Sá Carneiro, Francisco (Manuel Lumbrales de) (b. July 19, 1934, Porto, Portugal - d. Dec. 4, 1980, near Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1980). In 1969 he became a member of the rubber-stamp National Assembly. There he worked for liberalization of the authoritarian government, including a curtailment of the activities of the infamous secret police, but he resigned in early 1973. After the April 1974 military coup he founded the Popular Democrat Party (Partido Popular Democrático) and was its minister without portfolio in the government of Adelino da Palma Carlos during the presidency of Gen. António de Spínola. Sá Carneiro later resigned in protest against the nationalization of heavy industry, banks, and insurance companies. After his Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrático; PSD) split in May 1979 on whether to support a Socialist budget, Sá Carneiro left the party and began negotiations with other groups further to the right with a view to forming a coalition to contest the upcoming general and municipal elections. The PSD, needing his charisma, later welcomed him back as leader, and in July the Aliança Democrática (AD) was formed, consisting of the PSD, the Centre Democrats (CDS), the small Monarchist group, and several others, and with Sá Carneiro and Diogo Freitas do Amaral (CDS) as joint leaders. The AD won 45.2% of the votes in the Dec. 2, 1979, elections and would hold a narrow overall majority with 128 seats in the 250-seat Assembly. Sá Carneiro became prime minister on Jan. 3, 1980. He died in a light-plane crash.
Sá Machado, Vítor (António Augusto Nunes de) (b. November 1933, Cuíma, Angola - d. April 27, 2002), foreign minister of Portugal (1978).
Sa Zhenbing (b. March 30, 1859, Fuzhou, Fujian, China - d. April 10, 1952, Fuzhou), navy minister (1917, 1919-21) and acting premier (1920) of China and civil governor of Fujian (1922, 1923-26).
Saad Al Abdullah Al Salim Al Sabah, Sheikh, Arabic Shaykh Sa`d Al `Abd Allah Al Salim Al Sabah (b. 1929 - d. May 13, 2008), interior minister (1962-78), defense minister (1965-78), prime minister (1978-2003), crown prince (1978-2006), and emir (2006) of Kuwait; son of Sheikh Abdullah Al Salim Al Sabah.
Saadi, Ramón (Eduardo) (b. Feb. 6, 1949, Mar del Plata, Argentina), governor of Catamarca (1983-87, 1988-91).
Saadi, Selim (b. 1936, Sétif, Algeria), interior minister of Algeria (1993-94). He was also minister of agriculture and agrarian revolution (1979-84), heavy industry (1984-86), water resources (1999-2001), and transport (2001-02).
Saakashvili, Mikheil (Nikolozis dze) (b. Dec. 21, 1967, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), president of Georgia (2004-07, 2008-13).
Saavedra Lamas, Carlos (b. Nov. 1, 1878, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. May 5, 1959, Buenos Aires), Argentine diplomat. He became secretary of the municipality of Buenos Aires and in 1908 was elected to parliament as a Liberal. He held numerous posts in the national government, including those of minister of justice and public education (1915) and minister of foreign affairs (1932-38). He was Argentine delegate to conferences on world peace and international law and presided over the International Labour Congress, Geneva (1928); the Pan-American Commercial Conference, Buenos Aires (1935); and the League of Nations Assembly (1936). In November 1932 he proposed an anti-war treaty for South America, later extended to the world, which in the following years was signed by the United States, all 20 Latin American nations, and several non-American nations. He also organized and presided over the international mediation committee (Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, and the United States) that secured an armistice (June 12, 1935) in the Chaco War fought since 1932 between Bolivia and Paraguay. For this he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1936; he also received numerous decorations and honours from Latin American and European governments. After the armistice he was prominent in negotiations which resulted in a permanent peace agreement (July 21, 1938).
Saavedra Weise, Agustín (b. Nov. 19, 1943, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1982). He was also chargé d'affaires in Argentina (1975-76, 1979-80) and Chile (1977-78) and ambassador to Argentina (1989-93).
Sabah Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah, Sheikh (b. July 16, 1929), foreign minister (1963-91, 1992-2003), prime minister (2003-06), and emir (2006- ) of Kuwait. He effectively ran the country since Emir Sheikh Jabir Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah suffered a brain haemorrhage in 2001.
Sabah Al Ahmad
Sabah Al Khaled
Sabah Al Khaled Al Hamad Al Sabah, Sheikh (b. March 3, 1953), foreign minister of Kuwait (2011- ). He was ambassador to Saudi Arabia in 1995-98.
Sabalat, Jean-Robert (b. Feb. 18, 1939, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. March 8, 2002, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Haiti (1991).
Sábato (Kusminsky), Jorge (Federico) (b. May 25, 1938, La Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. [traffic accident] Feb. 10, 1995), justice and education minister of Argentina (1987-89).
Sabbat, Kazimierz (Aleksander) (b. Feb. 27, 1913, Bieliny Kapitulne, Russia [now in Poland] - d. July 19, 1989, London, England), prime minister (1976-86) and president (1986-89) of the Polish government-in-exile.
Sabbazd (d. Nov. 14, 1959), metropolitan of the Orthodox Church of Czechoslovakia (1923-48).
Sabines Guerrero, Juan (José) (b. Aug. 20, 1968, Tepetlaoxtoc, México state, Mexico), governor of Chiapas (2006-12); son of Juan Sabines Gutiérrez. He was also mayor of Tuxtla Gutiérrez (2005-06).
Sabines Gutiérrez, Juan (del Perpetuo Socorro) (b. 1920, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico - d. March 3, 1987), interim governor of Chiapas (1979-82).
Sabirov, Mukhammat (Gallyamovich) (b. March 29, 1932, Novokurmashevo, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. March 9, 2015), prime minister of Tatarstan (1989-95).
Sabóia e Silva, João Tomé de (b. Aug. 4, 1870, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil - d. July 27, 1945, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Ceará (1916-20).
Saborin, Maurice (Ferdinand Philippe) (b. June 3, 1933, Biol, Isère, France), prefect of Guadeloupe (1984-86). He was also prefect of the French départements of Cantal (1982-84) and Finistère (1988-92).
Saboya Sunyé, Gilbert (b. July 28, 1966, Sant Julià de Lòria, Andorra), foreign minister (2011- ) and acting head of government (2015) of Andorra.
Sabri, Ali (b. 1920 - d. Aug. 3, 1991, Cairo, Egypt), prime minister of Egypt (1962-65). He played an active role in the 1952 "Free Officers" revolution against the monarchy of King Faruq. He was not however a member of the Revolutionary Command Council grouping the 12 "Free Officers" who assumed power after Faruq was exiled in July. He was a close colleague of Gamal Abdel Nasser and served as secretary general of the Arab Socialist Union, the only political party under Nasser. Sabri became a vice president under Pres. Anwar as-Sadat in October 1970, but was removed in May 1971. Charged with plotting a coup against Sadat's government, he was sentenced to death in December, but the sentence was reduced to life imprisonment by Sadat. Sadat pardoned him in 1981.
Sabri (Ahmad al-Hadithi), Naji (b. 1951), foreign minister of Iraq (2001-03). He was ambassador to Austria in 1998-2001.
Sabry Pasha, Hassan, Arabic Hasan Sabri Basha (b. 1879 - d. Nov. 14, 1940, Cairo, Egypt), prime minister and foreign minister of Egypt (1940). He was also minister of finance (1933-34), commerce and communications (1937-38), and defense (1938-40) and minister to the United Kingdom (1935-37).
Saburov, Yevhen (Fedorovych) (b. Feb. 13, 1946, Yalta, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Ukraine] - d. June 20, 2009, Moscow, Russia), prime minister of Crimea (1994).
Saca (González), (Elías) Antonio, byname Tony Saca (b. March 9, 1965, Usulután, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (2004-09). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2014.
Sacasa (Sacasa), Juan Bautista (b. Dec. 21, 1874, León, Nicaragua - d. April 17, 1946, Los Angeles, Calif.), president of Nicaragua (1933-36). As leader of the Liberal Party he was elected vice president in 1924 on a coalition ticket with Carlos Solórzano of the Conservative Party. However, in March 1926 he was forced into exile by a coup d'état which installed Gen. Emiliano Chamorro Vargas as president. When Chamorro was replaced by Adolfo Díaz in November, Sacasa returned and claimed the presidency. Mexico supported him; the United States, involved in a dispute with Mexico at the time and determined to prevent it from gaining the prestige of backing a winning candidate, sided with Díaz. The unrest led to the U.S. government sending marines to "maintain order" in Nicaragua. On their arrival in April 1927, Sacasa reluctantly accepted a compromise imposed by U.S. special commissioner Henry L. Stimson. Elected president in 1932, he was overshadowed by his nominal subordinates Augusto César Sandino and Gen. Anastasio Somoza García and was ousted in June 1936 by Somoza, his military commander.
Sacasa (Sarria), Roberto (b. Feb. 27, 1840, El Viejo, Chinandega, Nicaragua - d. July 2, 1896, Managua, Nicaragua), president of Nicaragua (1889-91, 1891-93).
Sacirbey, Muhamed, also known as Muhamed Sacirbegovic (b. July 28, 1956, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), foreign minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-96). He became a U.S. citizen in 1973. From 1992 to 2000 he was Bosnian ambassador to the United Nations. He was arrested in New York on March 25, 2003, and threatened with extradition to his home country where he was accused of stealing more than $2.4 million (about $1.8 million from the nation's Investment Fund Ministry and more than $600,000 from the account of Bosnia's representation at the UN). He was released on bail in July 2004, but remained under house arrest. The dual U.S.-Bosnian citizen denied the accusations, saying they were all part of a smear campaign to discredit him.
Sadat, (Muhammad Ahmad) Anwar as-, as-Sadat also spelled el-Sadat (b. Dec. 25, 1918, Mit Abu al-Kum, al-Minufiyah governorate, Egypt - d. Oct. 6, 1981, Cairo, Egypt), president of Egypt (1970-81). He became associated with Gamal Abdel Nasser and other like-minded military officers who opposed the British presence in Egypt. He was detained in 1942-44, and in 1945 was again arrested after being implicated in an assassination attempt against Wafd party leader Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha; he denied the charge, but was imprisoned and, as a result, missed the 1948 war against Israel. In 1950 he was readmitted to the army and joined Nasser's Free Officers organization; he participated in their coup against the monarchy in 1952. He was vice-chairman (1957-60) and chairman (1960-68) of the National Assembly and secretary-general (1957-61) of the National Union party. He served as vice president (1964-66, 1969-70) and became acting president upon Nasser's death on Sept. 28, 1970. He was elected president on October 15, with more than 90% of the votes. In 1973-74 and from 1980 he was also prime minister. After a peace offer to Israel in 1971 was rejected, he launched, with Syria, a joint invasion of Israel in October 1973. The Egyptian army achieved a tactical surprise in its attack on the Israeli-held Sinai Peninsula, and, despite subsequent reverses, Sadat won great prestige as the first Arab leader to actually retake some territory from Israel. In 1977 he made a historic visit to Israel. Together with Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1978; their continued negotiations resulted in the signing of a peace treaty on March 26, 1979. He gained a phased withdrawal of Israel from the Sinai and billions of dollars of U.S. aid, but also isolation within the Arab world. He was assassinated while reviewing a military parade commemorating the eighth anniversary of the 1973 war.
Sadeleer, Louis (Marie Joseph) de (b. Oct. 6, 1852, Haaltert, Belgium - d. May 6, 1924, Brussels, Belgium), chairman of the Chamber of Representatives of Belgium (1900-01). He was also minister to Portugal (1910-12).
Sadiboko (Mupwedi), Sabin, governor of Bandundu (2004-05).
Sadikin, Ali (b. July 7, 1927, Sumedang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. May 20, 2008, Singapore), governor of Jakarta (1966-77).
Sadler, Sir James Hayes (b. Oct. 11, 1851 - d. April 21, 1922, Saint-Briac, Ille-et-Vilaine, France), British consul at Muscat (1892-95, 1895-96), chief political resident of the Persian Gulf (1893, 1893-94), resident (1897-98) and consul-general (1898-1901) of British Somaliland, commissioner of Uganda (1901-05), and governor of the British East Africa Protectorate (1905-09) and the Windward Islands (1909-14); knighted 1907.
Sadoul, Numa (François Henri) (b. June 10, 1906 - d. Oct. 4, 1990), governor of Gabon (1944-46, 1947-49), lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1946-47), and governor of French Somaliland (1950-54).
Sádovský, Stefan (b. Oct. 13, 1928, Vlkas, Nové Zámky district, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia] - d. June 17, 1984, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), prime minister of the Slovak Socialist Republic (1969).
Sadulayev, Abdul-Khalim (Abu-Salamovich), Chechen Sadulin Abusalamin kant Abdulhalim (b. 1967, Argun, Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. [killed in gun battle with Russian police] June 17, 2006, Argun), president of separatist Chechnya (2005-06).
Sadzius, Rimantas (b. Oct. 8, 1960, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), finance minister of Lithuania (2007-08).
Sáenz Garza, Aarón (b. June 1, 1891, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Feb. 26, 1983, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1921 [acting], 1923-27), governor of Nuevo León (1927-31), and chief of government of the Distrito Federal (1932-35); brother of Moisés Sáenz Garza. He was also minister of education (1930) and industry, commerce, and labour (1930-32).
Sáenz Garza, Moisés (b. Feb. 16, 1888, Apodaca, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Oct. 24, 1941, Lima, Peru), education minister of Mexico (1928). He was also minister to Ecuador (1934-35) and Denmark (1935-36) and minister (1936-37) and ambassador (1937-38, 1938-41) to Peru.
Sáenz Peña (Dávila), Luis (b. April 2, 1822, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Dec. 4, 1907, Buenos Aires), president of Argentina (1892-95).
Sáenz Peña (Lahitte), Roque (José Antonio del Corazón de Jesús) (b. March 19, 1851, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Aug. 9, 1914, Buenos Aires), president of Argentina (1910-14); son of Luis Sáenz Peña. He was elected to parliament in 1876, at a time when Argentina's population and economy were rapidly expanding. In 1877 he resigned on account of political differences with the majority and joined the army in the war then going on with Chile. He was severely wounded and taken prisoner, but was released before the close of the war, returned home, and entered the diplomatic service. He held the office of foreign minister (1890) and served as Argentine delegate to the first International Conference of American States (Washington, D.C., 1889-90), where he opposed the U.S.-sponsored all-American customs union because of Argentina's economic ties to Europe. Later he was ambassador to Spain (1906-07) and to Italy (1907-10). With the opposition Radical Party abstaining, he was elected president in 1910 over Guillermo Udaondo. Regarding himself as nonpartisan, he responded to popular demand for electoral reform. Universal and compulsory male suffrage from age 18 by secret ballot was established (1912) by a statute that he compelled the oligarchy-dominated Congress to pass and that has since been known by his name. It placed Argentina in the vanguard of Latin American democracy. Intended in part to mollify the Radical Party, the reforms made possible the election of Radical leader Hipólito Irigoyen to the presidency in 1916. Sáenz Peña was a strong critic of what he considered the United States' attitude of arrogant superiority over Latin America as expressed by the Monroe Doctrine. He died in office.
R. Sáenz Peña
Sáez (Conde), Irene (Lailin) (b. Dec. 13, 1961, Caracas, Venezuela), Venezuelan politician. The former (1981) Miss Universe served two widely-praised terms (1992-98) as mayor of Chacao, an upmarket district of Caracas. She reduced crime, corruption, and bureaucracy and won reelection in 1995 with 96% of the vote. On this basis she became the first of several independent presidential candidates to ride a wave of public discontent with traditional parties in 1998. She was the country's most popular political figure at the beginning of the year but began to fade in the polls after accepting the backing of the COPEI party in May. The party ditched her as its nominee in the last week of the campaign in favour of Henrique Salas, leaving her to continue as an independent. Sáez was respected for her strong convictions and popular touch, but critics labeled her a political lightweight who struggled with tough interviewers and was more concerned with image than policy. She plunged to a distant third place in the election. In March 1999, she staged a stunning comeback, winning the governorship of Nueva Esparta state, which includes Margarita Island, a leading tourist resort. Backed by a hodgepodge of political parties, Sáez won 70.8% of the vote compared with 28.9% for her closest rival, local businessman and car dealer Gregorio Boadas. In 2000, when new elections were held after the adoption of a new Venezuelan constitution, she did not run for reelection because she was pregnant.
Safar, Adel, Arabic `Adil Safar (b. 1953, near Damascus, Syria), prime minister of Syria (2011-12). He was also minister of agriculture (2003-11).
Safayev, Sadyk (Salikhovich), Uzbek Sadyk (Solihovich) Safayev (b. 1954), foreign minister of Uzbekistan (1993, 2003-05). He was also ambassador to Germany (1994-96) and the United States (1996-2001).
Safonov, Oleg (Aleksandrovich) (b. Aug. 24, 1960), plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2007-09).
Sagaf, Said Mohamed (b. Dec. 25, 1949, Mitsamiouli, Comoros), foreign minister of the Comoros (1994-95).
Saganov, Vladimir (Bizayevich) (b. March 7, 1936, Kharbyaty, Tunkinsky rayon, Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Buryatia, Russia] - d. September 1999), prime minister of Buryatia (1990-94).
Sagato Alofi (b. Sept. 18, 1936), ruler of Alo (1997-2002).
Saget, Louis (Joseph Édouard) (b. April 27, 1915, Paris, France - d. Sept. 6, 2010, Mereville, Essonne, France), administrator-superior of the Comoros (1960-62), governor of French Somaliland (1966-67), and high commissioner of the French Territory of the Afars and Issas (1967-69).
Sagiman, Sainan (b. Feb. 22, 1922, Plaju, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia]), governor of Sumatera Selatan (1978-88).
Sahakyan, Bako (Sahaki), Russian Bako (Saakovich) Saakyan (b. Aug. 30, 1960, Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), president of Nagorno-Karabakh (2007- ).
Sahani, Kidar Nath, Kidar also spelled Kedar (b. Oct. 24, 1926, Rawalpindi, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Oct. 3, 2012, Delhi, India), governor of Sikkim (2001-02) and Goa (2002-04).
Sahay, Bhagwan (b. Feb. 15, 1905 - d. Dec. 6, 1986, New Delhi, India), chief commissioner of Himachal Pradesh (1951-52), Bhopal (1952-54), and Delhi (1959-63) and governor of Kerala (1966-67) and Jammu and Kashmir (1967-73).
Sahay, Dinesh Nandan (b. Feb. 2, 1936, Madhepur, Bihar, India), governor of Chhattisgarh (2000-03) and Tripura (2003-09).
Sahay, Krishna Ballabh (b. 1898 - d. [truck accident] June 3, 1974), chief minister of Bihar (1963-67).
Sahhaf, Muhammad Saeed (Kazim) al-, Arabic Muhammad Sa`id Kazim al-Sahhaf (b. 1940, Hilla, Iraq), foreign minister of Iraq (1992-2001). Subsequently he was minister of culture and information (2001-03). Earlier he had served as ambassador to Burma, Sweden, and the UN. During the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, he became known for his bizarre statements denying the successful progress of the invasion. Until the last moment, he insisted the "American mercenaries" were being "slaughtered by the thousands." He was dubbed "Comical Ali" by Western media (in analogy to another regime figure known as "Chemical Ali"). He finally gave himself up to U.S. troops, was released after questioning, and moved to the United Arab Emirates.
Sahib, Khan (b. 1882 - d. [assassinated] May 1958, Lahore, Pakistan), premier of the North-West Frontier Province (1937-39, 1945-47) and chief minister of West Pakistan (1955-57).
Sahinovic, Mirsad (b. Oct. 30, 1960, Buzim [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), president of Una-Sana canton (2002).
Sahloul, Ali (Ahmed), foreign minister of The Sudan (1989-93).
Sahm, Heinrich (Friedrich Wilhelm Martin) (b. Sept. 12, 1877, Anklam, Germany - d. Oct. 3, 1939, Oslo, Norway), lord mayor (1919-20), chairman of the Council of State (1920), and president of the Senate (1920-31) of Danzig, lord mayor of Berlin (1931-35), and German ambassador to Norway (1936-39).
Sahoulba, Gontchomé, until 1944 Yérima Sahoulba (b. Oct. 16, 1916, Léré, Chad - d. Nov. 1, 1963), president of the provisional government of Chad (1959). He was also president of the Territorial Assembly (1957-59) and transport minister (1959).
Sahuguet d'Amarzit, (Jean Joseph) François (Léonard) de (b. Oct. 12, 1756, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Corrèze, France - d. Dec. 26, 1802, Tobago), governor of Tobago (1802).
Saibou, Ali (b. 1940, Ouallam, Niger - d. Oct. 31, 2011, Niamey, Niger), president of the Supreme Military Council (1987-89), president of the Supreme Council of National Orientation (1989), and president (1989-93) of Niger. He was also minister of rural economy, environment, climate, and aid to the population (1974).
Said, Muhammad (b. Sept. 8, 1936, Kandangan, Netherlands East Indies [now in Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia]), governor of Kalimantan Selatan (1984-95).
Said, Muhammad Osman, Arabic Muhammad `Uthman Sa`id (b. 1922 - d. Dec. 31, 2007, Rabat, Morocco), prime minister of Libya (1960-63). He was also minister of health (1951-60), economy (1960), and finance (1960).
Said Halim Pasha, (Prince Muhammad) (b. Jan. 18, 1865, Cairo, Egypt - d. [assassinated] Dec. 6, 1921, Rome, Italy), grand vizier (1913-17) and foreign minister (1913-15) of the Ottoman Empire.
Said ibn Maktum, Sheikh, Arabic Shaykh Sa`id ibn Maktum (b. 1878 - d. Sept. 10, 1958, Shindagha, Dubai [now in United Arab Emirates]), ruler of Dubai (1912-29, 1929-58).
Saidi, Abdullah (Muhammad) al- (b. 1947, Beit al-Saidi, Yemen), foreign minister of Yemen (2014-15). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 2002-11.
Saidi Ali bin Saidi Omar (b. c. 1856 - d. 1915, Tananarive [now Antananarivo], Madagascar), sultan of Bambao (18...-86) and sultani tibe of Ngazidja (1886-1911). He went into exile in 1893, first to Diégo-Suarez (Madagascar), then in 1897 to Réunion. Later he briefly returned to Moroni but then decided to live in Madagascar, where he became a gold digger.
Saifuddin Sa´adul Khairi Waddien, Sir Omar Ali (b. Sept. 23, 1914, Brunei Town [now Bandar Seri Begawan], Brunei - d. Sept. 7, 1986, Bandar Seri Begawan), sultan of Brunei (1950-67). He worked in various government departments in Brunei before becoming grand vizier (first minister) and member of the State Council (1947-50) during the sultanate of his elder brother. As sultan himself, he was less anxious than some of his subjects, and even than the British, that his country should move toward independence. However, he produced a written constitution in 1959, when the British relinquished control of Brunei's internal affairs. During a revolt that year, Saifuddin had no hesitation in calling in British troops to quell it. He refused to take Brunei into the Federation of Malaysia, which was formed in 1963. A poet, a keen sportsman, and an Anglophile, he traveled frequently to Britain and Europe, once to North America, and twice on pilgrimage to Mecca. He abdicated in 1967 and assumed the title Seri Begawan. In 1970 the national capital was renamed Bandar Seri Begawan in his honour. He remained politically influential and was thought to have been responsible for the demand that Brunei should retain the services of a British Army Gurkha battalion after independence in 1984. In the same year, he became minister of defense.
Saikhanbileg, Chimed(iyn) (b. Feb. 17, 1969, Dornod, Mongolia), prime minister of Mongolia (2014- ). He was also education minister (1998-99).
Saikia, Hiteshwar (b. 1934 - d. April 22, 1996), Indian politician. As chief minister of the northeastern state of Assam (1983-85, 1991-96), the Congress Party member was credited with bringing political stability to the remote state, where insurrection is common. He was also lieutenant governor (1986-87) and governor (1987-89) of Mizoram.
Sailo, Thenphunga (b. Jan. 1, 1922, Lunglei, Assam [now in Mizoram], India - d. March 27, 2015, Aizawl, Mizoram), chief minister of Mizoram (1978, 1979-84).
Sainovic, Nikola (b. Dec. 7, 1948, Bor, Serbia), prime minister of Serbia (1993-94). Accused of crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or habits of war, he went to The Hague on May 2, 2002, and pleaded not guilty. On April 15, 2005, he flew back to Belgrade after prosecutors dropped objections to his release ahead of trial.
Saint, Lucien (Charles Xavier) (b. April 26, 1867, Évreux, Eure, France - d. Feb. 24, 1938, Mérignac, Haute-Garonne, France), resident-general of Tunisia (1921-29) and Morocco (1929-33). He was also prefect of the départements of Nièvre (1906-09), Ille-et-Vilaine (1909-15), Haute-Garonne (1915-18), Bouches-du-Rhône (1918-19), and Aisne (1919-20).
Saint-Alary, Jean-François de (b. June 27, 1888, Le Moule, Guadeloupe - d. Dec. 14, 1970, Montigny-lès-Arsures, Jura, France), commissioner of French Togo (1941-42).
Saint-Chaffray, Jean Baptiste Édouard Bourcier (b. June 24, 1870, Chania, Crete, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. 19...), resident-superior of Tonkin (1917-21).
Saint Jean, Alfredo Oscar (b. Nov. 8, 1926 - d. Sept. 2, 1987), interior minister (1981-82) and acting president (1982) of Argentina.
Saint John, Sir Harold (Bernard) (b. Aug. 16, 1931 - d. Feb. 29, 2004, Bridgetown, Barbados), prime minister of Barbados (1985-86). A member of the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) since 1959, he sat in the Senate from 1964 to 1966. Elected to the House of Assembly in 1966, he lost his seat in 1971 and returned to the Senate for five years. He was reelected to the House in 1976. He held the key portfolios of trade and tourism since 1976 and as deputy to Prime Minister J.M.G. Adams was the automatic successor when Adams died on March 11, 1985. He was immediately confronted with the task of negotiating a solution to the complex problems of intra-Caribbean Community trade and payments, which were adversely affecting the Barbadian economy. St. John quickly established himself as a blunt and forthright spokesman for his government's position. His threat at the beginning of September to take reprisals against Trinidad and Tobago if the latter did not implement the Nassau agreements on intraregional trade was followed by apparently constructive conversations with Trinidad Prime Minister George Chambers at the Commonwealth heads of government meeting in Nassau, The Bahamas, in October. Although St. John had no difficulty establishing himself as the undisputed leader of the BLP, there was some infighting within the party, which he sidestepped by declining to appoint a deputy prime minister. The party lost the 1986 general elections, but in 1994 it was reelected and he served as deputy prime minister until 1999. He retired from political life in 2003. He was knighted in November 1994, becoming known as Sir Harold, while he was earlier using his second given name, Bernard.
H. Saint John
Saint John, John P(ierce) (b. Feb. 25, 1833, Brookville, Ind. - d. Aug. 31, 1916, Olathe, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1879-83). He served as a Republican in the state Senate in 1873-74. The son of an alcoholic, he was an early advocate of prohibition and on that issue was elected governor in 1878. In 1880 he secured, besides his own reelection, the popular approval of a prohibition amendment to the state constitution, the first such constitutional ban in history. As governor he inaugurated the first "water banquets," and even for decades beyond his governorship, liquor was never served in the Kansas State House. When large numbers of ex-slaves emigrated to Kansas in 1879, St. John headed a Freedman's State Central Association to assist them. Denied a third term in 1882, he extended his campaign for prohibition to the national level and, in 1884, was nominated as the presidential candidate of the National Prohibition Party. For deserting the Republicans he was called a "traitor" and was burned in effigy more than 500 times. He was twice shot at but escaped unhurt. He won over 150,000 votes. He made his strongest effort in New York, and many thought that he drew sufficient votes away from Republican candidate James G. Blaine to tip the state - and with it the election - to Grover Cleveland. During 1912, he stumped Kansas for woman suffrage, and in 1914 - aged over 80 - he toured the East for prohibition.
Saint Jorre, Danielle (Marie-Madeleine) de, formerly Danielle d'Offay (b. Sept. 30, 1941, Mahe island, Seychelles - d. Feb. 25, 1997, near Paris), foreign minister of Seychelles (1989-97).
Saint Laurent, Louis (Stephen) (b. Feb. 1, 1882, Compton, Quebec - d. July 25, 1973, Québec, Quebec), prime minister of Canada (1948-57). On Dec. 10, 1941, he became minister of justice and attorney general in W.L. Mackenzie King's administration. As a member of the Liberal Party, he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons from Quebec East on Feb. 9, 1942, and was reelected in all subsequent elections until his retirement. King appointed him secretary of state for external affairs (acting in 1945, regular on Sept. 4, 1946). On Dec. 10, 1946, he relinquished the portfolio of justice. He was deputy chairman of the Canadian delegation to the 1945 San Francisco conference that created the United Nations and served as leader of the delegations at the UN General Assembly sessions in London and New York City in 1946-47. He was persuaded to accept the leadership of the Liberal Party in August 1948 and succeeded King as prime minister in November. Under his leadership Newfoundland became a part of the dominion (1949); his government supported UN intervention in Korea (1950-53) and Suez (1956); and his influence contributed to keeping India and Pakistan in the Commonwealth. He was also one of the main architects of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He strengthened the unity and fostered the development of the Canadian nation by instituting measures for the equalization of provincial revenues, enlarged social security, and the establishment of the Canada Council for the promotion of arts and letters. After winning great victories in the general elections of 1949 and 1953, the Liberals were narrowly defeated in June 1957. He announced his retirement and was succeeded in January 1958 as the leader of the opposition by Lester B. Pearson. He withdrew from public life in 1960.
Saint Luce, John (Eugene), finance minister (1980-82, 1984-91, 1996-2001) and interior minister (2001-03) of Antigua and Barbuda.
Saint Malo de Alvarado, Isabel (b. June 27, 1968, Panama City, Panama), vice president and foreign minister of Panama (2014- ).
Saint-Mart, Pierre (Marie) de (b. July 12, 1885, Verdun, France - d. Sept. 16, 1965, Paris, France), governor of Oubangui-Chari (1939-42) and governor-general of Madagascar (1943-46).
Saint-Mleux, André (b. Sept. 25, 1920, Saint-Malo, France - d. Oct. 7, 2012, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France), minister of state of Monaco (1972-81).
Saint-Phalle, Gaston Louis, comte de (b. Jan. 25, 1827 - d. ...), commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1880-86).
Saint-Quentin, Amaury de (b. Dec. 24, 1960, Sydney, Australia), prefect of Guadeloupe (2011-13). He was also prefect of Ardèche département (2009-11).
Saint-Sernin, Frédéric (Marie Joseph Bruno de Laparre) de (b. Feb. 14, 1958, Reims, Marne, France), personal representative of the French coprince of Andorra (1999-2002).
Saint-Simon, Henri Jean Victor (de Rouvroy), duc de (b. 1782 - d. 1865, Paris), governor of French India (1835-40).
Saionji, Kimmochi (also spelled Kinmochi), in full Koshaku (Duke, or Prince) Kimmochi Saionji (b. Dec. 7, 1849, Kyoto, Japan - d. Nov. 24, 1940, Okitsu, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1906-08, 1911-12). The son of an imperial noble of the Tokudaiji family, he was adopted by the Saionji family in 1852. He nominally participated in the movement that led to the restoration of imperial rule in 1868, and in 1881 he founded the Toyo jiyu shimbun ("Oriental Free Press"), a newspaper dedicated to popularizing democratic ideas. But as journalism was considered a scandalous profession for a court noble, his colleagues prevailed on the emperor to force Saionji to join government service, and he came to hold many high governmental posts. He became one of the principal organizers, and, in 1903, president, of the Rikken Seiyukai (Friends of Constitutional Government), the major political party at that time. As prime minister he attempted to curtail military expenditures and pushed for party control of the cabinet. He removed himself from party politics and government office in 1912, but in 1919 headed Japan's delegation at the Versailles peace conference, which ended World War I. Saionji, who received the titles of marquess in 1884 and duke in 1922, spent his later years as a genro ("elder statesman"), an honour reserved for the exclusive group of leaders who, having participated in the Meiji Restoration and also held high government office, served in retirement as close and trusted advisers of the emperor. Because he tried to moderate the ultranationalistic and militaristic trends in pre-World War II Japan, right-wing fanatics in the 1930s frequently sought to assassinate him. He died as the last genro in 1940.
Saisset (de Mars), Jean-Marie (Joseph Théodose) (b. Jan. 13, 1810, Paris - d. May 24, 1879, Paris), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1858) and commandant of New Caledonia (1859-60).
Saito, Hiroshi (b. Oct. 18, 1957), governor of Yamagata (2005-09).
Saito, Makoto, in full Shishaku (Viscount) Makoto Saito (b. Nov. 13, 1858, Mizusawa, Japan - d. Feb. 26, 1936, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1932-34). He joined the navy in 1873, graduated from the Naval Academy in 1879, and in 1884 went for study to the United States, where he remained for some years as naval attaché to the Japanese legation. He became a commander in 1897 and a captain later that year and in 1898 was appointed vice-minister of the navy. He served in the Russo-Japanese War and was promoted rear admiral in 1900, vice admiral in 1904, and admiral in 1912. He served as navy minister in 1906-14. Becoming governor-general of Korea in 1919, he was met with hostility and several attempts were made on his life, but his conciliatory policy ultimately won him respect. In 1927 he went to Geneva as head of the Japanese delegation to the naval disarmament conference. Upon his return he resigned his Korean post and became privy councillor to the emperor. He served again as governor-general of Korea in 1929-31 and then was believed to have retired, but in 1932, on the assassination of Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai, the emperor commanded Saito to form a cabinet. He took the controversial steps of recognizing the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo (in Manchuria) and withdrawing from the League of Nations, but he also cut the army budget by one-third, much to the disgust of the reactionaries. Financial scandal forced Saito and his cabinet to resign in July 1934. In December 1935 he was appointed lord keeper of the privy seal. He was assassinated by a group of young army officers during the abortive military revolt of Feb. 26, 1936. He was created a baron in 1907 and a viscount in 1925.
Saitoti, George (Kinuthia Muthengi)1 (b. 1945 - d. [plane crash] June 10, 2012, Ngong area, outside Nairobi, Kenya), finance minister (1983-93), vice president (1989-98, 1999-2002), interior minister (2001-02, 2008-12), and acting foreign minister (2010-11) of Kenya.
1 Born to Kikuyu parents (as evidenced by his middle names), he adopted the Masai name Saitoti in the 1950s to obscure his origins and improve his chances of receiving an education during the Mau Mau rebellion (spearheaded by the Kikuyu).
Saiz, Miguel (b. May 17, 1949, Montevideo, Uruguay), governor of Río Negro (2003-11).
Sajjad, Wasim (b. March 30, 1941, Jalandhar, India), acting president of Pakistan (1993, 1997-98). He was chairman of the Senate in 1988-99.
Sak Sutsakhan (b. Feb. 8, 1928, Battambang, Cambodia - d. April 29, 1994, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), defense minister (1972, 1975) and chairman of the Supreme Committee (1975) of Cambodia.
Saka, Hasan (Hüsnü), until Jan. 1, 1935, Hasan Bey (b. 1886, Trebizond, Ottoman Empire [now Trabzon, Turkey] - d. July 30, 1960, Istanbul, Turkey), finance minister (1925-26), foreign minister (1944-47), and prime minister (1947-49) of Turkey.
Sakai, Takashi (b. 1887 - d. Sept. 13, 1946, Nanking, China), Japanese governor of Hong Kong (1941-42). He served as a military commander in China during the Sino-Japanese war of 1937-45. The British governor of Hong Kong surrendered to General Sakai on Dec. 25, 1941. After the war Sakai was tried and executed in Nanking for crimes against humanity committed under his command.
Sakalauskas, Vytautas (Vytautovich) (b. April 24, 1933, Kaunas, Lithuania - d. May 29, 2001, Vilnius, Lithuania), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Lithuanian S.S.R. (1985-90).
Sakaran (bin) Dandai, Tun (Datuk Seri Panglima Haji) (b. April 15, 1930, Semporna, North Borneo [now Sabah]), chief minister (1994) and head of state (1995-2002) of Sabah. In 2000 he was awarded Sabah's highest award, the Seri Panglima Darjah Kinabalu, which carries the title Datuk Seri Panglima.
Sakharov, Andrey (Dmitriyevich) (b. May 21, 1921, Moscow, Russia - d. Dec. 14, 1989, Moscow), Soviet dissident. A nuclear physicist and father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, he tried but failed to persuade Nikita Khrushchev to cancel atmospheric tests in the late 1950s and championed the 1963 U.S.-U.S.S.R. treaty banning nuclear tests. In 1968 the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia prompted him to circulate "Progress, Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom," an essay highly critical of the increasing repression of Soviet dissidents. He refused to deny authorship and, though he lost top-level security clearance, he was allowed to remain a member of the Academy of Sciences and to keep his academy-assigned apartment and country house, car and driver, and a respectable job. In 1970 he and two other dissidents founded the Committee for Human Rights; in 1971 he was increasingly hounded for his outspokenness. He was awarded the 1975 Nobel Prize for Peace, but was not permitted to travel to Oslo, Norway, to receive it; his wife Yelena Bonner did, and she delivered his speech, characteristically in support of intellectual freedom. He waged an increasingly lonely battle that peaked in December 1979, when he urged other nations to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan by boycotting the 1980 Moscow Olympics. In January 1980 he was stopped by Soviet security officers, told he was stripped of state honours, and exiled to Gorky, an industrial city. Two hunger strikes and occasional letters smuggled by Bonner kept Sakharov in the world's eye until Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev invited him to return to Moscow in December 1986. In March 1989 he was elected a deputy to the Congress of People's Deputies, where he became a leader of dissident deputies.
Sakovic, Senahid (b. 1954, Gracanica, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Tuzla (2001-03).
Sakurauchi, Yoshio (b. May 8, 1912, Tokyo, Japan - d. July 5, 2003, Tokyo), foreign minister of Japan (1981-82). Beginning in 1947, he was elected 18 times to the lower house and once to the less powerful upper house. He was also minister of trade, agriculture, and construction before serving as speaker of the lower house in 1990-93. He also served in key policymaking posts within the Liberal-Democratic Party. He retired from politics in 2000.
Salado Álvarez, Victoriano (b. Sept. 30, 1867, Teocaltiche, Jalisco, Mexico - d. Oct. 13, 1931, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1911). He was also minister to El Salvador and Guatemala (1911-12) and Brazil (1912-14).
Saladrigas y Zayas, Carlos (b. Oct. 13, 1900, Havana, Cuba - d. April 15, 1956, Havana), foreign minister (1933, 1955-56) and premier (1940-42) of Cuba.
Salah, Abdullah (Amin), Arabic `Abd Allah (Amin) Salah (b. Dec. 31, 1922, Tulkarem, Palestine), foreign minister of Jordan (1966-67, 1970-72). He was also ambassador to Kuwait (1962-63), India (1963-64), France (1964-66, 1967-70), the United States, Canada, and Mexico (1973-80), and Switzerland and Austria (1980-83) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1983-92).
Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah ibni al-Marhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah, Tuanku
(b. March 8, 1926, Istana Bandar palace, Kuala Langat district, Selangor, Federated Malay States [now in Malaysia] - d. Nov. 21, 2001, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), sultan of Selangor (1960-2001) and yang di-pertuan agong (paramount ruler) of Malaysia (1999-2001).
Salam, Muhammad Abdelaziz, Arabic Muhammad `Abd al-Aziz Salam (b. Dec. 15, 1933, Taiz, Yemen), foreign minister of Yemen (Sana) (1966-67).
Salam, Saeb (Salim), Arabic Sa´ib Salim Salam (b. Jan. 17, 1905, Beirut, Lebanon - d. Jan. 21, 2000, Beirut), Lebanese politician. Salam, a Sunni Muslim, began his political career in 1943 and ended it in 1992, when his eldest son, Tammam, succeeded him in the Beirut parliamentary seat he had held for decades. In 1945, he established Middle East Airlines and a year later was given his first cabinet position as interior minister. He served in other cabinet posts and four times as prime minister (1952, 1953, 1960-61, 1970-73). In 1956, he was wounded during clashes between protesters and the army over Pres. Camille Chamoun's pro-Western policies and was placed under arrest in his hospital room. He staged a hunger strike for five days until he was released. In 1973 he quit after Pres. Suleiman Franjieh refused to dismiss army commander Gen. Iskandar Ghanem for neglect following an Israeli commando raid in Beirut that left three Palestinian guerrilla leaders dead. Salam was a moderate in a country whose politics have often been turbulent. He relentlessly advocated peaceful Muslim-Christian coexistence following the outbreak of Lebanon's ruinous 1975-90 civil war. "One Lebanon, not two Lebanons," was one of his better known slogans during the civil war that claimed the lives of more than 150,000 people. He was one of a few Muslim Lebanese leaders who publicly supported a controversial peace accord signed by Lebanon and Israel in 1983 to secure an Israeli withdrawal from a border strip in southern Lebanon. The accord, which called for normalizing relations between Lebanon and Israel, collapsed under staunch opposition by most Muslim leaders and Syria, now the main power broker in Lebanon. He was the last surviving statesman who fought for Lebanon's independence from France.
Salam, Tammam (Saeb) (b. May 13, 1945, Beirut, Lebanon), prime minister of Lebanon (2014- ); son of Saeb Salam. He was culture minister in 2008-09.
Salamanca y Negrete, Manuel (d. Feb. 6, 1890), governor of Cuba (1889-90).
Salan, Raoul (Albin Louis) (b. June 10, 1899, Rocquecourbe, Tarn, France - d. July 3, 1984, Paris, France), delegate-general of Algeria (1958).
Salas Feo, Henrique (Fernando) (b. Dec. 14, 1960), governor of Carabobo (1995-2004, 2008-12); son of Henrique Salas Römer.
Salas Guevara (Schultz), (Luis) Federico (b. Sept. 4, 1950, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2000). He was also minister of education (2000) and president of Huancavelica region (2007-10).
Salas Römer, Henrique (b. April 17, 1936, Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, Venezuela), Venezuelan presidential candidate (1998). He was elected to Congress in 1983 as a member of the centre-right COPEI party. His presidential bid was founded on two widely-respected terms as governor of his native industrial Carabobo state (1989-95). A keen horseman who did much of his campaigning atop a white horse, he ran as a reformist independent candidate promising change without the violent overtones associated with Hugo Chávez. Backed by his fledgling Project Venezuela party, Salas carefully distanced himself from Venezuela's two traditional, but discredited political parties, COPEI and Democratic Action. Yet, both of them chose at the last minute to back him to unite the anti-Chávez vote. Labeled arrogant and elitist by critics, Salas quickly emerged as the business community's favourite in the election race. His programme emphasized the benefits of slimline, efficient government with the transfer of public services to the local level and privatization of many state-run concerns including the postal service and prisons. He won 40% of the vote, against 56% for Chávez.
Salazar, António de Oliveira (b. April 28, 1889, Vimieiro, Portugal - d. July 27, 1970, Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1932-68). Having helped form the Catholic Centre Party, he was elected to the Cortes (parliament) in January 1921 but resigned after one session. In May 1926, when the parliamentary regime was replaced by a military dictatorship, he was offered the post of finance minister, but he resigned after a few days when the generals would not give him a free hand. In 1928 Gen. António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona became president and gave him the finance ministry with control over income and expenditure. In this role, he reversed the old tradition of deficits and made budgetary surpluses. He came to be in virtual control of the government, and was officially named prime minister by Carmona in 1932, a post he would hold for 36 years. The 1933 constitution of his Estado Novo ("New State") reorganized Portugal's political system along authoritarian lines. The National Assembly was composed solely of government supporters, political freedoms were curtailed, and attention was concentrated on economic recovery. He retained the post of finance minister until 1940, and owing to the crises occasioned by the Spanish Civil War and World War II, he also served as minister of war (1936-44) and of foreign affairs (1936-47). In 1949 he led the country into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. His insistence on maintaining Portugal's colonies could only be sustained with difficulty when the other colonial empires were being dismantled. He carried out numerous public works projects, but poverty remained widespread. He suffered a stroke in 1968 and was replaced as prime minister by Marcelo Caetano, a change that the disabled Salazar was never told had taken place.
Salazar Adame, Florencio (b. April 5, 1948, Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was mayor of Chilpancingo (1987-89), minister of agrarian reform (2003-06), and ambassador to Colombia (2008-13).
Saleem, Ahmed (b. May 26, 1949, Male, Maldives), secretary-general of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (2012-14).
Saleem, Mohammad Yunus (b. Sept. 26, 1912, Mohana, Lucknow district, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Jan. 15, 2004, Delhi, India), governor of Bihar (1990-91).
Saleh (al-Hashidi), Ali Abdullah, Arabic `Ali `Abd Allah Salih (b. March 21, 1942, Bayt al-Ahmar village, Sana governorate, Yemen), president of Yemen (Sana) (1978-90) and of Yemen (1990-2012). As a sergeant, he led an army coup that replaced the Islamic monarchy of Sana with a civilian republican government in 1962. Royalists subsequently engaged the revolutionaries in eight years of civil war, which also involved Egyptian and Saudi Arabian troops. After the negotiated settlement of the conflict, Saleh continued to distinguish himself, advancing to the rank of colonel. He helped to bring Ibrahim al-Hamadi to power in a 1974 coup. The assassination of Hamadi in 1977 and of his successor, Ahmad al-Ghashmi, the following year resulted in Saleh's own elevation to the presidency in 1978. The country's relationship with neighbouring Yemen (Aden), the only avowed Marxist state in the Arab world, remained volatile. He favoured unification and pursued this aim through a variety of means. The two governments signed at least two unity treaties during the 1970s and '80s but failed to implement them as sporadic border fighting persisted. Ultimately, it was an economic breakthrough that set the course toward political reunification. He enlisted Aden's support for the establishment of a joint oil enterprise, thus laying the administrative groundwork for a full-scale merger. In 1990, the Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen reunified under the name Republic of Yemen. The joint parliaments of the merging nations chose Saleh as president and the secretary-general of Aden's ruling Socialist Party, Ali Salim al-Baidh, as vice president. In 1994 civil war erupted and Baidh announced the secession of the south, but Saleh's northern forces inflicted a crushing defeat on those of Baidh. He won direct presidential elections in 1999 and 2006. In 2011 he was caught up in the wave of Arab uprisings. After being seriously wounded in a rocket attack on the presidential palace (or by a bomb placed inside) on June 3, he went to Saudi Arabia for treatment, returning in September. After long manoeuvring he finally agreed late in the year to a deal that saw him leaving office in February 2012, if only to be replaced by his vice president.
Saleh, Jaime (Mercelino) (b. April 20, 1941, Bonaire), governor of the Netherlands Antilles (1990-2002).
Salehi, Ali Akbar (b. March 24, 1949, Karbala, Iraq), foreign minister of Iran (2010-13).
Salek, Mustafa Ould (Mohamed), Arabic al-Mustafa walad Muhammad al-Salik (b. 1936, Kiffa, Mauritania - d. Dec. 18, 2012, Paris, France), head of state of Mauritania (1978-79). Commissioned as a second lieutenant in Mauritania in February 1961, he rose steadily through the ranks to lieutenant colonel (October 1974), with a colonelcy awaiting him in 1978. After serving as aide-de-camp to the president of Mauritania from October 1961 to November 1962, Salek was posted to the general secretariat of the African and Malagasy Defense Union at Ouagadougou, Upper Volta, became adjutant to the First Troop of the Mauritanian Guard in 1963, and was local commander in Atar (October 1964 to November 1965). Posted to the headquarters of the Mauritanian armed forces, he was appointed acting chief of staff in December 1965, a position he held until February 1967. Subsequently he was seconded to the Ministry of Defense and became an army inspector (July 1968 to July 1969). From Nov. 1, 1970, to 1975 he was assistant governor and then governor of an administrative region. In July 1977 he took military command of the Third Region (Adras) before being appointed chief of staff after the ministerial reshuffle of Jan. 26, 1978. As leader of the Military Committee for National Salvation (CMSN) that, on July 10, 1978, ousted Pres. Moktar Ould Daddah in a bloodless coup, Salek succeeded him as head of state. The coup sprang from the mounting dissatisfaction of military leaders with Daddah's conduct of the long-drawn-out war with Polisario guerrillas from the Western Sahara and with the grave economic difficulties arising from it. After the coup Polisario declared a ceasefire, and contacts were made with it. Salek resigned in 1979 apparently as the result of a crisis within the CMSN over government policy in Western Sahara.
Salem, Élie (Adib) (b. 1930, Bterram, Lebanon), foreign minister of Lebanon (1982-84).
Salem (Gallegos), Julio Teodoro (b. 1909, Riobamba, Ecuador - d. Sept. 3, 1962), Ecuadorian politician. In 1934 he became the first member of the country's Arab community to be elected to Congress. As a prominent leader of the Liberal Radical Party, he was arrested several times in the 1940s, but also served as minister of public works; on May 29-31, 1944, as chairman of the Politburo of the Alianza Democrática Ecuatoriana (which took power after Pres. Carlos Arroyo del Río was deposed), he was in charge of the executive power (until the arrival of José María Velasco Ibarra). In 1961-62 he was ambassador to Guatemala.
Salem, Mamdouh (Muhammad), Arabic Mamduh (Muhammad) Salim (b. 1918, Alexandria, Egypt - d. Feb. 25, 1988, London, England), prime minister of Egypt (1975-78). He rose to the rank of general in the Alexandria police force before becoming police commander there in 1964. He served Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser as a security aide and as the provincial governor of Asyut (1967-70), Gharbiyah (1970), and Alexandria (1970-71). He joined Pres. Anwar as-Sadat's cabinet in 1971 as minister of the interior and as a member of the Central Committee of the Arab Socialist Union (the sole political party), but within a few months he was raised to deputy prime minister. When widespread violent protests against food shortages and rising inflation broke out in 1975, Salem was asked to form a new government as prime minister. He remained a loyal supporter of Sadat's peace initiatives, forming a new cabinet in 1977 as head of the first multiparty government. In 1978 Salem merged his Arab Socialist Party with Sadat's newly formed National Democratic Party, but he unexpectedly resigned his cabinet post when he discovered that Sadat wanted to install a new government. Salem later assisted Sadat's successor, Pres. Hosni Mubarak, as a presidential adviser.
Saliceti, Antonio Cristoforo (b. Aug. 26, 1757, Saliceto, Corsica [now in France] - d. Dec. 23, 1809, Naples [now in Italy]), member of the Regency of Naples (1808). He was also Neapolitan police and war minister.
Saliceti, Pierre Jean André (b. March 6, 1893, Saliceto, Corsica, France - d. Oct. 21, 1946, Saliceto), acting governor of Dahomey (1940) and commissioner of French Togo (1942-43).
Salifou, André (b. 1942, Zinder, Niger), foreign minister of Niger (1996).
Salih, (Sayed) Ahmad Muhammad (b. 1896 - d. 1971), member of the Sovereignty Council of The Sudan (1956-58).
Salih, Barham (Ahmad) (b. 1960, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq), prime minister of Kurdistan (2001-04 [Patriotic Union of Kurdistan government], 2009-12) and deputy prime minister for national security (2004-05), planning minister (2005-06), and deputy prime minister (2006-09) of Iraq.
Salihaj, Adem (b. Dec. 25, 1950, Duraj village, Kosovo, Serbia), acting prime minister of Kosovo (2005).
Salii, Gloria, née Gibbons (b. Jan. 5, 1950), acting Ibedul of Palau (1973); sister of Yutaka Gibbons; sister-in-law (from 1983) of Lazarus Salii.
Salii, Lazarus (Eitaro) (b. Nov. 17, 1936, Angaur, Palau - d. [suicide] Aug. 20, 1988, Koror, Palau), president of Palau (1985-88).
Salim, Ezzedine, original name Abdul Zahraa Othman Muhammad, Arabic `Izz al-Din Salim (`Abd al-Zahra´ `Uthman Muhammad) (b. 1940, Basra, Iraq - d. [car bomb attack] May 17, 2004, Baghdad, Iraq), president of the Governing Council of Iraq (2004).
Salim, Salim Ahmed (b. Jan. 23, 1942, Zanzibar), secretary-general (1989-2001) of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). He served as Tanzania's ambassador to Egypt in 1964-65, high commissioner (i.e., ambassador) to India in 1965-68, and ambassador to China in 1969-70. In 1970, he was appointed Tanzania's permanent representative to the United Nations in New York, where he remained for ten years. During this period, he was concurrently accredited as ambassador to Cuba and high commissioner to Guyana, Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. He was elected as president of the United Nations Security Council in January 1976 and went on to serve as president of the Thirty-Fourth Session of the United Nations General Assembly in September 1979. During his one-year tenure of office, he also presided over the Sixth and Seventh Emergency Special Sessions of the United Nations General Assembly in January and July 1980 respectively. In September 1980, he equally presided over the Eleventh Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly. In 1971-79, he chaired the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization (Committee of 24). He was foreign minister in 1980-84. He was president of the International Conference on Sanctions against South Africa in 1981 as well as the Paris International Conference Against Apartheid in 1984. He became prime minister in 1984 but had to yield the post due to a constitutional technicality after the election of a fellow Zanzibari to the presidency of Tanzania in 1985. Subsequently he continued to serve as deputy prime minister and minister for defense and national service until his election as OAU secretary-general in 1989. He also held a number of key positions within the Chama Cha Mapinduzi, Tanzania's ruling party.
Salim Al Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah, Sheikh (b. June 18, 1937, Kuwait city, Kuwait - d. Oct. 8, 2007), defense minister (1978-88, 1996-2001), interior minister (1988-91), and foreign minister (1991-92) of Kuwait; brother of Sheikh Ali Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah. Earlier he was ambassador to the U.K. (1965-71; from 1968 also non-resident ambassador to Sweden, Norway, and Denmark) and the U.S. (1971-75; also non-resident ambassador to Canada and Venezuela). In 1975-78 he was minister of social affairs and labour.
Salima Machamba (bint Saidi Hamadi Makadara), (Ursule) (b. November 1874 - d. August 1964, Pesmes, Haute-Saône, France), sultan of Mohéli (1888-1909); daughter of Jumbe Fatima bint Abderremane. She met Camille Paule, a French gendarme, in Réunion and fell in love. The French government let her know that she could not reign and be a gendarme's wife at the same time (which undoubtedly served its intentions of annexing the island). It became necessary for her to choose and, without hesitation, she married him in August 1901. Showing no interest for the throne, she never came to the island (leaving the throne to regents), and the French government provided her a yearly allowance of 3,000 gold francs and facilitated the couple's departure to France in 1902. They then became simple farmers in Haute-Saône.
Salinas, Emilio (b. 1859, Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico - d. 1927, Laredo, Texas), governor of Querétaro (1917) and Chihuahua (1920).
Salinas de Gortari, Carlos (b. April 3, 1948, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Mexico (1988-94). He joined the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) at age 18 and from 1971 on he held successively more important economic-affairs posts in the government. His first government job was an economic analyst at the Ministry of Finance, and he went on to win eight promotions in eight years, in 1979 becoming general director of economic and social policy in the Budget and Planning Ministry. In 1981 he campaigned behind the scenes to secure Miguel de la Madrid, then budget minister, the presidential nomination. Madrid was elected in 1982 and made Salinas his minister of planning and the budget. In that position, he began the economic liberalization program that he hoped to complete as president, and from mid-1986 he was in firm charge of economic policy. He held the post until 1987, when Madrid designated him to be his successor and he became the PRI presidential candidate for the 1988 election. During the election campaign he appeared to have a limited capacity to inspire his followers. In 60 years no PRI candidate for the presidency had won less than 70% of the popular vote, but in 1988 Salinas won a bare 50.4%, according to the official tallies. The opposition contended that his real support was even lower and that the PRI had resorted to vote fraud; there were wild and violent scenes in Congress when he was officially declared president-elect. As president, he continued the program of economic retrenchment and privatization. In 1991-92 his government negotiated with the United States and Canada the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which went into effect Jan. 1, 1994. Months after leaving office he went into a self-imposed exile (mostly in Dublin, Ireland) after his brother Raúl was arrested on various charges. Both became deeply reviled by the Mexican public.
Salinas Leal, Bonifacio (b. May 14, 1900, General Bravo, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Oct. 9, 1982, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1939-43) and Baja California Sur (1959-65).
Salisbury, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, (3rd) Marquess of, (9th) Earl of Salisbury, (9th) Viscount Cranborne, (9th) Baron Cecil of Essendon (b. Feb. 3, 1830, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England - d. Aug. 22, 1903, Hatfield), British prime minister (1885-86, 1886-92, 1895-1902) and foreign secretary (1878-80, 1885-86, 1887-92, 1895-1900). He was offered a seat in Parliament for Stamford in 1853, and was elected. In 1865 his elder brother died and he took the courtesy title of Viscount Cranborne as heir to his father. He briefly held government office in 1866-67 as secretary of state for India. In 1868 he succeeded to his father's title and entered the House of Lords. He became deeply suspicious of the new Conservative leader, Benjamin Disraeli, but in 1874 was persuaded to join Disraeli's ministry and once more became secretary of state for India. Overcoming his earlier prejudice, he came to regard Disraeli with admiration and affection. Becoming foreign secretary for the first time in 1878, at a time of great crisis in the Balkans, he averted war with Russia over the control of Constantinople. For their diplomatic success Disraeli and Salisbury were granted the Order of the Garter. After Disraeli's death (1881), Salisbury became leader of the Conservative Party. He opposed Home Rule for Ireland and three times (1886, 1895, 1900) won the electoral support necessary to become prime minister. The partition of Africa largely preoccupied his second ministry (1886-92). His foreign policy aimed at expansion of the British colonial empire and avoided entangling alliances with other powers. He was the last aristocratic statesman to head a British government from the House of Lords and not the elected Commons. His retirement in 1902 marked, politically, the end of the Victorian Age.
Sall, Macky (b. Dec. 11, 1961, Fatick, Senegal), interior minister (2003-04), prime minister (2004-07), and president (2012- ) of Senegal. He was also president of the National Assembly (2007-08) and mayor of Fatick (2002-08, 2009-12). He is not to be confused with Chérif Macky Sall (b. Dec. 6, 1948, Nioro, Senegal - d. May 9, 2011, Dakar, Senegal), minister-delegate in charge of decentralization (1998-2002) and mayor of Guédiawaye (2009-11).
Sallal, Abdullah al-, Arabic in full `Abd Allah Yahya al-Sallal (b. 1917, Sana, Yemen - d. March 5, 1994, Sana), president of Yemen (1962-67). As a youth he was selected by the imamate for special military training in Iraq. On his return to Yemen in 1939, he was briefly jailed for political reasons. He later spent seven years in prison (1948-55), but he was released by Crown Prince Muhammad al-Badr, who made him governor of Hodeida (1959-61) and promoted him to brigadier. When Badr succeeded to the throne on Sept. 19, 1962, he appointed Sallal chief of staff. On September 27, however, Sallal led a military coup that overthrew the monarchy, proclaimed the Yemen Arab Republic, and made him president, with Egyptian military, political, and economic aid. The imams were seen as having resisted the country's modernization. Sallal was credited with paving roads, building modern buildings and airports, and establishing modern communications. But his rule became increasingly tenuous as royalist forces, supported by Saudi Arabia, continued to resist his rule. When Egypt withdrew its backing, moderate republicans led by Abdul Rahman al-Iryani staged a bloodless coup (Nov. 5, 1967) while Sallal was on a visit to Iraq. He then lived in exile in Egypt, only returning to Yemen in 1981, after being pardoned. At the time of his death he was a member of a committee that was mediating an end to a months-long political crisis between leaders of the former Yemen Arab Republic and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (which had united in 1990).
Sallal, Jamal Abdullah al- (b. Jan. 1, 1960, Sana, Yemen), foreign minister of Yemen (2014). He was also ambassador to Iran and Azerbaijan (2006-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-14).
Sallé, Michel (b. Oct. 12, 1952, Ndele, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), foreign minister (1983-84) and interior minister (2004-07) of the Central African Republic.
Saller, (Michel) Raphaël (Antoine) (b. Sept. 29, 1899, Le Marin, Martinique - d. Aug. 17, 1976), governor of French Somaliland (1943-44). He was also planning minister (1957-59) and economy, finance, and planning minister (1959-66) of Ivory Coast.
Salles, Colombo Machado (b. May 20, 1926), governor of Santa Catarina (1971-75).
Salling, Augusta (b. 1954), finance minister of Greenland (2001-02, 2003).
Salloukh, Fawzi, Arabic Fawzi Sallukh (b. 1931, Qammatieh, Aley district, Lebanon), foreign minister of Lebanon (2005-09). Earlier he was chargé d'affaires in Liberia (1962-64) and Sierra Leone (1964-71) and ambassador to Nigeria (1978-85), Algeria (1985-87), Austria (1990-94), and Belgium and Luxembourg (1994-95).
Salman, Arabic in full Salman ibn `Abd al-`Aziz Al Sa`ud (b. Dec. 31, 1935, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), king of Saudi Arabia (2015- ); son of Abdul Aziz; half-brother of Abdullah; brother of Fahd. He was governor of Riyadh (1955-60, 1963-2011), defense minister (2011-15), and crown prince and deputy prime minister (2012-15).
Salmond, Alex(ander Elliot Anderson) (b. Dec. 31, 1954, Linlithgow, Scotland), first minister of Scotland (2007-14). He was leader of the Scottish National Party (1990-2000, 2004-14).
Salnais, Voldemars (b. May 20, 1886, Lubana parish, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Aug. 4, 1948, Stockholm, Sweden), foreign minister of Latvia (1933-34). He was also minister of labour (1925) and ambassador to Sweden and Norway (1937-40) and Denmark (1937-39).
Salnave, Sylvain (b. Feb. 7, 1826, Cap-Haïtien, Haiti - d. [executed] Jan. 15, 1870, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), president of Haiti (1867-69).
Salomón (Osorio), Alberto (b. Nov. 15, 1879, Callao, Peru - d. April 7, 1959, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1920-25). He was also minister of justice, education, and worship (1919-20) and finance and commerce (1920).
Salomon, (J.J. Antoine Philippe) Georges (b. Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. 1998, Port-au-Prince), foreign minister of Haiti (1979-81, 1985-86).
Salomon, (Louis Étienne Félicité) Lysius, jeune (b. June 30, 1815, Les Cayes, Haiti - d. Oct. 19, 1888, Paris, France), president of Haiti (1879-88).
Salomoni (Dernas), Tomás Andrés (b. April 10, 1884, Asunción, Paraguay - d. 1951), foreign minister of Paraguay (1940). He was also minister to Cuba (1930-34), Mexico and Colombia (1931-34), and Bolivia (1943) and ambassador to Bolivia (1943-44).
Salonia, Antonio (Francisco) (b. Oct. 12, 1927, General Alvear, Mendoza, Argentina), justice (1989-91) and education (1989-92) minister of Argentina.
Salote (Mafile'o Pilolevu Veiongo) Tupou III (b. March 13, 1900, Nuku'alofa, Tonga - d. Dec. 16, 1965, Auckland, New Zealand), queen of Tonga (1918-65).
Saltonstall, Leverett (A.) (b. Sept. 1, 1892, Chestnut Hill, Mass. - d. June 17, 1979, Dover, Mass.), U.S. politician. He astutely used his old New England family name and inherited wealth to surround himself with an aura of integrity and thereby win a succession of elective offices in Massachusetts. He first was elected a Republican alderman of Newton, a community west of Boston. In 1923 he entered the Massachusetts House of Representatives and served as speaker from 1929 to 1936. Two years later he defeated James M. Curley for the first of three terms (1939-45) in the governor's chair. From 1945 to 1967 "Old Lev" was a U.S. senator known for his strong support of antidiscrimination legislation and foreign aid, despite his reticence and distaste for controversy. At the time of his retirement in 1967 Saltonstall was the ranking Republican on two powerful Senate bodies, the Appropriations and Armed Services committees.
Salvador (Crespo), María Isabel (b. Jan. 28, 1962, Quito, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (2007-08); daughter of Jorge Salvador Lara. She was also minister of tourism (2005-07) and permanent representative to the OAS (2010-13).
Salvador Lara, Jorge (b. Sept. 4, 1926, Quito, Ecuador - d. Feb. 8, 2012, Quito), foreign minister of Ecuador (1966, 1976-77). He was also chargé d'affaires in Peru (1954-55) and ambassador to the Vatican (1983-84).
Salvaterra, Homero Jerónimo (b. Nov. 25, 1957), foreign minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1996-99). In 2013 he became ambassador to Equatorial Guinea.
Salvatori, Pedro (b. Nov. 22, 1933, Plottier, Neuquén, Argentina), governor of Neuquén (1987-91).
Salvatori, Reves (b. Feb. 24, 1963), captain-regent of San Marino (1988-89).
Sama, Koffi (b. 1944, Amoutchou, Togo), prime minister of Togo (2002-05). He was also minister of youth, sports, and culture (1981-84), health (1996-99), and national education and research (1999-2002).
Samadov, Abdujalil (Akhadovich) (b. Nov. 4, 1949 - d. 2004), prime minister of Tajikistan (1993-94).
Samak Sundaravej (b. June 13, 1935, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand] - d. Nov. 24, 2009, Bangkok), interior minister (1976-77) and prime minister and defense minister (2008) of Thailand.
Samanez Ocampo (y Sobrino), David (b. 1866, Huambo, Peru - d. July 13, 1947, Lima, Peru), chairman of the National Junta of Peru (1931).
Sámano (y Uribarri de Rebollar y Mazorra), Juan (José Francisco) de (b. 1753, Selaya, Cantabria, Spain - d. 1821, Panamá, Great Colombia [now in Panama]), viceroy of New Granada (1818-19).
Samaranch (Torelló), Juan Antonio, marqués de Samaranch (b. July 17, 1920, Barcelona, Spain - d. April 21, 2010, Barcelona), president (1980-2001) of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). In 1954 he became a member of the Spanish Olympic Committee and was also elected to the Barcelona city council. He served as Spain's chef de mission at the 1956 Winter Games and the 1960 and 1964 Summer Games. In 1967-70 he was president of the Spanish Olympic Committee. Elected to the IOC in 1966, he became head of protocol (1968-75, 1979-80), member of the Executive Board (1970-2001), and vice president (1974-78) and was elected president in 1980. Meanwhile he served as president of the Barcelona provincial government in 1973-77 and as Spain's ambassador to the Soviet Union (the first since 1939) in 1977-80. He healed bruised feelings after the boycotts of the Moscow (1980) and Los Angeles (1984) Olympics to attract a record 160 countries to the 1988 Summer Games, rising to 199 in 2000. He worked out a compromise that permitted both China and Taiwan to enter teams. He also welcomed professional athletes to Olympic sports such as tennis and basketball. In 1993 he opened the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland. Critics described him as arrogant and autocratic. In December 1998 allegations surfaced of widespread corruption among IOC members, and several were expelled or resigned. While he was not personally implicated, he was criticized for his failure to thoroughly investigate earlier complaints. He succeeded in passing a 50-point reform package to address the issue. He was very successful in increasing the IOC's revenues; in 1980 it reportedly had only $500,000 in its treasury; in 2001, $350 million. In 1992 he was made marqués de Samaranch by King Juan Carlos. After stepping down as president in 2001, the IOC named him honorary president for life.
Samaras, Antonis (Konstantinou) (b. May 23, 1951, Athens, Greece), finance minister (1989), foreign minister (1989-90, 1990-92), and prime minister (2012-15) of Greece. He was also minister of culture (2009). In 2009 he became leader of the New Democracy party.
Samaraweera, G.M.S. (b. 1937? - d. May 18, 2006, Colombo, Sri Lanka), governor of North Central province (1998-2003).
Samaraweera, Mangala (Pinsiri) (b. April 21, 1956, Matara, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]), foreign minister of Sri Lanka (2005-07, 2015- ). He was also minister of posts and telecommunications (1994-2000), information (1997-2000, 2004-07), urban development, housing, and construction (2000-01), and ports and aviation (2004-07).
Samaraweera, Percy (d. March 1999), chief minister of Uva (1988-98).
Samardzic, Nikola (b. Oct. 24, 1935, Ledenice, near Kotor, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. Dec. 24, 2005, Sydney, Australia), foreign minister of Montenegro (1991-92).
Samary, Paul (b. Feb. 7, 1848, Sète, France - d. May 31, 1911, Cayenne, French Guiana), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1900-01), Réunion (1901-05), and French Guiana (1910-11).
Samatar, Muhammad Ali, Somali Maxamed Cali Samatar (b. 1931, Chisimaio [Kismaayo], Somalia), defense minister (1976-81, 1982-89) and prime minister (1987-90) of Somalia. In 2010 the U.S. Supreme Court said that Samatar, then living in Virginia, could be sued in U.S. courts over claims he oversaw killings and torture in Somalia.
Samba Kaputo, Guillaume (b. April 13, 1946, Baudouinville [now Moba], Katanga, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Aug. 1, 2007, Johannesburg, South Africa), governor of Bandundu (1988-90) and Orientale (1990-91).
Samba-Panza, Catherine (b. June 26, 1956, Fort-Lamy [now N'Djamena], Chad), transitional head of state of the Central African Republic (2014- ). She became mayor of Bangui in 2013.
Sambi, Ahmed Abdallah (Mohamed) (b. June 5, 1958, Mutsamudu, Anjouan, Comoros), president of Comoros (2006-11).
Sambo, (Mohammed) Namadi (b. Aug. 2, 1954, Zaria [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria), governor of Kaduna (2007-10) and vice president of Nigeria (2010- ).
Sambwa Pida Nbagui, (Jules Fontaine) (b. Nov. 12, 1940, Mbandaka, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. March 4, 1998, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister (1988) and finance minister (1997) of Zaire. He was also governor of the Bank of Zaire (1970-77, 1980-85) and minister of economy and industry (1985) and planning (1985-87).
Samdhong Rinpoche, ceremonial title of Lobsang Tenzin (bLo bsang bstan 'zin) (b. Nov. 5, 1939, Nagdug, Kham province, Tibet), chairman of the cabinet of Tibet in exile (2001-11).
Samford, William J(ames) (b. Sept. 16, 1844, Greenville, Ga. - d. June 11, 1901, Tuscaloosa, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1900-01). In 1862 he joined the Confederate army. He served in the 46th Alabama Infantry Regiment and fought in campaigns in Tennessee, Kentucky and Mississippi. In May 1863 he was captured at the battle of Baker's Creek in Mississippi and imprisoned at Johnson's Island, Lake Erie, for eighteen months. Lieutenant Samford was released in 1864 and returned to his regiment until the war ended. His political career began in 1872 when he served as an alderman in Opelika. Also in 1872 he was a delegate to the state Democratic convention and an alternate elector on the Horace Greeley ticket. He assisted with the gubernatorial campaign of George S. Houston in 1874. The following year he was a member of the constitutional convention and a presidential elector in 1876. From 1879 until 1881 he represented the state in the U.S. Congress. He represented Lee County in the state legislature from 1882 until 1896, including two years as president of the senate. He was appointed to the University of Alabama Board of Trustees in 1896. In 1900 he was elected governor of the state of Alabama but held the office for only six months before he died while attending a university board of trustees meeting. Two major events occurred during his short time as governor. First and foremost was the 1901 Constitutional Convention which produced the state's present constitution. Samford's other accomplishment was the creation of the Alabama Department of Archives and History. Because the office of lieutenant governor did not exist in 1901, the president of the Senate, William D. Jelks, succeeded as governor upon Samford's death.
Samozhenkov, Vladimir (Mikhailovich) (b. March 19, 1950), prime minister of Adygeya (2007-08).
Sampaio, Cid Feijó (b. Dec. 7, 1910, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Sept. 30, 2010, Recife), governor of Pernambuco (1959-63).
Sampaio, Jorge (Fernando Branco de) (b. Sept. 18, 1939, Lisbon, Portugal), president of Portugal (1996-2006).
Samper Pizano, Ernesto (b. Aug. 3, 1950, Bogotá, Colombia), president of Colombia (1994-98). He ran the 1982 presidential campaign of Alfonso López Michelsen. López lost, but Samper was named ambassador to the United Nations by the new president, Belisario Betancur. In 1984 he was elected to the provincial assembly in Cundinamarca, and in 1986 to Congress. In 1989 he narrowly escaped death when an assassin opened fire, killing José Antequera, a member of the left-wing Patriotic Union who was standing next to him, and putting 11 bullets into Samper. The attack ended his plans for running in the 1990 presidential election, but he recovered and was included in Pres. César Gaviria's cabinet as minister of economic development (1990-91). He served as ambassador to Spain (1991-93) and then became leader of the Liberal Party. He won the 1994 presidential election over Conservative candidate Andrés Pastrana. Days later, rumours of the Liberal Party's involvement with the Cali drug cartel were supported by the release of tape recordings of telephone conversations between the cartel's leaders, discussing campaign contributions to the party and meetings with campaign treasurer Santiago Medina. In 1995 Attorney General Alfonso Valdivieso announced the beginning of a large-scale investigation, and a number of party officials were indicted, including Medina and Defense Minister Fernando Botero Zea, who had also served as Samper's campaign manager. In 1996, as more evidence surfaced, calls arose for Samper's resignation. In June the Chamber of Deputies voted to clear him of the charge of knowingly receiving funds from drug traffickers; the opposition labeled his acquittal "the farce of the century." The U.S. revoked Samper's visitor visa in July. He maintained his innocence and served out his term. In 2006 his nomination as ambassador to France sparked outrage, and he withdrew. In 2014 he became secretary-general of the Union of South American Nations.
Sampson, Nikos, byname of Nikolaos Sampson Georgiadis (b. Dec. 16, 1934, Famagusta, Cyprus - d. May 9, 2001, Nicosia, Cyprus), president of Cyprus (1974). He was a key member of the underground EOKA movement that fought for unity with Greece during the 1955-59 struggle against British colonialists. Once known as the "executioner of Murder Mile" - the name British troops gave to the Nicosia street where more than a dozen Britons were shot and killed - Sampson was twice sentenced to be executed on weapons charges. He was included in an amnesty proclaimed with the 1959 agreement granting Cyprus independence from colonial rule. Soon after independence and his release from prison, he launched a daily newspaper, Machi. During ethnic clashes that erupted in 1964, he led a militia that battled Turkish Cypriots. In 1970 he was elected to parliament. He briefly assumed power on the east Mediterranean island in July 1974 after the military, guided by the junta then ruling Greece, ousted Archbishop Makarios from power. He became known as the "eight-day president," resigning after Turkish forces launched an invasion on July 20, 1974. The Turkish invasion split the island into a Greek Cypriot south and a Turkish Cypriot north. He was tried and sentenced to 20 years imprisonment for crimes against the state in 1976. He maintained he was not involved in the coup and only agreed to accept the presidency offered to him by the Greek junta. He was subsequently allowed to leave Cyprus for medical treatment and spent 11 years in exile in Paris. On his return to Cyprus in 1990 he was jailed to serve the rest of his sentence. In 1993 his prison sentence was suspended for health reasons.
Sampurnanand (b. Jan. 1, 1889, Benares [now Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Jan. 10, 1969), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1954-60) and governor of Rajasthan (1962-67).
Samsonov, Boris Ivanovych (b. April 21, 1938), prime minister of Crimea (1993-94).
Samsudin (bin) Osman, Tan Sri (b. March 3, 1947, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), president of Putrajaya Corporation (2004-12).
Samuels, Gordon (Jacob) (b. Aug. 12, 1923, London, England - d. Dec. 10, 2007, Sydney, N.S.W.), governor of New South Wales (1996-2001).
Samuelson, Don W(illiam) (b. July 27, 1913, Woodhull, Ill. - d. Jan. 20, 2000, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Idaho (1967-71). He was a state senator from Sandpoint in 1966 when he was elected governor. Despite a legislative majority of his own Republican Party, Samuelson set a record in 1967 when he vetoed 39 bills sent to him by lawmakers. He served only one term.
Samuelsson, (Birgit) Marianne (b. Sept. 12, 1945, Alingsås, Sweden), Swedish politician. She sat in parliament in 1988-91 and 1994-2002 and was co-speaker (with Birger Schlaug) of the Green Party (1992-99). In 2004 she became governor of Gotland, but she was forced to resign in 2009 after she was taped arguing that a local businessman should receive preferential treatment for plans to extend his property in a protected beachside area.
San Yu (b. 1918 - d. Jan. 28, 1996, Yangon, Myanmar), president of Burma (1981-88). He served as minister of defense before taking over as president from strongman Ne Win in 1981. From the mid-1980s he was vice chairman of the ruling Burma Socialist Program Party. He finally stepped down from the presidency during the pro-democracy upheavals of 1988. San Yu was valued by Ne Win more for his loyalty than any marked ability. He was a member of Ne Win's Revolutionary Council when it seized power in a 1962 coup, and both men were of Sino-Burmese descent.
San Yun (b. June 15, 1905 - d. March 3, 1974), prime minister of Cambodia (1956-57). He was also interior (1955-56, 1956-57), foreign (1956-57), defense (1956-57), and finance (1957) minister.
Sanabria Arcia, Edgar (b. Oct. 3, 1911, Caracas, Venezuela - d. April 24, 1989, Caracas), president of Venezuela (1958-59).
Sanader, Ivo (b. June 8, 1953, Split, Croatia), prime minister of Croatia (2003-09). He resigned in the middle of his second term, saying only that he had decided to leave politics. His successor Jadranka Kosor later removed him from her governing conservative Croatian Democratic Union, but he returned to parliament as an independent lawmaker in November 2010. In December he was arrested in Austria on an international warrant a day after he left Croatia amid a corruption probe. In November 2012 he was convicted of taking millions of dollars in bribes from a Hungarian energy company and an Austrian bank and was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
Sanakoyev, David (Georgiyevich) (b. Dec. 14, 1976, Tskhinvali, South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of South Ossetia (2012- ).
Sanakoyev, Dmitry (Ivanovich) (b. 1969, Tskhinvali, South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister (2001), president of an alternative government (2006-07), and (Georgia-appointed) head of the provisional administration (2007- ) of South Ossetia.
Sanakoyev, Igor (Viktorovich) (b. Feb. 20, 1947), prime minister of South Ossetia (2003-05).
Sánchez (Vargas de Ríos), Ana María (Liliana), foreign minister of Peru (2015- ).
Sánchez (Sánchez), Luis Alberto (Félix) (b. Oct. 12, 1900, Lima, Peru - d. Feb. 6, 1994, Lima), Peruvian politician. Also a prolific man of letters, he was politically prominent as a longtime member of the centre-left American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), which was founded by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre to combat imperialism in Latin America. He founded the party's newspaper, Tribuna, in 1931, the same year he was elected to Congress. Imprisoned briefly by the military government of Luis Sánchez Cerro in 1932, he spent most of the next 25 years in exile in the United States, France, and Latin America. He was elected to the Senate in 1963, 1980, 1985, and 1990, was its president in 1966-67 and 1985-86, and he served as the chairman of the 1978-79 Constituent Assembly that drafted a new constitution. When APRA first came to power in 1985 under Pres. Alan García, Sánchez was given the post of vice president, and - aged 88 and nearly blind - he served briefly as prime minister in 1989. In 1990 García's term in office expired amidst hyperinflation and allegations of corruption, but Sánchez emerged unscathed due to the respect he built up with the public and among all mainstream political parties.
Sánchez Arango, Aureliano (b. 1907 - d. April 23, 1976, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister of Cuba (1951-52). He was also minister of education (1948-51).
Sánchez Celis, Leopoldo (b. Feb. 14, 1916, Cosalá, Sinaloa, Mexico - d. Aug. 7, 1989, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico), governor of Sinaloa (1963-68).
Sánchez Cerén, Salvador (b. June 18, 1944, Quezaltepeque, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (2014- ). He was also vice president (2009-14) and education minister (2009-12).
Sánchez Cerro, Luis M(iguel) (b. Aug. 18, 1889, Piura, Peru - d. [assassinated] April 30, 1933, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (1930-31, 1931-33).
Sánchez Colín, Salvador (b. May 14, 1912, Atlacomulco, México state, Mexico - d. May 14, 2002, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of México (1951-57).
Sánchez de Lozada (Sánchez Bustamante), Gonzalo, byname Goni (b. July 11, 1930, La Paz, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (1993-97, 2002-03). He was also president of the Senate (1985-86) and minister of planning and coordination (1986-88). A millionaire mining magnate, the main legacy of his first presidential term was a capitalization program that partially privatized many of the country's state-owned industries. He also increased public financing for Bolivia's impoverished cities. He took office again in August 2002 after a bitter and contentious race against his top rival, Evo Morales, a leftist leader of indigenous coca growers. Sánchez de Lozada won just 22.5% of the vote, throwing the election into the Congress, where lawmakers chose him over Morales. During his first days in office he promised to deliver speedy results for a country beaten down by crushing poverty that had ensnared a majority of the country's 8.8 million population. But it did not take long before his government was seriously shaken. In February 2003, protests over a government austerity plan led to two days of riots that left 31 people dead amid a hail of tear gas in downtown La Paz. Striking police officers clashed with soldiers in a groundswell of anger over proposed tax increases and salary reductions that sparked demonstrations, widespread looting, and the blocking of roads - a traditional Bolivian protest action. After escaping from the besieged presidential palace, Sánchez de Lozada gave a nationally televised speech appealing for calm and announcing he would suspend the tax increases. But it laid the foundation for another crisis, as politicians in his coalition government began to distance themselves from him. Long-simmering tensions exploded into deadly street riots in mid-September that quickly overwhelmed his government, forcing him to resign. He then went into exile in the U.S.; in 2007 he was charged with genocide in relation to the 2003 unrest, but in 2012 the U.S. government refused Bolivia's extradition request.
Sánchez de L.
Sánchez Díaz Martell, Raúl (b. April 15, 1915, Guadalajara, Mexico - d. April 17, 2011, Mexicali, Mexico), governor of Baja California (1965-71).
Sánchez Hernández, Fidel (b. July 7, 1917, El Divisadero, Morazán department, El Salvador - d. March 1, 2003, San Salvador, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (1967-72). Sánchez, an army general, served as military attaché in Paris and Washington and in 1962 became interior minister. As National Conciliation Party candidate he was easily elected president in 1967. He was credited with successfully leading Salvadoran troops from the field in the brief but bloody war with Honduras in July 1969. The 100-hour war, which left thousands dead, came about due to border delineations and migration issues. The conflict is often referred to as the "Soccer War" as the tensions that led up to it coincided with a football rivalry between El Salvador and Honduras that played out in a three-game elimination match to get into the World Cup. The war was brought to an end under an Organization of American States ceasefire. His final year of government was marked by a coup attempt.
Sánchez Pontón, Luis (b. Aug. 5, 1889, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico - d. June 19, 1969, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1920-21). He was also Mexican education minister (1940-41), minister to Ecuador (1942) and Switzerland (1946), and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1946-47).
Sánchez Quell, Hipólito (b. April 25, 1907, San Roque, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Oct. 3, 1986, Asunción), foreign minister of Paraguay (1954-56). He was ambassador to Mexico (1949-50), the United Nations (1954), Brazil (1956-59), France (1959-64), and Portugal (1961-64).
Sánchez Sotomayor, Raúl (Alberto) (b. April 20, 1932, Callao province, Peru - d. July 24, 2010), foreign minister of Peru (1991). He was also minister of fisheries (1990-91).
Sánchez Taboada, Rodolfo (b. May 7, 1895, Acatzingo, Puebla, Mexico - d. May 2, 1955, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Baja California (1937-44). He was also president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (1946-52) and minister of marine (1952-55).
Sánchez Unzueta, Horacio (b. April 17, 1949), governor of San Luis Potosí (1993-97). He was also ambassador to the Vatican (1998-2000).
Sánchez Vilella, Roberto (b. Feb. 19, 1913, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico - d. March 25, 1997, San Juan, Puerto Rico), governor of Puerto Rico (1965-69). In 1948, Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory since 1898, gained the right to elect its own governor and it chose Luis Muñoz Marín, who later tapped Sánchez as his successor. During his 40-year political career, Sánchez occupied many important positions. He served as San Juan's city manager in 1945; as transportation secretary from 1951 to 1954, and as secretary of state and public works secretary at the same time from 1962 to 1964. In 1964 he was elected governor. In 1968, he defected from his Popular Democratic Party (PDP) after losing the party's nomination for governor to Luis Negron López, and formed the People's Party. Under the slogan "Let the People Decide," Sánchez ran for governor that same year under the People's Party, taking 100,000 votes from the PDP, which helped Luis A. Ferré, the candidate of the pro-statehood New Progressive Party (NPP), win the election. Sánchez later dissolved his fledgling party, and in the 1996 elections urged voters to choose the PDP over the NPP of incumbent Gov. Pedro Rosselló. Sánchez ran unsuccessfully for a legislative seat in 1972, and decided to retire from politics. He also helped promote Puerto Rico as a world contender in baseball, among other sports. His support was critical in persuading then governor Muñoz Marín to allow Puerto Rico to send a separate team to the 1948 Olympic Games in London.
Sánchez Vite, Manuel (b. March 17, 1915, Molango, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. Oct. 6, 1994), governor of Hidalgo (1969-70, 1972-75). He was also president of Mexico's Institutional Revolutionary Party (1970-72).
Sancho, Carlos (Alberto) (b. 1964), governor of Santa Cruz (2006-07).
Sanders, Jerry, byname of Gerald Robert Sanders (b. July 14, 1950, San Pedro, Calif.), mayor of San Diego (2005-12).
Sanderson, John (Murray) (b. Nov. 4, 1940, Geraldton, W.Aus.), governor of Western Australia (2000-05).
Sanderson, Kerry (Gaye), née Smith (b. Dec. 21, 1950, Subiaco, W.Aus.), governor of Western Australia (2014- ).
Sandhawalia, S(urjit) S(ingh) (b. July 27, 1925, Lyallpur, India [now Faisalabad, Pakistan] - d. Nov. 16, 2007, Panchkula, Haryana, India), governor of Haryana (1979-80) and Punjab (1983).
Sandiford, Sir Lloyd (Erskine), before knighthood (2000) known as Erskine Sandiford (b. March 24, 1937, Barbados), prime minister of Barbados (1987-94). He entered politics in 1966 as personal assistant to Prime Minister Errol Barrow. Appointed to parliament as a senator in 1967, he became minister of education and community dvelopment; in 1975 he moved to the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In the 1976 general elections, he retained his seat in parliament by only 12 votes, but in 1981 he increased his majority. During the years in opposition (1976-86), he acted as deputy parliamentary opposition leader. In May 1986 the Democratic Labour Party (DLP) gained a sweeping majority in general elections, and he was selected as deputy prime minister in preference to other contenders, including Branford Taitt and Richie Haynes. The sudden death of Barrow on June 1, 1987, brought Sandiford into the post of prime minister. In September 1987 Sandiford's leadership was criticized by Haynes, who resigned from his post as finance minister, accusing the prime minister of failure to consult him on key financial appointments and other matters. Sandiford took over the finance portfolio himself in addition to that of economic affairs, a post created and held by Barrow in 1986. He pledged to continue Barrow's policies, but his approach to government was more technocratic than that of his flamboyant predecessor. One political difference between them had emerged in 1983 when Sandiford led the DLP in support of the U.S. invasion of Grenada, while Barrow, who opposed it, was out of Barbados. Sandiford led the DLP to victory in the 1991 elections, but the party lost those of September 1994; prior to those elections, in July, he had been succeeded as DLP leader by David Thompson. In 2010 he became ambassador to China.
Sandino, Augusto César, original name Augusto Nicolás Calderón Sandino (b. May 18, 1895, Niquinohomo, Nicaragua - d. Feb. 21, 1934, Managua, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan guerrilla leader. In 1926 he took up arms in support of Vice Pres. Juan Bautista Sacasa's claim to the presidency. After the U.S. intervened in 1927, Sandino refused to lay down his arms and with several hundred men withdrew to the mountains of northern Nicaragua. His success in eluding capture by the U.S. Marines and the Nicaraguan National Guard attracted widespread sympathy for him throughout Latin America, where many viewed him as a fighter against "Yankee imperialism" (in the U.S. view he was simply a "bandit"). This anti-U.S. feeling was partly responsible for Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy" (1933), a reformulation of U.S. relations with Latin America. Following the withdrawal of the Marines and the inauguration of Sacasa as president in January 1933, Sandino made a peace agreement with Sacasa. However, conflicts arose between his followers and the National Guard, and in February 1934 he went to Managua to discuss means of ending the friction. Upon leaving a dinner with the president, he and several aides were abducted and shot by National Guardsmen. He remained a popular hero and later gave his name to the Sandinistas, a revolutionary group that formed the government from 1979 to 1990.
Sandler, Rickard (Johannes) (b. Jan. 29, 1884, Torsåker, Sweden - d. Nov. 12, 1964, Hägersten, Stockholm, Sweden), finance minister (1920), prime minister (1925-26), and foreign minister (1932-36, 1936-39) of Sweden and governor of Gävleborg (1941-50).
Sandomil, Pedro Mascarenhas, conde de (b. Nov. 9, 1670 - d. Aug. 3, 1745, Lisbon, Portugal), viceroy of Portuguese India (1732-41).
Sandoval, José León (b. 1789 - d. Oct. 19, 1847), director of Nicaragua (1845-47).
Sandoval Castañeda, Roberto (b. Nov. 15, 1969, Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico), governor of Nayarit (2011- ). He was also mayor of Tepic (2008-10).
Sandoval Díaz, Jorge Aristóteles (b. Jan. 22, 1974, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico), governor of Jalisco (2013- ). He was also mayor of Guadalajara (2009-12).
Sandoz, André (b. Sept. 18, 1911, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchâtel, Switzerland - d. May 16, 2006, La Chaux-de-Fonds), president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (1957-58).
Sanford, Francis (Ariioehau) (b. May 11, 1912, Papeete, Tahiti - d. Dec. 21, 1996, Faaa, Tahiti), French Polynesian politician. He was elected mayor of Faaa in 1965 and two years later he became a deputy in the French territory's assembly, a post he held until 1978. As president of the Polynesian government's council, he founded Aia Api, a political party opposed to French Pres. Charles de Gaulle's watchful rule over French Polynesia. Sanford helped write a 1977 autonomy statute in France's National Assembly that gave the South Pacific territory greater leeway in managing its daily affairs. His push for greater independence made him known as French Polynesia's "father of autonomy." He retired from politics in 1985.
Sanford, Mark, byname of Marshall Clement Sanford, Jr. (b. May 28, 1960, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.), governor of South Carolina (2003-11). A Republican and something of a maverick, he ran for the U.S. House in 1994. Campaigning as an outsider, he called for term limits; said citizen-legislators needed to replace career politicians; and pledged to serve only three terms, to take no PAC money, to vote for no tax increases, and to refuse any salary increase until the budget was balanced. He finished second in the primary and then won the runoff 52%-48%. He carried the general election with 66%. In the House he voted more often than almost any other member against spending increases. But he took moderate positions on some issues and often bucked the Republican leadership. He campaigned for John McCain in 1999-2000, even though most state Republican insiders backed George W. Bush. In 2001 he started running for governor. Capitalizing on his ties in the business world and from the McCain campaign, he raised more money and ran more ads than his two primary opponents. He finished first with 39% of the vote, just ahead of Lt.Gov. Bob Peeler's 38%; Attorney General Charlie Condon won only 16%. In the runoff Sanford defeated Peeler 60%-40%. In the November 2002 election he defeated Gov. Jim Hodges 53%-47%. In office, he instituted an "open door at four" policy, allowing citizens to line up to get five-minute audiences with the governor. From the legislature he asked some pretty major changes, including abolishing the elective offices of secretary of state, treasurer, comptroller, adjutant general, superintendent of education, and agriculture commissioner, and putting their functions under the governor. He was reelected in 2006, defeating Democratic state senator Tommy Moore 55%-45%. In 2009, after a mysterious week-long disappearance, he admitted to an extramarital affair and resigned as head of the Republican Governors Association. In 2013 he was again elected to the U.S. House.
Sanford, (James) Terry (b. Aug. 20, 1917, Laurinberg, N.C. - d. April 18, 1998, Durham, N.C.), U.S. politician. He served as North Carolina governor from 1961 to 1965, championing education reform and promoting racial equality at a time when it was unpopular to do so. He ran for president in 1972 and 1976, when he lost the nomination to Georgia Gov. Jimmy Carter. Sanford was elected to the Senate in 1986 but lost his bid for a second term to Republican Lauch Faircloth in 1992.
Sangare, Abou Drahamane (b. March 9, 1946, M'Bahiakro, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2000-03).
Sangheli, Andrei (Nicolae) (b. July 20, 1944, Grinauti, Romania [now in Moldova]), prime minister of Moldova (1992-97).
Sangma, Mukul M(anda) (b. April 20, 1965), chief minister of Meghalaya (2010- ).
Sangma, Purno Agitok (b. Sept. 1, 1947, Chapahati village, Assam [now in West Garo Hills district, Meghalaya], India), chief minister of Meghalaya (1988-90). He was also Indian minister of information and broadcasting (1995-96) and speaker of the Lok Sabha (1996-98).
Sangma, Williamson A(mpang) (b. Oct. 18, 1919, Baghmara, Garo Hills, Assam [now in Meghalaya], India - d. Oct. 25, 1990), chief minister of Meghalaya (1970-78, 1981-82, 1983-88) and governor of Mizoram (1989-90).
Sangster, Sir Donald (Burns) (b. Oct. 26, 1911, Kingston, Jamaica - d. April 11, 1967, Montreal, Quebec), prime minister of Jamaica (1967); knighted 1967.
Sanguinetti, Alexandre (Antoine) (b. March 27, 1913, Cairo, Egypt - d. Oct. 9, 1980), French veterans minister (1966-67).
Sanguinetti Coirolo, Julio María (b. Jan. 6, 1936, Montevideo, Uruguay), president of Uruguay (1985-90, 1995-2000). He joined the Colorado Party at an early age and became a deputy for the department of Montevideo in 1962, a seat he continued to hold through congressional elections of 1966 and 1971. During this period he was also a member of several delegations and commissions, and he was appointed to the Ministry of Industry and Trade in 1969-71 and the Ministry of Education for six months in 1972. In 1980 he strongly opposed the armed forces' intention to legalize their control of power through a plebiscite. This action quickly boosted his political standing, and in 1982 he became secretary-general of the Colorado Party, following his appointment the previous year as leader of "Unidad y Reforma," the largest faction within the party. He played a leading role in the negotiations for the country's return to democracy. Campaigning under the slogan "changes under peace," he led his party to victory in the Nov. 25, 1984, elections by defeating his immediate opponent, Alberto Zumarán of the National Party, with 39% against 33% of the vote. A skilled orator, Sanguinetti was crucial in passing an amnesty law which pacified the military but kept the newly liberated unions under control during the tough times. Barred by law from seeking two consecutive terms, he returned to the private sector in 1990 only to win elections again in 1994. He spent much of his second term attempting to place Uruguay on the international map and continued some of the free-market reforms started by his predecessor, Luis Lacalle of the National Party. He left office in 2000, proud to have tamed inflation to its lowest levels in decades and stabilized the country's currency.
Sanhá, (António) Artur (b. 1965?), interior minister (2000-01) and prime minister (2003-04) of Guinea-Bissau.
Sanhá, Malam Bacai (b. May 5, 1947, Darsalame, southern Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. Jan. 9, 2012, Paris, France), acting president (1999-2000) and president (2009-12) of Guinea-Bissau. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2000 and 2005. In 1994-99 he was president of the National People's Assembly.
Sani (Yerima), (Alhaji) Ahmed (b. July 22, 1960, Anka [now in Zamfara state], Nigeria), governor of Zamfara (1999- ).
Sani, Muhammad (b. May 11, 1942, Kundur, Netherlands East Indies [now in Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia]), governor of Kepulauan Riau (2010- ).
Sanín (Posada), (Marta) Noemí (del Espíritu Santo), former married name Noemí Sanín de Rubio (b. June 5, 1949, Medellín, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1991-94). She was also minister of communications (1983-86), ambassador to Venezuela (1990-91), the United Kingdom (1994-95, 2007-09), and Spain (2003-07), and a presidential candidate (1998, 2002, 2010).
Sanjabi, Karim (b. 1904, western Iran - d. July 4, 1995, Carbondale, Ill.), foreign minister of Iran (1979). The leader of Iran's principal opposition party, the National Front, he fled Iran in 1982 for the U.S.
Sanjurjo Sacanell (Bonrostro y Desojo), José, marqués del Riff (b. March 28, 1872, Pamplona, Spain - d. [plane crash] July 20, 1936, Estoril, Portugal), high commissioner of Spanish Morocco (1925-28, 1931). He was created marqués de Monte Malmusi in 1926 and marqués del Riff in 1927.
Sankara, Thomas (Isidore Noël) (b. Dec. 21, 1949, Yako, Upper Volta - d. Oct. 15, 1987, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), head of state (1983-87) of Burkina Faso (until 1984 Upper Volta). He served briefly as secretary of state for information under Col. Saye Zerbo in 1981 but resigned from that post following a dispute with Zerbo. A captain of paratroops, Sankara was believed to have set up the coup that ousted Zerbo on Nov. 7, 1982, and brought Maj. Jean-Baptiste Ouedraogo to power. It was thought that in 1980 Sankara had already planned to overthrow Zerbo's predecessor, Maj.Gen. Sangoulé Lamizana, but had been preempted by Zerbo. He served as premier under Ouedraogo during January-May 1983 and then was purged from the ruling People's Salvation Council on suspicion of subversive activity, including the cultivation of close links with Libya. He was held in custody for two weeks and afterward placed under house arrest. With the support of a company of paratroopers, Captain Sankara took power on Aug. 4, 1983; the takeover cost some 15 lives. He aimed to make his country agriculturally self-sufficient and to improve public health and the position of women. He was responsible for changing Upper Volta's name to Burkina Faso ("land of the upright people") and made a serious effort to reduce official extravagance and corruption. One of the third world's more charismatic leaders, his undoubted popularity owed not a little to a talent probably possessed by few other heads of state: the ability to accompany his own songs - on revolutionary themes - on the electric guitar. He was ousted on Oct. 15, 1987, in a military coup led by Capt. Blaise Compaoré. Sankara and 12 of his aides who had been executed were buried the following day.
Sankaranarayanan, K(atteekal) (b. Oct. 15, 1932), governor of Nagaland (2007-09), Arunachal Pradesh (2007-08), Assam (2009), Jharkhand (2009-10), Maharashtra (2010-14), and Goa (2011-12).
Sankawulo, Wilton (Gbakolo Sengbe) (b. July 26, 1937, Haindi, Bong county, Liberia - d. Feb. 21, 2009, Monrovia, Liberia), chairman of the Council of State of Liberia (1995-96). He left Liberia for the U.S. in 2003.
Sankoh, Foday (Saybana) (b. Oct. 17, 1937, Tonkolili district, northern Sierra Leone - d. July 29, 2003, Freetown, Sierra Leone), Sierra Leonean rebel. He joined the army and rose to the rank of corporal in 1962. In 1973 he was arrested with other officers and charged with plotting against Pres. Siaka Stevens. He served just over six years of a seven-year jail term. After his release, he organized a cell of student activists in the southern town of Bo, laying the foundations for the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), which started a rebellion in 1991. He spent years deep in the jungles of Sierra Leone, training and guiding his rebels in a brutal bush war in which hundreds of thousands of civilians were killed, raped, or mutilated in hopes of terrorizing Sierra Leone into ceding control of its government and diamond fields. Emerging from the bush in March 1996 after a surprise truce offer, he held talks with newly elected president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah that led to a peace accord eight months later. The euphoria that greeted the peace accord was hardly over when clashes resumed. With both sides trading accusations of ceasefire violations, disgruntled soldiers staged a violent coup in Freetown in May 1997, forcing Kabbah to flee to Guinea. Sankoh, who was then in detention in Nigeria on charges of carrying firearms, ordered his guerrillas to support the coup. While still in detention, he was named number two in the junta that supplanted Kabbah's government for 10 months. In July 1998, Nigeria flew Sankoh to Sierra Leone to stand trial after Nigerian-led regional troops had evicted the junta from Freetown and reinstated Kabbah. He was charged with treason in September and sentenced to death on October 23. Provisionally released in April 1999, he signed a ceasefire agreement with Kabbah on May 18 and a peace accord on July 7. As clashes broke out again in May 2000, he briefly disappeared but was soon captured. He was replaced as RUF leader on August 21. Indicted for war crimes, he died in UN custody.
Sanmarco, Louis (Marius Pascal) (b. April 7, 1912, Martigues, France - d. Oct. 9, 2009), governor (1954-57) and high commissioner (1957-58) of Oubangui-Chari and high commissioner of Gabon (1958-59).
Sanneh, Sidi Moro, Moro also spelled Morro (b. Dec. 2, 1947, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (2004-05). He entered public service in 1977 and worked at the ministries for education and economic development. He was a director at the African Development Bank in 1992-2002. Until his appointment as foreign minister he was also an advisor for the United Nations Development Programme. In a 2005 reshuffle he was named minister of trade and industry, but the appointment was rescinded days later. In 2006 he briefly became ambassador to Senegal, being soon recalled, apparently because of concerns by Pres. Yahya Jammeh that he might be working with the Gambian opposition and/or too closely with the Senegalese. He did not return to The Gambia, ultimately moving to the United States.
Sanogo, Amadou Haya (b. 1972?), chairman of the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State of Mali (2012).
Sanon, Thomas (b. Sept. 8, 1947, Kokorowé village, Houet province, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), foreign minister of Burkina Faso (1992-94). Later he was ambassador to Austria.
Sanoussi, Zainoul Abidine, byname Bapou (b. 1942? - d. April 25, 2001, Conakry, Guinea), interior minister (1997-99) and foreign minister (1999-2000) of Guinea. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-92).
Sansaricq, Antoine Constantin (b. March 17, 1868 - d. June 19, 1941, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), member of the Council of Secretaries of Haiti (1912).
Sansores Pérez, Carlos (b. Sept. 25, 1918, Champoton, Campeche, Mexico - d. Dec. 21, 2005, Campeche, Campeche), governor of Campeche (1967-73). He was also president of Mexico's Institutional Revolutionary Party (1976-79).
Sansovini, Glauco (b. May 20, 1938, Rocca San Casciano, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (2010).
Sant, Alfred (b. Feb. 28, 1948, Sliema, Malta), prime minister of Malta (1996-98). In 1970, he served as second and then as first secretary at the Malta Mission to the European Community in Brussels. He resigned from the Maltese diplomatic service early in 1975. In 1977-78, he served as adviser on general and financial management at the Ministry of Parastatal and People's Industries in Valletta. Between 1980 and 1982, he was executive deputy chairman of the Malta Development Corporation. His active political career started in 1982 when he was appointed chairman of the Department of Information for the Malta Labour Party (MLP), an office he held until 1984. In the latter year, he was elected president of the MLP and served in that position until 1988. He was elected member of parliament in 1987 and leader of the MLP in 1992. In 1984-88, he served as chairman of the Guze' Ellul Mercer Foundation, an educational joint venture between the MLP and the General Workers Union. During 1988-89, he chaired an MLP working group evaluating the options for future relations between Malta and the European Community from the economic and social perspectives. He was elected prime minister in 1996. A firm believer in Malta's neutrality, he acted swiftly to deliver his election promises of scrapping the island's bid for European Union membership and pulling it out of NATO's Partnership for Peace Programme. Instead, he offered a "special relationship" with Europe through a free trade zone. In 1998 he called new elections three years early because his one-seat parliamentary majority was wiped out by his quarrel with former prime minister Dom Mintoff who broke ranks with the MLP leadership to protest Sant's austerity measures. His party was defeated by the Nationalist Party. After losing two more elections in 2003 and 2008, he resigned as party leader.
Santa Anna (y Pérez de Lebrón), Antonio (de Padua María Severino) López de (b. Feb. 21, 1794, Xalapa, Mexico - d. June 21, 1876, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Mexico (1833-37, 1841-44, 1844, 1847, 1853-55). He fought on both sides of nearly any issue. After serving in the Spanish colonial army, he supported Agustín de Iturbide and the war for Mexican independence in 1821, but in 1823 he helped overthrow Iturbide. In 1828 he emerged again to support Vicente Guerrero for president, only to help depose him later. He won much prestige by defeating an invading Spanish force at Tampico in 1829. Gaining the presidency in 1833 as a Federalist, he soon renounced that party and eventually established a centralized state. In 1836, he marched into Texas to quell a rebellion by U.S. settlers (who subsequently declared the independence of Texas). He defeated Texan forces at the Alamo and Goliad, but was defeated and captured at San Jacinto on April 21. He was sent to Washington, D.C., for an interview with Pres. Andrew Jackson, who returned him to Mexico after he agreed to a treaty recognizing Texan independence. The treaty was repudiated by Mexico and he was forced into retirement. Losing a leg while repelling a French assault on Veracruz in 1838, he gained new prestige and seized power in 1841, but was banished in 1845. After war with the U.S. broke out in 1846, he made a secret agreement with U.S. Pres. James Polk, who arranged for a ship to take him to Mexico. He assumed the presidency again and led his men against the U.S. until he was routed by U.S. forces under Gen. Winfield Scott. He again retired and left the country in 1848. In 1853 he was recalled and again elected president, but revolution broke out in 1854 and he had to go into exile in 1855. In 1874 he was allowed to return to his country.
Santa Cruz, António Manuel de Noronha, visconde de (b. 1772 - d. 18...), governor-general of Angola (1839). He became visconde de Santa Cruz on Oct. 15, 1851.
Santamaría, Francisco Javier (b. Sept. 10, 1886, Cacaos, Tabasco, Mexico - d. March 1, 1963, Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico), governor of Tabasco (1947-52).
Santamaría (Jaimes), Óscar Alfredo (b. March 13, 1942), justice minister (1989-91) and foreign minister (1994-95) of El Salvador.
Santarelli, Giulio (b. Nov. 22, 1935, Marino, Lazio, Italy), president of Lazio (1977-83).
Santer, Jacques (b. May 18, 1937, Wasserbillig, Luxembourg), prime minister of Luxembourg (1984-95) and president of the European Commission (1995-99). He served the Christian Social People's Party as its parliamentary secretary (1966-72), secretary-general (1972-74), and ultimately president (1974-82). In 1972 he made his debut in the government as secretary of state for social and cultural affairs. He was a member of the European Parliament in 1975-79. He was elected Luxembourg's prime minister in 1984 and was also finance minister (1979-89) and held other portfolios. In 1987-90 he also was leader of the European People's Party, the coalition that united European Christian Democratic and Christian Social parties. He chaired the negotiations in 1985 leading to the Single European Act, creating the EU single market. During his country's six-month presidency of the European Community in 1991, much of the groundwork was done for the Maastricht treaty on political and monetary union. He came to the presidency of the European Commission as a compromise choice, following Britain's veto of Belgian prime minister Jean-Luc Dehaene (whose candidacy had been advanced by France and Germany) and the subsequent dropping out of better-known, stronger candidates. He was selected for a five-year term by the European Council (the heads of government of the member nations of the European Union) on July 15, 1994, and confirmed by a majority of only 22 votes in the 567-seat European Parliament one week later. His vision was of a federalized, "non-Napoleonic" Europe ("The more Europe is decentralized, the stronger it is," he said). In 1999 the whole Commission resigned after a damning report on their handling of fraud and corruption. He was again a member of the European Parliament in 1999-2004.
Santiago y Díaz de Mendivil, Fernando de (b. July 23, 1910, Madrid, Spain - d. Nov. 6, 1994, Madrid), governor-general of Spanish Sahara (1971-74).
Santillo, Henrique (Antônio) (b. August 1937, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil - d. June 25, 2002, Anápolis, Goiás, Brazil), governor of Goiás (1987-91).
Santín del Castillo (y Barroeta), Miguel, president of El Salvador (1858-60).
Santini, Ange (b. June 10, 1959, Calvi, Corse, France), president of the Executive Council of Corse (2004-10).
Santos, António de Almeida (b. Feb. 15, 1926, Cabeça, Portugal), justice minister (1976-78) and president of the Assembly of the Republic (1995-2002) of Portugal.
F. dos Santos
Santos (y Salcié), Emilio de los (b. Oct. 12, 1903, San Juan de la Maguana, central Dominican Republic - d. June 10, 1986), chairman of the Triumvirate of the Dominican Republic (1963).
Santos, Fernando da Piedade Dias dos, byname Nandó (b. March 5, 1952, Luanda, Angola), interior minister (1999-2002), prime minister (2002-08), president of the National Assembly (2008-10, 2012- ), and vice president (2010-12) of Angola.
Santos, Francisco de Paula Lupério (b. 1898 - d. Nov. 1, 1977), acting governor of Rio de Janeiro (1947).
Santos (Rivera), Gonzalo N(atividad) (b. Jan. 10, 1897, Tampamolón Corona, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. Oct. 17, 1979, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (1943-49).
Santos, José Orcírio Miranda dos, byname Zeca do PT (b. Feb. 24, 1950, Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), governor of Mato Grosso do Sul (1999-2007).
Santos (Calderón), Juan Manuel (b. Aug. 10, 1951, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister (2000-02), defense minister (2006-09), and president (2010- ) of Colombia; great-nephew of Eduardo Santos Montejo. He was also minister of foreign trade (1991-94).
Santos, Paulo de Tarso (b. Jan. 12, 1926, Araxá, Minas Gerais, Brazil), prefect of the Distrito Federal (1961) and education and culture minister of Brazil (1963).
Santos (López), Samuel (b. Dec. 13, 1938, Managua, Nicaragua), foreign minister of Nicaragua (2007- ). He was mayor of Managua in 1980-85.
Santos Fraga, (Jesús) Marcelo de los (b. Dec. 15, 1940, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (2003-09). He was also mayor of San Luis Potosí (2000-02).
Santos Montejo, Eduardo (b. Aug. 28, 1888, Bogotá, Colombia - d. March 27, 1974, Bogotá), president of Colombia (1938-42). A famous journalist, he was publisher of the liberal newspaper El Tiempo. Becoming active in Liberal Party politics in 1917, he served as foreign minister (1930), governor of Santander (1931), head of the Colombian delegation to the League of Nations (1931-33), and senator (1935-37). He was elected president without opposition in 1938 as leader of the right wing of the Liberal Party; as president he moderated the reforming pace of the previous Liberal administration. Though hampered by wartime conditions, he introduced programs that set important precedents for subsequent governments, including the development of public housing, credit reforms, and highway construction. Another accomplishment was the conclusion in 1941, after many years of negotiation, of a border treaty with Venezuela. He also signed a new pact with the Vatican which ended clerical control of education and laid down that bishops had to be Colombian citizens. Even before taking office, he had urged that the countries of the Americas stand together, and after the Pearl Harbor attack in December 1941 he broke relations with the Axis powers and took over the German-owned national airline. After his term expired, he remained a leader of the Liberal Party and was first designate (vice president) of Colombia in 1948-50. He criticized Gustavo Rojas Pinilla's dictatorship (1953-57) in El Tiempo, which was shut down for 22 months. He was told he could, under certain conditions, start the presses up again, but he refused to subject himself to Rojas Pinilla's censors and the paper only reappeared after the dictator's ouster.
Santovenia (y Echaide), Emeterio (Santiago) (b. May 23, 1889, Mantua, Cuba - d. Nov. 18, 1968, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister of Cuba (1943-44).
Sanusi (bin) Junid, Tan Sri (Dato' Seri) (b. July 10, 1943, Yan, Kedah [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Kedah (1996-99). He received the titles Dato' (Jan. 17, 1982), Datuk Seri (July 18, 1984), Dato' Seri (Feb. 23, 1997), Tan Sri (June 7, 1997), and Datuk (Feb. 2, 2002).
Sanya Thammasak, Thammasak also spelled Dharmasakti (b. April 5, 1907, Bangkokyai district, Thonburi, Siam [now Thailand] - d. Jan. 6, 2002, Bangkok, Thailand), prime minister of Thailand (1973-75). Before his political career, he was president of the Supreme Court (1968-73). After student-led demonstrations toppled a military regime in October 1973, King Bhumibol Adulyadej named Sanya interim prime minister to lead a transition to democracy. He ushered in a brief period of democracy at a time when the military dominated Thai politics. He accelerated efforts to normalize ties with China and other communist nations, sought to reduce U.S. military presence in Thailand as the Vietnam War ended, and improved relations with Hanoi. In October 1976, the military assumed control in another bloody coup. Civilian rule took root in Thailand in 1992.
Sanyang, Kukoi Samba (b. 1952, Djiragone, Senegal - d. June 18, 2013, Bamako, Mali), chairman of the National Revolutionary Council of The Gambia (1981). After his abortive rebellion in The Gambia, the bloodiest in the country's history, he fled across the border into Guinea-Bissau from where he made his way to Cuba. He later resurfaced in several rebel wars in West Africa, most notably in Liberia where he was reputed to have been one of warlord Charles Taylor's most trusted aides. He reportedly led a shadowy life in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, and Libya where he was a close aide to Muammar al-Qaddafi. He was also accused by the Gambian government of being the main orchestrator of the Farafenni barracks attack in 1996 in which several Gambian soldiers were killed. In later years efforts to reconcile with the government failed after the fugitive returned to The Gambia on two occasions and held talks with Pres. Yahya Jammeh. Efforts to extradite him from Guinea-Bissau to The Gambia for treason in 2006 ended in failure.
Sanz y Posse, José Laureano, marqués de San Juan de Puerto Rico (b. March 19, 1822, Alcalá de Henares [now in Madrid autonomous community], Spain - d. Dec. 22, 1898, Madrid), acting governor-general of the Philippines (1866) and governor of Puerto Rico (1868-70, 1874-75).
Saouma, Édouard (Victor) (b. Nov. 6, 1926, Beirut, Lebanon - d. Dec. 1, 2012, Beirut), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1976-93).
Sap, Gustave (Charles) (b. Jan. 21, 1886, Kortemark, Belgium - d. March 18, 1940, Brussels, Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1934).
Sapag (Jalil), Felipe (b. Feb. 14 or 17, 1917, Zapala, Neuquén, Argentina - d. March 14, 2010, Neuquén, Neuquén), governor of Neuquén (1973-76, 1983-87, 1995-99).
Sapag (Cavallo), Jorge (Augusto) (b. July 18, 1951, Zapala, Neuquén, Argentina), governor of Neuquén (2007- ); nephew of Felipe Sapag.
Sapena Pastor (Guerín), Raúl (b. Oct. 9, 1908, San Pedro de Ycuamandiyú, Paraguay - d. June 15, 1989, Asunción, Paraguay), foreign minister of Paraguay (1956-76). He was minister to Bolivia (1940-41) and Uruguay (1941-44) and ambassador to Argentina (1948-49) and Brazil (1955-56).
Sapieha, Eustachy (Kajetan) (b. Aug. 2, 1881, Bialka Szlachecka, Poland - d. Feb. 20, 1963, Nairobi, Kenya), foreign minister of Poland (1920-21). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1919-20).
Saqr ibn Sultan al-Qasimi, Sheikh (b. 1925 - d. 1993), ruler of Sharjah (1951-65). He was deposed in 1965 and went into exile in Cairo; he was allowed to spend his last years in Abu Dhabi.
Saracevic, Izudin (b. 1957, Bihac [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Una-Sana (2015- ).
Saracoglu, (Mehmet) Sükrü, before 1935 Sükrü Bey (b. 1887, Ödemis, near Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. Dec. 27, 1953, Istanbul, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1942-46). After World War I he joined the nationalist movement of Mustafa Kemal (later Atatürk). Elected to the Grand National Assembly as deputy for Izmir in 1923, he was minister of education for a short period in 1925. Thereafter he became chairman of the Turkish delegation to the Greco-Turkish Population Exchange Commission. In 1927-30 he served as minister of finance. In 1931 he was sent on a financial mission to the United States, and on his return he prepared a report which served as the basis for reorganizing Turkey's cotton industry. As minister of justice (1933-38) he fostered Atatürk's Westernization program. As foreign minister (1938-42, 1944) he concluded a treaty of alliance with Great Britain and France (1939), as a prerequisite of which France ceded to Turkey Hatay province with the Mediterranean port of Alexandretta (Iskenderun); during World War II, however, he followed a policy of strict neutrality. Appointed prime minister on the death of Refik Saydam in 1942, he maintained Turkish neutrality, though with some anti-Axis bias, until Turkey declared war on the Axis powers in February 1945, just before the war's end. Two major measures of his government were the Varlik Vergisi (1942), a tax on capital imposed on the commercial classes, and a land reform law (1945), which redistributed state lands and large private estates to the landless peasants. In 1948 he was elected president of the Assembly, but, like other prominent members of the People's Party, he lost his seat in the election of 1950.
Saragat, Giuseppe (b. Sept. 12, 1898, Turin, Italy - d. June 11, 1988, Rome, Italy), president of Italy (1964-71). He joined the Socialist Party in 1922 and became secretary of its Turin branch. As an opponent of the Fascists, he was exiled from 1926 to 1943, living in Vienna to 1935 and then in Paris. He returned to Italy to join the partisans who were fighting the Germans after the fall of the Fascists. He was imprisoned by the Nazi forces occupying Rome but escaped in 1944 and, after Rome's liberation later that year, served as minister without portfolio in the cabinet of Ivanoe Bonomi. In 1945-46 he was ambassador to Paris and in 1946 he was elected president of the assembly which drew up postwar Italy's constitution. At the Socialist Party congress in 1947, he opposed the idea of cooperation with the Communist Party and led those who walked out to form the Socialist Party of Italian Workers. Shortly thereafter, he became vice-premier under Alcide De Gasperi (1947-48). Elected to the Chamber of Deputies (1948), he again became vice-premier and minister of the merchant marine, but he resigned (1949) to devote himself to his party. It changed its name to the Italian Social Democratic Party in 1951 in an effort to reaffirm its independence from the Communists and the other Socialist group. He served as the party's secretary in 1947-64 and 1975-83, then was elected president of the party for life. In 1954-57 he again served as vice-premier but resigned in opposition to the government's position on NATO. About this time, he suggested the idea of an "opening to the left," a coalition government including the leftist Socialists, which he saw materialize in 1963. He was foreign minister in 1959-60 and 1963-64, then was elected to the (largely ceremonial) presidency.
Saraki, Bukola (b. Dec. 19, 1962), governor of Kwara (2003-11).
Saralinov, Marat (b. 1941), acting foreign minister of Kyrgyzstan (1992). He was also ambassador to China (1996-2001).
Sarazin, Bernard (b. Aug. 3, 1929), prefect of Guadeloupe (1987-89). He was also prefect of Hautes-Pyrénées département (1985-87).
Sarbayev, Kadyrbek (Telmanovich) (b. Dec. 9, 1966, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), foreign minister of Kyrgyzstan (2009-10). He was ambassador to China in 2007-09.
Sarbayev, Rail (Salikhovich) (b. Jan. 11, 1962, Abzanovo, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Bashkortostan (2008-10).
Sarda-Garriga, Joseph Napoléon (Sébastien) (b. Dec. 13, 1808, Blanes hamlet, Pezilla-la-Rivière commune, Pyrénées-Orientales, France - d. Sept. 8, 1877), governor of Réunion (1848-50) and French Guiana (1852-53).
Sardinha, Francisco (b. April 15, 1946, Curtorim, Salcete district, Goa, Portuguese India [now in India]), chief minister of Goa (1999-2000).
Sardjoe, Ram(dien) (b. Oct. 10, 1935, Suriname district, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname]), vice president of Suriname (2005-10). He was also speaker of the National Assembly (2001-05).
Sardo, Modesto (b. Sept. 1, 1929, Mineo, Sicilia, Italy), president of Sicilia (1984-85).
Sardon (bin Haji) Jubir, Tun (Haji) (b. March 19, 1917, Sungai Kluang, Rengit, Johor [now in Malaysia] - d. Dec. 14, 1985), head of state of Penang (1975-81). He was also Malaysia's permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-75). He received the titles Dato' (October 1972), Tun (June 1976), and Dato' Seri (1976).
Säre, Karl (b. July 2, 1903 - d. March 14, 1945, Neuengamme concentration camp, Germany), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Estonian S.S.R. (1940-43).
Sarei, Sir Alexis (Holyweek) (b. March 25, 1934, Buka, Bougainville, New Guinea [now in Papua New Guinea] - d. Sept. 22, 2014), premier of North Solomons province (1975-80, 1984-87); knighted 1987. He was also Papua New Guinean high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1980-83).
Sargent, Francis W(illiam) (b. July 29, 1915, Hamilton, Mass. - d. Oct. 22, 1998, Dover, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1969-75). Before he became lieutenant governor of Massachusetts in 1966, he headed several state agencies including a 10-year stint as state commissioner of natural resources. An avid fisherman, he had gotten interested in the environment because he was frustrated by overfishing and the use of illegal nets when he lived on Cape Cod after serving in World War II. Sargent, a Republican, ran for lieutenant governor in 1966 with the campaign slogan "Put Sarge in Charge." In 1969, Sargent succeeded Gov. John Volpe when Volpe was named U.S. secretary of transportation. In 1970, he defeated Boston mayor Kevin White to win the governor's office in his own right. His tenure was marked by the tumultuous racial tensions prompted by school busing in the 1970s. He refused to repeal a law that recognized racial imbalance, but proposed a "freedom of choice" plan - a one-way busing program for black children only, rather than busing for both black and white students. Sargent took the reins of the state when the budget was in turmoil because of spending increases on welfare and other benefits. He tightened rules for qualifying for Medicaid and introduced a new corporate tax. During his tenure, Sargent also worked to build several public housing projects. He supported the state's first no-fault insurance law and a statute challenging the legality of the Vietnam War. In 1974, he ran for a second term, but was defeated by Democrat Michael Dukakis.
Sargsyan: see under Sarkisyan.
Saric, Mirsad (b. June 27, 1951, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Herzegovina-Neretva (2000).
Sarin Chhak, original name Khin Kaing (b. Jan. 2, 1922, Krangsla village, Prey Kabass district, Takeo province, Cambodia - d. ...), foreign minister of Cambodia (1975-76). He was Cambodian ambassador to the United Arab Republic (Egypt) in 1968-70. He denounced the 1970 coup and was made a member of the Political Bureau and Central Committee of the National United Front of Kampuchea (FUNK) and foreign minister in the Beijing-based Royal Government of National Union of Kampuchea (GRUNK). After the FUNK forces won the civil war in 1975, the GRUNK was transferred to Phnom Penh. However, the royalist elements had lost influence within the FUNK in favour of the Khmer Rouge, and Sarin Chhak soon disappeared from the scene. What further happened to him is a mystery. Some have said that after the Vietnamese invasion in 1979 he was taken to an unknown destination by Vietnamese soldiers. His children have suggested that the Vietnamese kept him under house arrest until his death in the 1990s. A reason for Vietnam's interest in him is supposed to be the fact that he was an expert on Cambodia's borders and might have supported Cambodian territorial claims against Vietnam.
Sarit Thanarat (b. June 16, 1908, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand] - d. Dec. 8, 1963, Bangkok), prime minister of Thailand (1958-63).
Sarkar, Abu Hossain (b. 1894, Rangpur, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. April 17, 1969, Dacca, East Pakistan [now Dhaka, Bangladesh]), chief minister of East Pakistan (1955-56, 1958, 1958).
Sarkar, Manik (b. Jan. 22, 1949, Radhakishorepur, South Tripura district, Tripura, India), Indian politician. He came into the limelight for his role in the "food movement" in 1967 when he was a student of MBB College. He became a member of the Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) in 1968. He was the general secretary of the MBB College council and later became secretary of the state unit of the Student Federation of India. He also became the joint secretary of the SFI all-India body. He became a member of the party's state committee in 1972 and state secretariat member in 1978. He was twice elected to the Tripura assembly and was the chief whip of the ruling CPI-M. He became the secretary of its state unit and convener of the Left Front in 1993. The firebrand Marxist leader became Tripura's youngest chief minister in 1998 when he steered the Left Front to power for the fourth successive term in the assembly elections.
Sarkis, Elias (Youssef), Arabic Ilyas (Yusuf) Sarkis (b. July 20, 1924, ash-Shabaniyah, Lebanon - d. June 27, 1985, Paris, France), president of Lebanon (1976-82). A Maronite Christian, he was legal adviser to different Lebanese governments, president (1967) of the Intra Bank, and governor (1968-76) of the Bank of Lebanon before standing for the presidency in 1970, when he lost by one vote to Suleiman Franjieh. In May 1976, as a recognized moderate, he was elected by a parliament under Syrian "protection" at the height of the civil war. Franjieh refused at first to leave office; when Sarkis finally took power four months after his election, he faced the hopeless task of establishing his authority over a country internally divided and under constant threat from its neighbours. His designated successor, Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated on Sept. 14, 1982, before taking office, and Israeli forces entered West Beirut. Sarkis eventually handed over power to Bashir's brother, Amin Gemayel, after obtaining the entry of a multinational peacekeeping force to the Lebanese capital.
Sarkisov, Babken Yesayevich (b. 1913 - d. Feb. 4, 1999), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian S.S.R. (1975-85).
Sarkisyan, Aram (Gaspari), Sarkisyan also spelled Sargsyan (b. Aug. 14, 1949, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), Armenian politician. In 1976 he headed the Department for Propaganda and Cultural Work with Youth of the Central Committee of Komsomol of Armenia. Starting from 1974, he was affiliated to Komsomolskaya Gazeta. In 1978 he worked as an instructor of the organizational department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Armenia (CPA). In November 1990 at the 29th Congress of the CPA, Sarkisyan was elected a secretary of the Central Committee, and in May 1991 he became first secretary. In September 1991 the party terminated its activities; he then initiated the establishment of the Democratic Party of Armenia and became its chairman.
Sarkisyan, Aram (Saveni), Sarkisyan also spelled Sargsyan (b. Jan. 2 or July 22, 1961, Ararat, Armenian S.S.R.), prime minister of Armenia (1999-2000). Despite membership in the ruling Miasnutyun (Unity) bloc, he was not involved in active politics before 1999, when Pres. Robert Kocharyan named him prime minister. He took over the Armenian government exactly one week after his older brother, Vazgen Sarkisyan, and seven other officials were gunned down in a bloody attack on parliament unleashed by five gunmen. Sarkisyan was nominated for the top post by the Miasnutyun bloc, which was co-headed by Vazgen Sarkisyan and Karen Demirchyan, who was also among the victims of the shooting. The bloc controlled the parliament and key ministerial posts in the government.
Aram (S.) Sarkisyan
Sarkisyan, Armen (Vardani), Sarkisyan also spelled Sargsyan (b. June 23, 1953, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), prime minister of Armenia (1996-97). He has also been ambassador to Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the Vatican (1995-96) and the United Kingdom (1998-2000, 2013- ).
Sarkisyan, Serzh (Azati), Sarkisyan also spelled Sargsyan (b. June 30, 1954, Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), defense minister (1993-95, 2000-07), interior minister (1996-99), prime minister (2007-08), and president (2008- ) of Armenia.
Sarkisyan, Tigran (Sureni), Sarkisyan also spelled Sargsyan (b. Jan. 29, 1960, Kirovakan, Armenian S.S.R. [now Vanadzor, Armenia]), prime minister of Armenia (2008-14). He was chairman of the Central Bank of Armenia in 1998-2008.
Sarkisyan, Vazgen (Saveni), Sarkisyan also spelled Sargsyan (b. March 5, 1959, Ararat, Armenian S.S.R. - d. Oct. 27, 1999, Yerevan, Armenia), Armenian politician. He embarked upon full-time Komsomol work in 1983. He devoted much of his life to the Armenian fight with Azerbaijan for control of the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave and helped found the Karabakh Committee. He was elected a deputy to Armenia's first post-communist parliament in 1990, and was later appointed to head the parliament's defense committee. He assumed responsibility in 1991 for creating an Armenian national army and served as defense minister for a brief period in 1992, helping to organize the defenses of the Armenian population of Nagorno-Karabakh. In 1992, he was replaced as defense minister and appointed an adviser to Pres. Levon Ter-Petrosyan. He was reappointed to head the defense ministry in 1995 and rapidly acquired a reputation as one of the most powerful men in the country. He then turned against Ter-Petrosyan, who was forced to resign in 1998. In 1997, the Yerkrapah union of veterans of the Karabakh war, which Sarkisyan headed, formed a political party. The party then effectively took over the tiny Republican Party in 1998 to form what Sarkisyan said would be a powerful centrist base for Pres. Robert Kocharyan. With the People's Party headed by Soviet-era leader Karen Demirchyan he formed the Miasnutyun (Unity) alliance. It won the May 1999 parliamentary election, and he became prime minister in June. He had far from universal appeal among ordinary Armenians. Many remembered him for wheeling out tanks in 1996 at the behest of Ter-Petrosyan, after a disputed election. After five months in office, Sarkisyan was shot and killed during an armed attack on parliament.
Sarkozy, Nicolas, in full Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa (b. Jan. 28, 1955, Paris, France), president of France (2007-12). In 1983 he was elected mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, a post he held until 2002. In 1993 he entered national politics as budget minister under Prime Minister Édouard Balladur. He helped lead an internal revolt to propel Balladur as candidate of the neo-Gaullist Rally for the Republic (RPR) for the 1995 French presidential election instead of party leader Jacques Chirac. Both men ran but Chirac alone made it to the runoff round in which he beat Socialist Lionel Jospin for the presidency. The future of Sarkozy, once a Chirac personal protégé, was unanimously predicted to be nil since Chirac refused to speak to him and his every appearance in party assemblies set off howls of anger and derision. He lay low for two years but then began a comeback, becoming deputy party leader thanks to his recognized intellect but also to an apparently innate talent for backroom dealings. Sarkozy, whose self-confidence and burning ambition were mercilessly lampooned by the French press, was appointed interim head of the RPR in April 1999, just hours after the surprise resignation of Philippe Séguin. He became interior minister (2002-04) and economy and finance minister (2004). In November 2004 he was elected president of Chirac's Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), successor of the RPR, with 81% of the vote cast by party members. He then left the government to concentrate on leading the party. He indicated that he coveted the head-of-state role. In 2005 he was again named interior minister, while remaining head of the UMP. He took a hardline stance against rioters in Paris suburbs. He won the 2007 presidential election, defeating Socialist Ségolène Royal in the runoff, 53%-47%. He lost his bid for reelection in 2012 to Socialist François Hollande, who won 52%-48%. In 2014 he was again elected president of the UMP, though with only 64.5% of the vote.
Sarmiento (Albarracín), Domingo Faustino, originally Faustino Valentín de Quiroga Sarmiento Albarracín (b. Feb. 14, 1811, San Juan, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata [now in Argentina] - d. Sept. 11, 1888, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Argentina (1868-74). He entered public life as a provincial legislator. His outspokenness provoked the rage of the military dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas, who exiled him to Chile in 1840. There he was active in politics, became an important figure in journalism through his articles in the Valparaíso newspaper El Mercurio, and wrote his most famous book, Facundo, an impassioned denunciation of Rosas' dictatorship in the form of a biography of Juan Facundo Quiroga, Rosas' tyrannical gaucho lieutenant. He returned to Argentina in 1852 to participate in the overthrow of Rosas. He was governor of San Juan (1862-64) and minister to the United States (1864-68), returning to Argentina after being elected president. He applied his belief in democratic principles and civil liberties to the building of a new Argentina. An ongoing war with Paraguay was brought to a successful conclusion in 1870, allowing him to concentrate on his domestic policies, which laid the foundations for national progress by stimulating the growth of commerce and agriculture and the development of rapid transportation and communication. To a largely illiterate country the former schoolmaster, whose motto was "to govern is to educate," brought primary and secondary schools, normal schools, and schools for professional and technical training, as well as libraries and museums. After his presidential term ended, he continued to be active in public life, becoming director-general of schools in Buenos Aires province and then holding a similar post on the national level.
Sarney (Costa), José (de Araújo), original name José Ribamar Ferreira de Araújo Costa (b. April 24, 1930, Pinheiro, Maranhão, Brazil), president of Brazil (1985-90). He entered politics in 1950 as assistant to the governor of Maranhão; he switched political party allegiance three times during his career. He first represented his state in Congress in 1954, and he was reelected in 1958 and 1962. He was associated with congressional reformist groups during the late 1950s and early 1960s and was always considered a liberal despite active participation in military-backed governments between 1964 and 1985. He was elected governor of Maranhão in 1965. His record was one of encouraging modernization, sponsoring literacy programs, and building roads, bridges, and sewerage and water systems. He was elected state senator for Maranhão in 1970 and 1978 under the banner of the pro-government National Renewal Alliance (Arena) party, which changed its name to the Social Democratic Party (PDS) in 1979. As PDS president he tried during 1981-84 to reorganize the party to help it gain increased popular support. When this failed, he became leader of the PDS faction that broke with the government in June 1984 to ally itself with the main opposition grouping, the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB), and form the Liberal Front Party (PFL). In the 1985 presidential election the PFL votes in the electoral college were considered essential for the victory of Tancredo de Almeida Neves, and so they demanded concessions, one of which was that Sarney should become vice-president. President-elect Neves died before assuming office, and Sarney was sworn in as the first civilian president of Brazil in 21 years. He failed in a number of attempts to halt the nation's economic and financial slide. He did not run for reelection in 1989. Later he served as president of the Senate (1995-97, 2003-05, 2009-13).
Sarney Murad, Roseana Macieira (b. July 1, 1953, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil), governor of Maranhão (1995-2002, 2009-14); daughter of José Sarney. She was the first woman to be elected governor of a Brazilian state.
Saroj Chavanaviraj (b. May 11, 1942), foreign minister of Thailand (2008). He was ambassador to France in 2000-02.
Sarovic, Mirko (b. Sept. 16, 1956, Rogatica, Bosnia and Herzegovina), Bosnian politician. He was secretary of the New Sarajevo municipality, executive board president of the municipal assembly of New Sarajevo, president of the municipal assembly of New Sarajevo, and president of the assembly in the town of Serb Sarajevo. From September 1996 to 1998, he was the deputy in two convocations of the National Assembly and was president of the judicial commission. He served as vice president of the Republika Srpska since the end of 1998 and was elected president in 2000. In 2002 he was elected to the three-member Bosnian presidency and served as its first chairman. He resigned in 2003 over illegal arms sales to Iraq.
Sarper, Selim (Rauf) (b. 1899 - d. Oct. 12, 1968, Ankara, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (1960-62). Earlier he was ambassador to the Soviet Union (1944-46) and Italy (1946-47) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1947-57).
Sarrail, Maurice (Paul Emmanuel) (b. April 6, 1856, Carcassone, Aude, France - d. March 23, 1929, Paris), high commissioner of Syria and Lebanon (1925).
Sarraut, Albert (Pierre) (b. July 28, 1872, Bordeaux, France - d. Nov. 26, 1962, Paris), French statesman. A member of the Chamber of Deputies from 1902 to 1924, he was undersecretary of state (1906-09), undersecretary of war (1909-10), minister of education (1914-15), and twice governor-general of French Indochina (1911-13, 1917-19). He was noted for his liberal rule in Indochina, where he increased the proportion of natives in the civil service, recognized the use of local languages and local law, and continued the public-works policy of his predecessor, Paul Doumer. As minister for the colonies (1920-24, 1932-33), he sought to promote the development of the overseas possessions. He published La mise en valeur des colonies françaises (1923; "The Improvement of French Colonies") and Grandeur et servitude coloniales (1931; "Colonial Grandeur and Slavery"). In 1925-26 he was ambassador to Turkey. A senator from 1926 to 1940, he was minister of the interior (1926-28, 1934, 1936, 1938, 1938-40), marine (1930, 1930-31, 1933-34), and education (1940), minister of state (1937-38, 1938), and twice premier (1933, 1936). His first premiership lasted only a month. His second government, appointed January 1936, secured the approval of the Chamber of Deputies for the Franco-Soviet mutual assistance treaty but failed to deal effectively with the German remilitarization of the Rhineland; he resigned in June. Playing little part in politics during World War II, he became editor of the newspaper owned by his family, Dépêche de Toulouse, in 1943 after his brother Maurice had been murdered by a pro-Nazi gang. He was arrested by the Gestapo in 1944 and liberated in 1945. In 1947 he became a member of the Assembly of the French Union, of which he was president in 1949-58.
Sarti, Adolfo (b. June 19, 1928, Turin, Italy - d. March 3, 1992, Rome, Italy), defense minister (1980) and justice minister (1980-81) of Italy.
Sartor (Gómez), Daniel (Alberto) (b. 1961), minister of social development of Argentina (2001).
Sartzetakis, Christos (Antoniou) (b. April 6, 1929, Salonika [now Thessaloniki], Greece), president of Greece (1985-90). It was while serving as a judge of first instance that he first achieved prominence. Appointed magistrate to investigate the death of left-wing deputy Gregorios Lambrakis in Thessaloniki in May 1963, he disproved the police version that it had occurred in a traffic accident and boldly exposed collusion between the police and right-wing hooligans in a political assassination. His courage, integrity, and determination inspired the novel Z by Vasilis Vasilikos, which later became a prizewinning film. After the military coup in Greece in 1967, Sartzetakis was posted to Volos, in central Greece, as a misdemeanours judge. Barely a year later he was dismissed from the judiciary during a wholesale liquidation of senior judges hostile to the military regime. He was twice arrested and held without charge. He himself said he was tortured during his detention. He was set free during an amnesty in 1971 and, after the restoration of democracy in 1974, was reinstated and promoted to appeal court judge. In 1982 he was elected to the Supreme Court. He was installed as president of Greece in 1985 for a five-year term following his election by the Greek parliament. He succeeded Konstantinos Karamanlis, the conservative statesman who resigned after the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Pasok) majority, in a surprise move, withdrew its support for his reelection. Sartzetakis was elected on the third round with the help of the Communist Party. Greece's president was stripped of nearly all executive powers in March 1986, when the Socialists amended the constitution and transferred power to the premier and the majority party in parliament.
Sarundayang, Sinyo Harry (b. Jan. 16, 1945, Kawangkoan, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia]), acting governor of Maluku Utara (2002) and Maluku (2002-03) and governor of Sulawesi Utara (2005- ).
Sarwar, (Chaudhry) Mohammad (b. Aug. 18, 1952, Roda, Faisalabad district, Punjab, Pakistan), governor of Punjab (Pakistan) (2013-15). He moved to Britain in 1976 and became Labour MP for Glasgow Govan (1997-2005) and Glasgow Central (2005-10), Britain's first Muslim MP. In 2013 he gave up his British citizenship to return to Pakistan and take up the post of Punjab governor on the invitation of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. In 2015 he was apparently asked to resign after he made remarks critical of the federal government.
Sarzedas, Bernardo José (Maria) de Lorena (e Silveira), (5º) conde de (b. April 20, 1756, Campo Grande, Brazil - d. 1818, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), viceroy of Portuguese India (1807-16).
Sassou-Nguesso, Denis (b. 1943, Edou village, northern Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), president (1979-92, 1997- ) of Congo (Brazzaville). In 1975 the paratroop colonel became defense minister under Pres. Marien Ngouabi. He was a founder member of the Congolese Labour Party (PCT) in 1969 and during the 1970s fulfilled several important party functions. He came to power in 1979, when a PCT party congress appointed him president to replace the stridently anti-Marxist Joachim Yhombi-Opango, who lost control by alienating the left. Sassou conformed to the party line in public while firmly anchoring Congo's economy to the West. After a wave of strikes and street protests, he was forced to approve a national conference to chart the country's path to multiparty elections, with the PCT forced to fight for its political life after an unbroken rule of over 20 years. The conference gradually undermined Sassou's authority, electing an interim prime minister and reducing Sassou to a figurehead; all executive powers were transferred to the premier and he was removed from command of the armed forces. His presidency came to an end when he was knocked out in the first round of the 1992 election. His Cobra militia fought loyalists of Pres. Pascal Lissouba in 1993-94 clashes. Sassou subsequently left for France, returning home in January 1997 planning to contest presidential elections due to be held in July. The poll was derailed and fighting began after government soldiers surrounded his home on June 5 as part of a pre-poll crackdown on private militia. He emerged victorious in October and became president again. He was confirmed in elections in 2002, which his main opponents were barred from contesting. He was chairman of the Organization of African Unity in 1986-87 and of the African Union in 2006-07.
Sastroamidjojo, Ali (b. May 21, 1903, Grabag, near Magelang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. March 13, 1975, Jakarta, Indonesia), prime minister of Indonesia (1953-55, 1956-57). He was also minister of education and culture (1947-49) and defense (1956-57), ambassador to the U.S., Canada, and Mexico (1950-53), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-60).
Sata, Michael (Chilufya), byname King Cobra (b. July 6, 1937, Mwikulu village, Mpika district, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Oct. 28, 2014, London, England), president of Zambia (2011-14). He entered politics as a municipal councillor for the ruling United National Independence Party in the 1960s, rising to become governor of the capital Lusaka before Pres. Kenneth Kaunda elevated him to a cabinet position. In 1991, weeks before Zambia's first multiparty elections, Sata broke with Kaunda and helped Frederick Chiluba of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to clinch the presidency. He held various cabinet posts during Chiluba's 10-year rule (local government 1991-93, labour 1993-94, health 1994-96, minister without portfolio 1996-2001), but Chiluba bypassed him and picked Levy Mwanawasa as his preferred successor in 2001. Sata then established the Patriotic Front party, which played an immaterial role in the 2001 elections. In 2006, however, Sata looked set to sweep Mwanawasa from power on the back of strong support from Zambia's poor, who were angry that economic reforms had not improved their lives. Mwanawasa was reelected, prompting Sata to claim fraud. During the campaign, Sata threatened to expel Chinese investors, whom he accused of exploiting Zambian workers. He later changed his tune, saying that he would welcome more Chinese investment in the mining industry. He ran again in 2008, when he lost to Rupiah Banda by just 35,000 votes (2%), and in 2011, when he defeated Banda, thus ending 20 years of MMD rule. His presidency was marred by a crackdown on political opposition and a decline in the economy; he died in office.
Satarawala, Kershasp Tehmurasp (b. Feb. 15, 1916, Satara [now in Maharashtra], India - d. Aug. 20, 2001, Pune, Maharashtra, India), lieutenant governor of Goa (1983-84) and governor of Punjab (1984-85). He was also Indian ambassador to Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador (1985-88).
Satcher, David (b. March 2, 1941, Anniston, Ala.), U.S. surgeon general (1998-2002). In 1970 he became the first African-American to earn both an M.D. and a Ph.D. at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. He served as president (1982-93) of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tenn., one of the nation's leading predominantly black medical schools. In late 1993 he was appointed director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). During his tenure the CDC instituted initiatives that increased childhood immunization rates from 55% in 1992 to 78% in 1996 and improved the nation's ability to respond to emerging infectious diseases. Congress welcomed the 1997 nomination of the low-key, uncontroversial Satcher for surgeon general after the flap over Pres. Bill Clinton's first surgeon general, Dr. Joycelyn Elders, who had to quit after comments about masturbation, and Clinton's next nominee, Dr. Henry Foster, derailed because of discrepancies in his accounts of the number of abortions he had performed. However, Satcher aroused the ire of Sen. John Ashcroft and other conservatives, mainly because of his agreement with Clinton on partial birth abortion. Congress wanted to ban that controversial late-term abortion procedure except when a woman's life is in danger, while Clinton wanted to allow exceptions when a woman's health is at risk. Nevertheless Satcher was confirmed by a wide margin (65-35) on Feb. 10, 1998, and sworn in three days later. Until January 2001 he also served as assistant secretary of health. He issued a report on tobacco use (focusing on the health risks to minorities and minority teenagers), called for a strategy to prevent suicide, and sought to eliminate race-based health care disparities.
Sathasivam, Palanisamy (b. April 27, 1949, Kadappanallur village, Madras province [now Tamil Nadu state], India), governor of Kerala (2014- ). He was also chief justice of India (2013-14).
Sato, Eisaku (b. March 27, 1901, Tabuse, Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan - d. June 3, 1975, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1964-72). He entered the Ministry of Railways and rose to become chief of its bureau of control and vice minister for transportation. In 1948 he joined the Liberal Party and became chief cabinet secretary. In 1949 he was first elected to the lower house of the Diet (parliament). Becoming minister of telecommunications and postal services in 1951 and of construction in 1952, he resigned in 1953 to become chief secretary of the Liberal Party, which in 1955 merged with the Democratic Party to form the Liberal-Democratic Party. In 1958-60 he served as finance minister in the cabinet of his older brother and political mentor, Nobusuke Kishi. Subsequently he served in the cabinet of Hayato Ikeda as minister of international trade and industry (1960-62) and minister in charge of the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games (1963-64). In 1964 the Diet chose Sato as Ikeda's successor. He presided over continued economic growth and the improvement of relations with other Asian countries. In 1969 he reached an agreement with U.S. Pres. Richard M. Nixon for the return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan, the removal of all nuclear weapons from the area, and the continued maintenance of the U.S.-Japanese Security Treaty of 1951. He came under heavy criticism for provisions in the agreement that allowed U.S. military forces to remain on Okinawa after its return to Japan. When he resigned after a record tenure of almost eight years in 1972 he was unable to ensure the election of his chosen successor. For his policies that led to Japan's signing the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, he was, somewhat surprisingly, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1974 (jointly with Seán MacBride).
Sato, Eisaku (b. June 24, 1939), governor of Fukushima (1988-2006).
Sato, Yuhei (b. Dec. 13, 1947), governor of Fukushima (2006- ).
Sattar, Abdul (b. 1931), foreign minister of Pakistan (1993, 1999-2002). He joined Pakistan's foreign service in 1953 and was foreign secretary in 1986-88. He was ambassador to Austria (1975-78) and the Soviet Union (1988-90), served in Pakistani missions in Washington and Jidda, and worked twice as Pakistan's high commissioner to New Delhi (1978-82, 1990-92), earning a reputation of being a hardliner on pivotal relations with arch-rival India. He was also an uncompromising supporter of Islamabad's nuclear deterrent. He was foreign minister in the caretaker government of Moeen Qureshi in 1993 after Nawaz Sharif abruptly ended his government under military pressure. After Nawaz Sharif was ousted again in 1999, Pakistan's new military leader, Gen. Pervez Musharraf, appointed Sattar foreign minister in a new-look team of technocrats and experts to steer the nation out of bankruptcy and isolation. Sattar faced formidable challenges, including the normalization of ties with India, resolution of the flashpoint Kashmir dispute, and allaying western fears on nuclear issues. He was charged with restoring Pakistan's international credibility, which was battered by the 1998 infiltration of India's Kargil heights by what the ousted government said were Kashmiri freedom fighters and India said were Pakistani troops. Western states said they too believed regular troops were involved in what came close to being the fourth Indo-Pakistani war in 52 years. Sattar was critical of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's government over its handling of the "Kargil debacle" when the two countries came close to war in the disputed Himalayan region. Sattar resigned for health reasons in 2002.
Sattar, Abdus (b. March 1, 1906, Birbhum, India - d. Oct. 5, 1985, Dhaka, Bangladesh), president of Bangladesh (1981-82). He entered politics in 1954, when he campaigned for election to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and won. In 1956 he was interior minister of Pakistan. The following year he was appointed a judge of the High Court. Subsequently he was chosen as a judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan (1968). Appointed chief election commissioner of Pakistan in 1969, he conducted the 1970 general election in which the pro-independence Awami League of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman emerged as the majority party of East Pakistan, ultimately leading to the establishment of Bangladesh as an independent nation in 1971. In 1975 he was appointed minister of law and parliamentary affairs and special assistant to the president, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem. After Gen. Ziaur Rahman took over as president in 1977, Sattar retained his advisory post and later was appointed vice president of the republic. The acting president after the assassination of Zia on May 30, 1981, Sattar was elected president by a wide margin on November 15. He quickly earned the reputation of being an able administrator as he took full control of the government machinery, but his ill health combined with the country's daunting economic and political troubles led to a gradual loss of control, and in March 1982 effective power was assumed by Gen. Hossain Mohammad Ershad as chief martial-law administrator, with Abul Fazal Mohammad Ahsanuddin Choudhury replacing Sattar as president. Sattar continued as a leading figure in the opposition coalition, but its strength was never tested in elections during his lifetime.
Sattori Ribera, Fernando (d. April 11, 2005, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia), member of the military junta of Bolivia (1970).
Satyanand, Sir Anand (b. July 22, 1944, Auckland, New Zealand), governor-general of New Zealand (2006-11); knighted 2009.
Satybaldiyev, Zhantoro (Zholdoshevich) (b. Jan. 6, 1956, Mirza-Aki, Uzgen district, Osh oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (2012-14). He was governor of Osh oblast in 2006-07.
Saud (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Faysal Al Saud), Arabic Sa`ud ibn `Abd al-`Aziz Al Faysal Al Sa`ud (b. Jan. 15, 1902, Kuwait - d. Feb. 23, 1969, Athens, Greece), king of Saudi Arabia (1953-64). After Abdul Aziz had conquered the Hejaz (1925), he made his two eldest living sons, Saud and Faysal, his deputies in Nejd and Hejaz, respectively, Saud's primary responsibility being for the Bedouins. He was named crown prince in 1933, and he and Faysal led a successful campaign against Yemen in 1934. When Abdul Aziz established a Council of Ministers in October 1953, Saud became its president, and on Abdul Aziz's death in November he became king, with the support of all his brothers. He expanded his father's program of modernization, with special emphasis on increased medical facilities and education, the first secular university being established in 1957. In foreign affairs he maintained good relations with the United States but firm opposition to Israel. Large-scale petroleum royalties made financial and administrative affairs too complex to be conducted simply on the personal authority of the king, but Saud had neither the ability nor the inclination to cope with these problems, and he was forced to reorganize the Council of Ministers and give full executive powers to Faysal as its president in 1958 to restore financial stability. Saud resumed his powers in 1960. During 1963 he had to spend months abroad for medical treatment, and in his absence dissension developed between him and Faysal, who was supported by certain dissident elements. In March 1964 all powers were transferred to Faysal as viceroy of the kingdom, and in November Saud was deposed as king in favour of Faysal. Saud formally abdicated in January 1965 and later went to live abroad.
Saud al-Faysal, Arabic in full al-Amir (Prince) Sa`ud ibn Faysal ibn `Abd al-`Aziz Al Sa`ud (b. 1940, at-Ta´if [other sources say 1941 or 1942, Riyadh], Saudi Arabia), foreign minister of Saudi Arabia (1975- ); son of King Faysal.
Saudabayev, Kanat (Bekmurzayevich) (b. July 18, 1946, Zhetigen, Alma-Ata oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), foreign minister of Kazakhstan (1994, 2009-11). He was ambassador to Turkey (1992-94, 1994-96), the U.K. (1996-99), and the U.S. (2001-07, also accredited to Canada).
Saudargas, Algirdas (b. April 17, 1948, Kaunas, Lithuanian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Lithuania (1990-92, 1996-2000).
Saukham Khoy (b. Feb. 2, 1915 - d. Nov. 14, 2008, Stockton, Calif.), acting president of Cambodia (1975). He was president of the Senate in 1972-75. He figured among the evacuees airlifted from a football field near the U.S. embassy to U.S. Navy ships off the coast of Cambodia on April 12, 1975 (Operation Eagle Pull); he went to exile in Thailand and then in the United States, where he was known as Peter Khoy Saukam.
Saulsays, René Arnous des (b. July 13, 1778, Lorient, Morbihan, France - d. 18...), governor of Guadeloupe (1831-37).
Saunders, Norman B(enjamin) (b. Oct. 27, 1943, South Caicos island, Turks and Caicos Islands), chief minister of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1980-85).
Saunier-Seïté, Alice (Louise), née Saunier (b. April 26, 1925, Saint-Jean-le-Centenier, Ardèche, France - d. Aug. 4, 2003, Paris, France), French minister of universities (1978-81).
Sauri Riancho, Dulce María (b. Aug. 14, 1951, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico), governor of Yucatán (1991-93). She was also president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (1999-2002).
Sautot, Henri (Camille) (b. May 5, 1885, Bourbonne-les-Bains, Haute-Marne, France - d. March 23, 1963, Nouméa, New Caledonia), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1929-30), resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1933-35, 1937-40), governor of French Polynesia (1935-37), New Caledonia (1940-42), and Oubangui-Chari (1942-46), and mayor of Nouméa (1947-53).
Sautter, Christian (b. April 9, 1940, Autun, Saône-et-Loire, France), prefect of Paris département (1991-93) and French minister of economy, finances, and industry (1999-2000).
Sauvage, Étienne Noël Joseph, chevalier (from 1855, comte) de (b. 1789 - d. 1867), cabinet chief of Belgium (1831).
Sauvagnargues, Jean (Victor) (b. April 2, 1915, Paris, France - d. Aug. 6, 2002), foreign minister of France (1974-76). He was taken prisoner by the Germans in 1940 but escaped and subsequently joined the foreign service. By 1943 he was at the French embassy in Bucharest, from where he was summoned home by the Vichy regime, but he instead joined the Free French in Syria and was a member of Charles de Gaulle's cabinet after the liberation of France. For almost a decade he worked at the commission for German and Austrian affairs, where his sympathy for Germany and its people found room for expression. In 1955 his career suddenly took a new turn; after a period in charge of relations with Morocco and Tunisia, he was appointed ambassador to Ethiopia (1956). On returning to Paris in 1960 he worked briefly on desks dealing with Africa before eight years as ambassador to Tunisia. In 1970 he arrived in Bonn as ambassador. He earned the enmity of some Israelis as the first Western foreign minister to shake the hand of Yasir Arafat, whom he described as a moderate leader with the stature of a statesman. When Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was elected president in 1974, one of his priorities was to strengthen links with West Germany; so, for his foreign minister he turned logically to the Germanophile Sauvagnargues. When relations between Giscard and Jacques Chirac broke down in 1976 and Raymond Barre was drafted as the new premier, Sauvagnargues was a casualty of the reshuffle. He resumed his diplomatic career and served as ambassador to Britain (1977-81) before retiring.
Sauvé, Jeanne (Mathilde), née Benoît (b. April 26, 1922, Prud'homme, Sask. - d. Jan. 26, 1993, Montreal, Quebec), governor-general of Canada (1984-90). Trailblazing a path for women in government, the respected journalist launched a political career in 1972, urged by her husband, Maurice Sauvé (1923-1992), who was a member of parliament in 1962-68 and forestry minister in the cabinet of Lester Pearson in 1964-68. In 1972 she was one of the founders of the Institute of Political Research, a government-sponsored agency formed to advise the federal cabinet. After being elected to parliament (representing the Montreal riding of Ahuntsic in 1972-79 and the riding of Laval-des-Rapides in 1979-84), she became the first Quebec woman to serve in the federal cabinet (minister of state in charge of science and technology, 1972-74; minister of the environment, 1974-75; minister of communications, 1975-79). She then assumed the role as adviser to the secretary of state for external affairs, before she was elected as the first woman speaker of the House of Commons (1980-84). She had a superb command of both English and French. During her years in the House of Commons, she was both popular and powerful. As speaker, she was taken to task by some members for not being familiar with its many rules and procedures, yet she managed to completely reform the corruption-ridden administration of the House. On Dec. 23, 1983, she was appointed as the first woman governor-general of Canada; her swearing in was postponed for some months because of illness. In the largely ceremonial post, she adopted a more formal approach than her predecessor. Her order to close to the public the gardens and lawns of Rideau Hall, her official residence, angered some and was revoked by her successor.
Savage, Frank, byname of Francis Joseph Savage (b. Feb. 8, 1943, Preston, Lancashire, England), governor of Montserrat (1993-97) and of the British Virgin Islands (1998-2002).
Savage, John (Patrick) (b. May 28, 1932, Newport, Wales - d. May 13, 2003, Dartmouth, N.S.), premier of Nova Scotia (1993-97). He immigrated to Canada in 1967. Defeated in the 1972 and 1979 federal elections, he was elected mayor of Dartmouth, N.S., in 1985, 1988, and 1991. In 1992 he was elected Liberal leader in Nova Scotia and in May 1993 he returned the Liberals to power after 15 years of Conservative rule in the province. Savage, who led the province through drastic health-care reforms, introduction of the blended sales tax, and a wage freeze on the civil service, stepped down as premier on March 20, 1997. He acknowledged it has been a difficult time for Nova Scotia. "Over the past four years the task of reshaping government was an imperative that I could not ignore," he said. In recent months, he had been plagued by reports of dissent in his caucus and growing public anger. Savage's personal popularity had plummeted since 1993, and polls showed the Liberals trailing the Tories. He insisted he was not pushed out of the job. "My decision to step down was my decision," he said. "It wasn't taken lightly and it definitely was not an easy one to make."
Savage, Michael Joseph (b. March 23, 1872, Rothesay, near Benalla, Victoria [Australia] - d. March 27, 1940, Wellington, N.Z.), prime minister of New Zealand (1935-40). Having already been a labour organizer in Australia, he immigrated to New Zealand in 1907 and became active in the Auckland trade union movement. He joined the Labour Party on its formation in 1916, becoming its deputy leader in 1923 and leader in 1933. In 1919 he was elected to parliament for Auckland West, retaining the seat for the rest of his life. He greatly contributed to his party's victory in the 1935 elections. He became the first Labour prime minister and also headed the ministries of external affairs, native affairs, and (1936-38) broadcasting. He gained passage of the anti-depression economic measures of his finance minister, Walter Nash, and of the educational and social legislation of his education and health minister, Peter Fraser. In 1937 he headed the New Zealand delegation to London for the coronation of King George VI and to the Imperial Conference of the same year. His personal sincerity and practical policy earned him the respect and confidence of an overwhelming majority of New Zealanders, and he led Labour to one of its greatest electoral victories in 1938. He supported early mobilization for war in 1939, but by this time his health was declining rapidly, and Fraser became acting prime minister. He died in office.
Savage, Wallace H(amilton) (b. Nov. 21, 1912, Houston, Texas - d. June 19, 2000, Dallas, Texas), mayor of Dallas (1949-51).
Savang Vatthana (b. Nov. 13, 1907, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. May 13, 1978? [others suggest 1980], Houaphan province, Laos), king of Laos (1959-75). He succeeded to the throne after the death of his father, King Sisavang Vong. He was forced to abdicate by the communist Pathet Lao in 1975, and the monarchy was abolished. He then lived quietly in the royal palace as a private citizen with the meaningless title of adviser to President Souphanouvong until March 1977, when, apparently due to his refusal to cooperate with the new regime, he was suddenly spirited away by helicopter to Houaphan along with Queen Khamphoui and Crown Prince Say Vongsavang and imprisoned in Camp 01 (near Sop Hao village). His subsequent fate is not known with certainty. By one account the crown prince died on May 2, 1978, the king eleven days later of starvation, and the queen on Dec. 12, 1981, all being buried in unmarked graves outside the camp's perimeter. The first reports of his death emerged in January 1981, when refugees reported he died in December 1980. It was only on Dec. 15, 1989, during a visit to France, that Prime Minister Kaysone Phomvihane officially confirmed reports of the king's death, attributing it to old age.
Savarin, Charles (Angelo) (b. Oct. 2, 1943, Portsmouth, Dominica), foreign minister (2005-07) and president (2013- ) of Dominica. He was also permanent representative to the European Union (1986-93).
Savary, Alain (François) (b. April 25, 1918, Algiers, Algeria - d. Feb. 17, 1988, Paris, France), French politician. He joined the Resistance in 1940 and led the group that liberated (1941) the French dependency of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. He served as governor there (1941-43) before fighting with Gen. Charles de Gaulle's forces in Europe. Savary represented Saint-Pierre in the postwar government, but he soon broke with de Gaulle and joined the Socialist Party. He served as minister of Moroccan and Tunisian affairs in the 1956 Socialist government but resigned to protest the hijacking of a plane carrying Algerian nationalist leader Ahmed Ben Bella and Ben Bella's subsequent arrest. Savary's opposition to French colonialism led him to quit the Socialists (1958) in favour of a small leftist party, but in 1969 he was named first secretary of the reorganized Socialist Party, a position he held until François Mitterrand ousted him two years later. In 1973-81 he was president of the Regional Council of Midi-Pyrénées. In 1981 President Mitterrand appointed Savary minister of education with a mandate to merge all public and private schools into a unified secular school system. Savary presented a bill in 1984 giving local authorities greater control over private schools, but protests by Roman Catholic educators and parent associations, backed by a mass demonstration of more than one million people who came from all over France to Paris on June 24, 1984, prompted Mitterrand to abandon the proposed legislation. Savary retired from politics the following month.
Savchenko, Oleg (Vitalyevich) (b. Jan. 15, 1948), head of the administration of Kaluga oblast (1996).
Savchenko, Yevgeny (Stepanovich) (b. April 8, 1950), head of the administration of Belgorod oblast (1993- ).
Savelyev, Gennady (Petrovich) (b. Nov. 11, 1945), head of the administration of Komi-Permyak autonomous okrug (2000-05).
Savelyev, Viktor (Alekseyevich) (b. Jan. 24, 1963, Almetyevsk, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Udmurtia (2014- ).
Savignac, (Georges) Gabriel (Joseph) (b. March 17, 1917 - d. Jan. 13, 1987), acting administrator-superior of the Comoros (1959-60).
Savimbi, Jonas (Malheiro) (b. Aug. 3, 1934, Munhango, Ovimbundu territory, Angola - d. Feb. 22, 2002, Lucusse, Moxico province, Angola), Angolan rebel leader. In 1961 he joined Holden Roberto's Popular Union of Angola (UPA), which was the rival of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). He broke with Roberto on May 13, 1966, and formed the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA). Savimbi, who returned to Angola in the mid-1960s, was the only Angolan guerrilla leader who remained fighting within Angola until the nation reached independence from Portugal in 1975; by this time he had built a guerrilla army numbering in the thousands. The Alvor agreement, under which the three liberation movements were to form a coalition government at independence, was not honoured; instead, the rival movements fought for power. UNITA, based in southeastern Angola, relied for its support on the Ovimbundu people, the largest tribal group in the country. During the 1980s, he obtained support from South Africa and the United States as a counter to the Marxist MPLA, supported by the Soviets and Cubans, which controlled the central government; in 1986 he was welcomed to the White House by Pres. Ronald Reagan. His connection with the Pretoria regime turned many, though not all, African governments against him. Although strongly opposed to apartheid, he maintained that it was necessary to accept help from any source for the sake of survival. In 1991 he signed a peace agreement with the government that halted the civil war and resulted in free, multiparty elections in 1992. When they were won by the ruling party, Savimbi and UNITA resumed their military struggle. In 1998 a split in UNITA reduced his influence. He was killed in a gun battle with government troops.
Savisaar, Edgar (b. May 31, 1950, Harjumaa, Estonian S.S.R.), prime minister (1990-92) and interior minister (1995) of Estonia. He has also been mayor of Tallinn (2001-04, 2007- ) and minister of economy and communications (2005-07).
Saw Maung (b. May 12, 1928, Mandalay, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. July 24, 1997, Yangon, Myanmar), head of state of Myanmar (1988-92). He joined the Army as a private in 1945, was made sergeant in 1946, and was commissioned in 1952. An infantryman, he rose steadily over the next 30 years in field-command and state-security positions. He became a battalion commander with the rank of major in 1967. In 1975-76 he fought against communist insurgents and ethnic rebels along the border with Thailand. In 1976, he became a brigadier general, and in 1981 an adjutant-general. He became army vice chief of staff in 1983 and chief of staff in April 1985 and was promoted to general in 1986. He was known for his loyalty to Ne Win, who was the autocratic ruler of Burma for 26 years until his resignation as chairman of the Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP) on July 23, 1988. Three days later Ne Win handed over power to his longtime hard-line associate Sein Lwin; Saw Maung became defense minister. He seized power in a military coup on September 18, abolished the whole apparatus of state, including Parliament, and announced a nine-member cabinet with only one civilian. Dissidents were ruthlessly suppressed in a bloody street massacre. To replace Ne Win's BSPP, the National Unity Party was established. Elections were held in 1990 but never recognized after Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy won them by a landslide. He gave up his defense portfolio in March 1992 and stepped down as chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) on April 23, 1992, because of ill health. He was replaced by his former assistant, Gen. Than Shwe. Saw Maung had behaved erratically in public following the 1991 awarding of the Nobel Peace Prize to Suu Kyi and the international condemnation that followed.
Sawyer, Amos (Claudius) (b. June 15, 1945, Greenville, Liberia), president of Liberia (1990-94).
Sawyer, Charles (W.) (b. Feb. 10, 1887, Cincinnati, Ohio - d. April 7, 1979, Palm Beach, Fla.), U.S. politician. In 1911 he was elected to the Cincinnati city council. He served as lieutenant governor of Ohio beginning in 1933, and won the Democratic nomination for governor in 1938, but he was defeated in the election by John W. Bricker. In 1944-45 he was U.S. ambassador to Belgium and minister to Luxembourg. He became secretary of commerce on May 6, 1948, in the cabinet of Harry S. Truman (until 1953). In 1952 Sawyer, a staunch conservative and ardent defender of free enterprise, was ordered by Truman to manage the nation's steel mills, which had been seized by the government to avert a strike. In a landmark decision, the Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that the seizure violated the constitution because it usurped the legislative powers of Congress. Sawyer then happily released the properties to their private owners and the United Steelworkers of America went on strike.
Saxena, Girish Chandra, byname Gary Saxena (b. 1928, Agra, India), governor of Jammu and Kashmir (1990-93, 1998-2003).
Say, (Jean Baptiste) Léon (b. June 6, 1826, Paris, France - d. April 22, 1896, Paris), prefect of Seine département (1871-72) and finance minister of France (1872-73, 1875-77, 1877-79, 1882). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1880) and president of the Senate (1880-82).
Saya San, Saya also spelled Hsaya, original name Ya Gyaw (b. Oct. 24, 1876, East Thayet-kan, Shwebo district, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. Nov. 29, 1931, Tharrawaddy, Burma), Burmese rebel leader. He was involved in the nationalist Buddhist movement throughout the 1920s, ultimately joining the radical faction of the General Council of Burmese Associations led by Soe Thein. He secretly organized the "Galon Army" (the Galon, a fabulous bird of Hindu mythology, was supposed to destroy the Naga, or snake, which symbolized the foreigner) and on Oct. 28, 1930, was proclaimed "king" at Insein, near Rangoon. Achieving complete surprise, he launched a rebellion on December 22 in the Tharrawaddy district; it soon spread to other Irrawaddy delta districts. Like the Boxers of China, the rebels carried charms and tattoos supposed to make them invulnerable to British bullets. Fighting with swords and spears against British troops with machine guns, the revolt was bound to collapse, and Saya San fled to the Shan Plateau in the east. On Aug. 2, 1931, he was captured at Hokho and brought back to Tharrawaddy, where he was tried by a special tribunal. He was sentenced to death and, after futile appeals, was hanged at Tharrawaddy jail. The revolt was crushed, more than 10,000 peasants being killed in the process. It was the last genuine attempt to restore the Burmese monarchy extinguished by the British in 1885. Despite its political and religious characteristics, its causes may have been economic. It has been noted that the peasants of southern Burma had been dispossessed by Indian moneylenders, were burdened with heavy taxes, and were left penniless by a drop in the price of rice. In any case, the support for Saya San betrayed the unpopularity of British rule in Burma.
Sayed, El Wali Mustafa, also spelled al-Wali Mustafa as-Sayyid (b. 1947? - d. [assassinated] June 9, 1976), chairman of the Revolutionary Council of Western Sahara (1976).
Sayeed, Mufti Mohammad (b. Jan. 12, 1936, Bijbehara, Anantnag district, Jammu and Kashmir), home affairs minister of India (1989-90) and chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir (2002-05, 2015- ).
Sayem, Abu Sadat Mohammad (b. March 29, 1916, Rangpur, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. July 8, 1997, Dhaka, Bangladesh), president and foreign minister of Bangladesh (1975-77). He became the first chief justice of the High Court of Bangladesh in 1971 and then of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh in 1972, and held the office until he assumed office as president in 1975.
Sayre, Francis B(owes) (b. April 30, 1885, South Bethlehem, Pa. - d. March 29, 1972, Washington, D.C.), U.S. high commissioner to the Philippines (1939-42); son-in-law of Woodrow Wilson.
Sazhych, Jazep (b. Sept. 5, 1917, Gorodechno [now Haradziecna], Novogrudok [now Navahradak] district, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. Nov. 19, 2007, Detroit, Mich.), chairman of the Rada of the Belorussian People's Republic in exile (1982-97).
Sazonov, Sergey (Dmitriyevich) (b. Aug. 10 [July 29, O.S.], 1860, Ryazan province, Russia - d. Dec. 25, 1927, Nice, France), foreign minister of Russia (1910-16). He was also minister to the Vatican (1906-09) and deputy foreign minister (1909-10).