Kearney, Frédéric Laure de (b. 1721? - buried Nov. 11, 1773, Fort-Royal [now Fort-de-France], Martinique), governor of Saint Lucia (1772-73).
Keating, Frank, byname of Francis Anthony Keating II (b. Feb. 10, 1944, St. Louis, Mo.), governor of Oklahoma (1995-2003). A Republican, he was elected to the Oklahoma House (1972) and to the Oklahoma Senate (1974), where he became minority leader. In 1981, he became U.S. attorney in Tulsa, in 1986, assistant treasury secretary, in 1988, associate attorney general - all posts overseeing law enforcement agencies. After that, he went on to be Jack Kemp's general counsel at the Department of Housing and Urban Development. After Senate Democrats refused to act on Pres. George Bush's nomination of him for a federal judgeship, he returned to Oklahoma in 1993 to enter the 1994 gubernatorial election, clearly the party leaders' choice; he was peppered in the primary by state senator Jerry Pierce's charges that he had been out of town too long, but won 57%-29%. The leading Democrat, Lt.Gov. Jack Mildren, failed to get an absolute majority in his primary and was forced into a September runoff, which he won with 59%. Mildren had an additional problem, the independent candidacy of Wes Watkins, former Democratic congressman from Little Dixie. Mildren led right after the primary, but by October, the polls showed something close to an even three-way race. In the final weeks, Keating zoomed ahead. He won 47% of the votes to 30% for Mildren and 23% for Watkins. He had wide margins in the metropolitan areas - 58%-27% over Mildren in Oklahoma City, 60%-27% in Tulsa. He performed with aplomb after the April 19, 1995, bomb leveled the Alfred P. Murrah federal building in Oklahoma City. He appeared on the news virtually round-the-clock, and coordinated efforts of federal, state, and local officials in the rescue, recovery, and investigative operations.
Keating, Paul (John) (b. Jan. 18, 1944, Sydney, N.S.W., Australia), prime minister of Australia (1991-96). His background as an industrial advocate with the Federated Municipal and Shire Council Employees Union led him into Labor politics. Elected to the House of Representatives for Blaxland in 1969, he was president (1979-83) of the New South Wales branch of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and was opposition spokesman on a number of different matters. Acquiring a reputation for sparkling political invective and party loyalty, he was chosen by Prime Minister Robert Hawke to be federal treasurer in 1983. He made his mark with a sometimes bizarre blend of earthy attacks on his opponents and high-level explanations and lectures on the more arcane aspects of economics. He appeared to have the capacity, single-handedly, to both damage and restore the economy. When he described Australia in 1986 as heading for "banana republic" status, support for the economy evaporated almost overnight. He recovered to be the architect of a shaky turnaround. As a reward for his loyalty and in recognition of his key role in the 1987 ALP election victory, Hawke unequivocally pronounced Keating as the man he would most like to have follow him as leader. Hawke decided to stay on beyond the 1990 election, but resigned in December 1991, following a party room decision which Keating largely engineered (before Hawke became, in Keating's words, as old as Methuselah). Keating at 47 became the youngest prime minister in Australia's history. He set forth a bold vision of Australia eventually becoming a republic, and he established links with Asia and the U.S. while largely ignoring European affairs. He led the ALP to another election victory in 1993 but was defeated in 1996.
Kebich, Vyachaslau (Frantsavich), Russian Vyacheslav (Frantsevich) Kebich (b. June 10, 1936, Wiszniew, Poland [now Vishnevo, Valozhyn district, Belarus]), prime minister of Belarus (1990-94).
Kebreau, Antonio Thrasybule (b. Nov. 11, 1909, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. Jan. 13, 1963), chairman of the Military Council of Haiti (1957).
Kecmanovic, Vojislav, byname Djedo (b. 1881, Knespolje, Ottoman Empire [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. March 25, 1961, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), chairman of the Anti-Fascist Council of People's Liberation (1943-45) and president of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (1945-46) of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Kefi, (Mohamed) Mouldi (b. Feb. 10, 1946, Kef, Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (2011). He was ambassador to Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, and Sierra Leone in 1990-94, to Russia and the CIS countries in 1996-99, and to Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore in 2003-05.
Keishing, Rishang (b. Oct. 25, 1920, Bungpa Khunou, Ukhrul district, Manipur, India), chief minister of Manipur (1980-81, 1981-88, 1994-97).
Keita, Ibrahim Boubacar (b. Jan. 29, 1945, Koutiala, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister (1993-94), prime minister (1994-2000), and president (2013- ) of Mali. He was also ambassador to Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Burkina Faso, and Niger (1992-93) and president of the National Assembly (2002-07). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2002 and 2007.
Keita, Modibo (b. June 4, 1915, Bamako, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. May 16, 1977, Bamako), president of Mali (1960-68). After World War II he was cofounder and secretary-general of the Sudanese Union, which in 1946 merged with the African Democratic Rally. The combined US-RDA became the leading party in French Sudan. Considered a dangerous anticolonialist by the French, he was briefly imprisoned in 1946, but two years later he won a seat in the territorial assembly and in 1956-58 served as a deputy in the French National Assembly, becoming its first African vice president and holding a cabinet post in two French governments. Meanwhile, he had become president of the US-RDA and also mayor of the capital Bamako. In the crucial elections of 1957 his party won an overwhelming victory. In the 1958 referendum in which the West African territories had to choose between internal autonomy within the French Community and immediate isolated independence, he successfully campaigned for the community. Eager for a West African federation of former French territories, he could not combat the strong centrifugal forces at work among the soon-to-be-independent nations, especially in wealthy Ivory Coast. He finally settled for a Mali Federation made up only of Senegal and his own Sudan. He became prime minister of the short-lived federation, which could not even agree on a unitary or federal structure and which was also plagued with personality conflicts. When the two territories separated in 1960, he remained as president of the Sudan, which then took the name of Mali. He was also foreign minister in 1960-61. He was overthrown in a bloodless coup led by junior army officers on Nov. 19, 1968, and spent the remainder of his life in detention.
Keita, Modibo (b. July 31, 1942), foreign minister (1986-89) and prime minister (2002) of Mali.
Keitel, Klaus (b. Feb. 5, 1939, Naumburg, Prussia [now in Sachsen-Anhalt], Germany), Regierungsbevollmächtigter of Halle (1990).
Kejriwal, Arvind (b. Aug. 16, 1968, Siwani, Haryana, India), chief minister of Delhi (2013-14).
Keke, Kieren (Aedogan) (b. June 27, 1971), foreign minister of Nauru (2007-11, 2012-13).
Kekkonen, Urho (Kaleva) (b. Sept. 3, 1900, Pielavesi, Finland - d. Aug. 31, 1986, Helsinki), prime minister (1950-53, 1954-56) and president (1956-82) of Finland. At age 17 he fought against the Bolsheviks in Finland's war of independence. From the 1920s he became increasingly involved in the agrarian movement and he was a civil servant in the Ministry of Agriculture in 1927-32. He was a member of parliament for the Agrarian Party (later renamed the Centre Party) in 1936-56 and served as speaker in 1948-50. He was minister of justice (1936-37, 1944-47) and interior (1937-39). A devout nationalist, he took responsibility for the resettlement in Finland of 300,000 Karelians ejected from the U.S.S.R. during the Winter War of 1939-40. In 1940 he was one of only two members of Parliament to vote against ceding any Finnish territory to the U.S.S.R. By 1943, however, recognizing that Germany would lose the war, he concluded that a policy of friendly neutrality toward the Soviet Union was Finland's only hope for national salvation. In 1944 he joined the government of Prime Minister Juho Kusti Paasikivi and was a key negotiator in the controversial trials of war criminals. In 1950 he unsuccessfully ran for president, but became prime minister. He served in several coalitions, and was also interior minister (1950-51) and foreign minister (1952-53, 1954). In 1956 he was elected president. The friendly foreign policy vis-à-vis the Soviet Union came to be called the Paasikivi-Kekkonen line. The word Finlandization was coined to depict the situation of a country that is overly compliant to the wishes of a powerful neighbour. Kekkonen continued to be reelected (1962, 1968, 1978); in 1973 parliament extended his third six-year term by an extra four years. An incapacitating illness forced his retirement in 1981.
Keller, Hermann (b. 1945, Buchberg, Schaffhausen, Switzerland - d. Oct. 3, 2007, Buchberg), president of the government of Schaffhausen (1988, 1992, 1997, 2001).
Keller, Josef (b. 1947), president of the government of Sankt Gallen (2004-05, 2009-10).
Kelley, Clarence M(arion) (b. Oct. 24, 1911, Kansas City, Mo. - d. Aug. 5, 1997, Kansas City, Mo.), director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1973-78). He joined the FBI fresh out of college in 1940, left to become chief of police in Kansas City in 1961, and was nominated to head the agency by Pres. Richard Nixon in 1973. He inherited an agency shaken by Watergate and in transition after the death of J. Edgar Hoover a year earlier. Kelley survived a minor scandal of his own in 1976, when Pres. Gerald R. Ford announced he would keep Kelley as FBI director despite disclosures that he had accepted window drapery valances and a small cabinet from senior FBI officials for his home. The gifts became an issue in Ford's failed reelection campaign. Kelley brought modern techniques for crime fighting to the bureau and changed its focus to white-collar and organized crime. He served until 1978, when he was succeeded by William H. Webster.
Kelly, Edward Joseph (b. May 1, 1876, Chicago, Ill. - d. Oct. 20, 1950, Chicago), U.S. politician. As chief engineer of the Chicago sanitary district during the 1920s Kelly became a friend of Patrick Nash, sewer contractor, who eventually became the other half of what was widely known as Chicago's Kelly-Nash machine - the Democratic political organization of Cook county. Kelly became mayor of Chicago in 1933 when the Chicago city council elected him to replace Mayor Anton Cermak, who had been assassinated by a bullet intended for President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. He was elected almost without opposition in 1935, 1939, and in 1943, refusing to run again in 1947. He played a leading role in the Democratic conventions that nominated Roosevelt for his second, third, and fourth terms. Kelly reduced Chicago's debt by $100,000,000 and left the city solvent. He was viewed by many as the prototype of the U.S. big-city political boss - and himself admitted that "to be a real mayor... you've got to be a boss."
Kelly, John (Phillip) (b. 1941), governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1996-2000).
Kelly, Petra (Karin), née Lehmann (b. Nov. 29, 1947, Günzburg, Bayern, Germany - found dead Oct. 19, 1992, Bonn, Germany), German politician. She took the name of her mother's second husband, a colonel in the U.S. Army. When she was 13 she went with her parents to the U.S., where she became involved in the protest culture that swept the country during the 1960s, taking part in antiwar and civil rights demonstrations. She worked on the political staffs of both Hubert Humphrey and Robert Kennedy. After her return to Europe she became an official at the European Communities in Brussels and a member of the West German Social Democratic Party (SPD). But her political credo was far to the left of the SPD and made her instead a natural stalwart of the Greens. She was a tireless campaigner against nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and the "destructive pursuit of economic growth." She described the Greens as the "anti-party party" and insisted that they would lose their real function and their appeal should they develop into a political party like any other. Her nightmare, as she once put it, was that the Greens would one day poll so many votes that they would have to play a role in government. The Greens wanted the establishment of a nuclear-free zone in Western Europe and the withdrawal of the two German nations from their respective multinational pacts. The Greens adhered strictly to a system of rotating leadership, as a result of which she stepped down from the federal chairmanship of the party in 1982. Since the early 1980s, she had been involved with Gert Bastian, an army general who had resigned his commission and had become active in Green politics; their bodies were found about three weeks after Bastian, without explanation, apparently shot Kelly and then himself.
Kelso, Frank B(enton), II (b. July 11, 1933, Fayetteville, Tenn.), U.S. chief of naval operations (1990-94) and acting Navy secretary (1993).
Kemakeza, Sir Allan (b. Oct. 11, 1950, Panueli village, Savo island, Central province, Solomon Islands), prime minister of the Solomon Islands (2001-06); he was knighted earlier in 2001. He was also minister for police and justice (1989-90), housing and government services (1991-93), forests, environment, and conservation (1995-96), national unity, reconciliation, and peace (also deputy prime minister; 2000-01), and forestry (2007-10). In 2007 he was found guilty of ordering a 2002 raid on a Honiara law firm to try to scare Australian lawyers out of the country. In 2008 he was sentenced to six months in jail; he was released Dec. 31, 2008. In 2010 he became speaker of parliament.
Kemal (Eddine), Said Ali (b. June 26, 1938, Moroni, Comoros), joint acting president (1995) and finance minister (1996) of the Comoros; son of Said Ibrahim Ben Ali.
Kemenade, Jos(ephus Antonius) van (b. March 6, 1937, Amsterdam), queen's commissioner of Noord-Holland (1992-2002).
Kemov, Muradin (Raufovich) (b. Nov. 15, 1959, Adyge-Khabl, Karachay-Cherkess autonomous oblast, Stavropol kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Karachayevo-Cherkessia (2010-11).
Kemp, Jack (French) (b. July 13, 1935, Los Angeles, Calif. - d. May 2, 2009, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. politician. He was a volunteer in Richard Nixon's presidential campaigns and a special assistant to Ronald Reagan when he was governor of California. In 1970 Kemp capitalized on his football fame to be elected to Congress as a conservative Republican representing suburban Buffalo. He became known for his defense of the Vietnam War and promotion of civil rights initiatives. While in Congress he was a member of the Budget Committee and served as chair of the Republican House Conference. Kemp was an early and forceful advocate of "supply side" economics - the theory that lower taxes will stimulate the economy and boost productivity, thereby creating jobs and increasing tax revenue by drawing from a broader base. The Kemp-Roth bill became a cornerstone of President Reagan's economic policy. But Kemp believed the president's advisers lacked the courage to stick with it through the recession. In 1982 he found himself bitterly at odds with the White House that had adopted his economic policy only a year earlier. He ran unsuccessfully for his party's presidential nomination in 1988. On Dec. 19, 1988, he was named by President-elect George Bush to the post of secretary of housing and urban development (HUD), and was unanimously approved by the Senate on Feb. 2, 1989, serving until 1993. He stepped into the limelight on Aug. 10, 1996, when Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole announced that Kemp would be his running mate. Kemp had squared off against Dole in the 1988 presidential primaries, and they were known to be adversaries on several issues. Nonetheless, the two set aside differences and focused on like goals under the motto "Unity does not require unanimity."
Kempkers, Joanna, high commissioner of the Cook Islands (2013- ).
Kempný, Josef (b. July 19, 1920, Lazy-Orlová, Karviná district, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. Nov. 25, 1996, Prague), prime minister of the Czech Socialist Republic (1969-70).
Kempthorne, Dirk (Arthur) (b. Oct. 29, 1951, San Diego, Calif.), governor of Idaho (1999-2006) and U.S. interior secretary (2006-09). He spent seven years as mayor of Boise (1986-93). In 1992, he was selected to replace GOP Sen. Steve Symms, who chose not to run again. In the Senate, Kempthorne fought against unfunded federal mandates and was considered one of the most conservative of senators. He left the U.S. Senate to win Idaho's 1998 governor's race. A protégé of retiring Republican governor Phil Batt, he frustrated Democrat Robert Huntley and independent Peter Rickards by waging his seven-month campaign mostly from Washington. Kempthorne won 68% of the vote, drawing solid majorities from men and women, young and old, and the rich, middle-income, and poor. He not only claimed Idaho's traditional GOP majority but a quarter of voters identifying themselves as Democrats.
Kendall, Wilfred I(ruwaki) (b. Jan. 27, 1943, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands), Marshall Islands politician. He served as senator from Majuro and minister of internal affairs until 1986 when he became Marshall Islands ambassador to the United States until 1995. He was elected senator from Majuro again in 1995 and 1999, obtaining the most votes ever cast for a senatorial candidate in the country's history. In 1998-2000 he was justice minister and in 2000-08 minister of education.
Keneally, Kristina (Kerscher), née Kerscher (b. Dec. 19, 1968, Las Vegas, Nev.), premier of New South Wales (2009-11).
Kengo Wa Dondo, (Léon), original name (until 1971) Léon Lubicz (b. May 22, 1935, Libenge, Équateur province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), Zairian politician. The son of a Polish father and Tutsi mother, he served under Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko on numerous occasions. He was prime minister in 1982-86 and 1988-90 (and foreign minister in 1986-87), before the transition from one-party rule. He came back as prime minister in 1994 when he was elected by a newly installed majority in the transitional parliament. He was said to have been a consensus candidate who, unlike Mobutu's radical opponent Étienne Tshisekedi, could work with Zaire's all-powerful ruler. His post remained bitterly contested by Tshisekedi, who since being shunted aside in favour of a Mobutu appointee in 1993 claimed to be the only legitimate prime minister elected by a sovereign national conference. He also had many enemies in the president's entourage, especially among those who profited from the country's diamond trade. They were financially damaged in 1994 when Kengo expelled members of the Lebanese community who he accused of oiling the motor of the illicit trade. Mobutu in December 1996 named Kengo as the head of a new crisis cabinet to guide the war effort to retake land from ethnic Tutsi rebels in eastern Zaire. Kengo's enemies exploited his part-Tutsi origins to promote popular hatred of the premier. They argued he was not Zairian and so unqualified to lead the country in the war against ethnic Tutsi rebels said to be backed by Tutsi-led armies in neighbouring Rwanda and Burundi. He resigned on March 24, 1997, after Mobutu supported a parliamentary vote of no confidence against him. His downfall came because in political circles he was seen as responsible for the failure of the Zairian army to stop rebel advances. He went into exile in Brussels after Mobutu's fall in May 1997. Charged at the Congolese government's demand with money laundering in June 2003, he returned on Nov. 16, 2003. He was elected president of the Senate on May 11, 2007.
Kenilorea, Sir Peter (Kauona Keninaraisoona) (b. May 23, 1943, Takataka village, Malaita island, Solomon Islands), prime minister of the Solomon Islands (1978-81, 1984-86). From 1968 to 1976 he worked in the civil service as a teacher at King George VI Secondary School, as a district officer and district commissioner in the eastern Solomons, and for a brief period in 1974-75 as secretary to the chief minister. He tried to enter politics as a candidate from Honiara in 1973 but had to wait until June 1976 when he was elected from East 'Are 'Are on Malaita. Soon afterward, after the resignation from politics of Solomon Mamaloni, the man who had seemed destined to be the Islands' first prime minister, Kenilorea, backed by other former public servants in parliament, was chosen as chief minister in his place. In that capacity he led the teams that negotiated both the independence constitution and a financial settlement of $43 million for the Solomons. On July 7, 1978, full independence was achieved, and Kenilorea became prime minister and responsible for foreign affairs. He faced various problems. The Solomons lacked cultural unity, and there was an active secessionist movement in the west; there was not a high level of political awareness among the populace, and there was little enthusiasm for independence in some quarters. There was also a bitter controversy over the granting of citizenship to migrant groups. He was knighted in 1982. In 1988-89 and 1990-93 he was foreign minister. From December 2001 to September 2010 he was speaker of parliament.
Kennan, George (Frost) (b. Feb. 16, 1904, Milwaukee, Wis. - d. March 17, 2005, Princeton, N.J.), U.S. diplomat. He entered the consular service in 1925, holding posts in Geneva, Hamburg, and Tallinn. In 1933 he accompanied Ambassador William Bullitt to Moscow when the U.S. embassy there reopened. Recalled to Washington in 1937, he spent a year in the State Department before being sent to Prague, where he arrived on Sept. 29, 1938, the day Britain and France signed Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland region over to Germany. After a year he was sent to Berlin, where he served as second, then as first secretary to the ambassador. After the U.S. entered World War II in December 1941, Kennan was interned for five months, being repatriated to the U.S. in May 1942. He was then assigned to Lisbon, and from 1944 to 1946 he served as minister-counselor for the U.S. embassy in Moscow. In 1947 Secretary of State George C. Marshall named Kennan director of the State Department's policy planning staff. In that position he oversaw a shift in policy toward the Soviet Union, advocating containment after the wartime years of appeasement (he laid out this policy in an article in Foreign Affairs in July 1947 under the name "Mr. X"). In 1949 he became one of Secretary of State Dean Acheson's principal advisers. Returning again to Moscow in 1952, he became U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, but remarks he made during a trip to Berlin that September (when he said that the isolation of a foreign diplomat in Moscow in 1952 was worse than he had experienced in 1941-42 as an interned diplomat in Germany) made him a persona non grata with the Soviets. He left the Foreign Service in 1953, except for a brief return in 1961-63 as ambassador to Yugoslavia.
Kennedy, Charles (Peter) (b. Nov. 25, 1959, Inverness, Scotland), British politician. He stood in the 1983 general election as candidate of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) for the "hopeless" constituency of Ross, Cromarty and Skye. To widespread astonishment, not least his own, the 23-year-old Kennedy captured the seat from the Conservatives, and entered Parliament as its youngest member. He soon became one of the SDP's most regular performers on radio and television. The majority of the SDP decided in 1988 to merge with the Liberal Party against the wishes of the party's leader, David Owen, but Kennedy stood aside as a potential interim leader of the SDP's pro-merger faction to back Robert Maclennan - ruling himself out as well as a possible leader of the newly merged party, the Liberal Democrats. He became its spokesperson on trade and industry (1988-89), health (1989-92), Europe and East-West relations (1992-97), and agriculture and rural affairs (1997-99). In 1990 he was elected to the titular post of party president, which he held for four years. In January 1999 Paddy Ashdown, who had led the party since 1988, announced that he would step down that summer. Although not as close personally to Prime Minister Tony Blair of the Labour Party as Ashdown had been, Kennedy was effectively the continuity candidate, promising to continue Ashdown's strategy of working closely with Labour on some issues, while opposing it on others. His main contender for the post, Simon Hughes, wanted the party to revert to the traditional Liberal posture of equal hostility to Labour and the Conservatives. In a closely fought contest, the result of which was announced on August 9, Kennedy defeated Hughes on the fourth count, after the other three candidates had been eliminated, by 57%-43%. In 2005 the Liberal Democrats under his leadership won 62 seats, their highest number since 1929. He resigned in 2006 after admitting to a drinking problem.
Kennedy, David M(atthew) (b. July 21, 1905, Randolph, Utah - d. May 1, 1996, Salt Lake City, Utah), U.S. secretary of the treasury (1969-71). After his two years as treasury secretary, he served two years as U.S. ambassador at large, with cabinet rank, and was U.S. ambassador to NATO from 1972 to 1973.
Kennedy, Edward M(oore), byname Ted Kennedy (b. Feb. 22, 1932, Boston, Mass. - d. Aug. 25, 2009, Hyannis Port, Mass.), U.S. politician; brother of John F. and Robert F. Kennedy; grandson of John Francis Fitzgerald. A Democrat, he was elected in 1962 to fill his brother John's former Senate seat representing Massachusetts; in 1964 he was first elected to a full six-year term, and he was reelected ever since. On July 18, 1969, he accidentally drove his car off a bridge on Chappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts, and his passenger, 28-year-old Mary Jo Kopechne, drowned. In December 1978 Kennedy's differences with the Jimmy Carter administration were dramatically emphasized at the Democratic Party's midterm conference in Memphis, Tenn., when he delivered an impassioned speech for his national health insurance plan, which differed sharply from Carter's attempts to hold down federal government spending. Kennedy appealed to the traditionally liberal soul of the party, and his enthusiastic reception by the Democrats was a sharp contrast to their lukewarm response to Carter's austere program. A "Draft Kennedy" movement began in some early primary states, but without overt encouragement from the senator. The change in Kennedy's posture came after the 1979 energy crisis, when adverse reaction to the mass cabinet resignations shocked Democratic politicians and sent Carter's standing in the polls plummeting. On Nov. 7, 1979, Kennedy officially became the third member of his family to run for president of the United States. But his declaration coincided with the start of the Iranian hostage crisis, which drastically raised Carter's approval rating and made criticizing the president a touchy matter. Renewed speculation about Kennedy's role in the Chappaquiddick accident kept him from getting off to a running start. He withdrew from the race during the 1980 convention. He remained an influential champion of liberal causes in the Senate until his death.
Kennedy, Geoffrey (Alexander) (b. Sept. 6, 1931, Cottesloe, Western Australia), acting governor of Western Australia (2000).
Kennedy, John F(itzgerald), byname Jack Kennedy (b. May 29, 1917, Brookline, Mass. - d. Nov. 22, 1963, Dallas, Texas), president of the United States (1961-63); grandson of John Francis Fitzgerald. He served three terms in the House of Representatives (1947-53). In 1952 he successfully ran for the Senate against a popular incumbent, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In 1958 his margin of victory was the largest ever in Massachusetts and the greatest of any senatorial candidate that year. In January 1960 he formally announced his presidential candidacy. Nominated on the first ballot, he declared in his acceptance speech, "We stand on the edge of a New Frontier." The phrase New Frontier was to become attached to his programs. In the general election, he narrowly defeated the Republican candidate, Vice Pres. Richard M. Nixon. Kennedy was the youngest man and the first Roman Catholic ever elected U.S. president. In October 1962 a buildup of Soviet nuclear missiles was discovered in Cuba. Kennedy demanded that the missiles be dismantled; he ordered a blockade that would stop Soviet ships from reaching that island. For 13 days nuclear war seemed near; then the Soviet Union announced that the missiles would be withdrawn. In 1963, while he and his wife Jacqueline were in a motorcade riding slowly through downtown Dallas, Texas, in an open limousine, a sniper opened fire. Two rifle bullets struck the president, at the base of his neck and in the head. He was dead upon arrival at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Lee Harvey Oswald, a 24-year-old Dallas citizen, was accused of the slaying. Two days later Oswald was shot to death by Jack Ruby, a local nightclub owner, in the basement of the Dallas police station. A presidential commission headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren later found that Oswald had acted alone.
Kennedy, Robert F(rancis), byname Bob Kennedy (b. Nov. 20, 1925, Brookline, Mass. -
d. [assassinated] June 5, 1968, Los Angeles, Calif.), U.S. attorney general (1961-64); brother of Edward M. and John F. Kennedy; grandson of John Francis Fitzgerald.
Kennett, Jeff(rey Gibb) (b. March 2, 1948, Melbourne), premier of Victoria (1992-99).
Kenny, Enda, Irish Éanna Ó Coinnigh (b. April 24, 1951, Castlebar, County Mayo, Ireland), prime minister of Ireland (2011- ). He was minister of tourism and trade in 1994-97 and became leader of Fine Gael in 2002.
Kenyatta, Jomo, original name Kamau Ngengi (b. Oct. 20, 1891, Ichaweri village, near Nairobi, British East Africa [now in Kenya] - d. Aug. 22, 1978, Mombasa, Kenya), president of Kenya (1964-78). In August 1914 he was baptized with the name Johnstone Kamau. Later he adopted the name Kenyatta, the Kikuyu term for a fancy belt that he wore. In 1922 he joined the first African political protest movement in Kenya, the East Africa Association. In 1925 it disbanded as a result of government pressures, and its members re-formed as the Kikuyu Central Association. Three years later he became its general secretary. In the 1930s he changed his name to Jomo (Burning Spear) Kenyatta. In September 1946 he took up leadership of the newly formed Kenya African Union, of which he was elected president in June 1947. In 1952 the Mau Mau rebellion erupted, directed against the presence of European settlers in Kenya and their ownership of land. On Oct. 21, 1952, Kenyatta was arrested on charges of having directed the Mau Mau movement. In April 1953 he was sentenced to a seven-year imprisonment. In 1960 Kenyan nationalist leaders organized the Kenya African National Union (KANU) and elected Kenyatta (still in detention despite having completed his sentence) president in absentia. He was released in August 1961, and negotiated the constitutional terms leading to independence. KANU won the preindependence election in May 1963, forming a provisional government, and Kenya celebrated its independence on Dec. 12, 1963, with Kenyatta as prime minister. A year later he became the first president of Kenya. His government was consistently friendly toward the West. He made Kenya the stablest black African country and one of the most economically dynamic as well. He died in office.
Kenyatta, Uhuru (Muigai) (b. Oct. 28, 1961, Nairobi, Kenya), finance minister (2009-12) and president (2013- ) of Kenya; son of Jomo Kenyatta. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2002.
Keppel, William (b. Nov. 5, 1727, Bedford, Bedfordshire, England - d. March 1, 1782), governor of Cuba (1763); son of William Anne Keppel, Earl of Albemarle; brother of George Keppel, Earl of Albemarle.
Keppel, Sir William (d. Dec. 11, 1834, Paris), governor of Martinique (1796-1802) and Guernsey (1827-34).
Kerallah, (Ali) Djibrine (b. 1926 - d. Oct. 21, 2001, Yaoundé, Cameroon), foreign minister of Chad (1961-63).
Keravnos, Makis, byname of Iakovos (N.) Keravnos (b. 1951, Larnaca, Cyprus), finance minister of Cyprus (2004-05). An economist who specialized in human resources training, his first public appointment was as labour minister in March 2003. Appointed finance minister in May 2004, he took on a budget deficit which then exceeded 5% of GDP and public debt exceeding 70%. His deficit-busting gameplan included an agreement by civil servants to increase retirement ages and cut down on pension bills, government outsourcing, and slashing overtime pay in the civil service. Based on the pledges to cut the deficit to 1.7% by the end of 2006 and show declining public debt - expected to fall to 66% of GDP in 2006 - Cyprus in April 2005 entered the European Exchange Rate (ERM 2) mechanism, a precursor to adopting the euro, which Cyprus did in January 2008. In August 2005 he resigned to take the helm of a major commercial bank.
Kérékou, Mathieu (b. Sept. 2, 1933, Kouarfa, northern Dahomey [now Benin]), president of Benin (1972-91, 1996-2006). He served in the French army until Benin (then called Dahomey) became independent in 1960. He was involved in the military coup that overthrew Pres. Hubert Maga in 1967 and led to several years of political unrest; in 1972, Kérékou himself led another coup, after which he assumed the offices of president and minister of national defense. Under his leadership, Benin became a socialist state based on Marxist-Leninist principles. On Sept. 28, 1980, he reportedly was converted to Islam and changed his first name to Ahmed. Because of widespread protests, the Marxist ideology was abandoned late in 1989 and multiparty elections were scheduled. Kérékou remained president of a transition government established in 1990. Multiparty elections were held under a new constitution in March 1991, and Kérékou was defeated by Nicéphore Soglo. He was the first incumbent African president to be ousted in democratic elections. During five years in the political wilderness, he remained silent as Soglo, a former World Bank economist, helped put Benin's shattered economy back on its feet with a strong dose of free-market economics. But Soglo's personal popularity plummeted. In a 1996 rematch Kérékou defeated Soglo. He promised no major upheavals in economic policy although he attacked Soglo's brand of privatization as selling off the nation's assets at knock-down prices. He chose an ex-rival as his prime minister: Adrien Houngbédji, who was once sentenced to death for plotting against Kérékou's revolution. Houngbédji had finished third in the first round of the election and then rallied to Kérékou. Kérékou's reelection in 2001 was marred by accusations of fraud. He was barred from running again in 2006 by a constitutional limit on seeking a third term as well as by an age limit.
Kerèns, Pierre André Servais (b. July 22, 1780, Mechelen, Austrian Netherlands [now in Antwerp province, Belgium] - d. April 6, 1862, Maastricht), acting governor of Limburg (1831).
Kerensky, Aleksandr (Fyodorovich) (b. May 4 [April 22, O.S.], 1881, Simbirsk, Russia - d. June 11, 1970, New York City), head of the Russian provisional government (1917). He was attracted to the Narodniki revolutionary movement and later (c. 1905) joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party. He was elected to the fourth Duma in 1912 as a member of the small Trudoviki (Labour) group, and, unlike some of the more radical socialists, supported Russia's participation in World War I. But in the course of the war tsarist repression increased and Kerensky became increasingly disenchanted with the regime. When the February Revolution broke out (1917), he was offered, and promptly accepted, the posts of vice chairman of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies and of minister of justice in the provisional government formed by the Duma. He was the only person to hold positions in both bodies and acted as intermediary between them. In May, he was transferred to the posts of minister of war and of the navy. When the provisional government was again compelled to reorganize in July, Kerensky, whose dramatic oratorical style appeared to win him broad popular support, became prime minister. He initiated democratic reforms, but they did not go to the core of popular demands for peace and for breaking up the landed estates. Beset from the right and the left, his government was virtually paralyzed. Power gravitated to the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolsheviks finished off Kerensky's government in November (October, O.S.). He escaped to the front, sought vainly to rally armed support for his government, and remained in hiding until May 1918, when he emigrated to western Europe, living mostly in France before moving to the United States in 1940.
Kerim, Srgjan (b. Dec. 12, 1948, Skopje, Macedonia), foreign minister of Macedonia (2000-01). He was also ambassador to Germany (1994-2000) and to Switzerland and Liechtenstein (1995-2000) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-03). In 2007-08 he was president of the UN General Assembly.
Kerimkulov, Medetbek (Temirbekovich) (b. Jan. 28, 1949), first deputy prime minister (2005-06) and acting prime minister (2005) of Kyrgyzstan. He was also mayor of Bishkek (1999-2005) and minister of industry, trade, and tourism (2006-07).
Kerin, John (Charles) (b. Nov. 21, 1937, Bowral, N.S.W.), Australian politician. He entered the federal Parliament as member of the House of Representatives for Macarthur in 1972, lost his seat in 1975 when the reformist Labor government of Gough Whitlam fell, but regained another, Werriwa, New South Wales, in 1978. A supporter of Prime Minister Robert Hawke, he was rewarded with the portfolio for Primary Industries and Energy in 1987. With his practical and theoretical economic background, he was a natural, although untimely, choice for the Treasury portfolio when Paul Keating resigned from the government in June 1991, following an unsuccessful challenge for the prime ministership. Kerin's sudden swings of policy direction - on interest rates, for example - often appeared to be the result of sail trimming to meet sectional demands within the Labor Party rather than a considered response to economic forces. Despite Hawke's assertion to the contrary, Kerin admitted that Australia was experiencing its most severe recession in 60 years. On December 6, with his approval rating at an all-time low, Hawke sacked Kerin, only to fall victim some two weeks later to a new leadership challenge from Keating.
Kerin, Rob(ert Gerard) (b. Jan. 4, 1954), premier of South Australia (2001-02).
Kernan, Joe, byname of Joseph Eugene Kernan (b. April 8, 1946, Chicago, Ill.), governor of Indiana (2003-05).
Kernot, Cheryl (b. Dec. 5, 1948, Maitland, N.S.W.), Australian politician. She joined the Australian Democrats (AD) in 1979 (two years after its founding), in part because she was attracted to an organization that right from the start had set up party administrative processes that were very appealing to women. In an early speech to the Australian Federation of University Women in Brisbane, Kernot recalled that because of the party's relative youth, the Democrats had not formed links with unions, business, or farmer organizations and had never had to battle with the sort of vested interests and entrenched male hierarchies that existed in other places. She was the party's representative in a Young Political Leaders' exchange tour of the U.S. in 1986, and in 1990 she was elected to the Senate on her fourth attempt. In late 1993 Kernot was heavily involved in the successful passage of the historic Native Title (Mabo) legislation, acting as a behind-the-scenes negotiator between the government, the Senate independents, and Aboriginal groups. She became leader of the AD after 81% of the full membership elected her in May 1993 and she became the most popular chief of any Australian political party. In 1994 she launched an "Inspiring Women" calendar for 1995, with herself as Miss April under the rubric "Strength and Courage." Kernot said that she hoped the calendar would send the message to women that success and inspiration were not necessarily synonymous with fame and wealth and that happiness was not just about being thin or fashionable. She ended by quoting Emmeline Pankhurst: "Women will only be truly successful when no one is surprised that they are successful." She defected to Labor in 1997.
Kerr, Sir John Robert (b. Sept. 24, 1914, Sydney, N.S.W. - d. March 24, 1991, Sydney), governor-general of Australia (1974-77). He served with the 2nd Australian Imperial Force in World War II. From 1966 to 1972 he was a judge on the Commonwealth Industrial Court and on the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory. Kerr was named chief justice of the New South Wales Supreme Court in 1972; two years later Prime Minister Gough Whitlam offered him the post of governor-general. In 1975 a series of government scandals and policy disputes led to a stalemate between Whitlam, whose Labor Party held a majority in the House of Representatives, and the opposition, which controlled the Senate and refused to release badly needed government funding. He broke with 200 years of tradition and precipitated a constitutional crisis on Nov. 11, 1975, when he used his power as governor-general to dismiss Whitlam's Labor government and compel a caretaker government led by the opposition leader, Malcolm Fraser, to call a general election. The controversy triggered by these actions continued to plague him. He stepped down as governor-general in 1977, and in 1978 he withdrew his name from consideration for the post of ambassador to UNESCO. He was knighted in 1974.
Kerr, Richard J(ames) (b. Oct. 4, 1935, Fort Smith, Ark.), acting CIA director (1991). He was appointed as deputy CIA director by Pres. George Bush on Feb. 15, 1989, confirmed by the Senate on March 16, and sworn in March 20. He served in this position until March 2, 1992. He served as acting CIA director from William Webster's departure on Sept. 1, 1991, until Robert Gates was sworn in on Nov. 6, 1991.
Kerruish, Sir (Henry) Charles (b. July 23, 1917, Ballafayle, Maughold parish, Isle of Man - d. July 23, 2003, Strang, Braddan parish, Isle of Man), chairman of the Executive Council of the Isle of Man (1961-67); knighted 1979. He was speaker of the House of Keys (1962-90) and president of the Legislative Council and of Tynwald (1990-2000).
Kerruish, (John) Michael (b. Nov. 2, 1948 - d. July 14, 2010, Isle of Man), acting lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (2005). He was attorney general (1993-98), second deemster (1998-2003), and first deemster (2003-10).
Kerry, Cameron (Forbes) (b. Sept. 6, 1950), U.S. acting commerce secretary (2013); brother of John Kerry.
Kerry, John (Forbes) (b. Dec. 11, 1943, Denver, Colo.), U.S. secretary of state (2013- ). He served in the Vietnam War in 1966-69 and after his return became a prominent spokesman for the Vietnam Veterans Against the War. In 1972 he ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives, but in 1982 he was elected lieutenant governor of Massachusetts, and in 1984 he was elected to the U.S. Senate (reelected in 1990, 1996, 2002, and 2008). He was the Democratic candidate in the 2004 presidential election but lost to incumbent George W. Bush.
Kersaint, Armand Guy Simon de Coëtnempren, comte de (b. July 29, 1742, Paris - d. [executed] Dec. 4, 1793, Paris), governor of Berbice and Demerara-Essequibo (1782).
Keruak, Tun (Datuk Seri Panglima Haji) Mohamad Said (b. Nov. 15, 1926 - d. Nov. 17, 1995), chief minister (1975-76) and head of state (1987-94) of Sabah.
Keruak, Datuk Seri (Haji Mohamad) Salleh (bin Tun Mohamad) Said (b. July 10, 1957, Kota Belud, British North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), chief minister of Sabah (1994-96); son of Tun Mohamad Said Keruak. He received the titles Datuk (September 1990) and Datuk Seri (March 21, 1996).
Kery, Theodor (b. July 24, 1918, Mannersdorf an der Rabnitz, Burgenland, Austria - d. May 9, 2010, Kobersdorf, Burgenland), Landeshauptmann of Burgenland (1966-87).
Keshtmand, Sultan Ali (b. 1935, Kabul, Afghanistan), prime minister of Afghanistan (1981-88, 1989-90). He studied economics at Kabul University. He was a member of the Parcham faction of the People's Democratic Party. After the communist coup of 1978, he was appointed minister of planning. In August of the same year, he was arrested for plotting against Nur Mohammad Taraki's regime. He was sentenced to fifteen years imprisonment. After the Soviet troops entered Afghanistan, he became a member of the Politburo and later was appointed as prime minister. In 1990, he was appointed first vice president, but in 1991 he was dismissed from this position. After his dismissal, he moved to Moscow and subsequently to England. While abroad, Keshtmand, who belongs to the Hazara ethnic group, charged that Afghanistan had been ruled by the Pashtuns and that the minorities had been underrepresented in past Afghan governments.
Kesper, Lodewijk Albert (b. May 18, 1892, Gouda, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. March 26, 1963, The Hague), queen's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (1945-55).
Kessler, Harry W. (b. Aug. 15, 1927, Toledo, Ohio - d. Jan. 2, 2007, Perrysburg Township, Ohio), mayor of Toledo (1971-77). He entered the political arena in 1961 when he unsuccessfully sought a City Council seat. He was beaten again the next year when he ran for state representative, and lost a third time in 1963 in his second bid for council. He finally was elected in 1965, the first in a long string of victories. After four years on council and two as vice mayor, he moved into the mayor's office Jan. 27, 1971, under tough circumstances. Mayor William Ensign and City Manager William Gross had resigned, the economy was faltering, and city finances were shaky. Kessler became mayor through a 13-11 vote in the Democratic Party executive committee to beat Carol Pietrykowski as the party's choice to be appointed to succeed Ensign. A heavy underdog in the 1971 mayoral primary, Kessler lost to Howard Cook by 7,000 votes. But in the general election two months later, Kessler defeated Cook for a two-year term. He was reelected in 1973 and 1975. He helped spearhead the development that remade the downtown riverfront and changed the city's skyline. On the political scene, he was credited for standing up to Bill Boyle, then chairman of the Lucas County Democratic Party, when patronage issues arose. Kessler did not seek reelection in 1977, citing burnout from the 1975 race (when he took a lot of heat because of the relationship he built with the publisher of the Toledo Blade, Paul Block, Jr.), yet ran successfully that November to be clerk of municipal court, holding that post until 1992 and then serving as a member of the Toledo Board of Education in 1992-95.
Kessler, Herbert (b. Feb. 2, 1925, Bludesch, Vorarlberg, Austria), Austrian politician. He was mayor of Rankweil (1957-64), member of the Vorarlberg legislature (1954-64), and premier of Vorarlberg (1964-87).
Kessler, Zdenek (b. Dec. 29, 1926, Brno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. Aug. 25, 2003), chief justice of the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic (1993-2003).
Kestens, Prosper (b. Dec. 27, 1867, Ghent, Belgium - d. Sept. 14, 1945, Brussels, Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1925-26).
Ketema Yifru (b. Dec. 12, 1929, Gara Muleta, Ethiopia - d. Jan. 14, 1994, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), foreign minister of Ethiopia (1961-71).
Kéthly, Anna (b. Nov. 16, 1889, Budapest, Hungary - d. Sept. 7, 1976, Blankenberge, Belgium), Hungarian politician. A union leader and Social Democrat closely watched by the police of the Austro-Hungarian empire, she was elected to the Hungarian parliament in 1922 and represented the city of Szeged until 1948, when she resigned on the forced union of her party with the Communists. Imprisoned from 1950 to 1954, she in 1956 became briefly minister of state in Imre Nagy's revolutionary government. On November 4 the government was deposed by Soviet forces that installed János Kádár as premier. The following day she arrived at the UN in New York to plead for help but the Security Council would not hear her. She went into exile in Brussels.
Ketola, Heljä(-Marja), previously Heljä Tammisola (b. May 18, 1946, Pori, Finland), Finnish politician. She was the last chairman of the Finnish Communist Party before its merger (together with its umbrella organization, the Finnish People's Democratic League) into the Left Alliance. Formerly the party's secretary-general (1988-90), Tammisola was elected chairman at the February 1990 party congress which decided to transfer all political activities to the new alliance which would be founded in April; the party technically continued to exist, with Ketola as chairman, until it declared bankruptcy in November 1992.
Kettlewell, Andrew (Michael) (b. March 5, 1958, Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England), administrator of Ascension (2002-05).
Keuky Lim (b. March 7, 1937, Kompong Khleang, Siem Reap province, Cambodia), foreign minister of Cambodia (1973-75). He was also information minister (1970-71). He went into exile in Thailand and then in France.
Keutcha, Jean (b. June 1923, Bazou, near Bangangté, Cameroon - d. April 1, 2012, Yaoundé, Cameroon), foreign minister of Cameroon (1971-72, 1975-80).
Key, John (Phillip) (b. Aug. 9, 1961, Auckland, New Zealand), prime minister of New Zealand (2008- ). He became leader of the National Party in 2006.
Key, William S(haffer) (b. Oct. 6, 1889, Dudleyville, Ala. - d. Jan. 5, 1959, Oklahoma City, Okla.), commander of the Allied occupation forces in Iceland (1943-44).
Kezrak, Salih Hulusi, original name Salih Pasha (b. 1864 - d. 1939), grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1920).
Kgama III Boikanyo a Sekgoma, also spelled Khama, byname the Good (b. 1837 - d. Feb. 21, 1923, Serowe, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), chief of baNgwato (1872-73, 1875-1923); son of Sekgoma I a Kgari.
Khabadze, Archil (b. March 11, 1981, Batumi, Adzhar A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Ajaria (2012- ).
Khabarov, Vladimir (Viktorovich) (b. Feb. 11, 1951 - d. July 2010), head of the administration of Nenets autonomous okrug (1996).
Khaddam, Abdul-Halim (Said), Arabic `Abd al-Halim (Sa`id) Khaddam (b. 1932, Banyas, northern Syria), foreign minister (1970-84), vice president (1984-2005), and acting president (2000) of Syria. After resigning in June 2005, he moved to Paris in September. In December he openly distanced himself from Pres. Bashar al-Assad's regime, accusing Assad of involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese prime minister Rafiq Hariri. Though he was previously seen as a hardliner, he now explained that he had resigned because reforms were not progressing.
Khadjimba, Raul (Djumkovich), also spelled Khadzhimba or Khajimba (b. 1958, Tkuarchal [Tkvarcheli], Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister (2003-04), vice president (2005-09), and president (2014- ) of Abkhazia. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2004 and 2009.
Khadka, Khum Bahadur (b. May 1951, Satabariya, Nepal), home minister of Nepal (1995-97, 1997-98, 2001-02). He was also minister of supply (1998), housing, physical planning, and local development (1999), works and transport (1999-2000), water resources (2000), and physical planning and works (2000-01).
Khagur, Asfar (Pshikanovich) (b. Oct. 4, 1960, Panakhes, Teuchezhsky rayon, Adygey autonomous oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. August 2013), prime minister of Adygeya (2004-06).
Khai Dinh (era name), personal name Nguyen Phuoc Tuan, temple name Hoang Tong, posthumous style Tuyen Hoang De (b. Oct. 8, 1885, Hue, Annam [now in Vietnam] - d. Nov. 6, 1925, Hue), emperor of Vietnam (1916-25).
Khalid (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud), Arabic Khalid (ibn `Abd al-`Aziz Al Faysal Al Sa`ud) (b. 1913, Riyadh, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia] - d. June 13, 1982, at-Ta`if, Saudi Arabia), king of Saudi Arabia (1975-82). The fourth son of Abdul Aziz, founder of the Saudi kingdom, he became the closest supporter of his brothers Saud and Faysal. At age 14, he was sent as his father's representative to the desert tribes to hear their grievances. In 1932 he was appointed viceroy of the Hejaz, and in 1934 he took part in a war against Yemen led by Faysal, and afterward was made interior minister and Saudi representative at the peace negotiations. In 1939 he left Arabia for the first time to take part in the abortive London conference on Palestine. Regarded as a "man of the desert," he concerned himself with the problems of the Bedouin and took a special interest in desert-reclamation projects through the use of groundwater. His modest personality and reputation for calm reason made him the chief conciliator in the disputes that arose among the large family of royal princes. He is said to have been influential in 1964, when elders of the royal family met at his palace and decided to remove his brother Saud as king to be replaced by Faysal, who then appointed Khalid as crown prince. From 1970, illness cast doubt on his eventual succession to the throne, but he did take over on Faysal's assassination in 1975 and was welcomed as a figure who enjoyed much popularity, especially with the Bedouin. He reacted moderately to Egyptian president Anwar as-Sadat's Israeli peace initiative and benefited from the success of the 1979 visit to his country of Queen Elizabeth II and his return visit to the U.K. in 1981. He left much of the administration of the country to his half-brother Prince Fahd, who became his successor.
Khalid, Mansour, Arabic al-Mansur Khalid (b. Dec. 13, 1931, Omdurman, Sudan), foreign minister of The Sudan (1971-75, 1977).
Khalid, (Malik) Miraj, Miraj also spelled Meraj (b. 1916, Dera Chahal village, Lahore district, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. June 13, 2003, Lahore), interim prime minister of Pakistan (1996-97). He pioneered the left-wing Movement of Afro-Asian Solidarity in Pakistan and attended a tri-continental solidarity conference in Havana in 1966 as secretary of the Pakistani delegation. He joined the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) in 1968 a year after the party was founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, under whom he served as a cabinet minister and chief minister of Punjab (1972-73). He was National Assembly speaker when Pres. Ghulam Ishaq Khan sacked the first government of Benazir Bhutto, Zulfikar's daughter, in 1990. Khalid was not given a PPP ticket to contest the October 1993 elections that brought Bhutto to power for the second time, but was afterwards named as rector of Islamabad's International Islamic University. He dissociated himself from active politics and became critical of Bhutto's government in 1996. In November 1996 Pres. Farooq Leghari named the soft-spoken 80-year-old as caretaker prime minister to replace Bhutto, whom he sacked overnight on charges of corruption and misrule. Leghari also dissolved parliament. Khalid pledged to ensure that free and fair elections would be held in February 1997.
Khalid ibn Ahmad (ibn Muhammad) Al Khalifah, Sheikh (b. April 4, 1960, Bahrain), foreign minister of Bahrain (2005- ); great-great-grandson of Sheikh Ali ibn Khalifah Al Khalifah. He was previously ambassador to the United Kingdom (2001-05), the Netherlands (2002-05), Ireland (2002-05), Norway (2002-05), and Sweden (2003-05).
Khalid ibn A.
Khalidi, Hussein (Fakhri), Arabic Husayn (Fakhri) al-Khalidi (b. 1895, Jerusalem - d. Feb. 6, 1962, Amman, Jordan), foreign minister (1953-54) and prime minister (1957) of Jordan. He was also mayor of Jerusalem (1934-37).
Khalifa, Sirr al-Khatim al- (b. Jan. 1, 1919 - d. Feb. 18, 2006), prime minister of The Sudan (1964-65). He was also ambassador to Italy (1966-68) and the U.K. (1968-69) and minister of higher education (1972-73) and education (1973-75).
Khalifah ibn H.
Khalifah, (Sheikha) Haya Rashed Al (b. Oct. 18, 1952, ar-Rifa` al-Gharbi, Bahrain), president of the UN General Assembly (2006-07); great-granddaughter of Sheikh `Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifah. She was Bahrain's ambassador to France in 2000-04.
Khalifah ibn Hamad Al Thani, Sheikh (b. 1932, Ar Rayyan, Qatar), finance minister (1960-72), prime minister (1970-95), foreign minister (1971-72), and emir (1972-95) of Qatar; cousin of Sheikh Ahmad ibn Ali Al Thani. His son Hamad toppled him in 1995 while he was on a trip abroad and he has been living in exile in France since then. He returned to Doha on Oct. 14, 2004, for the first time in nine years to attend his wife's funeral.
Khalikov, Ildar (Shafkatovich) (b. Nov. 21, 1967, Agryz, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Tatarstan (2010- ). He was also mayor of Naberezhnye Chelny (2003-10).
Khalil, (Sayyid) Abdullah (b. 1892, western Sudan - d. Aug. 23, 1970, Khartoum, The Sudan), prime minister of The Sudan (1956-58).
Khalil, Arbab Sikandar Khan (b. ... - d. [assassinated] March 7, 1982), governor of North-West Frontier Province (1972-73).
Khalil, Mustafa (b. Nov. 18, 1920, al-Qalyubiyah governorate, Egypt - d. June 7, 2008, Cairo, Egypt), prime minister (1978-80) and foreign minister (1979-80) of Egypt.
Khalil, Samiha (Salameh), byname Umm Khalil (b. 1923, Anabta, Palestine [now in West Bank] - d. Feb. 26, 1999, Ramallah, West Bank), Palestinian presidential candidate (1996). She became a household name for the Palestinians in 1965 when she established Inash al-Usrah (Family Relief Society). The family welfare group provided women with educational services and vocational training. Starting in a small garage with a budget of $140, Khalil expanded the group into three buildings with six vocational departments, with a budget of $400,000. The group helped over 3,000 families, and more than 6,000 women have graduated and entered the work force. Khalil played a major role in resisting Israel's occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip in 1967 and was one of the first activists in the Palestinian women's movement. In 1996, Khalil became the first woman to run for the office of president in the Arab world when she challenged Yasir Arafat for the presidency of the Palestinian Authority in the first Palestinian general election. Although Palestinians knew Khalil would lose the election, she was considered a worthy opponent.
Khalil (bin) Yaakob, Tun (Mohd) (b. Dec. 29, 1937, Kuantan, Pahang [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Pahang (1986-99) and governor of Malacca (2004- ). He received the title Dato' on Oct. 24, 1978, Dato' Seri on Oct. 24, 1987, Tan Sri on April 24, 1989, Datuk on Sept. 16, 2003, Datuk Seri Utama on June 4, 2004, and Tun on July 28, 2004.
Khalilzad, Zalmay (Mamozy) (b. March 22, 1951, Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan), U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (2007-09). He was ambassador to Afghanistan (2003-05) and Iraq (2005-07).
Khaliquzzaman, Chaudhry (b. 1889, Chunar, Mirzapur district, North-Western Provinces [now Uttar Pradesh], India - d. 1973), governor of East Pakistan (1953-54).
Khaliqyar, Fazal Haq (b. 1934, Shahr-e Naw, Herat province, Afghanistan - d. July 2004, Netherlands), prime minister of Afghanistan (1990-92).
Khama, (Seretse Khama) Ian, in seTswana: Ian a Sêrêtsê (b. Feb. 27, 1953, Surrey, England), chief of baNgwato (1979- ) and vice president (1998-2008) and president (2008- ) of Botswana; son of Sir Seretse Khama.
Khama, Sir Seretse, in seTswana: Serêtsê a Sekgoma a Kgama (b. July 1, 1921, Serowe, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. July 13, 1980, Gaborone, Botswana), president of Botswana (1966-80). He was the son of Sekgoma II and grandson of Kgama III the Good, who had allied his kingdom in Bechuanaland with British colonizers in the late 19th century. Seretse Khama inherited the chieftainship of the baNgwato (or Bamangwato) people when he was four years old, on the death of his father. While his uncle Tshekedi was foster-father and regent, Seretse Khama was educated in South Africa and then at Oxford. While studying law there, he met his future wife, Ruth Williams; their mixed marriage in 1948 caused considerable controversy both in Bechuanaland, where the tribal chiefs opposed it, and in Britain, where the government tried to block the marriage. At home Khama won popular support, but the British government forced his exile from Bechuanaland until he agreed to renounce the chieftainship in 1956. Returning to Bechuanaland as a private citizen, he retrieved as a political leader what he had lost as a hereditary ruler. In 1962 he founded the moderate multiracial Democratic Party, which swept the polls in the country's first elections in 1965, and he became prime minister. He helped negotiate the terms of Botswana's independence, and received a knighthood in 1966. On independence he assumed the title of president for a term of three years, which was subsequently renewed on several occasions, and he served until his death. He promoted his ideal of a multiracial democracy, achieved free universal education in Botswana, and sought to diversify and strengthen the country's economy. He generally avoided actions which were likely to provoke South African hostility.
Khamenei, Ayatollah Sayyed (Mohammad) Ali (Hoseyni-) (b. July 15, 1939, Mashhad, Iran), president (1981-89) and rahbar ("leader") (1989- ) of Iran. From 1963 he was actively involved in the Islamic antishah movement, for which he was imprisoned several times by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's security forces. He was closely associated with Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and after the latter's return from exile in 1979 he was appointed to the Revolutionary Council and, after its dissolution, became deputy defense minister. A fiery orator in support of the Islamic Republican Party (IRP), he seemed to lose some of his vitality as a result of a serious injury sustained on June 27, 1981, when a bomb, concealed in a tape recorder at a press conference, exploded just beside him. Because he was in the hospital undergoing an operation for his own wounds, he escaped the huge explosion of June 28 that killed Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti, secretary-general of the IRP, along with 71 other leading IRP members. As a result he became a "living martyr" of the revolution, and when Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Beheshti's successor, was killed in an August 30 explosion, Khamenei was appointed to the influential position of IRP secretary-general. As the official candidate of the IRP, he was elected president on October 2. He was the first religious leader to become president (Khomeini had previously barred the clergy from the office), and his election symbolized the IRP's complete domination of parliament. The first weeks of his presidency were characterized by reprisals against the leftist Mujaheddin-i Khalq, to which the exiled Abolhassan Bani-Sadr had allied himself. He succeeded Khomeini in 1989 as supreme leader although he lacks the revolutionary founder's uncontested spiritual authority.
Khamitov, Rustem (Zakiyevich) (b. Aug. 18, 1954, Drachenino, Kemerovo oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), president of Bashkortostan (2010- ).
Khamtai Siphandon (b. Feb. 8, 1924, Khang district, Champasak [now in Laos]), prime minister (1991-98) and president (1998-2006) of Laos and president of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (1992-2006).
Khan, Abbas Sarfraz (b. Aug. 3, 1960), chairman of the Northern Areas (2008).
Khan, (Mohammad) Abdul Hamid, president (1964-69) and prime minister (1975-77) of Azad Kashmir.
Khan, Abdul Monem (b. July 28, 1899 - d. [assassinated] Oct. 13, 1971, Dacca, East Pakistan [now Dhaka, Bangladesh]), governor of East Pakistan (1962-69).
Khan, Afzal Rahman (b. March 20, 1921 - d. June 27, 1983), defense and interior minister of Pakistan (1966-69).
Khan, Ali Mohammad (b. 1891 - d. December 1977, Kabul), foreign minister of Afghanistan (1929, 1938-52).
Khan (Bahadur), (Mirza) Aminuddin Ahmad (Fakharuddaula) (b. March 23, 1911 - d. June 12, 1983), Nawwab of Loharu (1926-47) and governor of Himachal Pradesh (1977-81) and Punjab (1981-82).
Khan (Bahadur), (Mirza Sir) Amiruddin Ahmad (b. Jan. 26, 1860 - d. Jan. 19, 1937), Nawwab of Loharu (1884-1920); knighted 1897.
Khan, Ataur Rahman (b. March 6, 1905, Balia village, Dacca district, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. Dec. 7, 1991, Dhaka, Bangladesh), Bangladeshi politician. He was a leader of Krishak-Praja Party and the Muslim League in undivided Bengal. After the partition of the subcontinent in 1947, he became the founder vice president of the Pakistan Awami Muslim League and participated in all the popular democratic movements. He presided over the Grand National Convention organized to mobilize public opinion for establishing full provincial autonomy for East Pakistan. He became a close associate of both A.K. Fazlul Huq and Husayn Sahid Suhrawardi. After the landslide victory of the Jukto Front in 1954, he became the deputy chief minister in the coalition government headed by Fazlul Huq. Elected leader of the Awami League's parliamentary party in the provincial assembly, he became chief minister of East Pakistan holding the post from September 1956 to late 1958. It was during this period that he brought in Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Capt. Mansoor Ali into his cabinet. Under his two-year Awami League government major development works were initiated in the hitherto neglected East Pakistan. Following Ayub Khan's martial law in October 1958, he was disqualified from seeking elective office. After the death of Suhrawardi (1963), he left the Awami League to found the Jatiya League. During the war of independence he suffered incarceration at the hands of the Pakistani forces for calling for a declaration of independence in December 1970. After independence, he became a member of parliament and was elected the leader of opposition in the first Jatiya Sangsad of Bangladesh. He was elected to the Jatiya Sangsad again in 1979. He was prime minister in 1984-86.
Khan, Ghulam Ishaq (b. Jan. 20, 1915, Ismail Khel, Bannu district, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], India [now in Pakistan] - d. Oct. 27, 2006, Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan), finance minister (1978-85), chairman of the Senate (1985-88), and president (1988-93) of Pakistan.
Khan, Iftikhar Hussain, Nawab of Mamdot (b. 1906, Lahore, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Oct. 18, 1969), chief minister of Punjab (1947-49) and governor of Sindh (1954-55).
Khan, Khan Abdul Qayyum (b. July 16, 1901, Chitral, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Oct. 22, 1981, Islamabad, Pakistan), chief minister of the North-West Frontier Province (1947-53) and interior minister of Pakistan (1972-77); brother of Abdul Hamid Khan.
Khan, Khan Mohammad Jalaluddin, byname Jalal Baba (b. March 1903, Hazara, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], India [now in Pakistan] - d. Jan. 3, 1981), interior minister of Pakistan (1958). A close associate of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, he played a major role in making the North-West Frontier Province part of Pakistan.
Khan, Khurshid Alam, Khurshid also spelled Khurshed (b. Feb. 5, 1919, Kaimganj, Farrukhabad district, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. July 20, 2013, New Delhi, India), governor of Goa (1989-91), Karnataka (1991-99), and Kerala (1996-97).
Khan, (Nawab) Malik Amir Mohammad (Asad) (found murdered Nov. 26, 1967), governor of West Pakistan (1960-66).
Khan, Mir Afzal (b. 1934? - d. Jan. 10, 1997, Rawalpindi, Pakistan), chief minister of North-West Frontier Province (1990-93); great-grandson of Afghan ruler Dost Mohammad Khan.
Khan (Jangali), Mirza Koochak (b. 1880, Rasht, Iran - d. Dec. 2, 1921, near Khalkhal, Iran), ruler of Gilan (1920).
Khan, Mohammad Musa (d. March 12, 1991), governor of West Pakistan (1966-69) and Balochistan (1985-91). He was commander-in-chief of the Pakistani army in 1958-66.
Khan, Morshed (b. Aug. 8, 1940, Chittagong, East Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh]), foreign minister of Bangladesh (2001-06). In 2008 he was sentenced in absentia to 13 years in jail for illegally amassing wealth.
Khan, Nawabzada Nasrullah (b. 1918, Khangarh, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Sept. 26, 2003, Islamabad, Pakistan), Pakistani politician. One of Pakistan's greatest democracy advocates, his career spanned half a century and saw him take on several of Pakistan's military dictatorships. He was head of Pakistan's main opposition group, the Alliance for the Restoration of Democracy, and also the head of his own party, the Pakistan Democratic Party. Opposing the role of the army in politics, he spent several years in jail during the 1960s and '70s for his stance. Later, he was a leader in the opposition to Gen. Pervez Musharraf, who seized power in 1999 before restoring a measure of democracy through October 2002 elections. Musharraf, however, stayed on as president and chief of the army, and remained the ultimate power in the country. Khan called on Musharraf to leave the army post and criticized several constitutional amendments the general passed by decree which consolidated the army's power. To put more pressure on Musharraf, Khan traveled to London in September 2003 to meet with former prime minister Benazir Bhutto, who lived in self-imposed exile since 1999. Khan also went to Saudi Arabia to get the support of Nawaz Sharif, another former prime minister whose government was ousted by Musharraf in the 1999 coup. He urged both leaders to return to Pakistan, despite the fact that they faced arrest if they came back. Bhutto and Sharif, whose parties were part of the Alliance for the Restoration of Democracy, each expressed deep sadness over Khan's death as did Musharraf and other leaders.
Khan, (Malik) Nur (b. Feb. 22, 1923, Tamman, Attock district, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Dec. 15, 2011, Rawalpindi, Pakistan), governor of West Pakistan (1969-70).
Khan, Raja Zulqarnain (b. March 15, 1936, Gujrat, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), president of Azad Kashmir (2006-11).
Khan, Sahabzada (Mohammad) Yaqub (b. Dec. 23, 1920), martial law administrator of East Pakistan (1969) and foreign minister of Pakistan (1982-87, 1988-91, 1996-97). He was also ambassador to France (1972-73, 1980-1982), the United States (1973-79), and the Soviet Union (1979-80).
Khan, Sardar (Mohammad) Abdul Qayyum (b. 1924?), president (1956-57, 1970-75, 1985-91) and prime minister (1991-96) of Azad Kashmir.
Khan, Sardar Attique Ahmed (b. Jan. 21, 1955, Bagh district, Azad Kashmir), prime minister of Azad Kashmir (2006-09, 2010-11); son of Sardar Abdul Qayyum Khan.
Khan, Sardar Mohammad Anwar (b. May 9, 1945, Tain village, Poonch district, Jammu and Kashmir [now in Azad Kashmir]), president of Azad Kashmir (2001-06).
Khan, Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim (b. 1915, Rawalakot, Jammu and Kashmir - d. July 31, 2003, Islamabad, Pakistan), president of Azad Kashmir (1947-50, 1957-59, 1975-78, 1996-2001).
Khan, Sardar Mohammad Yaqoob (b. February 1953, Ali Sojal village, Poonch district, Azad Kashmir), prime minister (2009) and president (2011- ) of Azad Kashmir.
Khan, Sardar Sikandar Hayat (b. June 1, 1934), prime minister (1985-90, 2001-06) and president (1991-96) of Azad Kashmir.
Khan, Shaukatullah (b. April 2, 1969), governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (2013-14).
Khan, Tikka (b. Feb. 10, 1915, Jochha Mamdot village, near Rawalpindi, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. March 28, 2002, Rawalpindi, Pakistan), Pakistani general. He was martial law administrator in West Pakistan in 1969, and then in East Pakistan in 1971 when military ruler Gen. Yahya Khan ordered a crackdown against ethnic Bengali separatists led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. His tactics won him the nickname "Butcher of Bengal" among Bengalis before he was removed from his command a few months later. India came to the defense of the Bengali separatists and war broke out on Dec. 4, 1971. Pakistan surrendered 12 days later, and East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh. After Pakistan's defeat, Khan was appointed chief of army staff (1972-76) and defense minister (1977) by Pres. (later Prime Minister) Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto later appointed him governor of Punjab (1988-90).
Khanal, Jhalanath (b. May 20, 1950, Sakhejung, Ilam district, Nepal), prime minister of Nepal (2011).
Khanbabayev, Shamsaddin (Guseyn ogly) (b. April 1, 1939, Ashagy Andamich, Ordubadsky rayon, Nakhichevan A.S.S.R., Azerbaijan S.S.R.), prime minister of Nakhichevan (1993-2000).
Khandohiy, Volodymyr (Dmytrovych) (b. Feb. 21, 1953, Cherkassy, Ukrainian S.S.R.), acting foreign minister of Ukraine (2009). He has been ambassador to Canada (1998-2000), the Netherlands (2000-02), Belgium and Luxembourg (2000-05), and the United Kingdom (2010- ).
Khandu, Dorjee (b. March 19, 1955, Gyangkhar village, Kameng district, Assam [now in Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh], India - d. [helicopter crash] April 30, 2011, Luguthang, Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh), chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh (2007-11).
Khanduri, Bhuwan Chandra (b. Oct. 1, 1934, Dehra Dun, United Provinces [now in Uttarakhand], India), chief minister of Uttarakhand (2007-09, 2011-12).
Khanji, (Mohammad) Dilawar (b. June 23, 1922, Junagadh [now in Gujarat], India - d. 1989, Karachi, Pakistan), governor of Sindh (1976-77); son of Mohammad Mahabat Khanji III, nawab of Junagadh.
Khanna, Tejendra (b. Dec. 16, 1938), lieutenant governor of Delhi (1997-98, 2007-13).
Khar, (Malik) Ghulam Mustafa (b. Aug. 2, 1937, Muzaffargarh, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), governor (1971-73, 1975) and chief minister (1973-74) of Punjab (Pakistan).
Khar, Hina Rabbani (b. Jan. 19, 1977, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan), foreign minister of Pakistan (2011-13); niece of Ghulam Mustafa Khar.
Kharitonov, Yevgeny (Mikhailovich) (b. Oct. 4, 1946), head of the administration of Krasnodar kray (1994-96).
Kharrazi, Kamal (b. Dec. 1, 1944, Tehran), foreign minister of Iran (1997-2005).
Khasanov, Ruslan (Talovich) (b. Feb. 22, 1960, Babugent, Kabardino-Balkar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Kabardino-Balkariya (2012-13).
Khasawneh, Awn (Shawkat al-) (b. Feb. 22, 1950, Amman, Jordan), prime minister and defense minister of Jordan (2011-12). He has been a member of the International Court of Justice since 2000.
Khashba, Nodar (Vladimirovich) (b. Oct. 1, 1951, Tkuarchal [Tkvarcheli], Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Abkhazia (2004-05). He was mayor of Sukhumi in 1993-95.
Khatami(-Ardakani), Hojatolislam (Sayyed Ali) Mohammad (b. Sept. 29, 1943, Ardakan, Yazd province, central Iran), president of Iran (1997-2005). In 1979 he was elected to the national assembly. For a decade (1982-92), he was Iran's minister of culture and Islamic guidance, but he was forced to resign on charges that he was too permissive in allowing books, magazines, and films that some considered subversive. His title Hojatolislam signified his position as a midlevel cleric. Although he had the support of the outgoing moderate, Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, in the May 1997 presidential election, Khatami's principal opponent, Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri, the speaker of the assembly, had the tacit support of Iran's political and religious leader, Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei. Voters, nonetheless, overwhelmingly chose Khatami, apparently both for his more tolerant social views and for his promise to deal with the country's high inflation and unemployment. With strong support from the young and from women and intellectuals, the charismatic Khatami took nearly 70% of the vote. He was one of only four persons approved by the Council of Guardians to run for the office and of the four decidedly the most moderate. His victory, in what was called the first freely contested presidential election in the Islamic republic, raised questions both within Iran and throughout the world about possible changes in policy. In December Khatami stated that he hoped to achieve "a thoughtful dialogue with the American people." Observers noted, however, that the power of the Iranian president to formulate policy was strictly limited and that foreign policy particularly remained in the hands of spiritual leader Khamenei. Khatami was overwhelmingly reelected in 2001.
Khatib, Abdul Ilah, Arabic `Abd al-Ilah al-Khatib (b. March 31, 1953, Salt, Jordan), foreign minister of Jordan (1998-2002, 2005-07). He was also tourism and antiquities minister (1995-96).
Khatsayev, Oleg (Soltanbekovich) (b. Oct. 15, 1963, Alagir, North Ossetian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting prime minister of North Ossetia-Alania (2006).
Khattak, Mohammad Aslam Khan (b. April 5, 1908, Chitral [now in Pakistan] - d. Oct. 10, 2008), governor of the North-West Frontier Province (1973-74) and interior minister of Pakistan (1985-87).
Khayoyev, Izatullo Kh. (b. June 22, 1936, Kulyab district, Tadzhik S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1986-90), vice president (1990-91), and prime minister (1991-92) of the Tadzhik S.S.R./Tajikistan.
Khaznadar, Mohamed (also spelled Mhamed), Arabic Muhammad Khaznadar (b. c. 1810 - d. June 22, 1889), prime minister of Tunisia (1877-78, 1881-82).
Khaznadar, Mustapha, Arabic Mustafa Khaznadar, original name Giorgios (Stephanou) Kalkias Stravelakis (b. 1817, Kardamila, Chios island, Greece - d. July 26, 1878, Tunis, Tunisia), prime minister of Tunisia (1837-73). Captured together with his brother in 1821 after his father was massacred, he was taken to Izmir and then to Constantinople, where he was sold to an envoy of al-Husayn, Bey of Tunis. Raised as a Mameluke in the royal family, he succeeded in rising to the second post of the state. He then engaged in a policy of extravagant expenditures which forced him to subscribe two loans in France. His contracts, which were intended to justify baksheeshs that he and his suppliers divided between themselves, caused the bankruptcy of the country. His fall in 1873 was caused by the intervention of French agents.
Kheireddine Pacha, (Sidi), Turkish Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha, Arabic (Sayyidi) Khayr al-Din Basha (b. 1822 - d. Jan. 30, 1890, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), prime minister of Tunisia (1873-77) and chief minister of the Ottoman Empire (1878-79). He initially came like a slave to Constantinople from his native Caucasus. Mustapha Khaznadar, the future prime minister of Tunisia, who was searching for a slave, bought him and soon made him his son-in-law. Kheireddine became successively colonel and general in the Tunisian army. An admirer of Europe, he worked on a text guaranteeing equality between citizens, private property, and freedom of worship, which was promulgated under the name of "Fundamental Pact" in 1857, in spite of the opposition of Khaznadar. But the regime, which was discredited by Khaznadar's bad financial management, faced a rising in 1864. Following the bankruptcy, the European powers took in hand the financial supervision of Tunisia and Kheireddine became president of the international financial commission (1869-77). As the new prime minister, Kheireddine, dreaming of a political union with Turkey, openly prepared the departure of a Tunisian contingent for the Russo-Turkish War. This alienated the goodwill of the Europeans whose support was essential for him to fight against the intrigues directed against him and he was dismissed in 1877. He then left Tunisia to Vichy (France) and Constantinople where he ended his career as chief minister of the Ottoman sultan.
Khelil, Ismail, Arabic Isma`il al-Khalil (b. July 11, 1932, Gafsa, Tunisia), finance minister (1986-87) and foreign minister (1990) of Tunisia. He was also planning minister (1983-87).
Khemchik-ool, Adyg-Tulush (Oldukay oglu) (b. 1893 - d. 1938), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1929-36) and chairman of the Presidium of the Little Khural (1936-38) of Tannu Tuva.
Khemisti, Mohamed (b. 1930, Marnia, Algeria - d. May 6, 1963, Algiers), foreign minister of Algeria (1962-63). He was shot by an assassin on April 11, 1963, and died without regaining consciousness.
Khieu Samphan (b. July 27, 1931, Svay Rieng province, southeastern Cambodia), Cambodian politician. Once beaten and humiliated by Norodom Sihanouk's police and jailed for two months without charges, he became secretary of state for commerce (1962-63), earning a reputation for honesty and incorruptibility until rightists forced Sihanouk to drop him and his socialist economic programme. In 1971, after Sihanouk was toppled by a rightist coup, Khieu Samphan, by now in the jungle, was named chief of liberation forces fighting the pro-U.S. government. His influence during Khmer Rouge rule is still debated by some analysts as he was never identified as a leader of the Communist Party of Kampuchea. Some said he was relegated to figurehead status when he became chairman of the State Presidium (1976-79), replacing Sihanouk as head of state, but most others viewed him as part of a tight collective ruling clique. In 1982, he played a prominent role in forming the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, a shotgun marriage of the Khmer Rouge with non-communist factions opposed to Vietnam. His reputation from the 1960s stuck with him in the eyes of some elderly Cambodians as well as some of the new generation of students too young to remember Khmer Rouge rule and sick of rampant official corruption. It was perhaps for this reason that when Khieu Samphan returned to Phnom Penh in 1991 under a treaty ending years of war he was attacked by what many analysts believed were government-orchestrated mobs and forced to flee back to Thailand. He surrendered with Nuon Chea to the Cambodian government on Dec. 25, 1998, and was warmly received by Prime Minister Hun Sen and allowed to live free in the semi-autonomous region run by Ieng Sary. In 2007, however, he was arrested and charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity at a UN-backed tribunal. He went on trial in June 2011 and was sentenced to life in prison in August 2014.
Khim Tit (b. June 12, 1896, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. 19...), defense minister (1945, 1953-54) and prime minister (1956) of Cambodia. He was also minister of public works (1945-46) and works and telecommunications (1951), ambassador to the Soviet Union (1960-61) and Czechoslovakia (1961-65), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-72). He went in exile in the United States in 1975.
Khin Nyunt (b. Oct. 11, 1939, Kyauktan, Burma [now Myanmar]), prime minister of Myanmar (2003-04). He was a constant figure in the inner circle of the military regime since pro-democracy protests led by Aung San Suu Kyi were bloodily suppressed in 1988. After becoming prime minister, however, he was widely seen as being edged out. In October 2004 the state media announced that he was "permitted to retire for health reasons," while a Thai government spokesman said that he had been placed under house arrest on corruption charges. He was seen as a pragmatist favouring limited dialogue with Aung San Suu Kyi and his dismissal was apparently the result of a power struggle in which the hardliners prevailed. Found guilty on eight charges, including corruption, he was sentenced on July 22, 2005, to a 44-year suspended prison term.
Khleifawi, Abdul Rahman (b. 1930 [other sources say 1927], Damascus, Syria), interior minister (1970-71) and prime minister (1971-72, 1976-78) of Syria.
Khloponin, Aleksandr (Gennadiyevich) (b. March 6, 1965, Colombo, Sri Lanka), head of the administration of Taymyr autonomous okrug (2001-02) and Krasnoyarsk kray (2002-10) and plenipotentiary of the president in Severo-Kavkazsky federal district (2010-14).
Khlyntsov, Nikolay (Aleksandrovich) (b. 1948), prime minister of North Ossetia-Alania (2006-12).
Khodyrev, Gennady (Maksimovich) (b. Sept. 23, 1942, Gorky, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Nizhny Novgorod, Russia]), governor of Nizhny Novgorod oblast (2001-05). He was also Russian minister of antitrust policy and business support (1998-99).
Khodzhayev, Fayzulla (Ubaydullayevich) (Fa´iz Allah ibn `Ubayd Allah Khwaja), Uzbek Fayzulla Xo'jao'g'li (b. 1896, Bukhara, Khanate of Bukhara [now in Uzbekistan] - d. March 15, 1938, near Moscow, U.S.S.R.), chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (1924-25) and of the Council of People's Commissars (1925-37) of the Uzbek S.S.R. and co-chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. (1925-37).
Khoja, Sidi (Abu Abdullah) Husain (also spelled Hassine Khodja), Arabic Sayyidi (Abu `Abd Allah) Husayn Khwaja, original name Giuseppe Certa (b. Favignana island, near Sicily - d. bf. Aug. 10, 1858, Tunis), prime minister of Tunisia (1822-29).
Kholmanskikh, Igor (Rurikovich) (b. June 29, 1969, Nizhny Tagil, Russian S.F.S.R.), plenipotentiary of the president in Uralsky federal district (2012- ).
Kholov, Makhmadullo Kholovich (b. Jan. 2, 1920, Boloshar village, Garm region, Tadzhik A.S.S.R. [now Tajikistan] - d. 19...), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1963-84).
Khomeini, Ayatollah (al-`Ozma Imam Sayyed) Ruhollah (Musawi-) (b. Sept. 24, 1902, Khomeyn, Iran - d. June 3, 1989, Tehran), Iranian political leader. About 1930 Musawi adopted the name of his home town, Khomeyn, as his surname. In the 1950s he was acclaimed as an ayatollah, or major religious leader, and by the early 1960s he had received the title of grand ayatollah, thereby making him one of the supreme religious leaders of the Shi`ite community in Iran. In 1962-63 he spoke out against the shah's reduction of religious estates in a land-reform program and against the emancipation of women. His ensuing arrest sparked antigovernment riots, and, after a year of internment and house arrest, he was forcibly exiled from Iran on Nov. 4, 1964. He eventually settled in the Shi`ite holy city of an-Najaf, Iraq, from where he continued to call for the shah's overthrow and the establishment of an Islamic republic in Iran. The Iraqi government forced Khomeini to leave Iraq on Oct. 6, 1978. He then settled in Neauphle-le-Château, a suburb of Paris. From there his supporters relayed his tape-recorded messages to an increasingly aroused Iranian populace, and civil unrest forced the departure of the shah from the country on Jan. 16, 1979. Khomeini arrived in Tehran in triumph on Feb. 1, 1979, and was acclaimed as the religious leader of Iran's revolution. In December a referendum on a new constitution approved an Islamic republic in Iran, with Khomeini named Iran's political and religious leader for life. In February 1989 he regained the world stage when he denounced British novelist Salman Rushdie's book The Satanic Verses as blasphemous and exhorted devout Muslims to execute Rushdie and his publishers.
Khonglam, F(linder) A(nderson) (b. Feb. 6, 1945, Cherapunjee, Assam [now in Meghalaya], India), chief minister of Meghalaya (2001-03).
Khoroshavin, Aleksandr (Vadimovich) (b. Nov. 26, 1959), governor of Sakhalin oblast (2007- ).
Khosa, Sardar Muhammad Latif Khan (b. July 25, 1946, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), governor of Punjab (2011-12).
Khoshtaria, Giorgi (b. Oct. 4, 1938), foreign minister of Georgia (1990-91).
Khosla, Ajudhia Nath (b. Dec. 11, 1892, Jullundur [now Jalandhar], Punjab, India - d. July 23, 1984), governor of Orissa (1962-68).
Khoso, Mir Hazar Khan (b. Sept. 30, 1929, Jaffarabad district, Baluchistan, India [now in Pakistan]), acting governor of Balochistan (1991) and interim prime minister of Pakistan (2013).
Khouna, Cheikh El Avia Ould Mohamed (b. 1956, Amourj, Mauritania), prime minister (1996-97, 1998-2003) and foreign minister (1998, 2008) of Mauritania.
Khoury, (Cheikh) Béchara (Khalil) El-, Arabic Sheikh Bishara Khalil al-Khuri (b. Aug. 10, 1890, Aley, Mount Lebanon governorate, Ottoman Empire [now in Lebanon] - d. Jan. 11, 1964, Beirut, Lebanon), prime minister (1927-28, 1929) and president (1943, 1943-52) of Lebanon. After World War I he presided over Lebanon's Court of Appeal and then was a member of parliament. In due course he became head of the Destour (Constitutional) Party, one of two loose groupings in the Chamber of Deputies. It professed slightly more nationalistic views than its rival, the Unionists under Émile Eddé, and was therefore less favoured by the French mandatory authorities. In 1926 he became minister of the interior and during the next three years he was occasionally prime minister; he also served as president of the Senate. The personal rivalry between Khoury and Eddé - both Christians - dominated the internal politics of Lebanon in those years. In 1936 Khoury was defeated by Eddé in the presidential election. During World War II, he cultivated close contacts with the British. In 1943 the French held elections to implement their earlier grant of Lebanese independence, and Khoury was elected president, although he was temporarily arrested in November 1943 after his government had introduced a revision of the constitution which excluded all references to the mandate, in defiance of French contentions that no such modification could be made without their prior consent. In 1948 he contrived an amendment to the constitution which allowed him a second term of office. He won the subsequent election, but widespread opposition to the dubious means by which he had obtained the legislature's approval of the amendment, as well as to the corruption and nepotism of his administration, forced him into retirement in 1952.
Khramov, Konstantin (Konstantinovich) (b. April 6, 1967, Nevinnomyssk, Stavropol kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Kabardino-Balkariya (2013-14).
Khrissate, Kamel (b. Oct. 8, 1936, Cap Matifou, Algeria), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1991-92). He was also prefect of the départements of Haute-Marne (1994-96) and Ardèche (1996-97).
Khristenko, Viktor (Borisovich) (b. Aug. 28, 1957, Chelyabinsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting prime minister of Russia (2004). A former deputy governor of Chelyabinsk, he came to Moscow in 1997 when he was named deputy finance minister, and a year later was appointed deputy prime minister. Several months later he was demoted back to the ranks of the finance ministry but in 1999 he was brought back as a deputy prime minister. Khristenko, who was widely recognized for having made Russia's oil exports more transparent and guaranteeing oil firms equal access to export pipelines, became industry and energy minister in 2004 and industry and trade minister in 2008. He resigned in 2012 to become head of the Eurasian Economic Commission, set up in November 2011 to coordinate the trade and economic policies of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. He is married to Health and Social Development Minister Tatyana Golikova.
Khrushchev, Nikita (Sergeyevich) (Russian), Ukrainian Mykyta Serhiyovych Khrushchov (b. April 15 [April 3, O.S.]1, 1894, Kalinovka, Russia [now Kalynivka, Ukraine] - d. Sept. 11, 1971, Moscow), first secretary of the Communist Party (1953-64) and premier (1958-64) of the Soviet Union. In 1918 he became a member of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). In 1935 he became first secretary of the Moscow party organization. In 1938 he was made a candidate member and in 1939 a full member of the Politburo. In the Ukrainian S.S.R. he was first secretary of the party (1938-47, 1947-49) and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1944-47). In 1949 Iosif Stalin called him back to Moscow, where he took over his old job as head of the Moscow city party and concurrently was appointed secretary of the Central Committee. After Stalin's death, he engaged in a power struggle with Georgy Malenkov, and gained the decisive margin by his control of the party machinery. He became first secretary and in 1955 removed Malenkov from the premiership. On Feb. 24-25, 1956, during the 20th Party Congress in Moscow, he delivered his memorable secret speech about the excesses of Stalin's one-man rule. In 1962 he attempted to emplace Soviet medium-range missiles in Cuba. During a tense confrontation in October, when the United States and the Soviet Union apparently stood on the brink of war, he agreed to remove the missiles on the promise that the U.S. would make no further attempt to overthrow Cuba's Communist government. The Soviet Union was attacked by the Chinese Communists for this settlement. Failures in agriculture and the split with China, added to his arbitrary administrative methods, were the major factors in his downfall. In 1964 the Central Committee accepted his request to retire because of "advanced age and poor health."
1 Date according to his birth records found in the Kursk provincial archive. He himself maintained that he was born April 17 (April 5, O.S.), 1894.
Khuade, Khazret (Yunusovich) (b. March 6, 1949), prime minister of Adygeya (2002 [acting], 2003-04).
Khuang Aphaiwong, Aphaiwong also spelled Abhaiwong, also called Luang Kovid (b. May 17, 1902, Battambang, Cambodia - d. March 15, 1968, Bangkok, Thailand), prime minister (1944-45, 1946, 1947-48), finance minister (1944-45), and interior minister (1948) of Thailand. He was a member of the Khmer family which ruled western Cambodia from the 18th century on behalf of Siam until the region was transferred to France in 1907. He was one of the Thai leaders (with Pridi Banomyong and others) who in 1932 carried out the bloodless coup that replaced the country's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government. During World War II (1941-44), he was minister of commerce and communications under Prime Minister Plaek Pibulsongkram and was one of the few cabinet members who was not pro-Japanese. He became prime minister in August 1944 as a result of the political manoeuvering of Pridi, who remained the effective power in the government from behind the scenes. As wartime leader, Khuang appeased the Japanese while encouraging underground operations subverting their war effort. Resenting Pridi's domination, Khuang resigned his second prime ministry in 1946 and led a pro-monarchy conservative government faction, founding the Democrat Party, the first major opposition in Thailand's new parliamentary assembly. In 1947, after Pridi and Thawan Thamrongnawasawat fled the country, he became acting prime minister and managed to establish a civilian government, but he was constantly pressured by military factions, and Pibulsongkram finally deposed him in 1948. Khuang, a popular campaigner who frequently drew crowds of 20,000 and more, remained a vociferous opponent of Thailand's military regimes until his death.
Khubiyev, Vladimir (Islamovich) (b. March 26, 1932 - d. March 17, 2004), head of the republic of Karachayevo-Cherkessia (1992-99).
Khudilainen, Aleksandr (Petrovich) (b. May 2, 1956, Zlobino village, Kalinin [now Tver] oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the republic of Karelia (2012- ).
Khugayev, Gerasim (Georgiyevich), byname Rezo Khugayev (b. Nov. 15, 1945), prime minister of South Ossetia (1993-94, 2001-03).
Khugayev, Rostislav (Erastovich) (b. Dec. 17, 1951, Mirtgadzhin, South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of South Ossetia (2012-14).
Khurana, Madan Lal (b. Oct. 15, 1936, Faisalabad, India [now in Pakistan]), chief minister of Delhi (1993-96) and governor of Rajasthan (2004).
Khurana, Sundar Lal (b. Feb. 28, 1919, Jhang, India [now in Pakistan]), lieutenant governor of Delhi (1981-82) and Pondicherry (1984) and governor of Tamil Nadu (1982-88).
Khuri, Faris al- (b. 1877 - d. Jan. 2, 1962, Damascus, Syria), prime minister of Syria (1944-45, 1954-55). He was also speaker of parliament (1936-39, 1943-44, 1945-49).
Khurshid, Salman (b. Jan. 1, 1953, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India), foreign minister of India (2012-14); son of Khurshid Alam Khan. He was also minister of water resources (2011) and law and justice (2011-12).
Khvostov, Mikhail (Mikhailovich), Belarusian spelling Mikhail (Mikhaylavich) Khvastou (b. June 27, 1949, Kozlovshchina village, Vitebsk oblast, Belorussian S.S.R.), foreign minister and deputy prime minister of Belarus (2000-03). He has also been ambassador to Canada (1997-2000) and the United States (also non-resident to Mexico) (2003-09).
Kib, Abdel Rahim al-, Arabic in full `Abd al-Rahim `Abd al-Hafiz al-Kib (b. 1950, Tripoli, Tripolitania [now in Libya]), prime minister of Libya (2011-12).
Kibaki, (Emilio) Mwai (b. Nov. 15, 1931, Gatuyaini village, Othaya division, Nyeri district, Central province, Kenya), finance minister (1969-82), vice president (1978-88), home affairs minister (1978-79, 1982-88), and president (2002-13) of Kenya.
Kibbelaar, Anno E(ligio) (b. July 26, 1929, Curaçao - d. 2005), administrator of Curaçao (1970-76). He was the first black in that position.
Kibedi, (Joshua) Wanume (b. Aug. 3, 1941, Busesa, Busoga, eastern Uganda), foreign minister of Uganda (1971-73); brother-in-law of Idi Amin. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-88).
Kibria, Shah A(bu) M(ohammad) S(hamsul) (b. May 1, 1931, Sylhet, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. Jan. 27, 2005, between Boidder Bazar [Habiganj district] and Dhaka, Bangladesh), finance minister of Bangladesh (1996-2001). He was critically wounded in a grenade attack on an Awami League rally in Boidder Bazar; he died on his way to Dhaka.
Kibwe, Jean-Baptiste (Pampala) (b. March 23, 1924, Elisabethville [now Lubumbashi], Katanga province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Nov. 21, 2008, Brussels, Belgium), vice president and finance minister (1960-63) and joint acting president (1961) of Katanga.
Kichikov, Oleg (Vladimirovich) (b. Aug. 21, 1966), prime minister of Kalmykia (2010-11).
Kidwa, Nasser al-, Arabic Nasir al-Qudwa (b. April 16, 1953, Gaza city, Gaza Strip), foreign minister of the Palestinian Authority (2005-06); nephew of Yasir Arafat. He previously served as permanent observer to the United Nations (1991-2005).
Kidwai, A(khlaqur) R(ahman) (b. July 1, 1920, Baragaon, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), governor of Bihar (1979-85, 1993-98), West Bengal (1998-99), Haryana (2004-09), Punjab (2004), and Rajasthan (2007).
Kieber, Walter (b. Feb. 20, 1931, Feldkirch, Austria - d. June 21, 2014), head of government of Liechtenstein (1974-78).
Kieber-Beck, Rita, née Beck (b. Dec. 27, 1958), deputy head of government (2001-05) and foreign minister (2005-09) of Liechtenstein.
Kielsen, Kim (b. Nov. 30, 1966), acting prime minister of Greenland (2014- ). He has been minister of minerals and resources (2007), infrastructure, climate, and environment (2008-09), and environment and nature (2013- ).
Kierans, Eric (William) (b. Feb. 2, 1914, Montreal, Quebec - d. May 10, 2004, Montreal), Canadian politician. He was first elected to the Quebec legislature as a Liberal in 1963 and was reelected in 1966. He was revenue minister (1963-65) and health minister (1965-66) of Quebec. He ran for the federal Liberal leadership in 1968 but was defeated by Pierre Trudeau, who named him postmaster-general (1968-71) and communications minister (1969-71) of Canada. He left politics in 1972.
Kiesinger, Kurt Georg (b. April 6, 1904, Ebingen, Württemberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. March 9, 1988, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, West Germany), chancellor of West Germany (1966-69). He joined the Nazi party in 1933 but refused to join the National Socialist lawyers' guild in 1938. During World War II he served as assistant chief of the foreign ministry's radio propaganda division. Interned by U.S. forces for 18 months after the war, he was finally cleared by the de-Nazification courts. Joining the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), he was first elected to the Bundestag in the newly formed Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 and soon became one of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer's most loyal lieutenants. He served as chairman of the foreign policy committee of the Bundestag and accompanied Adenauer to Moscow on the historic journey that led to the establishment of diplomatic relations between Moscow and Bonn. But when Adenauer failed to reward his loyalty with a ministry or ambassadorship, he left the Bundestag. In 1958-66 he was minister-president of Baden-Württemberg and in 1962-63 held the rotating presidency of the Bundesrat (upper house). He replaced Ludwig Erhard as chancellor in 1966, after the latter was deserted first by his coalition partner, the Free Democratic Party (FDP), and then by his own party as well. Kiesinger, who was able to deflect hostile publicity about his Nazi past, formed a "grand coalition" between the CDU and the Social Democratic Party (SPD). His term was marred by violent protests against the Emergency Powers Bill (1968), which granted the government special authority in security matters. In the 1969 election the CDU held a small plurality, but the SPD formed a coalition with the FDP. He was replaced as CDU chairman in 1971 but remained in the Bundestag until 1980.
Kifle Wodajo, (Ato) (b. Oct. 30, 1936, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - d. April 28, 2004, South Africa), foreign minister of Ethiopia (1974-77). He served as deputy permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-63, 1968-70), acting secretary-general of the Organization of African Unity (1963-64), and ambassador to the United States (1972-74). He lived in exile (mainly in the U.S.) during the rule of Mengistu Haile Mariam (1977-91). After his return he became a member of the House of People's Representatives and served as chairman of the Ethiopian constitution drafting commission. Following retirement from public service in 1996, he headed the Horn of Africa Peace Centre, a non-governmental agency dedicated to the advance of peace and conflict prevention in the region. From 1998 to 2000, he served as a member of the international panel investigating the causes of the Rwandan genocide.
Kigeri V Ndahindurwa, original name Jean-Baptiste Ndahindurwa (b. June 29, 1936, Kamembe, southwestern Rwanda), king of Rwanda (1959-61); half-brother of Mutara III Rudahigwa. He has lived in exile in Tanzania (1961-62), Kenya (1963-71, 1979-92), Uganda (1972-78), and the U.S. (from 1992).
Kihl, Jean-Paul (b. June 1, 1950, Sarreguemines, Moselle, France), prefect of Mayotte (2005-07).
Kiir (Mayardit), Salva (b. 1951, Akon, Bahr el-Ghazal province, Sudan [now in Warrap state, South Sudan]), first vice president of The Sudan and president of the Government of Southern Sudan (2005-11) and president of South Sudan (2011- ). He was named vice president of the Government of Southern Sudan on July 18, 2005, and following the death of John Garang was appointed to Garang's posts on August 4. He became the first elected president of the semi-autonomous region in 2010 and the first president of independent South Sudan in 2011.
Kijiner, Tom (D.) (b. Aug. 29, 1945, Likiep, Marshall Islands), finance minister (1985-88) and foreign minister (1988-94) of the Marshall Islands. He has also been minister of education (1979-85) and health and environment (1994-2000) and ambassador to Japan, Vietnam, Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia (2012- ) and Singapore (2014- ).
Kikhia, Mansur (Rashid), Arabic Mansur (Rashid) al-Kikhiya (b. Dec. 1, 1931, Benghazi, Libya - disappeared Dec. 10, 1993, Cairo, Egypt [evidence indicates he was executed early 1994, Libya]), foreign minister of Libya (1972-73). He was also permanent representative to the UN (January-July 1972, 1975-80). Later he was a prominent opposition figure.
Kikhia, Umar Mansur, Arabic `Umar Mansur al-Kikhiya (b. 1880 - d. Dec. 2, 1962), prime minister of Cyrenaica (1949-50).
Kiki, Sir Albert Maori (b. Sept. 21, 1931 - d. March 13, 1993), foreign and defense minister of Papua New Guinea (1975-77); knighted 1975.
Kikwete, Jakaya (Mrisho) (b. Oct. 7, 1950, Msonga, Bagamoyo district, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), finance minister (1994-95), foreign minister (1995-2006), and president (2005- ) of Tanzania. In 2008-09 he was chairman of the African Union.
Kilage, Sir Ignatius (b. 1941 - d. Dec. 31, 1989), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (1989).
Kilegefaanu, (Haji) Ibrahim (Didi Effendi) Dhoshimeyna (b. 1845, Male, Maldives - d. March 31, 1925, Male), prime minister of Maldives (1883-87, 1888-99, 1904-25).
Killanin (of Galway), Michael (John) Morris, (3rd) Baron (b. July 30, 1914, London, England - d. April 25, 1999, Dublin, Ireland), president of the International Olympic Committee (1972-80). He succeeded to the title Baron Killanin in 1927.
Kilman (Livtuvanu), (Meltek) Sato (b. Dec. 30, 1957), foreign minister (2004-07, 2014- ) and prime minister (2010-11, 2011, 2011-13) of Vanuatu.
Kilpatrick, Helen, governor of the Cayman Islands (2013- ).
Kilpatrick, Kwame (Malik) (b. June 8, 1970, Detroit, Mich.), mayor of Detroit (2002-08). In 2008 he was convicted for perjury and obstruction of justice. In a plea deal he agreed to resign as mayor, spend four months in jail, pay $1 million to the city, and surrender his law license. In 2010 he was sentenced to up to five years in prison for violating the terms of his probation. In March 2013 he was convicted of racketeering conspiracy, fraud, extortion, and tax crimes; in October he was sentenced to 28 years in prison.
Kim Dae Jung, Revised Romanization Gim Dae-jung (b. Dec. 3, 19251, Mokp'o, South Cholla province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. Aug. 18, 2009, Seoul, South Korea), president of South Korea (1998-2003). During the Korean War he was captured by the communists and sentenced to be shot as a "reactionary," but he managed to escape. After five attempts at elective office, he finally won a seat on the National Assembly (1961). He became increasingly critical of Pres. Park Chung Hee's policies, and in 1971 he ran against Park in a presidential election. During this campaign he suffered a chronic hip injury in a road accident that he later described as "a clear assassination attempt." Kim lost the election, although winning more than 40% of the vote. In 1973, while in self-exile in Japan, he was kidnapped from his hotel in Tokyo by agents of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency. The agents were thwarted while trying to drown Kim, then returned him forcibly to Seoul. After Park was assassinated in 1979, Kim became a top contender for the presidency, but after Gen. Chun Doo Hwan came to power after a military coup in 1980, Kim was arrested on charges of sedition and conspiracy and sentenced to death, though Chun commuted the sentence to life imprisonment and later to 20 years. In December 1982 Chun suspended Kim's jail sentence and allowed him to go into exile in the U.S.; he was allowed to return to South Korea in February 1985 and resumed his role as one of the principal leaders of the opposition. In 1987 both he and Kim Young Sam ran for the presidency and lost, splitting the antigovernment vote. In the 1992 election, he lost to Kim Young Sam, who switched his political affiliation and ran as the government candidate. After that defeat, Kim Dae Jung said he was retiring from politics, but in 1995 he mounted a comeback and on Dec. 18, 1997, he was finally elected president. He initiated the "Sunshine Policy" of engagement with North Korea and met with North Korean leader Kim Jong Il in 2000. Later that year he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to improve relations with the North.
Kim Dae Jung
1 Some sources suggest that he was actually born on Jan. 6, 1924, and that the date was changed so he could avoid conscription during the Japanese colonial period.
Kim Dong Jo (b. Aug. 14, 1918, Pusan, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. Dec. 9, 2004, Seoul, South Korea), foreign minister of South Korea (1973-75). He entered the foreign service in the Syngman Rhee government and successfully negotiated the normalization of diplomatic ties with Japan. He served as ambassador to Japan and the United States and worked his way from vice foreign minister to foreign minister. Under the Park Chung Hee government in the 1970s, he led negotiations with the United States on the dispatch of Korean combat troops to Vietnam and the Korean government's plan to modernize its military hardware. He was President Park's special adviser for foreign policy from 1975 to 1979 before retiring.
Kim Dong Jo
Kim Du Bong (b. March 16, 1886, South Kyongsang province, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. [executed?] 1958?), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly of North Korea (1948-57).
Kim Hong Il (b. Sept. 23, 1898, Osong village, Yangha district, Yongcheon county, North Pyongan province, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. Aug. 8, 1980), foreign minister of South Korea (1961).
Kim Hong Il
Kim Hwang Sik
Kim Hwang Sik (b. Aug. 9, 1948, Jangseong, South Korea), prime minister of South Korea (2010-13).
Kim Hyun Chul (b. Nov. 13, 1901 - d. 1989), chief cabinet minister of South Korea (1962-63).
Kim Il (b. March 20, 1910, Orang county, North Hamgyong province, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. March 9, 1984), first deputy premier (1959-72), premier (1972-76), and first vice president (1976-84) of North Korea.
Kim Il Chol (b. 1928, P'yongyang, Korea [now in North Korea]), defense minister of North Korea (1998-2009). He attended the Soviet Naval Academy and served as first vice minister of defense (1997-98) until he was appointed to the portfolio that had been vacant since the death of Defense Minister Choe Kwang in February 1997.
Kim Il Chol
Kim Il Sung (Revised Romanization Gim Il-seong), original name Kim Song Ju (b. April 15, 1912, Man'gyondae, near P'yongyang, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. July 8, 1994, P'yongyang), premier (1948-72) and president (1972-94) of North Korea and chairman (1948-66) and general secretary (1966-94) of the Korean Workers' Party. He was an anti-Japanese guerrilla in Manchuria and the Korean border areas in the 1930s and adopted the name of an earlier Korean guerrilla fighter against the Japanese. He joined the Korean Communist Party in 1931. He received military and political training in the Soviet Union and led a Korean contingent as a major in the Soviet Red Army in World War II. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the Soviets took administrative control of northern Korea and reached for Kim to establish a communist provisional government. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea was created under his leadership in 1948, after the United States organized the Republic of Korea in the south. He tried to reunify Korea by invading the south in 1950, thereby igniting the Korean War, but was stopped by U.S. troops and other UN forces, and it was only through massive Chinese support that he was able to repel a subsequent invasion of North Korea by UN forces. After the end of the war in 1953, he set about transforming North Korea into an austere, militaristic, and highly regimented society. He introduced a philosophy of juche ("self-reliance") under which North Korea tried to develop its economy with little or no help from foreign countries. An omnipresent personality cult imparted "godlike qualities" on the "Great Leader." His death was followed by an extensive mourning period, during which the presidency remained vacant. In 1998 the Supreme People's Assembly wrote the presidency out of the constitution, conferring on Kim Il Sung the title of "Eternal President."
Kim Il Sung
Kim Jong Il, also spelled Kim Chong Il, Revised Romanization Gim Jeong-il (b. Feb. 16, 1942, Vyatskoye, Khabarovsk kray, Russian S.F.S.R.1 - d. Dec. 17, 2011, on a train during a "high intensity field inspection," North Korea), North Korean leader; son of Kim Il Sung. In 1945 he was taken to northern Korea by his parents, but in 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, he was placed in safety in Manchuria by his father. He returned to P'yongyang two years later. His political career began in 1964 with his appointment to the organization and guidance bureau of the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK). He was appointed in September 1973 to the powerful position of party secretary in charge of organization, propaganda, and agitation, and in February 1974 he became a member of the Political Bureau of the WPK. With his inclusion in his father's personality cult and his effective designation as his father's successor in October 1980, it seemed that the world's first "Communist dynasty" might be in the making. In February 1982 he gained a seat in the Supreme People's Assembly, North Korea's parliament. His position as number two was placed beyond doubt by a massive, nationwide propaganda campaign to mark his 42nd birthday in 1984. He came to be called the "Dear Leader." He was elected first vice-chairman of the National Defense Commission in May 1990, its chairman in April 1993, and supreme commander of the Korean People's Army in December 1991. He was awarded the title of marshal in April 1992. When his father died in 1994, however, the top state and party posts remained vacant at first. In 1997, he officially became general secretary of the WPK. On Sept. 5, 1998, the position of chairman of the National Defense Commission (to which Kim was reelected) was declared "the highest post in the state," but the post of president was abolished and the protocol functions of the head of state went to the chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly. After his death, he was proclaimed eternal general secretary of the WPK and permanent chairman of the NDC in 2012.
Kim Jong Il
1 The official press says Kim was born in the deep forests of sacred Mount Paekdu at a secret camp on the Chinese border ("At the time of his birth there were flashes of lightning and thunder, the iceberg in the pond on Mount Paekdu emitted a mysterious sound as it broke, and bright double rainbows rose up," according to the official line). There are claims that his actual birth year was 1941 and was subsequently altered to match the celebration years with his father who would be 30 years older. According to the "Soviet" version, he received at birth the Russian name Yury along with his Korean one.
Kim Jong Pil, Revised Romanization Gim Jong-pil (b. Jan. 7, 1926, Puyo, South Chungchong province, Korea [now in South Korea]), South Korean politician. He played a pivotal role as a young army colonel in the 1961 coup that brought his uncle, Gen. Park Chung Hee, to power and was Park's right-hand man until the dictator's assassination in 1979. In 1971-75 he was prime minister for the first time. He founded the infamous Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) that over the years jailed, tortured, and attempted to murder Kim Dae Jung for his opposition to autocratic regimes. Kim Jong Pil used the KCIA to amass money in an attempt to build a one-party state under Park. He was implicated in several scandals in the 1960s, including stock market manipulation and abuse of foreign exchange privileges, though never convicted. On May 18, 1980, in the turbulent period following Park's assassination, he and other key Park lieutenants were arrested as Pres. Chun Doo Hwan declared martial law following mass street demonstrations. The following month, the martial law commander charged that nine politicians and former government officials, including Kim, had illegally amassed almost $150 million while in office. He was "purged" from the governing party, but he began a comeback in the 1987 presidential elections, finishing with just 8% of the vote. He joined forces with Kim Young Sam after the latter won the 1992 election, but split with him about a year later. "J.P.," as he is popularly known, became prime minister a second time (1998-2000) under Pres. Kim Dae Jung. The strange alliance raised eyebrows when it was announced in 1997, but Kim Dae Jung knew he could not win unless he broadened his support from his traditional base in the southwest Cholla region and reassure South Korean voters that he was not the radical, leftist rabble-rouser that he was painted as by successive military regimes.
Kim Jong Pil
Kim Jong Un (b. Jan. 8?, 1983?), North Korean leader; first secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea and first chairman of the National Defense Commission (2012- ); son of Kim Jong Il.
Kim Jong Un
Kim Pyong Sik (b. Feb. 10, 1919, Muan county, South Cholla province [now in South Korea] - d. July 21, 1999), North Korean politician. He played a leading role in forming a pro-North Korean residents' group in Japan in the 1950s. In 1972, he moved to North Korea to serve in various government and party posts. After serving as a vice president for five years, Kim retired from active politics in 1998 to serve in an advisory post in the Korean Socialist Party, one of several pro-government political groups in North Korea.
Kim Sang Hyup (b. April 20, 1920 - d. Feb. 21, 1995, Seoul, South Korea), prime minister of South Korea (1982-83).
Kim Suk Soo (b. Nov. 20, 1932), prime minister of South Korea (2002-03).
Kim Suk Soo
Kim Sung Hwan
Kim Sung Hwan (b. April 13, 1953), foreign minister of South Korea (2010-13).
Kim Yong Il (b. May 2, 1944), prime minister of North Korea (2007-10).
Kim Yong Shik (b. 1914 - d. March 31, 1995, Seoul, South Korea), foreign minister of South Korea (1963, 1971-73). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1961-62, 1974-77), to the United Nations (1964-70), and the United States (1977-81).
Kim Young Sam, Revised Romanization Gim Yeong-sam (b. Dec. 20, 1927, Koje island, off Pusan, Korea [now in South Korea]), president of South Korea (1993-98). First elected to the National Assembly in 1954, he resigned in protest when Pres. Syngman Rhee tried to alter the constitution, but he was successively reelected until Oct. 9, 1979, when he was expelled from the assembly for his opposition to Pres. Park Chung Hee. His expulsion touched off riots and demonstrations and on October 26 Park was assassinated. It was then expected that Kim would run in the presidential election, but Gen. Chun Doo Hwan's takeover in May 1980 prevented this. Kim was put under house arrest, and in November he was banned from political activity for eight years; his party was also banned. The house arrest was lifted in June 1983, and he resumed his political activity in 1985. He ran unsuccessfully for the presidency in 1987, splitting the antigovernment vote with rival opposition leader Kim Dae Jung. In 1990 he shrewdly merged his Reunification Democratic Party with the ruling Democratic Justice Party led by Pres. Roh Tae Woo, forming the Democratic Liberal Party (in 1995 renamed New Korea Party). This centre-right party then dominated Korean politics, and as its candidate he won election to the presidency in December 1992. As president, he moved vigorously against corruption. Thousands of government officials were to declare their assets, which would then be open to scrutiny, and South Koreans were ordered to use their real names in all financial transactions. He also granted amnesty to some 41,000 prisoners, including labour activists and pro-democracy demonstrators, and wiped out the criminal records of those arrested in pro-democracy demonstrations in Kwangju in 1980. In 1997 his own administration was involved in corruption scandals, tarnishing his reputation.
Kim Young Sam
Kimba, Évariste (b. July 16, 1926, Bukama, Katanga province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. [executed] June 2, 1966, Kinshasa), foreign minister of Katanga (1960-61) and prime minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1965).
Kimbunda (Mudikela), Jean (b. April 29, 1961, Masi-Manimba [now in Bandundu province], Congo [Léopoldville (now Kinshasa)]), governor of Kinshasa (2004-05).
Kimbuta Yango, André (b. June 16, 1952), governor of Kinshasa (2007- ).
Kimunya, Amos (Muhinga) (b. March 6, 1962, Kiambu, Kenya), finance minister of Kenya (2006-08). He has also been minister of lands (2003-06), trade (2009-10), and transport (2010- ).
Kimura, Yoshiki (b. Jan. 11, 1952), acting governor of Osaka (1999-2000) and governor of Wakayama (2000-06).
Kinakh, Anatoliy (Kyrylovych) (b. Aug. 4, 1954, Bratushany village, Moldavian S.S.R.), prime minister of Ukraine (2001-02). He was also a deputy prime minister (1995-97), first deputy prime minister (1999-2001, 2005), and economy minister (2007).
Kindavong, Prince (b. 1900 - d. March 30, 1951, Paris), prime minister of Laos (1946-47); half-brother of Prince Souvannarath, Prince Souvanna Phouma, and Prince Phetsarath.
King, Angus S., Jr. (b. March 31, 1944, Alexandria, Va.), governor of Maine (1995-2003). He is a former Democrat who worked for U.S. Sen. William Hathaway (1972-75). For 18 years (1975-93) he hosted Maine Public Television's "MaineWatch," so he was clearly the star of the 1994 gubernatorial campaign in which he ran as an independent. He was well-known, capable of heavily self-financing a campaign, and experienced at projecting his message over television. He attacked high taxes, clumsy government meddling in business, astonishing inefficiency; he called for specific cuts and said, "Sometimes the best thing the government can do is get out of the way." He spoke in pungent phrases, but his platform tended to lack specifics. He overshadowed the Republican nominee, Susan Collins, a former aide to outgoing Gov. John McKernan; and he contrasted sharply with the traditionally partisan Democrat, former governor Joseph Brennan, who won in 1978 and 1982 and ran against McKernan and lost in 1990. King pulled even in the polls, then overtook Brennan, and won with 35% to Brennan's 34%, Collins's 23%, and 6% for a Green Party candidate. King ran stronger with Republicans than Democrats and did his best with high-education and high-income voters. In office King said he wanted each of his department heads to spend less, called for an end to new regulations, and proclaimed that "Maine is on the move." In 2012 he was elected to the U.S. Senate.
King, Bruce (b. April 6, 1924, Stanley, N.M. - d. Nov. 13, 2009, near Stanley), governor of New Mexico (1971-75, 1979-83, 1991-95). With a cowboy walk and a proclivity towards malapropisms, he was first elected governor in 1970, elected again in 1978, and elected a third time in 1990. Some major moments in New Mexico's history during those times included the 1980 riot at the state penitentiary, its recruitment of Intel to build a computer chip plant there, and its budding relationship with Mexico. He ran again in 1994, the first time governors were allowed a second consecutive term in the state. But despite New Mexico's economic growth and his increased education spending, he was pressed in the Democratic primary and won with only 39% over his own lieutenant governor Casey Luna with 36% and former Clinton administration Interior Department official Jim Baca with 25%. He lost in the general election to Republican Gary E. Johnson.
King, Charles D(unbar) B(urgess) (b. March 12, 1871, Monrovia, Liberia - d. Sept. 4, 1961, Monrovia), attorney general (1904-12), secretary of state (1912-20), and president (1920-30) of Liberia.
King, Charles McArthur (b. 1824 - d. Sept. 14, 1903), administrator of Norfolk Island (1898-1903).
King, Cyril Emanuel (b. April 7, 1921, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands - d. Jan. 2, 1978, Charlotte Amalie, U.S. Virgin Islands), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (1969, 1975-78). He was a Washington aide to Minnesota Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey (1949-61) and eventually became his senior staff member responsible for research on disarmament for a special Senate subcommittee headed by Humphrey. King returned to the Virgin Islands (1961) when Pres. John F. Kennedy appointed him government secretary (later the elective post of lieutenant governor). When the first popular election for governor was held in 1970, King lost by a narrow margin. After serving two years in the Virgin Islands Senate, King was elected governor in 1974. He died in office.
King, Edward J(oseph) (b. May 11, 1925, Chelsea, Mass. - d. Sept. 18, 2006, Burlington, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1979-83). A conservative Democrat and former pro football player, he upset incumbent Michael Dukakis in the Democratic primary in 1978 and went on to win the general election and serve four years as governor. Dukakis defeated King in a 1982 rematch and in 1985 King switched his party registration to Republican. In 1982, voters approved a constitutional amendment to restore the death penalty, and King signed capital punishment into law before leaving office. But two years later, the state's highest court ruled part of the law unconstitutional. His stand on capital punishment prompted Pres. Ronald Reagan to call King his "favourite Democratic governor."
King, John A(lsop) (b. Jan. 3, 1788, New York City - d. July 7, 1867, Jamaica, N.Y.), governor of New York (1857-59); son of Rufus King.
King, Kurleigh (Dennis) (b. Dec. 10, 1933 - d. Nov. 28, 1998, Iowa), secretary-general of the Caribbean Community (1978-83). He was also a governor of the central bank of Barbados.
King, Leslie Dudley (b. March 25, 1909, Moonee Ponds, Vic.), administrator of Nauru (1966-68) and Christmas Island (1968-70).
King, Sir Maurice (Athelstan) (b. Jan. 1, 1936), foreign minister of Barbados (1989-93); knighted 2009. He was also ambassador to the United States (1976) and attorney general (1986-94).
King, Porter (b. Nov. 24, 1857, Marion, Ala. - d. Oct. 23, 1901, Atlanta, Ga.), mayor of Atlanta (1895-96).
King, Rufus (b. March 24, 1755, Scarborough, Massachusetts Bay Colony [now in Maine] - d. April 29, 1827, Jamaica, N.Y., U.S.), U.S. politician. He served in the Massachusetts legislature (1783-84) and in the Continental Congress (1784-87), where he gained a reputation as a brilliant speaker. In 1785 he introduced a resolution that would prohibit slavery in the Northwest Territory - a provision included permanently in the Ordinance of 1787, which set the pattern for future standards in the territories. He also introduced the resolution (Feb. 21, 1787) calling for a convention at Philadelphia to draft a new constitution. Although he came to the convention unconvinced that major changes should be made in the Articles of Confederation, he became an advocate of a strong central government. He signed the new constitution and contributed substantially to its acceptance in Massachusetts. In 1788 he moved to New York where, after a year in the state assembly, he was elected one of its first U.S. senators (1789-96). As political divisions grew, he expressed ardent sympathies for the Federalists. Sharing the Anglophile sentiments of his party, he went on to represent the new nation as ambassador to Great Britain in 1796-1803 and again in 1825-26. During the period of domination by the (Jeffersonian) Republican Party, King served once more in the Senate (1813-25). He was the Federalist candidate for vice president (1804, 1808) and for president (1816) but received only a modest proportion of electoral votes. He was also an unsuccessful candidate for governor of New York in 1815.
King, Stephenson (b. Nov. 13, 1958), prime minister (2007-11) and foreign minister (2007-09) of Saint Lucia.
King, W(illiam) L(yon) Mackenzie (b. Dec. 17, 1874, Berlin [now Kitchener], Ontario, Canada - d. July 22, 1950, Kingsmere, Quebec), prime minister of Canada (1921-26, 1926-30, 1935-48); grandson of William Lyon Mackenzie. In 1900 he took a civil service post as deputy minister in the newly organized Labour Department at Ottawa. He was favourably recognized by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier and resigned from the civil service in September 1908 to stand as the Liberal candidate for Parliament for his native county, North Waterloo, a Conservative stronghold. He was elected, and the next year he joined the Laurier government as the first full-time minister of labour in Canada. In 1911 he lost his seat when the government was defeated. After Laurier's death in 1919, he succeeded him as leader of the Liberal Party, and after the election of 1921, he formed his first government. His party was just short of a majority in Parliament, but he carried on with the aid of the Progressive Party until 1925, when he made an appeal for a majority but emerged with fewer seats than the Conservatives, who also lacked a majority. After new elections in 1926, King found himself for the first time with a decisive majority, but his government lost the election of 1930, and he led the opposition through the worst years of the Great Depression and won overwhelming victories in the elections of 1935 and 1940. He remained prime minister until his retirement in 1948, and also held the portfolio of external affairs from 1935 to 1946, during which period he was responsible for greatly increasing Canada's diplomatic representation abroad. His leadership of the country through six years of war and three years of postwar reconstruction gave him a commanding place in Canadian history.
King-Akerele, Olubanke (Yetunde), byname Bankie King-Akerele (b. 1946, Monrovia, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (2007-10); granddaughter of Charles D.B. King. She was commerce minister in 2006-07.
Kingibe, (Alhaji) Babagana (b. June 25, 1945, Maiduguri [now in Borno state], Nigeria), foreign minister (1993-95) and interior minister (1995-97) of Nigeria. He also served as ambassador to Greece (1981-84) and Pakistan (1984-87).
Kinigi, Sylvie (b. 1953, Mugoyi, Burundi), prime minister of Burundi (1993-94).
Kinkel, Klaus (b. Dec. 17, 1936, Metzingen [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany), foreign minister of Germany (1992-98). Justice Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher hired Kinkel as a personal aide in 1970, later taking his protégé to the foreign ministry. Kinkel became head of the federal intelligence agency in 1979. After his Free Democratic Party (FDP) pulled out of its coalition with the Social Democrats in 1982 to form a new government with Helmut Kohl's Christian Democrats, Kinkel returned to the justice ministry, eventually being made its head (1991-92). But only 14 months later he switched to become foreign minister, replacing Genscher. Kinkel won wide respect for his energetic diplomacy although he never quite filled the shoes of his mentor Genscher, who had held the post for 18 years. In June 1993 he became chairman of the FDP, but he quit just two years later, stung by a succession of setbacks in state elections.
Kinley, (John) James (b. Sept. 23, 1925, Lunenburg, N.S. - d. May 1, 2012, Lunenburg), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1994-2000). He served the country in the Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve in 1943, and in the Canadian Merchant Marine and the Canadian Navy. In postwar service he joined the Royal Canadian Naval Reserve, visiting many ports around the North Atlantic. He retired in 1959 as lieutenant commander. He served the Navy League of Canada for more than five decades, and was its national president in 1980-81. He was patron of a very wide ranging number of organizations, among them Neptune Theatre, The Missions to Seamen, the Canadian Paraplegic Association, and the Royal Canadian Legion, Nova Scotia Command.
Kinnear, Ian Albert Clark, byname Tim Kinnear (b. Dec. 23, 1924 - d. Oct. 29, 2008), acting governor of Bermuda (1973).
Kinnock (of Bedwellty), Neil (Gordon) Kinnock, Baron (b. March 28, 1942, Tredegar, Monmouthshire, South Wales), British politician. In 1970 he was elected to Parliament for the safe South Wales seat of Bedwellty. He rose rapidly in party ranks due to his gift for oratory and to the patronage of Michael Foot, whom he served as parliamentary private secretary in 1974-75. He declined ministerial service in the 1974-79 Labour government; he rejected what he saw as its right-wing policies. In 1978 he was named to Labour's national executive committee. During Margaret Thatcher's first government, he took a place in Labour's front bench team as opposition spokesman on education. He acquired a reputation as one of Parliament's wittiest and most passionate speakers, although sometimes his overly flowery language earned him the epithet of "Welsh windbag." After the election of June 1983 - Labour's heaviest defeat in 65 years - the search began for a leader to replace Foot, and in October Kinnock, who had never held even a junior ministerial post, was elected by a 3-to-1 majority, becoming the youngest leader in the party's history. He stood on the left of the party, but he kept clear of the ideological feuding between left and right. Labour lost the 1987 general election to the Conservatives, but managed to increase its representation somewhat. He persuaded his party to abandon its policies on unilateral nuclear disarmament and large-scale nationalization and was thought to have good chances of becoming prime minister in 1992. But that election was lost too (though again Labour increased its numbers in Parliament), and he stepped down as party leader later that year. He later was an EU commissioner, for transport (1995-99) and internal EU reform (1999-2004), and also a vice president of the Commission (1999-2004). In 2005 he was made a life peer.
Kinsella, George B., mayor of Hartford (1965-67).
Kinsella, James H(all) (b. July 12, 1924 - d. Oct. 8, 2012), mayor of Hartford (1957-60); grandson of Richard J. Kinsella; brother of George B. Kinsella.
Kinsella, Richard J(ohn) (b. Oct. 5, 1857, Hartford, Conn. - d. 19...), mayor of Hartford (1918-20, 1922-24).
Kint de Roodenbeke, Arnold t' (b. May 1, 1853, Ghent, Belgium - d. Aug. 10, 1928, Deinze, Belgium), chairman of the Senate of Belgium (1922-28).
Kip, Hendrik Bernardus (b. May 31, 1823, Berbice [now in Guyana] - d. Aug. 1, 1897, The Hague, Netherlands), governor of Curaçao (1877-80).
Kipalan, Sir Albert (Aango) (b. 1943, Teremanda village, Enga province, New Guinea [now in Papua New Guinea]), Papua New Guinea politician. He was elected governor-general in 2003, but the election was subsequently annulled by the Supreme Court and he lost the repeat vote to Sir Pato Kakaraya, whose election was later also invalided; in the third vote, Kipalan was again unsuccessful.
Kirakosyan, Arman (b. Sept. 10, 1956), foreign minister of Armenia (1992-93). He has been ambassador to Greece (1994-99; from 1995 also to Cyprus, Croatia, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, and Albania), the United States (1999-2005), and Austria (2011- ).
Kirca, Ali Coskun (b. 1927, Istanbul, Turkey - d. Feb. 24, 2005, Istanbul), foreign minister of Turkey (1995). He was also permanent representative to NATO (1976-78) and the United Nations (1980-85) and ambassador to Canada (1985-86). During an attack by Armenians on the Turkish embassy in Ottawa in 1985, he was injured when he jumped from a window to avoid being taken hostage.
Kirchner (Ostoic de Mercado), Alicia (Margarita) (b. July 18, 1946, Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina), minister of social development of Argentina (2003-05, 2006- ); sister of Néstor Kirchner.
Kirchner (Ostoic), Néstor (Carlos) (b. Feb. 25, 1950, Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina - d. Oct. 27, 2010, El Calafate, Santa Cruz), governor of Santa Cruz (1991-2003) and president of Argentina (2003-07). He became active in the Peronist party during the early 1970s, when he joined its youth branch, Juventud Peronista. After serving as the mayor of Río Gallegos and in several provincial government positions, he was elected governor of Santa Cruz in 1991, and reelected in 1995 and 1999. During his 12 years as governor, he led a very popular and active administration in the sparsely-populated province. When Pres. Eduardo Duhalde picked him as "his candidate" for president in late 2002, Kirchner was virtually unknown outside of Patagonia. In the first round of the 2003 election he won 22% of the vote, two points behind former president Carlos Menem. But when Menem and his team realized they could not win the second round (polls showed that he trailed Kirchner by up to 40 percentage points), the ex-president dropped out of the race, making Kirchner the president-elect. Maintaining high approval ratings as president, he persuaded Congress to repeal amnesty laws that were shielding military officers from prosecution for abuses during the 1976-83 dictatorship, and took initiatives to reduce inefficiency and corruption and make institutions more accountable to the people. He increased the state's role in the economy, reversing many privatizations from the 1990s and placing controls on utility rates and fuel prices. The economy, recovering from a 2001 collapse, grew by an average of about 8% a year during his term, and unemployment halved. In 2007, without explanation, he chose not to run again, stepping aside for his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. In 2010 he was elected the first secretary-general of the Union of South American Nations.
Kirchschläger, Rudolf (b. March 20, 1915, Niederkappel, Upper Austria - d. March 30, 2000, Vienna), president of Austria (1974-86). He represented his country during the Austrian Neutrality Pact negotiations in 1955, which led to the pullout of Allied and Soviet troops. From 1967 to 1970, he served as ambassador to Czechoslovakia. During the "Prague Spring," Kirchschläger left the doors of the embassy open to people trying to flee Soviet troops. He was foreign minister in 1970-74. He won his first presidential election in 1974 and six years later won more than 80% of the vote in winning his bid for a second term.
Kiril, Knyaz (Prince), knyaz Preslavski (Prince of Preslav), baptismal name Kiril Haynrih Frants Ludvig Anton Karl Filip (b. Nov. 17, 1895, Sofia, Bulgaria - d. [executed] Feb. 1, 1945, Sofia), member of the Regency Council of Bulgaria (1943-44); brother of Boris III.
Kiriyenko, Sergey (Vladilenovich), original surname Izraitel (b. July 26, 1962, Sukhumi, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Russia (1998) and plenipotentiary of the president in Privolzhsky federal district (2000-05). When his parents divorced in the 1970s, his mother assumed again her maiden name Kiriyenko and changed Sergey's name as well. He was appointed head of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy on Nov. 15, 2005.
Kirk, Claude R(oy), Jr. (b. Jan. 7, 1926, San Bernardino, Calif. - d. Sept. 28, 2011, West Palm Beach, Fla.), governor of Florida (1967-71).
Kirk, Norman Eric (b. Jan. 6, 1923, Waimate, South Island, New Zealand - d. Aug. 31, 1974, Wellington), prime minister and foreign minister of New Zealand (1972-74). He joined the New Zealand Labour Party in 1943, was mayor of the small town of Kaiapoi (1953-57), and won election to parliament in 1957. He became leader of his party in 1964. He fought general elections in 1965 and 1969, but his party failed to gain a majority. But in the November 1972 elections "Big Norm," as he was called because of his physical size, ousted the National Party government of John Marshall in a landslide. It was a crowning achievement for a man who rose from humble origins. He described it as "a victory for the little people of the country - the people who are inclined always to be overlooked." He managed to bring together the divided Labour Party, split between the trade union and intellectual groups; he did not take sides and succeeded in appeasing both groups. He stressed the need for regional economic development and affirmed New Zealand's solidarity with Australia in adopting a foreign policy more independent of the United States. In 1973 he strongly opposed French nuclear tests in the Pacific. He pulled New Zealand troops out of South Vietnam and recognized the People's Republic of China. He died in office.
Kirkilas, Gediminas (b. Aug. 30, 1951, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), defense minister (2004-06) and prime minister (2006-08) of Lithuania.
Kirkland, (Joseph) Lane (b. March 12, 1922, Camden, S.C. - d. Aug. 14, 1999, Washington, D.C.), president (1979-95) of the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). In 1948 he took a research job at the AFL headquarters. A union staff man ever since, he became executive assistant of AFL-CIO president George Meany in 1960 and in 1969 secretary-treasurer, the No. 2 office at the AFL-CIO. Highly regarded by business leaders as well as the union brotherhood, he was unanimously elected as union president on Nov. 19, 1979, following Meany's retirement. A major achievement during his tenure was reuniting the U.S. labour movement under the AFL-CIO banner, whereby by 1990 the Teamsters union, the United Mine Workers, the United Auto Workers, and the International Longshore and Warehousemen's Union of the West Coast, all of which had bolted the group, had returned to the federation. A fierce anti-communist, he spent much of his time on efforts to promote democracy and union movements in Poland, during that nation's Solidarity movement in the 1980s, as well as China, Cuba, South Africa, and Chile. But those efforts coincided with a decline in the number of union workers in the United States, as labour's influence waned during the Reagan era. Labour's share of the U.S. work force shrank from about 25% to 15%, primarily in the 1980s. In early 1995, when confronted by a group of dissident union leaders who were concerned over labour's declining influence during his tenure, he initially insisted on seeking reelection as AFL-CIO president but later relented and resigned in August. In 1994, Pres. Bill Clinton awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honour.
Kirkpatrick, Jeane (Duane Jordan) (b. Nov. 19, 1926, Duncan, Okla. - d. Dec. 7, 2006, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (1981-85). She had become a friend and admirer of Hubert Humphrey, and was embittered at what she saw as the destruction of his presidential campaign in 1968 by the left wing of the Democratic Party and by the party's capitulation to "antiwar, antigrowth, antibusiness, antilabor activists." While she maintained her party ties with like-minded Democrats, she found herself, with many of them, edging into the neoconservative camp. A 1980 magazine article in which she sharply criticized Pres. Jimmy Carter for allowing the growth of Soviet power caught Ronald Reagan's eye. He called her in to talk and, after considerable soul-searching, she campaigned for him. After his election, Reagan appointed her to the post of UN ambassador. She was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on Jan. 29, 1981. When Kirkpatrick announced, shortly after election day in November 1984, her intention to resign the UN post, the reason was widely assumed to be that her conservative admirers had failed in their campaign to make her secretary of state or national security advisor to President Reagan. Her desire to step out of the UN was understandable after four years of constant combat with Soviet-bloc and third world delegates over using the organization as a sounding board for anti-U.S. (and anti-Israel) propaganda. The tough stands she took (always articulated pungently) had, she said, "substantially improved" the U.S. position despite the UN's "overblown, negative rhetoric." In 1985 she also officially joined the Republican Party. In 1993 she was a cofounder of the conservative advocacy group Empower America.
Kirkwood, Samuel J(ordan) (b. Dec. 20, 1813, Harford county, Md. - d. Sept. 1, 1894, Iowa City, Iowa), governor of Iowa (1860-64, 1876-77) and U.S. secretary of the interior (1881-82).
Kirner, Joan (Elizabeth), née Hood (b. June 20, 1938, Essendon, near Melbourne, Victoria, Australia), premier of Victoria (1990-92).
Kirunda, John (Magola) Luwuliza (b. 1940 - d. Aug. 8, 2005, Zimbabwe), internal affairs minister (1980-85) and foreign minister (1985) of Uganda.
Kisekka, Samson (Babi Mululu) (b. June 23, 1912, Mengo, Uganda - d. Oct. 25, 1999, London, England), prime minister of Uganda (1986-91). He served as a spokesman abroad for Yoweri Museveni's National Resistance Movement during its rebellion against the rule of Pres. Milton Obote. He became prime minister when Museveni seized power in 1986 at the end of a five-year guerrilla war. He was named vice-president in 1991 and served until 1994, when he became a presidential adviser, a position he held until his death.
Kiselyov, Nikolay (Ivanovich) (b. Dec. 21, 1950, Severodvinsk, Arkhangelsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Arkhangelsk oblast (2004-08).
Kishi, Nobusuke, original name Nobusuke Sato (b. Nov. 13, 1896, Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan - d. Aug. 7, 1987, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1957-60); brother of Eisaku Sato. He acquired the name Kishi when he was adopted at the age of 15 by a paternal uncle. He began a successful civil service career in the Commerce Ministry. In 1925 he transferred to the newly created Commerce and Industry Department. In 1936 he became a vice minister of the industrial department of the government of Manchukuo. On his return to Japan he became vice minister (1940) and minister (1941) of commerce and industry. Elected to the House of Representatives in April 1942, he subsequently served as vice minister of munitions but increasingly opposed Prime Minister Hideki Tojo's policy of continuing the war at all costs. After the Japanese surrender in 1945 Kishi was imprisoned as a war criminal by the Allied occupation authorities, but he was released without trial in 1948. In 1953 he was elected to the House of Representatives. He then helped to organize the Japan Democratic Party and was a dominant force in merging it with other conservative groups to create the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) in 1955. In December 1956 he was named foreign minister in the cabinet of Tanzan Ishibashi. Only two months later, when Ishibashi fell ill, Kishi succeeded him as prime minister. When he forced a revised U.S.-Japan security treaty through parliament in May 1960 while the opposition parties were boycotting the Diet session, he provoked large-scale public demonstrations; the protests led to the cancellation of a scheduled visit to Japan by U.S. Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower. In July, Kishi was compelled to resign. He remained a strong behind-the-scenes influence in the LDP.
Kishida, Fumio (b. July 29, 1957, Hiroshima, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (2012- ).
Kiska, Andrej (b. Feb. 2, 1963, Poprad, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), president of Slovakia (2014- ).
Kislitsyn, Vyacheslav (Aleksandrovich) (b. Sept. 4, 1948, Kosolapovo, Mari A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), president of Mari El (1997-2001).
Kislyuk, Mikhail (Borisovich) (b. April 30, 1951, Zhitomir, Ukrainian S.S.R.), head of the administration of Kemerovo oblast (1991-97).
Kissinger, Henry (Alfred), original name Heinz Alfred Kissinger (b. May 27, 1923, Fürth, Bayern, Germany), U.S. secretary of state (1973-77). His family came to New York in 1938 to escape the Nazi persecution of Jews; he became a naturalized citizen in 1943 and served in the U.S. Army Counter-Intelligence Corps (1943-46). From 1955 he served as a consultant on security matters to various U.S. agencies, and he eventually came to serve Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford as head of the National Security Council (1969-75) and as secretary of state. He developed the policy of détente with the Soviet Union, which led to the strategic arms limitation talks (SALT) in 1969, culminating in the SALT I agreement signed in 1972. He also developed a rapprochement with China (1972), establishing the first official U.S. contact with the People's Republic. In the Vietnam War, he directed the U.S. bombing of Cambodia (1969-70) but later played a major role in Nixon's policy of disengagement from South Vietnam. On Jan. 23, 1973, after months of negotiations with the North Vietnamese government in Paris, he initialled a ceasefire agreement that both provided for the withdrawal of U.S. troops and outlined the machinery for a permanent peace settlement between the two Vietnams. For this apparent resolution of the conflict, he shared the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize with the North Vietnamese negotiator, Le Duc Tho (who rejected it). Kissinger also helped engineer the overthrow of Salvador Allende in Chile in 1973 and gave the go-ahead for Indonesia to invade East Timor in 1975. After 1977 he played only minor roles in government. In 2002 he was named to lead a commission investigating the September 11, 2001, attacks, but he resigned amid questions of potential conflicts of interest.
Kisula Ngoy, Urbain (b. Nov. 18, 1940), governor of Katanga (2004-07).
Kiszczak, Czeslaw (b. Oct. 19, 1925, Roczyny, Bielsko district, Poland), interior minister (1981-90), prime minister (1989), and a deputy prime minister (1989-90) of Poland.
Kitanovski, Lazar (b. April 25, 1948, Ohrid, Macedonia - d. May 19, 2011, Ohrid), defense minister of Macedonia (1997-98).
Kitchener (of Khartoum and of Broome in the County of Kent), Horatio Herbert Kitchener, (1st) Earl, Viscount Broome (of Broome in the County of Kent), Baron Denton (of Denton in the County of Kent) (these peerages from 1914), (from 1898) Baron Kitchener (of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk), (from 1902) Viscount Kitchener (of Khartoum and of the Vaal in the Colony of Transvaal and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk) (b. June 24, 1850, near Listowel, County Kerry, Ireland - d. June 5, 1916, at sea off Orkney Islands, Scotland), governor-general of the Sudan (1899) and consul-general of Egypt (1911-14). He was commissioned in the Royal Engineers in 1871 and from 1874 served in the Middle East. In 1892 he was named sirdar (commander in chief) of the Egyptian army. The Dongola expedition of 1896 proved the fighting value of the new Egyptian force he organized, and was the beginning of the movement that culminated in the reconquest of the Sudan with the crushing of the forces of al-Mahdi in the Battle of Omdurman (Sept. 2, 1898). After a year as governor-general of Sudan, he was called to South Africa in December 1899 to join Field Marshal Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts as chief of staff. He succeeded him as commander in chief in November 1900. He ruthlessly combated Boer guerrilla resistance. After the Boer War ended in 1902, he was sent as commander in chief to India. Relieved of this post in 1909, he was promoted to field marshal and made commander in chief and high commissioner in the Mediterranean, but, becoming disgusted with this sinecure, he returned to Egypt in 1911, accepting the post of consul-general, and he ruled the country until 1914. He had just returned to England when World War I broke out, and he reluctantly accepted appointment as secretary of state for war. He died suddenly when the cruiser HMS Hampshire, bearing him on a mission to Russia, struck a German mine and sank.
Kitembo, Gertrude (Mpala) (b. March 12, 1958), governor of Maniema (2000-03).
Kititwa (Tumansi Benga Tundu), Jean-Marie (b. July 25, 1929, Kitutu, Belgian Congo [now in Sud-Kivu province, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Dec. 22, 2000, Kinshasa), governor of Équateur (1983-84) and foreign minister of Zaire (1996).
Kitovani, Tengiz (Kalistratis dze), Russian Tengiz Kalistratovich Kitovani (b. June 9, 1939, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), coleader of the Military Council (1992) and defense minister (1992-93) of Georgia. He was arrested in 1995 and charged with conspiracy against the state, sentenced to eight years' confinement in 1996, and released on parole in 1999.
Kittani, Ismat T(aha) (b. April 5, 1929, Amadia, Iraq - d. Oct. 23, 2001, Geneva, Switzerland), Iraqi diplomat. He joined the Iraqi foreign service in 1952. He served as Iraq's UN envoy in Geneva from 1961 to 1964, undersecretary in the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1980 to 1985, and as Iraq's UN ambassador in New York from 1985 until his retirement from the diplomatic service in 1989. From 1981 to 1982, he was president of the 36th UN General Assembly. While in the foreign service, Kittani was loaned to the United Nations from 1964 to 1975. During that period, he served as director of the executive office of Secretary-General Thant and cabinet chief for Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim. After he left the diplomatic service, he served as a consultant to Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar from 1989 to 1991. The next year, Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed him special representative for Somalia. Kittani also served as an adviser to Secretary-General Kofi Annan.
Kitz, Leonard Arthur (b. April 9, 1916, Halifax, N.S. - d. Jan. 30, 2006, Halifax), mayor of Halifax (1955-57).
Kitzhaber, John A(lbert) (b. March 5, 1947, Colfax, Wash.), governor of Oregon (1995-2003, 2011- ). In 1978, he was elected to the state House, in 1980, to the state Senate; he was Senate president from 1985 to 1993. By far, his greatest achievement was the Oregon Health Plan, which went into effect in February 1994. Its strategy is to ration treatments in order to cover more people, using the Medicaid system as a lever. Cigarette taxes were increased 10 cents per pack to pay for the plan, under which state officials drew up a list of 696 medical treatments and ranked them by effectiveness and importance to basic health. In its first year, the plan attracted more than twice as many new enrollees as expected, which some say could result in fewer treatments being covered; proponents claimed that it reduced emergency room use and costs. He started running for governor in 1993 and was the immediate favorite. The incumbent, Democrat Barbara Roberts, had sailed into choppy waters. She put a sales tax on the November 1993 ballot; Kitzhaber supported it as well. But Oregon never had a sales tax, and voted it down in 1993 as it had eight times before, by a wide margin. So Roberts was forced to cut spending she said couldn't be cut; in January 1994, far behind in polls, she withdrew from the race. That gave Kitzhaber the Democratic nomination easily. In the general, Kitzhaber, with his folksy attitude and big western belt buckles, got farther away from his party's stereotype than Republican Denny Smith, outspokenly conservative, got away from his. Kitzhaber won statewide 51%-42%; he carried the Portland area and the university towns handsomely, but carried only a handful of counties in the rest of the state. His main goal was to preserve the Oregon Health Plan. In 1998 he was reelected over Republican Bill Sizemore, 63%-31%. After eight years out of office, he was elected to a third term in 2010, narrowly defeating Republican Chris Dudley, 49%-48%.
Kiukas, Urho (Johan) (b. Nov. 19, 1902, Kymi, Finland - d. 1995), governor of Mikkeli (1957-69) and interior minister of Finland (1957-58).
Kiviet, Noxolo (b. July 21, 1963), premier of Eastern Cape (2009-14).
Kiviniemi, Mari (Johanna) (b. Sept. 27, 1968, Seinäjoki, Finland), prime minister of Finland (2010-11).
Kiwanuka, (Kabimu Mugumba) Benedicto, byname Ben Kiwanuka (b. May 1922, Kisabwa, western Uganda - d. [assassinated] Sept. 22, 1972), chief minister (1961-62) and prime minister (1962) of Uganda.
Kiwele, Joseph (d. Nov. 14, 1961), education minister (1960-61) and joint acting president (1961) of Katanga.