Index Mf-Mn

Mfume, Kweisi, original name Frizzell Gray (b. Oct. 24, 1948, Baltimore, Md.), U.S. politician. By his own account, he had a vision of a golden cloud of light on a street corner in West Baltimore in 1972, which helped him turn his previously desperate life around; for his new self he adopted the name Kweisi Mfume, an African name said to mean "conquering son of kings." In 1979 he was elected to the Baltimore City Council, and in 1986 to the U.S. House of Representatives where - as a member of the Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs committee - he was active in housing, welfare reform, and environmental legislation. He became chairman of the influential Congressional Black Caucus in 1992. Mfume left his congressional seat in February 1996 to become chief executive of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The post had been vacant for two years following the dismissal of Benjamin Chavis. Mfume pledged to restore strict financial controls to the organization, to improve its management and fundraising operations, and to reverse the decline in membership. He succeeded in bringing the NAACP out of a $3.2 million debt and restoring its reputation. Under his leadership, the organization began pushing for more minority representation at the top levels of the sports, entertainment, and media industries. He announced his resignation on Nov. 30, 2004 (effective Jan. 1, 2005). In 2006 he sought the Democratic nomination for senator from Maryland, but lost to Ben Cardin. He was elected to the House again in a special election in 2020 following the death of Rep. Elijah Cummings.

Mfumukeko, Libérat (b. 1964, Bujumbura, Burundi), secretary-general of the East African Community (2016-21).

Mgaloblishvili, German (Andreyevich) (d. 1937), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Georgian S.S.R. (1931-37).

Grigol Mgaloblishvili
Mgaloblishvili, Grigol (Zurab dze), byname Gega Mgaloblishvili (b. Oct. 7, 1973, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Georgia (2008-09). He was ambassador to Turkey in 2004-08.

Mgeladze, Akaki (Ivanovich) (b. 1910, Melekeduri, Kutaisi province, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. 1980), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Georgian S.S.R. (1952-53). He was also first secretary of the party committees of the Abkhaz A.S.S.R. (1943-51) and Kutaisi oblast (1951-52).

Mgimwa, William (Augustao) (b. Jan. 20, 1950, Kalenga, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania] - d. Jan. 1, 2014, Pretoria, South Africa), finance minister of Tanzania (2012-14).

M'Hammedi, Driss (b. March 30, 1912, Fès, Morocco - d. March 9, 1969, Paris, France), interior minister (1956-58, 1958-60) and foreign minister (1960-61) of Morocco. He was also director-general of the royal cabinet (1965-69).

M'hedhbi, Béchir (b. Feb. 24, 1912, Hajeb El Ayoun, Tunisia - d. ...), defense minister of Tunisia (1971-72). He was also ambassador to Lebanon (1966-70), Jordan (1967-70), the United Kingdom (1972-74), and Morocco (1974-76).

M'henni, Hédi (b. Dec. 24, 1942, Sayada, Tunisia - d. July 9, 2024), interior minister (2002-04) and defense minister (2004-05) of Tunisia. He was also minister of public health (1992-2001) and social affairs (2001-02).

Mhindi, Abdou Mohamed, also spelled Mindhi, prime minister of Anjouan (1998).

Mhinga, Edward (Percy Piet) (b. Dec. 5, 1927 - d. Sept. 2, 2017, Polokwane, South Africa), acting chief minister of Gazankulu (1993). He was speaker of parliament (1973-78) and education minister (1979-94) of Gazankulu.

Mhlaba, Raymond (M. Phakamisa) (b. Feb. 12, 1920, Kwamazoka village, Fort Beaufort district, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. Feb. 20, 2005, Port Elizabeth [now Gqeberha], Eastern Cape), premier of Eastern Cape (1994-97). In 1943, he joined the Communist Party, which was banned in 1950. He also joined the African National Congress in 1944. After the ANC was banned in 1960, he fled to China for military training. He returned to South Africa in 1962 and became commander of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the ANC. He was arrested in a sweep by security forces on the ANC's underground headquarters at a farm in Rivonia in northern Johannesburg in 1963. Nelson Mandela, Mhlaba, and six others including Govan Mbeki, the father of future president Thabo Mbeki, stood trial for sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government. In June 1964 they were sentenced to life in prison and sent to Robben Island, the notorious prison on a remote island near Cape Town. Together with other Rivonia defendants, Mhlaba was released in 1989. When the ANC swept to power in the first democratic multiracial elections in 1994, "Oom Ray," as he was widely known, became premier of the newly created province of the Eastern Cape. He resigned in 1997 for health reasons and subsequently was high commissioner to Uganda and ambassador to Rwanda and Burundi until 2001.

Mhlanga, Vincent (d. Dec. 24, 2020), acting prime minister of Eswatini (2018). He was also regional administrator of Shiselweni (2018-20).

Mhleko, Joel Musa (b. April 2, 1948), acting foreign minister of Eswatini (2018). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-10) and ambassador to Belgium (2010-17).

Mhura, Necton (Darlington) (b. Feb. 6, 1957 - d. Feb. 19, 2018, New Jersey), Malawian diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Cuba, and The Bahamas (2015-16) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2016-18).

Mi Zhenbiao (b. 1860, Qingjian, Shaanxi, China - d. July 20, 1929), governor of Rehe (1924). He was a general of the Yi Jun (Army of Perseverance, led by Jiang Guiti) in Rehe region. He was a vice-governor of Rehe after the founding of the republic. After Jiang Guiti's death in 1922, he turned to Duan Qirui but later switched to Cao Kun, and then in 1924 to Feng Yuxiang, who named him vice-governor of Henan (under Hu Jingyi).

Mia, (Mohammed) Sidik (b. 1965, Makande, Chikwawa district, Malawi - d. Jan. 12, 2021), defense minister of Malawi (2009-10). He was also minister of irrigation and water development (2005-09) and transport and public works (2010-14, 2020-21).

Miadana, Victor (b. July 21, 1920, Ambodimandresy, Madagascar), finance minister (1963-72) and a vice president (1970-72) of Madagascar.

Miaja Menant, José (b. April 20, 1878, Oviedo, Spain - d. Jan. 13, 1958, Mexico City, Mexico), war minister (1936) and president of the National Council of Defense (1939) of Spain.

Miákits, Ferenc (b. April 7, 1876, Érd, Hungary - d. May 17, 1924, Budapest, Hungary), finance minister of Hungary (1919).

Miaoulis, Andreas (Dimitriou) (b. 1869 - d. 1935), Greek politician; son of Dimitrios Miaoulis. He was minister of marine (1910).

Miaoulis, Athanasios (Andreou) (b. 1815, Hydra, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. May 1867, Paris, France), prime minister of Greece (1857-62). He was also minister of marine (1855-62) and ecclesiastical affairs and public education (provisional, 1855).

Miaoulis, Athanasios (Nikolaou) (b. 1868 - d. 1932), Greek politician; nephew of Dimitrios Miaoulis. He was minister of marine (1909, 1914-15, 1915, 1919-20, 1924-25).

Miaoulis, Dimitrios (Dimitriou) (b. 1836 - d. 1899), Greek politician; nephew of Athanasios (Andreou) Miaoulis. He was minister of marine (1886, 1898-99).

Mibenge, Benjamin (Ndabila) (b. June 22, 1942 - d. Dec. 8, 2020), foreign minister of Zambia (1990-91). He was also high commissioner to Canada (1981-85).

Micallef, Daniel (b. June 8, 1928, Rabat, Malta - d. Dec. 9, 2022, Rabat), Maltese politician. He was speaker of the House of Representatives (1982-86), minister of education and environment (1986-87), and ambassador to the Vatican (1997-99).

Miceli, Felisa (Josefina) (b. Sept. 26, 1952, Luján, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), economy minister of Argentina (2005-07). She was president of the state-owned Banco de la Nación, Argentina's largest bank, in 2003-05. She resigned as minister in 2007 as prosecutors stepped up an investigation into a bag of cash found in her ministry offices. She said the funds (over $60,000) were a loan from her brother for a personal real estate transaction.

Micha Ondo Bile, Pastor (b. Dec. 2, 1952, Nsinik-Esawong, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), foreign minister of Equatorial Guinea (2003-12). He has also been permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-2000), ambassador to the United States (1995-2000) and Spain (2000-03), and minister of trade and the promotion of small and medium-sized businesses (2018- ).

A. Michael
Michael, Alun (b. Aug. 22, 1943, Bryngwran, Ynys Môn, Wales), first secretary of Wales (1999-2000). He was a Cardiff city councillor from 1973 to 1989. As Labour MP for Cardiff South and Penarth from 1987, he was opposition whip (1987-88) and opposition spokesperson on Welsh affairs (1987-92) and home affairs (1992-97). He was appointed deputy to the home secretary in 1997 and secretary of state for Wales in 1998. When the Welsh National Assembly was created in 1999, he became the first First Secretary.

Michael, Ken(neth Comninos) (b. 1938, Perth, Western Australia), governor of Western Australia (2006-11).

Michaelis, Georg (b. Sept. 8, 1857, Haynau, Prussia - d. July 24, 1936, Bad Saarow-Pieskow, Germany), chancellor of Germany (1917). He joined the Prussian administrative service in 1879 and in 1885-89 taught in the school of German law at Tokyo, Japan. Returning to Prussia, he was public prosecutor before reentering the administrative service in 1892. He became undersecretary of state in the Finance Ministry in 1909, director of the wartime department for cereals in 1915, and Prussian state commissioner for food supply in early 1917. When Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg resigned in the summer of 1917, the military high command, headed by Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, Germany's actual rulers, secured the appointment of the colourless Michaelis as his successor. He was totally unqualified for the chancellorship and could maintain himself only with the backing of the army. When the majority in the Reichstag called for his assent to its peace resolution of July 19 (indicating that Germany desired no annexations), he evasively agreed to it "as I understand it," thus not committing himself further than the military might decide. In September, when he acknowledged Pope Benedictus XV's peace proposals of August 16, he likewise avoided any specific statement of Germany's territorial aims. When he supported allegations that the leaders of the Independent Social Democratic Party were to blame for a mutiny in the navy, he lost the favour of the Reichstag and so became useless to Ludendorff, and he was forced to resign on October 31. In 1918-19 he was head of the administration (Oberpräsident) of the Prussian province of Pommern.

Michail, Maria (b. Oct. 14, 1973, Nicosia, Cyprus), Cypriot diplomat. She has been high commissioner to India (2012-15), ambassador to Austria and Slovenia (2022-23), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2023- ).

Michailidis, Alekos (English Alecos Michaelides), byname of Alexandros Michailidis (b. Aug. 13, 1933, Milikouri, Cyprus - d. Jan. 6, 2008, Paphos, Cyprus), foreign minister of Cyprus (1993-97). He was president of the House of Representatives in 1977-81.

Michailidis, Ntinos (English Dinos Michaelides), byname of Konstantinos Michailidis (b. 1937, Limassol, Cyprus - d. April 6, 2020, Athens, Greece), interior minister of Cyprus (1985-88, 1993-97, 1998-99). He joined the diplomatic service in 1961. Before his first period as interior minister, he served as minister to the presidency. In 1991 he became an MP and two years later, Pres. Glafkos Kliridis appointed him again interior minister. In 1997 he withdrew from the government following a decision by the Democratic Party (DIKO) to leave its partner in government, but he returned to the post four months later. In 1999 he resigned shortly after being cleared of corruption allegations by the cabinet. The cabinet had absolved him despite an independent report which questioned the judgement of town planning authorities in changing building zones in an area where the minister later built a luxury house. The town planning department came under Michailidis' authority. Michailidis briefly quit in the midst of the row in late 1998 but then withdrew his resignation when Kliridis refused to accept it. He repeatedly denied any wrongdoing. His 1999 resignation came a day after the shock resignation of government spokesman Christos Stylianidis, who strongly disagreed with the cabinet decision to absolve Michailidis.

Michal, Kristen (b. July 12, 1975, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), justice minister of Estonia (2011-12). He was also minister of economic affairs and infrastructure (2015-16).

Michalakopoulos, Andreas (Spiliou) (b. May 29 [May 17, O.S.], 1875, Patras, Greece - d. March 27, 1938, Athens, Greece), finance minister (1924), prime minister (1924-25), military minister (1924-25), and foreign minister (1925, 1926-28, 1929-32, 1932, 1933) of Greece. He was also minister of national economy (1912-15, 1915), public properties and internal colonization (Thessaloniki government, 1916-17), agriculture and public properties (1917-19), a minister without portfolio (1919-20), and a deputy prime minister (1929-32, 1932).

Michalowski, Czeslaw (Pawel) (b. Jan. 15, 1885, Plock, Poland - d. June 1941, Minsk, Belorussian S.S.R.), justice minister of Poland (1930-36).

Michalowski, Jerzy (b. May 26, 1909, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. March 30, 1993, Warsaw, Poland), Polish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-60) and ambassador to the United States (1967-71).

Michalowski, Stanislaw (b. May 3, 1881, Tarnopol, Austria [now Ternopil, Ukraine] - d. af. 1939), acting governor of Bialostockie województwo (1934).

Michalski, Jerzy (Jakub) (b. March 18, 1870, Jaroslaw, Austria [now in Poland] - d. Nov. 24, 1956, Kraków, Poland), finance minister of Poland (1921-22).

Michaudel, Maurice Marie Auguste (b. April 6, 1901 - d. April 13, 1975), interim commissioner of Laos (1947-48).

Michaux, Antoine Léonce (b. Nov. 6, 1822, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe - d. Jan. 20, 1893), commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1876-77).

Michaux-Chevry, Lucette (b. March 5, 1929, Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe - d. Sept. 9, 2021, Gourbeyre, Guadeloupe), president of the General Council (1982-85) and of the Regional Council (1992-2004) of Guadeloupe. She was also mayor of Basse-Terre (1995-2001, 2008-14).

Michavila Núñez, José María (b. March 28, 1960, Madrid, Spain), justice minister of Spain (2002-04).

C. Michel
Michel, Charles (Y.J.Gh.) (b. Dec. 21, 1975, Namur, Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (2014-19) and president of the European Council (2019- ); son of Louis Michel. He was minister of development cooperation in 2007-11. At 38, he became Belgium's youngest head of government in over 170 years.

James Michel

L. Michel
Michel, James (Alix) (b. Aug. 16, 1944, Anse Boileau district, Mahé island, Seychelles), finance minister (1989-2006), defense minister (1993-97, 2004-16), vice president (1996-2004), president (2004-16), interior minister (2004-07), and foreign minister (2009-10) of Seychelles. He was secretary-general of the Seychelles People's Progressive Front (1994-2009) and then became president of its successor, the People's Party (2009- ).

Michel, Joseph (b. Oct. 25, 1925, Saint-Mard, Luxembourg province, Belgium - d. June 3, 2016, Arlon, Luxembourg province), interior minister of Belgium (1974-77, 1986-88). He was also minister of education (1977-79) and chairman of the Chamber of Representatives (1980-81).

Michel, Louis (Omer Hortense Charles) (b. Sept. 2, 1947, Tienen [Tirlemont], Belgium), foreign minister and a deputy prime minister of Belgium (1999-2004). He was also Belgium's EU commissioner, responsible for research (2004) and development and humanitarian aid (2004-09).

Michel, Marc (Albert Augustin) (b. May 25, 1892, Malakoff, Seine [now in Hauts-de-Seine], France - d. April 5, 1971, Paris, France), interim governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1925-26).

Michel, (Georges Jean-Jacques) Smarck (b. March 29, 1937, Saint-Marc, Haiti - d. Sept. 1, 2012, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (1994-95). He was also minister of trade and industry (1991).

Michel, Victor (Léonard) (b. Jan. 8, 1851, Ghent, Belgium - d. Dec. 5, 1918, Ixelles [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), war minister of Belgium (1912).

Michelet, Carl Johan (b. July 25, 1826, Urskog [now part of Aurskog-Høland municipality], Aggershuus amt [now Akershus fylke], Norway - d. Jan. 30, 1902, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Jarlsberg og Larvik amt (1882-1902). He was also mayor of Christiania (1866-68).

Michelet, Christian Fredrik (b. June 23, 1863, Christiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. July 25, 1927, Bærum, Akershus, Norway), foreign minister (1920-21, 1923-24) and acting prime minister (1923) of Norway.

Michelet, Edmond (Charles Octave) (b. Oct. 8, 1899, Paris, France - d. Oct. 9, 1970, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Corrèze, France), French army minister (1945-46). He was also minister of veterans and war victims (1958-59), justice (1959-61), civil service (1967-68), and cultural affairs (1969-70), minister of state (1968), and general secretary of the Union of Republicans of Social Action (1958).


Micheletti (Baín), Roberto (b. Aug. 13, 1948, El Progreso, Yoro department, Honduras), president of Honduras (2009-10). He was also president of the National Congress (2006-09).

Michell, Harry Denis (b. Oct. 29, 1923 - d. Jan. 1, 1971), British political officer in the Trucial States (1950-51).

Michelotti, Maria Domenica (b. Oct. 8, 1952, Bourg St. Maurice, France), captain-regent of San Marino (2000).

Michelsen (Mantilla), Alfredo (b. April 14, 1898, Bogotá, Colombia - d. ...), acting foreign minister of Colombia (1934). He was also chargé d'affaires in the United Kingdom (c. 1930) and minister to Japan (1939-41) and the Soviet Union (1943-46).

C. Michelsen
Michelsen, (Peter) Christian (Hersleb Kjerschow) (b. March 15, 1857, Bergen, Norway - d. June 28, 1925, Fjøsanger, near Bergen), prime minister of Norway (1905-07). He was first elected to the Storting (parliament) from Bergen in 1891, adhering to the "Pure" Left Party. In 1894 he returned to business and municipal affairs but he reappeared in 1903, when he was again elected to the Storting for Bergen, now as a member of the Coalition Party (conservatives and moderate liberals). Almost immediately he joined Georg Francis Hagerup's coalition government, first as a member of the Norwegian Council of State Division in Stockholm, then in 1904 becoming finance minister, but he abandoned the government in February 1905 in protest against Hagerup's extremely moderate policy in the growing conflict with Sweden. In March he was appointed prime minister in a new coalition; thenceforth he was the unquestioned leader of the Norwegians in the conflict that led to the dissolution of the union with Sweden. After the king of Sweden vetoed a law for separate consular representation, the Storting declared the union dissolved on June 7. On August 13, Michelsen called for a plebiscite, which overwhelmingly favoured independence. He met with some opposition, however, because of his willingness to compromise with the Swedes in the Karlstad negotiations in September and because of his definite stand for monarchy against republicanism. Haakon VII, a member of the Danish royal house, was chosen as king of Norway. Trying to preserve the unity of the coalition, Michelsen remained in office until 1907, when he retired because of illness. In 1909 he took part in the organization of the moderately conservative Liberal Left Party, but refused to be its leader; after 1910 he retired from political life.

P. Michelsen
Michelsen, Poul (Johan Sundberg) (b. July 22, 1944), foreign minister of the Faeroe Islands (2015-19). He was at the same time minister of industry and trade. In 1981-92 he was mayor of Tórshavn.

Michener, (Daniel) Roland (b. April 19, 1900, Lacombe, Alberta - d. Aug. 6, 1991, Toronto, Ontario), governor general of Canada (1967-74). A Conservative, he was elected to the Ontario legislature in 1945 and represented Toronto-St. Paul's in the federal House of Commons from 1953 to 1962; he was speaker in 1957-62. He retired from politics after losing a reelection bid in 1962 but served as Canada's representative at various international conferences. He was serving (1964-67) as Canada's high commissioner to India when he was recalled to take the post of governor general. During his tenure he presided over the opening of Expo 67, Montreal's international exhibition, and he was required to sign the War Measures Act into law during the 1970 October Crisis, when members of the FLQ (Front de Libération du Québec) kidnapped a British trade commissioner and Quebec's labour minister from their Montreal homes. Michener, who maintained a high profile, made frequent state visits abroad and abolished some ceremonial rituals, including the curtsy.

Michuki, John (Njoroge) (b. 1931, Kenya - d. Feb. 21, 2012, Nairobi, Kenya), acting finance minister of Kenya (2008-09). He was also minister of transport (2003-05), provincial administration and national security (2005-08), roads and public works (2008), and environment and mineral resources (2008-12).


G.S. Mickelson
Micic, Natasa, née Jovanovic (b. Nov. 8, 1965, Titovo Uzice [now Uzice], Serbia), acting president of Serbia (2002-04). She was president of the National Assembly (2001-04) and president of the Civic Alliance of Serbia (2004-07).

Mickelson, George S(peaker) (b. Jan. 31, 1941, Mobridge, S.D. - d. [plane crash] April 19, 1993, near Zwingle, Iowa), governor of South Dakota (1987-93); son of George T. Mickelson.

Mickelson, George T(heodore) (b. July 23, 1903, Selby, S.D. - d. Feb. 28, 1965, Sioux Falls, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (1947-51).

Mickey, John Hopwood (b. Sept. 30, 1845, near Burlington, Iowa - d. June 2, 1910, Osceola, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1903-07).

Mickiewicz, Mieczyslaw (b. Feb. 26, 1879, Kamenets-Podolsky, Russia [now Kamyanets-Podilskyi, Ukraine] - d. bf. 1939), governor of Wolynskie województwo (1922-23). He was also Ukrainian minister of Polish affairs (1918).

Mickoski, Hristijan (b. Sept. 29, 1977, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), prime minister of North Macedonia (2024- ).

Micombero, Michel (b. 1940 - d. July 16, 1983, Mogadishu, Somalia), president of Burundi (1966-76). A member of the politically dominant Tutsi tribe, he helped foil a coup by members of the more numerous Hutu after his appointment as minister of defense in 1965, then became involved in moves to replace the king, Mwambutsa IV, by his son. When the new king took power, he made Micombero prime minister, but Micombero deposed him in November 1966 and made himself president. Temporarily he also was foreign minister (1967) and interior minister (1973). He pursued a conciliatory policy up to 1969, releasing political prisoners and trying to gain support from the Hutu. In October 1969, however, he announced the discovery of a plot led by Hutu officers, many of whom were executed. In 1972 the Hutu rebelled, killing some 2,000 Tutsi. The Tutsi reacted with a savage repression of the Hutu, in which an estimated 100,000 died. The government's role in this, and that of the army, remained obscure, but the division between the two peoples was now irreconcilable. In 1976 he was overthrown by Col. Jean-Baptiste Bagaza and remained quietly in exile in Somalia.

Miculescu, Angelo (Romeo Constantin) (b. Dec. 4, 1929, Constanta, Romania - d. Feb. 9, 1999, Slobozia, Ialomita county, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1975-81). He was also minister of agriculture and forestry (1969-71), agriculture, food industry, and water (1972-75), and agriculture and food industry (1975-81) and ambassador to China (1983-90) and Burma/Myanmar (1987-90).

Miculescu, Simona-Mirela (b. July 4, 1959, Satu Mare, Romania), Romanian diplomat. She has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-15), representative of the UN secretary-general and head of the UN office in Belgrade (2015- ), and acting Kosovo administrator (2015).

Midaoui, Ahmed (El) (b. June 18, 1948, Oulad Amrane, Taounate province, Morocco), interior minister of Morocco (1999-2001). He was also governor of Mohammedia-Zenata (1987-92) and Tanger (1992-93).

Middelburg, Duco Gerrit Eduard (b. Sept. 15, 1907, The Hague, Netherlands - d. 1974), Dutch diplomat. He was ambassador to Poland (1959-62), Chile (1963-67), and Portugal (1970-72) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-70).

Middelkoop, Eimert van (b. Feb. 14, 1949, Berkel en Rodenrijs [now part of Lansingerland], Zuid-Holland, Netherlands), defense minister of the Netherlands (2007-10). He was also minister without portfolio (housing, city quarters, and integration) (2010).

Middlemore, George (d. Nov. 18, 1850, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England), lieutenant governor of Grenada (1833-35) and governor of Saint Helena (1836-42).

Middleton, Sir George Humphrey (b. Jan. 21, 1910 - d. Feb. 12, 1998), political resident in the Persian Gulf (1958-61); knighted 1958. He was also British chargé d'affaires in Iran (1951, 1952) and ambassador to Lebanon (1956-58), Argentina (1961-64), and Egypt (1964-65).

Middleton, Henry (b. Sept. 28, 1770, London, England - d. June 14, 1846, Charleston, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1810-12). He was also U.S. minister to Russia (1821-30).

Middleton, Sir John (b. July 1870, Stow, Scotland - d. Nov. 5, 1954, Bath, England), acting governor of Mauritius (1914, 1916, 1919) and governor of the Falkland Islands (1920-27), Gambia (1927-28), and Newfoundland (1928-32); knighted 1924.

Midfai, Jamil (Bey) al-, Arabic Jamil (Bay) al-Midfa`i (b. 1890, Mosul, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. Oct. 26, 1958), prime minister of Iraq (1933-34, 1935, 1937-38, 1941, 1953). He was also minister of interior (1930, 1934, 1948) and defense (1934-35, 1937-38) and president of the Senate (1943-45, 1955-58).

Midhat Pasha, (Ahmed Sefik), original name Ahmed Sefik (b. October/November 1822, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. [killed in prison] May 7/8, 1884, Taif, Ottoman Empire [now in Saudi Arabia]), grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1872, 1876-77). He was also governor of Nis (1861-64), Danube (1864-68), Baghdad (1869-72), Salonika (1873-74), Syria (1878-80), and Aydin (1880-81), head of the Council of State (1868-69, 1876), and justice minister (1873, 1875).

Midilev, Petur (Ivanov) (b. Oct. 27, 1875, Sliven, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. March 22, 1939), interior minister of Bulgaria (1934-35). He was also acting justice minister (1934).

Midkiff, Frank Elbert (b. Nov. 15, 1887, Anna, Ill. - d. Aug. 7, 1983), high commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1953-54).

Midleton, (William) St. John (Fremantle) Brodrick, (1st) Earl of (b. Dec. 14, 1856, London, England - d. Feb. 13, 1942, Peper Harow, Surrey, England), British secretary of state for war (1900-03) and India (1903-05). He succeeded as (9th) Viscount Midleton in 1907 and was created Viscount Dunsford and Earl of Midleton in 1920.

Midzi, Amos (Bernard Muvengwa) (b. July 4, 1952, Majanga village, Chiweshe, Mashonaland Central, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. June 9, 2015, Beatrice, near Harare, Zimbabwe), Zimbabwean politician. He was ambassador to Cuba (1987-93) and the United States (1993-99) and minister of energy and power development (2002-04) and mines and mining development (2004-09).

Miedzinski, Boguslaw (b. March 22, 1891, Miastków, Poland - d. May 8, 1972, London, England), Polish politician. He was minister of posts and telegraphs (1927-29) and marshal of the Senate (1938-39).

Mielke, Erich (b. Dec. 28, 1907, Berlin, Germany - d. May 21, 2000, Berlin), minister of state security of East Germany (1957-89). He joined the Communist Party of Germany in 1927 and was an active street agitator. Having been at the scene of the murder of two police officers who were killed in retaliation for the killing of a young Communist, he fled to the U.S.S.R. in 1931, taking the name Paul Bach. In 1936-39 he fought in the Spanish civil war under the name Fritz Leissner. He spent most of World War II in France, at times interned, before getting to the Soviet occupation zone of Germany in 1945, where the Soviets fostered his career. He helped build the agency he came to head in 1957, commonly called Stasi, which scrutinized every aspect of East German domestic life, persecuted suspected dissidents, and suppressed dissent through a network of tens of thousands of official operatives as well as civilian informants, often reporting on their families and friends. He became a candidate member (1971) and full member (1976) of the Politburo of the Socialist Unity Party. He maintained his position until the collapse of the regime in 1989, when he made a feeble defense of himself before parliament ("I love everyone"). He was deemed physically unfit to stand trial for his actions as Stasi chief, but was imprisoned (1993-95) for the 1931 murders.

Mier (Revilla), Adolfo, interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1926).

Mierlo, Hans van, byname of Henricus Antonius Franciscus Maria Oliva van Mierlo (b. Aug. 18, 1931, Breda, Netherlands - d. March 11, 2010, Amsterdam, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He set up the centrist D66 party in September 1966 with the aim of shaking up the political system and was its leader in 1966-73 and 1986-98. He led the new party to a spectacular success in February 1967, when they gained almost 5% of the national vote in their first parliamentary elections. He served two separate terms as party leader in parliament (1967-73, 1986-94); he was defense minister in 1981-82. His return as elder statesman in 1986 culminated in D66's inclusion in the coalition with Labour and the right-wing Liberals in 1994. He got the foreign affairs portfolio, which he had long coveted. He stepped down as D66 leader in February 1998. Elections in May 1998 returned the ruling coalition of Labour, Liberals, and D66 strengthened overall, but delivered a blow to D66. The junior partner lost 10 of its 24 seats and agreed to surrender one of its three ministerial posts. Mierlo said he would not return in the new cabinet nor would he take a seat in the new parliament.

Miettinen, Mauri (Kalevi) (b. Oct. 2, 1941, Joutseno [now part of Lappeenranta], Finland), governor of Kymi (1993-97). He was also Finnish minister of social affairs and health (1990-91).


Miettunen, Martti (Juhani) (b. April 17, 1907, Simo, Lapland, Finland - d. Jan. 19, 2002, Kauniainen, near Helsinki, Finland), prime minister of Finland (1961-62, 1975-77). He was a lawmaker in the Agrarian Party from 1945 to 1958 and served as minister of public works and transport (1950-51, 1954-56), agriculture (1951-53, 1956-57, 1958, 1968-70), and finance (1957). He was governor of Lapland in 1958-73.

Mifflin, Thomas (b. Jan. 10, 1744, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - d. Jan. 20, 1800, Lancaster, Pa.), president of the Supreme Executive Council (1788-90) and governor (1790-99) of Pennsylvania.

Mifsud, Sir Ugo Pasquale (b. Sept. 12, 1889, Valletta, Malta - d. Feb. 11, 1942), prime minister of Malta (1924-27, 1932-33); knighted 1927. He was also minister of industry and commerce (1921-24, 1932-33), posts (1921-22, 1923-24), agriculture and fisheries (1921-22, 1923-24), finance (1924-26), and justice (1926-27, 1932-33).

Mifsud Bonnici, Carm(elo) (b. Feb. 17, 1960, Floriana, Malta), home affairs minister (2008-12) and justice minister (2008-12) of Malta; son of Ugo Mifsud Bonnici.

Carmelo Mifsud B.
Mifsud Bonnici, Carmelo, Maltese spelling Karmenu (b. July 17, 1933, Cospicua, Malta - d. Nov. 5, 2022), prime minister and home affairs minister of Malta (1984-87); cousin of Ugo Mifsud Bonnici. He was elected deputy leader of the Labour Party in 1980 and designate leader to succeed Dom Mintoff in 1982. The following year, upon the resignation of a government member, he was co-opted as a member of parliament by the House of Representatives and held the portfolios first of labour and social services (May-September 1983) and then of education (1983-86) and rising to the premiership on Dec. 22, 1984, succeeding Mintoff in that office and also as party leader. He had yet to contest a general election. Under his leadership the ruling Labour government did not change any of its hardline policies, although he adopted a somewhat different approach. He continued his predecessor's intransigent attitude toward the opposition Nationalist Party but endeavoured to woo the hostile private commercial and industrial sector and to mend Malta's fences with Western Europe, the U.S., and the Commonwealth. At the same time, he maintained Malta's strong ties with Communist countries and strengthened relations with Libya. The Nationalists won the 1987 election, and after another defeat in 1992 he resigned as Labour leader.

U. Mifsud Bonnici
Mifsud Bonnici, Ugo (b. Nov. 8, 1932, Cospicua, Malta), Maltese politician. He contested the general elections of 1966 for the Nationalist Party. He was elected from the 2nd District which comprised Cospicua, Vittoriosa, Senglea, Kalkara, and Fgura. He was reelected in all subsequent general elections. For fifteen years (1972-87) he was the Nationalist Party's spokesman for education. In 1977 he was also elected president of the party's General and Administrative Councils. In 1987 the Nationalist Party was elected to government and Mifsud Bonnici was appointed to the cabinet as minister of education. His portfolio included Education, Environment, Broadcasting, Culture, Youth, Museums, and Sport. In 1990 he became minister of education and the interior. Following the 1992 elections Mifsud Bonnici was appointed minister of Education and Human Resources. As a member of parliament, he took an active interest in the updating of Malta's legislation. He was a member of numerous Select Committees including the Committee set up to draft the constitutional changes that declared Malta a republic. As a minister, he worked on the drafting of important legislation such as the Education Act, the Environment Act, the National Archives Act, and the Occupational Health and Safety Promotion Act. In 1994-99 he was president of Malta.

Migiro, Asha-Rose (Mtengeti) (b. July 9, 1956, Songea, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), foreign minister of Tanzania (2006-07). She was also minister of community development, gender, and children (2000-06) and justice (2014-15), UN deputy secretary-general (2007-12), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2016-23).

Miglietti, Vincenzo (Maria) (b. May 25, 1809, Moncalieri, France [now in Torino metropolitan city, Italy] - d. July 14, 1864, Nichelino, Torino province [now Torino metropolitan city], Italy), justice minister of Sardinia (1859) and Italy (1861-62).

Migliore, Celestino (b. July 1, 1952, Cuneo, Italy), Vatican diplomat. He has been permanent observer to the United Nations (2002-10) and apostolic nuncio to Poland (2010-16), Russia (2016-20), and France (2020- ).

Migliuolo, Giovanni (b. Dec. 8, 1927, Naples, Italy - d. Sept. 21, 1989, New York City), Italian diplomat. He was ambassador to the Soviet Union (1981-85) and Egypt (1985-88) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-89).

Migolet, Jean-Stanislas (b. Aug. 1, 1920, Koula-Moutou, Gabon - d. July 6, 1987, Libreville, Gabon), interior minister (1957-58, 1960-61, 1964, 1968-69, 1973-75, 1978-80) and deputy prime minister (1975-80) of Gabon. He was also minister of labour and social security (1958-60, 1969-73, 1976-78), national security (1960-61), public works, transport, and posts and telecommunications (1964-66, 1968), health and population (1966-68), and parliamentary relations (1967-80).

Miguel Gil, José María de (b. April 15, 1950, Logroño, Spain), president of La Rioja (1983-87).

Miguet, Robert (Félix) (b. Dec. 30, 1929, Toulouse, France - d. Sept. 3, 2019, Toulouse), prefect of Guadeloupe (1982-84). He was also prefect of the French départements of Pyrénées-Orientales (1984-86) and Gard (1986-87).

Miguil, Hassan Farah (b. 1954, Djibouti, French Somaliland [now Djibouti]), Djiboutian politician. He was minister of justice (1996-97), public works, urban planning, and housing (1997-99), and youth, sports, leisure, and tourism (2005-08) and ombudsman (1999-2005).

Mihai I
Mihai I, English Michael I (b. Oct. 25, 1921, Sinaia, Romania - d. Dec. 5, 2017, Aubonne, Vaud, Switzerland), king of Romania (1927-30, 1940-47). The son of the future king Carol II, he first succeeded to the throne (under a regency) on the death of his grandfather Ferdinand I, his father having renounced his own claims in 1925. In 1930 he was supplanted by Carol, but he was again made king in 1940 when the Germans gained control of Romania. In 1944 he played a considerable part in the overthrow of the dictatorship of Ion Antonescu. He announced the acceptance of the Allied peace terms, and declared war on Germany. His attempts after the war to establish a broader system of government were foiled by the progressive Communist domination. In 1947 he was forced to abdicate and since lived in exile, first in Britain and from 1956 in Switzerland. Following the overthrow of the Communist government, he tried to return to Romania in December 1990, but was expelled. In 1992 he made his first successful visit. In 1994 he was again barred from entering, on the grounds that his planned visit challenged the republican constitution. In 2007 his family palace was restored to him and he was allowed to return. In 2011 he marked his 90th birthday by addressing a joint session of parliament.

Mihail, original name Metodij Gogov (b. March 20, 1912, Novo Selo, near Strumica, Ottoman Empire [now in North Macedonia] - d. July 6, 1999, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), archbishop of Ohrid, head of the Macedonian Orthodox Church (1993-99). He went to a seminary at the age of 15. Nine years later he graduated with top honours from the theological faculty of Belgrade University. It seemed his vocation would be teaching. However, World War II disrupted these plans, and he returned to Macedonia, advocating independence and working for the restoration of the archbishopric of Ohrid, a symbol of the independence movement. In 1945 he was one of the prime movers in gathering 300 clergy to debate the issue, and was instrumental in persuading them to vote unanimously for independence. Soon afterwards, at a time when Yugoslavia pursued a stronger anti-religious policy than it did in President Tito's later years, Mihail was imprisoned for six months. He was jailed again in 1948-53. After 13 years back in Skopje, he began a kind of exile in Australia, establishing in Melbourne the first Macedonian (as opposed to Serbian) Orthodox parish outside Yugoslavia. The Macedonian Orthodox Church proclaimed autocephaly (independence) unilaterally in 1967, to the universal condemnation of all other Orthodox churches. After that declaration of autocephaly, only possible in a domestic climate which was less severe on religion, he became assistant to the Macedonian "Bishop of Australia, America and Canada." At this time, he won the nickname of the flying Macedonian priest as he lectured tirelessly around the world, including London in 1969. He was consecrated as bishop of Vardar in 1988. This was possible only because his wife had died, enabling him, according to Orthodox tradition, to take monastic orders and thus be eligible for a bishopric. He was translated to the metropolitan see of Ohrid in 1993.

Mihailo Obrenovic III (b. Sept. 16 [Sept. 4, O.S.], 1823, Kragujevac, Serbia - d. June 10 [May 29, O.S.], 1868, Kosutnjak, near Belgrade, Serbia), prince of Serbia (1840-42, 1860-68); son of Milos Obrenovic I; brother of Milan Obrenovic II.

Mihailov (Popov), Ivan (b. Feb. 22, 1897, Ferdinand [now Montana], Bulgaria - d. May 16, 1982), defense minister of Bulgaria (1958-62). He was also a deputy premier (1950-71) and minister of transport and communications (1957-58).

Mihailov (Mirchev), Stoyan (b. Oct. 6, 1930, Skravena, Bulgaria - d. Oct. 22, 2020, Skravena), a deputy premier of Bulgaria (1989-90).

Mihailov-Moraru, Veronica (b. Sept. 29, 1982, Kishinev, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Chisinau, Moldova]), justice minister of Moldova (2023- ).

Mihailova, Nadezhda: see Neynski, Nadezhda.

D. Mihailovic
Mihailovic, Draza, byname of Dragoljub Mihailovic, Mihailovic also spelled Mihajlovic (b. March 27, 1893, Ivanjica, Serbia - d. July 17, 1946, Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), Yugoslav resistance leader. He fought in the Balkan Wars (1912-13) and in World War I. When, on April 6, 1941, Germany attacked Yugoslavia, he was a colonel and chief of staff of a motorized unit in Bosnia. After the swift conquest and partition of Yugoslavia, he organized underground bands of resistance (Chetniks), mainly in Serbia, to act in conjunction with King Petar's government-in-exile and the Allies. He was appointed general in December 1941 and minister of war in January 1942 by the government-in-exile. Another underground organization, the Communist-dominated Partisans, led by Josip Broz Tito, was operating mainly in Bosnia and Montenegro. In the autumn of 1941 the Chetniks and Partisans fought the Germans together, but their divergent political aims led to distrust and by the end of the year they were fighting each other. Mihailovic, fearful of brutal reprisals against Serbians, came to favour a cautious strategy against the Germans and Italians and there were reports of his collaboration with them against the Partisans. Favouring the more aggressive policy of Tito, the Allies withdrew their support from Mihailovic in 1944. After the war he went into hiding, but was captured on March 13, 1946, and charged by the Yugoslav government with treason and collaboration with the Germans. He was sentenced to death and was shot in Belgrade. Throughout the trial he denied any collaboration with the Germans and a U.S. commission of inquiry later cleared him and those under his immediate command of the charge.

Mihailovic, Vojislav (b. Sept. 3, 1951, Belgrade, Yugoslavia), acting president of Serbia (2004); grandson of Draza Mihailovic. He was mayor of Belgrade in 1999-2000 and Yugoslav presidential candidate in 2000 for the Serbian Renewal Movement, winning 2.9% of the vote.

Mihajlovic, Dusan (b. Sept. 27, 1948, Valjevo, Serbia), interior minister and a deputy prime minister of Serbia (2001-04).

S. Mihajlovic
Mihajlovic, Svetozar (b. 1949), co-prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2000). He was a member of the Western-backed Bosnian Serb Sloga coalition.

Mihajlovic, Zorana (Z.) (b. May 5, 1970, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina), a deputy prime minister of Serbia (2014-22). She was also minister of energy, development, and environment (2012-14), transportation, construction, and infrastructure (2014-20), and energy and mining (2020-22).

Mihál, Jozef (b. March 18, 1965, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), Slovak politician. He was a deputy prime minister and minister of labour, social affairs, and family (2010-12).

Mihalache, Ion (b. Feb. 18, 1882, Topoloveni, Romania - d. March 5/6, 1963, Rîmnicu Sarat [now Râmnicu Sarat], Romania), interior minister of Romania (1930-31, 1932-33). He was also minister of agriculture and domains (1919-20, 1928-30).

Mihali, Qirjako (b. May 13, 1929, Korçë, Albania), finance minister of Albania (1982-84). He was also a deputy premier (1977-82, 1984-87) and director of the State Bank (1989-90).

Mihályfi, Ernö (b. Sept. 3, 1898, Bér, Hungary - d. Nov. 20, 1972, Budapest, Hungary), foreign minister of Hungary (1947). He was also information minister (1947).

Mihanovic, Nedjeljko (b. Feb. 16, 1930, Sitno Donje, Dalmatia, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Jan. 27, 2022, Zagreb, Croatia), president of the Sabor of Croatia (1994-95).

Mihara, Asao (b. Aug. 20, 1909, Onga, Fukuoka prefecture, Japan - d. March 7, 2001, Fukuoka prefecture), Japanese politician. He was minister of education (1974), minister of state, director-general of the Defense Agency (1976-77), and minister of state, director-general of the Prime Minister's Office and the Okinawa Development Agency (1978-79).

Mihov, Nikola (Mihailov) (b. Nov. 29, 1891, Turnovo [now Veliko Turnovo], Bulgaria - d. [executed] Feb. 2, 1945, Sofia, Bulgaria), member of the Regency Council of Bulgaria (1943-44).

Mijalkov, Jordan (b. Dec. 11, 1932, Novo Selo, near Stip, Yugoslavia [now in North Macedonia] - d. [road accident] Dec. 19, 1991, Vranje, Serbia), interior minister of Macedonia (1991).

Mijares Palencia, José (b. March 1, 1895, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico - d. 1965, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1933).

Mijatovic, Cedomilj (b. Oct. 18 [Oct. 6, O.S.], 1842, Belgrade, Serbia - d. May 14, 1932, London, England), finance minister (1873-75, 1881-83) and foreign minister (1880-81, 1888-89) of Serbia. He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1895-1900, 1903) and the Ottoman Empire (1900).

Mikaelsson, Maggi, byname of Margareta Kristina Maria Mikaelsson, née Sahlin (b. Nov. 4, 1946), governor of Jämtland (2002-08).

Mikanagu, Patrice (Abraham Haruna) (b. March 29, 1944), Burundian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1976-77).

Mikanba, Vladimir (Tachevich) (b. Sept. 23, 1931, Novy Afon, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R. - d. February 2010), defense minister of Abkhazia (1996-2002).

Mikasinovic, Branko (b. Nov. 6, 1938, Belisce, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), foreign minister of Serbia (1991).

Mikati, Najib, Arabic in full Najib `Azmi Miqati (b. Nov. 24, 1955, Tripoli, northern Lebanon), prime minister of Lebanon (2005, 2011-14, 2021- ). A billionaire telecom tycoon, he also served as public works and transport minister (1998-2004).

Mikazuki, Akira (b. June 20, 1921, Hamada, Shimane, Japan - d. Nov. 14, 2010), justice minister of Japan (1993-94).

Mikazuki, Taizo (b. May 24, 1971), governor of Shiga (2014- ).

Mikecz, Ödön (b. May 27, 1894, Budapest, Hungary - d. Jan. 21, 1965, Budapest), justice minister of Hungary (1938).

Mikeladze, Jemal (Pridonovich) (b. Aug. 20, 1936, Kulashi, Georgian S.S.R. - d. 2014), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Georgian S.S.R. (1991).

Mikelic, Borislav (b. Sept. 13, 1939, Dobrljin, near Novi Grad, Yugoslavia [now in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. May 12, 2018, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister of Krajina (1994-95).

Mikerevic, Dragan (b. Feb. 12, 1955, Doboj [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2002) and of the Republika Srpska (2003-05).

Mikhail, secular name Matvey (Mikhailovich) Desnitsky (b. Nov. 19 [Nov. 8, O.S.], 1761, Toporkovo, Moscow province, Russia - d. April 5 [March 24, O.S.], 1821, St. Petersburg, Russia), metropolitan of St. Petersburg (1818-21). He was also bishop of Staraya Russa (1802-03), bishop (1803-06) and archbishop (1806-18) of Chernigov, and Locum Tenens of Pskov (1815-16).

Mikhail (Nikolayevich), Veliky Knyaz (Grand Duke) (b. Oct. 25 [Oct. 13, O.S.], 1832, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Dec. 18, 1909, Cannes, France), viceroy of the Caucasus (1862-81); brother of Aleksandr II and Veliky Knyaz Konstantin (1827-1892); son of Nikolay I. He was also chairman of the Imperial State Council (1881-1905).

Mikhail III, secular name Vasily (Fyodorovich) Yermakov (b. Aug. 12 [July 31, O.S.], 1862 - d. March 30, 1929, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), Locum Tenens (1921-24) and metropolitan (1924-29) of Kiev. He was also bishop of Novgorod-Seversky (1899), Kovno (1899-1903), and Omsk (1903-05) and bishop (1905-12) and archbishop (1912-24) of Grodno and Brest.

Mikhailov, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. Sept. 15, 1951, Shchigrovsky district, Kursk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Dec. 4, 2020, Kursk, Russia), head of the administration of Kursk oblast (2000-18).

Mikhailov, Anany (Mikhailovich) (b. Oct. 4 [Sept. 22, O.S.], 1898, Bolshiye Yaushi, Kazan province [now in Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. 1942), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1927-30).

Mikhailov, Batyr (Chimidovich) (b. March 28, 1941), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kalmyk A.S.S.R./Kalmykia (1989-92).

Mikhailov, Gavriil (Mikhailovich) (b. Jan. 30 [Jan. 18, O.S.], 1895, Salagayevo, Kazan province, Russia - d. May 15, 1967, Karmaskaly, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Chuvash autonomous oblast (1922). He was also people's commissar of education of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1926).

Mikhailov, Nikolay (Aleksandrovich) (b. Oct. 10 [Sept. 27, O.S.], 1906, Moscow, Russia - d. May 25, 1982, Moscow), Soviet politician. He was chief editor of Komsomolskaya Pravda (1937-38), first secretary of the Central Committee of the Komsomol (1938-52), first secretary of the party committee of Moscow oblast (1953-54), ambassador to Poland (1954-55) and Indonesia (1960-65), and culture minister (1955-60).

Mikhailov, Stepan (Andreyevich), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Kabardino-Balkar autonomous oblast (1923-24).

Mikhailov, Viktor (Grigoryevich) (b. April 1, 1936, Kuvandyk, Orenburg oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Nov. 30, 2023), chairman of the Executive Committee (1990-91) and head of the administration (1991-96) of Magadan oblast.

Mikhailov, Yevgeny (Eduardovich) (b. March 17, 1963), head of the administration of Pskov oblast (1996-2004).

Mikhalchuk, Ilya (Filipovich) (b. Jan. 2, 1957, Kuybyshev, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Samara, Russia]), governor of Arkhangelsk oblast (2008-12). He was mayor of Yakutsk in 1998-2007.

Mikhelson, Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. May 3 [April 22, O.S.], 1740, Reval, Russia [now Tallinn, Estonia] - d. Aug. 17 [Aug. 5, O.S.], 1807, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania]), military governor of Vitebsk and Mogilyov (1803-06).

Mikheyev, Aleksandr (Stepanovich) (b. Sept. 1, 1853 - d. Dec. 17, 1914), governor of Terek oblast (1908-12).

Miki, Takeo (b. March 17, 1907, Donari, Japan - d. Nov. 13, 1988, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1974-76). He was elected to the Diet in 1937. He publicly opposed the drift toward war with the United States, and thus his political career was not hindered by the postwar American occupation. At various times he occupied 10 cabinet posts, including communications (1947-48), transport (1954-55), international trade and industry (1965-66), and foreign affairs (1966-68). He was chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (1961-62) and director of the Environmental Agency (1972-74) while also serving as deputy prime minister (1972-74). After the ruling Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) suffered severe losses in the June 1974 elections, Miki resigned from the cabinet in July in protest at the heavily financed electoral campaign directed by Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and at rumours about Tanaka's financial irregularities. This was the first of a chain of events that ultimately led to the resignation of Tanaka in December 1974. Party faction leaders then agreed on the irreproachable Miki as the compromise choice for the party presidency and the prime ministry. He adopted the policy of limiting defense spending to no more than 1% of gross national product. His plans to reform the LDP foundered on the developing scandal over Tanaka's acceptance of large bribes paid to him by high executives of the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. He demanded a full inquiry into the affair, but Tanaka's indictment in August 1976 still deeply hurt the LDP in the general election of December 1976, when the LDP lost its majority (though not control of the government). Miki, accepting responsibility for the setback, resigned but remained a powerful leader within the party.


Mikichura, Gennady (Ivanovich) (b. 1951), prime minister of Adygeya (2003).

Mikkelsen, Brian (Arthur) (b. Jan. 31, 1966, Copenhagen, Denmark), justice minister of Denmark (2008-10). He was also minister of culture (2001-08) and economic and business affairs (2010-11).

Mikl-Leitner, Johanna, née Leitner (b. Feb. 9, 1964, Hollabrunn, Niederösterreich, Austria), interior minister of Austria (2011-16) and Landeshauptfrau of Niederösterreich (2017- ).

Miklas, Wilhelm (b. Oct. 15, 1872, Krems, Austria - d. March 20, 1956, Vienna, Austria), president of Austria (1928-38). A member of the Christian Social Party, he sat in the imperial parliament, the Reichsrat, from 1907 to the end of the empire in 1918, and was a member of the Council of State and of the Provisional National Assembly (1918-19), of the Constituent National Assembly (1919-20), and then of the National Council (1920-28) of the new Austrian republic. He was president of the National Council in 1923-28, presiding over stormy sessions with philosophic calm and impartiality. With this reputation he was elected to the federal presidency. But despite the increased powers granted the president by the constitutional revision of 1929, he kept consistently in the background, drifting with the rightward, anti-democratic current of Austrian politics after 1930 without protest. In 1938, however, he refused Adolf Hitler's ultimatum to cancel a plebiscite on national independence, and another ultimatum to form a Nazi government. At Germany's threat to invade, Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg resigned (March 11) to make way for Hitler's appointee, Arthur von Seyss-Inquart, but Miklas still refused to appoint the latter, only giving way early on March 12, hours before the German invasion. On March 13 Miklas refused to sign the law uniting Austria with Nazi Germany, declaring that he was incapacitated from exercising his authority to "certify that the act in question had been constitutionally adopted." He then retired from public life. After World War II he explicitly declared that he had not resigned in 1938; indeed the constitution had no provision for vacating the presidential office by resignation.

Miklashevsky, Mikhail (Pavlovich) (b. 1756 - d. Aug. 26, 1847), governor of Volyn (1797), Novorossiya (1801-02), and Yekaterinoslav (1802-04).

Miklos, Ivan (b. June 2, 1960, Svidník, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), a deputy prime minister (1998-2006, 2010-12) and finance minister (2002-06, 2010-12) of Slovakia. He was also minister of privatization (1991-92) and economy (acting, 2005).

Miklosko, Jozef (b. March 31, 1939, Nitra, Slovakia), a deputy premier of Czechoslovakia (1990-92). He was also Slovak ambassador to Italy (2000-05).

Miklushevsky, Vladimir (Vladimirovich) (b. Sept. 15, 1967, Sverdlovsk, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Yekaterinburg, Russia]), governor of Primorsky kray (2012-17).

Mikolaj, Ján (b. Oct. 19, 1953, Zilina, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), a deputy prime minister of Slovakia (2006-10). He was also minister of education (2006-10), environment (acting, 2009), and construction and regional development (acting, 2010).

Mikolajczyk, Stanislaw (b. July 18, 1901, Holsterhausen [now part of Dorsten, Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. Dec. 13, 1966, Chevy Chase, Md.), Polish anti-Communist leader. He was born in Westphalia where his father had gone as a migrant worker, but he was still a young boy when the family returned to its native province of Poznan (Posen), which was then part of Germany but was given to Poland after World War I. He fought in the Polish-Russian war of 1920 and became involved in the People's (or Peasant) Party. A disciple of Wincenty Witos, he was in the Sejm (parliament) by 1930. By 1937 he was head of the party. After the outbreak of World War II, he became president of the Polish National Council, which had been formed to replace the Sejm for the duration of the war. In the Polish government-in-exile in London he became deputy prime minister and interior minister in 1941 and after the death of Wladyslaw Sikorski in 1943 succeeded him as prime minister. In 1944 he was persuaded by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to join Poland's postwar cabinet as a political counterweight to the Soviet-backed Communist takeover, and he returned to Poland in 1945 to become a deputy premier and minister of agriculture. His Polish People's Party gained widespread public support, but the Communist regime arrested and intimidated its activists, manipulated elections, and accused him of being a British spy. In fear of his life, he fled to Britain aboard a British cargo ship in October 1947 and then in 1948 to the United States. He got involved in exile politics and published a book entitled The Rape of Poland. But many Polish émigrés never forgave him for joining a Communist-led government. He was reburied in a cemetery of honour in the city of Poznan in June 2000, 34 years after his death.

Mikov, Mihail (Raikov) (b. June 16, 1960, Kula, Bulgaria), interior minister of Bulgaria (2008-09). He was also president of the National Assembly (2013-14) and leader of the Socialist Party (2014-16).

Mikoyan, Anastas (Ivanovich), Armenian Anastas Hovhannesi Mikoyan (b. Nov. 25 [Nov. 13, O.S.], 1895, Sanain, Tiflis province, Russia [now Sanahin, Armenia] - d. Oct. 21, 1978, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet statesman. He joined the Bolshevik party in 1915 and became one of the leaders of the revolutionary movement in the Caucasus. He remained in Baku during the British occupation that started in July 1918, but in September, when Germans and Turks entered the city, he left by sea for Astrakhan with a group of comrades. A gunboat under British command intercepted them and escorted their ship to Krasnovodsk, and 26 commissars were shot. Mikoyan was held in Ashkhabad prison until February 1919 when he returned to Baku. In 1922-23 he aligned himself with the forces supporting Iosif Stalin against Lev Trotsky. He entered the Central Committee of the party in 1923; in 1926 he became candidate member and in 1935 full member of the Politburo. He became people's commissar (from 1946, minister) of external and internal trade (1926-30), provision (1930-34), food industry (1934-38), external trade (1938-49), and trade (1953-55). From 1937 he was also a deputy premier (vice chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, then of the Council of Ministers). Although he was apparently in danger of losing Stalin's favour, Stalin died (1953) before he could purge him, and Mikoyan retained his membership in the party's Presidium (formerly the Politburo). He subsequently supported Nikita Khrushchev in his rise to power, and ultimately became Khrushchev's close adviser and a first deputy premier (1955-64). In 1964, months before Khrushchev's ouster, he was elected to the largely ceremonial position of chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (head of state); he stepped down in 1965, citing ill health. He was excluded from the party's Presidium in April 1966 and left the Central Committee in March 1976.

Mikroutsikos, Athanasios, byname Thanos Mikroutsikos (b. April 13, 1947, Patras, Greece - d. Dec. 28, 2019, Athens, Greece), culture minister of Greece (1994-96). He was a prominent composer.

Mikser, Sven (b. Nov. 8, 1973, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R.), defense minister (2002-03, 2014-15) and foreign minister (2016-19) of Estonia.

Mikuciauskas, Vladislovas, Russian Vladislovas (Kostovich) Mikuchiauskas (b. Jan. 3, 1934, Kursenai, Lithuania), foreign minister of the Lithuanian S.S.R. (1988-90). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Kaunas city (1975-83) and Vilnius city (1983-87) and Soviet/Russian ambassador to Sierra Leone (1990-92).

Mikulec, Roman (b. March 18, 1972, Bratislava, Slovakia), interior minister of Slovakia (2020-23).

Mikulic, Andjelko (b. Jan. 23, 1959, Kocerin village, near Grude [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of West Herzegovina (1999-2003).

Mikulic, Branko (b. June 10, 1928, Podgradje village, near Gornji Vakuf, Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. April 12, 1994, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Yugoslavia (1986-89). A Croat by nationality, he joined Tito's National Liberation Army in 1943 and in 1945 became a member of the Communist Party. In 1964 he became a member of the Central Committee in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which he served as secretary in 1969-78. He was also chairman of the Executive Council of the same republic (1967-69). From 1978 he was a member of the Presidium of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia; in 1978-79 he was its acting president. In 1982-83 he was president of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As chairman of the Organizing Committee of the XIV Olympic Winter Games, "Sarajevo-84," held in the Bosnian capital, he demonstrated strong organizational skills and acquired a reputation for being a tough and interventionist manager. In the same year, he was made a member of the Presidency of Yugoslavia. In 1986 he was appointed premier under the unique collective system of leadership that had existed since the death of Tito in 1980. The premier was responsible mainly for Yugoslavia's financial affairs, foreign policy, defense, and regional funds; political matters were handled almost entirely by the CCP. When Mikulic was elected, however, there were hopes that because he had been a member of the CCP, he would also be able to influence it when necessary to enable him to bring about badly needed economic and political reforms. Social tensions were being exacerbated by the country's poor economy. Solving economic problems was difficult because the constituent republics, with their often "nationalistic" leaders, had so much power. It soon became apparent that he lacked the power and perhaps the will to carry out the reforms that he stated in his inaugural speech were necessary.

Mikulowski Pomorski, Józef (Karol Mateusz), h. Rawicz (b. July 1, 1868, Malice, Sandomierz county, Poland - d. May 4, 1935, Warsaw, Poland), acting chairman of the Provisional Council of State of Poland (1917). He was also minister of agriculture (1917-18) and religious affairs and education (1922-23, 1926).



Mikvabia, Artur (Artemovich) (b. May 2, 1949, Sukhumi, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Abkhazia (2015-16).

Milam Tang, Ignacio (b. June 20, 1940, Evinayong, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), prime minister of Equatorial Guinea (2008-12). He was also minister of justice and worship (1996-98) and youth and sports (1998-99), deputy prime minister for the civil service and administrative coordination (2001-03), minister of state and secretary-general of the presidency (2003-06), ambassador to Spain (2006-08), and first vice president (2012-16).

Milambo, Chola, Zambian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Milan I (b. Aug. 22 [Aug. 10, O.S.], 1854, Marasesti, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. Feb. 11, 1901, Vienna, Austria), prince (1868-82, as Milan Obrenovic IV) and king (1882-89) of Serbia; cousin of Mihailo Obrenovic III.

Milan Obrenovic II (b. Oct. 21, 1819, Kragujevac, Serbia - d. July 8, 1839, Belgrade, Serbia), prince of Serbia (1839); son of Milos Obrenovic I.

Milanovic, Milan, Serbian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-21).

Z. Milanovic
Milanovic, Zoran (b. Oct. 30, 1966, Zagreb, Croatia), prime minister (2011-16) and president (2020- ) of Croatia.

Milas, Ivan (b. Oct. 18, 1939, Zmijavci, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. July 29, 2011, Zmijavci), justice minister of Croatia (1992). He was also a deputy prime minister (1992-93).

J. Milatovic
Milatovic, Jakov (b. Dec. 7, 1986, Titograd [now Podgorica], Montenegro), president of Montenegro (2023- ). He was also minister of economic development (2020-22).

Milatovic, Veljko (b. Dec. 5, 1921, Niksic, central Montenegro - d. Oct. 19, 2004, Herceg Novi, Montenegro), president of the People's Assembly (1967-69) and of the Presidency (1974-82) of Montenegro.

Milazzo, Silvio (b. Sept. 4, 1903, Caltagirone, Sicilia, Italy - d. Dec. 24, 1982), president of Sicilia (1958-60).

Milbergs, Gotfrids (b. Jan. 12, 1887, Aluksne parish, Russia [now in Jaunaluksne parish, Latvia] - d. [executed] June 17, 1942, Solikamsk, Molotov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Perm kray, Russia]), interior minister of Latvia (1933-34).

Milbradt, Georg (b. Feb. 23, 1945, Eslohe, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany), minister-president of Sachsen (2002-08).

Milczanowski, Andrzej (Stanislaw) (b. May 26, 1939, Równe, Poland [now Rivne, Ukraine]), interior minister of Poland (1992-95). He was also head of the State Protection Office (1990-92, 1992). In 1995 he accused Prime Minister Józef Oleksy of having been a Soviet, and subsequently Russian, agent since the 1980s. This caused Oleksy's resignation in 1996, though he was exonerated later that year. In 2002 Milczanowski was charged with revealing state secrets.

Milea, Vasile (b. Jan. 1, 1927, Leresti, Romania - d. Dec. 22, 1989, Bucharest, Romania), defense minister of Romania (1985-89). He was also chief of the General Staff (1980-85). During the 1989 revolution his suicide was reported; it was later alleged that he was shot after refusing to order troops to disperse the protesting crowds by force.

Milei (Luján), Javier (Gerardo) (b. Oct. 22, 1970, Buenos Aires, Argentina), president of Argentina (2023- ).

Miles, Sir Herbert (Scott Gould) (b. July 31, 1850 - d. May 6, 1926), governor of Gibraltar (1913-18); knighted 1908.

Miles, John E(sten) (b. July 28, 1884, Murfreesboro, Tenn. - d. Oct. 7, 1971, Santa Fe, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1939-43).

Miles, (Richard) Oliver (b. March 6, 1936 - d. Nov. 10, 2019), acting British political officer in Abu Dhabi (1961). He was also ambassador to Libya (1984), Luxembourg (1985-88), and Greece (1993-96).

S. Miles
Miles, Steven (John) (b. Nov. 15, 1977, Brisbane, Qld.), premier of Queensland (2023- ).

Miletic, Slavko (b. 1869, Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Austria-Hungary [now in Serbia] - d. 1934, Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), president of the Great People's Council of Vojvodina (1918-19).

Milewski, Jerzy (b. March 27, 1935, Lopuchówko, Poland - d. Feb. 11, 1997, Warsaw, Poland), acting defense minister of Poland (1994-95). He was also head of the National Security Bureau (1991-94, 1996-97).

Milewski, Miroslaw (b. May 1, 1928, Lipsk, Poland - d. Feb. 23, 2008, Warsaw, Poland), interior minister of Poland (1980-81).

Mili, Mohamed Ezzedine, Arabic Muhammad `Izz ad-Din Mili (b. Dec. 4, 1917, Djemmal, Tunisia - d. Aug. 4, 2013, Geneva, Switzerland), secretary-general of the International Telecommunication Union (1967-82).

D. Miliband
Miliband, David (Wright) (b. July 15, 1965, London, England), British foreign secretary (2007-10). He was also minister of communities and local government (2005-06) and secretary of state for environment, food, and rural affairs (2006-07).

Miliband, Ed(ward Samuel) (b. Dec. 24, 1969, London, England), British Labour Party leader (2010-15); brother of David Miliband. He has also been chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (2007-08) and secretary of state for energy and climate change (2008-10) and energy security and Net Zero (2024- ).

Milinovic, Darko (b. April 25, 1963, Gospic, Croatia), a deputy prime minister of Croatia (2009-11). He was also minister of health and social welfare (2008-11).

Militaru, Nicolae (b. Nov. 10, 1925, Balesti, Gorj county, Romania - d. Dec. 27, 1996, Bucharest, Romania), defense minister of Romania (1989-90).

Miljanic, Nikola (b. Jan. 5, 1921, Livadjani, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. July 6, 1972, Zagreb, Croatia), a deputy premier of Yugoslavia (1969-70). He was also governor of the National Bank (1962-69).

Miljavac, Pavao (b. April 3, 1953, Maletici, Croatia - d. Dec. 5, 2022, Zagreb, Croatia), defense minister of Croatia (1998-2000). He was also chief of staff of the armed forces (1996-98).

Miljenic, Orsat (b. Sept. 15, 1968, Dubrovnik, Croatia), justice minister of Croatia (2011-16). He has also been head of the office of the president (2020- ).

Milkov, Nikolay (Milkov) (b. Dec. 10, 1957, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (2022-23). He was also ambassador to Romania (2001-04), Canada (2013-17), and France (2021-22).

Milla (Pineda Arriaga), José Justo (b. 1794, Gracias, Lempira, Honduras - d. 1838, Mexico City, Mexico), superior political chief and intendant of Nicaragua (1824) and acting supreme chief of state of Honduras (1827); brother of José Santiago Milla.

Milla (Pineda Arriaga), José Santiago (b. 1783, Gracias, Lempira, Honduras - d. 18...), member of the Supreme Executive Power of Central America (1824-25).

Milla Bermúdez, Francisco (b. Oct. 4, 1915, Gracias, Lempira, Honduras - d. Aug. 12, 1984, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), Honduran politician. He was minister of natural resources (1957-59) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1959-63).

Milla Reyes, Jorge (Alberto) (b. Nov. 6, 1958, Erandique, Lempira, Honduras), Honduran diplomat. He has been ambassador to Ecuador (2002-05), Bolivia (2004-05), Nicaragua (2005-09), the United States (2014-16), Peru (2017-20), and Brazil (2020- ).

Millan, Bruce (b. Oct. 5, 1927, Dundee, Scotland - d. Feb. 21, 2013, Glasgow, Scotland), British politician. He was secretary of state for Scotland (1976-79) and European commissioner for regional policy (1989-95).

Millán Lizárraga, Juan S(igfrido) (b. June 15, 1943, El Rosario, Sinaloa, Mexico), governor of Sinaloa (1999-2005). He was also secretary-general of Mexico's Institutional Revolutionary Party (1995-97).

Millar, Caroline (Jane) (b. June 8, 1958, Melbourne, Vic.), Australian diplomat. She was acting permanent representative to the United Nations (2006). In 2021 she was appointed ambassador to Belgium.

Millar, Peter (b. June 20, 1942), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (1995-98).

Millard, Ezra (b. Feb. 3, 1833, Hamilton, Ont. - d. Aug. 20, 1886, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.), mayor of Omaha (1869-71).

Millard, Joseph H(opkins) (b. April 20, 1836, Hamilton, Ont. - d. Jan. 13, 1922, Omaha, Neb.), mayor of Omaha (1872-73); brother of Ezra Millard.

Millares (Ardaya), Edgar (Óscar) (b. March 9, 1960, Sucre, Bolivia), finance minister of Bolivia (1997-98).

Millares Rodríguez, Manuel (b. Jan. 9, 1934, Havana, Cuba - d. Oct. 28, 2012), finance minister of Cuba (1995-2003). He was also minister of light industry (1980-85).

Millas Correa, (José) Orlando (b. Dec. 14, 1918, Santiago, Chile - d. Dec. 26, 1991, Rotterdam, Netherlands), finance minister of Chile (1972-73). He was also minister of economy, development, and reconstruction (1972-73).

Milledge, John (b. 1757, Savannah, Georgia - d. Feb. 9, 1818, near Augusta, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1802-06).

Miller, Arnold R(ay) (b. April 25, 1923, Cabin Creek, W.Va. - d. July 12, 1985, Charleston, W.Va.), president of the United Mine Workers of America (1972-79).

Miller, Benjamin M(eek) (b. March 13, 1864, Oak Hill, Ala. - d. Feb. 6, 1944, Selma, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1931-35).

Billie Miller
Miller, Dame Billie (Antoinette) (b. Jan. 8, 1944, Barbados), Barbadian politician. Her father, Frederick Edward Miller, was himself a parliamentarian of distinction, holding the ministerial portfolios of health and social services in 1956-61. She began her political career in 1976 when she was elected member of parliament for the City of Bridgetown in a by-election. A few months later she fought and won her seat again in the general elections. She served as minister of health and national insurance in 1976-81 and was the first female to sit in the cabinet of Barbados. Reelected to parliament in 1981, she was appointed minister of education with the culture portfolio being added in 1985. Following the 1986 elections when the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) lost at the polls, she was appointed to the Senate where she served as leader of opposition business. She was again elected MP for the City of Bridgetown in the general elections of 1991, and served as deputy leader of the opposition from 1993 until 1994, when the BLP was returned to government. She was reelected as the member for the City of Bridgetown for the fourth time. She was appointed deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs, foreign trade, and international business on Sept. 7, 1994. She was also charged with the responsibility of leader of the house. In June 1995, her portfolio changed with tourism and international transport replacing foreign trade and international business. She was also, among other positions, chairperson of the Executive of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and of the Inter-American Development Bank's Women in Development Unit and president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region. She was replaced as deputy prime minister in May 2003. Later that year she was knighted. She served as foreign minister until the BLP's defeat in the 2008 elections. In 2018 she was named ambassador at large.

Bob Miller
Miller, Bob, byname of Robert Joseph Miller (b. March 30, 1945, Chicago, Ill.), governor of Nevada (1989-99). A Democrat, he was elected district attorney in Las Vegas in 1978 and was reelected in 1982; he was elected lieutenant governor in 1986 and became governor after Richard Bryan was elected senator in 1988. He represented a second generation in Nevada public life - knowledgeable about the gaming industry, but utterly clean ethically - and was concerned about issues like education, workers' compensation reform, and welfare. With a rising population, Nevada was one state that needed to build new schools; Miller was proud of reducing class size. But he also held spending down and when he ran for reelection in 1994 boasted that Nevada was the third-lowest-taxed state, with a business climate rated near the top of the country (well ahead of California). He pressed for doubled penalties for crimes on school grounds and against the elderly and boot camps for non-violent offenders. He also tried to stop the nuclear waste depository in Yucca Mountain and opposed a federal gaming tax. He won reelection easily in 1990, but in 1994, despite the booming economy, he had serious opposition. In the primary he was attacked by Las Vegas Mayor Jan Laverty Jones for being too cozy with the gaming industry and not doing enough about crime. But she lost 63%-28%. In the general, Jim Gibbons, who upset Secretary of State Cheryl Lau 52%-32% in the Republican primary, pushed for his ballot measure to require a two-thirds vote in the legislature or a vote of the people to increase taxes. Gibbons was a rough-hewn candidate: his truck boasted a bumper sticker saying, "Fight crime - shoot back." But the strong economy and a big margin in Las Vegas and Clark County helped Miller win 53%-41%.

Miller, Charles R(obert) (b. Sept. 30, 1857, near West Chester, Pa. - d. Sept. 18, 1927, Berlin, N.J.), governor of Delaware (1913-17).

Miller, Cyrus C(hace) (b. Nov. 2, 1866, Claverack, N.Y. - d. Jan. 21, 1956, New York City), borough president of Bronx (1910-13).

Dan Miller
Miller, Dan, byname of Arthur Daniel Miller (b. Dec. 24, 1944), premier of British Columbia (1999-2000). He was a Prince Rupert city councillor before he was elected as an MLA in 1986, representing the riding of North Coast. He served as minister of employment and investment; minister of municipal affairs; minister of skills, training and labour; and minister of forests. He then was minister of energy and mines and minister responsible for northern development, and he retained those portfolios when he became premier. An intimidating debater known for his crankiness and salty language, Miller took over from Glen Clark, who resigned as premier following the release of a court document alleging he used his influence to help a friend get a lucrative casino license.

Miller, David (b. Dec. 26, 1958, San Francisco, Calif.), mayor of Toronto (2003-10).

Miller, G(eorge) William (b. March 9, 1925, Sapulpa, Okla. - d. March 17, 2006, Washington, D.C.), U.S. treasury secretary (1979-81). In 1978 Pres. Jimmy Carter plucked Miller from the business world (he was chief executive officer of the Textron Inc. conglomerate) to replace Arthur F. Burns as chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. Miller was considered ineffectual as Fed chairman, serving one of the shortest tenures in Fed history. Already in 1979 Carter named Miller to replace the dismissed W. Michael Blumenthal as treasury secretary, making Miller the first person to have guided both the nation's central bank and the Treasury Department. He received mixed reviews as treasury secretary. While a capable manager of the department and the administration's point man on economic matters, he was not seen as a policy innovator or as a potent force against double-digit inflation. He directed the Chrysler Corp. bailout, with a $1.5 billion loan guarantee begun in 1980 that kept the automaker afloat. At first, he opposed providing more than $750 million in assistance, but Carter and Congress approved the deal despite fears that the government would be left to pay off private lenders if Chrysler slipped into bankruptcy. Chrysler recovered financially in the early 1980s and even paid off its debts seven years ahead of schedule.

Miller, James (b. April 25, 1776, Peterborough, N.H. - d. July 7, 1851, Temple, N.H.), governor of Arkansas (1819-25).

Miller, Jerzy (b. June 7, 1952, Kraków, Poland), governor of Malopolskie województwo (2007-09, 2011-15) and interior minister of Poland (2009-11).

Miller, John (b. Nov. 25, 1781, Berkeley county, Va. - d. March 18, 1846, Florissant, Mo.), governor of Missouri (1826-32).

Miller, John (b. Oct. 29, 1843, Dryden, N.Y. - d. Oct. 26, 1908, Duluth, Minn.), governor of North Dakota (1889-91).

Miller, Sir John Ontario (b. Aug. 7, 1857, Toronto, Canada West [now Ont.] - d. Jan. 19, 1943), chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1905-07); knighted 1911.

Miller, Keith (Harvey) (b. March 1, 1925, Seattle, Wash. - d. March 2, 2019, Anchorage, Alaska), governor of Alaska (1969-70).

Miller, Laura (b. Nov. 18, 1958, Baltimore, Md.), mayor of Dallas (2002-07).

Miller, Leslie A(ndrew) (b. Jan. 29, 1886, Junction City, Kan. - d. Sept. 29, 1970, Cheyenne, Wyo.), governor of Wyoming (1933-39).

Leszek Miller
Miller, Leszek (Cezary) (b. July 3, 1946, Zyrardów, Poland), interior minister (1997) and prime minister (2001-04) of Poland. He was also first secretary of the party committee of Skierniewickie województwo (1986-89), minister of labour and social policy (1993-96), and leader of Social Democracy (1997-99), the Democratic Left Alliance (1999-2004, 2011-16), and the Polish Left (2008-10).

Miller, Nathan L(ewis) (b. Oct. 10, 1868, Solon, N.Y. - d. June 26, 1953, New York City), governor of New York (1921-23).

Miller, Rein (b. Aug. 2, 1938, Tallinn, Estonia - d. April 10, 2017), finance minister of Estonia (1990-92).

Miller, Stephen (b. Jan. 17, 1816, Carroll, Pa. - d. Aug. 18, 1881, Worthington, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1864-66).

Miller, Stephen D(ecatur) (b. May 8, 1787, Waxhaw Settlement, Lancaster county, S.C. - d. March 8, 1838, Raymond, Miss.), governor of South Carolina (1828-30). He was also a U.S. representative (1817-19) and senator (1831-33) from South Carolina.

Miller, Thomas (b. July 21, 1876, near Grand Valley, Ont. - d. June 20, 1945, Regina, Sask.), lieutenant governor of Saskatchewan (1945).

Miller, Walter Dale (b. Oct. 5, 1925, Viewfield, S.D. - d. Sept. 28, 2015, Dallas, Texas), governor of South Dakota (1993-95).

Miller, William (b. 1770, Warren county, North Carolina - d. Sept. 10, 1825, Key West, Fla.), governor of North Carolina (1814-17).

Miller, William E(dward) (b. March 22, 1914, Lockport, N.Y. - d. June 24, 1983, Buffalo, N.Y.), U.S. politician. A seven-term (1951-65) conservative Republican congressman from upstate New York, he achieved fleeting fame when, in 1964, he became the vice-presidential running mate on Barry Goldwater's unsuccessful presidential ticket. From 1961 to 1964 Miller served as Republican national chairman and in this office gained a reputation for stinging partisan commentary. After his loss in the 1964 election, Miller retired from politics, but in 1975 he reemerged briefly in an American Express credit-card commercial posing the question, "Do you know me?"

Miller, William H(enry) H(arrison) (b. Sept. 6, 1840, Augusta, N.Y. - d. May 25, 1917, Indianapolis, Ind.), U.S. attorney general (1889-93).

Miller, William R(ead) (b. Nov. 23, 1823, Batesville, Ark. - d. Nov. 29, 1887, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1877-81).

Z. Miller
Miller, Zell (Bryan) (b. Feb. 24, 1932, Young Harris, Ga. - d. March 23, 2018, Young Harris), governor of Georgia (1991-99). A Democrat, he was elected to the Georgia Senate in 1960, at 28; he worked for Lester Maddox in his last two years as governor, ran the state Democratic Party when Jimmy Carter was governor, was elected lieutenant governor in 1974 and held the office 16 years. In 1990 he finally ran for governor. In the Democratic primary he faced former Atlanta mayor, congressman, and UN ambassador Andrew Young; in this first statewide contest with a major black candidate, Miller won 62%-38%. In the general he beat Republican Johnny Isakson 53%-45%. He won by advocating a state lottery for increased education spending. He spoke in populist tones natural to him but, perhaps, was also inspired by - or helped inspire - consultant James Carville. In office Miller pushed through the lottery, appointed the first black woman to the state Supreme Court, strengthened drunk driving laws, and started boot camps for first-time offenders. He played a role in national politics as an early and effective Bill Clinton supporter. He got the Georgia primary rescheduled from Super Tuesday to a week earlier, on March 3; Clinton easily won, while Paul Tsongas and Bob Kerrey used up their resources. At the convention in New York, Miller delivered one of the keynotes, a riproaring "Give 'em Hell, Zell" effort; he worked Georgia hard for Clinton in the fall, and helped him win 13 unexpected electoral votes. Approaching 1994, Miller was in some trouble. He broke his earlier pledge to serve only one term, and he admitted his ties to Clinton hurt: "There is no doubt he has gone into areas that were not the highest priority for a lot of us." He finally won, by 51%-49%, over Republican Guy Millner. He later served as U.S. senator (2000-05).

Millerand, (Étienne) Alexandre (b. Feb. 10, 1859, Paris, France - d. April 7, 1943, Versailles, France), president of France (1920-24). He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1885 and became the leader of the socialist left, but when he joined René Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defense" as minister of commerce (1899-1902), he was bitterly denounced by many socialists as a traitor. When the various socialist factions united in 1905, Millerand dissociated himself from the party. He became minister of public works (1909-10) in Aristide Briand's first cabinet and helped suppress the railway strike of October 1910. He was minister of war (1912-13, 1914-15) under Raymond Poincaré and René Viviani. In 1919-20 he was general commissioner in Alsace-Lorraine. In January 1920 he became premier and foreign minister. His main activities were in regard to the application of the Treaty of Versailles; he also frustrated attempts to organize revolutionary strikes in May 1920 and supplied materiel to Poland during the Polish-Russian war. In September 1920 Pres. Paul Deschanel resigned, and Millerand, then head of the centre-right Bloc National, was elected his successor. During his candidature he expressed his wish to strengthen the power of the president by constitutional revision. This brought him into collision with the radical and socialist majority, which, under the name of the Cartel des Gauches, was successful in the elections of May 1924. Their press accused him of having exceeded his powers by intervening in the party struggle. Édouard Herriot, leader of the Cartel, when asked by Millerand to become premier, said he would do so only on Millerand's resignation. Millerand then invited Frédéric François-Marsal to form a cabinet, but this was immediately defeated, and Millerand resigned. He was a senator in 1925-27 and 1927-40.

Millet, René (Philippe) (b. Sept. 14, 1849, Paris, France - d. 1919), resident-general of Tunisia (1894-1900). He was also French minister to Serbia (1884-85) and Sweden (1888-94).

Millette, Robert E., Grenadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-98).

Milliard, Victor (Édouard) (b. Dec. 19, 1844, Andelys, Eure, France - d. May 9, 1921, Paris, France), justice (and worship) minister of France (1897-98).

Milligan, Keith (b. Feb. 8, 1950, Inverness, P.E.I.), premier of Prince Edward Island (1996).

Milliken, Carl E(lias) (b. July 13, 1877, Pittsfield, Maine - d. May 1, 1961, Springfield, Mass.), governor of Maine (1917-21).

Milliken, William G(rawn) (b. March 26, 1922, Traverse City, Mich. - d. Oct. 18, 2019, Traverse City), governor of Michigan (1969-83).

Millon, Charles (b. Nov. 12, 1945, Belley, Ain, France), French defense minister (1995-97).

Millot, Constant (b. Dec. 7, 1863, Lyon, France - d. 19...), commandant of Chad (1908-09).

Mills, Sir Charles (Piercy) (b. Oct. 4, 1914 - d. July 27, 2006), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1969-74); knighted 1968.

Mills, David (b. March 18, 1831, Oxford Township, Upper Canada [now Ontario] - d. May 8, 1903, Ottawa, Ont.), interior minister of Canada (1876-78). He was also superintendent-general of Indian affairs (1876-78) and justice minister (1897-1902).

Mills, Donald (Owen) (b. July 23, 1921, Mandeville, Jamaica - d. March 16, 2015), Jamaican diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1973-81).

Mills, Janet (Trafton) (b. Dec. 30, 1947, Farmington, Maine), governor of Maine (2019- ).

Mills, Ogden L(ivingston) (b. Aug. 23, 1884, Newport, R.I. - d. Oct. 11, 1937, New York City), U.S. treasury secretary (1932-33).

Mills, Richard M(errill), Jr. (b. 1959, Louisiana), U.S. diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Malta (2011-12), Canada (2019-20), and at the United Nations (2021) and ambassador to Armenia (2015-18).

Mills, Terry, byname of Terrance Kennedy Mills (b. Dec. 22, 1957, Geraldton, W.Aus.), chief minister of the Northern Territory (2012-13).

Mills, William J(oseph) (b. Jan. 11, 1849, Yazoo City, Miss. - d. Dec. 24, 1915, East Las Vegas, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1910-12).

Milner, Aaron (Michael) (b. May 31, 1932, Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), defense minister (1973) and home affairs minister (1973-77) of Zambia. He was also minister of transport, power, and works (1970) and provincial and local government (1971-73).

Milner, Alfred Milner, (1st) Viscount (b. March 23, 1854, Giessen, Hesse-Darmstadt [Germany] - d. May 13, 1925, Sturry Court, near Canterbury, Kent, England), British high commissioner for Southern Africa (1897-1905), governor of Cape Colony (1897-1901) and Transvaal and the Orange River Colony (1902-05), and secretary of state for war (1918-19) and colonies (1919-21); grandson of John Ready. He was knighted in 1895 and created baron in 1901 and viscount in 1902.


Milo, Paskal (Koço) (b. Feb. 22, 1949, Himarë, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (1997-2001). He was also minister of European integration (2001-02).

Milojkovic, Radivoje (b. Dec. 27, 1832, Glogovac, Serbia - d. Dec. 16, 1888, Belgrade, Serbia), acting foreign minister (1868) and prime minister (1869-72) of Serbia. He was also interior minister (1868-72, 1876-79, 1880, 1887-88) and justice minister (1875).

Milongo, André (Ntsatouabantou) (b. Oct. 20, 1935, Mankondi, Pool region, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. July 23, 2007, Paris, France), prime minister (1991-92) and president of the National Assembly (1993-97) of Congo (Brazzaville). He was a candidate in the 2002 presidential elections, but withdrew claiming irregularities.

Milono, R(aden) T(umenggung) A(rio) (b. March 31, 1896, Pekalongan, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Jan. 10, 1975, Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan (1953-57), Kalimantan Tengah (1957-58), and Jawa Timur (1958-59).

Miloradovich, Andrey (Stepanovich) (b. 1727 - d. June 13 [June 2, O.S.], 1796, Chernigov, Russia [now Chernihiv, Ukraine]), governor of Chernigov (1782-96).

Miloradovich, Graf Mikhail (Andreyevich) (b. Oct. 12 [Oct. 1, O.S.], 1771, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Dec. 27 [Dec. 15, O.S.], 1825, St. Petersburg), military governor of Kiev (1810-18) and military governor-general of St. Petersburg (1818-25); son of Andrey Miloradovich. He was made Graf (count) in 1813. He was shot during the Decembrist revolt.

Miloradovich, Grigory (Petrovich) (b. Jan. 19 [Jan. 8, O.S.], 1765, Novye Borovichi, Chernigov province, Russia [now Novi Borovychi, Chernihiv oblast, Ukraine] - d. May 31 [May 19, O.S.], 1828, Novye Borovichi), governor of Tavrida (1802-03); great-great-grandson of Pavlo Polubotok; nephew of Andrey Miloradovich.

Miloradovich, Leonid (Aleksandrovich) (b. Dec. 31 [Dec. 19, O.S.], 1841 - d. April 20 [April 7, O.S.], 1908, Moscow, Russia), governor of Podolia (1879-82); grandson of Grigory Miloradovich.

Milos Obrenovic I, original name Milos Teodorovic (b. March 18 [March 7, O.S.], 1780, Srednja Dobrinja, Serbia - d. Sept. 26 [Sept. 14, O.S.], 1860, Topcider, near Belgrade, Serbia), prince of Serbia (1815-39, 1858-60).

Milosavljevic, Milos (b. 1932), a deputy premier of Yugoslavia (1986-89).

Milosevic, Boris (b. Nov. 5, 1974, Sibenik, Croatia), a deputy prime minister of Croatia (2020-22).

Milosevic, Borislav (b. 1934, Niksic, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. Jan. 29, 2013, Belgrade, Serbia), Yugoslav diplomat. He was ambassador to Algeria (1985-89) and Russia (1998-2001).

Milosevic, Domagoj Ivan (b. Jan. 5, 1970, Zagreb, Croatia), a deputy prime minister of Croatia (2009-11).

S. Milosevic
Milosevic, Slobodan (b. Aug. 20, 1941, Pozarevac, Serbia - d. March 11, 2006, The Hague, Netherlands), president of Serbia (1989-97) and of Yugoslavia (1997-2000); brother of Borislav Milosevic. He joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (from 1963, League of Communists of Yugoslavia) at age 18. In 1984 he became head of the Belgrade party organization. In 1986 he succeeded his mentor Ivan Stambolic as leader of the League of Communists of Serbia (LCS), and in 1989 the Serbian assembly elected him president. He reformed the LCS into the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) and in the first popular presidential election in December 1990 he was returned by a huge majority. In May 1991 Serbia blocked the accession of a Croat to the chairmanship of Yugoslavia's collective presidency, prompting Croatia and Slovenia and later Macedonia and Bosnia to quit the federation, leaving only Serbia and Montenegro, who constituted a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in April 1992. He was reelected in December 1992. In 1997, he finessed his way around a law barring him from running again for president of Serbia by being elected president of Yugoslavia, turning the formerly figurehead post into the seat of real power. Armed conflict in Kosovo between the Kosovo Liberation Army and the Yugoslav military intensified in 1998, and when Milosevic defied demands that he withdraw his forces, NATO launched air strikes in March 1999. Significant parts of Yugoslavia's infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, while Milosevic's forces inflicted enormous suffering in Kosovo. The Yugoslav parliament accepted the terms of a peace settlement on June 9, and within a week Serb forces were withdrawing as NATO peacekeepers entered Kosovo. In the September 2000 presidential elections he was defeated by opposition leader Vojislav Kostunica. Milosevic was arrested on April 1, 2001, and handed over to the UN war crimes tribunal on June 28. He was found dead in his cell before the completion of his trial. His wife Mirjana Markovic (1942-2019) was also a politician, founding the Yugoslav Left party in 1994, which was allied with the SPS in 1996-2000.

Milososki, Antonio (b. Jan. 29, 1976, Tetovo, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), foreign minister of Macedonia (2006-11).

Milovanovic, Milovan (Dj.) (b. Feb. 17, 1863, Belgrade, Serbia - d. June 18, 1912, Belgrade), foreign minister (1908-12) and prime minister (1911-12) of Serbia. He was also minister of justice (1896-97), national economy (1901-02), and finance (1902) and minister to Romania (1900-01) and Italy (1903-07).

Milovic, Antun (b. Dec. 22, 1934, Vrpolje, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Dec. 11, 2008, Slavonski Brod, Croatia), chairman of the Executive Council of Croatia (1986-90).

Milquet, Joëlle (F.G.M.) (b. Feb. 17, 1961, Montignies-sur-Sambre [now part of Charleroi], Belgium), a deputy prime minister of Belgium (2008-14). She was also minister of employment and equal opportunities (2008-11) and interior and equality (2011-14).

Miltenburg, Anouchka van (b. April 20, 1967, Utrecht, Netherlands), Dutch politician. She was chairman of the Second Chamber (2012-15).

Milton, Aristides Augusto (b. May 29, 1848, Cachoeira, Bahia, Brazil - d. Jan. 26, 1904, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Alagoas (1889).

Milton, John (b. April 20, 1807, Louisville, Ga. - d. [suicide] April 1, 1865, "Sylvania" plantation, outside Marianna, Fla.), governor of Florida (1861-65).

Milton, Sir William Henry (b. Dec. 3, 1854, Newbury, Berkshire, England - d. March 6, 1930, Cannes, France), administrator of Mashonaland (1897-1901) and Southern Rhodesia (1901-14); knighted 1903.

Milutinovic, Milan (b. Dec. 19, 1942, Belgrade, Serbia - d. July 2, 2023, Belgrade), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1995-98) and president of Serbia (1997-2002). He was also Yugoslav ambassador to Greece (1989-95). He surrendered to the international war crimes tribunal in The Hague on Jan. 20, 2003, to face trial on charges relating to the 1999 Kosovo conflict. He was acquitted on Feb. 26, 2009.

Milverton (of Lagos and of Clifton), Arthur Frederick Richards, (1st) Baron (b. Feb. 21, 1885 - d. Oct. 27, 1978), governor of North Borneo (1930-33), Gambia (1934-36), Fiji (1936-38), Jamaica (1938-43), and Nigeria (1943-47). He was knighted in 1935 and created a baron in 1947.

Milyayev, Dmitry (Vyacheslavovich) (b. Aug. 29, 1975, Kireyevsk, Tula oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting governor of Tula oblast (2024- ). He was also mayor of Tula (2019-22).

Milyukov, Pavel (Nikolayevich), Milyukov also spelled Miliukov (b. Jan. 27 [Jan. 15, O.S.], 1859, Moscow, Russia - d. March 3, 1943, Aix-les-Bains, France), foreign minister of Russia (1917). He was also chairman of the Central Committee of the Constitutional Democratic Party (1907-17).

Milyutin, Graf Aleksey (Dmitriyevich) (b. Nov. 23 [Nov. 11, O.S.], 1845 - d. Feb. 2 [Jan. 20, O.S.], 1904), governor of Kursk (1892-1902); son of Graf Dmitry Milyutin.

Milyutin, Graf Dmitry (Alekseyevich) (b. July 10 [June 28, O.S.], 1816, Moscow, Russia - d. Feb. 7 [Jan. 25, O.S.], 1912, Simeiz, near Yalta, Russia [now in Ukraine]), war minister of Russia (1861-81); nephew of Graf Pavel Kiselyov. He was made Graf (count) in 1878.

Mimica, Neven (b. Oct. 12, 1953, Split, Croatia), Croatian politician. He was minister of European integration (2001-03), a deputy prime minister (2011-13), and EU commissioner for consumer protection (2013-14) and international cooperation and development (2014-19).

Mimiko, Olusegun (Rahman) (b. Oct. 3, 1954, Ondo [now in Ondo state], Nigeria), governor of Ondo (2009-17).

Mimouni, Sofiane (b. 1957, Algiers, Algeria), Algerian diplomat. He has been ambassador to Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Brunei, and Vanuatu (1996-2004), Iran (2009-14), and Turkey (2021- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2019-21).

Mims, Livingston (b. January 1830, Edgefield, S.C. - d. March 5, 1906, Atlanta, Ga.), mayor of Atlanta (1901-02).

Mimura, Shingo (b. April 16, 1956), governor of Aomori (2003-23).

Min Aung Hlaing (b. July 3, 1956, Tavoy, Burma [now Dawei, Myanmar]), chairman of the State Administrative Council (2021- ) and prime minister (2021- ) of Myanmar. He has been commander-in-chief of the armed forces from 2011.


F. Minah
Mina, Oscar (b. Sept. 24, 1958, Serravalle, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2009, 2022).

Minah, Francis (Mishek) (b. Aug. 19, 1929, Sawula, near Pujehun, Sierra Leone - d. [executed] Oct. 7, 1989), foreign minister (1975-77), justice minister (1977-78, 1982-84, 1985-87), finance minister (1978-80), second vice president (1984-85), and first vice president (1985-87) of Sierra Leone. He was also minister of trade and industry (1973-75) and health (1980-82). Following an alleged coup plot in Freetown on March 23, 1987, he was arrested and charged for treason, with 15 others, on April 6, 1987. All were found guilty and sentenced to death.

Minah, Vandi Chidi (b. Feb. 17, 1965, London, England), Sierra Leonean politician. He was minister of transport and aviation (2010-13) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-16).

Minami, Hiroshi (b. Nov. 13 [Oct. 10, lunar calendar], 1869, Himi [now in Toyama prefecture], Japan - d. Feb. 8, 1946), governor-general of Taiwan (1932). He was also Japanese chief of the cabinet secretariat (1908, 1911-12), governor of Fukuoka (1913-14), and minister of communications (1932-34).

Minami, Jiro (b. Aug. 10, 1874, Oita prefecture, Japan - d. Dec. 6, 1955, Tokyo, Japan), war minister of Japan (1931) and governor-general of Kwantung (1934-36) and Korea (1936-42). He was also ambassador to Manchukuo (1934-36). He was sentenced to life imprisonment for war crimes in 1948 and released in 1954.

Miñano (Mendocilla), Carlos (Alfredo), war minister of Peru (1954-55). He was also minister of agriculture (1948-49).

Minasse Haile (b. Feb. 12, 1930, Harar, Ethiopia), foreign minister of Ethiopia (1971-74). He was also minister of state for information and tourism (1966-69) and ambassador to the United States (1969-71). He was arrested after the overthrow of the monarchy in 1974 but was released in 1975.

Minc, Hilary (b. Aug. 24, 1905, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland - d. Nov. 26, 1974, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1949-56). He was also minister of industry and trade (1945-49) and chairman of the Planning Commission (1949-54).

Minchin, Nick, byname of Nicholas Hugh Minchin (b. April 15, 1953, Sydney, N.S.W.), finance minister of Australia (2001-07). He was also minister of industry, science, and resources (1998-2001).

Mindaoudou (Souleymane), Aïchatou (b. Oct. 14, 1959, Birni-N'Konni, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (1999-2000, 2001-10). She was also minister of social development, population, and women's promotion (1995-96) and UN special representative for Côte d'Ivoire (2013-17).

Mindon Min1 (b. July 8, 1808, Amarapura, Kingdom of Awa [now Myanmar] - d. Oct. 1, 1878, Mandalay, Awa), king of Awa (1853-78). He was a brother of Pagan Min, who ruled during the Second Anglo-Burmese War in 1852. Mindon was the leader of the peace faction during the war. Wresting the throne from his brother, he sued for peace and began negotiations with the British on the status of Pegu, which the British had occupied. Failing to persuade them to return Pegu, he accepted a much-reduced dominion, cut off from the sea and deprived of some of the richest teak forests and rice-growing regions. In order to retain the kingdom's independence, he cultivated good relations with Britain, remaining neutral during the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58 and signing a commercial treaty in 1867 that gave the British generous economic concessions. In 1872 he sent his chief minister, the Kinwun Mingyi U Gaung, on a diplomatic mission to London, Paris, and Rome to secure international recognition as an independent country and to appeal for restoration of the lost territory. Domestically, he conserved Burmese tradition while modernizing the administration. His reign is sometimes considered a golden age of Burmese culture and religious life. In 1857 he founded a new capital, Mandalay, with palaces and monasteries that are masterpieces of traditional Burmese architecture. He also sought to make Mandalay a centre of Buddhist learning and convoked the Fifth Buddhist Council there in 1871 in an effort to revise and purify the Pali scriptures. Among his reforms were the thathameda, the assessed land tax, and fixed salaries for government officials. He standardized the country's weights and measures, built roads and a telegraph system, and was the first Awa king to issue coinage.
1 Literally "Prince of Mindon," a style conferred before accession; used colloquially instead of the very complex official name as king.

Mineta, Norman Y(oshio) (b. Nov. 12, 1931, San Jose, Calif. - d. May 3, 2022, Edgewater, Md.), U.S. secretary of commerce (2000-01) and of transportation (2001-06). In 1971-74 he was mayor of San Jose, the first Asian-American mayor of a major U.S. city.

Ming, Renée (Denise Lavern Anderson-) (b. St. George's, Bermuda), national security minister of Bermuda (2020- ).

Minger, Rudolf (b. Nov. 13, 1881, Mülchi [now part of Fraubrunnen], Bern, Switzerland - d. Aug. 23, 1955, Schüpfen, Bern), president of Switzerland (1935). He was also president of the National Council (1927-28) and military minister (1930-40).

Minghetti, Marco (b. Nov. 8, 1818, Bologna, Papal State [now in Italy] - d. Dec. 10, 1886, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1863-64, 1873-76). He was also minister of interior (1860-61), finance (1862-64, 1873-76), and agriculture, industry, and commerce (1869) and ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1870-71).

Minic, Milomir (b. Oct. 5, 1950, Dracic, Serbia), prime minister of Serbia (2000-01).

Minic, Milos (b. Aug. 28, 1914, Preljina, Serbia - d. Sept. 5, 2003, Belgrade, Serbia), mayor of Belgrade (1955-57), president of the Executive Council (1957-62) and of the National Assembly (1967-69) of Serbia, and foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1972-78). He was a close associate of Josip Broz Tito, who took power in Yugoslavia after World War II and ruled it until he died in 1980. Minic joined Tito's Communist Party in 1936 and fought in its units against the Nazis during the war. After the war, he became the state prosecutor and held that post until 1950. He was instrumental in the prosecution of the Serbian anti-Communist guerrilla leader Draza Mihailovic, who was sentenced for alleged treason and executed by the Communist authorities in 1945. He was also a deputy premier of Yugoslavia (1963-65, 1972-78).

Minikh, Graf Khristofor (Antonovich), German Burchard Christoph von Münnich (b. May 19 [May 9, O.S.], 1683, Neuenhuntorf, Oldenburg [now part of Berne, Niedersachsen, Germany] - d. Oct. 27 [Oct. 16, O.S.], 1767, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor-general of St. Petersburg (1728-34) and president of the Collegium of War of Russia (1732-41). He was made Graf (count) in 1728.

Minikon, Christopher (Tugba Moses) (b. May 24, 1933, Grand Cess, Liberia - d. July 4, 2019, Rockville, Md.), Liberian diplomat; brother of Patrick Minikon. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1975) and ambassador to South Korea (1985-91).

Minikon, Patrick (Moses) (d. May 31, 1989), national security minister of Liberia (1982-89).

Minin, Mikhail (Petrovich) (b. 1897, Zheshart, Vologda province [now in Komi republic], Russia - d. [in prison] Sept. 26, 1938, Syktyvkar, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Komi autonomous oblast (1922).

Minner, Ruth Ann, née Coverdale (b. Jan. 17, 1935, Slaughter Neck, near Milford, Del. - d. Nov. 4, 2021), governor of Delaware (2001-09). In 1972 she landed a job as a receptionist in the office of Gov. Sherman Tribbitt. In 1974 she ran for the state House and won. In 1982 she was elected to the state Senate. In the legislature, she helped build the state's open space protection program, worked on education and public safety, and chaired a commission that reorganized state agencies. In 1992 she ran for lieutenant governor as Democratic Congressman-at-Large Tom Carper's running mate, but the offices are elected separately. She was easily reelected in 1996, so when she ran for governor in 2000, she had already won two statewide elections. She was unopposed in the Democratic primary. The Republican primary was won by former state Senate majority leader John Burris, who defeated former judge Bill Lee by 46 votes. Minner ran as a successor to Carper, who had continued former governor Pete du Pont's policy of cutting income taxes even as, helped by the state's surging economy, he increased state spending by 40%. Burris called for addressing the state's high rates of cancer and drug abuse, and for addressing environmental problems by smart planning. Minner was ahead in polls all along; she won 59%-40%. She failed to get the legislature to increase the cigarette tax, but did get it to pass a law banning smoking in public buildings, including restaurants and bars. It took effect in November 2002, and Minner was picketed by bar owners with signs saying, "Ban Ruth Ann." She faced controversies about the state police - a demand in 2001 from the state NAACP for the firing of the agency's superintendent, a lawsuit in 2002 brought by white troopers who claimed there were racial quotas. She was reelected in 2004, defeating Lee 51%-46%.

Minnih, Ahmed Ould (b. 1944, Boutilimit, Mauritania - d. [automobile accident] Oct. 15, 1998), foreign minister of Mauritania (1981-84, 1984-86). He was also governor of Tagant region (1978-79) and minister of interior, posts, and telecommunications (1991-92, 1997-98) and defense (1992-95).


Minnikhanov, Rustam (Nurgaliyevich) (b. March 1, 1957, Novy Arish, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister (1998-2010) and president/head of the republic (2010- ) of Tatarstan.

Minnis, Hubert (Alexander) (b. April 17, 1954, Bain Town, Bahamas), prime minister (2017-21) and finance minister (2020-21) of The Bahamas. He was also minister of health (2007-12) and social development (2007-08).

Minniti, Marco, byname of Domenico Minniti (b. June 6, 1956, Reggio Calabria, Italy), interior minister of Italy (2016-18).


Minns, Chris(topher John) (b. Sept. 17, 1979, Sydney, N.S.W.), premier of New South Wales (2023- ).

Minor, William T(homas) (b. Oct. 3, 1815, Stamford, Conn. - d. Oct. 13, 1889, Stamford), governor of Connecticut (1855-57).

Minoves Triquell, Juli (F.) (b. Aug. 15, 1969, Andorra la Vella, Andorra), foreign minister of Andorra (2001-07). He was also chargé d'affaires (1994-95) and permanent representative (1995-2001) to the United Nations, ambassador to the United States (1996-2001) and Spain (1998-2001), and minister of culture and cooperation (2005-07), culture and higher education (2007), and economic development, tourism, culture, and universities (2007-09).

Minshull, Simon (Peter) (b. Nov. 21, 1968), administrator of Ascension (2022- ).

Minshull-Ford, John (Randle) (b. May 12, 1881 - d. April 1, 1948), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1940).

Mintas-Hodak, Ljerka (b. Jan. 26, 1952, Zagreb, Croatia), a deputy prime minister of Croatia (1995-2000). She was also minister of European integration (1998-2000).

Minto, Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, (1st) Earl of, (1st) Viscount Melgund (of Melgund) (b. April 23, 1751, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. June 21, 1814, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, England), governor-general of India (1807-13). He was also viceroy of Corsica (1794-96) and British minister to Austria (1799-1801). In 1794 Elliot assumed the additional names of Murray-Kynynmound (from his mother's family); he was created Baron Minto (of Minto) in 1798 and Earl of Minto and Viscount Melgund in 1813.

Minto, Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, (2nd) Earl of, (2nd) Viscount Melgund (of Melgund), original name Gilbert Elliot (b. Nov. 16, 1782, Lyon, France - d. July 31, 1859, London, England), British politician; son of the above. He was minister to Prussia (1832-34), first lord of the Admiralty (1835-41), and lord privy seal (1846-52). He succeeded as earl in 1814.

4th Earl of Minto
Minto, Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, (4th) Earl of, (4th) Viscount Melgund (of Melgund), (4th) Baron Minto (of Minto), (7th) Baronet (b. July 9, 1845, London, England - d. March 1, 1914, Minto, Roxburgh, Scotland), governor general of Canada (1898-1904) and viceroy of India (1905-10); grandson of Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, (2nd) Earl of Minto. He was present in an unofficial capacity during part of the Second Afghan War in 1879 and fought in the Egyptian campaign of 1882. He went to Canada as a military secretary in 1883 and took part in the suppression of the Riel rebellion of 1885. In 1886 he returned to England, where he succeeded to his father's titles in 1891. As governor general of Canada, he reconciled the policies of Canadian prime minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier and British colonial secretary Joseph Chamberlain. As viceroy of India, he worked closely with John Morley, the secretary of state for India. The two introduced major reforms in 1909 designed to satisfy educated Indians, strengthen the hands of moderate leaders of the Indian National Congress party, and prevent the rising tide of nationalism from being diverted into extremist channels. Two Indian members were appointed to the council of the secretary of state and one to the viceroy's executive council, and separate Hindu and Muslim electorates were established to increase Muslim representation. Minto also encouraged the foundation of the Muslim League as a rival organization to the Congress in what has been criticized as a "divide and rule" policy that ultimately led to the partition of India in 1947. He believed in decisive action against resistance to British rule. He revived a regulation of 1818 to deport without trial the revolutionaries Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh (1907) and took fresh powers to control the press and to deal with the making of explosives (1908).

Mintoff, Dom(inic) (b. Aug. 6, 1916, Cospicua, Malta - d. Aug. 20, 2012, Tarxien, Malta), prime minister (1955-58, 1971-84), finance minister (1955-58), foreign minister (1971-81), and interior minister (1983-84) of Malta. He was general secretary of the Labour Party in 1936-37. In 1945 he was elected to the Council of Government and in 1947 was elected to parliament. He served as deputy prime minister and minister for works in 1947-49. In 1949 he became leader of the reorganized Malta Labour Party. He was prime minister from 1955 but resigned in 1958 to lead the movement for independence, which was achieved in 1964. From 1962 to 1971 he was leader of the opposition to the Nationalist government of Giorgio Borg Olivier. When Olivier lost the general election in June 1971, Mintoff returned to power. Under his leadership Malta's relations with Britain fell to a low ebb, especially when he declared that the use of Malta as a "NATO aircraft carrier" was humiliating and must be ended. The withdrawal of British forces began in January 1972, but on March 26 the U.K. government undertook to pay Malta £14 million annually for the next seven years for the use of Malta as a naval base. When this agreement expired in 1979 and was not renewed, the British base was finally closed down on March 31. He also had expelled British journalists and many businessmen and drawn close to the leftist governments in Libya and Algeria. However, relations with Libya were strained in 1980 by a dispute over the continental-shelf boundary, and he then entered into an agreement with Italy guaranteeing Malta's neutrality. In the 1981 elections Mintoff's government won a third term, although it lost the popular vote. He resigned as Labour Party leader and prime minister in 1984, but remained in parliament until 1998.

Minuto Rizzo, Alessandro (b. Sept. 10, 1940, Rome, Italy), deputy secretary-general (2001-07) and acting secretary-general (2003-04) of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Miquilena (Hernández), Luis (Manuel) (b. July 29, 1919, Coro, Falcón, Venezuela - d. Nov. 24, 2016, Caracas, Venezuela), interior and justice minister of Venezuela (1999, 2001-02). He was also president of the Constituent Assembly (1999) and the National Legislative Commission (2000).

Mir Khan, Mohammad (b. Jan. 4, 1904, Hyderabad, India - d. ...), Pakistani diplomat. He was minister to Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland (1951-53), permanent representative to the United Nations (1954-57), and ambassador to France and the Vatican (1957-59).

Mir Osman Ali Khan Asaf Jah VII, Fath Jang (b. April 5, 1886, Hyderabad, India - d. Feb. 24, 1967, Hyderabad), nizam (1911-50) and rajpramukh (1950-56) of Hyderabad.

Miraflores, Manuel Pando Fernández de Pinedo, marqués de (b. Dec. 23, 1792, Madrid, Spain - d. Feb. 20, 1872, Madrid), prime minister (1846, 1863-64) and foreign minister (1846, 1851-52, 1863-64) of Spain. He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1834-36), ambassador to France (1838-40) and the Papal State (1860-61), and president of the Senate (1845-46, 1847-51, 1852-53, 1866-68). He succeeded to the marqués title in 1830.

Miramende, Jacques Louis (b. Oct. 23, 1869 - d. Oct. 1, 1968), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1913-16, 1920-21).

Miramón (y Tarelo), Miguel (Gregorio de la Luz Atenógenes) (b. Nov. 17, 1831, Mexico City - d. June 19, 1867, near Querétaro, Mexico), Mexican politician. He fought against the United States in the battles of 1847 and rose to the rank of colonel in 1855. The next year he participated in the struggle against the Liberal forces who were then led by the provisional president Ignacio Comonfort. Miramón led the Conservative forces in the bitter, three-year civil war which followed (1857-60). In 1858 he helped establish Félix Zuloaga as Conservative president in opposition to the Liberals led by Benito Juárez. Miramón succeeded Zuloaga as interim president in August 1860 only to be overthrown when Liberal troops took Mexico City in December. He fled to Cuba and then went to Europe. Following various manoeuvres he offered his services to Napoléon III of France, who, for imperialistic reasons, persuaded Archduke Maximilian of Austria to assume the crown of Mexico. Miramón returned to Mexico in 1863 as the grand marshal of Maximilian's empire. He served as the Mexican minister in Berlin (1864-66) but rushed back to Mexico when it appeared that Maximilian would abdicate his tottering throne. Miramón persuaded the emperor to continue the struggle and again entered the army. He fell back to defend the remnant of the court at Querétaro, and after the capture of that city by the forces of Juárez in May 1867, he was taken prisoner and executed on a nearby hill together with Maximilian and another general, Tomás Mejía.

Miranda, Antonio dos Passos (b. March 24, 1847, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Dec. 8, 1899, Belém, Pará, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1874-75), Amazonas (1875-76), Rio Grande do Norte (1876-77), and Alagoas (1877-78).

Miranda, Antônio Guedes de (b. May 16, 1888, Porto Calvo, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Aug. 1, 1961, Maceió, Alagoas), governor of Alagoas (1945-47).

Miranda (y Rodríguez), (Sebastián) Francisco de (b. March 28, 1750, Caracas, Viceroyalty of New Granada [now in Venezuela] - d. July 14, 1816, Cádiz, Spain), general-in-chief of Venezuela (1812). He served in the Spanish army, was imprisoned for disobedience, but was released in 1780 and sent to Cuba to fight against Britain during the American revolutionary war. Accused of misuse of funds there, he protested his innocence and fled to the United States in 1783. Later he traveled widely in Europe, becoming a favourite of Yekaterina II of Russia, discussing with British prime minister William Pitt his plans for the liberation of the Spanish colonies in America (he envisioned an independent empire, stretching from the Mississippi to Cape Horn, under the leadership of a hereditary emperor from the Incan royal family), and fighting in the French revolutionary wars (commanding a division operating in the Austrian Netherlands in 1792-93). In 1806 he led an expedition to Venezuela, but there was no general rising and he was obliged to withdraw. However, in 1810 a revolutionary government was formed in Caracas. This was the signal for Miranda to return to his own land, and after eloquent speeches by Miranda and Simón Bolívar the first republic in South America was proclaimed in 1811. In 1812 he ruled Venezuela briefly as dictator, but a royalist counterattack prompted him to sign an armistice yielding the country to the Spanish. He was arrested and sent to Spain, where he died in prison. Remarkable for having taken part in revolutions on three continents, he remains known as El Precursor - "the forerunner" of those (especially Bolívar) who eventually succeeded in liberating Spanish America. The Venezuelan state of Miranda is named after him.

Miranda, Francisco Eugénio Pereira de (d. April 19, 1895, Luanda, Angola), governor of São Tomé and Príncipe (1891-94) and acting governor-general of Angola (1894-95).

Jaime Miranda

J.B. de Miranda

Julio Miranda
Miranda (Flamenco), Jaime (Alfredo) (b. Aug. 12, 1955, Aguilares municipality, San Salvador department, El Salvador), foreign minister of El Salvador (2013-14).

Miranda, João Antonio de (b. Dec. 23, 1805, Rio de Janeiro captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. Nov. 1, 1861), president of Ceará (1839-40), Pará (1840), and Maranhão (1841-42).

Miranda, João Bernardo de (b. July 18, 1952, Caxito-Dande [now in Bengo province], Angola), foreign minister of Angola (1999-2008). He has also been governor of Bengo (2009-18) and ambassador to France (2018- ).

Miranda, José Ribamar de (b. March 31, 1909 - d. Oct. 4, 1971), governor of Guaporé/Rondônia (1955-56).

Miranda, Julio (Antonio) (b. Oct. 17, 1946, Manuel García Fernández, Tucumán, Argentina - d. June 6, 2021, Tucumán), governor of Tucumán (1999-2003).

Miranda, Julius Caesar de (b. April 3, 1906, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Nov. 28, 1956, Paramaribo, Suriname), prime minister of Suriname (1949-51).

M. Miranda
Miranda, Marcelo de Carvalho (b. Oct. 10, 1961, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil), governor of Tocantins (2003-09, 2015-18).

Miranda, Pedro (José Rodrigues) Pires de (b. Nov. 30, 1928, Leiria, Portugal - d. April 20, 2015), foreign minister of Portugal (1985-87). He was also minister of commerce and tourism (1978).

Miranda, Quintino José de (b. 1831 - d. 1892), acting president of Pernambuco (1868).

Miranda Reis, José de Miranda da Silva Reis, barão de (b. Nov. 28, 1824, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Jan. 1, 1903, Rio de Janeiro), president of Amazonas (1870-72) and Mato Grosso (1872-74). He was made baron in 1881.

Mirandolle, Charles Jean François (b. Sept. 28, 1827, Paramaribo, Suriname - d. June 21, 1884, Haarlem, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was acting chairman of the Second Chamber (1881).

Mirani, Aftab Shahban (b. Shikarpur, Sind, India [now in Pakistan]), chief minister of Sindh (1990) and defense minister of Pakistan (1993-96).

Mirasty, Russell (B.) (b. 1957?, La Ronge, Sask.), lieutenant governor of Saskatchewan (2019- ).

Miret Prieto, Pedro (b. Feb. 19, 1927, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba - d. Jan. 15, 2016, Havana, Cuba), Cuban politician. He was minister of agriculture (1959-60) and mining and metallurgy (1967-73), a deputy premier (1972-74, 1983-2009), and a vice president of the Council of State (1986-93).

Mirfendereski, (Soltan-)Ahmad (b. June 8, 1918, Tehran, Persia [now Iran] - d. May 2, 2004, Paris, France), foreign minister of Iran (1979). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1965-71).

Mirgazyamov, Marat (Parisovich) (b. 1942, Karaidel, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Bashkortostan (1986-92).

Mirghani, Abdel Karim (b. 1924), Sudanese politician. He was ambassador to India, Japan, and Ceylon (1960-64), Italy (1965-66), Greece (1966-68), and the United Arab Republic (1968-69) and minister of commerce, industry, supply, and cooperation (1964), economy and foreign trade (1969), and planning (1969-70).

A. al-Mirghani
Mirghani, Ahmad (Ali) al- (b. Aug. 16, 1941, Khartoum North, Sudan - d. Nov. 2, 2008, Alexandria, Egypt), chairman of the Supreme Council of The Sudan (1986-89). In 2001 he left Egypt to return to Sudan from 12 years of exile.

Mirisim, Solan (b. Sept. 10, 1978), defense minister (2017-19, 2019, 2020-22) and foreign minister (2019) of Papua New Guinea. He has also been minister of commerce and industry, civil aviation, and fisheries (2019), forests (2019-20, 2022), and works and highway (2022- ).

Mirkasimov, Mirakhmat (Mirkhadzhiyevich) (b. Oct. 2, 1941, Tashkent, Uzbek S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1989-90). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Khorezm (1986-88) and Tashkent (1988-89) oblasti.

Mirkovich, Fyodor (Yakovlevich) (b. Dec. 6 [Nov. 25, O.S.], 1789 - d. May 18 [May 6, O.S.], 1866), governor-general of Lithuania/Vilna, Kovno, and Grodno (1840-50).

Miró Cardona, José (b. Aug. 22, 1902, Havana, Cuba - d. Aug. 10, 1974, San Juan, Puerto Rico), premier of Cuba (1959). He was also ambassador to Spain (1959-60).

Miró Quesada (de la Guerra), Luis (b. Dec. 5, 1880, Lima, Peru - d. March 24, 1976, Lima), foreign minister of Peru (1931-32). He was also mayor of Lima (1916-18) and minister to Switzerland (1933-36).

Mironescu, Gheorghe G. (b. Jan. 28, 1874, Vaslui, Romania - d. Oct. 8, 1949, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister (1928-31), prime minister (1930, 1930-31), finance minister (1932), and interior minister (1933) of Romania. He was also minister of education (1921-22) and deputy prime minister (1932-33).

D. Mironov
Mironov, Dmitry (Yuryevich) (b. Oct. 13, 1968, Khabarovsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Yaroslavl oblast (2016-21).

Mironov, Nikolay (Yefimovich) (b. May 8, 1936, Starye Yatchi, Udmurt A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Jan. 30, 1999), prime minister of Udmurtia (1990-93).

Mironov, Sergey (Mikhailovich) (b. Feb. 14, 1953, Pushkin, Leningrad [now St. Petersburg] city, Russian S.F.S.R.), Russian politician. He has been chairman of the Federation Council (2001-11), chairman of A Just Russia (2006-11, 2013- ), and a minor presidential candidate (2004, 2012).

Mirovic, Igor (b. July 12, 1968, Krusevac, Serbia), chairman of the government of Vojvodina (2016-24). He was also Serbian minister of regional development and local government (2013-14) and economy (acting, 2014).

Mirsafayev, Sirojiddin (Mirsafayevich), justice minister of Uzbekistan (1995-2000).

Mirsaidov, Shukurulla (Rakhmatovich) (b. Feb. 14, 1939, Leninabad [now Khujand], Tadzhik S.S.R. - d. Nov. 2, 2012, Tashkent, Uzbekistan), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1990). He was also mayor of Tashkent (1985-88), first deputy premier and chairman of the State Planning Committee (1989-90), and vice president (1990-92).

Mirtskhulava, Aleksandr (Iordanovich) (b. May 12, 1911, Khobi, Kutaisi province, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. June 2009, Tbilisi, Georgia), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars/Ministers of the Abkhaz A.S.S.R. (1943-47) and first secretary of the Communist Party of the Georgian S.S.R. (1953).

Mirza, Prince Abdol Hossein (b. 1858, Tehran, Iran - d. Nov. 22, 1939, Reswanieh, Shemiran, Tehran province, Iran), prime minister of Iran (1915, 1915-16). He was also governor of Kerman and Baluchistan (1892-94, 1895-97), Urumiya and Khoi (1894-95), Kermanshah (1903-06, 1913-14), Burjund and Luristan (1904-06), Kerman (1906-07), and Tabriz (1911), governor-general of Fars (1898-99, 1916-21) and Azerbaijan (1907-09), and minister of war (1897-98, 1910-11), justice (1907, 1909), and interior (1909, 1910, 1915).

I. Mirza
Mirza, Iskander (Ali) (b. Nov. 13, 1899, Bombay [now Mumbai], India - d. Nov. 13, 1969, London, England), governor of East Bengal (1954) and interior minister (1954-55), governor-general (1955-56), and president (1956-58) of Pakistan. He joined the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst and was the first Indian cadet to become an officer in the British army (1920). In 1926 he entered the Indian political service. He became political agent in the Khyber in 1938, deputy commissioner of Peshawar in 1940, political agent in the Orissa states in 1945, and joint secretary in the Ministry of Defense in New Delhi in 1946. Following the partition of India in 1947 he was assigned to organize the Pakistani army as defense secretary. As governor of East Bengal in 1954 he was granted full emergency powers to deal with the disorders in the region. Mirza arranged for a fair distribution of food in the area and used hard measures to restore order. He took over the duties of governor-general in August 1955 when Ghulam Mohammad suffered from poor health; he succeeded to the office when Mohammad resigned in October. When Pakistan was declared a republic in 1956, Mirza became its first president. His rule became increasingly autocratic in the face of rampant corruption, a short food supply, rising prices, and approaching bankruptcy. In October 1958 he abrogated the constitution and ended parliamentary government. He declared martial law and named Gen. Mohammad Ayub Khan to administer it. Ayub Khan forced Mirza's resignation later in the month and replaced him as president. Mirza went into exile in London the following month.

Mirza-Akhmedov, Mansur (Ziyayevich) (b. Jan. 13, 1909 [Dec. 31, 1908, O.S.], Syrdarya oblast, Russia [roughly modern Uzbekistan] - d. May 3, 1971), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1957-59). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Andizhan oblast (1949-56) and minister of public utilities (1961-66).

Mirza Ali Asghar Khan, styled Amin-e Soltan, Atabak-e Azam (b. 1856 - d. [assassinated] Aug. 31, 1907), prime minister of Iran (1907).

Mirza Hassan Khan, styled (from age 8) Mustaufi ul-Mamalek (or Mostofi al-Mamalek) (b. 1874 - d. Aug. 27, 1932), prime minister of Iran (1910-11, 1914-15, 1915, 1915, 1917, 1918-21, 1923, 1926-27).

Mirza Hassan Khan Pirnia, styled Mushir ul-Mulk (1899-1907) and Mushir ud-Daula (from October 1907) (b. 1872 - d. Nov. 21, 1935, Tehran, Iran), foreign minister (1907-08, 1925-26) and prime minister (1922, 1923) of Iran; son of Mirza Nasrollah Khan.

Mirza Nasrollah Khan, styled Mushir ud-Daula (b. 18... - d. 1907), prime minister of Iran (1907).

Mirzabekov, Abdurazak (Mardanovich) (b. Jan. 30, 1938, Makhachkala, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. July 17, 2008), prime minister of Dagestan (1987-97). He was also deputy premier (1984-87).

Mirzayev, Ruslan (Erkinovich) (b. Feb. 21, 1965, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China), defense minister of Uzbekistan (2005-08).


A. Mirzoyan

K. Mirzoyan
Mirziyayev, Shavkat (Miramanovich), Uzbek Shavkat (Miromonovich) Mirziyoyev (b. July 24, 1957, Zaamin district, Samarkand oblast, Uzbek S.S.R. [now in Dzhizak region, Uzbekistan]), prime minister (2003-16) and president (2016- ) of Uzbekistan. He was hokim (head) of Dzhizak region from 1996 to September 2001 and hokim of Samarkand region from September 2001 to December 2003.

Mirzoyan, Ararat (Samvelovich) (b. Nov. 23, 1979, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Armenia (2021- ). He was also first deputy prime minister (2018-19) and chairman of the National Assembly (2019-21).

Mirzoyan, Karen (Ambartsumovich) (b. Dec. 7, 1965, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Nagorno-Karabakh (2012-17).

Mirzoyan, Levon (Isayevich) (b. Nov. 14 [Nov. 2, O.S.], 1897 - d. [executed] Feb. 26, 1939), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1926-29) and the Kazakh S.S.R. (1936-38). He was also people's commissar of labour of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. (1921-22), executive secretary of the party committees of Baku city (1922-29) and Perm okrug (1929-30), and first secretary of the party committee of the Kazakh A.S.S.R. (1933-36).

Mirzoyev, Akbar (b. Feb. 15, 1939, Nurek, Tadzhik S.S.R.), prime minister of Tajikistan (1992). He was also chairman of the executive committees of Kulyab (1987-88, 1990-92) and Khatlon (1988-90) oblasti and chargé d'affaires (1992-94) and ambassador (1994-2001) to Germany.

Misa, Ionut (b. Jan. 7, 1975), finance minister of Romania (2017-18).

Misajlovski, Vlado (b. Jan. 21, 1985, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), defense minister of North Macedonia (2024- ).

Misák, Stanislav (b. Nov. 9, 1952), governor of Zlínský kraj (2008-16).

Misetic, Bosiljko (b. Sept. 10, 1945, Grabovnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina), justice minister of Croatia (1991-92). He was also a deputy prime minister (1995).

Misevicius, Audrius (b. Feb. 16, 1959, Leipalingis, Lithuanian S.S.R.), finance minister of Lithuania (1992).

Mishaal (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. 1926 - d. May 3, 2017), Saudi prince; son of Abdul Aziz. He was defense minister (1951-56), governor of Makkah (1963-71), and chairman of the Allegiance Council (2007-17).

Mishaal ibn Abdullah (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. 1973?), Saudi prince; son of Abdullah; grandson of Abdul Aziz. He was governor of Najran (2009-13), Makkah (2013-15), and Hudud al-Shamaliyah (2015-17).

Mishaal ibn Majid (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. 1957?), Saudi prince; son of Majid; grandson of Abdul Aziz. He was governor of Jeddah (1998-2022).

Mishaal ibn Saud (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. 1947?), Saudi prince; son of Saud; grandson of Abdul Aziz. He was governor of Najran (1996-2008).

Mishal Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah, Sheikh (b. Sept. 27, 1940, Kuwait), emir of Kuwait (2023- ); son of Sheikh Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah; half-brother of Sheikh Nawaf Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah.

Mishari ibn Saud (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. December 1954, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Saudi prince; son of Saud; grandson of Abdul Aziz. He was governor of al-Bahah (2010-17).

Misharin, Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) (b. Jan. 21, 1959, Sverdlovsk, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Yekaterinburg, Russia]), governor of Sverdlovsk oblast (2009-12).

Mishchenko, Pavel (Ivanovich) (b. Feb. 3 [Jan. 22, O.S.], 1853, Temir-Khan-Shura [now Buynaksk], Dagestan, Russia - d. 1919, Temir-Khan-Shura), governor-general of Turkestan (1908-09). He was also ataman of the Don Cossack Host (1911-12).

Misherin, Yefim (Mikhailovich) (b. April 6, 1890, Bolshelug, Vologda province [now in Komi republic], Russia - d. Feb. 2, 1967, Storozhevsk, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of Komi autonomous oblast (1924-27). He was also mayor of Ust-Sysolsk (1924-28).

B.D. Mishra

B.C. Mishra
Mishra, B.D. (b. July 20, 1939, Kathauta village, United Provinces [now in Bhadohi district, Uttar Pradesh], India), governor of Arunachal Pradesh (2017-23) and Meghalaya (2022-23) and lieutenant governor of Ladakh (2023- ).

Mishra, Brajesh Chandra (b. Sept. 29, 1928 - d. Sept. 28, 2012, New Delhi, India), UN commissioner for Namibia (1982-87); son of Dwarka Prasad Mishra. He was also Indian chargé d'affaires in China (1969-73), ambassador to Indonesia (1977-79), and permanent representative to the UN (1979-81).

Mishra, Dwarka Prasad (b. 1901 - d. May 31, 1988), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1963-67).

Mishra, Jagannath (b. June 24, 1937, Basanpatti, Bhagalpur district [now in Supaul district], Bihar, India - d. Aug. 19, 2019, Delhi, India), chief minister of Bihar (1975-77, 1980-83, 1989-90). He was also Indian minister of rural areas and employment (1995-96) and agriculture (1996).

Kai. Mishra

Kal. Mishra
Mishra, Kailashpati (b. Oct. 5, 1926, Dudharchak, Buxar district, Bihar, India - d. Nov. 3, 2012, Patna, Bihar), governor of Gujarat (2003-04) and Rajasthan (2003-04).

Mishra, Kalraj (b. July 1, 1941, Malikpur village, Ghazipur district, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), governor of Himachal Pradesh (2019) and Rajasthan (2019- ). He was also Indian minister of micro, small, and medium enterprises (2014-17).

Mishra, Loknath (b. Nov. 21, 1922 - d. May 27, 2009, Bhubaneswar, Orissa [now Odisha], India), governor of Assam (1991-97), Arunachal Pradesh (1991), and Nagaland (1992-93).

Mishra, Shyam Nandan (b. October 1920, Gonawan, Patna district, Bihar, India - d. Oct. 25, 2004, Kadamkuan locality, Patna, Bihar), foreign minister of India (1979-80). He was a member of the Constituent Assembly and was the parliamentary secretary to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. He was elected to the Lok Sabha from Madhubani in 1952 and 1957. After a split in the Congress party, he joined Congress (O) and was leader of opposition in the Rajya Sabha. He came close to Jayaprakash Narayan and during the emergency in 1975 was lodged in Bangalore jail. He was minister for external affairs in the Charan Singh government.

Mishra, Sripati (b. Jan. 20, 1924, Shekhupur village [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Dec. 7, 2002, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1982-84).

Mishustin, Mikhail (Vladimirovich) (b. March 3, 1966, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Russia (2020- ). He was also director of the Federal Taxation Service (2010-20).

Misick, Ariel (Rudolph) (b. Aug. 11, 1951, North Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands), member of the Advisory Council of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1986-87).

M. Misick

W. Misick
Misick, Michael (Eugene) (b. Feb. 2, 1966, Bottle Creek, North Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands), chief minister (2003-06) and premier (2006-09) of the Turks and Caicos Islands; brother of Washington Misick.

Misick, (Charles) Washington (b. March 13, 1950, Bottle Creek, North Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands), chief minister (1991-95) and premier and finance minister (2021- ) of the Turks and Caicos Islands. He was leader of the opposition in 1995-2002 and 2016-21. In 2012-16 he was minister of finance, trade, and investment.

Misimoa, Afioga Afoafouvale, also called Harry (William) Moors (b. Sept. 25, 1900, Samoa - d. Feb. 18, 1971, Tarawa, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Kiribati]), secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1970-71).

Misiukonis, Marijonas (b. Feb. 1, 1939, Viciunai, Lithuania), interior minister of the Lithuanian S.S.R./Lithuania (1989-91).

Misiunas, Eimutis (b. April 1, 1973, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), interior minister (2016-19) and acting justice minister (2018) of Lithuania.

Miska, Pali (b. May 19, 1931, Korçë, Albania - d. 2008), Albanian politician. He was first secretary of the party committees of Pukë (1969-75) and Korçë (1988-89) districts, minister of industry and mines (1975-76), energy (1982), and agriculture (1989-91), a deputy premier (1976-82, 1989-91), and chairman of the People's Assembly (1982-87).

Miske, Ahmed Baba Ould Ahmed (b. March 30, 1931, Chinguetti, Mauritania), Mauritanian diplomat. He was ambassador to Ivory Coast and Guinea (1960-64) and the United States (1964-66) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-66).

Miske, Ahmed Bazeid Ould Ahmed (b. 1933, Chinguetti, Mauritania), defense minister of Mauritania (1966-67); brother of Ahmed Baba Ould Ahmed Miske.

Miskine, Idriss (b. March 15, 1948, Fort-Lamy [now N'Djamena], Chad, French Equatorial Africa - d. Jan. 7, 1984, N'Djamena), Chadian politician. A member of the Hadjarai tribe, he served under Pres. Félix Malloum as minister of transport, posts, and telecommunications before joining Hissène Habré's Armed Forces of the North (FAN) opposition movement in 1979. In June 1982 he helped in the recapture of N'Djamena, the country's capital, from Goukouni Oueddei's Transitional Government of National Union (GUNT). In October 1982 he became foreign minister under President Habré. In 1983 he was in command of government forces at the strategic northern town of Faya-Largeau against Oueddei's Libyan-backed troops, and he took a leading part in diplomatic moves against Libyan involvement in the conflict. By the end of 1983 he was negotiating in preparation for talks with the rebels to end the civil war, but he died shortly after his return from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where he had been making the final arrangements for these talks. His death was viewed as a considerable personal and political blow to President Habré.

Miskovic, Milan (b. Jan. 8, 1918, Premantura, near Pula, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia] - d. 1978), interior minister of Yugoslavia (1965-67).

Misra, Gati Krushna (b. Nov. 1, 1913 - d. July 6, 2009, Cuttack, India), acting governor of Orissa (1972, 1974). He was chief justice of the Orissa High Court (1969-75).

Misra, Tribeni Sahai (b. Nov. 15, 1922, Mahona, Lucknow district, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Oct. 24, 2005), governor of Assam and Meghalaya (1984). He was chief justice of the Guwahati High Court (1983-84).

Missick, (Richard) Emmanuel, member of the Advisory Council of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1986-87).

Missir, Basile M. (b. July 17, 1843, Focsani, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. April 21, 1929, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. He was minister of agriculture, industry, commerce, and domains (1901-02) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1909-10) and the Senate (1914-16).

Missoffe, François (b. Oct. 13, 1919, Toulon, Var, France - d. Aug. 28, 2003, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, France), French politician. He was minister of repatriates (1962-64) and of youth and sports (1966-68) and ambassador to Japan (1964-66).

Misu, Nicolae (b. Aug. 6, 1858, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. Aug. 31, 1924), foreign minister of Romania (1919). He was also diplomatic agent in Bulgaria (1899-1908) and minister to Austria-Hungary (1908-11), the Ottoman Empire (1911-12), and the United Kingdom (1912-19).

Misuari, Nur(ullaji Pining) (b. 1940, Sulu island, Philippines), governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (1996-2001).

Mit, Mambang (b. April 13, 1949, Air Molek, Riau, Indonesia), acting governor of Riau (2013).

Mitazono, Satoshi (b. Feb. 13, 1958), governor of Kagoshima (2016-20).

Mitchell, Alexander Graham (b. Nov. 2, 1923 - d. 2010), administrator (1971-73) and governor (1973-75) of the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Mitchell, Sir Charles Bullen Hugh (b. 1836 - d. Dec. 7, 1899, Singapore), governor of Natal (1881-82 [acting], 1885-86 [acting], 1889-93), Fiji (1887-88), and the Straits Settlements (1894-99); knighted 1883.

Mitchell, David B(rydie) (b. Oct. 22, 1766, Muthill, Perthshire, Scotland - d. April 22, 1837, Milledgeville, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1809-13, 1815-17).

D. Mitchell
Mitchell, Dickon (Amiss Thomas) (b. Oct. 8, 1978, St. David parish, Grenada), prime minister and national security and home affairs minister (2022- ) and finance minister (2022-23) of Grenada. He has been leader of the National Democratic Congress (2021- ).

F. Mitchell

J. F.-A. Mitchell
Mitchell, Fred(erick Audley, Jr.) (b. Oct. 5, 1953, Nassau, Bahamas), foreign minister of The Bahamas (2002-07, 2012-17, 2021- ).

Mitchell, George (b. April 1, 1867 - d. July 4, 1937), prime minister of Southern Rhodesia (1933). He was also minister of mines (1930-33) and agriculture (1932-33).

Mitchell, Henry L(aurens) (b. Sept. 3, 1831, Jefferson county, Ala. - d. Oct. 14, 1903, Tampa, Fla.), governor of Florida (1893-97).

Mitchell, Sir James (b. April 27, 1866, Dardanup, Western Australia - d. July 26, 1951, Glen Mervyn, W.Aus.), premier (1919-24, 1930-33) and governor (1933-51 [until 1948 acting, as lieutenant governor]) of Western Australia; knighted 1921.

Mitchell, Sir James Fitz-Allen (b. May 15, 1931, Bequia island, Grenadines - d. Nov. 23, 2021, Mt. Pleasant, Bequia island), prime minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1984-2000); cousin of Sir John Compton. He was first elected to parliament in 1966 and served as minister of trade (1967-74), production and labour (1967-69), tourism (1967-72), agriculture (1969-74), and Grenadines affairs (1972-74) and as premier (1972-74). In 1975, he became president of the New Democratic Party. It won 9 of the 13 parliamentary seats in the 1984 elections, and he became prime minister. He was also minister of foreign affairs (1984-92), finance (1984-98), and national security and home affairs (1998-2000). He was reelected for a fourth successive term at the general election of June 15, 1998, but stepped down in 2000. He became a Privy Councillor in 1985 and was knighted in 1994.

J.P. Mitchell
Mitchell, James P(aul) (b. Nov. 12, 1900, Elizabeth, N.J. - d. Oct. 19, 1964, New York City), U.S. secretary of labor (1953-61). He was named a special labour adviser to the director of the Works Progress Administration in New York state, and from 1942 to 1945 was director of the U.S. Army service forces' division of industrial personnel. On April 6, 1953, Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed Mitchell assistant secretary of the army in charge of manpower and reserve affairs, and in the following October, secretary of labour. On Sept. 20, 1954, Mitchell berated the American Federation of Labor for its failure to make "an objective appraisal of the Eisenhower administration's achievements" in behalf of U.S. labour. Relations between Mitchell and the AFL and the Congress of Industrial Organizations were somewhat strained thereafter. On Feb. 1, 1955, the AFL executive council accused him of tolerating violations of minimum-wage rates on government construction projects - a charge Mitchell promptly denied. He also urged a 90-cent hourly minimum wage, against the $1.25 minimum asked by AFL and CIO officials. (Congress raised the rate to $1 per hour in August 1955.) The Eisenhower administration's "antiracketeering" labour bill of 1958 was largely the work of Mitchell, who recommended among other reforms that unions be required to file annual financial and organizational reports; that local union officers should be elected by direct secret ballot; and national officers in the same way or by delegates elected in this way. The bill died in the House of Representatives on August 18.

Mitchell, Jim, byname of James Mitchell (b. Oct. 19, 1946, Dublin, Ireland - d. Dec. 2, 2002, Dublin), justice minister of Ireland (1981-82). He was also lord mayor of Dublin (1976-77) and minister of posts and telegraphs/communications and transport (1982-87).

J.N. Mitchell
Mitchell, John N(ewton) (b. Sept. 5 or 15, 1913, Detroit, Mich. - d. Nov. 9, 1988, Washington, D.C.), U.S. attorney general (1969-72). He came to know Richard M. Nixon when their law firms merged on Jan. 1, 1967. He became a close confidant of Nixon's and successfully managed the latter's presidential campaign in 1968. He was then named attorney general and became controversial because he backed two of Nixon's nominees to the Supreme Court who were rejected by the Senate as unqualified, approved wiretaps without court authorization (until the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional), prosecuted antiwar protesters, and brought suit to block publication of the classified Pentagon Papers on the Vietnam War (rejected by the Supreme Court). After resigning in March 1972 to become chairman of Nixon's reelection committee, he launched a "dirty tricks" campaign that included espionage, forged letters, and sabotage directed against Sen. Edmund Muskie of Maine, the Democratic front-runner for the presidency. He authorized the infamous overnight break-in (June 16-17, 1972) at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate, an office-apartment-hotel complex in Washington, D.C., and was instrumental in the subsequent cover-up of the wiretapping and burglary. On July 1, he resigned from the reelection committee when the Watergate scandal began unfolding. He was indicted in 1974 on charges of conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and perjury. On Jan. 1, 1975, he was convicted and sentenced to 2½ to 8 years in prison. He entered prison in June 1977, becoming the first member of any U.S. cabinet to be jailed. Released on parole in January 1979, having served 19 months, he took no further part in politics.

K. Mitchell
Mitchell, Keith (Claudius) (b. Nov. 12, 1946, St. George's, Grenada), prime minister of Grenada (1995-2008, 2013-22). He was minister of works and communications (1984-89) and energy (1984-88). In 1989 he became leader of the New National Party (NNP), which defeated the governing National Democratic Congress in the 1995 elections. He used tax breaks and aggressive salesmanship to attract foreign investment to the three-island nation, which had seen its foreign and strategic importance evaporate with the end of the Cold War. He sought new trade agreements with Cuba, whose influence in Grenada had prompted a U.S.-led invasion in 1983, and led international overtures to Cuban president Fidel Castro as chairman of the Caribbean Community trade group in 1998. Mitchell also sank millions of dollars into new construction projects, including road repairs and a national stadium. In 1999 elections his NNP won all 15 parliamentary seats in a stunning victory just seven weeks after his government collapsed amid lawmakers' defections to the rival Grenada United Labour Party. The NNP retained a narrow majority in the 2003 elections, but was defeated in 2008, apparently hurt by allegations of autocratic tendencies leveled at Mitchell. In 2013 he came back triumphantly as the NNP scored another clean sweep of all 15 constituencies, as again in 2018, before being defeated in the 2022 elections. He also held the portfolios of finance (2007-08, 2013-20) and home affairs and national security (2013-22).

L. Mitchell
Mitchell, Lois (Elizabeth), née Boulding (b. June 22, 1939, Vancouver, B.C.), lieutenant governor of Alberta (2015-20).

Mitchell, Nathaniel (b. 1753, near Laurel, Delaware - d. Feb. 21, 1814, Laurel), governor of Delaware (1805-08).

Mitchell, Sir Philip Euen (b. May 1, 1890 - d. Oct. 11, 1964), governor of Uganda (1935-40), Fiji (1942-44), and Kenya (1944-52); knighted 1937.

Mitchell, Robert B(yington) (b. April 4, 1823, Mansfield, Ohio - d. Jan. 26, 1882, Washington, D.C.), governor of New Mexico (1866-69).

R. Mitchell
Mitchell, Dame Roma (Flinders) (b. Oct. 2, 1913, Adelaide, S.Aus. - d. March 5, 2000, Adelaide), governor of South Australia (1991-96). She became Australia's first female Queen's Counsel in 1962. She was a Supreme Court judge in South Australia from 1965 to 1983. Mitchell, who once described herself as a "conservative sort of feminist," was Australia's first female state Supreme Court judge and later also became the first female state governor. She was also the founding chairwoman of the Australian Human Rights Commission (1981). In 1982 she became a Dame Commander of the British Empire.

Mitchell, William D(eWitt) (b. Sept. 9, 1874, Winona, Minn. - d. Aug. 24, 1955, Syosset, N.Y.), U.S. solicitor general (1925-29) and attorney general (1929-33).

Miteb (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. 1928 - d. Dec. 2, 2019), Saudi prince; son of Abdul Aziz; brother of Salman. He was governor of Makkah (1959-60) and minister of public works and housing (1975-2003) and municipal and rural affairs (1980-83, 2003-09).

Miteb ibn Abdullah (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. March 26, 1952, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Saudi prince; son of Abdullah; grandson of Abdul Aziz. He was minister of the national guard (2013-17). In 2017 he was one of several princes arrested in an anti-corruption purge.


Mitham, Alex, byname of Richard Alexander John Mitham (b. 1975), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (2013-16) and acting governor of the Falkland Islands (2017). He became deputy governor of the Falkland Islands in January 2017.

Mithi, Mukut (b. Jan. 1, 1952, Roing [now in Lower Dibang Valley district, Arunachal Pradesh], India), chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh (1999-2003) and lieutenant governor of Puducherry (2006-08).



Mitidieri, Fábio Cruz (b. Jan. 24, 1977, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil), governor of Sergipe (2023- ).

Mitin, Sergey (Gerasimovich) (b. June 14, 1951), governor of Novgorod oblast (2007-17).

Mitkov, Dmitry (Yakovlevich) (b. Oct. 16 [Oct. 4, O.S.], 1899, Sormpos-Mochey, Kazan province [now in Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. Oct. 9, 1976, Cheboksary, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1955-57).

Mitov, Daniel (b. Dec. 4, 1977, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (2014-17).

Mitra, Abraham (Kahlil Blanco) (b. Jan. 3, 1970, Manila, Philippines), Philippine politician; son of Ramon Mitra. He was governor of Palawan (2010-13).

Mitra, Biren (b. Nov. 26, 1917, Bangalisahi, Cuttack district, Orissa [now Odisha], India - d. May 25, 1978, Cuttack), chief minister of Orissa (1963-65).

Mitra, Ramon (Villarosa), also called Ramon Mitra, Jr. (b. Feb. 4, 1928, Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines - d. March 20, 2000, Manila, Philippines), Philippine politician. He was minister of agriculture (1986-87), speaker of the House of Representatives (1987-92), and a presidential candidate (1992).

Mitre (Martínez), Bartolomé (b. June 26, 1821, Buenos Aires, United Provinces in South America [now Argentina] - d. Jan. 18, 1906, Buenos Aires), president of Argentina (1862-68). He moved with his family to Uruguay in 1837 and joined the liberal exiles from Argentina in their literary opposition to the dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas. He travelled to Bolivia, Peru, and Chile where he served in military campaigns, edited the newspaper El Mercurio, and plotted against Rosas. When Rosas was finally defeated in the Battle of Caseros (1852), Mitre played a prominent role as commander of Uruguayan artillery. The next year he became the leader of secessionist Buenos Aires province, which refused to accept the new federal constitution. He held a number of offices in the provincial government and became governor in 1860. His forces were defeated at Cepeda in 1859 but they finally defeated the federal forces at Pavón in 1861. The national capital was then moved again to Buenos Aires, and he was elected president of a united Argentina. He created and strengthened instruments of civil administration, suppressed provincial caudillos, extended the postal service and telegraph lines, and encouraged immigration and foreign trade. Paraguay declared war in 1864, and for a time he commanded the allied forces of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. After his presidency, he was elected to the Senate. In 1874 he ran again for president. When defeated, he claimed that he was defrauded and led a rebellion that was crushed by the government, though he was not punished. He tried for the presidency again in 1891 as the candidate of the new middle-class Unión Cívica party, but withdrew in favour of the Conservative candidate. He remained a respected elder statesman and symbol of Argentine unity. In 1898-1902 he was provisional president of the Senate.

Mitrega, Jan (Karol) (b. April 21, 1917, Michalkowice, Poland - d. Nov. 8, 2007, Katowice, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1970-75). He was also minister of mining and energy (1959-74) and ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1975-81).

Mitrelias, Charilaos (b. 1897, Mitilini, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. 1988, Athens, Greece), deputy prime minister of Greece (1973). He was president of the Council of State (supreme administrative court) in 1961-66.

Mitreva, Ilinka (b. Feb. 11, 1950, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia] - d. Aug. 1, 2022), foreign minister of Macedonia (2001, 2002-06).

Mitrofanov, Gennady (Alekseyevich) (b. March 19, 1979), prime minister of Adygeya (2020- ).

Mitropoulos, Efthimios E. (b. May 30, 1939, Piraeus, Greece), secretary-general of the International Maritime Organization (2004-11).

Mitrovic, Aleksandar (b. Aug. 4, 1933, Osladic village, near Valjevo, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Sept. 19, 2012, Belgrade, Serbia), deputy president (1989-92) and acting president (1991-92) of the Federal Executive Council of Yugoslavia.

Mitsialis, Anastasios (b. 1952, Athens, Greece), Greek diplomat. He was ambassador to Argentina (1995-99), Israel (1999-2001), and Italy (2004-07) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-13).

Mitsopoulos, Tasos (b. May 30, 1965, Larnaca, Cyprus - d. March 22, 2014, Nicosia, Cyprus), defense minister of Cyprus (2014). He was also minister of communication and works (2013-14).

Konst. Mitsotakis
Mitsotakis, Konstantinos (Kyriakou) (b. Oct. 18, 1918, Chania, Crete, Greece - d. May 29, 2017), prime minister of Greece (1990-93). He came from a political family; his father and grandfathers were members of parliament, and the statesman Eleftherios Venizelos was his uncle. Active in the resistance during the Nazi occupation of Crete (1941-44), he was twice arrested and sentenced to death; he escaped execution first by a general amnesty and the second time by an exchange of prisoners between the Allies and the Germans. He was first elected to parliament in 1946 from Chania as a member of the Liberal Party. Joining the new Centre Union, he was finance minister (1963-64) and minister for economic coordination (1965) before quitting the party and bringing down the government of Georgios Papandreou. The military regime that took power in 1967 arrested Mitsotakis, who eventually fled to Paris, where he was active in the opposition; he returned to Greece in 1973. In 1974, after the fall of the military government, he stood for parliament as an independent liberal but failed to be elected. He was successful in 1977, when he founded the centrist New Liberal Party. In 1978 he again became minister of economic coordination, and shortly afterward he joined Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis' centre-right New Democracy party. In 1980 he became foreign minister, serving until the 1981 election of a socialist government led by Andreas Papandreou, son of Georgios. On Sept. 1, 1984, he was elected leader of New Democracy. When the party secured precisely half the seats in parliament on April 8, 1990, it was the third time in less than a year that general elections had failed to produce an absolute majority to lead the government, but the timely support of one centre-right deputy enabled Mitsotakis to be installed as prime minister. His economic austerity measures were unpopular, and in 1993 Papandreou returned to power. He then resigned as party leader.

Kyr. Mitsotakis
Mitsotakis, Kyriakos (Konstantinou) (b. March 4, 1968, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (2019-23, 2023- ); son of Konstantinos Mitsotakis; brother of Dora Bakoyannis. He was also minister of administrative reform and electronic governance (2013-15). He became leader of New Democracy in 2016.

Mitsuchi, Chuzo (b. Aug. 11 [June 25, lunar calendar], 1871, Kagawa prefecture, Japan - d. April 1, 1948), finance minister (1927-29) and home affairs minister (1946) of Japan. He was also chief of the cabinet secretariat (1921-22) and minister of education (1927), communications (1931-32), railways (1932-34), and transport (1946).

Mitsuzuka, Hiroshi (b. Aug. 1, 1927, Miyagi prefecture, Japan - d. April 25, 2004, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He was elected to the Miyagi prefectural assembly before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1972. He was elected to the lower house 10 consecutive times, became head of his own faction in the Liberal-Democratic Party in 1991 (taking over the faction of Shintaro Abe upon Abe's death), and served in various LDP and government posts, including party secretary-general and chairman of the Policy Research Council, as well as minister of transport (1985-86), international trade and industry (1988-89), and foreign affairs (1989). As finance minister (1996-98) under Ryutaro Hashimoto, he implemented a series of fiscal reform measures, but he resigned to take the blame for a scandal involving senior officials of the ministry. In December 1998, Yoshiro Mori took over the chairmanship of the Mitsuzuka faction. Mitsuzuka announced his retirement from the political world in August 2003 due to poor health and did not run in the lower house election that November.

Mittelholzer, Leo (b. March 24, 1923, Appenzell, Switzerland - d. March 25, 2013), Regierender Landammann of Appenzell Innerrhoden (1965-67, 1969-71, 1973-74).

Mitterlehner, Reinhold (b. Dec. 10, 1955, Helfenberg, Oberösterreich, Austria), vice chancellor (2014-17) and acting chancellor (2016) of Austria. He was also minister of economy (2008-17), labour (2008-09), family and youth (2009-14), and science and research (2013-17) and chairman of the Austrian People's Party (2014-17).

Mitterrand, François (Maurice Adrien Marie) (b. Oct. 26, 1916, Jarnac, Charente, France - d. Jan. 8, 1996, Paris, France), president of France (1981-95). Following the liberation of Paris (August 1944), he was a member of Charles de Gaulle's provisional government. He represented Nièvre in the National Assembly (1946-58, 1962-81) and the Senate (1959-62). He held various cabinet posts during the Fourth Republic: minister of veterans and war victims (1947, 1947-48) and overseas France (1950-51), minister of state (1952), and minister of interior (1954-55) and justice (1956-57). Gravitating increasingly leftward, he emerged as a leading spokesman against de Gaulle, who became president in 1959. In 1965 Mitterrand stood as the sole candidate of the left for the presidency, getting 32% of the vote and forcing de Gaulle into an unexpected runoff election. In 1971 he was elected as first secretary of the Socialist Party. Although defeated by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in his second bid for the presidency, in 1974, he managed to turn the Socialist Party, formerly of minor importance, into the majority party of the left while still allied with the Communist Party. In 1981 he made a rise of more than 30% in opinion polls in six months and defeated the incumbent Giscard. He abandoned his initial nationalization policies early in his presidency. In 1986 the parties of the right won a majority in the National Assembly, and he had to ask one of their leaders, Jacques Chirac, to be his prime minister. Under this unprecedented power-sharing arrangement ("cohabitation"), Mitterrand retained responsibility for foreign policy. He soundly defeated Chirac in the presidential elections of 1988, and was thus reelected to another 7-year term, accomplishing a feat that only de Gaulle had previously achieved in 1965. He called new parliamentary elections and the Socialists regained a working majority. But a number of scandals involving Socialist leaders tainted the party, and the 1993 elections resulted in a rout and made a new cohabitation necessary.

Mitterrand, Frédéric (Bernard) (b. Aug. 21, 1947, Paris, France - d. March 21, 2024, Paris), French politician; nephew of François Mitterrand. He was minister of culture and communication (2009-12).

Mityukov, Ihor (Oleksandrovych) (b. Sept. 27, 1952, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), finance minister of Ukraine (1997-2001). He later was ambassador to the United Kingdom (2002-05).

Mixson, (John) Wayne (b. June 16, 1922, near New Brockton, Coffee county, Ala. - d. July 8, 2020, Tallahassee, Fla.), governor of Florida (1987).

Miyagi, Chogoro (b. Sept. 5, 1878, Saitama prefecture, Japan - d. June 25, 1942), justice minister of Japan (1939-40).

Miyashita, Sohei (b. Nov. 10, 1927, Ina, Nagano prefecture, Japan - d. Oct. 7, 2013, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He was director-general of the Defense Agency (1991-92) and the Environment Agency (1994-95) and minister of health and welfare (1998-99).

Miyashita, Soichiro (b. May 13, 1979, Mutsu, Aomori, Japan), governor of Aomori (2023- ).

Miyazawa, Hiroshi (b. Sept. 22, 1921, Tokyo, Japan - d. May 26, 2012), governor of Hiroshima (1973-81) and justice minister of Japan (1995-96); brother of Kiichi Miyazawa.

K. Miyazawa
Miyazawa, Kiichi (b. Oct. 8, 1919, Tokyo, Japan - d. June 28, 2007, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1991-93). Born into a family of politicians, he became an official in the finance ministry (1942-52). After World War II he became a personal aide to Hayato Ikeda, who was to become his political mentor and the founder of the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP) faction that Miyazawa would inherit from Zenko Suzuki in 1986. In 1953 he was elected to the upper house of the Diet from his father's old constituency in Hiroshima prefecture; later, in 1967, he moved to the more influential lower house. In 1962 he secured his first cabinet position, as director general of the Economic Planning Agency. Subsequently he served as minister of international trade and industry (1970-71), foreign affairs (1974-76), and finance (1986-88). He also acted as chief cabinet secretary (1980-82) and as deputy prime minister (1987-88). Like other senior politicians in the ruling LDP, Miyazawa was involved in the Recruit stocks-for-favours scandal, and he was forced to resign as deputy prime minister and finance minister in December 1988 after making contradictory remarks in the matter. Nevertheless, he was elected president of the LDP on Oct. 27, 1991, and took over as prime minister on November 5. His reascension tended to mark a return to old-style politics, but he proved unable to unite or control the warring factions within the LDP. In June 1993 some of these factions defected from the LDP and joined with opposition parties to pass a vote of no confidence, and in the general elections in July the LDP lost control of the Diet for the first time in its 38-year history. After its return to power in 1996, Miyazawa was again finance minister in 1998-2001, becoming Japan's longest-serving postwar finance minister (until Taro Aso broke his record in 2018). He retired from parliament in 2003.

Mizan Zainal Abidin ibni al-Marhum Sultan Mahmud, Tuanku (b. Jan. 22, 1962, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), sultan of Terengganu (1998- ) and paramount ruler of Malaysia (2006-11).

Mizere, Nelson Thompson (b. Jan. 5, 1940), Malawian diplomat. He was ambassador to South Africa (1974-77), Belgium (1978-79), West Germany (1979-80), Switzerland, Austria, and Sweden (non-resident, 1979-81), and the United States (1981-85), high commissioner to Lesotho (1974-77) and the United Kingdom (1980-81), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1981-85).

Mizoguchi, Zenbe (b. Jan. 20, 1946), governor of Shimane (2007-19).

Mizon, Louis (Alexandre Antoine) (b. July 16, 1853, Paris, France - d. [suicide] March 11, 1899, Dzaoudzi, Mayotte), administrator-superior of Mayotte (1897-99). He was appointed governor of French Somaliland on March 7, 1899, but did not take office as the telegram announcing the nomination arrived in Dzaoudzi 13 days after his suicide.

Mizuno, Rentaro (b. Feb. 3 [Jan. 10, lunar calendar], 1868, Edo [now Tokyo], Japan - d. Nov. 25, 1949), home affairs minister of Japan (1918, 1922-23, 1924). He was also minister of education (1927-28).

Mizuta, Mikio (b. April 13, 1905, Kamogawa, Chiba prefecture, Japan - d. Dec. 22, 1976), finance minister of Japan (1960-62, 1966-68, 1971-72). He was also minister of international trade and industry (1956-57).


Mizzi, Enrico, byname Nerik Mizzi (b. Sept. 20, 1885, Valletta, Malta - d. Dec. 20, 1950, Valletta), prime minister of Malta (1950). He was also minister of industry and commerce (1924-27), agriculture, fisheries, and posts (1932), and education (1932-33). He was leader of the Nationalist Party in 1942-50 and exiled to Uganda because of Italian sympathies in 1942-45.

Mkaka, Eisenhower (Nduwa Saxon) (b. Sept. 12, 1973), foreign minister of Malawi (2020-22). He was also minister of natural resources and climate change (2022-23).

Mkapa, Benjamin (William) (b. Nov. 12, 1938, Ndanda, Masasi district, Mtwara region, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania] - d. July 24, 2020, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania), foreign minister (1977-80, 1984-90) and president (1995-2005) of Tanzania. He became press secretary to Pres. Julius Nyerere in 1974 and founded the Tanzania News Agency in 1976. He also was high commissioner to Nigeria (1976-77) and Canada (1982-83), ambassador to the United States (1983-84), and minister of information and broadcasting (1990-92) and science, technology, and higher education (1992-95). As foreign minister, he was active in the negotiations leading to Zimbabwean independence. He won a parliamentary seat in 1985 and was elected to the central committee of the ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), in 1987. In 1995 he won the CCM's presidential nomination with the support of Nyerere and went on to win Tanzania's first multiparty presidential elections. He scuttled inefficient state controls and maintained fiscal discipline, thereby restoring donor confidence and successfully soliciting foreign aid. Yet his contracts with multinational mining corporations were heavily criticized by activists and the opposition as favouring too much investors at the expense of national interests. Working closely with presidents Yoweri Museveni of Uganda and Daniel arap Moi of Kenya, the East African Community was revived. He was easily reelected in 2000. Inflation, which was 37% in 1994, was at 4% when he left office in 2005.

M'Khaittirat, Mohamed Salem Ould (b. 1923, Méderdra, Mauritania), finance minister (1966-68) and interior minister (1968) of Mauritania. He was also minister of industrialization and mines (1968-70) and fisheries (1970-71).

Mkhize, Hlengiwe (Buhle) (b. Sept. 6, 1952, Mahlabatini, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa - d. Sept. 16, 2021), home affairs minister of South Africa (2017). She was also ambassador to the Netherlands (2005-08) and minister of higher education and training (2017-18).

Mkhize, Zweli(ni Lawrence) (b. Feb. 2, 1956, Willowfontein, Pietermaritzburg, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), premier of KwaZulu-Natal (2009-13). He was also South African minister of cooperative governance and traditional affairs (2018-19) and health (2019-21).

Mkrtchyan, Anatoly (Ashotovich) (b. Oct. 6, 1931 - d. Oct. 26, 2011), foreign minister of the Armenian S.S.R. (1986-90). He was Soviet/Russian ambassador to Lesotho in 1990-92.

Mkulo, Mustafa (Haidi Makunganya) (b. Sept. 26, 1946 - d. May 3, 2024, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania), finance minister of Tanzania (2008-12).

N. Mladenov
Mladenov, Nikolay (Evtimov), spelling himself Nickolay in English (b. May 5, 1972, Sofia, Bulgaria), defense minister (2009-10) and foreign minister (2010-13) of Bulgaria. He was also UN special representative for Iraq (2013-15) and special coordinator for the Middle East peace process (2015-20).

P. Mladenov
Mladenov, Petur (Toshev) (b. Aug. 22, 1936, Urbabintsi [now Toshevtsi], Bulgaria - d. May 31, 2000, Sofia, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. From 1969 to 1971 he was the first secreatary of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) provincial committee in Vidin. He served 18 years as foreign minister under Todor Zhivkov (1971-89) and in 1977 became a member of the policy-making BCP Politburo. On Oct. 29, 1989, after tensions flared between him and Zhivkov, Mladenov resigned his position. The end of hardline Communist rule in Bulgaria did not come through street protests as in Romania, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, but in a Communist Party coup (Nov. 10, 1989) in which reform-minded comrades ousted Zhivkov. Mladenov and Andrey Lukanov helped shape the reformist group, under the influence of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika. Mladenov replaced Zhivkov as president and first secretary of the BCP, overseeing the party's formal break with Stalinism. He was soon accused of almost using tanks against demonstrators in a Dec. 14, 1989, rally. This accusation, combined with an unending students' strike and pressure from the opposition parties, forced Mladenov to resign on July 6, 1990.

Mladineo, Mirjana (b. Feb. 15, 1946, Zagreb, Croatia), Croatian diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-08).

Mlambo-Ngcuka, Phumzile (b. Nov. 3, 1955, Clermont, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), deputy president of South Africa (2005-08). She was also minister of minerals and energy (1999-2005) and arts, culture, science, and technology (acting, 2004) and executive director of UN Women (2013-21).

Mlinaric, Marijan (b. Feb. 13, 1944, Jalzebet, near Varazdin, Croatia - d. Sept. 4, 2007, Varazdin), interior minister of Croatia (2003-05).

Mlivo, Zeir (b. Dec. 19, 1949, Bugojno [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Central Bosnia (1996-98).

Mlodzianowski, Kazimierz, pseudonym Dabrowa (b. July 29, 1880, Wola Solecka, Poland - d. July 4, 1928, Krynica, Poland), interior minister of Poland (1926). He was also governor of Poleskie (1924-26) and Pomorskie (1926-28) województwa.

Mlynár, Michal, Slovak diplomat. He was ambassador to Kenya (2012-15) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-22).

Mlynár, Zdenek (b. June 22, 1930, Vysoké Mýto, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. April 15, 1997, Vienna, Austria), Czechoslovak politician. He was a main supporter of the 1968 "Prague Spring" and later a founder of the Charter 77 dissident group. He went into exile in Austria in 1977.

Mmualefe, Leutlwetse, Botswanan diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2000-02).

Mmusi, Kagiso (Thomas) (b. Oct. 25, 1965), defense, justice, and security minister of Botswana (2019- ); son of Peter Mmusi.

Mmusi, Peter (Simako Otlaadisang) (b. May 16, 1929, Mmankgodi, Kweneng district, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. Oct. 2, 1994), finance minister (1980-89) and vice president (1983-92) of Botswana. He was also minister of commerce and industry (1977), home affairs (1977-79), works and communications (1979-80), development planning (1980-89), and local government and lands (1989-92).

Mnangagwa, Emmerson (Dambudzo) (b. Sept. 15, 1946), vice president (2014-17) and president (2017- ) of Zimbabwe. He was also minister of state in the prime minister's office (1980-88), minister of justice (1988-2000, 2013-17), rural housing and social amenities (2005-09), and defense (2009-13), and speaker of parliament (2000-05).

Mnatsakanyan, Zohrab (Grachevich) (b. March 20, 1966, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Armenia (2018-20). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (2002-08) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2014-18).

Mnisi, (Moses) Mhambi (Paul) (b. 1912 - d. January 1997, South Africa), foreign minister of Swaziland (1984-86). He left Swaziland in 1986 in the wake of allegations that donated funds were embezzled.

Mnisi, Zwelethu (b. July 9, 1961, Mbabane, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), Swazi diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Denmark (2002-04), permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-17), and ambassador to Switzerland (2019-21).

Mnuchin, Steve(n Terner) (b. Dec. 21, 1962, New York City), U.S. treasury secretary (2017-21).