  Jan Lixraaven (lieutenant governor)
       1782 -        1784  Johannes Abrahamszoon de Veer
       1784 -        1796  Jan Jacob Beaujon
       1796 -        1800  Johan Rudolf Lauffer               (b. 17... - d. 1833)
Governors
       1800                Hugh Seymour
       1800                Johan Rudolf Lauffer
       1800 -        1801  Walter Tremenheere
       1801                William Carlyon Hughes (1st time)  (b. 17... - d. 1808)
       1801 -        1802  Arthur Whetham
       1802 -        1803  William Carlyon Hughes (2nd time)  (s.a.)
       1803                Cornelis Berch
       1803                C.H. Bushman                       (b. 17... - d. 1803)
       1803 -        1804  Abraham de Veer
       1804 -        1807  Pierre Jean Changuion              (b. 1763 - d. 1820)
       1807                Charles Brisbane
       1807                Sir William Bolton
       1807                David Baillie
       1807 -        1808  Micaiah Malbon
       1808                Robert Nicholas
       1808 -        1809  Sir James Cockburn
       1809 -        1811  John Thomas Layard
       1811 -        1814  John Hodgson
       1814 -        1816  John Le Couteur
Governors-general
       1816 -        1819  Albert Kikkert
       1819 -        1820  Petrus Bernardus van Starkenborgh
       1820                Isaäc Johannes Rammelman Elsevier
Governor
       1820 -        1828  Paulus Roelof Cantz'laar           (b. ... - d. 1831)
Director
       1828 -        1833  Isaäc Johannes Rammelman Elsevier
Administrators (gezaghebbers)
       1833 -        1836  Isaäc Johannes Rammelman Elsevier
       1836 -        1845  Reinier Frederik baron van Raders  (b. 1794 - d. 1868)
19 Jul 1845 - 27 Jan 1848  Rutgers Hermanus Esser             (b. 1800 - d. 1864)
Governors
27 Jan 1848 - 15 Apr 1951  the governors of the Netherlands Antilles
Administrators (gezaghebbers)
15 Apr 1951 -        1967  Michaël Gorsira                    (b. 1913 - d. 1994)
       1967 -        1968  Willem George Shon Weis de Haseth  (b. 1915)
                           (acting)
       1968 -        1969  Otto R.A. Beaujon                  (b. 1915 - d. 1984)
       1969 -        1970  Elias José Morkos                  (b. 1919 - d. 1982)
       1970 -        1976  Anno E. Kibbelaar                  (b. 1929 - d. 2005)
       1976 -        1982  Ornelio Martina                    (b. 1930)
       1982 -        1988  Ronald Anthony Casseres            (b. 1939 - d. 1988)
       1988 -        1994  Elmer Wilsoe                       (b. 1943)
 1 Oct 1994 -        2000  Stanley Betrian                    (b. 1951)
       2000 - 10 Oct 2010  Lizanne Richards-Dindial (f)       (b. 1957)
Governors
10 Oct 2010 - 24 Nov 2012  Frits Goedgedrag                   (b. 1951)
24 Nov 2012 -  4 Nov 2013  Adèle van der Pluijm-Vrede (f)     (b. 1952)
                           (acting)
 4 Nov 2013 -              Lucille George-Wout (f)            (b. 1950)

Prime ministers 10 Oct 2010 - 29 Sep 2012 Gerrit Schotte (b. 1974) 29 Sep 2012 - 31 Dec 2012 Stanley Betrian (s.a.) 31 Dec 2012 - 7 Jun 2013 Daniel Hodge (b. 1959) 7 Jun 2013 - Ivar Asjes (b. 1970)

Netherlands Antilles

       1828                Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten,
                           and Dutch Guiana united as Dutch West Indies, with the
                           governor of Dutch Guiana (see Suriname) as governor-general
27 Jan 1848                islands united under the name of Curaçao
20 Sep 1948                renamed Netherlands Antilles
 1 Jan 1986                Aruba separated
10 Oct 2010                federation dissolved

Governors
27 Jan 1848 - 20 Dec 1948  Rutgers Hermanus Esser             (b. 1800 - d. 1864)
20 Dec 1848 - 28 Apr 1854  Jonkheer Isaäc Johannes Rammelman
                           Elsevier, Jr. (acting to 1849)     (b. 1802 - d. 1877)
28 Apr 1854 - 25 Feb 1856  Jacob Bennebroek Gravenhorst       (b. 1802 - d. 1859)
                           (acting)
25 Feb 1856 - 23 Apr 1859  Reinhart Frans van Lansberge       (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
13 Jul 1859 - 16 Apr 1866  Johannes Didericus Crol            (b. 1806 - d. 1870)
16 Apr 1866 - 24 Nov 1870  Abraham Mathieu de Rouville        (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
24 Nov 1870 -  1 May 1877  Herman François Gerardus Wagner    (b. 1822 - d. 1904)
                           (acting to 5 Apr 1871)
 1 May 1877 -  1 Oct 1880  Hendrik Bernardus Kip              (b. 1823 - d. 1897)
 1 Oct 1880 - 18 Oct 1882  Johannes Herbert August Willem
                           baron van Heerdt tot Eversberg     (b. 1829 - d. 1893)
18 Oct 1882 -  6 May 1890  Nicolaas van den Brandhof          (b. 1834 - d. 1904)
 6 May 1890 - 24 Aug 1901  Charles Augustinus Henry Barge     (b. 1844 - d. 1919)
24 Aug 1901 - 11 Sep 1901  Theodorus Isaak Andreas Nuyens
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1859 - d. 1923)
11 Sep 1901 - 16 Oct 1909  Jonkheer Jan Olphert de Jong van
                           Beek en Donk                       (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
23 Jul 1904 - 23 Oct 1904    Casper Statius Muller            (b. 18... - d. 1936)
                             (acting for de Jong)
16 Oct 1909 - 20 Mar 1919  Theodorus Isaak Andreas Nuyens
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1919                John Brown Gorsira (1st time)      (b. 1865 - d. 19...)
                           (acting)
10 Jun 1919 - 24 Jun 1921  Oscar Louis Helfrich               (b. 1860 - d. 1958)
       1921                John Brown Gorsira (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting)
13 Oct 1921 - 31 Aug 1928  Nikolaas Johannes Laurentius
                           Brantjes                           (b. 1874 - d. 1948)
       1924                  John Brown Gorsira (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                             (acting for Brantjes)
       1927                  Herman Bernard Cornelis
                             Schotborgh (1st time)            (b. 1898 - d. ...)
                             (acting for Brantjes)
       1928 -        1929  Marius van Dijk (acting)
30 Jan 1929 -  3 Oct 1929  Leonardus Albert Fruytier          (b. 1882 - d. 1972)
       1929 -        1930  Herman Bernard Cornelis Schotborgh
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
20 Feb 1930 - 22 Jun 1936  Bartholomaeus Wouther Theodorus
                           van Slobbe (acting to 11 Mar 1930) (b. 1882 - d. 1956)
       1933                  Herman Bernard Cornelis
                             Schotborgh (3rd time)            (b. 1898 - d. ...)
                             (acting for Slobbe)
       1936                Frans Adriaan Jas (1st time)
                           (acting)
13 Jul 1936 - 15 Jul 1942  Gielliam Johannes Josephus Wouters (b. 1883 - d. 1973)
15 Jul 1942 -  1 Jul 1948  Piet Kasteel                       (b. 1901 - d. 2003)
       1946                  Frans Adriaan Jas (2nd time)
                             (acting for Kasteel)
       1948                Cornelius Süthoff (acting)
 4 Aug 1948 - 31 Mar 1951  Leonard Antoon Hubert Peters       (b. 1900 - d. 1984)
       1951                Frans Adriaan Jas (3rd time)
                           (acting)
 7 Jun 1951 - 25 Oct 1956  Teun Struiken (from 16 Jun 1953,
                           Teun Struycken)                    (b. 1906 - d. 1977)
25 Oct 1956 -    Apr 1957  Frans E.J. van der Valk (acting)
24 Apr 1957 -  1 Jun 1961  Antonius Bernardus Speekenbrink    (b. 1905 - d. 1978)
 1 Jun 1961 - 11 Aug 1962  Christiaan Winkel (acting)         (b. 1899 - d. 1962)
11 Aug 1962 - 10 Sep 1962  A.P.J. van Bruggen (acting)
10 Sep 1962 -  1 Jun 1970  Nicolaas Debrot                    (b. 1902 - d. 1981)
 1 Jun 1970 - 16 May 1983  Bernadito M. Leito                 (b. 1923)
 5 Oct 1983 - 15 Jan 1990  René A. Römer                      (b. 1929 - d. 2003)
15 Jan 1990 -  1 Jul 2002  Jaime Saleh                        (b. 1941)
 1 Jul 2002 - 10 Oct 2010  Frits Goedgedrag                   (b. 1951)

Chairmen of the College of General Administration 21 Aug 1948 - 10 May 1949 A.G. Statius Muller 10 May 1949 - 14 Jul 1949 Moises F. da Costa Gomez (b. 1907 - d. 1966) 14 Jul 1949 - 17 Aug 1950 Lindoro Cristoffel Kwartsz (b. 1873 - d. 1959) 17 Aug 1950 - 18 Apr 1951 Nicolaas Debrot (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of Government 18 Apr 1951 - 8 Dec 1954 Moises F. da Costa Gomez (s.a.) 8 Dec 1954 - 15 Dec 1954 Efraïn Jonckheer (b. 1917 - d. 1987) Prime ministers 15 Dec 1954 - 14 Feb 1968 Efraïn Jonckheer (s.a.) 14 Feb 1968 - Sep 1969 Ciro Domenico Kroon (b. 1916) Sep 1969 - Dec 1969 Gerald C. Sprockel (b. 1919) Dec 1969 - Feb 1971 Ernesto O. Petronia (b. 1916) Feb 1971 - Jun 1971 Ramez J. Isa (1st time) (b. 1917 - d. 2005) Jun 1971 - Oct 1972 Otto R.A. Beaujon (b. 1915 - d. 1984) Oct 1972 - Dec 1973 Ramez J. Isa (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Dec 1973 - 30 Sep 1977 Juan Miguel Gregorio Evertsz (b. 1923 - d. 2008) 1977 Lucinda da Costa Gomez-Matheeuws (f) (b. 1929) 1977 - 14 Oct 1977 Leo A.I. Chance (b. 1932) 14 Oct 1977 - 6 Jul 1979 Sylvius Gerard Marie Rozendal (b. 1928 - d. 2003) 6 Jul 1979 - Dec 1979 Miguel Pourier (1st time) (b. 1938 - d. 2013) Dec 1979 - 18 Sep 1984 Dominico F. Martina (1st time) (b. 1935) 18 Sep 1984 - 1 Jan 1986 Maria Liberia-Peters (f) (1st time) (b. 1941) 1 Jan 1986 - 17 May 1988 Dominico F. Martina (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 May 1988 - 25 Nov 1993 Maria Liberia-Peters (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Nov 1993 - 28 Dec 1993 Susanne Camelia-Römer (f) (1st time) (b. 1959) 28 Dec 1993 - 31 Mar 1994 Alejandro Felippe Paula (b. 1937) 31 Mar 1994 - 14 May 1998 Miguel Pourier (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 May 1998 - 8 Nov 1999 Susanne Camelia-Römer (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Nov 1999 - 3 Jun 2002 Miguel Pourier (3rd time) (s.a.) 3 Jun 2002 - 22 Jul 2003 Etienne Ys (1st time) (b. 1962) 22 Jul 2003 - 11 Aug 2003 Ben Komproe (b. 1942 - d. 2004) 11 Aug 2003 - 3 Jun 2004 Mirna Louisa-Godett (f) (b. 1954) 3 Jun 2004 - 26 Mar 2006 Etienne Ys (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Mar 2006 - 10 Oct 2010 Emily de Jongh-Elhage (f) (b. 1946)

Cyprus

   Aug 1570                part of the Ottoman Empire
12 Jul 1878                British administration (under Ottoman suzerainty
                           to 5 Nov 1914)
10 Mar 1925                British crown colony
16 Aug 1960                independence

High commissioners (from 10 Mar 1925, governors)
22 Jul 1878 - 23 Jun 1879  Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley         (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
23 Jun 1879 -  9 Mar 1886  Sir Robert Biddulph                (b. 1835 - d. 1918)
 9 Mar 1886 -  5 Apr 1892  Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer   (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
 5 Apr 1892 - 23 Apr 1898  Sir Walter Joseph Sendall          (b. 1832 - d. 1904)
23 Apr 1898 - 17 Oct 1904  Sir William Frederick Haynes Smith (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
17 Oct 1904 - 12 Oct 1911  Sir Charles Anthony King-Harman    (b. 1851 - d. 1939)
12 Oct 1911 -  8 Jan 1915  Hamilton John Goold-Adams          (b. 1858 - d. 1920)
 8 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1918  Sir John Eugene Clauson            (b. 1866 - d. 1918)
31 Dec 1918 - 30 Nov 1926  Sir Malcolm Stevenson              (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
                           (acting to 31 Jul 1920)
30 Nov 1926 - 29 Oct 1932  Sir Ronald Storrs                  (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
29 Oct 1932 -  8 Nov 1933  Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs         (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
 8 Nov 1933 -  4 Jul 1939  Sir Herbert Richmond Palmer        (b. 1877 - d. 1958)
 4 Jul 1939 -  3 Oct 1941  William Denis Battershill
                           (from 1941, Sir William
                           Denis Battershill)                 (b. 1896 - d. 1959)
 3 Oct 1941 - 24 Oct 1946  Charles Campbell Woolley
                           (from 1943, Sir Charles
                           Campbell Woolley)                  (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
24 Oct 1946 -  4 Aug 1949  Reginald Thomas Herbert Fletcher,
                           Baron Winster                      (b. 1885 - d. 1961)
 4 Aug 1949 -        1953  Sir Andrew Barkworth Wright        (b. 1895 - d. 1971)
       1954 -  3 Oct 1955  Sir Robert Perceval Armitage       (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
 3 Oct 1955 -  4 Nov 1957  Sir John Harding                   (b. 1896 - d. 1989)
 3 Dec 1957 - 16 Aug 1960  Sir Hugh Mackintosh Foot           (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
Presidents
16 Aug 1960 - 15 Jul 1974  Makarios III (1st time)            (b. 1913 - d. 1977)
15 Jul 1974 - 23 Jul 1974  Nikos Sampson                      (b. 1934 - d. 2001)
23 Jul 1974 -  3 Aug 1977  Makarios III (2nd time)            (s.a.)
23 Jul 1974 -  7 Dec 1974    Glafkos Kliridis (1st time)      (b. 1919 - d. 2013)
                             (acting for Makarios)
 3 Aug 1977 - 28 Feb 1988  Spyros Kyprianou                   (b. 1932 - d. 2002)
                           (acting to 31 Aug 1977)
28 Feb 1988 - 28 Feb 1993  Georgios Vasiliou                  (b. 1931)
28 Feb 1993 - 28 Feb 2003  Glafkos Kliridis (2nd time)        (s.a.)
28 Feb 2003 - 28 Feb 2008  Tassos Papadopoulos                (b. 1934 - d. 2008)
28 Feb 2008 - 28 Feb 2013  Dimitris Christofias               (b. 1946)
28 Feb 2013 -              Nikos Anastasiadis                 (b. 1946)

North Cyprus

20 Jul 1974                Turkish invasion
13 Feb 1975                Turkish Federated State
15 Nov 1983                Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (recognized only
                           by Turkey)

Presidents
13 Feb 1975 - 15 Mar 1990  Rauf Denktas (1st time)            (b. 1924 - d. 2012)
15 Mar 1990 - 25 Apr 1990  Hakki Atun (acting)                (b. 1935)
25 Apr 1990 - 24 Apr 2005  Rauf Denktas (2nd time)            (s.a.)
24 Apr 2005 - 23 Apr 2010  Mehmet Ali Talat                   (b. 1952)
23 Apr 2010 -              Dervis Eroglu                      (b. 1938)

Prime ministers 5 Jul 1976 - 21 Apr 1978 Nejat Konuk (1st time) (b. 1928) 21 Apr 1978 - 12 Dec 1978 Osman Örek (b. 1925 - d. 1999) 12 Dec 1978 - 13 Dec 1983 Mustafa Çagatay (b. 1937) 13 Dec 1983 - 19 Jul 1985 Nejat Konuk (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Jul 1985 - 1 Jan 1994 Dervis Eroglu (1st time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1994 - 16 Aug 1996 Hakki Atun (s.a.) 16 Aug 1996 - 13 Jan 2004 Dervis Eroglu (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Jan 2004 - 26 Apr 2005 Mehmet Ali Talat (s.a.) 26 Apr 2005 - 5 May 2009 Ferdi Sabit Soyer (b. 1952) 5 May 2009 - 23 Apr 2010 Dervis Eroglu (3rd time) (s.a.) 23 Apr 2010 - 17 May 2010 Hüseyin Özgürgün (acting) (b. 1965) 17 May 2010 - 13 Jun 2013 Irsen Küçük (b. 1940) 13 Jun 2013 - 2 Sep 2013 Sibel Siber (f) (b. 1960) 2 Sep 2013 - Özkan Yorgancioglu (b. 1954)

British Sovereign Base Areas

16 Aug 1960                areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia remain under British
                           jurisdiction upon independence

Administrators
16 Aug 1960 - 17 Jul 1962  Sir William MacDonald              (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
17 Jul 1962 - 29 Sep 1964  Sir Denis Hensley Fulton Barnett   (b. 1906 - d. 1992)
29 Sep 1964 - 22 Nov 1966  Thomas Prickett (from 1965,
                           Sir Thomas Prickett)               (b. 1913 - d. 2010)
22 Nov 1966 -  6 May 1969  Edward Gordon Jones (from 1967,
                           Sir Edward Gordon Jones)           (b. 1914 - d. 2007)
 6 May 1969 -  2 Jul 1970  Sir Denis Smallwood                (b. 1918 - d. 1997)
 2 Jul 1970 - 25 Jun 1973  Derek Hodgkinson (from 1971,
                           Sir Derek Hodgkinson)              (b. 1917 - d. 2010)
25 Jun 1973 -  2 Apr 1976  Sir John Aiken                     (b. 1921 - d. 2005)
 2 Apr 1976 - 28 Apr 1978  Roy Austen-Smith                   (b. 1924)
28 Apr 1978 -    Oct 1980  Walter Reynell Taylor              (b. 1928 - d. 1996)
   Oct 1980 - 31 Mar 1983  Robert Leslie Davis                (b. 1930)
31 Mar 1983 - 29 Oct 1985  Sir Desmond Langley                (b. 1930 - d. 2008)
29 Oct 1985 - 21 Apr 1988  Kenneth Hayr                       (b. 1935 - d. 2001)
21 Apr 1988 -    Jul 1990  John Peter William Friedberger     (b. 1937)
   Jul 1990 - 25 Mar 1993  Alexander Freeland Cairns Hunter   (b. 1939)
25 Mar 1993 - 15 Feb 1995  Alexander Harley                   (b. 1941)
   Feb 1995 - 16 Jan 1998  Peter Millar                       (b. 1942)
16 Jan 1998 -  5 Sep 2000  Angus Ramsay
 5 Sep 2000 -  5 Sep 2003  Bill Rimmer                        (b. 1948)
 5 Sep 2003 - 26 Apr 2006  Peter Thomas Clayton Pearson       (b. 1954)
26 Apr 2006 - 16 Oct 2008  Richard Lacey                      (b. 1953)
16 Oct 2008 -  4 Nov 2010  Jamie Gordon                       (b. 1957)
 4 Nov 2010 - 10 Jan 2013  Graham Stacey                      (b. 1959)
10 Jan 2013 -              Richard Cripwell

Cyrenaica: see under Libya.

Czech Republic

Austrian crown lands

Note: Roughly coextensive with today's Czech Republic were the "Lands of the Crown of St. Wenceslas," over which the emperor of Austria (until 1867 a purely dynastic, rather than territorial, title) ruled in his capacity as king of Bohemia and, subsidiarily, margrave of Moravia and duke of Upper and Lower Silesia.

Bohemia

Governors
       1848 -        1860  Karl Freiherr von Mecséry-Tsoor    (b. 1804 - d. 1886)
                           (acting to 1850)
       1860 -        1861  Anton Graf Forgách Ghymes          (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
       1861 -        1863  Ernst Freiherr von Kellersperg
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1822 - d. 1879)
       1863 -        1865  Richard Graf Belcredi              (b. 1823 - d. 1902)
                           (administrator to 1864)
       1865 -        1866  Antonín Graf Lazanský von Bukowa   (b. 1815 - d. 1883)
                           (administrator)
19 Jul 1866 -        1866    Eduard Vogel von Falckenstein    (b. 1797 - d. 1885)
                             (Prussian governor-general)
       1866 -        1867  Karl Graf Rothkirch-Panthen        (b. 1807 - d. 1870)
       1867 -        1868  Ernst Freiherr von Kellersperg
                           (2nd time) (administrator)         (s.a.)
       1868 -        1870  Alexander Freiherr von Koller
                           (1st time) (administrator)         (b. 1813 - d. 1890)
       1870 - 14 Feb 1871  Alexander Graf von
                           Mensdorff-Pouilly (administrator)  (b. 1813 - d. 1871)
       1871                Bohuslav Graf Chotek               (b. 1829 - d. 1896)
       1871 -        1874  Alexander Freiherr von Koller
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Jun 1874 -        1881  Philipp Freiherr Weber von Ebenhof (b. 1818 - d. 1900)
 8 Jul 1881 -        1889  Alfred Freiherr von Kraus          (b. 1824 - d. 1909)
                           (administrator to 1882)
       1889 -        1896  Franz Fürst von Thun und
                           Hohenstein (1st time)              (b. 1847 - d. 1916)
       1896 -        1911  Karl Graf von Coudenhove           (b. 1855 - d. 1913)
       1911 -        1915  Franz Fürst von Thun und
                           Hohenstein (2nd time)              (s.a.)
       1915 -        1918  Max Graf von Coudenhove            (b. 1865 - d. 1928)

Oberstlandmarschälle 1861 - 1863 Albert Graf Nostitz-Rieneck (1st time) (b. 1807 - d. 1871) 1863 - 1866 Karl Graf Rothkirch-Panthen (s.a.) Jul 1866 - 1866 Georg Maximilian Franz Steinmann (b. 1830 - d. 1901) (Prussian civil commissioner) 1866 - 1867 Albert Graf Nostitz-Rieneck (2nd time) (s.a.) 1867 Edmund Graf Hartig (b. 1812 - d. 1883) 1867 - 1870 Adolf Fürst Auersperg (b. 1821 - d. 1885) 1870 Albert Graf Nostitz-Rieneck (3rd time) (s.a.) 1871 - 1872 Georg Christian Franz Fürst Lobkowitz (1st time) (b. 1835 - d. 1908) 1872 - 1883 Karl Wilhelm Philipp Fürst Auersperg (b. 1814 - d. 1890) 1883 - 1907 Georg Christian Franz Fürst Lobkowitz (2nd time) (s.a.) 1907 - 1913 Ferdinand Zdenko Maria Fürst Lobkowitz (b. 1858 - d. 1938) Chairman of the Provincial Administrative Commission 1913 - 1918 Adalbert Joseph Maria Franz Graf Schönborn-Buchheim-Wolfstahl (b. 1854 - d. 1924)

Moravia

Governors
 8 Dec 1849 -  1 Aug 1860  Leopold Graf Lazanský              (b. 1808 - d. 1860)
11 Aug 1860 - 20 Nov 1860  Anton Graf Forgách Ghymes          (s.a.)
20 Nov 1860 - 21 May 1862  Gustav Ignaz Graf Chorinský        (b. 1806 - d. 1873)
21 May 1862 - 20 Sep 1870  Adolf Freiherr von Poche           (b. 1811 - d. 1893)
25 Jul 1866 -    Sep 1866    Friedrich Wilhelm Eugen Karl
                             Hugo Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Öhringen,
                             Herzog von Ujest                 (b. 1816 - d. 1897)
                             (Prussian governor-general)
10 Oct 1870 - 29 Jun 1872  Siegmund Graf Thun-Hohenstein      (b. 1827 - d. 1897)
29 Jun 1872 - 14 Jun 1874  Philipp Freiherr Weber von Ebenhof (s.a.)
26 Jun 1874 - 18 Mar 1880  Ludwig Freiherr
                           Possinger-Choborski                (b. 1823 - d. 1905)
18 Mar 1880 - 10 Jul 1880  Franz Ritter Kallina-Urbanov
17 Sep 1880 -  7 Nov 1881  Karl Freiherr Korb-Weidenheim      (b. 1836 - d. 1881)
 8 Nov 1881 - 13 Oct 1888  Friedrich Graf Schönborn-
                           Buchheim-Wolfstahl                 (b. 1841 - d. 1907)
16 Nov 1888 - 14 Sep 1893  Hermann Freiherr von Loebl         (b. 1835 - d. 1907)
 3 Oct 1893 - 18 Jan 1900  Alois Freiherr von Spens-Boden     (b. 1835 - d. 1919)
15 Feb 1900 - 17 Sep 1906  Karl Graf Zierotin-Lilgenau        (b. 1850 - d. 1934)
       1906 -        1907  Hermann Graf Pillersdorf
26 Jan 1908 -  3 Nov 1911  Karl Freiherr von Heinold-Udynski
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1862 - d. 1943)
15 Dec 1911 - 29 Nov 1915  Oktavian Freiherr von
                           Regner-Bleyleben                   (b. 1866 - d. 1945)
 3 Dec 1915 - 30 Oct 1918  Karl Freiherr von Heinold-Udynski
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)

Landeshauptleute 1861 - 1867 Emmanuel Graf Dubsky von Trebomyslic (1st time) 28 Jul 1866 - Sep 1866 Robert Viktor von Puttkamer (b. 1828 - d. 1900) (Prussian civil commissioner) 1867 Hugo Karl Eduard Fürst zu Salm-Reifferscheid (1st time) (b. 1803 - d. 1888) 1867 - 1870 Emmanuel Graf Dubsky von Trebomyslic (2nd time) 1870 - 1871 Adalbert Freiherr von Widmann (1st time) 1871 Hugo Karl Eduard Fürst zu Salm-Reifferscheid (2nd time) (s.a.) 1871 - 1884 Adalbert Freiherr von Widmann (2nd time) 1884 - 1906 Felix Graf Vetter-Lilie (b. 1830 - d. 1913) 1906 - 1918 Otto Graf Serényi von Kis-Serényi (b. 1855 - d. 1927)

Silesia

 1 Aug 1860 -  1 Apr 1861  amalgamated with Moravia

Governors (from 1853, Landespräsidenten)
 8 Dec 1849 - 23 Dec 1853  Josef Freiherr von Kalchberg       (b. 1801 - d. 1882)
23 Dec 1853 -  1 Aug 1860  Anton Freiherr von Halbhuber       (b. 1809 - d. 1886)
 1 Apr 1861 - 28 Mar 1863  Richard Graf Belcredi              (s.a.)
                           (administrator to 10 Oct 1862)
28 Mar 1863 - 25 Jun 1866  Hermann Freiherr von Pillersdorf
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1817 - d. 1887)
25 Jun 1866 - 24 Jul 1868  August Ritter von Merkl
24 Jul 1868 - 30 Sep 1870  Hermann Freiherr von Pillersdorf
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 4 Oct 1870 - 26 Apr 1882  Alexander Ritter von Summer        (b. 1820 - d. 1882)
 8 May 1882 - 26 Jun 1886  Olivier Marquis de Bacquehem       (b. 1847 - d. 1917)
 4 Jul 1886 - 10 Jul 1889  Franz Graf Merweldt                (b. 1844 - d. 1916)
24 Jul 1889 - 13 Sep 1894  Karl Ritter Jaeger                 (b. 1836 - d. 1920)
13 Sep 1894 - 13 Feb 1896  Karl Graf von Coudenhove           (s.a.)
25 Feb 1896 - 30 Nov 1898  Manfred Graf Clary-Aldringen       (b. 1862 - d. 1928)
30 Nov 1898 - 28 Jun 1905  Josef Graf Thun-Hohenstein         (b. 1856 - d. 1932)
15 Sep 1905 - 26 Jan 1908  Karl Freiherr von Heinold-Udynski  (b. 1862 - d. 1942)
26 Jan 1908 - 27 Mar 1915  Max Graf von Coudenhove            (s.a.)
27 Mar 1915 -  2 Nov 1918  Adalbert Freiherr von Widmann      (b. 1868 - d. 1968)

Landeshauptleute 1861 - 1865 Johann Graf Larisch-Moennich (b. 1821 - d. 1884) 1865 - 1886 Armand Graf Kuenburg (b. 1809 - d. 1886) 1886 - 1918 Heinrich Graf Larisch-Moennich (b. 1850 - d. 1918)

Czechoslovakia

28 Oct 1918                Czechoslovak State
14 Nov 1918                Czechoslovak Republic (from 23 Nov 1938 semi-officially
                           Czecho-Slovak Republic)
15 Mar 1939                separation into Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
                           (under German rule) and Slovakia
 3 Apr 1945                Czechoslovak Republic reconstituted
11 Jul 1960                Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
29 Mar 1990                Czechoslovak Federal Republic (in Slovak language
                           Czecho-Slovak Federal Republic)
20 Apr 1990                Czech and Slovak Federal Republic
 1 Jan 1993                separation into Czech Republic and Slovakia

First secretaries (from 29 May 1971, general secretaries)
of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia ("leading role" abolished 30 Nov 1989)
   Mar 1946 - 14 Mar 1953  Klement Gottwald (chairman)        (b. 1896 - d. 1953)
21 Mar 1953 -  5 Jan 1968  Antonín Novotný                    (b. 1904 - d. 1975)
                           (head of the secretariat to 11 Sep 1953)
 5 Jan 1968 - 17 Apr 1969  Alexander Dubcek                   (b. 1921 - d. 1992)
17 Apr 1969 - 17 Dec 1987  Gustáv Husák                       (b. 1913 - d. 1991)
17 Dec 1987 - 24 Nov 1989  Milos Jakes                        (b. 1922)
24 Nov 1989 - 20 Dec 1989  Karel Urbánek                      (b. 1941)
20 Dec 1989 -  1 Sep 1990  Ladislav Adamec                    (b. 1926 - d. 2007)

Chairman of the National Council 28 Oct 1918 - 14 Nov 1918 Karel Kramár (b. 1860 - d. 1937) Presidents 14 Nov 1918 - 14 Dec 1935 Tomás Garrigue Masaryk (b. 1850 - d. 1937) 14 Dec 1935 - 18 Dec 1935 Milan Hodza (acting) (b. 1878 - d. 1944) 18 Dec 1935 - 5 Oct 1938 Edvard Benes (1st time) (b. 1884 - d. 1948) 5 Oct 1938 - 30 Nov 1938 Jan Syrový (acting) (b. 1888 - d. 1970) 30 Nov 1938 - 4 May 1945 Emil Hácha (b. 1872 - d. 1945) 3 Apr 1945 - 7 Jun 1948 Edvard Benes (2nd time) (s.a.) (at Kosice to 10 May 1945) 7 Jun 1948 - 14 Mar 1953 Klement Gottwald (s.a.) (acting to 14 Jun 1948) 14 Mar 1953 - 13 Nov 1957 Antonín Zápotocký (b. 1884 - d. 1957) (acting to 21 Mar 1953) 13 Nov 1957 - 19 Nov 1957 Viliam Siroký (acting) (b. 1902 - d. 1971) 19 Nov 1957 - 22 Mar 1968 Antonín Novotný (s.a.) 22 Mar 1968 - 30 Mar 1968 Jozef Lenárt (acting) (b. 1923 - d. 2004) 30 Mar 1968 - 29 May 1975 Ludvík Svoboda (b. 1895 - d. 1979) 29 May 1975 - 10 Dec 1989 Gustáv Husák (s.a.) 10 Dec 1989 - 29 Dec 1989 Marián Calfa (acting) (b. 1946) 29 Dec 1989 - 20 Jul 1992 Václav Havel (b. 1936 - d. 2011) 20 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992 Jan Stráský (acting) (b. 1940)
Prime ministers 16 Nov 1918 - 8 Jul 1919 Karel Kramár (s.a.) 8 Jul 1919 - 16 Sep 1920 Vlastimil Tusar (b. 1880 - d. 1924) 16 Sep 1920 - 20 Sep 1921 Jan Cerný (1st time) (b. 1866 - d. 1959) 20 Sep 1921 - 8 Oct 1922 Edvard Benes (s.a.) 8 Oct 1922 - 18 Mar 1926 Antonín Svehla (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1933) 18 Mar 1926 - 12 Oct 1926 Jan Cerný (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Oct 1926 - 1 Feb 1929 Antonín Svehla (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Feb 1929 - 9 Oct 1932 Frantisek Udrzal (b. 1866 - d. 1938) 9 Oct 1932 - 5 Nov 1935 Jan Malypetr (b. 1873 - d. 1947) 5 Nov 1935 - 22 Sep 1938 Milan Hodza (s.a.) 22 Sep 1938 - 1 Dec 1938 Jan Syrový (s.a.) 1 Dec 1938 - 27 Apr 1939 Rudolf Beran (b. 1887 - d. 1954) 27 Apr 1939 - 28 Sep 1941 Alois Eliás (b. 1890 - d. 1942) 19 Jan 1942 - 19 Jan 1945 Jaroslav Krejcí (b. 1892 - d. 1956) 19 Jan 1945 - 5 May 1945 Richard Bienert (b. 1881 - d. 1949) 7 Apr 1945 - 3 Jul 1946 Zdenek Fierlinger (b. 1891 - d. 1976) (at Kosice to 10 May 1945) 3 Jul 1946 - 15 Jun 1948 Klement Gottwald (s.a.) 15 Jun 1948 - 21 Mar 1953 Antonín Zápotocký (s.a.) 21 Mar 1953 - 22 Sep 1963 Viliam Siroký (s.a.) 22 Sep 1963 - 9 Apr 1968 Jozef Lenárt (s.a.) 9 Apr 1968 - 28 Jan 1970 Oldrich Cerník (b. 1921 - d. 1994) 28 Jan 1970 - 11 Oct 1988 Lubomír Strougal (b. 1924) 11 Oct 1988 - 10 Dec 1989 Ladislav Adamec (s.a.) 10 Dec 1989 - 1 Jul 1992 Marián Calfa (s.a.) 1 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992 Jan Stráský (s.a.) Military governors 15 Mar 1939 - 5 Apr 1939 Johannes Blaskowitz (in Bohemia) (b. 1883 - d. 1948) + Wilhelm List (in Moravia) (b. 1880 - d. 1971) Reichsprotektoren 5 Apr 1939 - 24 Aug 1943 Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (b. 1873 - d. 1956) 29 Sep 1941 - 4 Jun 1942 Reinhard Heydrich (b. 1904 - d. 1942) (acting for Neurath) 5 Jun 1942 - 24 Aug 1943 Kurt Daluege (b. 1897 - d. 1946) (acting for Neurath) 24 Aug 1943 - 4 May 1945 Wilhelm Frick (b. 1877 - d. 1946)

Government in exile (in London)

President
21 Jul 1940 -  2 Apr 1945  Edvard Benes                       (s.a.)

Prime minister 21 Jul 1940 - 2 Apr 1945 Jan Srámek (b. 1870 - d. 1956)

Czech Republic

 1 Jan 1969                Czech Socialist Republic within Czechoslovakia
29 Mar 1990                Czech Republic
 1 Jan 1993                independence

Presidents
 1 Jan 1993 -  2 Feb 1993  Václav Klaus (1st time)   ODS      (b. 1941)
                           (acting)
 2 Feb 1993 -  2 Feb 2003  Václav Havel              -        (s.a.)
 2 Feb 2003 -  7 Mar 2003  Vladimír Spidla (acting)  CSSD     (b. 1951)
 7 Mar 2003 -  7 Mar 2013  Václav Klaus (2nd time)   ODS      (s.a.)
 8 Mar 2013 -              Milos Zeman               SPOZ     (b. 1944)

Prime ministers 8 Jan 1969 - 29 Sep 1969 Stanislav Rázl KSC (b. 1920 - d. 1999) 29 Sep 1969 - 28 Jan 1970 Josef Kempný KSC (b. 1920 - d. 1996) 28 Jan 1970 - 20 Mar 1987 Josef Korcák KSC (b. 1921 - d. 2008) 20 Mar 1987 - 12 Oct 1988 Ladislav Adamec KSC (s.a.) 12 Oct 1988 - 6 Feb 1990 Frantisek Pitra KSC (b. 1932) 6 Feb 1990 - 2 Jul 1992 Petr Pithart KDU-CSL (b. 1941) 2 Jul 1992 - 17 Dec 1997 Václav Klaus ODS (s.a.) 17 Dec 1997 - 17 Jul 1998 Josef Tosovský - (b. 1950) 17 Jul 1998 - 12 Jul 2002 Milos Zeman CSSD (s.a.) 12 Jul 2002 - 26 Jul 2004 Vladimír Spidla CSSD (s.a.) 26 Jul 2004 - 25 Apr 2005 Stanislav Gross CSSD (b. 1969) 25 Apr 2005 - 4 Sep 2006 Jirí Paroubek CSSD (b. 1952) 4 Sep 2006 - 8 May 2009 Mirek Topolánek ODS (b. 1956) 8 May 2009 - 13 Jul 2010 Jan Fischer - (b. 1951) 13 Jul 2010 - 10 Jul 2013 Petr Necas ODS (b. 1964) 10 Jul 2013 - 29 Jan 2014 Jirí Rusnok - (b. 1960) 29 Jan 2014 - Bohuslav Sobotka CSSD (b. 1971)
Party abbreviations: CSSD=Czech Social Democratic Party, KDU-CSL=Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party, KSC=Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, ODS=Civic Democratic Party, SPOZ=Party of Citizens' Rights-Zemanovci