Rulers

Countries VW

Contents of this page:
Vanuatu - Vatican City - Venezuela - Vietnam - Virgin Islands (U.S.) - Wake Island - Wallis and Futuna - Western Sahara

Vanuatu

16 Nov 1887                rule by joint Anglo-French naval commission
20 Oct 1906                Anglo-French condominium (New Hebrides)
30 Jul 1980                independence as Republic of Vanuatu

British resident commissioners (subordinated to the high commissioners
for the Western Pacific [at Fiji to 1952, then at the Solomon Islands to 1973])
       1902 -        1907  Ernest Goldfinch Rason             (b. bf.1855 - d. af.1913)
   Dec 1907 -        1924  Merton King                        (b. 18... - d. 1939)
       1924 - 17 Aug 1927  Geoffrey Bingham Whistler
                           Smith-Rewse                        (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
       1927 -        1940  George Andrew Joy                  (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
       1940 -        1950  Richard Denis Blandy               (b. 1891 - d. 1964)
       1950 -        1955  Hubert Flaxman                     (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
       1955 -        1962  John Shaw Rennie                   (b. 1917 - d. 1981)
       1962 -        1966  Alexander Mair Wilkie              (b. 1917 - d. 1966)
       1966 -        1973  Colin Allan                        (b. 1921 - d. 1993)
       1973 -        1975  Roger du Boulay                    (b. 1922)
       1975 -    Oct 1978  John Stuart Champion               (b. 1921 - d. 1994)
   Nov 1978 - 30 Jul 1980  Andrew Stuart                      (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
British high commissioners (in London)
   Dec 1973 -        1976  Edward Noel Larmour                (b. 1916 - d. 1999)
   Dec 1976 -        1977  Henry Sydney Herbert Stanley       (b. 1920 - d. 1995)
       1977 -        1980  Richard Stratton                   (b. 1924 - d. 1988)
French resident commissioners (subordinated to the high commissioners in the
Pacific Ocean [from 22 Mar 1907 the governors of New Caledonia])
       1901 -        1904  Gaudence Charles Faraut
       1904 -        1908  Charles Bord
       1908 -        1909  Charles Henri Adrien Noufflard     (b. 1872 - d. 1952)
       1909 -        1911  Jules Martin                       (b. 1855 - d. 19...)
       1911 -        1913  Jules Repiquet                     (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
       1913 -        1916  Jacques Louis Miramende (1st time) (b. 1869 - d. 1968)
       1916 -        1918  Edmond Lippmann                    (b. 1875 - d. 1936)
       1918 -        1919  Lucien Huques Arthur Nielly
       1919 -        1920  Alfred Solari
       1920 -        1921  Jacques Louis Miramende (2nd time) (s.a.)
       1921 -        1923  Henri Joseph Marie d'Arboussier
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1875 - d. 1930)
       1923 -        1925  Raoul de la Vaissière
       1925 -        1929  Henri Joseph Marie d'Arboussier
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1929 -        1930  Gabriel Henri Joseph Thaly
       1930 -        1931  Maurice Georges Tronet
       1931 -        1933  Antoine Louis Carlotti             (b. 1871 - d. 19...)
       1933 -        1935  Henri Sautot (1st time)            (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
       1935 -        1937  Fernand Georges Gaston Casimir     (b. 1896 - d. 19...)
       1937 -        1940  Henri Sautot (2nd time)            (s.a.)
       1940 -        1947  Robert Charles Henri Kuter         (b. 1900 - d. ...)
       1947 -        1949  André Ménard                       (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
       1949 -        1958  Pierre Anthonioz                   (b. 1913 - d. 1996)
       1958 -        1960  Benjamin Favreau                   (b. 1915 - d. 1994)
       1960 -        1965  Maurice Delauney                   (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
       1965 -        1969  Jacques Mouradian                  (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
       1969 -        1974  Robert Jules Amédée Langlois       (b. 1922 - d. 2004)
       1974 -        1978  Robert Gauger                      (b. 1925 - d. 1995)
       1978                Bernard Pottier                    (b. 1942)
       1978 - 30 Jul 1980  Jean-Jacques Robert                (b. 1920)
Presidents
30 Jul 1980 - 17 Feb 1984  Ati George Sokomanu (1st time)     (b. 1937)
17 Feb 1984 -  8 Mar 1984  Fred Timakata (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1937 - d. 1995)
 8 Mar 1984 - 12 Jan 1989  Ati George Sokomanu (2nd time)     (s.a.)
12 Jan 1989 - 30 Jan 1989  Onneyn Tahi (acting)               (b. ... - d. 1998)
30 Jan 1989 - 30 Jan 1994  Fred Timakata (2nd time)           (s.a.)
30 Jan 1994 -  2 Mar 1994  Alfred Maseng (1st time) (acting)  (b. 19... - d. 2004)
 2 Mar 1994 -  2 Mar 1999  Jean-Marie Léyé                    (b. 1932 - d. 2014)
 2 Mar 1999 - 24 Mar 1999  Edward Natapei (acting)            (b. 1954)
24 Mar 1999 - 24 Mar 2004  John Bani                          (b. 1941)
24 Mar 2004 - 12 Apr 2004  Roger Abiut (1st time) (acting)    (b. 1972?)
12 Apr 2004 - 11 May 2004  Alfred Maseng (2nd time)           (s.a.)
11 May 2004 - 29 Jul 2004  Roger Abiut (2nd time) (acting)    (s.a.)
29 Jul 2004 - 16 Aug 2004  Josias Moli (acting)               (b. 1954)
16 Aug 2004 - 16 Aug 2009  Kalkot Mataskelekele               (b. 1949)
16 Aug 2009 -  2 Sep 2009  Maxime Carlot Korman (acting)      (b. 1941)
 2 Sep 2009 -  2 Sep 2014  Iolu Abil                          (b. 1942)
 2 Sep 2014 - 22 Sep 2014  Philip Boedoro (acting)            (b. 1958)
22 Sep 2014 -              Baldwin Lonsdale

Chief ministers 29 Nov 1977 - 22 Dec 1978 George Kalsakau (b. 1930 - d. 2001) 22 Dec 1978 - 29 Nov 1979 Gérard Leymang (b. 1937 - d. 2002) 29 Nov 1979 - 30 Jul 1980 Walter Lini (b. 1942 - d. 1999) Prime ministers 30 Jul 1980 - 6 Sep 1991 Walter Lini (s.a.) 18 Dec 1988 - 19 Dec 1988 Barak Sopé (in opposition) (b. 1951) 6 Sep 1991 - 16 Dec 1991 Donald Kalpokas (1st time) (b. 1943) 16 Dec 1991 - 21 Dec 1995 Maxime Carlot (from Feb 1992, Maxime Carlot Korman) (1st time) (s.a.) 21 Dec 1995 - 23 Feb 1996 Serge Vohor (1st time) (b. 1955) 23 Feb 1996 - 30 Sep 1996 Maxime Carlot Korman (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Sep 1996 - 30 Mar 1998 Serge Vohor (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Mar 1998 - 25 Nov 1999 Donald Kalpokas (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Nov 1999 - 13 Apr 2001 Barak Sopé (s.a.) 13 Apr 2001 - 29 Jul 2004 Edward Natapei (1st time) (s.a.) 29 Jul 2004 - 11 Dec 2004 Serge Vohor (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Dec 2004 - 22 Sep 2008 Ham Lini (1st time) (b. 1951) 22 Sep 2008 - 2 Dec 2010 Edward Natapei (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Dec 2010 - 24 Apr 2011 Sato Kilman (1st time) (b. 1957) 24 Apr 2011 - 13 May 2011 Serge Vohor (4th time) (s.a.) 13 May 2011 - 16 Jun 2011 Sato Kilman (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Jun 2011 - 26 Jun 2011 Edward Natapei (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 Jun 2011 - 21 Mar 2013 Sato Kilman (3rd time) (s.a.) 21 Mar 2013 - 23 Mar 2013 Ham Lini (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 23 Mar 2013 - 15 May 2014 Moana Carcasses Kalosil (b. 1959) 15 May 2014 - Joe Natuman (b. 1952)

Vatican City

 7 Jun 1929                Vatican City State established

Sovereigns
 7 Jun 1929 - 10 Feb 1939  Pius XI                            (b. 1857 - d. 1939)
10 Feb 1939 -  2 Mar 1939  Gennaro Cardinal Granito
                           Pignatelli di Belmonte             (b. 1851 - d. 1948)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli         (b. 1876 - d. 1958)
                           (chamberlain)
 2 Mar 1939 -  9 Oct 1958  Pius XII (= Pacelli)               (s.a.)
 9 Oct 1958 - 28 Oct 1958  Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent
                           Cardinal Tisserant (1st time)      (b. 1884 - d. 1972)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi
                           Masella (1st time) (chamberlain)   (b. 1879 - d. 1970)
28 Oct 1958 -  3 Jun 1963  Ioannes XXIII                      (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
 3 Jun 1963 - 21 Jun 1963  Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent
                           Cardinal Tisserant (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi
                           Masella (2nd time) (chamberlain)   (s.a.)
21 Jun 1963 -  6 Aug 1978  Paulus VI                          (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
 6 Aug 1978 - 26 Aug 1978  Carlo Cardinal Confalonieri
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1893 - d. 1986)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Jean Cardinal Villot (1st time)  (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
                           (chamberlain)
26 Aug 1978 - 28 Sep 1978  Ioannes Paulus I                   (b. 1912 - d. 1978)
28 Sep 1978 - 16 Oct 1978  Carlo Cardinal Confalonieri
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Jean Cardinal Villot (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (chamberlain)
16 Oct 1978 -  2 Apr 2005  Ioannes Paulus II                  (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
 2 Apr 2005 - 19 Apr 2005  Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger          (b. 1927)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Eduardo Cardinal Martínez Somalo (b. 1927)
                           (chamberlain)
19 Apr 2005 - 28 Feb 2013  Benedictus XVI (= Ratzinger)       (s.a.)
28 Feb 2013 - 13 Mar 2013  Angelo Cardinal Sodano             (b. 1927)
                           (dean of the College of Cardinals)
                           + Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone        (b. 1934)
                           (chamberlain)
13 Mar 2013 -              Franciscus                         (b. 1936)

Secretaries of state 13 Oct 1914 - 9 Feb 1930 Pietro Cardinal Gasparri (b. 1852 - d. 1934) 9 Feb 1930 - 10 Feb 1939 Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli (s.a.) 11 Mar 1939 - 22 Aug 1944 Luigi Cardinal Maglione (b. 1877 - d. 1944) 29 Nov 1952 - 30 Jul 1961 Domenico Tardini (from 15 Dec 1958, Domenico Cardinal Tardini) (b. 1888 - d. 1961) (acting to 14 Dec 1958) 14 Aug 1961 - 2 May 1969 Amleto Giovanni Cardinal Cicognani (b. 1883 - d. 1973) 2 May 1969 - 9 Mar 1979 Jean Cardinal Villot (s.a.) 30 Apr 1979 - 1 Dec 1990 Agostino Casaroli (from 30 Jun 1979, Agostino Cardinal Casaroli) (b. 1914 - d. 1998) (acting to 1 Jul 1979) 1 Dec 1990 - 15 Sep 2006 Angelo Sodano (from 28 Jun 1991, Angelo Cardinal Sodano) (s.a.) (acting to 29 Jun 1991) 15 Sep 2006 - 15 Oct 2013 Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone (s.a.) 15 Oct 2013 - Pietro Parolin (b. 1955)

Venda: see under South African homelands.
Venetia: see under Italian states.

Venezuela

14 Jul 1811                independence (United States of Venezuela, also styled
                           Venezuelan Confederation, or United Provinces of Venezuela,
                           or, from 3 Apr 1812, also American Confederation of
                           Venezuela on the Southern Continent)
25 Jul 1812                reconquest by Spain
 8 Aug 1813 -  8 Sep 1814  insurrectional government
 1 Jun 1816                renewed independence (Republic of Venezuela)
17 Dec 1819                incorporation into Great Colombia (see under Colombia)
13 Jan 1830                independence from Great Colombia (State of Venezuela)
24 Oct 1830                Republic of Venezuela
 3 May 1864                United States of Venezuela
19 Apr 1953                Republic of Venezuela
29 Dec 1999                Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
12 Apr 2002                Republic of Venezuela
13 Apr 2002                Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

Supreme Executive Power (president rotating weekly)
14 Jul 1811 -  3 Apr 1812  First triumvirate¹
                           - Cristóbal de Mendoza             (b. 1772 - d. 1829)
                           - Juan de Escalona                 (b. 1768 - d. 1833)
                           - Baltasar Padrón                  (b. 17... - d. 1817)
 3 Apr 1812 - 19 May 1812  Second triumvirate
                           (continuing nominally to 25 Jul 1812)
                           - Francisco Javier Mayz            (b. 1766 - d. 1833)
                             (to Apr 1812)
                           - Fernando Rodríguez del Toro      (b. 1772 - d. 1822)
                             (Apr 1812)
                           - Juan Germán Roscio               (b. 1763 - d. 1821)
                             (from Apr 1812)
                           - Francisco Javier de Ustáriz      (b. 1772 - d. 1814)
                           - Francisco Espejo                 (b. 1758 - d. 1814)
Generals-in-Chief
19 May 1812 - 25 Jul 1812  Francisco de Miranda               (b. 1750 - d. 1816)
 8 Aug 1813 - 14 Oct 1813  Simón Bolívar                      (b. 1783 - d. 1830)
Liberator
14 Oct 1813 -  8 Sep 1814  Simón Bolívar                      (s.a.)
Supreme Chief
 1 Jun 1816 - 15 Feb 1819  Simón Bolívar                      (s.a.)
 9 May 1817 - 23 May 1817    abortive attempt at restoring the
                             United States of Venezuela and its
                             Supreme Executive Power
                             - Francisco Javier Mayz          (s.a.)
                             - Francisco Antonio Zea          (b. 1766 - d. 1822)
                               (alternate to Bolívar [s.a.], who did not accept office)
                             - José Joaquín Cortés de
                               Madariaga                      (b. 1766 - d. 1826)
                               (alternate to del Toro [s.a.], who did not accept office)
Presidents
15 Feb 1819                Francisco Antonio Zea (acting)     (s.a.)
15 Feb 1819 - 17 Dec 1819  Simón Bolívar                      (s.a.)
                           (acting to 17 Feb 1819)
13 Jan 1830 - 20 Jan 1835  José Antonio Páez (1st time)       (b. 1790 - d. 1873)
                           (Chief of State to 27 May 1830,
                           President of the State to 11 Apr 1831)
20 Jan 1835 -  9 Feb 1835  Andrés Narvarte (1st time)         (b. 1781 - d. 1853)
                           (acting)
 9 Feb 1835 -  8 Jul 1835  José María Vargas (1st time)       (b. 1786 - d. 1854)
 9 Jul 1835 - 13 Jul 1835  Pedro Briceño (provisional)        (b. 1792 - d. 1835)
13 Jul 1835 - 28 Jul 1835  Santiago Mariño                    (b. 1788 - d. 1854)
                           (Superior Chief of State)
28 Jul 1835 - 20 Aug 1835  José María Carreño (1st time)      (b. 1792 - d. 1849)
                           (acting)
20 Aug 1835 - 24 Apr 1836  José María Vargas (2nd time)       (s.a.)
24 Apr 1836 - 20 Jan 1837  Andrés Narvarte (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
20 Jan 1837 - 11 Mar 1837  José María Carreño (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting)
11 Mar 1837 -  1 Feb 1839  Carlos Soublette (1st time)        (b. 1789 - d. 1870)
                           (acting)
 1 Feb 1839 - 20 Jan 1843  José Antonio Páez (2nd time)       (s.a.)
20 Jan 1843 - 28 Jan 1843  Santos Michelena (acting)          (b. 1797 - d. 1848)
28 Jan 1843 - 20 Jan 1847  Carlos Soublette (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
20 Jan 1847 -  1 Mar 1847  Diego Bautista Urbaneja (acting)   (b. 1782 - d. 1856)
 1 Mar 1847 - 20 Jan 1851  José Tadeo Monagas (1st time)      (b. 1784 - d. 1868)
20 Jan 1851 -  5 Feb 1851  Antonio Leocadio Guzmán (acting)   (b. 1801 - d. 1884)
 5 Feb 1851 - 20 Jan 1855  José Gregorio Monagas              (b. 1795 - d. 1858)
20 Jan 1855 - 31 Jan 1855  Joaquín Herrera (acting)           (b. 1813 - d. 1884)
31 Jan 1855 - 15 Mar 1858  José Tadeo Monagas (2nd time)      (s.a.)
15 Mar 1858 - 18 Mar 1858  Pedro Gual (1st time)              (b. 1783 - d. 1862)
                           (President of Provisional Government)
18 Mar 1858 -  2 Aug 1859  Julián Castro                      (b. 1805 - d. 1875)
                           (Supreme Chief of Liberating Army to 26 Jul 1858,
                           Provisional Chief of State 26 Jul 1858 - 5 Jan 1859,
                           then interim president)
 1 Aug 1859 -        1859    Juan Crisóstomo Falcón
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1820 - d. 1870)
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
 2 Aug 1859 - 29 Sep 1859  Pedro Gual (2nd time) (acting)     (s.a.)
29 Sep 1859 - 20 May 1861  Manuel Felipe de Tovar             (b. 1803 - d. 1866)
                           (acting; interim to 12 Apr 1860)
21 May 1861 - 10 Sep 1861  Pedro Gual (3rd time) (acting)     (s.a.)
10 Sep 1861 - 17 Jun 1863  José Antonio Páez (3rd time)       (s.a.)
                           (Supreme Chief)
17 Jun 1863 - 24 Jul 1863  Antonio Guzmán Blanco (1st time)   (b. 1829 - d. 1899)
                           (acting)
24 Jul 1863 - 18 Mar 1865  Juan Crisóstomo Falcón (2nd time)  (s.a.)
                           (provisional [in rebellion from 22 May 1863])
18 Mar 1865 -  7 Jun 1865  Antonio Guzmán Blanco (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 7 Jun 1865 - 27 Jun 1868  Juan Crisóstomo Falcón (3rd time)  (s.a.)
28 Jun 1868 -  8 Mar 1869  Guillermo Tell Villegas (1st time) (b. 1823 - d. 1907)
                           (President of the Council of Ministers;
                           acting president from 22 Feb 1869)
 8 Mar 1869 - 20 Mar 1870  José Ruperto Monagas (acting)      (b. 1831 - d. 1880)
20 Mar 1870 - 11 Apr 1870  Juan Vicente González (acting)     (b. 1825 - d. 1902)
11 Apr 1870 - 27 Apr 1870  Esteban Palacios (acting)          (b. 1835 - d. 1876)
27 Apr 1870 - 20 Feb 1877  Antonio Guzmán Blanco (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                           (General-in-Chief to 22 Jul 1870, provisional to
                           27 Apr 1873)
21 Feb 1877 -  2 Mar 1877  Jacinto Gutiérrez Martínez
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1808 - d. 1884)
 2 Mar 1877 - 30 Nov 1878  Francisco Linares Alcántara        (b. 1825 - d. 1878)
30 Nov 1878 -  1 Jan 1879  Jacinto Gutiérrez Martínez
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1879 - 13 Feb 1879  José Gregorio Valera (acting)
13 Feb 1879 - 26 Feb 1879  Gregorio Cedeño                    (b. 1830 - d. 1891)
                           (Commander [in rebellion from 29 Dec 1878])
26 Feb 1879 -  8 May 1879  Antonio Guzmán Blanco (4th time)   (s.a.)
                           (Supreme Director)
 8 May 1879 - 12 May 1879  José Rafael Pacheco (acting)       (b. 1829 - d. 1884)
12 May 1879 - 27 Apr 1884  Antonio Guzmán Blanco (5th time)   (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 17 Mar 1880)
27 Apr 1884 - 27 Apr 1886  Joaquín Crespo (1st time)          (b. 1841 - d. 1898)
27 Apr 1886 - 15 Sep 1886  Manuel Antonio Diez (acting)       (b. 1838 - d. 1916)
15 Sep 1886 -  5 Jul 1888  Antonio Guzmán Blanco (6th time)   (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1888 - 19 Mar 1890  Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl              (b. 1826 - d. 1905)
19 Mar 1890 - 17 Jun 1892  Raimundo Andueza Palacio           (b. 1846 - d. 1900)
17 Jun 1892 -  2 Sep 1892  Guillermo Tell Villegas (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 2 Sep 1892 -  6 Oct 1892  Guillermo Tell Villegas Pulido     (b. 1854 - d. 1949)
                           (acting)
 7 Oct 1892 - 28 Feb 1894  Joaquín Crespo (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (Acting Chief to 16 Jun 1893, then provisional)
28 Feb 1894 - 14 Mar 1894  Manuel Guzmán Álvarez (1st time)   (b. 1830 - d. 1912)
                           (acting)
14 Mar 1894 - 20 Feb 1898  Joaquín Crespo (3rd time)          (s.a.)
20 Feb 1898 - 28 Feb 1898  Manuel Guzmán Álvarez (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
28 Feb 1898 - 20 Oct 1899  Ignacio Andrade                    (b. 1839 - d. 1925)
20 Oct 1899 - 23 Oct 1899  Víctor Rodríguez Párraga (acting)  (b. 1836 - d. 1918)
23 Oct 1899 - 11 Aug 1909  Cipriano Castro                    (b. 1858 - d. 1924)
                           (Supreme Chief to 26 Feb 1901; provisional president
                           26 Feb 1901 - 20 Feb 1902 and 6 May 1904 - 10 Jun 1905)
17 Feb 1909 - 19 Apr 1910  Juan Vicente Gómez (1st time)      (b. 1857 - d. 1935)
                           (provisional; acting for suspended Castro to 11 Aug 1909)
19 Apr 1910 - 29 Apr 1910  Emilio Constantino Guerrero        (b. 1866 - d. 1920)
                           (acting)
29 Apr 1910 -  3 Jun 1910  Jesús Ramón Ayala (acting)
 3 Jun 1910 - 19 Apr 1914  Juan Vicente Gómez (2nd time)      (s.a.)
19 Apr 1914 - 24 Jun 1922  Victorino Márquez Bustillos        (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
                           (provisional)
24 Jun 1922 - 19 Apr 1929  Juan Vicente Gómez (3rd time)      (s.a.)
19 Apr 1929 - 13 Jun 1931  Juan Bautista Pérez                (b. 1869 - d. 1952)
                           (acting to 31 May 1929)
13 Jun 1931 - 13 Jul 1931  Pedro Itriago Chacín (acting)      (b. 1875 - d. 1936)
13 Jul 1931 - 17 Dec 1935  Juan Vicente Gómez (4th time)      (s.a.)
17 Dec 1935 - 19 Apr 1936  Eleazar López Contreras (1st time) (b. 1883 - d. 1973)
                           (acting to 31 Dec 1935)
19 Apr 1936 - 29 Apr 1936  Arminio Borjas (acting)            (b. 1868 - d. 1942)
29 Apr 1936 -  5 May 1941  Eleazar López Contreras (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (acting from 19 Apr 1941)
 5 May 1941 - 19 Oct 1945  Isaías Medina Angarita             (b. 1897 - d. 1953)
19 Oct 1945 - 15 Feb 1948  Rómulo Betancourt (1st time)       (b. 1908 - d. 1981)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Junta)
15 Feb 1948 - 24 Nov 1948  Rómulo Gallegos                    (b. 1884 - d. 1969)
24 Nov 1948 -  2 Dec 1952  Military junta
                           - Carlos Delgado Chalbaud          (b. 1909 - d. 1950)
                             (to 13 Nov 1950) (chairman)
                           - Marcos Pérez Jiménez             (b. 1914 - d. 2001)
                           - Luis Felipe Llovera Páez         (b. 1913 - d. 1977)
                           - Germán Suárez Flamerich          (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
                             (from 27 Nov 1950) (chairman)
 2 Dec 1952 - 23 Jan 1958  Marcos Pérez Jiménez               (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 19 Apr 1953)
23 Jan 1958 - 14 Nov 1958  Wolfgang Larrazábal                (b. 1911 - d. 2003)
                           (chairman Government Junta)
14 Nov 1958 - 13 Feb 1959  Edgar Sanabria Arcia               (b. 1911 - d. 1989)
                           (chairman Government Junta)
13 Feb 1959 - 11 Mar 1964  Rómulo Betancourt (2nd time)       (s.a.)
11 Mar 1964 - 11 Mar 1969  Raúl Leoni                         (b. 1905 - d. 1972)
11 Mar 1969 - 12 Mar 1974  Rafael Caldera (1st time)          (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
12 Mar 1974 - 12 Mar 1979  Carlos Andrés Pérez (1st time)     (b. 1922 - d. 2010)
12 Mar 1979 -  2 Feb 1984  Luis Herrera Campins               (b. 1925 - d. 2007)
 2 Feb 1984 -  2 Feb 1989  Jaime Lusinchi                     (b. 1924 - d. 2014)
 2 Feb 1989 - 31 Aug 1993  Carlos Andrés Pérez (2nd time)     (s.a.)
21 May 1993 -  5 Jun 1993    Octavio Lepage                   (b. 1923)
                             (acting for suspended Pérez)
 5 Jun 1993 -  2 Feb 1994  Ramón José Velásquez               (b. 1916 - d. 2014)
                           (interim; acting for suspended Pérez to 31 Aug 1993)
 2 Feb 1994 -  2 Feb 1999  Rafael Caldera (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 2 Feb 1999 - 12 Apr 2002  Hugo Chávez (1st time)             (b. 1954 - d. 2013)
12 Apr 2002 - 13 Apr 2002  Pedro Carmona Estanga              (b. 1941)
                           (president of transitional government on 12 Apr 2002)
13 Apr 2002 - 14 Apr 2002  Diosdado Cabello (acting)          (b. 1963)
14 Apr 2002 -  5 Mar 2013  Hugo Chávez (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 5 Mar 2013 -              Nicolás Maduro                     (b. 1962)
                           (acting to 19 Apr 2013)

Executive vice-presidents 24 Jan 2000 - 28 Dec 2000 Isaías Rodríguez (b. 1942) 28 Dec 2000 - 13 Jan 2002 Adina Bastidas (f) (b. 1943) 13 Jan 2002 - 12 Apr 2002 Diosdado Cabello (1st time) (s.a.) 14 Apr 2002 - 5 May 2002 Diosdado Cabello (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 May 2002 - 8 Jan 2007 José Vicente Rangel (b. 1929) 8 Jan 2007 - 6 Jan 2008 Jorge Rodríguez (b. 1965) 6 Jan 2008 - 25 Jan 2010 Ramón Carrizalez (b. 1952) 26 Jan 2010 - 13 Oct 2012 Elías Jaua (b. 1969) 13 Oct 2012 - 5 Mar 2013 Nicolás Maduro (s.a.) 8 Mar 2013 - Jorge Arreaza (b. 1973)
¹The weekly rotating chairmanship was occasionally held by alternate members: Manuel Moreno de Mendoza (b. 1755 - d. 1841) (alternate to Mendoza), Mauricio Ayala (b. 1774 - d. 1813) (alternate to Escalona), and perhaps also Andrés Narvarte (b. 1781 - d. 1853) (alternate to Padrón).

Vietnam

        ...                Dai Viet Quoc (Great Viet Realm; Viet [Chinese Yue]
                           is a geographic concept of variable China/Vietnam location)
       1804                Viet Nam Quoc (Viet Nam Realm) (name authorized by China)
15 Feb 1839                Dai Nam Quoc (literally, "Great South Realm")
                           (name not authorized by China)
 5 Jun 1862                Cochinchina (southern region) becomes French colony
25 Aug 1883                Annam and Tonkin (central and northern regions) become
                           French protectorates
17 Oct 1887                Union of Indochina formed (Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina,
                           Cambodia, and, from 1893, Laos)
 9 Mar 1945 - 15 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation
12 Jun 1945                Viet Nam Empire
25 Aug 1945                end of the empire; subsequently de facto division between
                           North and South Vietnam (see below)
21 Jul 1954                division formalized by Geneva Accords
 2 Jul 1976                unification as Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Empire

Note: Although the monarchy dealt with imperial China as a tributary state, and the ruler was addressed by the imperial court as "king of An Nam," domestically a full imperial system was established, including era names. The information listed here (there sometimes is even more available!) is as follows: personal name (ho [family name] + huy [tabooed personal name]) followed by temple name (mieu hieu), posthumous style (dang ton hieu), and era name(s) (nien hieu) initiated during the respective reign; some emperors are often referred to by the nien hieu (e.g., the Bao Dai emperor).
Rulers (from 1806, emperors; from 1884 imperial title translated by the French as king)
- Le dynasty -
 3 Aug 1675 -    May 1705  Le Duy Hiep
                           mieu hieu: Hi Tong / dang ton hieu: Chuong Hoang De
                           nien hieu 31 Jan 1680 - May 1705: Chinh Hoa
22 May 1705 -    Apr 1729  Le Duy Duong
                           mieu hieu: Du Tong / dang ton hieu: Hoa Hoang De
                           nien hieu May 1705 - 8 Feb 1720: Vinh Thinh
                           nien hieu 8 Feb 1720 - 27 Apr 1729: Bao Thai
   Apr 1729 -    Sep 1732  Le Duy Phuong
                           dang ton hieu: (Hon Duc De)
                           nien hieu Apr 1729 - Sep 1732: Vinh Khanh
   Sep 1729 -  7 May 1735  Le Duy Tuong
                           mieu hieu: Thuan Tong / dang ton hieu: Gian Hoang De
                           nien hieu Sep 1732 - 7 May 1735: Long Duc
   May 1735 -    Jun 1740  Le Duy Thin (also called Le Duy Chan)
                           mieu hieu: Y Tong / dang ton hieu: Huy Hoang De
                           nien hieu May 1735 - Jun 1740: Vinh Huu
   Jun 1740 - 10 Aug 1786  Le Duy Dao
                           mieu hieu: Hien Tong / dang ton hieu: Vinh Hoang De
                           nien hieu Jun 1740 - 18 Feb 1787: Canh Hung
                           (reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802)
       1767 -        1769    Le Duy Mat (in rebellion)
   Aug 1786 - 30 Jan 1789  Le Duy Ky
                           dang ton hieu: Man Hoang De
                           nien hieu 18 Feb 1787 - 1789: Chieu Tong
                           (also reputed later to have continued to 31 May 1802)
30 Jan 1789 - 31 May 1802  rule extinguished by Tay Son rulers (see below)
       1789 -        1790    Le Duy Chi
                             (in rebellion against Tay Son rule)
- Nguyen dynasty -
31 May 1802 -  3 Feb 1820  Nguyen Phuoc Noan                  (b. 1762 - d. 1820)
                           mieu hieu: The To / dang ton hieu: Cao Hoang De
                           nien hieu 31 May 1802 - 14 Feb 1820: Gia Long
14 Feb 1820 - 20 Jan 1841  Nguyen Phuoc Hao                   (b. 1791 - d. 1841)
                           mieu hieu: Thanh To / dang ton hieu: Nhan Hoang De
                           nien hieu 14 Feb 1820 - 11 Feb 1841: Minh Mang
11 Feb 1841 -  4 Nov 1847  Nguyen Phuoc Toan                  (b. 1807 - d. 1847)
                           mieu hieu: Hien To / dang ton hieu: Chuong Hoang De
                           nien hieu 11 Feb 1841 - 9 Nov 1847: Thieu Tri
10 Nov 1847 - 19 Jul 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Thi                   (b. 1829 - d. 1883)
                           mieu hieu: Duc Tong / dang ton hieu: Anh Hoang De
                           nien hieu 5 Feb 1848 - 27 Jan 1884: Tu Duc
19 Jul 1883 -  2 Dec 1883  Regency Council
                           - Tran Tien Thanh (to Sep 1883)    (b. 1813 - d. 1883)
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (b. 1824 - d. 1886)
                           - Ton That Thuyet                  (b. 1835 - d. 1913)
20 Jul 1883 - 23 Jul 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Ung Chan              (b. 1852 - d. 1883)
                           mieu hieu: Cung Tong / dang ton hieu: Hue Hoang De
                           (often referred to by the nickname Duc Duc)
30 Jul 1883 - 29 Nov 1883  Nguyen Phuoc Thang                 (b. 1847 - d. 1883)
                           dang ton hieu: Cung Tong Hoang De
                           (often referred to as Hiep Hoa)
 2 Dec 1883 - 31 Jul 1884  Nguyen Phuoc Hieu                  (b. 1869 - d. 1884)
                           mieu hieu: Gian Tong / dang ton hieu: Nghi Hoang De
                           nien hieu 27 Jan 1884 - 15 Feb 1885: Kien Phuoc
 2 Dec 1883 -  2 Aug 1884  Regency Council
                           - Nguyen Van Tuong                 (s.a.)
                           - Ton That Thuyet                  (s.a.)
                           - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Huong Huu,
                             Gia-huong Vuong                  (b. 1835 - d. 1885)
 2 Aug 1884 -  5 Jul 1885  Nguyen Phuoc Minh                  (b. 1871 - d. 1943)
                           nien hieu 15 Feb 1885 - 18 Sep 1885: Ham Nghi
                           (continues in rebellion to Nov 1888)
 2 Aug 1884 -  5 Jul 1885    Regency Council
                             - Nguyen Van Tuong               (s.a.)
                             - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Huong Huu,
                               Gia-huong Vuong                (s.a.)
                               (to 21 Oct 1884)
                             - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Lam,
                               Duke of Hoai Duc               (b. 1832 - d. 1897)
                               (from Nov 1884)
15 Jul 1885 -    Jul 1885  Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Dinh,
                           Tho-Xuan Vuong (regent)            (b. 1810 - d. 1886)
19 Sep 1885 - 28 Jan 1889  Nguyen Phuoc Bien                  (b. 1864 - d. 1889)
                           mieu hieu: Canh Tong / dang ton hieu: Thuan Hoang De
                           nien hieu 7 Nov 1885 - 1 Feb 1889: Dong Khanh
 1 Feb 1889 -  3 Sep 1907  Nguyen Phuoc Buu Lan               (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
                           nien hieu 1 Feb 1889 - 5 Sep 1907: Thanh Thai
 1 Feb 1889 - 27 Sep 1897    Regency Council
                             - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Trinh,
                               Tuy-Ly Vuong                   (b. 1820 - d. 1897)
                             - Prince Nguyen Phuoc Mien Lam,
                               Duke of Hoai Duc               (s.a.)
                             - Nguyen Trong Hiep              (b. 1834 - d. 1902)
                               (to 4 Sep 1896 [effectively Mar 1897])
                             - Truong Quang Dan (to Apr 1896)
                             - Nguyen Than (from Apr 1896)    (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
                             - Bui An Nien (from Apr 1890)
                             - Hoang Cao Khai (from Jul 1897) (b. 1850 - d. 1933)
29 Jul 1907 - 18 May 1916  Truong Nhu Cuong                   (b. 1843 - d. 19...)
                           (president of the Regency Council)
 5 Sep 1907 -  3 May 1916  Nguyen Phuoc Vinh San              (b. 1900 - d. 1945)
                           nien hieu 5 Sep 1907 - 18 May 1916: Duy Tan
18 May 1916 -  6 Nov 1925  Nguyen Phuoc Tuan                  (b. 1885 - d. 1925)
                           mieu hieu: Hoang Tong / dang ton hieu: Tuyen Hoang De
                           nien hieu 18 May 1916 - 13 Feb 1926: Khai Dinh
 6 Nov 1925 - 10 Sep 1932  Ton That Han                       (b. 1854 - d. 1944)
                           (president of the Regency Council)
 8 Jan 1926 - 25 Aug 1945  Nguyen Phuoc Vinh Thuy             (b. 1913 - d. 1997)
                           nien hieu 13 Feb 1926 - 25 Aug 1945: Bao Dai

Prime minister 7 Apr 1945 - 19 Aug 1945 Tran Trong Kim (b. 1882 - d. 1953)

The Trinh and Nguyen lords

The Trinh family ruled the North from the imperial capital at or near present-day Hanoi; the Nguyen (properly Nguyen Phuoc) family ruled the South (present-day Centre) from their capital at or near present-day Hue. The official style of each ruler is chua, but the Trinh are assigned honorifics with the Sino-Viet royal style vuong. The Nguyen rulers not only acquired royal honorifics (thuy hieu) during their reign, but the full royal/imperial temple name and posthumous style, changing in time from Sino-Viet vuong (king) to hoang de (emperor) after the family became the imperial rulers after 1802. This record shows a limited choice of these often very long names and styles.
Rulers
- Trinh family -
       1682 -        1709  Trinh Can "Dinh Vuong"             (b. 1632? - d. 1709)
       1709 -        1729  Trinh Cuong "An Do Vuong"          (b. 1685? - d. 1729)
       1729 -        1740  Trinh Giang "Uy Nam Vuong"         (b. 1689? - d. 1740)
       1740 -        1767  Trinh Doanh "Minh Do Vuong"        (b. 1719? - d. 1767)
       1767 -        1782  Trinh Sam "Tinh Do Vuong"          (b. 1738? - d. 1782)
       1782                Trinh Man
       1782 -        1786  Trinh Khai "Doan Nam Vuong"        (b. 1760? - d. 1786)
       1786 -        1787  Trinh Bong "An Do Vuong"
- Nguyen Phuoc family -
 7 Feb 1691 -  1 Jun 1725  Nguyen Phuoc Chu "Chua Minh"       (b. 1675 - d. 1725)
                           mieu hieu: Hien Tong / dang ton hieu: Minh Hoang De
 1 Jun 1725 -  7 Jun 1738  Nguyen Phuoc Tru "Chua Ninh"       (b. 1697 - d. 1738)
                           mieu hieu: Tuc Tong / dang ton hieu: Ninh Hoang De
 7 Jun 1738 -  7 Jun 1765  Nguyen Phuoc Khoat                 (b. 1714 - d. 1765)
                           mieu hieu: The Tong / dang ton hieu: Vo Hoang De
31 Dec 1765 -        1776  Nguyen Phuoc Thuan                 (b. 1753 - d. 1777)
                           mieu hieu: Due Tong / dang ton hieu: Dinh Hoang De
       1776 -        1777  Nguyen Phuoc Duong
                           dang ton hieu: (Tan Chinh Vuong)

The Tay Son episode

The rule by this family (family name Nguyen, changed from Ho) begins in 1776 in the Central part of the country, restricting the imperial Le line to a small area. On 22 Dec 1788 a brother of the Central ruler proclaims the Le rule extinct and assumes the imperial style. The two lines continue to rule, each in part of the country, until the "imperial" ruler unifies the country in 1793 and rules until Jul 1802.
Ruler (title Vuong; from 1778, Thien Vuong; from Jun 1787, Trung Uong Hoang De)
       1776 -    Oct 1793  Nguyen Van Nhac                    (b. c.1752 - d. 1793)
                           nien hieu 1778 - Oct 1793: Thai Duc
Rulers (title Dai Viet Hoang De)
22 Dec 1788 - 15 Sep 1792  Nguyen Van Hue = Nguyen Quang Binh (b. c.1752 - d. 1792)
                           mieu hieu: Thai To / dang ton hieu: Vo Hoang De
                           nien hieu 22 Dec 1788 - 11 Feb 1793: Quang Trung
15 Sep 1792 -    Jul 1802  Nguyen Quang Toan                  (b. 1782 - d. af.1802)
                           nien hieu 11 Feb 1793 - Jun 1801: Canh Thinh
                           nien hieu Jun 1801 - Jul 1802: Bao Hung
       1792 -        1795    Bui Doc Tuyen (regent)

Champa/Panduranga

Vietnamese sources on Champa dry up at the end of the 17th century. The royal chronicle of Pangdarang (Pali: Panduranga) claims that the polity of this name is the true continuation of Champa, and there is some meagre evidence that that is the case, at least for the final portion of the chronicle (which claims to deal with events beginning in 1000).
       1822                kingdom extinguished and incorporated into Vietnam

Kings
       1695 -        1728  Po Saktirai da putih
       1728 -        1730  Po Ganvuh da putih
       1731 -        1732  Po Thuttirai
       1732 -        1735  vacant
       1735 -        1763  Po Rattirai
       1763 -        1765  Po Tathun da moh-rai
       1765 -        1780  Po Tithuntirai da paguh
       1780 -        1781  Po Tithuntirai da parang
       1781 -        1783  vacant
       1783 -        1786  Chei Krei Brei
       1786 -        1793  Po Tithun da parang
       1793 -        1799  Po Lathun da paguh
       1799 -        1822  Po Chong Chan

French Indochina

Governors-general
16 Nov 1887 - 22 Apr 1888  Ernest Constans                    (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
22 Apr 1888 - 31 May 1889  Étienne Richaud                    (b. 1841 - d. 1889)
                           (acting to 8 Sep 1888)
31 May 1889 - 18 Apr 1891  Jules Georges Piquet               (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
18 Apr 1891 - 26 Jun 1891  Bideau (acting)                    (b. 18... - d. 1894)
26 Jun 1891 - 29 Dec 1894  Antoine de Lanessan                (b. 1843 - d. 1919)
10 Mar 1894 - 26 Oct 1894    Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux    (b. 1848 - d. 1895)
                             (acting for Lanessan)
29 Dec 1894 - 16 Mar 1895  François Pierre Rodier (acting)    (b. 1854 - d. 19...)
16 Mar 1895 - 10 Dec 1896  Armand Rousseau                    (b. 1835 - d. 1896)
10 Dec 1896 - 13 Feb 1897  Augustin Julien Fourès (acting)    (b. 1853 - d. 19...)
13 Feb 1897 - 14 Mar 1902  Paul Doumer                        (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
14 Mar 1902 - 14 Oct 1902  Édouard Broni (acting)
15 Oct 1902 - 28 Feb 1908  Paul Beau                          (b. 1857 - d. 1927)
28 Feb 1908 - 23 Sep 1908  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure (acting)   (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
24 Sep 1908 - 17 Feb 1911  Antony Klobukowski                 (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
13 Jan 1910 - 10 Jun 1910    Albert Picquié                   (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
                             (acting for Klobukowski)
17 Feb 1911 - 14 Nov 1911  Paul Louis Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 19...)
15 Nov 1911 - 22 Nov 1913  Albert Sarraut (1st time)          (b. 1872 - d. 1962)
22 Nov 1913 -  3 Mar 1915  Joost van Vollenhoven (acting)     (b. 1877 - d. 1918)
 3 Mar 1915 - 22 May 1916  Ernest Roume                       (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
23 May 1916 - 21 Jan 1917  Jean Charles (acting)
22 Jan 1917 -    May 1919  Albert Sarraut (2nd time)          (s.a.)
   May 1919 -    Feb 1920  Maurice Antoine François
                           Monguillot (1st time) (acting)     (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
   Feb 1920 -    Apr 1922  Maurice Long                       (b. 1866 - d. 1923)
   Apr 1922 -        1923  François Marius Baudouin (acting)
       1923 -    Apr 1925  Martial Merlin                     (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
   Apr 1925 -    Nov 1925  Maurice Antoine François
                           Monguillot (2nd time)              (s.a.)
18 Nov 1925 -    Jan 1928  Alexandre Varenne                  (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
   Jan 1928 -    Aug 1928  Maurice Antoine François
                           Monguillot (3rd time)              (s.a.)
22 Aug 1928 - 15 Jan 1934  Pierre Pasquier                    (b. 1877 - d. 1934)
27 Feb 1934 -    Sep 1936  René Robin
   Sep 1936 - 23 Aug 1939  Jules Brévié                       (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
23 Aug 1939 - 25 Jun 1940  Georges Catroux (acting)           (b. 1877 - d. 1969)
25 Jun 1940 -  9 Mar 1945  Jean Decoux                        (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
High commissioners (from 27 Apr 1953, commissioners-general)
31 Oct 1945 -  1 Apr 1947  Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu        (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
 1 Apr 1947 - 11 Oct 1948  Émile Bollaert                     (b. 1890 - d. 1978)
20 Oct 1948 - 17 Dec 1950  Léon Pignon                        (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
17 Dec 1950 - 11 Jan 1952  Jean de Lattre de Tassigny         (b. 1889 - d. 1952)
 1 Apr 1952 - 28 Jul 1953  Jean Letourneau                    (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
28 Jul 1953 - 10 Apr 1954  Maurice Dejean                     (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
10 Apr 1954 -    Apr 1955  Paul Ély                           (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
   Apr 1955 - 21 Jul 1956  Henri Hoppenot                     (b. 1891 - d. 1977)

Annam-Tonkin

Residents-general
11 Jun 1884 -  1 Oct 1884  Paul Rheinart (1st time)           (b. 1840 - d. 1902)
                           (provisional)
 1 Oct 1884 - 31 May 1885  Victor Lemaire
31 May 1885 - 26 Jan 1886  Philippe Marie Henri Roussel de
                           Courcy                             (b. 1827 - d. 1887)
27 Jan 1886 -  6 Apr 1886  Warnet (acting)
 8 Apr 1886 - 11 Nov 1886  Paul Bert                          (b. 1833 - d. 1886)
12 Nov 1886 - 28 Jan 1887  Paulin Vial (acting)               (b. 1831 - d. 1907)
29 Jan 1887 - 17 Nov 1887  Paul Bihourd                       (b. 1846 - d. 1914)
17 Nov 1887 - 25 Jun 1888  Berger (acting)
25 Jun 1888 -  8 Sep 1888  Eusèbe Irénée Parreau (acting)     (b. 1842 - d. ...)
 8 Sep 1888 - 29 May 1889  Paul Rheinart (2nd time)           (s.a.)

Annam

Residents-superior
 8 Apr 1886 -        1888  Charles Dillon                     (b. ... - d. 1889)
       1888 -        1889  Séraphin Hector (1st time)         (b. 1846 - d. ...)
                           (acting)
       1889                Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
                           (acting)
10 May 1889 - 27 Oct 1891  Séraphin Hector (2nd time)         (s.a.)
27 Oct 1891 -  1 Jan 1897  Ernest Brière                      (b. 1848 - d. 1904)
 1 Feb 1897 -  7 Mar 1898  Alexis Auvergne (1st time)         (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
                           (acting)
 7 Mar 1898 -        1900  Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (b. 1855 - d. 19...)
22 Feb 1900 -    Aug 1904  Alexis Auvergne (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting to 9 May 1901)
       1904 -        1906  Jean-Ernest Moulié (acting)
       1906 -    Jul 1908  Fernand Levecque                   (b. 1852 - d. 19...)
   Jul 1908 -        1910  Jean-Henri Groleau                 (b. 1859 - d. 19...)
       1910 -  1 Jan 1912  Henri Victor Sestier               (b. 1857 - d. 19...)
 1 Jan 1912 - 15 May 1913  Georges Mahé                       (b. 1860 - d. 19...)
16 May 1913 -        1920  Jean Charles (acting to May 1914)
       1920 -        1927  Pierre Pasquier                    (s.a.)
       1927 -        1928  Jules Fries
       1928 -        1931  Aristide Eugène Le Fol
       1931 -        1934  Yves Chatel                        (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
       1934 -        1940  Maurice Fernand Graffeuil
       1940 -        1944  Émile Louis François Grandjean
       1944 -    Mar 1945  Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn      (b. 1901 - d. 1945)

Tonkin

Residents-superior (subordinate to Annam to 1888)
 8 Apr 1886 - 11 Nov 1886  Paulin Vial                        (s.a.)
12 Nov 1886 - 29 Jan 1887  Jean Thomas Raoul Bonnal (acting)  (b. 1847 - d. ...)
29 Apr 1888 - 10 May 1889  Eusèbe Irénée Parreau              (s.a.)
29 May 1889 - 27 Oct 1891  Ernest Brière                      (s.a.)
27 Oct 1891 -    Jul 1893  Léon Jean Laurent Chavassieux      (s.a.)
   Jul 1893 - 30 Mar 1895  François Pierre Rodier             (s.a.)
                           (acting to 15 Oct 1894)
30 Mar 1895 - 18 Jul 1895  Paul Louis Luce (acting)           (b. 1856 - d. 19...)
       1897                Léon Jules Pol Boulloche           (s.a.)
26 Jul 1897 - 30 Aug 1905  Augustin Julien Fourès             (s.a.)
30 Aug 1905 -  2 Apr 1907  Jean-Henri Groleau (acting)        (s.a.)
   Apr 1907 -    Jul 1907  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure            (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
   Jul 1907 -    Apr 1909  Louis Jules Morel                  (b. 1853 - d. 19...)
   Apr 1909 -    Sep 1909  Marie Joseph de Miribel (acting)   (b. 1853 - d. 19...)
   Sep 1909 -    Aug 1912  Jules Simoni
20 Aug 1912 - 15 Dec 1912  Jean Charles (acting)
16 Dec 1912 -  8 Jun 1915  Georges Destenay                   (b. 1861 - d. 1915)
 8 Jun 1915 -        1916  Maurice Le Gallen
       1917 -        1921  Jean Édouard Bourcier
                           Saint-Chaffray                     (b. 1870 - d. 19...)
       1921 -        1925  Maurice Antoine François
                           Monguillot                         (s.a.)
       1925 -        1930  René Robin
       1930 -        1937  Auguste Tholance                   (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
       1937 -        1940  Yves Chatel                        (s.a.)
       1940 -        1941  Émile Louis François Grandjean
       1941 -        1942  Édouard André Delsalle             (b. 1893 - d. 1945)
       1942 -        1944  Jean Maurice Norbert Haelewyn      (s.a.)
       1944 -  9 Mar 1945  Camille Auphelle                   (b. 1908 - d. 1945)

Cochinchina

Governors
- in Tourane (Da Nang) -
   Sep 1858 -        1859  Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (b. 1807 - d. 1873)
19 Oct 1859 - 23 Mar 1860  Théogène François Page             (b. 1807 - d. 1867)
- in Saigon -
18 Feb 1859 -        1859  Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (s.a.)
   Mar 1859 -    Mar 1860  Jean-Bernard Jauréguiberry         (b. 1815 - d. 1887)
                           (acting)
   Mar 1860 -  6 Feb 1861  Théogène François Page             (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1860 -  6 Feb 1861    Joseph d'Ariès (acting for Page) (b. 1813 - d. 1878)
 6 Feb 1861 - 30 Nov 1861  Léonard Victor Joseph Charner      (b. 1797 - d. 1869)
30 Nov 1861 - 16 Oct 1863  Louis Adolphe Bonard               (b. 1805 - d. 1867)
16 Oct 1863 -  4 Apr 1868  Pierre Paul Marie de La Grandière  (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
 4 Apr 1868 - 10 Dec 1869  Marie Hector Ohier (acting)        (b. 1814 - d. 1870)
10 Dec 1869 -  9 Jan 1870  Joseph Faron (acting)              (b. 1819 - d. 1881)
 9 Jan 1870 -  1 Apr 1871  Alphonse de Cornulier-Lucinière    (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
 1 Apr 1871 - 16 Mar 1874  Marie Jules Dupré                  (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
16 Mar 1874 - 30 Nov 1874  Jules Krantz (acting)              (b. 1821 - d. 1914)
30 Nov 1874 - 16 Oct 1877  Victor Auguste, baron Duperré      (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
16 Oct 1877 -  7 Jul 1879  Louis Charles Georges Jules Lafont (b. 1825 - d. 1908)
 7 Jul 1879 -  7 Nov 1882  Charles Le Myre de Vilers          (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
 7 Nov 1882 -    Jul 1885  Charles Thomson                    (b. 1845 - d. 1898)
   Jul 1885 -    Jun 1886  Charles Auguste Frédéric Begin     (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
   Jun 1886 - 22 Oct 1887  Ange Michel Filippini              (b. 1834 - d. 1887)
23 Oct 1887 -  2 Nov 1887  Noël Pardon (acting)
 3 Nov 1887 - 15 Nov 1887  Jules Georges Piquet (acting)      (s.a.)
Lieutenant governors
   Nov 1887 -    Apr 1888  Ernest Constans                    (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
   Apr 1888 -        1888  Auguste Eugène Navelle             (b. 1846 - d. ...)
       1889                Augustin Julien Fourès (1st time)  (s.a.)
       1889 -        1892  Henri Danel                        (b. 1850 - d. ...)
       1892 -        1895  Augustin Julien Fourès (2nd time)  (s.a.)
       1895 -        1897  Alexandre Ducos                    (b. 1851 - d. 1908)
       1897 -        1898  Ange Eugène Nicolai                (b. 1845 - d. ...)
       1898 -        1901  Édouard Picanon                    (b. 1854 - d. 1939)
       1901 -        1902  Henri de Lamothe                   (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
       1902 -        1906  François Pierre Rodier             (s.a.)
       1906 -        1907  Olivier Charles Arthur de Lalande
                           de Calan
29 Jun 1907 -  9 Jan 1909  Louis Alphonse Bonhoure            (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
       1909 -        1911  Maurice Gourbeil
Governors
       1911 -        1916  Maurice Gourbeil
       1916 -        1921  Maurice Le Gallen                  (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
   Jun 1918 -    Feb 1920    Georges Maspéro                  (b. 1872 - d. 1942)
                             (acting for Le Gallen)
       1921 -        1926  Maurice Cognacq
       1926 -        1929  Paul Marie Alexis Joseph Blanchard
                           de la Brosse
       1929                Auguste Tholance (acting)          (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
       1929 -        1934  Jean-Félix Krautheimer             (b. 1874 - d. 1943)
       1934 -        1939  Pierre Pagès                       (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
       1939 -        1940  René Veber                         (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
       1940 -        1942  Henri Georges Rivoal               (b. 1886 - d. 1963)

North Vietnam

 2 Sep 1945                independence proclaimed (Democratic Republic of Vietnam)

Chairman of the Indochinese Communist Party (from Feb 1951, Vietnam Workers' Party)
       1930 -  2 Sep 1969  Ho Chi Minh                        (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
First secretaries (top party post from 2 Sep 1969)
   May 1941 -  1 Nov 1956  Truong Chinh                       (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
 1 Nov 1956 - 10 Sep 1960  Ho Chi Minh                        (s.a.)
10 Sep 1960 - 20 Dec 1976  Le Duan                            (b. 1908 - d. 1986)

Presidents 2 Sep 1945 - 2 Sep 1969 Ho Chi Minh (s.a.) 3 Sep 1969 - 2 Jul 1976 Ton Duc Thang (b. 1888 - d. 1980) (acting to 23 Sep 1969)
Prime ministers 2 Sep 1945 - 20 Sep 1955 Ho Chi Minh (s.a.) 20 Sep 1955 - 2 Jul 1976 Pham Van Dong (b. 1908 - d. 2000)

South Vietnam

 1 Jun 1946                Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina
 8 Oct 1947                South Vietnam
27 May 1948                Vietnam
14 Jun 1949                French associated state (State of Vietnam)
26 Oct 1955                Republic of Vietnam
30 Apr 1975                Republic of South Vietnam

Presidents of the Provisional Government
 1 Jun 1946 - 10 Nov 1946  Nguyen Van Thinh                   (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
15 Nov 1946 -  7 Dec 1946  Nguyen Van Xuan (1st time)         (b. 1892 - d. 1989)
 7 Dec 1946 -  8 Oct 1947  Le Van Hoach                       (b. 1896 - d. 1978)
 8 Oct 1947 - 27 May 1948  Nguyen Van Xuan (2nd time)         (s.a.)
President of the Central Government of Vietnam
27 May 1948 - 14 Jun 1949  Nguyen Van Xuan                    (s.a.)
Chief of state
14 Jun 1949 - 26 Oct 1955  Bao Dai                            (s.a.)
Presidents
26 Oct 1955 -  2 Nov 1963  Ngo Dinh Diem                      (b. 1901 - d. 1963)
 2 Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964  Duong Van Minh (1st time)          (b. 1916 - d. 2001)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Military Committee)
30 Jan 1964 -  8 Feb 1964  Nguyen Khanh (1st time)            (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
 8 Feb 1964 - 16 Aug 1964  Duong Van Minh (2nd time)          (s.a.)
16 Aug 1964 - 27 Aug 1964  Nguyen Khanh (2nd time)            (s.a.)
27 Aug 1964 -  8 Sep 1964  Provisional Leadership Committee
                           - Duong Van Minh                   (s.a.)
                           - Nguyen Khanh                     (s.a.)
                           - Tran Thien Khiem                 (b. 1925)
 8 Sep 1964 - 26 Oct 1964  Duong Van Minh (3rd time)          (s.a.)
                           (chairman Provisional Leadership Committee)
26 Oct 1964 - 14 Jun 1965  Phan Khac Suu                      (b. 1905 - d. 1970)
14 Jun 1965 - 21 Apr 1975  Nguyen Van Thieu                   (b. 1924 - d. 2001)
                           (chairman National Leadership Committee to 31 Oct 1967)
21 Apr 1975 - 28 Apr 1975  Tran Van Huong                     (b. 1903 - d. 1982)
28 Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975  Duong Van Minh (4th time) (acting) (s.a.)
30 Apr 1975 -  2 Jul 1976  Huynh Tan Phat                     (b. 1913 - d. 1989)
                           (chairman Provisional Revolutionary Government [in
                           rebellion from Jun 1969])

Prime ministers 13 Jun 1949 - 21 Jan 1950 Bao Dai (s.a.) 21 Jan 1950 - 26 Apr 1950 Nguyen Phan Long (b. 1888 - d. 1960) 27 Apr 1950 - 6 Jun 1952 Tran Van Huu (b. 1896 - d. 1984) 6 Jun 1952 - 17 Dec 1953 Nguyen Van Tam (b. 1895 - d. 1990) 16 Jan 1954 - 16 Jun 1954 Prince Nguyen Phuoc Buu Loc (b. 1914 - d. 1990) 16 Jun 1954 - 26 Jun 1954 Phan Huy Quat (1st time) (acting) (b. 1909 - d. 1979) 26 Jun 1954 - 26 Oct 1955 Ngo Dinh Diem (s.a.) 4 Nov 1963 - 30 Jan 1964 Nguyen Ngoc Tho (b. 1908) 8 Feb 1964 - 29 Aug 1964 Nguyen Khanh (1st time) (s.a.) 29 Aug 1964 - 3 Sep 1964 Nguyen Xuan Oanh (1st time) (b. 1921 - d. 2003) (acting) 3 Sep 1964 - 4 Nov 1964 Nguyen Khanh (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Nov 1964 - 28 Jan 1965 Tran Van Huong (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Jan 1965 - 15 Feb 1965 Nguyen Xuan Oanh (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 16 Feb 1965 - 21 Jun 1965 Phan Huy Quat (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1965 - 31 Oct 1967 Nguyen Cao Ky (b. 1930 - d. 2011) 31 Oct 1967 - 25 May 1968 Nguyen Van Loc (b. 1922) 25 May 1968 - 1 Sep 1969 Tran Van Huong (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Sep 1969 - 4 Apr 1975 Tran Thien Khiem (s.a.) 4 Apr 1975 - 24 Apr 1975 Nguyen Ba Can (b. 1930 - d. 2009) 28 Apr 1975 - 30 Apr 1975 Vu Van Mau (b. 1914 - d. 1998)

Vietnam

General secretaries of the Communist Party
20 Dec 1976 - 10 Jul 1986  Le Duan                            (s.a.)
14 Jul 1986 - 18 Dec 1986  Truong Chinh                       (s.a.)
18 Dec 1986 - 27 Jun 1991  Nguyen Van Linh                    (b. 1915 - d. 1998)
27 Jun 1991 - 29 Dec 1997  Do Muoi                            (b. 1917)
29 Dec 1997 - 22 Apr 2001  Le Kha Phieu                       (b. 1931)
22 Apr 2001 - 19 Jan 2011  Nong Duc Manh                      (b. 1940)
19 Jan 2011 -              Nguyen Phu Trong                   (b. 1944)

Presidents 2 Jul 1976 - 30 Mar 1980 Ton Duc Thang (s.a.) 30 Mar 1980 - 4 Jul 1981 Nguyen Huu Tho (acting) (b. 1910 - d. 1996) Chairmen of the State Council 4 Jul 1981 - 18 Jun 1987 Truong Chinh (s.a.) 18 Jun 1987 - 22 Sep 1992 Vo Chi Cong (b. 1913 - d. 2011) Presidents 23 Sep 1992 - 24 Sep 1997 Le Duc Anh (b. 1920) 24 Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006 Tran Duc Luong (b. 1937) 27 Jun 2006 - 25 Jul 2011 Nguyen Minh Triet (b. 1942) 25 Jul 2011 - Truong Tan Sang (b. 1949)
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 2 Jul 1976 - 18 Jun 1987 Pham Van Dong (s.a.) 18 Jun 1987 - 10 Mar 1988 Pham Hung (b. 1912 - d. 1988) 10 Mar 1988 - 22 Jun 1988 Vo Van Kiet (1st time) (acting) (b. 1922 - d. 2008) 22 Jun 1988 - 8 Aug 1991 Do Muoi (s.a.) 8 Aug 1991 - 24 Sep 1992 Vo Van Kiet (2nd time) (s.a.) Prime ministers 24 Sep 1992 - 25 Sep 1997 Vo Van Kiet (s.a.) 25 Sep 1997 - 27 Jun 2006 Phan Van Khai (b. 1933) 27 Jun 2006 - Nguyen Tan Dung (b. 1949)

Virgin Islands (U.S.)

       1650                French/Order of Malta rule in St. Croix
       1734                Danish rule in St. Croix
       1756                Danish West Indies
   Mar 1801 -    Feb 1802  British rule
   Dec 1807 -    Apr 1815  British rule
31 Mar 1917                purchase by U.S. effective

Governors
 8 Jan 1735 -        1736  Frederik Moth                      (b. 1694 - d. 1746)
       1736 -        1744  Gregers Hög Nissen
       1744 -        1747  Poul Jensen Lindemark              (b. ... - d. 1747)
       1747 -        1751  Jens Hansen
       1751 -        1756  Peter Clausen                      (b. 1721 - d. 1784)
Governors-general
       1756 -        1766  Christian Leberecht von Prøck      (b. 1718 - d. 1780)
       1766 -        1770  Peter Clausen (1st time)           (s.a.)
       1770 -        1772  Frederik Moth                      (b. 1750 - d. 1806)
       1772 -        1773  Ulrich Wilhelm von Roepstorff      (b. 1730 - d. 1821)
   Jul 1773 -    Oct 1773  Henrik Ludvig Ernst von
                           Schimmelmann (1st time)            (b. 1743 - d. 1793)
       1773 -        1784  Peter Clausen (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1784 -        1787  Henrik Ludvig Ernst von
                           Schimmelmann (2nd time)            (s.a.)
       1787 -        1794  Ernst Frederik von Walterstorff
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1755 - d. 1820)
       1794 -        1796  Wilhelm Anton Lindemann (1st time) (b. 1739 - d. 1801)
       1796 -        1798  Thomas de Malleville               (b. 1739 - d. 1798)
       1799 -    Mar 1801  Wilhelm Anton Lindemann (2nd time) (s.a.)
   Mar 1801 -    Feb 1802  John Clayton Cowell                (b. 1762 - d. 1819)
   Feb 1802 -        1803  Ernst Frederik von Walterstorff
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1803 -        1807  Baltharzar Frederik Mühlenfels     (b. 17... - d. 1807)
   Mar 1807 -    Dec 1807  Hans Christopher Lillienskjold     (b. 1762 - d. 1837)
   Dec 1807 -        1808  Henry Bowyer                       (b. 17... - d. 1808)
       1808 - 19 Dec 1812  G.W. Harcourt
 1 May 1813 -    Apr 1815  George William Ramsay              (b. 1761 - d. 1819)
   Apr 1815 -        1816  Peter Lotharius von Oxholm         (b. 1753 - d. 1827)
   May 1816 -    Jul 1816  Johan Henrik von Stabel            (b. 1774 - d. 1831)
       1816 -        1820  Adrian Benjamin Bentzon            (b. 1777 - d. 1827)
       1820 -        1822  Carl Adolph Rothe                  (b. 1767 - d. 1834)
       1822 -        1827  Johan Frederik Bardenfleth         (b. 1772 - d. 1833)
       1827 -    Jul 1848  Peter Carl Frederik von Scholten   (b. 1784 - d. 1854)
   Jul 1848 -    Nov 1848  Frederik von Oxholm                (b. 1801 - d. 1871)
   Nov 1848 -        1851  Peder Hansen                       (b. 1798 - d. 1880)
       1851 -        1855  Hans Ditmar Frederik Feddersen     (b. 1805 - d. 1863)
       1855 -        1860  Johan Frederik Schlegel            (b. 1817 - d. 1896)
       1860 -        1871  Vilhelm Ludvig Birch               (b. 1817 - d. 1871)
   Feb 1871 -    Jun 1871  John Christmas                     (b. 1799 - d. 1873)
       1871 -        1872  Frantz Ernst Bille                 (b. 1832 - d. 1918)
   Jul 1872 -    Sep 1872  Johan August Stakeman              (b. 1805 - d. 1891)
       1872 -        1881  Janus August Garde                 (b. 1823 - d. 1893)
       1881 -        1893  Christian Henrik Arendrup          (b. 1837 - d. 1913)
       1893 -        1903  Carl Emil Hedemann                 (b. 1852 - d. 1929)
       1903 -        1904  Herman August Jürs                 (b. 1838 - d. 1918)
       1904 -        1905  Frederik Theodor Martin Mortensen
                           Nordlien                           (b. 1854 - d. 1924)
       1905 -        1908  Christian Magdalus Thestrup Cold   (b. 1863 - d. 1934)
       1908 -        1911  Peter Carl Limpricht               (b. 1838 - d. 1912)
       1911 -        1916  Lars Christian Helweg-Larsen       (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
       1916 -        1917  Henri Konow                        (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
Governors
31 Mar 1917 -    Apr 1917  Edwin Taylor Pollock (acting)      (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
   Apr 1917 -        1919  James Harrison Oliver              (b. 1857 - d. 1928)
       1919 -        1921  Joseph Wallace Oman                (b. 1864 - d. 1941)
       1921 -        1922  Sumner Ely Wetmore Kittelle        (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
       1922 -        1923  Henry Hughes Hough                 (b. 1871 - d. 1943)
       1923 -        1925  Philip Williams                    (b. 1869 - d. 1942)
       1925 -  6 Jan 1927  Martin Edwin Trench                (b. 1869 - d. 1927)
   Jan 1927 - 18 Mar 1931  Waldo A. Evans                     (b. 1869 - d. 1936)
18 Mar 1931 - 23 Jul 1935  Paul Martin Pearson                (b. 1871 - d. 1938)
23 Jul 1935 -  3 Feb 1941  Lawrence William Cramer            (b. 1897 - d. 1978)
 3 Feb 1941 - 17 May 1946  Charles A. Harwood                 (b. 1880 - d. 1950)
17 May 1946 - 30 Nov 1949  William H. Hastie                  (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
30 Nov 1949 -  9 Apr 1954  Morris Fidanque de Castro          (b. 1902 - d. 1966)
                           (acting to 24 Mar 1950)
 9 Apr 1954 - 31 Aug 1955  Archie A. Alexander                (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
17 Oct 1955 - 25 Sep 1958  Walter A. Gordon                   (b. 1894 - d. 1976)
25 Sep 1958 -  5 Apr 1961  John David Merwin                  (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
 5 Apr 1961 - 12 Feb 1969  Ralph M. Paiewonsky                (b. 1906 - d. 1991)
12 Feb 1969 -  1 Jul 1969  Cyril Emanuel King (1st time)      (b. 1921 - d. 1978)
 1 Jul 1969 -  6 Jan 1975  Melvin Herbert Evans               (b. 1917 - d. 1984)
 6 Jan 1975 -  2 Jan 1978  Cyril Emanuel King (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 2 Jan 1978 -  5 Jan 1987  Juan Francisco Luis                (b. 1940 - d. 2011)
 5 Jan 1987 -  5 Jan 1995  Alexander A. Farrelly              (b. 1923 - d. 2002)
 5 Jan 1995 -  4 Jan 1999  Roy L. Schneider                   (b. 1939)
 4 Jan 1999 -  1 Jan 2007  Charles Turnbull                   (b. 1935)
 1 Jan 2007 -              John deJongh                       (b. 1957)

Saint Thomas-Saint John

       1666                Danish colony
       1756                part of Danish West Indies, but separate administration
                           until 1862

Governors
       1694 -        1702  Johan Lorentz (2nd time)           (b. 16... - d. 1702)
       1702 -        1706  Claus Hansen                       (b. 16... - d. 1706)
       1706 -        1708  Joachim Melchior von Holten        (b. 1671 - d. 1708)
       1708 -        1710  Diderich Mogensen
       1710 -        1716  Mikkel Knudsen Crone               (b. 16... - d. 1716)
       1716 -        1724  Erik Bredal
   May 1724 -    Sep 1724  Otto Jacob Thambsen                (b. 1670 - d. 1724)
       1724 -        1727  Frederik Moth (1st time)           (s.a.)
       1727 -        1733  Henrik von Suhm                    (b. 1693 - d. 1744)
       1733 -        1736  Philip Gardelin                    (b. ... - d. 1740)
       1736 -        1740  Frederik Moth (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1740 -        1744  Jacob Schönemann
       1744 -        1747  Christian von Schweder
       1747 -        1758  Christian Suhm                     (b. ... - d. 1759)
       1758 -        1760  Harrien Felchenhauer               (b. ... - d. 1764)
       1760 -        1764  Johan Georg von John               (b. ... - d. 1764)
   Apr 1764 -    Nov 1764  Ditlev Wilhelm Wildthagen          (b. ... - d. 1764)
       1764 -        1765  Peter Gynthelberg                  (b. 1728 - d. 1780)
       1765 -        1766  Ulrich Wilhelm Roepstorff          (b. 1730 - d. 1821)
       1766 -        1773  Jens Nielsen Kragh                 (b. c.1729 - d. 1773)
       1773 -        1796  Thomas de Malleville               (b. 1739 - d. 1798)
       1796 -        1800  Baltharzar Frederik Mühlenfels     (s.a.)
       1800 -    Mar 1801  Casimir Wilhelm von Scholten
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1752 - d. 1810)
   Mar 1801 -        1802  John Clayton Cowell
       1802 -        1803  Willum von Rømeling                (b. 1758 - d. 18...)
       1803 -    Dec 1807  Casimir Wilhelm von Scholten
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Dec 1807 -        1815  McLean
       1815 -        1818  Christian Ludvig von Holten
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1774 - d. 1829)
       1818 -        1820  Peter Carl Frederik von Scholten
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
   Feb 1820 -    Mar 1820  Christian Ludvig von Holten
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Apr 1820 -    Jul 1820  Peter Carl Frederik von Scholten
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1820 -        1822  Carl Gottlieb Fleischer            (b. ... - d. 1822)
       1822 -        1823  Carl Vilhelm Jessen                (b. 1764 - d. 1823)
       1823 -        1826  Peter Carl Frederik von Scholten
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
       1826 -        1829  Johannes Söbötker (1st time)       (b. 1777 - d. 1854)
       1829 -        1834  Frederik Ludvig Christian Pentz
                           Rosenørn                           (b. 1781 - d. 1834)
       1834 -        1836  Frederik von Oxholm (1st time)     (s.a.)
       1836 -        1848  Johannes Söbötker (2nd time)       (s.a.)
       1848                Hans Hendrik Berg (1st time)       (b. 1789 - d. 1862)
       1848 -        1852  Frederik von Oxholm (2nd time)     (s.a.)
       1853 -        1862  Hans Hendrik Berg (2nd time)       (s.a.)

Viti: see Fiji.

Wake Island

17 Jan 1899                U.S. takes possession; island remains generally uninhabited
23 Dec 1941 -  4 Sep 1945  occupied by Japan (renamed Otori Jima)

Island commanders
15 Oct 1941 - 29 Nov 1941  James P.S. Devereux                (b. 1903 - d. 1988)
29 Nov 1941 - 23 Dec 1941  Winfield Scott Cunningham          (b. 1900 - d. 1986)
   Jan 1942 - 13 Dec 1942  Sususmu Kawasaki
13 Dec 1942 -  4 Sep 1945  Shigematsu Sakaibara               (b. 1894 - d. 1947)

Walachia: see under Romania.

Wallis and Futuna

`Uvea (Wallis)

       1820                Takumasiva dynasty restored
 5 Apr 1887                `Uvea (Wallis) becomes a French protectorate
27 Nov 1887                administratively attached to New Caledonia

Rulers (title Tui `Uvea or Hau, translated by the French as king/queen;
from 1858 also styled Lavelua¹)
- Takumasiva dynasty -
       1767 -        1810  Manuka
       1810 -        1818  Tufele
- Kulitea dynasty -
       1818 -        1819  Kulitea
       1819 -        1820  Lavekava
       1820                Hiva
- Takumasiva dynasty -
       1820 -        1825  Muliakaaka
       1825                Uhila "moafa"
       1825                Toifale (f)
       1825 -        1826  Mulitoto
       1826 -        1829  Soane-Patita Vaimua Lavelua
                           (1st time)                         (b. ... - d. 1858)
       1829 -        1830  Takala
       1830 -        1858  Soane-Patita Vaimua Lavelua
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1858 - 19 Feb 1869  Falakika Seilala (f)               (b. ... - d. 1869)
   Feb 1869 - 10 Mar 1895  Amelia Tokagahahau Aliki (f)       (b. ... - d. 1895)
11 Mar 1895 - 16 Jan 1904  Vito                               (b. 18... - d. 1904)
11 Mar 1895 - 12 Mar 1895    Isaake (in rebellion)
   Aug 1904 -  7 Sep 1906  Lusiano Aisake                     (b. ... - d. 1906)
       1906 -  1 Apr 1910  Sosefo Mautâmakia I "Tokita"
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1853? - d. 1933)
                           (recognized by the resident until 19 May 1910)
22 Mar 1910 - 30 Nov 1916  Soane-Patita Lavuia                (b. ... - d. 1916)
       1916 -        1918  Sosefo Mautâmakia II               (b. 186... - d. 1928)
       1918 -  2 Nov 1924  Vitolo Kulihaapai
 3 Nov 1924 -  9 Dec 1928  Tomasi Kulimoetoke I               (b. ... - d. 1928)
21 Dec 1928 - 26 Jul 1931  Mikaele Tufele (1st time)          (b. 18... - d. 1933)
27 Jul 1931 - 10 Mar 1933  Sosefo Mautâmakia I "Tokita"
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
13 Mar 1933 - 25 May 1933  Petelo Kahofuna
                           (not recognized by the governor of New Caledonia)
25 May 1933 - 30 Nov 1933  Mikaele Tufele (2nd time)          (s.a.)
30 Nov 1933 - 16 Mar 1941  Council of Ministers
16 Mar 1941 - 29 Mar 1947  Leone Manikitoga
 9 May 1947 - 10 Apr 1950  Pelenato Fuluhea                   (b. ... - d. 1970)
25 Apr 1950 - 17 Nov 1953  Kapeliele Tufele "Setu"
17 Nov 1953 - 18 Dec 1953  Council of Ministers
18 Dec 1953 - 19 Dec 1953  Soane Toke
22 Dec 1953 - 12 Sep 1958  Aloisia (f)                        (b. ... - d. 1972)
12 Sep 1958 - 12 Mar 1959  Council of Ministers
12 Mar 1959 -  7 May 2007  Tomasi Kulimoetoke II              (b. 1918 - d. 2007)
25 Jul 2008 -  2 Sep 2014  Kapeliele Faupala                  (b. 1940?)

Prime ministers (title kivalu, unless indicated mukoi) ... - 1 Nov 1924 ... Nov 1924 - 19 Jan 1927 ... 21 Jan 1927 - 26 Jul 1931 Epifano 27 Jul 1931 - 23 May 1933 Sele 23 May 1933 - 1936 ... (mukoi) 1936 - 193. ... (mukoi) 193. - 11 Nov 1940 ... 11 Nov 1940 - 16 Mar 1941 Leone Manikitoga 16 Mar 1941 - Jan 1944 ... Jan 1944 - Apr 1947 ... Apr 1947 - 11 Dec 1953 Sagato Taofifenua 11 Dec 1953 - 16 Oct 1957 Tomasi Kulimoetoke (s.a.) 17 Oct 1957 - 10 Mar 1959 Soane Foloka 11 Mar 1959 - 31 Mar 1992 Paino Tu'ugahala (b. 1915 - d. 1992) 9 Apr 1992 - 7 Aug 1993 Patelise Alikiagalelei 8 Aug 1993 - 11 Nov 1996 Vitolio Vaivaikava (b. ... - d. 2002) 12 Nov 1996 - 16 Nov 1998 Setefano Hanisi (1st time) (b. 1960) 17 Nov 1998 - 14 Apr 1999 Mika Hoatau (b. 1939) 6 May 1999 - 22 Dec 2000 Atelemo Taofifenua (b. 1927 - d. 2005) 23 Dec 2000 - 19 Jan 2003 Tisimasi Heafala (b. 1953?) 20 Jan 2003 - 1 Mar 2004 Maie Muliloto 2 Mar 2004 - 2008 Kapeliele Faupala (s.a.) 15 Jun 2005 - ... Clovis Logologofolau (b. 1945) (in opposition, recognized by the administrator-superior from late Jul to 26 Sep 2005; continues in exile in Nouméa, New Caledonia, from late Sep 2005) 2008 - 19 Jun 2009 Emeni Leulagi 19 Jun 2009 - 12 Oct 2011 Tomasi Manuhaapai 12 Oct 2011 - 19 Jan 2014 Setefano Hanisi (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Jan 2014 - Akusitino Manakofaiva
¹Every king or queen of Wallis took this title at the day of his election since 1858 when Falakika Seilala adopted the name of her predecessor and brother.

Futuna

16 Feb 1888                the two Futuna kingdoms - Tu`a (also styled Alo) and Sigave
                           - become French protectorates

Tu`a

     c.1800                Lalolalo dynasty founded

Rulers (title Fakavelikele)
        ... -         ...  Fakavelikele
        ... -         ...  Pili
        ... -         ...  Mala'evaoa
        ... -         ...  Nimo o le Tano'a
        ... -         ...  Veliteki
Rulers (title Tu`i Agaifo)
- Lalolalo or Kolotai dynasty -
      *1837 -        1841  Niuliki                            (b. ... - d. 1841)
       1841 -        1844  Musumusu (regent)                  (b. ... - d. 1846)
       1844 -        1862  Filipo Meitala                     (b. 1826 - d. 1862)
       1862 -        18..  Alia Segi
      *1887 -        1929  Soane Malia Musulamu
       1929 -        1932  Soane Moefana
       19.. -        19..  Tuiseka
       19.. -        19..  Usanio Pipisega
       19.. -        19..  Paloto Aika
       19.. -        19..  Savelio Meitala
       19.. -        19..  Kamilo Katea
       19.. -        19..  Maleselino Maituku
       19.. -        19..  Kolio Maituku
       19.. -        19..  Papilio Tala'e
       19.. -        19..  Lelipo Pipisega
       19.. -        19..  Alesio Feta'u
       19.. -        19..  Petelo Savo Meitala
       19.. -        19..  Soane Va Pipisega
       19.. -        19..  Silisio Katea
       19.. -        19..  Petelo Tala'e
       19.. -        19..  Vito Tuiseka
       1954 - 27 Dec 1958  Petelo Maituku (1st time)
29 Dec 1958 -  8 Feb 1960  Setefano Tuikalepa
 9 Feb 1960 -  9 Dec 1961  Kamaliele Moefana
28 Dec 1961 -  8 Sep 1962  Pio Tagatamanogi
15 Sep 1962 -        1965  Mikaele Fanene
       1965 -        1966  Paino Iva
       1966 - 30 May 1970  Seteone Pipisega
 1 Jun 1970 -  1 May 1973  Petelo Maituku (2nd time)
10 May 1973 - 17 Apr 1974  Mikaele Katea
20 Apr 1974 - 28 Dec 1976  Patita Savea
11 Jan 1977 - 17 Jul 1978  Kalepo Nau
15 Mar 1979 - 29 Oct 1984  Nopeleto Tuikalepa
20 Nov 1984 - 24 Feb 1990  Petelo Lemo
24 Feb 1990 -  1 Feb 1995  Lomano Musulamu
 6 Apr 1995 -  9 Jul 1997  Esipio Takasi
10 Jul 1997 -    Oct 2002  Sagato Alofi                       (b. 1936)
21 Nov 2002 - 19 Feb 2008  Soane Patita Maituku               (b. 1947?)
 6 Nov 2008 - 22 Jan 2010  Petelo Vikena                      (b. 1943?)
22 Jan 2010 - 17 Jan 2014  vacant
17 Jan 2014 -              Petelo Sea                         (b. 1943?)

Prime ministers (title Tiafoi) ... - 1 Jun 1973 Petelo Lemo 1 Jun 1973 - ... Maleko Falematagia ... - 16 Aug 1983 Alefosio Vaitanaki 1 Sep 1983 - ... Visesio Pagatele *2002* Sosefo Tuiseka *2006* Lukano Mataele *2008 - Atonio Tuiseka

Sigave

10 Aug 1839 -        1841  occupied by Tu`a

Rulers (called sau, translated by the French as king¹)
        ... - 10 Aug 1839  Vanae                              (b. ... - d. 1839)
       1842 -        1851  Petelo Keletaona                   (b. ... - d. 1867)
       1851 -        18..  Alefosio Tamole
      *1887*               Anise Tamole
      *1889*               Lutotio
       18.. -        18..  Savelio Keletaona
       18.. -        18..  Mateo Tamole
       1897 -         ...  Toviko Keletaona (1st time)
        ... -         ...  Tamasi Tamole
        ... -         ...  Toviko Keletaona (2nd time)
        ... -         ...  Sui Tamole (1st time)
       1917 -        1929  Ligareto Falemaa
       1929 -        1932  Keletaona Keletaona
       1932 -        19..  Fololiano Sui Tamole
       19.. -        19..  Sui Tamole (2nd time)
   Mar 1941 - 29 Sep 1949  Amole Keletaona                    (b. ... - d. 1949)
       1949 -        1952  Soane Vanai
       1952 - 27 Jun 1955  Pio Keletaona
       1955                Sileno Tamole
11 Jul 1955 - 18 Jan 1957  Sakopo Tamole "Pausu"
27 Jan 1957 -  4 Aug 1959  Setefano Lavelua
29 Sep 1959 -  7 Apr 1969  Sileno Tamole "Veu"                (b. ... - d. 1969)
31 Jul 1969 - 24 May 1971  Alefosio Keletaona "Vasa"
 1 Jun 1971 - 30 Sep 1972  Ilalio Amosala "Golegole"          (b. ... - d. 1973)
 1 Dec 1972 -        1982  Nasalio Keletaona
 4 Aug 1982 -  1 Apr 1987  Sagato Keletaona
 1 Apr 1987 -  5 Apr 1990  Sosefo Vanai
10 May 1990 - 26 Oct 1994  Lafaele Malau                      (b. ... - d. 1999)
26 Oct 1994 -        1997  Soane Patita Sokotaua
26 Sep 1997 - 26 Sep 2003  Pasilio Keletaona                  (b. 1939?)
10 Mar 2004 -        2009  Visesio Moeliku
 3 Jul 2010 - 24 Oct 2014  Polikalepo Kolivai                 (b. 1939?)

Prime ministers (title Kaifakaulu) ... - 1971 Sosefo Fulilagi (b. ... - d. 1971) 1 Jun 1971 - 197. Paulo Kuilagi 197. - 1 Sep 1975 Filipo Taufanoa (1st time) 22 Sep 1975 - ... Soane Fakailo ... - 1 May 1987 Filipo Taufanoa (2nd time) 1 May 1987 - 31 Dec 1989 Mikaele Keletaona 1 Jan 1990 - 199. Aloisio Saliga *1999 - 2002* Ateliano Keletaona *2006 - Lusiano Soko
¹The title of the rulers depends on the family in which they are chosen; they will thus carry the title of Tamolevai, Keletaona, or Tu`i Sigave. Visesio Moeliku held the title of Tu`i Sigave.

Wallis and Futuna

 5 Mar 1888                `Uvea and Futuna protectorates united into the
                           Protectorate of the Wallis and Futuna Islands
10 Jun 1909                abrogation of the 27 Nov 1887 decree (see under `Uvea);
                           the resident remains subordinated to the governor of
                           New Caledonia in his capacity as high commissioner in the
                           Pacific Ocean
30 Jul 1961                overseas territory
28 Mar 2003                overseas collectivité

Residents
 7 Apr 1887 -  1 Mar 1892  Maurice Antoine Chauvot
                           (French representative, chargé de mission,
                           until 26 Jun 1888)
 1 Mar 1892 -  6 Feb 1893  Henri Dodun de Kéroman (1st time)  (b. 1837 - d. 1899)
 6 Feb 1893 -        1895  Valsi
       1895                Henri Dodun de Kéroman (2nd time)  (s.a.)
16 Feb 1896 -        1897  Henri Dominique Lefebvre de
                           Sainte-Marie
   Nov?1897 - 27 May 1898  Émile Proche
27 May 1898 -        1901  Étienne Ponge
20 Nov 1902 -    Apr 1904  Édouard Chaffaud
 1 Dec 1905 - 31 Aug 1909  Maxime Viala                       (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
31 Aug 1909 -  1 Apr 1911  Victor Brochard (1st time)
22 Apr 1911 - 26 Mar 1912  Louis Bouge (interim)              (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
   Apr 1912 -    Jan 1914  Victor Brochard (2nd time)
   Jan 1914                Jacques Joubert (interim)
20 Jan 1914 -    Jun 1916  Édouard Magnin
   Jun 1916 -    Dec 1921  Georges Mallet
29 Dec 1921 - 22 Apr 1924  Gaston Bécu                        (b. 18... - d. 1945)
12 Nov 1924 - 29 Mar 1928  Georges Barbier                    (b. 1890 - d. 1956)
25 May 1928 - 31 May 1931  Jean Marchat                       (b. 1897 - d. 1949)
31 May 1931 -  7 Jun 1933  Georges Renaud
 7 Jun 1933 - 16 Sep 1933  Alexis Bernast (interim)           (b. 1895 - d. 1978)
16 Sep 1933 -  4 Jan 1938  Joseph Jean David
 4 Jan 1938 -  4 Jul 1940  Eugène Auguste Lamy
 4 Jul 1940 - 31 May 1942  Léon Émile Marie Prosper Jacques
                           Vrignaud
                           (subordinated himself to Jean Decoux, Vichyist
                           governor-general of French Indochina, from Sep 1940
                           instead of the Free French governor of New Caledonia)
 1 Jun 1942 -  7 Dec 1944  Jean-Baptiste Mattéi
 7 Dec 1944 - 21 Oct 1946  Robert Charbonnier
22 Oct 1946 - 26 Jan 1947  Pierre Robert Jean Marie Fargis
27 Jan 1947 - 31 Dec 1948  Marcel Alexandre Étienne Chomet
 1 Jan 1949 - 25 Sep 1951  Michel Cresson
26 Sep 1951 - 11 Jul 1953  Jean-Flavien Folie, dit Desjardins
11 Jul 1953 - 24 Jan 1955  Charles André                      (b. 1920 - d. 2002)
25 Jan 1955 -  4 Nov 1956  Bernard Heintz
 5 Nov 1956 -  2 Aug 1958  Maurice Antoine Rougetet
 3 Aug 1958 -  9 Jul 1961  Pierre Fauché                      (b. 1913 - d. 1996)
10 Jul 1961 -  7 Oct 1961  Jacques Herry (interim)            (b. 1922 - d. 2010)
Administrators-superior
 7 Oct 1961 - 21 Mar 1962  Jean Périé                         (b. 1912 - d. 1997)
21 Mar 1962 - 13 Aug 1962  Jacques Herry (interim)            (s.a.)
13 Aug 1962 - 28 Jan 1964  Jean Bertrand                      (b. 1921 - d. 2005)
11 Mar 1964 - 20 Apr 1966  André Duc-Dufayard                 (b. 1908 - d. 1987)
20 Apr 1966 - 19 Jul 1968  Fernand Lamodière                  (b. 1919 - d. 2000)
                           (acting to 26 Jul 1966)
30 Jul 1968 - 25 Mar 1971  Jacques Bach                       (b. 1927)
25 Mar 1971 - 26 Aug 1972  Guy Boileau                        (b. 1925 - d. 1992)
19 Oct 1972 - 25 Nov 1974  Jacques de Agostini                (b. 1929)
22 Mar 1975 - 29 Oct 1976  Yves Arbellot-Repaire              (b. 1926)
 6 Nov 1976 -  2 May 1979  Henri Beaux                        (b. 1922)
11 Jul 1979 - 24 Dec 1980  Pierre Isaac                       (b. 1927 - d. 2012)
31 Dec 1980 - 17 Dec 1983  Robert Thil                        (b. 1924 - d. 2012)
25 Jan 1984 - 11 Apr 1985  Michel Kuhnmunch
 3 Dec 1985 - 17 Apr 1986  Bernard Lesterlin                  (b. 1949)
15 Jul 1986 - 13 Sep 1987  Jacques Le Hénaff                  (b. 1932)
17 Nov 1987 -  1 Sep 1988  Gérard Lambotte                    (b. 1936)
 6 Sep 1988 - 30 Aug 1990  Roger Dumec                        (b. 1930)
25 Oct 1990 -  5 Feb 1993  Robert Pommies                     (b. 1941)
15 Mar 1993 - 26 Jul 1994  Philippe Legrix                    (b. 1938)
 7 Aug 1994 - 20 Feb 1996  Léon Alexandre Legrand             (b. 1933)
27 Feb 1996 - 19 Nov 1998  Claude Pierret                     (b. 1939)
23 Nov 1998 - 25 May 2000  Christian Dors                     (b. 1954)
26 Jul 2000 -  3 Sep 2002  Alain Waquet                       (b. 1949)
17 Sep 2002 - 18 Jan 2005  Christian Job                      (b. 1943)
18 Jan 2005 -    Aug 2006  Xavier de Furst                    (b. 1948)
14 Aug 2006 -    Aug 2008  Richard Didier                     (b. 1961)
 8 Sep 2008 - 28 Jun 2010  Philippe Paolantoni                (b. 1952)
12 Jul 2010 - 30 Mar 2013  Michel Jeanjean                    (b. 1951)
30 Mar 2013 -              Michel Aubouin                     (b. 1956)

Presidents of the Territorial Assembly 1962 - 1967 Paino Tu'ugahala (b. 1915 - d. 1992) 1967 - 1971 Sosefo Makape Papilio (b. 1928 - d. 1998) 1972 - 1975 Mikaele Folaumahina 1975 - 1977 Soane Patita Lakina 1977 - 1978 Pasilio Tui (1st time) (b. 1942) 1978 - 1984 Manuele Lisiahi (1st time) 1984 - 1986 Falakiko Gata (1st time) (b. ... - d. 2011) 1986 - 1987 Petelo Takatai 1987 Keleto Lakalaka (1st time) (b. ... - d. 2012) 1987 - 1988 Falakiko Gata (2nd time) (s.a.) 1988 - 1989 Manuele Lisiahi (2nd time) 1989 - 1990 Pasilio Tui (2nd time) (s.a.) 1990 - 1992 Clovis Logologofolau (b. 1945) 1992 - 1994 Soane Uhila (1st time) 1994 - 1996 Mikaele Tauhavili 1996 - 1997 Keleto Lakalaka (2nd time) (s.a.) 1997 - 1999 Victor Brial (1st time) (b. 1966) 1999 - Jan 2001 Soane Uhila (2nd time) Jan 2001 - 21 Feb 2005 Patalione Kanimoa (b. 1962) 21 Feb 2005 - 23 Nov 2005 Albert Likuvalu (b. 1943) 23 Nov 2005 - Apr 2007 Emeni Simete (b. 1958) Apr 2007 - 11 Dec 2007 Pesamino Taputai (1st time) (b. 1949) 11 Dec 2007 - 2010 Victor Brial (2nd time) (s.a.) 2010 - 2011 Siliako Lauhea (b. 1950) 2011 - 4 Apr 2012 Pesamino Taputai (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Apr 2012 - 28 Nov 2012 Vetelino Nau 28 Nov 2012 - 1 Apr 2013 Sosefo Suve 1 Apr 2013 - 11 Dec 2013 Nivaleta Iloai (f) 11 Dec 2013 - 26 Nov 2014 Petelo Hanisi 26 Nov 2014 - Mikaele Kulimoetoke

Weihaiwei: see under China.
West Indies, Federation of the: see under Trinidad and Tobago.

Western Sahara

       1860                Morocco cedes Western Sahara to Spain
 3 Nov 1884                Spain occupies Río de Oro
26 Dec 1884                Spanish protectorate officially declared
       1946                united with Ifni as Spanish West Africa
12 Jan 1958                overseas province (Spanish Sahara)
26 Feb 1976                partitioned between Morocco and Mauritania
27 Feb 1976                Saharan Arab Democratic Republic¹ proclaimed by Polisario
                           Front
11 Aug 1979                Mauritanian part of the territory annexed by Morocco

Royal commissioner
10 Jul 1885 - 16 Jun 1886  Emilio Bonelli Hernando            (b. 1855 - d. 1926)
Subgovernors
       1886 -      c.1902  Emilio Bonelli Hernando            (s.a.)
       1902 -  1 Dec 1903  Ángel Villalobos
Governors
 1 Dec 1903 -  7 Nov 1925  Francisco Bens Argandoña           (b. 1867 - d. 1949)
 7 Nov 1925 - 19 Jun 1932  Guillermo de la Peña Cusi
19 Jun 1932 - 30 Aug 1933  Eduardo Cañizares Navarro
30 Aug 1933 -  1 Jul 1934  José González Deleito              (b. ... - d. 1959)
 1 Jul 1934 -  4 May 1936  Benigno Martínez Portillo          (b. ... - d. 1936)
 4 May 1936 -  7 Aug 1936  Carlos Pedemonte Sabin
 7 Aug 1936 - 12 Mar 1937  Rafael Gallego Sainz
12 Mar 1937 - 31 May 1940  Antonio de Oro Pulido              (b. ... - d. 1940)
31 May 1940 - 17 Aug 1949  José Bermejo López                 (b. ... - d. 1971)
17 Aug 1949 - 29 Mar 1952  Francisco Rosaleny Burguet
29 Mar 1952 - 26 Feb 1954  Venancio Tutor Gil                 (b. ... - d. 1959)
26 Feb 1954 - 23 May 1957  Ramón Pardo de Santayana Suárez    (b. ... - d. 1967)
23 May 1957 - 10 Jan 1958  Mariano Gómez Zamalloa y Quirce    (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
Governors-general
10 Jan 1958 - 22 Jul 1958  José Héctor Vázquez                (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
27 Jul 1958 -  6 Oct 1961  Mariano Alonso Alonso              (b. 1899 - d. 1974)
13 Oct 1961 - 21 Feb 1964  Pedro Latorre Alcubierre           (b. 1900 - d. 1995)
 6 Mar 1964 -  5 Nov 1965  Joaquín Agulla Jiménez-Coronado    (b. 1902 - d. 1971)
 5 Nov 1965 - 26 Nov 1965  Adolfo Artalejo Campos             (b. ... - d. 1965)
 5 Dec 1965 -  2 Feb 1967  Ángel Enríquez Larrondo            (b. 1905? - d. 1997)
18 Feb 1967 -  4 Mar 1971  José María Pérez de Lema Tejero    (b. ... - d. 1984)
 4 Mar 1971 -  6 Jun 1974  Fernando de Santiago y Díaz de
                           Mendivil                           (b. 1910 - d. 1994)
 6 Jun 1974 -  6 Feb 1976  Federico Gómez de Salazar          (b. 1912 - d. 2006)
 6 Feb 1976 - 26 Feb 1976  Rafael de Valdés Iglesias          (b. 1923? - d. 1995)
                           (Spanish representative in transitional administration)
Chairmen of the Revolutionary Council
29 Feb 1976 -  9 Jun 1976  El Wali Mustafa Sayed              (b. 1947? - d. 1976)
10 Jun 1976 - 30 Aug 1976  Mahfoud Ali Beiba (acting)         (b. 1953 - d. 2010)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council
30 Aug 1976 - 16 Oct 1982  Mohamed Abdelaziz                  (b. 1947)
President
16 Oct 1982 -              Mohamed Abdelaziz                  (s.a.)

Prime ministers 5 Mar 1976 - 4 Nov 1982 Mohamed Lamine Ould Ahmed (1st time) (b. 194...) 4 Nov 1982 - 18 Dec 1985 Mahfoud Ali Beiba (1st time) (s.a.) 18 Dec 1985 - 16 Aug 1988 Mohamed Lamine Ould Ahmed (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Aug 1988 - 18 Sep 1993 Mahfoud Ali Beiba (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Sep 1993 - 8 Sep 1995 Bouchraya Beyoun (1st time) 8 Sep 1995 - 10 Feb 1999 Mahfoud Ali Beiba (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Feb 1999 - 29 Oct 2003 Bouchraya Beyoun (2nd time) 29 Oct 2003 - Abdelkader Taleb Oumar
¹The SADR is currently recognized by about 55 countries. Morocco retains de facto control over most of the territory.
Western Samoa: see Samoa.
Western Ukraine: see under Ukraine.
Wiang Chhan: see under Laos.
Windward Islands: see under Grenada.