Ho (Hau Wah), Edmund, Pinyin He Houhua (b. March 13, 1955, Macau), chief executive of Macau (1999-2009).
Ho Chi Minh, original name Nguyen Sinh Cung, also called Nguyen Tat Thanh, or Nguyen Ai Quoc (b. May 19, 1890, Hoang Tru, Vietnam, French Indochina - d. Sept. 2, 1969, Hanoi, North Vietnam), president of North Vietnam (1945-69). During six years in France (1917-23), he became an active socialist, under the name Nguyen Ai Quoc ("Nguyen the Patriot"). On Feb. 3, 1930, Ho presided over the founding of the Vietnamese Communist Party (after October 1930, Ho, acting on Soviet advice, adopted the name Indochinese Communist Party). When France was defeated by Germany in 1940, Ho and his lieutenants plotted to use this turn of events to advance their own cause. About this time he began to use the name Ho Chi Minh (He Who Enlightens). Ho and seven comrades organized in May 1941 the League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Minh). After Vietnam's Japanese occupiers surrendered to the Allies, the Viet Minh entered Hanoi on Aug. 19, 1945. Finally, on September 2, Ho declared Vietnam independent. France did not intend to simply accept the fait accompli of an independent Vietnam and attempted to reassert its control. After negotiations failed, the First Indochina War began on Dec. 19, 1946. The French were decisively defeated at Dien Bien Phu on May 7, 1954. Negotiations concluded with an agreement according to which Vietnam was to be divided at the 17th parallel. Beginning about 1959, North Vietnam again became involved in war when guerrillas, popularly known as the Vietcong, were conducting an armed revolt against the U.S.-sponsored regime in South Vietnam and appealed to North Vietnam for aid. In 1960, Ho ceded his position as the party's first secretary to Le Duan. He remained chief of state, but, from this point on, his activity was largely behind-the-scenes.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chong, also spelled Huh Chung (b. April 8, 1896, Seoul, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. Sept. 18, 1988, Seoul), foreign minister (1960), acting president (1960, 1960), and prime minister (1960) of South Korea. He was also minister of transport (1948-50) and social affairs (1950-52) and mayor of Seoul (1957-59).
Ho Dam (b. March 6, 1929 - d. May 11, 1991, P'yongyang, North Korea), foreign minister of North Korea (1970-83). In 1977, he was the first senior North Korean official to visit the United States.
Ho-Ten-You, Joseph (b. Jan. 3, 1942), president of the General Council of French Guiana (2001-04).
Hoadley, George (b. Dec. 15, 1781, Connecticut - d. Feb. 20, 1857, Cleveland, Ohio), mayor of New Haven (1822-26) and Cleveland (1846-47).
Hoadly, George, originally Hoadley (b. July 31, 1826, New Haven, Conn. - d. Aug. 26, 1902, Watkins, N.Y.), governor of Ohio (1884-86); son of George Hoadley.
Hoang Bich Son, original name Ho Lien (b. 1924, Quang Nam province, Vietnam - d. March 2000), Vietnamese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-86).
Hoang Minh Giam (b. Nov. 4, 1904, Tu Liem, near Hanoi, Vietnam - d. Jan. 12, 1995, Hanoi), foreign minister of North Vietnam (1947-54).
Hoarau, Mario (b. 1914, Réunion - d. Oct. 27, 1993), president of the Regional Council of Réunion (1983-86).
Hoatau, Mika(ele) (b. Nov. 8, 1939, Mata'utu, Wallis island), prime minister of `Uvea (1998-99).
Hobart, Garret A(ugustus) (b. June 3, 1844, Long Branch, N.J. - d. Nov. 21, 1899, Paterson, N.J.), vice president of the United States (1897-99). In 1871 he made his first appearance in politics as a city counsel of Paterson. The following year he was elected to the New Jersey state assembly. He was reelected in 1873 and was elected speaker in 1874; he declined a renomination in 1875. In 1876 he was elected to the state senate, was reelected in 1879, and served as president of that body in 1881-82. He was chairman of the state Republican committee (1880-91) and became a member of the Republican National Committee in 1884. He received the complimentary nomination of his party for U.S. senator in 1884, but lost to Democrat John R. McPherson. He was offered the nomination as U.S. representative several times, and also the nomination for governor of New Jersey in 1892 and 1895, but always declined. When William McKinley was nominated for president in 1896 on a platform stressing hard money and a high tariff, Hobart was a natural choice for second place on the ticket; he came from a densely populated state and was an avid supporter of the gold standard. His one important act as vice president was to cast the tie-breaking vote in February 1899 against an amendment to the treaty with Spain that would have promised future independence for the Philippines. He died in office later that year.
Hobbs, Allen (b. July 30, 1899, Lowell, Mass. - d. Nov. 23, 1960, Bethesda, Md.), governor of American Samoa (1944-45); grandson of Charles Herbert Allen.
Hobby, Oveta Culp, née Culp (b. Jan. 19, 1905, Killeen, Texas - d. Aug. 16, 1995, Houston, Texas), U.S. director of the Women's Army Corps (1942-45) and secretary of health, education and welfare (1953-55); wife of William P. Hobby.
Hobby, William P(ettus) (b. March 26, 1878, Moscow, Texas - d. June 7, 1964, Houston, Texas), governor of Texas (1917-21).
Hobeika, Elie, Arabic Ilya Hubayqa (b. Sept. 22, 1956, Kleiat, Kesrouan region, Lebanon - d. Jan. 24, 2002, East Beirut, Lebanon), Lebanese warlord. He led the Christian militiamen that massacred hundreds of Palestinian men, women, and children in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in 1982. The militia was allied with Israel, and an Israeli commission of inquiry later found Ariel Sharon was indirectly responsible for the killings. Sharon was defense minister at the time and Israeli troops had controlled access to the refugee camps. Hobeika made many enemies as he switched allegiance from Israel to Syria during the Lebanese civil war of 1975-90. After the war, he benefited from the general amnesty, was elected to parliament in 1992, and served in the government as minister of displaced persons (1992) and electricity and water resources (1993-98). He was defeated in the 2000 elections. Hobeika and three bodyguards were killed when a remote-controlled bomb destroyed their vehicle near his home. Six others were wounded. A previously unknown group calling itself Lebanese for a Free and Independent Lebanon claimed responsibility for setting the 22-pound bomb, saying in a statement that Hobeika was a "Syrian agent," and protested that nation's influence in Lebanon, where 25,000 Syrian troops were stationed. Days before his death Hobeika had said he had new evidence proving that Sharon was behind the 1982 massacres.
Hoby, Gottfried (b. April 25, 1915, Flums, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland - d. Oct. 3, 2005, Flums), Landammann of Sankt Gallen (1963-64, 1970-71, 1977-78).
Höchli(-Délčze), Alexander (b. Aug. 9, 1927, Engelberg, Obwalden, Switzerland - d. Feb. 4, 2013), Landammann of Obwalden (1987-88, 1989-90, 1991-92).
Hochoy, Sir Solomon (b. April 20, 1905, Jamaica - d. Nov. 15, 1983), governor (1960-62) and governor-general (1962-72) of Trinidad and Tobago; knighted 1959. He was the first non-white governor of a British colony.
Hochschild, Carl Fredrik Lotharius friherre (b. Sept. 13, 1831, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Dec. 12, 1898, Sövestad, Skĺne, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1880-85). He was also minister to Prussia (1865-66) and the United Kingdom (1866-76).
Hockey, Joe, byname of Joseph Benedict Hockey (b. Aug. 2, 1965, Sydney, N.S.W.), treasurer of Australia (2013-15). He has also been minister of financial services and regulation (1998-2001), small business and tourism (2001-04), human services (2004-07), and employment and workplace relations (2007) and ambassador to the United States (2016- ).
Hodge, Daniel (Robert) (b. Oct. 23, 1959), prime minister of Curaçao (2012-13).
Hodges, Jim, byname of James Hovis Hodges (b. Nov. 19, 1956, Lancaster, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1999-2003). The Democrat was elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives in 1986 and spent 11 little-recognized years there, fighting video gambling. He had risen to minority leader when he embraced gambling money and a state lottery. Suddenly, he was in a high-profile race with Republican governor David Beasley. In 1998, he won 53% of the vote to 45% for Beasley. Hodges took his cue from Georgia governor Zell Miller, who campaigned in 1990 for a state lottery that later helped pay for Georgia schools. Hodges said South Carolinians should vote on a lottery, which was banned in the state constitution, to fix "David Beasley's mess" - the public schools. Hodges, who backed a statewide referendum on video poker, had been helped by video poker operators' heavy spending against Beasley. In July 1999 the legislature passed a bill banning video poker unless voters decided in a referendum to keep it. A lawsuit was filed to overturn the law, and in October 1999 the state Supreme Court upheld the ban but overturned the referendum: on July 1, 2000, video poker was gone, and with it much of Hodges's financial base. He played a major role in getting the legislature to vote in May 2000 to take the Confederate flag off the dome and put it up on the Capitol grounds; he also got the legislature to pass a Martin Luther King Holiday, plus a Confederate Memorial Day in May. His biggest success came when voters approved the lottery in November 2000 and it was passed by the legislature in June 2001. In his first three years he raised teacher pay and increased school construction, while test scores improved. Despite his achievements, his job ratings were not particularly high, and in 2002 he was defeated for reelection by Republican Mark Sanford.
Hodges, Luther H(artwell) (b. March 9, 1898, near Cascade, Va. - d. Oct. 6, 1974, Chapel Hill, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1954-61) and U.S. secretary of commerce (1961-65).
Hodges, Luther H(artwell), Jr. (b. Nov. 19, 1936, Eden, N.C.), acting U.S. secretary of commerce (1979-80); son of Luther H. Hodges.
Hodgkinson, Sir (William) Derek (b. Dec. 27, 1917 - d. Jan. 29, 2010, Hampshire, England), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (1970-73); knighted 1971.
Hodgman, Will(iam Edward Felix) (b. April 20, 1969, Hobart, Tas.), premier of Tasmania (2014- ).
Hodgson, James D(ay) (b. Dec. 3, 1915, Dawson, Minn. - d. Nov. 28, 2012, Malibu, Calif.), U.S. labor secretary (1970-73). He was ambassador to Japan in 1974-77.
Hodoul, Jacques (b. Sept. 1, 1943, Mahe island, Seychelles), foreign minister of Seychelles (1979-82). He was also minister of education and culture (1977-79), national development (1982-89), and transport and tourism (1989-92).
Hodza, Milan (b. Feb. 1, 1878, Szucsány, Hungary [now Sucany, Slovakia] - d. June 27, 1944, Clearwater, Fla.), prime minister (1935-38) and foreign minister (1935-36) of Czechoslovakia. He was also minister of unification of laws and the organization of administration (1919-20, 1926-27), agriculture (1922-26, 1932-35), and education (1926-29).
Hodzic, Atif (b. June 10, 1962, Otoka [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Una-Sana canton (2002-03).
Hoegner, Wilhelm (Johann Harald) (b. Sept. 23, 1887, Munich - d. March 5, 1980, Munich), minister-president of Bayern (1945-46, 1954-57).
Hoel, Klaus (Nord) (b. March 31, 1865, Ĺlesund, Romsdals amt [now Mřre og Romsdal fylke], Norway - d. Feb. 18, 1923), governor of Tromsř amt/Troms fylke (1915-20).
Hoeven, John (Henry, III) (b. March 13, 1957, Bismarck, N.D.), governor of North Dakota (2000-10).
Hofer, Hans (b. July 1, 1944), Landammann of Obwalden (1998-99, 2000-01, 2002-03, 2007-08).
Hoffherr, René (b. Nov. 23, 1893, Lyon, France - d. March 30, 1982, Paris, France), high commissioner of French Cameroons (1947-49) and governor of New Caledonia (1954-56).
Hoffmann, (Hermann) Arthur (b. June 18, 1857, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland - d. July 23, 1927, Sankt Gallen), president of the Council of States (1902-03), justice and police minister (1911), defense minister (1912-13), president (1914), and foreign minister (1914-17) of Switzerland.
Hoffmann, Heinz (b. Nov. 28, 1910, Mannheim, Germany - d. Dec. 2, 1985, East Berlin), East German politician. He was an official in the Communist Youth Organization (1926-30) and joined the German Communist Party in 1930. He immigrated to the U.S.S.R. (1935), fought with the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War, but later returned to the U.S.S.R. and fought in World War II. He went to Germany (1946), working for the Socialist Unity Party (SED) in Berlin (1946-49). He was a member of the Volkskammer of the newly formed German Democratic Republic from 1950, a member of the SED's Central Committee from 1952, and a member of its Politburo from 1973. He served as lieutenant-general of the National People's Army (1956-59), becoming minister of defense in 1960, holding the post until his death. He was instrumental in making the East German Army one of the most reliable in the Warsaw Pact. He was also responsible for the Moscow-prompted building of the Berlin Wall (1961). He attained the rank of general in 1961.
Hoffschmidt, Constant (Ernest) d' (b. March 7, 1804, Recogne, France [now in Belgium] - d. Feb. 14, 1873, Deux-Acren, Belgium), foreign minister of Belgium (1847-52). He was also minister of public works (1845-46).
Hofheinz, (James) Fred (b. March 15, 1938, Houston, Texas), mayor of Houston (1974-78); son of Roy M. Hofheinz.
Hofheinz, Roy M(ark) (b. April 10, 1912, Beaumont, Texas - d. Nov. 21, 1982, Houston, Texas), mayor of Houston (1953-56).
Hofmann, Fritz (b. March 4, 1924, Engelburg, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland - d. May 24, 2005, Burgdorf, Bern, Switzerland), president of the Swiss People's Party (1976-84).
Hofmeyr, Jan Hendrik (b. March 20, 1894, Cape Town, Cape Colony [now in South Africa] - d. Dec. 3, 1948, Johannesburg, South Africa), administrator of Transvaal (1924-29) and interior minister (1933-36) and finance minister (1939-48) of South Africa.
Hofstede, Petrus (b. April 14, 1755, Doornik, Austrian Netherlands [now in Hainaut province, Belgium] - d. April 14, 1839, Groningen, Netherlands), governor of Drenthe (1814-31).
Hogelanden, Willem Boreel van (b. March 24, 1800, Velsen, Noord-Holland, Batavian Republic [now Netherlands] - d. Aug. 24, 1883, Velsen), king's commissioner of Noord-Holland (1855-60).
Hřgset, Kristoffer (Eckhoff Knutsen) (b. June 22, 1864, Veiholmen island, Smřlen [now Smřla], Romsdals amt [now Mřre og Romsdal fylke], Norway - d. Jan. 30, 1927, Gjemnes, Mřre og Romsdal), Norwegian politician. He was chairman of the Agrarian Party in 1921-27.
Hohenfellner, Peter (b. March 8, 1939, Vienna, Germany [now in Austria]), Austrian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Algeria (1974-75), ambassador to Cuba (1978-81) and Lebanon (1982-84), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-93).
Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, Chlodwig (Karl Viktor) Fürst zu, Prinz von Ratibor und Corvey (b. March 31, 1819, Rotenburg an der Fulda, Hesse-Nassau - d. July 6, 1901, Ragaz [now Bad Ragaz], Sankt Gallen, Switzerland), chancellor of Germany and prime minister of Prussia (1894-1900). He was a hereditary member of the Bavarian upper house and in 1848 served as a diplomat in the provisional German government in Frankfurt. At the end of 1866, after Prussia's defeat of Bavaria (an ally of Austria) in the Seven Weeks' War, he became minister-president of Bavaria on the composer Richard Wagner's recommendation. His support of the alliances with the North German Confederation and of renewing the Zollverein (German customs union) aroused the opposition of Bavarian nationalists, causing his fall from power in 1870. Hohenlohe, who in 1871 had encouraged Bavaria's entry into the German Reich, served as vice president of the first Reichstag and as Bavarian representative in the Bundesrat (federal council). He supported Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in the Kulturkampf, the conflict between the new German state and the Roman Catholic Church. In 1874 he was appointed ambassador to France and in 1885-94 he was Reichsstatthalter of Alsace-Lorraine. His amiable skepticism, tact, and wide experience made Hohenlohe appear to be the providential candidate to fill the void left by the dismissal of Chancellor Leo Graf von Caprivi in 1894. He worked, without much success, to prevent or repair the damage done by Emperor Wilhelm II's enthusiasms. Although he disagreed with Wilhelm's intention to deal harshly with the Social Democrats, he supported passage of the German law against subversion (1894) and the Prussian law against the Socialists (1897).
Hoivo, Bani (b. 1966? - d. June 22, 2007, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), governor of Oro (2002-07).
Holbrooke, Richard (Charles Albert) (b. April 24, 1941, New York City - d. Dec. 13, 2010, Washington, D.C.), U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (1999-2001). He joined the Foreign Service in 1962 and was posted to Vietnam until 1966. His experience there and in Washington on Pres. Lyndon Johnson's Vietnam staff led to his being named a junior member of the U.S. delegation to the Paris Peace Talks in 1968-69. He served as Peace Corps director in Morocco in 1970-72 and returned to the government in 1977 when Pres. Jimmy Carter appointed him assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific affairs. He served the Bill Clinton administration as ambassador to Germany (1993-94) and assistant secretary of state for European and Canadian affairs (1994-95). The 1995 Dayton accords, achieved through his unorthodox mix of diplomacy, bluffing, and bullying, gained what continued to be a fragile peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Considered briefly in late 1996 as a possible candidate for secretary of state, Holbrooke lost the position to Madeleine Albright but in 1997 was appointed special envoy to Cyprus, where he attempted to broker a settlement of the two-decade-old dispute over that island between Greece and Turkey. In June 1998, six days after his name was announced as Clinton's choice for the U.S. ambassadorship to the UN, Holbrooke undertook a diplomatic mission to the Serbian province of Kosovo to attempt to negotiate a ceasefire between Serbs and the ethnic Albanian majority seeking autonomy. From June through August, Holbrooke's shuttle diplomacy did little toward achieving a ceasefire in Kosovo, where both sides continued fighting. In September Congress postponed discussing Holbrooke's nomination to the UN post until the new year because of allegations of conflict of interest. He was finally confirmed in August 1999 and served until the end of the Clinton presidency. In 2009 he was named special envoy to Afghanistan and Pakistan by Pres. Barack Obama.
Holcomb, Eric (Joseph) (b. May 2, 1968, Indianapolis, Ind.), governor of Indiana (2017- ).
Holden, Bob, byname of Robert Lee Holden, Jr. (b. Aug. 24, 1949, Kansas City, Mo.), governor of Missouri (2001-05).
Holder, Sir Frederick William (b. May 12, 1850, Happy Valley, near Adelaide, South Australia - d. July 23, 1909, Melbourne, Vic.), premier of South Australia (1892, 1899-1901); knighted 1902. He was also speaker of the Australian House of Representatives (1901-09).
Hole, Lois (Elsa), née Veregin (b. Jan. 30, 1929, Buchanan, Saskatchewan - d. Jan. 6, 2005, Edmonton, Alberta), lieutenant governor of Alberta (2000-05). Before she was appointed as the queen's representative in Alberta, she made a name for herself as a horticulturist (being the author of six best-selling books on gardening), philanthropist, and education advocate. She was much beloved for her personal warmth and penchant for dispensing hugs wherever she went. She once created a stir when she said publicly that she planned to have a talk with Premier Ralph Klein before giving royal assent to his government's bill to expand the role of private providers in public health care. It was the first time in decades that a vice-regal had stepped into the political arena in Alberta. But a day later she avoided a constitutional crisis when she promised to, and later did, sign the bill into law.
Holguín (Mallarino), Jorge (Marcelo) (b. Oct. 31, 1848, Cali, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. March 2, 1928, Bogotá, Colombia), foreign minister (1896-97, 1918), finance minister (1904, 1909), war minister (1909), and acting president (1909, 1921-22) of Colombia.
Holguín (Cuéllar), María Ángela (b. Nov. 13, 1963), foreign minister of Colombia (2010-18). She was ambassador to Venezuela (2002-04) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-06).
Holguín Sardi, Carlos (b. Sept. 16, 1940, Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (2006-08). He was also mayor of Cali (1970-73), minister of communications (1973-74), governor of Valle del Cauca (1976-78, 1992-94), and president of the Senate (1983-84).
Holiday, Eugene (Bernard) (b. Dec. 14, 1962, Sint Maarten), governor of Sint Maarten (2010- ).
Holkeri, Harri (Hermanni) (b. Jan. 6, 1937, Oripää village, Finland - d. Aug. 7, 2011), prime minister of Finland (1987-91). His political career began in earnest when he became secretary of the Youth League of the conservative National Coalition Party (NCP) in 1959, and he then moved up through the ranks to become information secretary (1960-62). In 1962 he graduated from the Youth League and became information secretary of the NCP. He continued his career progression by becoming research secretary (1964-65), party secretary (1965-71), and in 1971 party chairman - at 34, he was the youngest Conservative leader in Europe - a post that he held until 1979. When he left mainstream politics in 1979, his party was not considered a major force. In 1979 he became a member of the board of management of the Bank of Finland - a not unusual stepping-stone for would-be prime ministers in Finland. In 1981 he became chairman of the Helsinki City Council. In the March 1987 election Finnish voters elected the biggest non-Socialist majority since 1930, and Holkeri was appointed prime minister on April 30, becoming the first Conservative prime minister since World War II. His coalition government included the NCP and the Social Democratic Party, the two largest groups, and two smaller non-Socialist parties, the Rural Party and the Swedish People's Party. The coalition parties held 131 of the 200 seats in parliament. Holkeri selected six other Conservatives in his 18-person cabinet. Holkeri had a reputation as a man of integrity with a strong sense of duty. His liberal thinking distanced him from his other Conservative European counterparts but made him well suited to manage a four-party coalition. He was president of the UN General Assembly in 2000-01 and UN administrator of Kosovo in 2003-04.
Hollai, Imre (b. Jan. 22, 1925, Budapest, Hungary - d. Nov. 22, 2017), president of the UN General Assembly (1982-83). He was also Hungarian ambassador to Greece and Cyprus (1964-70, 1984-88) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-80).
Hollamby, David (James) (b. May 19, 1945 - d. Nov. 3, 2016), governor of St. Helena (1999-2004). He entered the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1964 and held various posts both in London and abroad, including Beirut (1967-70), Asunción (1972-75), New York (1978-82), Dallas (1982-86), and Rome (1990-94).
Holland, Sir Sidney (George) (b. Oct. 18, 1893, Greendale, New Zealand - d. Aug. 5, 1961, Wellington), prime minister of New Zealand (1949-57). His father, Henry Holland, was mayor of Christchurch in 1912-19 and was elected to parliament in 1925. In 1935 the father was incapacitated by an accident two weeks before an election was due, and his son took his place and won the seat. In 1940 he was chosen leader of the National Party. He served briefly (1942) in the war cabinet but thereafter attacked the Labour-led government for its economic controls and mismanagement. Under him, the National Party won office in 1949. For the first five years of his ministry he was his own minister of finance, and he reduced controls on imports, prices, and property transactions, and increased food subsidies. Balance of payments crises (1952, 1954) and continued inflation, however, led him to reinstitute many of the economic controls that had been imposed by Labour in 1940-49. In 1950 he converted New Zealand's government to a one-chamber system by gaining abolition of the Legislative Council, the country's upper house. One of the chief tests of his leadership was a formidable waterfront strike in 1951. He succeeded in breaking it and capitalized on his success by immediately calling an emergency election in which he increased his parliamentary majority, but his subsequent bill to increase police powers in industrial conflicts (at a loss, many felt, of important individual rights) was enacted only in an amended form after a public outcry. Discontent with economic conditions caused the party's defeat in 1957. He retired before the 1957 elections because of poor health. Shortly after leaving office he was knighted.
Hollande, François (Gérard Georges Nicolas) (b. Aug. 12, 1954, Rouen, Seine-Inférieure [now Seine-Maritime], France), president of France (2012-17). He was first secretary of the Socialist Party in 1997-2008. In 2012 he defeated incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy and promised a period of normality after the latter's turbulent centre-right presidency. He began with a leftist programme that included a wealth super-tax of 75% on top earners but shifted course midway through his term. He failed to kickstart the sluggish economy and faced rebellion from his party's left wing. He led France to intervene against Islamists in Mali in 2012 and joined in the fight against the "Islamic State" in Iraq in 2014 and in Syria in 2015, also sending troops to the Central African Republic (2013-16). From January 2015, his presidency was overshadowed by jihadist terror attacks in Paris and Nice and elsewhere. France was put under a state of emergency amid fears of further attack. Accused of lacking authority and coherence, and embarrassed by revelations about his private life, he faced some of the lowest (single-digit) approval ratings of any Fifth Republic president, and also became the first not to seek reelection.
Hollingworth, Peter (John) (b. April 10, 1935, Adelaide, South Australia), governor-general of Australia (2001-03). From 1990 to 2001 he was archbishop of Brisbane. In 2002 he came under pressure to resign as governor-general for having allegedly tried to cover up child abuse complaints at a Toowoomba Anglican school while he was archbishop. On May 1, 2003, a church report criticized him for failing to act in at least two cases of sexual abuse - in particular, for allowing a known pedophile to continue working as a priest. Soon afterward, on May 8, allegations of rape became public; Rosemarie Annie Jarmyn, who had recently committed suicide, had alleged that Hollingworth had raped her at a church holiday camp in the 1960s. Hollingworth insisted that it was a case of mistaken identity, and that he never met Jarmyn. Nevertheless on May 11 he decided to stand aside from his post until the case was dealt with. The case was dismissed on May 23, but he did not resume office, and instead announced his resignation on May 25.
Hollister, Nancy (Putnam), née Putnam (b. May 22, 1949, Evansville, Ind.), governor of Ohio (1998-99).
Holmberg, Bo (Lindor) (b. Nov. 17, 1942, Kramfors, Västernorrland county, Sweden - found dead Feb. 11, 2010), governor of Södermanland (1996-2005); widower of Anna Lindh.
Holmberg, Yngve (b. March 21, 1925, Bromma, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Oct. 29, 2011, Gräddö, Stockholm county, Sweden), governor of Halland (1972-77). He was leader of the Conservative/Moderate Party in 1965-70.
Holmboe, Arnold (b. March 11, 1873, Beitstad, Nordre Trondhjems amt [now Steinkjer, Trřndelag fylke], Norway - d. July 27, 1956, Oslo, Norway), finance minister of Norway (1924-26). He was also mayor of Tromsř (1908, 1913-14, 1917) and minister of justice and police (1922-23).
Holmboe, Jens (b. July 14, 1821, Tromsř, Norway - d. June 13, 1891, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Finmarkens amt (1866-74) and Norwegian minister of justice and police (1874, 1882-83), finance and customs (1875-76, 1879-80), church and education (1876-77, 1880-81, 1881), and navy and post office (1877-78, 1881-82).
Holmes, John Wendell (b. June 18, 1910, London, Ont. - d. Aug. 13, 1988, London, Ont.), Canadian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in the Soviet Union (1947-48) and permanent delegate to the United Nations (1950).
Holmlund, Anne (Elisabeth) (b. April 18, 1964, Pori, Finland), interior minister of Finland (2007-11).
Holness, Andrew (Michael) (b. July 22, 1972), prime minister and defense minister of Jamaica (2011-12, 2016- ). He was also minister of education (2007-12).
Holo, Théodore (b. April 15, 1948, Porto-Novo, Dahomey [now Benin]), foreign minister of Benin (1991-93). He was also government spokesman (1993-96), minister in charge of relations with parliament (1993-95), minister for relations with the institutions (1995-96), justice minister (1995), and president of the High Court of Justice (2009-13) and of the Constitutional Court (2013-18).
Holomisa, Bantu, byname of Harrington Bantubonke Holomisa (b. July 25, 1955, Mqanduli, Transkei, South Africa), head of the Military Council of Transkei (1987-94). In 1997 he was co-founder with Roelf Meyer of the United Democratic Movement.
Holst, Johan Jřrgen (b. Nov. 29, 1937, Oslo, Norway - d. Jan. 13, 1994, Oslo), defense minister (1986-89, 1990-93) and foreign minister (1987 [acting], 1993-94) of Norway.
Holst, Peter Theodor (b. Dec. 7, 1843, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway - d. Jan. 9, 1908, Gjřvik, Kristians amt [now Oppland fylke], Norway), defense minister of Norway (1891-93, 1898-1900) and governor of Kristians amt (1900-08).
Holst, Poul Christian (b. Jan. 21, 1776, Rřyken, Buskeruds amt [now Buskerud fylke], Norway - d. Aug. 7, 1863, Christiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Aggershuus amt (1813-15). He was also Norwegian minister of finance (acting, 1814), education and church affairs (1822-23, 1825, 1837-39, 1840-43, 1844-48), navy (1824-25), and justice (1825-26, 1827-32, 1833-36, 1837-38).
Holstein-Holsteinborg, Ludvig (Henrik Carl Herman) (b. July 18, 1815, Holsteinborg, Denmark - d. April 28, 1892, Copenhagen, Denmark), prime minister (1870-74) and finance minister (1872) of Denmark.
Holstein-Ledreborg, Johan Ludvig (Carl Christian Tido greve) (b. June 10, 1839, Hochberg, Württemberg [now part of Remseck am Neckar, Baden-Württemberg, Germany] - d. March 1, 1912, Ledreborg castle, Denmark), prime minister (1909) and defense minister (1909) of Denmark.
Holsti, Eino Rudolf Woldemar (b. Oct. 8, 1881, Jyväskylä, Finland - d. Aug. 4, 1945, Palo Alto, Calif.), foreign minister of Finland (1919-22, 1936-38). He was also minister to Estonia (1923-27), Latvia (1923-25), and Switzerland (1927-40).
Holt, Harold (Edward) (b. Aug. 5, 1908, Sydney, N.S.W. - d. Dec. 17, 1967, near Portsea, Vic.), prime minister of Australia (1966-67). He became interested in the United Australia Party, the forerunner of the Liberal Party, and at the age of 27 won a by-election for the federal seat of Fawkner in 1935. Within four years he was invited to join the first Robert Menzies ministry. In March 1940, room had to be found for Country Party leaders in the new coalition government and Holt was dropped. But in October 1940 three ministers were killed in an air crash and he was summoned back with the important portfolio of Labour and National Service. Within a year Menzies' government fell, but when he returned to power in 1949, Holt again became minister of labour (1949-58) and also of immigration (1949-56). Later he served as leader of the House of Representatives and deputy leader of the Liberal Party (1956-66) and as federal treasurer (1958-66). His strict anti-inflationary measures in 1960 helped to create a recession that nearly cost his party the 1961 election. Succeeding Menzies as prime minister in January 1966, Holt generated controversy by increasing Australian troop support of the South Vietnamese military effort. He sponsored the visit to Australia of Lyndon B. Johnson (October 1966), the first U.S. president-in-office to travel there. In one of Australia's wildest general elections - he was hit by demonstrators at several meetings - he was nevertheless reelected with an increased majority (November 1966). He also reduced the residency requirement for Australian citizenship and the training requirements for entrance, though some barriers against immigration of Asians remained. Holt apparently drowned while swimming off Cheviot Beach in Bass Strait; his body was never found.
Holt, Joseph (b. Jan. 6, 1807, near Hardinsburg, Ky. - d. Aug. 1, 1894, Washington, D.C.), U.S. postmaster general (1859-60) and secretary of war (1861).
Holt, Peder (Ragnar) (b. Jan. 25, 1899, Vardř, Finmarkens amt [now Finnmark fylke], Norway - d. March 24, 1963, Vadsř, Finnmark), governor of Finnmark (1944-45 [acting], 1948-63). He was also Norwegian minister of fisheries (1951-55).
Holten, Rendle McNeilage, byname Mac Holten (b. March 29, 1922, Melbourne, Australia - d. Oct. 12, 1996), administrator of Christmas Island (1980-82).
Holton, A(bner) Linwood, Jr. (b. Sept. 21, 1923, Big Stone Gap, Va.), governor of Virginia (1970-74).
Holubovych, Vsevolod (Oleksandrovych) (b. February 1885, Moldavka village, Balta district, Podolia province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. [in prison] May 16, 1939, Yaroslavl, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers and foreign minister of the non-Communist Ukraine (1918).
Holvoet, Benedictus Josephus (b. Feb. 27, 1763, Dadizeele, West-Vlaanderen, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. Jan. 24, 1838, Mechelen, Belgium), governor of Noord-Brabant (1820-22) and West-Vlaanderen (1822-26).
Holyoake, Sir Keith Jacka (b. Feb. 11, 1904, Scarborough, New Zealand - d. Dec. 8, 1983, Wellington, New Zealand), prime minister (1957, 1960-72), foreign minister (1960-72), and governor-general (1977-80) of New Zealand. A member of parliament (1932-38, 1943-77), he was also vice-president of the Dominion Council of the Farmers Federation, represented New Zealand at the First World Conference of Farmers (1946), and was president of the United Nations Food and Agricultural Conference (1955). A man of considerable political skills and a good debater, he was appointed deputy prime minister and minister of agriculture in 1949 after the National Party victory in that year. He achieved the feat of holding the farming portfolio, regarded as a political death trap, for over seven years, and retaining the confidence of the farmers. He became prime minister for a brief period following the retirement of Prime Minister Sidney Holland (1957) but lost the election a few months later. As leader of the National Party he became prime minister again in 1960. His long period in office was marked, toward its end, by his success in dealing with British entry to the European Economic Community and the resulting decline in New Zealand's traditional market, both by negotiating favourable terms for New Zealand and by diversifying the economy. His other main problem as leader was the maintenance of regional security after the withdrawal of British forces from Southeast Asia. Holyoake decided to support the U.S. in Vietnam, despite criticism. Sir Keith was knighted in 1970 and served as minister of state (1975-77) until he became the first politician to be appointed governor-general. He then played a subdued and statesmanlike role in the country's affairs.
Home, Ninian (b. Dec. 22, 1732, Duns, Berwickshire, Scotland - d. April 8, 1795, Grenada), governor of Grenada (1792-95). In an abortive insurrection of the natives led by Julien Fédon, Home was captured on March 3, 1795, and killed on April 8.
Home, William Home, (8th) Earl of, 13th Lord Home, 8th Lord Dunglass (b. 1681 - d. April 28, 1761, Gibraltar), governor of Gibraltar (1757-61). He succeeded to his titles in 1720.
Home of the Hirsel of Coldstream, Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron, also called (1951-63) Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, (14th) Earl of Home, (19th Lord Home, 14th Lord Dunglass, and 4th Baron Douglas, of Douglas in Lanarkshire), or (1963-74) Sir Alec Douglas-Home (Home pronounced Hume) (b. July 2, 1903, London, England - d. Oct. 9, 1995, The Hirsel, Coldstream, Berwickshire, Scotland), British prime minister (1963-64). As Lord Dunglass, the courtesy title he held from 1918 until he succeeded in 1951 to the earldom of Home, he sat in the House of Commons as a Unionist (1931-45, 1950-51). He served as parliamentary private secretary to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1937-39), undersecretary of state for foreign affairs in Winston Churchill's "caretaker" government (May-July 1945), minister of state for Scotland (1951-55), secretary of state for Commonwealth relations (1955-60), deputy leader (1956-57) and leader (1957-60) of the House of Lords, lord president of the council (1957-60), and foreign secretary (1960-63). In October 1963 he became prime minister during a Conservative Party crisis; he disclaimed his peerages for life and took the name Sir Alec Douglas-Home. Both as foreign secretary and as prime minister, he gained U.S. approval for his firm but not truculent anti-Communism. As chairman of the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference (July 1964), he achieved some compromise between extremist views on racial problems. Throughout his ministry he was faced with the prospect of a forthcoming general election, which took place on Oct. 15, 1964, and brought a Conservative defeat. He then became Conservative opposition spokesman in the House of Commons on foreign affairs. In July 1965 he was succeeded as party leader by Edward Heath. In Heath's government (1970-74) he again served as foreign secretary. In December 1974 he was created a life peer.
Homén, Carl-Olaf (Lars Alexander) (b. March 24, 1936, Helsinki, Finland), defense minister of Finland (1974-75). He was also president of the Finnish Olympic Committee (1984-88).
Homostean, George (b. June 19, 1923, Deva, Hunedoara county, Romania - d. Dec. 21, 2016, Alba Iulia, Romania), interior minister of Romania (1978-87). He was also ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1989).
Hompesch zu Bollheim, Ferdinand Joseph (Hermann Anton) Freiherr von (b. Nov. 9, 1744, Bollheim [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. May 12, 1805, Montpellier, Hérault, France), grand master of the Order of Malta (1797-98).
Honasan, Gregorio (Ballesteros, II), byname Gringo Honasan (b. March 14, 1948, Baguio City, Philippines), Philippine politician. He graduated from the Philippine Military Academy in 1971 and saw action in the conflict against Islamic rebels in Mindanao. In 1982 he started an organization of military officers opposed to the increased control of the army by cronies of Pres. Ferdinand Marcos. This group came to be known as Reform the Armed Forces (RAM) and apparently had 300 members in 1986. By 1986 he had reached the rank of colonel and was chief of security to Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile. Amid street demonstrations against Marcos's apparent attempt to steal a presidential election from Corazon Aquino, Enrile in February 1986 sealed Marcos's fate by siding with Aquino, who appointed him defense minister after Marcos left the country. Honasan, perhaps apprehensive that Marcos would find out about RAM, supported Enrile's defection and became a popular hero. In frequent interviews he criticized Aquino's lack of militancy against the Communist rebel New People's Army and slowness to reform the military. Suspecting Enrile and Honasan of being at least sympathetic to an attempted coup in late 1986, Aquino dismissed Enrile from the cabinet and sent Honasan to train recruits in central Luzon. On Aug. 28, 1987, he led supporters in an attempt to take over important points in metropolitan Manila. Within 24 hours, however, most of his followers had surrendered. In December he was captured in Manila and was dropped from the army. He escaped from a navy prison ship in April 1988 and led another coup attempt in December 1989. He emerged in December 1992 for peace talks offered by Pres. Fidel Ramos. In 1995 he became the first independent candidate in Philippine history to win a Senate seat. He was accused of involvement in a military mutiny against Pres. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo in July 2003 and another coup attempt in February 2006. He was arrested in November 2006.
Honecker, Erich (b. Aug. 25, 1912, Neunkirchen, Germany - d. May 29, 1994, Santiago, Chile), East German politician. He joined the Communist Youth Movement at the age of 14 and in 1929 became a full party member. He was arrested by the Gestapo in 1935 and sentenced in 1937 to 10 years' hard labour for "preparing treason." He refused to repudiate his Communist convictions. In 1945 he was freed by the Soviet Red Army as it swept across eastern Germany. He was one of the founders of the Free German Youth movement and was its chairman from 1946 to 1955. He was elected a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party in 1946 and was one of the prime movers behind the fusion of the Communist and Social Democratic parties in East Germany into the newly formed Socialist Unity Party (SED). In 1961 he was put in charge of building the Berlin Wall. His influence in the SED grew rapidly, and in 1967 he was designated as the successor to Walter Ulbricht. He became first secretary of the SED in 1971 (title changed to general secretary in 1976) and chairman of the Council of State in 1976. Having lost the support of the reform-minded Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, the aged and inflexible Honecker was forced to resign in 1989 when confronted with massive pro-democracy demonstrations in East German cities. In the face of growing public agitation, he was then charged with abuses of power and other crimes. In particular, he was accused of having issued "shoot-to-kill" orders to East German border guards. He took refuge on a Soviet military base near Berlin to avoid criminal prosecution. In 1991 he fled to Moscow, where he sought asylum in the Chilean embassy. He was deported to Germany in 1992, but in January 1993 a Berlin court ruled that he was too ill to stand trial, and he was allowed to emigrate to Chile, where members of his family resided. His wife Margot Honecker, née Feist (b. April 17, 1927, Halle, Germany - d. May 6, 2016, Santiago, Chile), was East German education minister (1963-89).
Hong Song Nam (b. Oct. 2, 1929, Chongju, North Pyongan province, Korea [now in North Korea] - d. March 31, 2009), premier of North Korea (1997-2003). He was also chairman of the State Planning Commission (1973-75, 1986-90), a deputy premier (1973-75, 1987-97), first deputy premier (1986-87), and party secretary of South Pyongan (1982-86) and South Hamgyong (2003-09) provinces.
Hong Soon Young, also spelled Hong Sun Yong (b. Jan. 30, 1937), foreign minister of South Korea (1998-2000). He was also ambassador to Pakistan (1984-87), Malaysia (1990-92), Russia (1992-93), Germany (1994-98), and China (2000-01) and unification minister (2001-02).
Hong Xiuquan, original name Hong Renkun (b. 1813, Huaxian [now Huadu], Guangdong, China - d. June 1, 1864, Nanjing, China), king of Taiping (1851-64). After failing the Chinese civil service examination for the third time in 1837, he suffered an emotional collapse and imagined himself to be in the presence of a venerable old man with a golden beard who complained that the world was overrun by evil demons and gave Hong a sword and seal to use in eradicating the bad spirits. Hong also believed himself to have encountered a middle-aged man who aided and instructed him in the extermination of demons. Later, after reading a book about Christianity, he considered the old man to have been God, and the middle-aged man Jesus Christ. Hong further understood that he was the second son of God, sent to save China. From then on he considered himself a Christian and began to propagate the new doctrine among his friends and relatives. One of his most important converts was Feng Yunshan, who established the God Worshippers' Society. In his writings, Hong stressed a wrathful Old Testament God, one who was to be worshipped and obeyed. He was iconoclastic toward the Chinese culture of his day, labeling it the work of evil demons and insisting that all symbols of it be destroyed. Hong joined Feng and became the leader of the God Worshippers. The two began to plot a rebellion that finally began in July 1850. In January 1851 he proclaimed his "Heavenly Realm of Great Peace" (Taiping tianguo) and assumed the title of "Heavenly King." As the rebels passed through the countryside, whole towns and villages joined them. They grew to a fanatical but highly disciplined army of more than a million. After it captured the great central city of Nanjing in March 1853, he decided to halt his troops and make the city his permanent capital, renaming it Tianjing ("Heavenly Capital"). A northern expedition to capture Beijing failed. Meanwhile, Feng had died en route to Nanjing, and Hong had placed much power in the hands of his minister of state, Yang Xiuqing. Eventually Yang began to usurp Hong's prerogatives, and in 1856 Hong had him murdered. Hong began to ignore his ablest followers and withdraw from all government matters for long periods. By 1862 his generals were telling him that the situation was desperate but he refused to abandon the city, stating that he trusted in divine guidance. He finally committed suicide. His young son succeeded him on the throne. The city finally fell on July 19, 1864. Sporadic Taiping resistance continued in other parts of the country until 1866. More than 20 million people are said to have been killed during the Taiping Rebellion.
Honnen, George B. (b. Nov. 16, 1897, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. Jan. 23, 1974, Charleston, S.C.), U.S. city commandant of Berlin (1954-55).
Honorat, Jean-Jacques (b. April 1, 1931, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister (1991) and interim prime minister (1991-92) of Haiti.
Hood, John Douglas Lloyd (b. May 31, 1904, Adelaide, S.Aus. - d. Oct. 3, 1991, southern France), Australian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in the Netherlands (1945-46), permanent representative to the United Nations (1947-50), and ambassador to Indonesia (1950-52), West Germany (1952-56), and Israel (1963-64).
Hood, Karl (Ignatius) (b. Happy Hill, St. George's, Grenada), foreign minister of Grenada (2010-12). He was also minister of health (2008-09) and labour, social security, and ecclesiastical affairs (2009-10), ambassador to China (2013-15), and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2016-17).
Hooda, Bhupinder Singh (b. Sept. 15, 1947, Sanghi, Rohtak district, Punjab [now in Haryana], India), chief minister of Haryana (2005-14).
Hooghvorst, Emmanuel (Constant Prismes Ghislain) van der Linden, baron d' (b. 1782 - d. 1866), member of the Provisional Government of Belgium (1830-31).
Hoogstraten, Samuel van, heer van Heicup, Boeicup, Woubrugge, Sint Jacobswende en Rodenburg (b. May 31, 1756, Utrecht - d. May 2, 1830, Rotterdam), member (1801-05) and chairman (1802) of the Staatsbewind of the Batavian Republic.
Hoole, Alan (Norman) (b. April 25, 1942 - d. May 8, 2000, Yorkshire, England), governor of Saint Helena (1991-95) and of Anguilla (1995-96). He slipped from a pathway near his home in Yorkshire, fell some 20 m down a steep hillside, and died whilst being taken to hospital by the rescue services.
Hoon, Geoff(rey William) (b. Dec. 6, 1953, Derby, England), British defence secretary (1999-2005). He was also lord privy seal (2005-06) and secretary of state for transport (2008-09).
Hoop, (Franz) Josef (b. Dec. 14, 1895, Eschen, Liechtenstein - d. Oct. 19, 1959, Vaduz, Liechtenstein), head of government of Liechtenstein (1928-45). He was also president of the Diet (1958-59).
Hoop Scheffer, Jaap de, byname of Jakob Gijsbert de Hoop Scheffer (b. April 3, 1948, Amsterdam, Netherlands), foreign minister of the Netherlands (2002-03) and secretary-general of NATO (2004-09).
de Hoop S.
Hoover, Herbert (Clark) (b. Aug. 10, 1874, West Branch, Iowa - d. Oct. 20, 1964, New York City), president of the United States (1929-33). Appointed secretary of commerce in 1921, he undertook the reorganization of the department, in addition to organizing new divisions to cover radiobroadcasting, commercial aviation, better housing, and greater highway safety. When Pres. Calvin Coolidge decided not to run again in 1928, Hoover received his party's nomination, though his independent views alienated many Republican bosses. In the ensuing campaign, he held the traditional Republican vote while attracting many Southerners, who were reluctant to support the Democratic nominee, Alfred E. Smith, who was a Roman Catholic. Once in office, his hopes for a "New Day" geared to America's scientific potential were soon overwhelmed, when the stock-market crash in October 1929 propelled the country into the worst depression in its history. Hoover chose to depend mainly on private charity to ameliorate suffering. Failing to prod the business community into assuming leadership, he finally supplied a degree of federal relief to beleaguered farmers and financial institutions through the Federal Farm Board and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, but he vetoed a bill that would have created a federal unemployment agency and he mobilized congressional opposition to another bill for public works and direct aid to the unemployed urban masses. Renominated in 1932, he was overwhelmingly defeated by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Throughout the rest of the 1930s, Hoover opposed every substantive measure for depression relief. After World War II, he headed two federal commissions (1947-49 and 1953), one on the elimination of waste and another on inefficiency in government.
Hoover, J(ohn) Edgar (b. Jan. 1, 1895, Washington, D.C. - d. May 2, 1972, Washington, D.C.), director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1924-72). He entered the Department of Justice as a file reviewer in 1917, and two years later he became special assistant to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, in which post he oversaw the mass roundups and deportations of suspected Bolsheviks (Communists) after World War I. He was named acting director of the Bureau of Investigation (as it was then called) in May 1924 and confirmed as director seven months later. Both the FBI's size and its responsibilities grew steadily under his management. When the Cold War began in the late 1940s, the FBI undertook the intensive surveillance of Communists and other left-wing activists in the United States. Hoover's animus toward radicals of every kind led him to aggressively investigate both the Ku Klux Klan and Martin Luther King, Jr., and other black activists in the 1960s. At the same time, he maintained a hands-off policy toward the Mafia, which was allowed to conduct its operations nationwide practically free of FBI scrutiny or interference. He habitually used the FBI's enormous surveillance and information-gathering powers to collect damaging information on politicians throughout the country, and he kept the most scurrilous data under his own personal control. He used his possession of these secret files to maintain himself as the FBI's director and was apparently able to intimidate even sitting presidents by threatening to leak damaging disclosures about them. He retained his post until his death at age 77, by which time he had been the FBI's chief for 48 years and had served 8 presidents and 18 attorneys general.
Hopkins, Alfred A(rchibald, Jr.) (b. Sept. 2, 1925 - d. June 22, 2006, Annapolis, Md.), mayor of Annapolis (1989-97).
Hoppenot, Henri (Étienne) (b. Oct. 25, 1891, Paris, France - d. Aug. 10, 1977), high commissioner of the Antilles (1943) and commissioner-general of French Indochina (1955-56). He was also French minister to Uruguay (1940-42), ambassador to Switzerland (1945-52), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1952-55).
Hor Namhong (b. Nov. 15, 1935, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), foreign minister of Cambodia (1990-93, 1998-2016). He was also ambassador to Cuba (1973-75), the Soviet Union (1982-89), and France (1993-98).
Horák, Jirí (b. April 23, 1924, Hradec Králové, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. July 25, 2003, Englewood, Fla.), Czech politician. Having joined the wing of the Social Democratic Party that resisted subordination to the Communist Party, he emigrated to the United States in 1951. From 1961 to 1971 he was chairman of the Council of Free Czechoslovakia, an umbrella organization of Czechoslovaks in exile. After the revolution of 1989, Horák returned to Prague and helped restore the Social Democratic Party. He headed the Social Democrats in 1990-92. In 1993 he moved back to the U.S. In 2000 Pres. Václav Havel awarded Horák one of the Czech Republic's highest state honours, the Tomás Garrigue Masaryk Order, for outstanding contributions to democracy.
Horchani, Farhat (b. Jan. 20, 1953, Tunis, Tunisia), defense minister of Tunisia (2015-17). He was also justice minister (2015-16).
Hore-Belisha, (Isaac) Leslie Hore-Belisha, (1st) Baron (b. Sept. 7, 1893, London, England - d. Feb. 16, 1957, Reims, France), British secretary of state for war (1937-40). He was also minister of transport (1934-37) and national insurance (1945). He was created baron in 1954.
Horelli, Toivo (Johannes) (b. Oct. 11, 1888, Kokemäki, Finland - d. June 28, 1975, Tampere, Finland), interior minister of Finland (1941-43).
Horgan, John (Joseph) (b. Aug. 7, 1959, Victoria, B.C.), premier of British Columbia (2017- ).
Horn, Gyula (b. July 5, 1932, Budapest, Hungary - d. June 19, 2013, Budapest), foreign minister (1989-90) and prime minister (1994-98) of Hungary.
Horn af Rantzien, (Nils Henning) Rudolf (Bernhard) greve (b. Nov. 20, 1825 - d. Feb. 13, 1892), governor of Gotland (1874-83) and Blekinge (1883-92).
Horne of Slamannan, Robert (Stevenson) Horne, (1st) Viscount (b. Feb. 28, 1871, Slamannan, Stirlingshire, Scotland - d. Sept. 3, 1940, Farnham, Surrey, England), British chancellor of the exchequer (1921-22). He was also minister of labour (1919-20) and president of the Board of Trade (1920-21). He was knighted in 1918 and created viscount in 1937.
Horner, Jack, byname of John Henry Horner (b. July 20, 1927, Blaine Lake, Sask. - d. Nov. 18, 2004, Calgary, Alberta), Canadian politician. He was first elected to the House of Commons for the Progressive Conservative Party in 1958. He earned a reputation as a spokesperson for western farmers and as an arch-conservative and was eventually dubbed one of the "Diefenbaker cowboys." Horner ran for the Tory leadership in 1976, but lost to Joe Clark. In 1977, he bolted from the party, saying Clark reneged on a promise to protect Horner's Crowfoot riding in the next federal election. The next day, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau named Horner minister without portfolio. Later that year Horner became minister of industry, trade and commerce, but he was defeated in the 1979 election. He was soon appointed to the board of the Canadian National Railways and from 1982 to 1984 served as chairperson. After that, he worked as administrator of the Prairie Grain Agency until 1988.
Hornsrud, Christopher (Andersen) (b. Nov. 15, 1859, Řvre Eiker, Buskerud county, Norway - d. Dec. 13, 1960), prime minister and finance minister of Norway (1928).
Horoi, Rex (b. 1952, San Cristobal, Solomon Islands), Solomon Islands diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-2000) and ambassador to the United States (1997-2000).
Hřrring, Hugo Egmont (b. Aug. 17, 1842, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Feb. 13, 1909, Copenhagen), interior minister (1894-97), prime minister and finance minister (1897-1900), and justice minister (1899-1900) of Denmark.
Horst, Guusje ter, byname of Guus ter Horst (b. March 22, 1952, Deventer, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (2007-10). She was also mayor of Nijmegen (2001-07).
Horta, Henrique Afonso da Silva (b. Sept. 21, 1920, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Jan. 30, 2012, Lisbon), governor of Cape Verde (1974) and minister of the republic in the Azores (1978-81).
Hortefeux, Brice (b. May 11, 1958, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, France), interior and overseas minister of France (2009-11). He was also minister of immigration, integration, national identity, and co-development (2007-08), immigration, integration, national identity, and solidary development (2008-09), labour, social relations, family, and solidarity (2009), city (2009-10), and immigration (2010-12).
Horthy (de Nagybánya), Miklós (b. June 18, 1868, Kenderes, Hungary, Austria-Hungary - d. Feb. 9, 1957, Estoril, Portugal), Hungarian political leader. Aide-de-camp to the emperor Franz Joseph (1909-14), he distinguished himself as a naval commander in World War I by several times breaking the Allied Adriatic blockade. Promoted to admiral in 1918, he presided over the Austro-Hungarian fleet's transfer to Yugoslavia in October 1918. The following year, at the request of the counterrevolutionary government at Szeged, Hungary, Horthy organized an army to oppose the Communist regime of Béla Kun and led his troops into the capital in November after Kun had fled. The Hungarian parliament, elected in January 1920, declared for the restoration of the monarchy and elected Horthy regent (March 1). Horthy, however, despite much controversy, thwarted the efforts of King Károly IV to recover his throne. From 1921 to 1931 Horthy had little to do with public affairs, leaving the conduct of government in the hands of Count István Bethlen. During the troubled 1930s, however, Horthy assumed more and more control, and in 1937 the parliament voted a considerable extension of his powers. Although he disliked Adolf Hitler, he sympathized with the German dictator's "crusade against Bolshevism," and initially acquiesced in Hungary's adherence to the German side in World War II. His later efforts to extricate Hungary from the war led to his forced abdication and abduction by the Germans in 1944. He was released by Allied troops in May 1945 and allowed to go to Portugal.
Horváth, Balázs (b. Aug. 13, 1942, Budapest, Hungary - d. July 2, 2006, Veszprém, Hungary), interior minister of Hungary (1990). He was among the founding members of the conservative opposition Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) in 1988. Later he separated from the MDF and became an independent MP. He founded the National Forum in 2004 and as a result of an alliance with Fidesz, won a seat in parliament in Fidesz colours at the April 2006 elections.
Horváth, Imre (b. Nov. 19, 1901, Budapest, Hungary - d. Feb. 2, 1958, Budapest), foreign minister of Hungary (1956, 1956-58). He was also minister to the United States (1949-51) and the United Kingdom (1951-53) and ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1954-56).
Horváth, István (b. Sept. 1, 1935, Paks, Hungary), interior minister of Hungary (1980-85, 1987-90).
Horwood, Owen (Pieter Faure) (b. 1916 - d. Sept. 13, 1998, Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa), finance minister of South Africa (1975-84). He was also minister of tourism and Indian affairs (1972-74) and industry and trade (1974-75).
Hoscheit, Jean-Marc (b. Oct. 11, 1958, Luxembourg), Luxembourg diplomat. He was ambassador to France (1998-2003), the Netherlands (2008-12), and Ethiopia (2011-12) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-08).
Hosokawa, Morihiro (b. Jan. 14, 1938, Kumamoto, Kyushu, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1993-94); grandson of Fumimaro Konoe. In 1969 he ran for a seat in the lower house of the Japanese parliament. He lost that race, but two years later, with strong support from the ruling Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP), he was elected to the less powerful upper house. He was the youngest person ever to reach that position and served there for two 6-year terms. He was governor of Kumamoto prefecture in 1983-91. Disillusioned with the scandal-ridden LDP, Hosokawa bolted the party in September 1990 and in May 1992, calling for electoral reform and an end to political corruption and one-party rule, founded the Japan New Party (JNP; Nihon Shinto) as a conservative alternative to the LDP. The party quickly gained strength, and in the historic July 18, 1993, lower house elections, which ended the LDP's 38-year hold on the government, the JNP snared 36 seats in the House of Representatives. A coalition of seven dissident LDP factions and opposition parties elected Hosokawa prime minister on August 6; he thus became the first non-LDP premier of Japan since 1955. Harassed by charges of financial impropriety leveled at him by the LDP, Hosokawa resigned in April 1994 after eight months in office. Later that year the JNP merged with other groups to form the New Frontier Party (Shinshinto). Hosokawa's luck ran out in 1997 when one of his close associates in parliament was arrested and indicted on fraud charges. Hosokawa denied any links to that scandal, but the incident virtually ended his career as a major player in Japanese politics. In June 1997 he quit Shinshinto, saying he had no hopes for its future. He remained in parliament until 1998, when he left politics, taking up pottery. In 2014, however, he ran unsuccessfully for governor of Tokyo.
Hoss, Salim (Ahmed), Arabic Salim Ahmad al-Huss (b. Dec. 20, 1929, Beirut, Lebanon), prime minister (1976-80, 1987-90, 1998-2000) and foreign minister (1987-90, 1998-2000) of Lebanon. Hoss first became prime minister a year after the civil war broke out and stayed on until 1980, heading a pro-Syrian government. He escaped an assassination attempt in 1984 when a car bomb exploded near his motorcade in Beirut. A Sunni Muslim, he was respected by the business community for his financial acumen. He was also minister of the economy, trade, and information (1976-79), industry and petroleum (1976-77), and labour and education (1984-88).
Hossain, Kamal (b. April 20, 1937, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India), foreign minister of Bangladesh (1973-75). He was also law minister (1972-73) and minister of petroleum and minerals (1974-75).
Hoti, Amir Haider Khan (b. Feb. 5, 1971, Mardan, Pakistan), chief minister of North-West Frontier Province/Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (2008-13).
Hoti, Nawabzada Abdul Ghafoor Khan (b. 1923? - d. Jan. 7, 1998, Rawalpindi, Pakistan), governor of North-West Frontier Province (1985-86).
Hou(enipwela), Rick (Nelson) (b. Aug. 8, 1958), finance minister (2011-14) and prime minister (2017- ) of the Solomon Islands. He was also governor of the Central Bank (1993-2008) and minister of public service (2011).
Houben, Frank (Johannes Maria) (b. Feb. 19, 1939, The Hague, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Noord-Brabant (1987-2003).
Houben, Frans, byname of François Joseph Marie Anne Hubert Houben (b. May 23, 1898, Woudrichem, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Sept. 25, 1976, The Hague, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Limburg (1947-64).
Houde, Camillien (b. Aug. 13, 1889, Montreal, Que. - d. Sept. 11, 1958, Montreal), mayor of Montreal (1928-32, 1934-36, 1938-40, 1944-54). Familiarly known as "Mr. Montreal," he was first elected mayor of Canada's principal city in 1928 and was reelected in 1930, 1934, and 1938. During the early part of World War II he was interned by the federal government for advocating that French Canadians not register for the draft. This action served only to increase his popularity, however, and he was reelected mayor in 1944 and again in 1947 and 1950. He was also elected a member of the Canadian House of Commons in 1949.
Houdek, Vladimír (b. June 14, 1912, Ruzomberok, Hungary [now in Slovakia] - d. Dec. 15, 2006), Czechoslovak diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1948-50). He resigned, protesting against Soviet control of Czechoslovakia, and was then granted political asylum in the U.S.
Hough, Ralph D(egnan) (b. May 21, 1943, Hanover, N.H.), acting governor of New Hampshire (1993).
Houngbédji, Adrien (b. March 5, 1942, Aplahoué, southern Dahomey [now Benin]), prime minister of Benin (1996-98); great-grandnephew of Gelele and great-great-grandson of Gezo (kings of Danhome). He was arrested in February 1975 and condemned to death for defending an opponent of Mathieu Kérékou's regime; he escaped from prison on March 5 and went into exile in France, Senegal, and Gabon until his amnesty and his return in December 1989. He was a presidential candidate in 1991, 1996, and 2001 and was president of the National Assembly in 1991-95 and 1999-2003. He was elected mayor of Porto-Novo on Feb. 13, 2003, but left this post on June 14 after he was promised a ministerial portfolio he never received. He was a leading candidate in the March 2006 presidential elections, in which Kérékou and Nicéphore Soglo, who were dominant in previous elections, were constitutionally barred from standing because they were above the age limit of 70 years. Nevertheless, he lost to political newcomer Yayi Boni. When he lost to him again in 2011, he rejected the result, saying it had been rigged by widespread ballot-stuffing. In 2015 he again became president of the National Assembly.
Houngbo, Gilbert (Fossoun) (b. Feb. 4, 1961), prime minister of Togo (2008-12). From 2017 he is president of the International Fund for Agricultural Development.
Houphouët-Boigny, Félix, original name Dia Houphouët (b. Oct. 18, 1905, Ngokro [now Yamoussoukro], Ivory Coast, French West Africa - d. Dec. 7, 1993, Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire), president of Côte d'Ivoire (1960-93). At the age of 11 he changed his name from Dia ("divine healer") to Félix. In the first Côte d'Ivoire elections (1945) he was elected to the French National Assembly; the same year, he gained passage of legislation that abolished the much-hated practice of forced labour in the colonies (at that time he added Boigny, meaning "ram," to his name). He was easily reelected in 1946. That year he also founded the Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire. From 1956 to 1960 he divided his time between France, where he was a member of the National Assembly, minister of public health and population (1957-58), and minister of state (1957, 1958, 1958-59), and Côte d'Ivoire, where he was president of the territorial assembly (1953-59) and mayor of Abidjan. When Pres. Charles de Gaulle in 1958 offered French territories a referendum on whether to join a new federal community or to become independent, Houphouët-Boigny campaigned successfully for self-government within the French Community. He became prime minister of the Côte d'Ivoire government in 1959 and was elected the first president of the independent country in 1960. He was also foreign minister in 1960-63. He was reelected to the presidency unopposed in 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985. Discontent grew in his later years after a sharp change in the country's economy. Attention was focused on the huge basilica he built in Yamoussoukro - Notre Dame de la Paix, completed in 1989 at an estimated cost of $200 million - although it was said to have been funded with his personal moneys. In 1990 he was reelected in Côte d'Ivoire's first contested presidential elections. At the time of his death, he was Africa's longest-serving head of state.
House, A(rthur) M(axwell) (b. Aug. 10, 1926, Glovertown, Newfoundland - d. Oct. 17, 2013), lieutenant governor of Newfoundland (1997-2002). A St. John's neurologist, he was a senior medical academic and a recognized world leader in telemedicine and distance education. He was involved with many community organizations, including the Art Gallery of Newfoundland and Labrador, the Agnes Pratt Home for the Aged, and the Memorial University Botanical Garden. He was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 1989.
Houston, David F(ranklin) (b. Feb. 17, 1866, Monroe, N.C. - d. Sept. 2, 1940, New York City), U.S. secretary of agriculture (1913-20) and the treasury (1920-21).
Houston, Sam(uel) (b. March 2, 1793, Rockbridge county, Va. - d. July 26, 1863, Huntsville, Texas), governor of Tennessee (1827-29) and president (1836-38, 1841-44) and governor (1859-61) of Texas. He lived for three years among the Cherokee as a teenager and in 1813 joined the U.S. Army and fought in the Creek War under Andrew Jackson. He was elected a member of Congress as a Democrat from Tennessee (1823-27), then served as governor. In 1829 he returned to the Cherokee, being adopted into their nation and operating a trading post in their territory until 1832, when President Jackson sent him to negotiate with tribes in Texas. Caught up in the struggle by U.S. settlers for independence of Texas from Mexico, he quickly emerged as one of the settlers' main leaders and led the force that overwhelmed the Mexican army under Antonio López de Santa Anna at San Jacinto (1836) and achieved Texan independence. He was elected the first president of the Republic of Texas and after being a member of the Texas Congress (1838-40) was reelected president. On the U.S. annexation of Texas in 1845, he was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate (1846-59) before being elected governor of Texas. He opposed secession, was deposed in 1861 for refusing to swear allegiance to the Confederacy, and retired to private life. The city of Houston, Texas, is named after him.
Houtart, Maurice (Jules Marie Emmanuel) (b. July 5, 1866, Tournai, Belgium - d. Feb. 1, 1939, Brussels, Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1926-32). He was also minister of colonies (1926, 1926-27).
Houthi, Muhammad Ali al- (b. 1979, Saada, Yemen [Sana]), head of the Revolutionary Committee of Yemen (2015- ; head of state to 2016).
Houx, Charles Joseph Hyacinthe du, (from Aug. 31, 1817) marquis de Vioménil (b. Aug. 22, 1734, Ruppes, Vosges, France - d. March 5, 1827, Paris, France), acting governor of Martinique (1789-90).
Hoveida, Amir Abbas, Hoveida also spelled Hoveyda (b. Feb. 18, 1919, Tehran, Iran - d. April 7, 1979, Tehran), prime minister of Iran (1965-77). He joined the Iranian Foreign Office and served in Paris (1945-47), Bonn (1947-51), Ankara (1957), and at the United Nations in New York City (1951-57). In 1958 he was appointed to the board of the National Iranian Oil Company. He was finance minister in 1964-65 and became prime minister after Hassan Ali Mansur was assassinated. He continued the policy of land redistribution while seeking to maintain friendly ties with both the United States and the Soviet Union. He organized the October 1971 festivities at Persepolis commemorating the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire. As leader of the ruling Iran Novin (New Iran) Party he won a landslide victory at the 1971 general elections. Iran's financial strength enabled Hoveida to strike advantageous bargains with Western customers for Iranian oil in order to promote Iran's own economic development. Opposition at home, some of it Soviet-inspired, was never completely eradicated. In January 1974, 12 persons were brought to trial on charges of terrorist activities, including plotting to assassinate the shah. But the sovereign's gratitude proved limited and in August 1977 Hoveida was replaced by Jamshid Amouzegar and was made minister of the imperial court (until September 1978). In November 1978 he was detained by the shah's short-lived military government. At the time of the February 1979 uprising he gave himself up to the new government appointed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Two months later he was sentenced to death by the Islamic Revolutionary Court and shot the same day.
Hoveyda, Fereydoun (b. Sept. 21, 1924, Damascus, Syria - d. Nov. 3, 2006, Clifton, Va.), Iranian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-79).
Hövell tot Westerflier, Eduard Otto Joseph Maria baron van (b. March 28, 1877, Twello, Voorst municipality, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. Feb. 12, 1936, Brussels, Belgium), queen's commissioner of Limburg (1918-36). He was also mayor of Breda (1915-18).
Hovey, Alvin P(eterson) (b. Sept. 6, 1821, near Mount Vernon, Ind. - d. Nov. 23, 1891, Indianapolis, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1889-91). He was also U.S. minister to Peru (1866-70).
Hovhannisyan, Raffi (Richardi), known in U.S. as Raffi K. Hovannisian (b. Nov. 20, 1959, Fresno, Calif.), foreign minister of Armenia (1991-92). He took up Armenian citizenship in 2001. In 2002 he founded the Heritage Party. He was a presidential candidate in 2013.
Howard, (J.) Daniel (b. Aug. 24, 1943, Chattanooga, Tenn.), acting U.S. Navy secretary (1992).
Howard, Daniel E(dward) (b. Aug. 4, 1861, Buchanan, Liberia - d. July 9, 1935, Monrovia, Liberia), president of Liberia (1912-20).
Howard, George (b. Nov. 21, 1789, Annapolis, Md. - d. Aug. 2, 1846, Waverly estate, Anne Arundel county [now in Howard county], Md.), governor of Maryland (1831-33); son of John E. Howard; son-in-law of Charles Ridgely.
Howard, Henry (b. April 2, 1826, Cranston, R.I. - d. Sept. 22, 1905, Harris, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1873-75); son-in-law of Elisha Harris.
Howard, John (Winston) (b. July 26, 1939, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia), prime minister of Australia (1996-2007). He moved through the Liberal Party machine as a member of the party executive (1963-74) and vice-president (1972-74) of the New South Wales division of the party. He was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1974 as a member for Bennelong, N.S.W., and under Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser he served as minister for business and consumer affairs (1975-77), minister for special trade negotiations (1977), and as federal treasurer (1977-83). He became deputy leader of the Liberal Party in 1982 and advanced to its leadership on Sept. 5, 1985, during a crisis in confidence caused by mistrust in the relationship between Howard and his chief, Andrew Peacock, who demanded from Howard an unrealistic assurance that he would in no circumstances challenge the position of party leader. Putting the matter to the vote, Peacock was dumbfounded to find that the outcome was that the parliamentary party chose Howard to lead them. The opposition coalition of the Liberals and the National Party failed to unseat the Labor Party from power in elections held in 1987, however, and Howard was defeated in his bid to retain his leadership of the Liberals in 1989. He tried to regain it in 1993 but was beaten by John Hewson who, in turn, was replaced by Alexander Downer in 1994. Howard chose not to contest the party leadership again when Downer resigned in January 1995, but was elected unopposed at a party caucus meeting. He subsequently led a Liberal-National coalition to a decisive victory over Labor in elections held in March 1996. He was a strong backer of the U.S. "war on terror" and sent troops to both Afghanistan and Iraq. After three reelections in 1998, 2001, and 2004, which made him the country's second-longest-serving prime minister, his government was defeated in 2007. He then resigned as Liberal leader.
Howard, John E(ager) (b. June 4, 1752, Baltimore county, Maryland - d. Oct. 12, 1827, Baltimore, Md.), governor of Maryland (1788-91).
Howard, Joseph (b. 1862, Valletta, Malta - d. May 20, 1925), prime minister of Malta (1921-23).
Howard of Lympne, Michael Howard, Baron, original name (until 1948) Michael Hecht (b. July 7, 1941, Gorseinon, southern Wales), British politician. He entered Parliament in 1983 as member for Folkestone & Hythe, southeast of London. His talent, robust debating skills, and right-wing commitment brought him to the attention of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who gave him his first ministerial job only two years later as minister for corporate and consumer affairs. After the 1987 election, he was promoted to minister of state at the Department of the Environment and minister for local government, and from 1988 minister for water and planning. He steered through Parliament controversial legislation on the poll tax and water privatization. His reward was a place in the cabinet in January 1990 as employment secretary, a role in which he piloted through legislation that restricted trade union rights and limited workers' rights to take strike action. In May 1993, Prime Minister John Major appointed Howard home secretary. He led a campaign to revive the reputation of the Conservative government in two areas: family values and law and order. Reversing previous policies that had sought to minimize the use of jail for young offenders, in October he announced the building of six new prisons to contain the expected increase in the numbers sentenced to jail. In the same month, at the Conservative Party's annual conference, he aroused controversy by stating that poverty had nothing to do with the causes of crime. He argued for a return to the nuclear family, on the grounds that children who were brought up by only their mothers lacked suitable adult male role models and were more likely to turn to crime. His argument infuriated liberals as much as it delighted Conservative right-wingers, who increasingly saw him as their standard-bearer in any future party leadership contest. In 1997 he lost such a bid to William Hague, but he won the leadership without opposition in 2003 after Iain Duncan Smith was ousted. Just 18 months later, after losing the 2005 elections, he said he would stand down as leader. In 2010 he became a life peer.
Howe, Harold, II (b. Aug. 17, 1918, Hartford, Conn. - d. Nov. 30, 2002, Hanover, N.H.), U.S. commissioner of education (1965-68). He put into effect measures of the Lyndon B. Johnson administration that signaled sweeping change in the nation's schools. Before the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the public schools, traditionally under local control, could expect only limited federal support. The act, one of many measures aimed at fostering equality and bringing about social betterment, changed that. The programs that Howe put into effect were controversial and often criticized, particularly by conservative legislators from the South who saw them as unwarranted interference into local matters. When he was called the "commissioner of integration," it was not intended as a compliment. Amid the turbulence, Howe stood his ground. Admired for his bluntness and courage, he had experience in education as a teacher, principal, and school superintendent. After leaving the Office of Education in 1968, he joined the Ford Foundation, becoming a vice president concerned with education and philanthropy. Leaving the foundation in 1981, he became a senior lecturer from 1982 to 1994 at Harvard University's Graduate School of Education.
Howe, Joseph (b. Dec. 13, 1804, Halifax, Nova Scotia - d. June 1, 1873, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), premier of Nova Scotia (1860-63). In 1836 he was elected member for Halifax in the provincial assembly. He was included in the executive council from 1840 until his resignation in 1843. He campaigned for responsible government for Nova Scotia in his newspaper and criticized the lieutenant governor, Lord Falkland; he helped bring about Falkland's resignation in 1848, and responsible government was finally conceded that year. In 1854 Howe was appointed chief commissioner of railways for Nova Scotia. He became premier of the province in 1860 and opposed federation. He retired from provincial politics in 1863 and took the post of fishery commissioner for Great Britain (1863-66). After leading the antifederation forces in Nova Scotia and going to Great Britain in 1867 to try to repeal the British North America Act, which created the Dominion of Canada, Howe finally accepted the accomplished fact and was elected to the Canadian parliament for Hants. He joined the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as president of the council and then secretary of state. In May 1873 he was appointed lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia, but died soon after.
Howe of Aberavon, (Richard Edward) Geoffrey Howe, Baron (b. Dec. 20, 1926, Port Talbot, Glamorgan, Wales - d. Oct. 9, 2015, Warwickshire, England), British politician. During his 20s he was one of the founders of the Bow Group, an unofficial think tank of young liberal-minded Conservatives that became influential in the party's political debates. He entered Parliament in 1964 and was solicitor general in 1970-72. He was knighted in 1970. In 1972-74 he was minister for trade and consumer affairs, then opposition spokesman on social services (1974-75) and Treasury and economic affairs (1975-79). When Margaret Thatcher became prime minister in 1979, Howe became chancellor of the exchequer. With a quietly courteous manner and an unexciting style as a speaker, he produced a sensational budget within six weeks of the new government's taking office. Four months later he stunned the financial capitals of the world by removing virtually all exchange controls on the pound sterling at a single stroke. After the election of 1983, Howe became foreign secretary. He brought to British foreign policy a strong and to some extent new economic perspective at a time when the unsettled state of the world economy was a major cause of international disagreement. He stressed the urgency of finding more stable financial systems to enable world recovery to get under way. A testing time for Howe came in the aftermath of the U.S. invasion of Grenada, which many Conservative backbenchers thought Britain should have supported. It fell to him to support Thatcher's condemnation of the U.S. action and propose a role for Britain in the restoration of democracy in Grenada. In 1989 he was made deputy prime minister and lord president of the council, which was generally seen as a demotion. He resigned in 1990 and was made a life peer in 1992.
Howell, James (b. Oct. 16, 1829, Wiltshire, England - d. Jan. 27, 1897, Brooklyn, N.Y.), mayor of Brooklyn (1878-81).
Howick of Glendale, (Charles) Evelyn Baring, (1st) Baron (b. Sept. 29, 1903, London, England - d. [following a fall while rock climbing] March 10, 1973, Alnwick, Northumberland, England), governor of Southern Rhodesia (1942-44), high commissioner for Southern Africa (1944-51), and governor of Kenya (1952-59); son of Evelyn Baring, Earl of Cromer. He was appointed K.C.M.G. (1942), K.C.V.O. (1947), G.C.M.G. (1955), and K.G. (1972), and was made a baron on Feb. 8, 1960.
Howman, John Hartley, byname Jack Howman (b. Aug. 11, 1919, Selukwe, Rhodesia - d. Feb. 5, 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa), foreign and defense minister of Rhodesia (1968-74). He was also minister of internal affairs, local government, and African education (1962-64) and immigration, tourism, and information (1965-68).
Hoxha, Enver (b. Oct. 16, 1908, Gjirokastër, Albania - d. April 11, 1985, Tiranë, Albania), Albanian political leader. In 1939, when Italy invaded Albania, Hoxha was dismissed from his teaching post for refusing to join the newly formed Albanian Fascist Party, and he opened a retail tobacco store at Tiranë, which became headquarters for a Communist cell. After Germany invaded Yugoslavia in 1941, Yugoslav Communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (from 1948 called the Party of Labour). He became general secretary (from 1954, first secretary) of the party's Central Committee and political commissar of the Communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. After liberation he was prime minister (1944-54), foreign minister (1946-53), and defense minister (1944-53). As first secretary, he retained effective control of the government until his death. As ardent a nationalist as he was a Communist, Hoxha excoriated any Communist state that threatened his power or the sovereignty of Albania. In 1948 he broke relations with Yugoslavia and formed an alliance with the Soviet Union. After the death of the Soviet leader Iosif Stalin, for whom Hoxha held a lifelong admiration, his relations with Nikita Khrushchev deteriorated until Hoxha broke with him completely in 1961. He then forged close ties with China. Following Mao Zedong's death, Hoxha, on July 7, 1977, castigated the "three-worlds" theory invoked by the new Chinese leaders to justify better relations with the U.S. One year later, China severed all economic and military ties with Albania. From then on, Hoxha spurned all the world's major powers, declaring that Albania would become a model socialist republic on its own.
Hoxha, Fadil (Albanian), Serbian Fadilj Hodza (b. March 15, 1916, Djakovica [Gjakovë], Montenegro [now in Kosovo] - d. April 22, 2001, Pristina, Kosovo), Yugoslav politician. A leading figure among Albanian Communist politicians in Kosovo for decades, he was president of Kosovo's Assembly (1945-53, 1967-69) and of Kosovo's Executive Council (1945-63). Hoxha retired from politics in 1986 after the ethnic Albanian nationalist riots of 1981, which he opposed.
Hoxha, Ferit (b. Feb. 22, 1967, Koplik, Albania), Albanian diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (1999-2001), France (2001-06), and Portugal (2003-06) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-15).
Hoxha, Mehmet (b. 1908 - d. Dec. 19, 1987, Belgrade, Serbia), chairman of the People's Liberation Committee of Kosovo (1944-45).
Hoxhaj, Enver (Albanian), Serbian Enver Hodzaj (b. Oct. 4, 1969, Prizren, Kosovo), foreign minister of Kosovo (2011-14, 2016-17). He has also been minister of education, science, and technology (2008-11) and a deputy prime minister (2017- ).
Hoydal, Hřgni (Karsten) (b. March 28, 1966, Copenhagen, Denmark), foreign minister of the Faeroe Islands (2008). He has also been minister of self-government, justice, and Nordic affairs (1998-2003) and fisheries (2015- ) and deputy prime minister (1998-2003, 2008, 2015- ).
Hoyte, (Hugh) Desmond (b. March 9, 1929, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. Dec. 22, 2002, Georgetown, Guyana), president of Guyana (1985-92). He entered parliament as a People's National Congress (PNC) member in 1968 and was appointed home affairs minister in 1969, moving to finance in 1970, works and communications in 1972, and economic development in 1974. From then on he concentrated on economic affairs. Following the December 1980 election he became one of five vice-presidents, with responsibility for economic planning, finance, and regional development. In August 1984 he was made first vice-president and prime minister. The sudden death of Pres. Forbes Burnham on Aug. 6, 1985, thrust Hoyte into the role of president at a time when Guyana was undergoing a prolonged economic and social crisis. Burnham died shortly after his ruling PNC had embarked on talks with the opposition People's Progressive Party with a view to achieving a national unity formula to deal with the country's problems. While confirming his willingness to continue the dialogue, Hoyte also announced that a general election would be held on December 9. Responding to criticisms of previous elections as fraudulent, he agreed to certain reforms. Nonetheless, conduct of the election, which returned the PNC to power with an increased majority, was widely criticized for irregularities, and Hoyte's chances of achieving a national reconciliation were thereby diminished. In 1990-92 he was also foreign minister. The 1992 elections were won by the People's Progressive Party. Hoyte remained leader of the PNC until his death.
Hrawi, Elias (Khalil), also spelled Hraoui, Arabic Ilyas Khalil al-Hirawi (b. Sept. 4, 1926, Haouch el-Omara, Bekaa governorate, Lebanon - d. July 7, 2006, Beirut, Lebanon), president of Lebanon (1989-98). A Maronite Christian, he established the country's first agricultural cooperative and was elected in 1972 as a deputy to the National Assembly. As minister of public works and transport (1980-82) he oversaw an ambitious road-building programme. He was a close ally of Syria's president Hafez al-Assad at the height of Damascus' political influence in Lebanon. In 1989 he was elected by the parliament to succeed the assassinated René Moawad as president. He implemented the 1989 Taif peace agreement, which he had helped to draw up, ending Lebanon's 1975-90 civil war, and which reduced the president's executive powers. His position was strengthened in 1990 when the Syrians put down a rebellion by the Christian militia leader Gen. Michel Aoun. In 1991 a treaty was signed with Syria. Parliament extended his six-year term by three years on Oct. 18, 1995, to continue to provide stability while Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri pressed ahead with economic reconstruction.
Hrawi, Khalil (Georges), also spelled Hraoui, Arabic Khalil al-Hirawi (b. 1948, Zahle, Lebanon), defense minister of Lebanon (2000-03); nephew of Elias Hrawi.
Hrdá, Edita (b. Dec. 30, 1963, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czech diplomat. She was ambassador to Argentina and Paraguay (1999-2003) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-15).
Hristic, Filip (b. March 27 [March 15, O.S.], 1819, Belgrade, Serbia - d. Feb. 11, 1905, Menton, France), prime minister and foreign minister of Serbia (1860-61). He was also education minister (1873-74) and minister to the Ottoman Empire (1878-80), Austria-Hungary (1880-83), and the United Kingdom (1883-84).
Hristov, Kalin (Dimitrov) (b. Feb. 6, 1971, Pleven, Bulgaria), finance minister of Bulgaria (2013).
Hristozov (Gospodinov), Rusi (b. Oct. 31, 1914, Musachevo, Bulgaria - d. Dec. 20, 1990), interior minister of Bulgaria (1949-51). He was also minister of supply (1951-56) and internal trade (1959-62), chairman of the State Planning Commission (1956-59), and ambassador to East Germany (1962).
Hrivnák, Pavol (b. Oct. 9, 1931, Malý Cepcín, Martin district, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia] - d. Feb. 3, 1995, Bratislava, Slovakia), prime minister of the Slovak Socialist Republic (1989). He was also Slovak minister of industry (1982-84) and a deputy premier and chairman of the Planning Commission (1984-86) and a Czechoslovak deputy premier (1986-88), minister in charge of the Federal Price Office (1988), and first deputy premier and chairman of the State Commission for Scientific-Technical and Investment Development (1988-89).
Hroisman, Volodymyr (Borysovych) (b. Jan. 20, 1978, Vinnitsa, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Vinnytsia, Ukraine]), prime minister of Ukraine (2014 [acting], 2016- ). He was also mayor of Vinnytsia (2006-14), deputy prime minister and minister of regional development, construction, housing, and utilities economy (2014), and chairman of parliament (2014-16).
Hrushevsky, Mykhailo (Serhiyovych) (b. Sept. 29, 1866, Kholm, Russia [now Chelm, Poland] - d. Nov. 25, 1934, Kislovodsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Rada (Council) of the non-Communist Ukraine (1918).
Hryb, Myechyslau (Ivanavich), Russian Myechyslav Ivanovich Gryb (b. Sept. 25 [officially Sept. 28], 1938), chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus (1994).
Hrytsenko, Anatoliy (Pavlovych) (b. 1958), chairman of parliament of the Crimea (1997-98, 2006-10).
A. (P.) Hrytsenko
A. (S.) Hrytsenko
Hrytsenko, Anatoliy (Stepanovych) (b. Oct. 25, 1957, Cherkassy oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), defense minister of Ukraine (2005-07).
Hsieh, Frank (Chang-ting), Wade-Giles Hsieh Ch'ang-t'ing, Pinyin Xie Changting (b. May 18, 1946, Taipei, Taiwan), premier of Taiwan (2005-06). He was previously mayor of Kaohsiung (1998-2005). He was also a vice presidential candidate in 1996, a presidential candidate in 2008, and chairman of the Democratic Progressive Party (2000-02, 2008).
Hsinbyushin (b. Sept. 12, 1736 - d. June 10, 1776, Awa, Kingdom of Awa [now Myanmar]), king of Awa (1763-76). His most important single project was the subjugation of Siam (now Thailand). In 1764 he campaigned eastward, taking Chiang Mai (Chiengmai) and Vientiane before invading the Chao Phraya River valley. When the Siamese capital of Ayutthaya fell in April 1767, he deported thousands of prisoners to Myanmar. According to the Siamese chronicles, "the King of Hanthawaddy [Bayinnaung] waged war like a monarch, but the King of Awa [Hsinbyushin] like a robber." Myanmar control of Siam, however, was very brief; the Siamese general Taksin soon expelled Hsinbyushin's armies. Not content with conquering Siam, Hsinbyushin invaded the Hindu kingdom of Manipur (in present-day Manipur state, India) three times for slaves and plunder. When the king claimed suzerainty over the country in the third invasion, he could then threaten British India. The greatest threat to Hsinbyushin's power came from China. Myanmar aggressiveness in the Shan states, Laos, and Chiang Mai (then the capital of the kingdom of Lan Na) led the emperor of China to launch four expeditions against Myanmar in 1765-69, all of which were defeated by Hsinbyushin. In 1769 a treaty was signed that provided for trade and diplomatic missions between the two countries. In 1773 a revolt broke out in southern Myanmar, which Hsinbyushin suppressed. On his death three years later, he was succeeded by his son, Singu Min.
Htin Kyaw, pen name Dala Ban (b. July 20, 1946, Kungyangon, Burma [now Myanmar]), president of Myanmar (2016-18).
Hu, Jason (Hu Chih-chiang), Pinyin Hu Zhiqiang (b. May 15, 1948, Beiping [now Beijing], China), foreign minister of Taiwan (1997-99). He was also chief representative in the United States (1996-97) and mayor of Taichung (2001-14).
Hu Hanmin, also called Hu Zhantang (b. Dec. 9, 1879, Fanyu, Guangdong, China - d. May 12, 1936, Guangzhou, Guangdong), military governor (1911, 1912-13) and civil governor (1912-13, 1923, 1924-25) of Guangdong and acting generalissimo of the National Government of China (1925). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in Japan and was elected Guangdong governor after the revolution. Following Chiang Kai-shek, he started to take measures to strike the Communist Party in 1927, and was then named leader of the Legislative Yuan. However, he failed to cooperate well with Chiang in 1931, for which he was detained by the latter. After his release, he returned to Guangzhou, united the warlords there, and turned against Chiang. He was elected chairman of the Kuomintang standing committee in 1935.
Hu Jiafeng (b. Sept. 26, 1886, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China - d. Dec. 29, 1962, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Jiangxi (1948-49). He was a professor at several universities until 1930, when he was appointed general secretary of the Qingdao municipal government, later becoming general secretary of the Jiangxi provincial government. He was also the director of the First Department of the Supreme National Defense Committee. He fled to Hong Kong in May 1949, and then to Taiwan in autumn 1950.
Hu Jingyi (b. June 4, 1892, Fuping, Shaanxi, China - d. April 10, 1925), military governor of Henan (1924-25). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1910. He led a revolt in Shaanxi upon the Wuhan Uprising in 1911 when he was only 19. He was also a general of the Kuomintang side in the "Second Revolution" against Yuan Shikai's dictatorship in 1913. He held several posts in the Shaanxi army in the following decades. In the autumn of 1924, Feng Yuxiang led his army from the civil war battlefield against Zhang Zuolin to Beijing, detained Pres. Cao Kun as well as his brother Cao Rui, and reorganized his forces. Hu was named the deputy commander-in-chief and the commander of the 3rd Army as well as governor of Henan. He died in office.
Hu Jingyi (b. 1878, Ba county, Sichuan [now in Chongqing municipality], China - d. 1950), military governor of Sichuan (1913-15). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in Japan when studying at the Japanese College of Army Commanders. As a supporter of Pres. Yuan Shikai, he succeeded the sacked Zhang Peijue, a revolutionary activist, as Sichuan military governor. In 1915, he became a member of the Yuan-controlled Senate. During World War II, he again became a senator in the Kuomintang government. He stayed on the mainland after the civil war.
Hu Jintao, Wade-Giles romanization Hu Chin-t'ao (b. Dec. 25, 1942, Jixi, Anhui, China1), general secretary of the Communist Party (2002-12) and president (2003-13) of China. He was recruited to join the Communist Party of China (CPC) while a university student. While holding several technical and political posts in Gansu province, he met party elder Song Ping, who became his mentor. By 1982 Song had appointed him to a series of posts and introduced him to CPC general secretary Hu Yaobang. Within the next two years the younger Hu had moved to Beijing and risen to the top post of the Chinese Communist Youth League. He was named a member of the CPC Central Committee in 1987. Dispatched to Tibet a year later as a provincial party secretary, he presided over the suppression of unrest there in 1989. When Song retired as one of the seven standing members of the Political Bureau in 1992, he successfully lobbied for Hu to succeed him. At the 1992 CPC Congress, Hu was appointed to the party secretariat, which enabled him to establish networks throughout the party. He was elected vice president of China in 1998, and a year later he added the vice chairmanship of the CPC Central Military Commission, a title that solidified his status as leader-in-waiting. A series of high-profile trips abroad clearly pointed to him as the next leader of the world's most populous nation. In late 1999 he paid visits to Russia, Britain, France, Spain, and Germany, and in May 2002 he made his first visit to the U.S., where he met with Pres. George W. Bush at the White House for what was described as a "get-acquainted" session. Hu took over from Jiang Zemin as general secretary of the CPC at the 16th CPC Congress in November 2002 and succeeded him as president in March 2003 and as chairman of the Central Military Commission in September 2004. There were no major incidents during his tenure, as China continued its steady economic rise.
1 Jixi is given as his birthplace in official biographies, but it is widely believed that he was actually born in Shanghai, where his father owned a shop, while another theory says he was born near Taizhou, Jiangsu.
Hu Ruilin (b. 1864, Jiangling, Hubei, China - d. March 19, 1943, Shanxi province, China), acting civil governor of Fujian (1916-17). He rose to prominence in Hubei as a businessman and financier in the late Qing era. He was elected a member of the Hubei Provincial Council. With the rise of Li Yuanhong, he was appointed finance minister of the Hubei military government. Thereafter he went to Hunan as acting head of the provincial financial bureau. Having been an adviser of the vice-president's office, he was sent to Fujian as civil governor. However, in 1917 he was accused of corruption and was removed on the "proposal" of the military governor Li Houji.
Hu Ruoyu (b. 1894, Luoping, Yunnan, China - d. Nov. 26, 1949, southeastern Guangxi province, China), governor of Yunnan (1927). He participated in the uprising against the Qing dynasty in 1911 as a student of Yunnan Military College and served as a regiment commander after graduation. He was also mayor of Qingdao special municipality. Having expelled Yunnan Gov. Tang Jiyao from office together with Long Yun, he was appointed commander of the 39th Army. He was a member of the chief staff of the Military Committee during World War II, in charge of the 5th War Zone. He also participated in the civil war against the Communist Party, during which he was shot in Guangxi in 1949.
Hu Weide (b. 1863, Wuxing, Zhejiang, China - d. Nov. 24, 1933, Beijing, China), foreign minister (1926), acting premier and acting president (1926), and interior minister (1927) of China. He started his diplomatic career as early as the late Qing period, being ambassador to Russia (1902-07) and then to Japan (1908-10). Later he was nominated vice-minister of foreign affairs and was also the Chinese representative at the International Court at The Hague. After the republic was founded, he restarted his ambassadorial career, being posted in France (1912-20, also accredited to Spain and Portugal 1912-14), and then in Japan again (1920-22).
Hu Yaobang, Wade-Giles romanization Hu Yao-pang (b. Nov. 20, 1915, Liuyang county, Hunan, China - d. April 15, 1989, Beijing, China), head of the Chinese Communist Party (1981-87). At age 14 he joined the Young Communist League, and he became a member of the Communist Party in 1933. A veteran of the Long March (1934-35), he worked closely with Deng Xiaoping. In 1952 he became head of the Young Communist League (1952-66). After the Cultural Revolution was launched in 1966, both Hu and Deng were twice purged and twice rehabilitated. After his second rehabilitation in 1977, Hu became director of the party's organization department and soon afterward was made a member of the Politburo and propaganda chief. In 1980 he was appointed general secretary of the Communist Party and was elected to the Politburo's Standing Committee. In June 1981 he was further elevated to the chairmanship of the party, replacing Mao Zedong's handpicked successor, Hua Guofeng. In line with the new emphasis on collective leadership in place of the personality cult of Mao, and to prevent a recurrence of the kind of party domination that Mao had exercised as its chairman, Hu helped abolish that post at a party congress in 1982. An effervescent leader who sometimes incensed party hardliners by advocating Western-style democracy, Hu even suggested that chopsticks be abandoned in favour of knives and forks. In 1987, after several weeks of student demonstrations demanding greater freedom, Hu was forced to resign for "mistakes on major issues of political policy." He remained a member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo, but did not play an active role in policy-making. Hu's death sparked widespread demonstrations by students who eulogized him as a symbol of democracy and change.
Hu Ying, byname of Hu Zongwan (b. March 28, 1884, Taoyuan, Hunan, China - d. November 1933, Nanjing, China), governor of Shandong (1911-12). He went to Japan as a teenager and joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance there in 1905. Returning to Wuchang, he tried to support the Pingxiang-Liuyang-Liling revolutionary uprising (1906) and, as a consequence, was arrested and detained for 5 years until the Wuchang uprising of 1911. Soon after his release he was designated as the foreign minister of the Hubei military government (the leader being Li Yuanhong). After Yuan Shikai took power, he was elected a member of the House of Representatives. He later participated in the Imperial Preparation Association, which supported Yuan's attempt to become emperor. In 1930, he assisted Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan, who turned against Chiang Kai-shek.
Hua Guofeng, Wade-Giles romanization Hua Kuo-feng (b. Feb. 16, 1921, Jiaocheng county, Shanxi, China - d. Aug. 20, 2008, Beijing, China), premier of China (1976-80) and chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (1976-81). He joined the CCP in 1938. Near the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, he became a local party secretary in Hunan province, the home province of Mao Zedong. Hua became vice governor of the province in 1958 and was a strong supporter of Mao in the Great Leap Forward (1958-60). During the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) he received Mao's endorsement against rebel groups in Hunan, and he was active in setting up that province's revolutionary committee in 1967 and in reestablishing its party committee in 1970. He was chairman of the Revolutionary Committee (1970-73) and party first secretary (1970-77) in Hunan. He became a member of the Politburo in August 1973 and moved to Beijing, where he was named a vice premier and minister of public security in January 1975. After the death of Premier Zhou Enlai in January 1976, Hua was named acting premier. In April Mao chose Hua over his chief political rival, vice premier Deng Xiaoping, as permanent premier, and Deng was purged. Hua became chairman of the CCP after the death of Mao in September 1976. Known as an ideologically flexible leader, Hua had no strong ties either to the Maoist radicals or to Deng and the other pragmatists within the Communist Party. Although his unexpected rise to power had been seen as a compromise between the party factions led, respectively, by the Gang of Four and Deng Xiaoping, Hua ordered the arrest of the Gang of Four just days after Mao's death. The influence of Deng triumphed soon afterward. In 1977 Hua allowed Deng to be rehabilitated and restored to his former position as vice premier. In 1980 and 1981 Hua resigned his top posts to followers of Deng. He remained a member of the Central Committee of the CCP until 2002.
Huamán de los Heros, Benjamín (b. July 24, 1878, Sóndor, Huancabamba, Peru - d. Oct. 2, 1936, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (1929-30). He was also minister of war (1922-24), finance and commerce (1925), and interior and police (1929-30).
Huamán Izquierdo, Félix (b. Sept. 11, 1904, Huancabamba province, Piura department, Peru), acting foreign minister of Peru (1956). He was justice minister in 1955-56.
Huanacuni (Mamani), Fernando (b. May 29, 1966, La Paz department, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (2017-18).
Huang, James (Huang Chih-fang), Pinyin Huang Zhifang (b. Sept. 14, 1958), foreign minister of Taiwan (2006-08).
Huang Fu (b. March 8, 1880, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China - d. Dec. 6, 1936, Shanghai, China), foreign minister (1923), education minister (1923-24, 1924), transportation minister (1924), and acting premier and acting president (1924) of China. He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in Japan and was named a member of the staff of the Shanghai Revolutionary Army (led by Chen Qimei) in 1911 and the commander of the 2nd Division of that army. He was named the first mayor of Shanghai under Chiang Kai-shek's control in 1927. Just like Chiang, he preferred to break with the Communist Party, writing "it is ridiculous to fight against Japan before the Communists are wiped out." He received nationwide condemnation in 1935 as he agreed to sign the "Tanggu Agreement" with the Japanese invaders, which allowed the latter to control northeastern Hebei, as well as Chahar and Rehe provinces completely.
Huang Hua, original name Wang Rumei (b. Jan. 25, 1913, Cixian county, Hebei, China - d. Nov. 24, 2010, Beijing, China), foreign minister of China (1976-82). He was also ambassador to Ghana (1960-65), Egypt (1966-69), and Canada (1971-76) and the first permanent representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations (1971-76).
Huang Musong (b. 1884, Mei county [now Meizhou], Guangdong, China - d. March 20, 1937, Guangzhou, Guangdong), chairman of the government of Guangdong (1936-37). He was graduated from the Japanese College of Army Commanders, where he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance. He joined the war against the Qing-controlled forces in Nanjing in 1911 as a commander. Being the commander of the 3rd Division of the Northbound Army, he was named the president of the National Army University. After Chiang Kai-shek took power, he was also nominated as the director of the Mongolian-Tibetan Committee.
Huang Shaohong (b. Dec. 6, 1895, Rong county, Guangxi, China - d. Aug. 31, 1966, Beijing, China), governor of Guangxi (1924-29) and chairman of the government of Zhejiang (1934-35, 1937-46) and Hubei (1936-37). Serving in the Guangxi provincial army, he, together with Li Zongren, finally unified the chaotic province in 1924, thus taking office as its governor. He also took up the 15th Army of the National Revolutionary Army. He was also interior and transportation minister in the National Government of Chiang Kai-shek after 1927. During World War II, Huang was named deputy commander-in-chief of the 2nd War Zone. After the war, he was named head of the Supervisory Committee and elected member of the Legislative Yuan (parliament). During the peace talks in March 1949, Huang was one of the delegates of the Kuomintang side. He and Zhang Zhizhong agreed to accept the ceasefire conditions submitted by the Communist Party, but the Kuomintang leadership turned them down later. Huang fled to Hong Kong afterwards and declared his revolt. He joined the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) in September 1949. After the founding of the People's Republic, he was elected a member of the State Council, National People's Congress, and CPPCC. He was also a member of the Standing Committee of the Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee. During the Cultural Revolution, he was determined to be a "rightist." Unable to stand the persecution of the Red Guards, he committed suicide at home.
Huang Xing (b. Oct. 25, 1874, Changsha, Hunan, China - d. Oct. 31, 1916, Shanghai, China), Chinese revolutionary activist. He was one of the founders of the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905, and he launched several uprisings thereafter. He became the army minister in the Nanjing government (January-March 1912) and stayed in Nanjing after the capital was moved to Beijing. He was the commander-in-chief of the army against dictator Yuan Shikai during the "Second Revolution," which turned out to be a failure. He fled to Japan and then to the United States. Upon Yuan's death, he returned to China and stayed in Shanghai.
Huaraka, Tunguru (b. Nov. 4, 1935 - d. 2015, Windhoek, Namibia), Namibian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1991-96).
Huart, Marie Alfred Armand (b. Jan. 8, 1826, Metz, Moselle, France - d. ...), governor of French Guiana (1877-80).
Hübener, (Friedrich Julius) Erhard (b. Aug. 4, 1881, Tacken, Germany - d. June 3, 1958, Bad Salzuflen, West Germany), minister-president of Sachsen-Anhalt (1945-49).
Huber, Christian (b. July 9, 1944, Zürich, Switzerland), president of the government of Zürich (2003-04).
Huber, Gabi (b. Feb. 29, 1956, Schattdorf, Uri, Switzerland), Landammann of Uri (2002-04).
Huber, Hans Jörg (b. June 6, 1932 - d. Jan. 7, 2008), Landammann of Aargau (1980-81, 1985-86).
Huber, Karl (b. Oct. 18, 1915, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland - d. Sept. 16, 2002, Köniz, Bern, Switzerland), federal chancellor of Switzerland (1968-81).
Huber, Rainer (b. Jan. 22, 1948), Landammann of Aargau (2005-06).
Huckabee, Mike, byname of Michael Dale Huckabee (b. Aug. 24, 1955, Hope, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1996-2007). A Republican, he challenged veteran U.S. Sen. Dale Bumpers in the election of 1992. Although Bumpers won reelection, Huckabee polled about 40% of the vote. A special election was called in 1993 to choose a lieutenant governor because Jim Guy Tucker had assumed the office of governor after Gov. Bill Clinton's election to the presidency of the United States. Nominated for lieutenant governor by the Republican Party, Huckabee defeated the Democratic nominee. On July 15, 1996, on the resignation of Tucker, he advanced to the office of governor. He was confirmed in elections in 1998 and 2002. He was a candidate for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination and also joined the 2016 race, dropping out after a poor result in the Iowa caucus (which he had won in 2008). He came to support the eventual winner of the nomination and the presidency, Donald Trump; his daughter Sarah Huckabee Sanders (b. Aug. 13, 1982, Hope, Ark.) became Trump's press secretary in July 2017.
Huckle, Alan (Edden) (b. June 15, 1948), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (2001-04) and governor of Anguilla (2004-06) and the Falkland Islands (2006-10).
Huda, Mirza Nurul (b. Aug. 1, 1919, Jangalia, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. Dec. 22, 1991, Dhaka, Bangladesh), governor of East Pakistan (1969) and finance minister (1979-80) and vice president (1981-82) of Bangladesh.
Hudelo, Louis (Eugčne Albéric) (b. Oct. 4, 1868, Paris, France - d. Sept. 9, 1945, Niort, Deux-Sčvres, France), prefect of police of Paris (1917). He was also prefect of the départements of Hautes-Alpes (1908-09), Var (1909-13), Gard (1913-16), Loire-Inférieure (1917-18), and Nord (1924-29).
Hudyma, Borys (Mykolayovych) (b. Dec. 29, 1941, Sosnovka, Primorsky kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), Ukrainian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1994) and ambassador to Italy, Malta, and San Marino (2000-04) and Morocco and Mauritania (2004-06).
Huender, Willem (b. May 30, 1900, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. Aug. 7, 1963, Bad Ems, Rheinland-Pfalz, West Germany), governor-general of Suriname (1948-49). He was also Dutch minister to Ethiopia (1950-51) and Turkey (1951-55).
Huerta (Marcor), (Felipe) Adolfo de la (b. May 26, 1881, Hermosillo, Mexico - d. July 9, 1955, Mexico City, Mexico), substitute president of Mexico (1920). He became an agitator against the government of Pres. Porfirio Díaz in 1908. He participated in the Mexican Revolution and became interior minister (1915-16) and governor of Sonora (1916-17 [provisional], 1919-23). Along with his fellow Sonorans Álvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles, he helped overthrow Pres. Venustiano Carranza in May 1920, and he served as interim president of Mexico from June through November of that year. In the subsequent government of General Obregón he was finance minister and tried in that post to reestablish Mexico's finances on a sound basis. In 1923 he resigned to accept the presidential candidature in opposition to Obregón's candidate, General Calles. In December 1923 his supporters took arms against Obregón, but the rebellion was suppressed after a few months. Huerta then went into exile in the United States, residing in Los Angeles as a singing teacher. He was recalled to Mexico in 1935 by Pres. Lázaro Cárdenas. He held minor government posts and assisted later presidents until his death.
A. de la Huerta
Huerta (Márquez), (José) Victoriano (b. Dec. 23, 1854, Colotlán, Jalisco, Mexico - d. Jan. 13, 1916, El Paso, Texas), interim president of Mexico (1913-14). When he was still a boy, a column of soldiers entered Colotlán and the general in charge asked for a person able to write a military report from dictation. Huerta presented himself and executed the work to the entire satisfaction of the officer, who took him to Mexico City and presented him to Pres. Benito Juárez, who ordered him to be placed in the Military College. From 1878 to 1912 he was on active scientific and military service in different parts of the country, advancing to the rank of general in 1901. He was an admirer of dictator Porfirio Díaz, who regarded him as one of his ablest officers. He also served liberal Pres. Francisco Madero, suppressing the Chihuahua rebellion of 1912, but in February 1913 he joined a military revolt in Mexico City and arrested Madero and his cabinet. The succeeding interim president, Pedro S. Lascuráin, appointed him foreign minister and then resigned, so that Huerta, in accordance with the constitution, succeeded as interim president. It was decided to transfer Madero and his vice president, Pino Suárez, to the penitentiary to await trial, and on the way both were killed. He dissolved the legislature and suppressed all opposition. Confronted with revolution at home (led by Venustiano Carranza, Álvaro Obregón, Pancho Villa, and Emiliano Zapata) and hostility from the United States (Pres. Woodrow Wilson refused him recognition, seized Veracruz, and permitted arms to reach the anti-government forces), Huerta resigned and fled to Spain. He went to the U.S. in 1915, was arrested on charges of fomenting rebellion in Mexico, and died in custody at Fort Bliss.
Huerta Díaz, Ismael (b. Oct. 13, 1916, Talcahuano, Chile - d. June 9, 1997), foreign minister of Chile (1973-74). He was also minister of public works (1972-73) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-77).
Huerta Montalvo, Francisco (b. June 18, 1940, Guayaquil, Ecuador), interior minister of Ecuador (2000). He was also mayor of Guayaquil (1970), minister of health (1981-82), and ambassador to Venezuela (1988-92).
Hüffmeier, Friedrich (b. June 14, 1898, Kunersdorf, Brandenburg province, Prussia, Germany - d. Jan. 13, 1972, Münster, Nordrhein-Westfalen, West Germany), commander of the German-occupied Channel Islands (1945).
Hughes, Charles Evans (b. April 11, 1862, Glens Falls, N.Y. - d. Aug. 27, 1948, Osterville, Mass.), U.S. secretary of state (1921-25). In 1906, with the aid of Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, he defeated the flamboyant newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst for governor of New York. Reelected in 1908, he resigned to accept an appointment to the Supreme Court by Pres. William Howard Taft. In 1916 Hughes resigned from the Supreme Court upon receiving the Republican presidential nomination, as well as the endorsement of a Republican splinter group called the Progressive (or Bull Moose) Party. He was narrowly defeated (277 electoral votes to 254) by Woodrow Wilson, who had the decisive advantage of the popular belief that he had kept the nation out of war in Europe. Five months later the United States entered World War I. As secretary of state in the early postwar years, Hughes negotiated a separate peace treaty with Germany after the Senate had failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. He supported attempts to secure the entry of the U.S. into the League of Nations, and he planned and then served as chairman of the Washington (D.C.) Disarmament Conference of 1921-22. Appointed chief justice by Pres. Herbert Hoover, Hughes was confirmed despite liberal opposition in the Senate. In many cases involving problems raised by the Great Depression of the 1930s, Hughes generally favoured the exercise of federal power. On Feb. 18, 1935, he delivered three opinions upholding the right of the government to forbid payment of public and private debts in gold. In Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States (1935), however, he spoke for the court in invalidating the National Industrial Recovery Act, one of the principal New Deal statutes. Hughes retired in 1941.
Hughes, Harold E(verett) (b. Feb. 10, 1922, near Ida Grove, Iowa - d. Oct. 24, 1996, Glendale, Ariz.), governor of Iowa (1963-69). Hughes fought in North Africa during World War II. He then began a struggle with alcoholism. In 1962, Hughes ousted Republican Gov. Norman Erbe in a campaign in which he made legalizing liquor by the drink a central issue. Hughes favoured legalization. He was often credited with bringing the Democratic Party into play as a competitive force in a state that had been dominated by Republicans. He defeated David Stanley in 1968 for the Senate. With his deep, booming voice, Hughes nominated Eugene McCarthy for president at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. He was responsible for landmark legislation involving alcoholism and drug abuse, including the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1970. Hughes quit politics at the height of his popularity, retiring from the Senate after one term in 1974 to devote himself to lay religious work and open the Harold Hughes Center for alcoholism treatment.
Hughes, Hubert (Benjamin) (b. Oct. 15, 1933, South Hill, Anguilla), chief minister of Anguilla (1994-2000, 2010-15).
Hughes, William Morris, byname Billy Hughes (b. Sept. 25, 1862, London, England - d. Oct. 28, 1952, Sydney, N.S.W.), prime minister of Australia (1915-23). After working for the unionization of maritime workers in Sydney, he was elected to the New South Wales legislature in 1894 as a Labor Party member. He entered the first federal parliament in 1901 and served in the three ministries of Andrew Fisher between 1908 and 1915. He helped establish a national system of defense (1909) and judicial arbitration in labour disputes. Hughes succeeded Fisher as prime minister in 1915, during World War I, and emerged as a charismatic wartime leader. When the electorate and the Labor Party rejected his conscription proposal of 1916, he helped form the Nationalist Party, remaining prime minister as the head of that party. At the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, he gained Australian control over German New Guinea and successfully opposed a racial-equality clause sponsored by Japan for inclusion in the League of Nations covenant. Following a rebuff in the elections of 1922 by Earle Page's Country Party, he slipped from the centre of power. Hughes contributed to Stanley Bruce's defeat in 1929 and served in the cabinet (1934-41) under the United Australian Party administrations of Joseph Lyons and Sir Robert Menzies. When the Labor Party came back into power in 1941, Hughes sat on the Advisory War Council (1941-44) and maintained his seat in parliament until his death. He was minister of external affairs (1904, 1918-23, 1937-39), trade and customs (1916), health and repatriation (1934-35, 1936-37), industry (1939-40), and navy (1940-41) and attorney-general (1908-09, 1910-13, 1914-21, 1939-41).
Hugues, Jean-Pierre (Henri Marie) (b. Nov. 24, 1951, Lyon, France), personal representative of the French co-prince of Andorra (2016-17). He was also prefect of the French départements of Landes (1998-2000) and Gard (2002-05).
Hugues, (Jean Baptiste) Victor (b. 1762, Marseille, France - d. Aug. 11, 1826, Cayenne, French Guiana), commissioner (1794-96) and co-agent (1796-98) of Guadeloupe and governor of French Guiana (1800-09).
Huidobro (Valdés), Alamiro (b. April 3, 1869, Santiago, Chile - d. 19...), foreign minister of Chile (1916-17, 1919-20). He was also justice and education minister (1925-26).
Hujailan, Jamil ibn Ibrahim al- (b. 1925, Buraida, Saudi Arabia), secretary-general of the Gulf Cooperation Council (1996-2002). He was also Saudi ambassador to Kuwait (1961-63), West Germany (1974-76), and France (1980-96) and minister of information (1963-70) and health (1970-74).
Hulínský, Ilja (b. Jan. 20, 1930, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czechoslovak diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-81).
Hull, Cordell (b. Oct. 2, 1871, near Brydstown, Pickett county, Tenn. - d. July 23, 1955, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. secretary of state (1933-44). He early identified with the Democratic Party and served in the U.S. House of Representatives for 22 years (1907-21, 1923-31) and in the Senate (1931-33). Appointed secretary of state by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt at the beginning of the New Deal, he called for a reversal of high tariff barriers that had increasingly stultified U.S. foreign trade since the 19th century. Throughout the 1930s he did much to improve U.S. relations with Latin America by implementing what came to be known as the Good Neighbor Policy. At the Montevideo Pan-American Conference (1933) his self-effacing behaviour and acceptance of the principle of nonintervention in the internal affairs of other nations began to counteract the distrust built up through decades of Yankee imperialism in Latin America. Because of the favourable climate of opinion that he had largely created, Hull successfully sponsored a united front of American republics against Axis aggression during World War II. With the outbreak of the war, Hull and Roosevelt felt that efforts to maintain neutrality would only encourage aggression by the Axis powers; they therefore decided to aid the Allies. When the United States entered the war, Hull and his State Department colleagues began planning an international postwar peace-keeping body. At the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers (1943) he obtained a four-nation pledge to continue wartime cooperation in a postwar world organization aimed at maintaining peace and security. He resigned after the 1944 presidential election. In 1945 he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his part in organizing the United Nations.
Hull, Jane (Dee), née Bowersock (b. Aug. 8, 1935, Kansas City, Mo.), governor of Arizona (1997-2003). Her political career began in 1965 as Republican precinct committeewoman and deputy registrar. Prior to her own election to the Arizona House of Representatives in 1978, she chaired several high-profile Republican campaigns. She served in the Arizona House of Representatives, representing District 18 in north central Phoenix, from 1979 to 1993. Her distinguished legislative career included several committee chairmanships and leadership positions, including a term as majority whip and two terms as speaker of the house from 1989 to 1992. In compliance with Arizona's resign-to-run laws, Hull vacated her House seat in 1993 to run for secretary of state. She was elected in 1994 as the first Republican secretary of state since 1931 and the first woman elected to that office. She became the 20th governor of Arizona in 1997, following the resignation of Gov. Fife Symington.
Hultman, Carel Gerard (b. July 10, 1752, Zutphen, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. March 7, 1820, 's-Hertogenbosch, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands), governor of Noord-Brabant (1814-20).
Humada (Riego), Julio César (b. Feb. 7, 1936, Apóstoles, Misiones, Argentina - d. May 19, 2015, Posadas, Misiones), governor of Misiones (1987-91).
Humaidan, Ali (b. Sept. 20, 1931, Bahrain), United Arab Emirates diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-80) and ambassador to Canada (1976-80) and Syria (1987-89).
Humala (Tasso), Ollanta (Moisés) (b. June 27, 1962, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (2011-16). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2006.
Humblot, Léon, byname of Henry Joseph Humblot (b. June 3, 1852, Nancy, France - d. March 20, 1914, Nioumbadjou, Grande Comore, Comoros), French resident of Grande Comore (1889-96).
Hume, John (b. Jan. 18, 1937, Londonderry, Northern Ireland), Northern Ireland politician. He was attracted to politics by the civil rights movement in the late 1960s, when Northern Ireland's Catholic minority adopted the nonviolent tactics of the U.S. civil rights movement to protest against the discriminatory policies of the (mainly Protestant) Unionist rulers of the province. The violent suppression of this movement provoked hardline nationalists to revive the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Hume, believing always in only peaceful and constitutional action, joined the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP); in 1973 he served briefly as commerce minister in the short-lived power-sharing assembly that was headed by the leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and that collapsed in 1974. Five years later Hume became leader of the SDLP. In 1988, after 20 years of violence and with no end in sight, Hume took an enormous risk by opening a private dialogue with Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin - the political wing of the IRA and the bitter rival of the SDLP in the contest to win the support of Northern Ireland's nationalist voters. Hume was frequently attacked by members of his own party for speaking to "the men of violence," but he persisted, believing that peace would come only when Adams could be persuaded to end the IRA's armed struggle - and when Adams could in turn persuade the rest of Sinn Féin and the IRA. In October 1998 the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded its Nobel Prize for Peace to the two architects of the peace agreement that had been signed on April 10, 1998, in Northern Ireland - Hume and David Trimble, the Protestant leader of the UUP. He retired from the leadership of the SDLP in 2001.
Humphrey, Hubert H(oratio) (b. May 27, 1911, Wallace, S.D. - d. Jan. 13, 1978, Waverly, Minn.), vice president of the United States (1965-69). He first pitched his hat into the political arena in 1943 when he unsuccessfully ran for mayor of Minneapolis. He became Minnesota campaign manager for Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944. During this period he was instrumental in merging the state's Democratic and Farmer-Labor parties. In 1945 he was elected mayor. Three years later he ran successfully for the U.S. Senate, in which he served for the next 16 years. Although he lost the Democratic presidential nomination to John F. Kennedy in 1960, he achieved his most significant legislative victories in the following four years as Senate majority whip. As a senator he developed a reputation as an effective, outspoken debater, a prolific initiator of legislation, and a skilled parliamentary leader. When he became vice president under Lyndon B. Johnson, his earlier reputation as a glib and sometimes abrasive "do-gooder" was supplanted by a more conservative image, especially after he defended U.S. participation in the Vietnam War. Following President Johnson's withdrawal from active politics in 1968, Humphrey became the Democratic presidential candidate, but, with his party divided over the Vietnam War, he was narrowly defeated by Republican Richard M. Nixon. He was reelected to the Senate in 1970 as the Democratic-Farmer-Labor candidate from Minnesota. In 1972 he unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president but stayed in the Senate and thereafter played an active legislative role as well as those of elder statesman and party sage. In and out of the Senate he was assessed as one of the giants in the history of that body.
Humphries, Gary (John Joseph) (b. July 6, 1958, Sydney, New South Wales), chief minister of the Australian Capital Territory (2000-01).
Hun Sen, Samdech (Akkak Moha Sena Padei Techo), original name Hun Nal (b. Aug. 5, 19521, Peam Koh Sna, Stoeung Trang district, Kompong Cham province, eastern Cambodia), Cambodian politician. In the late 1960s he joined the resistance Communist Party of Kampuchea. He soon became a courier for the local Communist leader and in 1970 joined the Khmer Rouge movement. Operating in the eastern part of the country, he rose to command a brigade. He later said he was never a Khmer Rouge officer but went underground in 1970 to help Norodom Sihanouk fight Lon Nol and the "American aggressors." In June 1977, during Pol Pot's regime, when the Khmer Rouge killed more than one million people (1975-79), Hun Sen defected to Vietnam, joining pro-Vietnamese troops against the Khmer Rouge. He returned to Cambodia after the Vietnam-backed takeover and became foreign minister (1979-86, 1987-90) and deputy prime minister, and in 1985 prime minister. Although Prince Ranariddh's royalist FUNCINPEC party had garnered more votes in 1993 elections than Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party, he refused to cede power, and the international community eventually agreed to a compromise partnership between the two leaders. At first (July-September) they served as joint prime ministers, but then Ranariddh, the son of King Norodom Sihanouk, became first prime minister and Hun Sen second prime minister; in July-December 1993 they also served as joint defense and interior ministers. Relations between the two became increasingly bitter. On July 5, 1997, Hun Sen ordered troops to attack the stronghold of Ranariddh. He and his party named a token FUNCINPEC official, Ung Huot, to replace the prince as first prime minister, but Hun Sen continued his tactics of domination and intimidation. In 1998 he became sole prime minister. He was awarded the honorary title of Samdech in 1993, and the Samdech Akkak Moha title in 2007.
1 His birthday was long thought to be April 4, 1951. But on his supposed 53rd birthday in 2004, he declared that his true birthday was Aug. 5, 1952. He had forgotten his real birth date and misreported it in official documents when he became a soldier in 1970.
Hundseid, Jens (Falentinsen) (b. May 6, 1883, Vikedal [now part of Vindafjord municipality], Stavanger amt [now Rogaland fylke], Norway - d. April 2, 1965, Oslo, Norway), prime minister of Norway (1932-33) and governor of Buskerud (1935-45). He was also chairman of the Centre Party (1930-38) and minister of agriculture (1932-33).
Huneeus Gana, Antonio (Ricardo) (b. July 4, 1870, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 9, 1951, Santiago), foreign minister of Chile (1906, 1912-13, 1920, 1926). He was also minister of justice and education (1905) and interior (1922), minister to the United Kingdom (1927-30), and ambassador to Italy (1930-33).
Hunlede, Joachim (Ayi Houenou) (b. Feb. 2, 1925, Aného, Togo), foreign minister of Togo (1967-76). He was also ambassador to France (1960-65).
Hunley, (Wilma) Helen (b. Sept. 6, 1920, Acme, Alberta - d. Oct. 22, 2010, Rocky Mountain House, Alberta), lieutenant governor of Alberta (1985-91).
Hunt, George W(ylie) P(aul) (b. Nov. 1, 1859, Huntsville, Mo. - d. Dec. 24, 1934, Phoenix, Ariz.), governor of Arizona (1911-17, 1917-19, 1923-29, 1931-33). He was also U.S. minister to Siam (1920-21).
Hunt, George Ward (b. July 30, 1825, Buckhurst, Berkshire, England - d. July 29, 1877, Homburg [now Bad Homburg], Germany), British chancellor of the exchequer (1868) and first lord of the Admiralty (1874-77).
Hunt, (Harold) Guy (b. June 17, 1933, Holly Pond, Cullman county, Ala. - d. Jan. 30, 2009, Birmingham, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1987-93). A Republican, his political career began in 1962 when he ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the state Senate. In 1964 he was elected probate judge of Cullman county, a position he held for 12 years. Active in the Republican Party, he held high positions in Ronald Reagan's state campaign organization. Hunt was defeated by Fob James in the 1978 governor's race. In 1986, however, he took advantage of a split in the Democratic Party and won the election, becoming the first Republican governor of the state since 1874. During his first term he attempted to attract more industry and tourists to the state. His election and subsequent appointments greatly strengthened the Republican Party in Alabama politics. Despite those gains, Hunt's legislative agenda was thwarted by the majority Democrats. Hunt was reelected in 1990, beating the Alabama Education Association director, Paul Hubbert. Hunt's second term was spent battling charges that he had violated state ethics laws. He was convicted of illegally using campaign and inaugural funds to pay personal debts and was removed from office on April 22, 1993. Lieutenant Governor James E. Folsom, Jr., was sworn in as governor on the same day.
Hunt, James B(axter), Jr. (b. May 16, 1937, Greensboro, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1977-85, 1993-2001). The Democrat was elected lieutenant governor in 1972, at 35, when a Republican was elected governor. He was elected governor in 1976 and, after repeal of the one-term limit, reelected in 1980. After losing the 1984 Senate race, he ran for governor again in 1992. He had to beat two older rivals. He whipped Attorney General Lacy Thornburg in the primary, winning 65%-27%. In the general, Hunt faced Lieutenant Governor Jim Gardner, a colourful character who was elected to Congress in 1966 at age 33, and who ran for governor in 1968 and 1972. Gardner founded the Hardees hamburger chain and made a fortune, then lost it, then started several more companies, some of which went bankrupt (one bumper sticker read, "Honk if Jim Gardner owes you money"). Gardner attacked Hunt as soft on crime; Hunt called for school-based apprenticeship programs and more spending on day care and education reform, and said he would apply ideas from David Osborne's Reinventing Government. Hunt won by a 53%-43% margin. In office, he pushed through tougher crime sentences, started a volunteer drive for after-school activities for at-risk children and initiated "Smart Start" to provide day care and health care to 10,000 children in 33 counties. For 1995, he announced a $483 million tax relief package and a zero tolerance policy on violence in schools, and said he expected the Republican legislature to cooperate. He had no trouble beating Republican House Majority Whip Robin Hayes to win a second term in 1996.
Hunt, Jeremy (Richard Streynsham) (b. Nov. 1, 1966, London, England), British foreign secretary (2018- ). He was also secretary of culture, Olympics, media, and sport (2010-12) and health (2012-18).
Hunt, Sir Rex (Masterman) (b. June 29, 1926, Redcar, North Yorkshire, England - d. Nov. 11, 2012), governor (1980-82) and civil commissioner (1982-85) of the Falkland Islands; knighted 1982.
Hunt, William H(enry) (b. June 12, 1823, Charleston, S.C. - d. Feb. 27, 1884, St. Petersburg, Russia), U.S. secretary of the navy (1881-82). He was also minister to Russia (1882-84).
Hunt, William H(enry) (b. Nov. 5, 1857, New Orleans, La. - d. Feb. 4, 1949, Charlottesville, Va.), governor of Puerto Rico (1901-04); son of the above.
Hunte, Sir Julian (Robert) (b. March 14, 1940, Castries, Saint Lucia), foreign minister of Saint Lucia (2001-04) and president of the UN General Assembly (2003-04); knighted 2013. He was also mayor of Castries (1970-71) and Saint Lucia's permanent representative to the UN (1998-2001, 2002-03, 2004-06).
Hunter, William (b. Nov. 26, 1774, Newport, Rhode Island - d. Dec. 3, 1849, Newport), U.S. politician/diplomat. He was a U.S. senator (1811-21) and chargé d'affaires (1835-42) and minister (1842-43) to Brazil.
Hunter, William (b. Nov. 8, 1805, Newport, R.I. - d. July 22, 1886, Washington, D.C.), acting U.S. secretary of state (1853, 1860); son of the above.
Huntley, Earl Stephen (b. April 17, 1948), Saint Lucian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-02).
Huntsman, Jon (Meade), Jr. (b. March 26, 1960, Palo Alto, Calif.), governor of Utah (2005-09). In 1992-93 he was U.S. ambassador to Singapore and in 2009-11 ambassador to China (using the Chinese name Hong Bopei). He was a candidate for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination. From 2017 he is ambassador to Russia.
Hunzvi, Chenjerai, byname Hitler Hunzvi (b. Oct. 23, 1949, Chiminya village, Mashonaland East province - d. June 4, 2001, Harare), Zimbabwean political leader. He was the leader of the independence war veterans who spearheaded the violent occupation of white-owned farms since 2000. His opponents accused Hunzvi of orchestrating violence against opposition supporters ahead of Zimbabwe's parliamentary elections in June 2000 and of attacks in advance of presidential elections due early 2002. Militants led by the veterans illegally occupied more than 1,700 white-owned farms, accusing farmers of supporting the opposition Movement for Democratic Change. Hunzvi, a Polish-trained doctor who preferred the nickname "Hitler" which he adopted at the age of 16, spurred followers to carry out the violent occupations and personally led many of them. In fiery speeches, he painted the opposition as a front for the country's white minority that sought to recolonize the country. He also commanded raids on nearly 200 factories and businesses by militants claiming to be mediating in labour disputes in 2001. Militants assaulted business managers and extorted money they claimed was compensation for unfair dismissals. Pres. Robert Mugabe described the farm occupations as a justified protest against unfair land ownership by whites and praised Hunzvi for campaigning to wrest control of economic resources from the nation's 50,000 whites.
Huot Sambath (b. Jan. 29, 1928, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), foreign minister of Cambodia (1964). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-70) and, for the exile government, minister of public works (1970-74) and ambassador to Yugoslavia (1974-75).
Huq, A(bul) K(asem) Fazlul (b. Oct. 26, 1873, Saturia, Bakerganj district, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. April 27, 1962, Dacca, East Pakistan [now Dhaka, Bangladesh]), mayor of Calcutta (1935), chief minister of Bengal (1937-43) and East Bengal (1954), home minister of Pakistan (1955), and governor of East Pakistan (1956-58).
Huq, Mohammad Shamsul (b. Dec. 2, 1910, Comilla, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. Feb. 23, 2006, Dhaka, Bangladesh), foreign minister of Bangladesh (1977-82). He was also Pakistani minister of education and scientific research (1969-71).
Hurd of Westwell (of Westwell in the County of Oxfordshire), Douglas (Richard) Hurd, Baron (b. March 8, 1930, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England), British politician. In 1966 he abandoned a high-flying 14-year career in the diplomatic service - during which he served at the UN and in Beijing and Rome - for a backroom job in the Conservative Party. The Research Department, in those days a semidetached think tank, was a favourite stamping ground for up-and-coming Tories. It took Hurd only two years to come to the attention of Edward Heath, whose private secretary he became in 1968. In 1970 Heath became prime minister and Hurd his political secretary, a post he retained until the fall of the Heath government in 1974. Hurd entered Parliament in 1974. Margaret Thatcher deposed Heath as leader of the Conservative Party in 1975 and became prime minister in 1979, and under her regime the Heathites were out of favour. Hurd's ability won him junior positions, but after a time as minister of state at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (1979-83), he was passed over for the cabinet and moved sideways to the Home Office (1983-84). There was some surprise when Thatcher in her September 1984 cabinet reshuffle picked Hurd to succeed James Prior as secretary of state for Northern Ireland. One year later Hurd was switched to the job of home secretary, where he remained until October 1989, when he was appointed foreign secretary, a position he had coveted for much of his career. In November 1990 he contested the leadership of the Conservative Party following Thatcher's resignation, but he obtained only 56 votes (15% of the total) in the second round. The winner and new prime minister, John Major, kept Hurd as foreign secretary. Hurd served until 1995 and was created a life peer in 1997.
Hurley, David (John) (b. 1953, Wollongong, N.S.W.), governor of New South Wales (2014- ). General Hurley was chief of the Australian Defence Force in 2011-14.
Hurley, Nick, high commissioner of the Cook Islands (2015-16). He was also New Zealand high commissioner to the Solomon Islands (1999-2001) and Samoa (2010-13).
Hurley, Patrick J(ay) (b. Jan. 8, 1883, Choctaw nation, Indian Territory [now in Oklahoma] - d. July 30, 1963, Santa Fe, N.M.), U.S. secretary of war (1929-33). He was also ambassador to China (1944-45).
Hürlimann(-Rusca), Alois (b. Nov. 21, 1916, Walchwil, Zug, Switzerland - d. Sept. 27, 2003, Walchwil), Landammann of Zug (1963-64).
Hürlimann, Hans (b. April 6, 1918, Walchwil, Zug canton, Switzerland - d. Feb. 22, 1994, Zug, Zug canton), Landammann of Zug (1965-66) and interior minister (1974-82) and president (1979) of Switzerland.
Hurre, Ismail Mahmud, byname Buba, Somali Ismaaciil Maxamuud Hurre "Buubaa" (b. 1943?), foreign minister of Somalia (2000-02, 2006-07). He was minister of regional cooperation in 2004-06. In 2007 he became education minister.
Hurtado Larrea, (Luis) Osvaldo (b. June 26, 1939, Chambo, Chimborazo, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1981-84). He was elected vice president with Jaime Roldós Aguilera and succeeded as president when Roldós died in an accident.
Hurtado Miller, Juan Carlos (b. Nov. 16, 1940, Lima, Peru), prime minister and finance minister of Peru (1990-91). He was also minister of agriculture (1983-85) and industry, tourism, integration, and international trade negotiations (1999-2000). Wanted since 2001 on charges of embezzlement, collusion, and conspiracy to commit a crime for accepting $250,000 from an illegal source to finance his (unsuccessful) 1998 campaign for mayor of Lima, he finally surrendered to authorities in 2011 after a decade in hiding.
Hurtado Valdez, Jorge Carlos (b. March 22, 1949, Campeche, Campeche, Mexico), governor of Campeche (2003-09). He was also mayor of Campeche (2000-02).
Hurulle, Edwin (Loku Bandara) (b. Jan. 19, 1919 - d. April 6, 2009), governor of Central (1988-90) and North Central (1994) provinces, Sri Lanka. He was also communications minister (1965-70), cultural affairs minister (1977-88), and high commissioner to Australia (1990-92).
Hurvitz, Yigal (b. 1918, Nahalat Yehuda, Palestine [now in Israel] - d. Jan. 10, 1994), finance minister of Israel (1979-81). He was also minister of industry, trade, and tourism (1977-78) and minister without portfolio (1984-88).
Husák, Gustáv (b. Jan. 10, 1913, Pressburg, Austria-Hungary [now Bratislava, Slovakia] - d. Nov. 18, 1991, Bratislava), leader of the Communist Party (1969-87) and president (1975-89) of Czechoslovakia. He joined the Communist Party in Slovakia in 1933. During World War II he was periodically (1940-43) jailed by the German-backed puppet government of Jozef Tiso. After World War II he began a career as a government official and party functionary in Czechoslovakia. In 1950 he fell victim to a Stalinist purge of the party leadership, and he spent the years from 1954 to 1960 in prison. In 1963 his conviction was overturned and his party membership restored. By 1967 he was attacking the party's neo-Stalinist leadership, and he became a deputy premier of Czechoslovakia in April 1968, during the period of liberalization under party leader Alexander Dubcek. As the Soviet Union grew increasingly alarmed by Dubcek's liberal reforms, Husák began calling for caution, and when the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August, he became a leader of those party members calling for the reversal of Dubcek's reforms. He was appointed leader of the Communist Party of Slovakia on Aug. 28, 1968, and he succeeded Dubcek as first secretary (title changed to general secretary in 1971) of the Czechoslovak Communist Party in April 1969. He reversed Dubcek's reforms and purged the party of its liberal members in 1969-71. He yielded his post as general secretary in 1987, when his opposition to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's program of perestroika had put him out of touch with events. Communist rule collapsed in Czechoslovakia in late 1989, and that December he resigned as president. In February 1990 he was expelled from the Communist Party.
Husayn (II), (Abu Abdullah) al- (b. March 5, 1784 - d. May 20, 1835, Bardo palace, near Tunis, Tunisia), bey of Tunisia (1824-35); son of Mahmud.
Husbands, Sir Clifford (Straughn) (b. Aug. 5, 1926, Morgan Lewis plantation, near St. Andrew, Barbados - d. Oct. 11, 2017, St. James, Barbados), governor-general of Barbados (1996-2011); knighted 1995.
Husejnagic, Munib (b. Sept. 17, 1959, Zepce [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Zenica-Doboj canton (2013-15).
Huseynov, Rahim (Huseyn oglu) (b. April 5, 1936, Baku, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), prime minister of Azerbaijan (1992-93). In 1989-92 he was first deputy premier and head of the State Planning Committee.
Huseynov, Suret (Davud oglu) (b. Feb. 12, 1959, Kirovabad, Azerbaijan S.S.R. [now Gyandzha, Azerbaijan]), prime minister of Azerbaijan (1993-94). During Azerbaijan's 1988-94 war with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, Huseynov organized armed volunteers to fight. By the early 1990s he had become one of the more influential and successful field commanders of the war. But in 1992 he fell out with Pres. Abulfez Elchibey and returned to his native town of Gyandzha. He marched on Baku in June 1993 and forced Elchibey to flee the capital. He was rewarded with the post of prime minister until October 1994, when he also fell out with Pres. Heydar Aliyev, who accused him of plotting a coup. He escaped to Russia, where he hid until 1996, when Russian police arrested him and sent him back to Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan's supreme court sentenced Huseynov to life imprisonment on Feb. 15, 1999, for plotting to overthrow and assassinate Aliyev. Huseynov received the heaviest sentence possible, after denying almost all the charges brought against him under 30 articles of the country's criminal code. Huseynov was also charged with gun running, drug smuggling, leading an armed mutiny, and betrayal of his country. The only charge to which Huseynov pleaded guilty was illegal possession of a weapon.
Huskisson, William (b. March 11, 1770, Birch Moreton, Worcestershire, England - d. [hit by train] Sept. 15, 1830, Eccles, Lancashire, England), British secretary of state for war and colonies (1827-28). He was also first commissioner of woods and forests (1814-23) and president of the Board of Trade (1823-27).
Huslid, Martin (Johannes) (b. May 23, 1931, Vik, Sogn og Fjordane, Norway - d. Feb. 14, 1996, Brussels, Belgium), Norwegian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-94) and ambassador to Belgium (1995-96).
Hussain, Chaudhry Altaf (b. 1930?, Ladhar village, Jhelum district, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. May 21, 1995, Lahore, Pakistan), governor of Punjab (Pakistan) (1993-95).
Hussain, Chaudhry Shujaat (b. Jan. 27, 1946, Gujrat, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan]), interior minister (1990-93, 1997-99) and prime minister (2004) of Pakistan. He was also minister of information and broadcasting (1986) and industries (1986-91).
Hussain, M(ian) Arshad (b. Jan. 9, 1910, Batala, Punjab, India - d. Oct. 4, 1987, Lahore, Pakistan), foreign minister of Pakistan (1968-69). He was also ambassador to Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland (1959-61) and the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia (1961-63) and high commissioner to India (1963-68).
Hussain, Mamnoon (b. Dec. 23, 1940, Agra, India), governor of Sindh (1999) and president of Pakistan (2013-18).
Hussain, Mohamed Musthafa, Maldivian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1984-87).
Hussain, Zakir (b. Nov. 2, 1898, Rangunia, Chittagong district, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. ...), governor of East Pakistan (1958-60) and home affairs minister of Pakistan (1960-62).
Hussarek von Heinlein, Max Freiherr (Baron) (b. May 3, 1865, Pressburg, Austria-Hungary [now Bratislava, Slovakia] - d. March 6, 1935, Vienna, Austria), prime minister of Austria (1918). He rose to high office in the Ministry of Education and was appointed minister in charge of that department in 1911 in the cabinet of Karl Reichsgraf von Stürgkh. He retained the portfolio in the succeeding ministries of Ernest von Koerber and Heinrich Graf Clam-Martinic until 1917. He was himself appointed prime minister in the grave internal crisis of July 1918. He regarded federal restructuring as the only hope of the moribund Habsburg empire and proposed the creation of an autonomous Croatian state within the imperial framework. But by this time the dual monarchy was past rescuing. On Oct. 16, 1918, he presented a manifesto of Emperor Karl (Oktobermanifest) proclaiming the federalization of Austria, but his effort was wrecked by Hungarian opposition. A short time after this last attempt at reconstruction, Hussarek resigned his ministry (Oct. 27, 1918), making way for Heinrich Lammasch, whose short term of office ended in the final collapse.
Hussein (ibn Talal al-Hashimi), Arabic al-Husayn ibn Talal al-Hashimi (from 1962, Abu `Abd Allah al-Husayn ibn Talal al-Hashimi) (b. Nov. 14, 1935, Amman, Transjordan [now Jordan] - d. Feb. 7, 1999, Amman), king of Jordan (1952-99). He was the son of Prince Talal and Princess Zein al-Sharaf bint Jamil. He succeeded his father, who was deposed as king because of mental illness, in 1952; he was crowned May 2, 1953. After a 1957 coup attempt, he banned political parties. They were only legalized in 1992. Israel's military victory over Jordan in the Arab-Israeli War of June 1967 was a severe setback to his regime, resulting in the loss of the West Bank to Israel and the influx of more Palestinian refugees into Jordan. In 1988 Hussein surrendered Jordan's claim to the disputed West Bank, as well as its role in representing the Palestinians living there, to the Palestine Liberation Organization. When Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, he sought a peaceful resolution of the crisis and refused to join the anti-Iraq coalition. Shortly before his death, he changed the line of succession, naming his oldest son, Abdullah, as crown prince to replace his brother, Hassan, who had held the post for 34 years. Hussein married four times. With Princess Dina Abdel Hamid of Egypt (1955-57) he had a daughter, Alia. His marriage (1961-72) to Englishwoman Antoinette (Toni) Gardiner, who became Princess Muna, produced sons Abdullah and Feisal and daughters Zein and Aisha. He married Alia Toukan (daughter of Bahauddin Toukan) in 1972 and had a son Ali, a daughter Haya, and an adopted daughter Abir Muheisen. Alia died in a helicopter crash in 1977; he divorced his earlier wives. In 1978 he married Arab-American Elizabeth (Lisa) Halaby (b. Aug. 23, 1951, Washington, D.C.), who became a Muslim with the name of Noor al-Hussein and was proclaimed queen. They had sons Hamza and Hashem and daughters Iman and Raiyah.
Hussein, Abdirizak Haji, Somali Cabdirisaaq Xaaji Xuseen, Arabic `Abd al-Rizaq al-Hajj Husayn (b. Dec. 24, 1924, Galkayo district, Somalia - d. Jan. 31, 2014, Minneapolis, Minn.), prime minister of Somalia (1964-67). He was also interior minister (1960-62), minister of public works and communications (1962-64), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-79).
Hussein, Kamaleddin, Arabic Kamal al-Din Husayn (b. June 1921, Qalyubiyah governorate, Egypt - d. June 19, 1999), Egyptian politician. He joined Gamal Abdel Nasser in the Free Officers movement during the 1948 war with Israel. When the officers overthrew Egypt's King Faruq four years later, he became a member of the ruling Revolution Council and minister of social affairs. He later was named one of Nasser's many vice presidents and headed the National Guard during the 1956 war against Britain and France following Egypt's nationalization of the Suez Canal. In 1960-61 he was chairman of the Executive Council of the Egyptian region of the United Arab Republic. Hussein fell out with Nasser when he opposed many of the president's policies, especially his heavy-handed style of government and favouritism, which he blamed for Egypt's defeat in the 1967 war with Israel.
Hussein, Sheikh Moktar Muhammad, Somali Sheekh Mukhtar Maxamed Xuseen, Arabic al-Shaykh Mukhtar Muhammad Husayn (b. 1912 - d. June 12, 2012, Nairobi, Kenya), acting president of Somalia (1969). He was speaker of parliament in 1967-69.
Hussein, Nur Hassan (Somali Nuur Xasan Xuseen, Arabic Nur Hasan Husayn), byname Nur Adde (Somali Nuur Adde) (b. 1938, Mogadishu, Somalia), prime minister of Somalia (2007-09). He was ambassador to Italy in 2009-13.
Hussein, Saddam, Arabic in full Saddam Husayn `Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (b. April 28, 1937?1, al-Awja village, near Tikrit, Iraq - d. Dec. 30, 2006, Baghdad, Iraq), president of Iraq (1979-2003). He joined the pan-Arab Ba`th Socialist Party in 1957. He was one of 10 militants who unsuccessfully tried to assassinate the Iraqi prime minister, Abdul Karim Kassem, in 1959. He escaped to Syria and then Egypt and was sentenced to death in absentia. He returned when the Ba`thists took power in 1963, but after they were overthrown later that same year, he spent several years in prison. He again escaped, becoming a leader of the Ba`th party, and was instrumental in the coup that brought the party back to power in 1968. On Nov. 8, 1969, he was appointed vice-chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). He effectively held power in the country along with Pres. Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr. In 1979 Bakr resigned and Hussein became president, chairman of the RCC, and (until 1991 and again from 1994) prime minister. He used an extensive secret-police establishment to suppress any internal opposition to his rule and made himself the object of an extensive personality cult. He launched an invasion of Iran's oil fields in 1980, but the campaign bogged down in a war of attrition. The war dragged on in a stalemate until 1988, when Iran and Iraq accepted a ceasefire that ended the fighting. On Aug. 2, 1990, his army overran neighbouring Kuwait in a surprise attack which triggered a worldwide trade embargo against Iraq. In a six-week-long war that began on Jan. 16, 1991, a U.S.-led military coalition drove Iraq's armies out of Kuwait. In the aftermath of this crushing defeat, Hussein faced internal rebellions by both Iraq's Shi`ites and Kurds, but he managed to suppress their uprisings and maintain his grip on power until a U.S.-U.K. invasion ended his regime in April 2003. He remained in hiding until being captured on Dec. 13, 2003. On Nov. 5, 2006, he was found guilty of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death by hanging; the execution was carried out December 30.
1 Official date. According to biographer Con Coughlin, it was the custom for the authorities at the time to give all peasant children the nominal birth date of July 1, which may explain why a certificate presented in one of his official biographies gives July 1, 1939, as his birth date. It is said that he copied his official birthday (April 28) from his friend Abdul Karim al-Shaikhly, who came from a well-established Baghdad family and so had the advantage of possessing an authentic birth date. Also, he changed his year of birth to portray himself as being older than he actually was during his ascent through the ranks of the Ba`th Party. This is explained by his marriage to his first wife, Sajida, who was born in 1937. It is frowned upon in Arab society for a man to marry a woman older than himself, and he appears to have amended his year of birth to that of his wife.
Hussein bin Onn, Datuk (b. Feb. 12, 1922, Johor Bahru, Malaya [now in Malaysia] - d. May 28, 1990, Daly City, Calif., U.S.), prime minister of Malaysia (1976-81); son of Onn Jaafar. During World War II Hussein fought with the Indian army and with the British forces that in 1945 freed Malaya from Japanese occupation. In 1946 he joined his father in forming the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) to further Malay interests in the struggle for independence, but he quit when his father's multiracial policies were rejected by the party. He rejoined UMNO in 1968, was elected to parliament in 1969, and was appointed education minister (1970) and deputy prime minister (1973). He became prime minister when Tun Abdul Razak died in 1976, and was confirmed in office in the 1978 general elections. Despite ongoing racial tensions and trouble with Communist insurgents, he presided over a generally peaceful coalition with Chinese and Indian parties. He also strongly opposed the immigration of Vietnamese refugees to Malaysia, strengthened Malaysia's role in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and worked to bring Brunei into ASEAN. When heart problems forced him to resign in 1981 he named Dato' Seri Mahathir bin Mohamad as his successor, but in 1988 he supported a rival group's challenge to Mahathir.
Hussein bin Onn
Hussein (bin) Haniff, Dato' (b. May 26, 1955, Kuala Lumpur, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), Malaysian diplomat. He was ambassador to Austria, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia (2000-05) and Belgium and Luxembourg (2008-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-15).
Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, Arabic al-Husayn ibn `Ali al-Hashimi (b. 1854, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. June 4, 1931, Amman, Transjordan [now Jordan]), king of Hejaz (1916-24). He was born into the line of Hashemites to which the Meccan emirate had passed in the early 19th century. He was brought up in Bedouin surroundings but spent a great part of his early life in Constantinople. He had the reputation of harbouring Anglophile sympathies which made him suspect among the Turks. He became emir and grand sharif of Mecca in 1908 and was a leader in the Arab revolt against Ottoman rule during World War I. In June 1916 he proclaimed the independence of Hejaz with himself as king. He tried to create a pan-Arab kingdom but the Allies formally recognized him only as king of the Hejaz. He was represented at the Versailles peace conference by his third son, Faysal, but refused to ratify the peace treaty (1919) as a protest against the mandatory regimes imposed on Syria, Palestine, and Iraq by France and Great Britain. Subsequently his domestic policy was marked by ever-increasing avarice and conservatism, and he sowed the seeds of future trouble by deliberately courting the enmity of Abdul Aziz, the ruler of Nejd. In March 1924, following the deposition of the Ottoman caliph Abdülmecit II by the Turkish Grand National Assembly, Hussein proclaimed himself caliph, but war with Abdul Aziz was imminent, and an attack on al-Ta´if in September found him unprepared. On October 5 he abdicated. The British conveyed him to Cyprus, where he lived until 1930. Hussein had four sons: Ali, Abdullah, Faysal, and Zayd. Ali succeeded his father in 1924 as second king of Hejaz, but abdicated the following year. Abdullah became king of Transjordan (subsequently Jordan), and Faysal became king of Iraq.
Hussein ibn Nasir (Bey), Sharif, Arabic Sharif al-Husayn ibn Nasir Bay al-Hashimi (b. Nov. 30, 1902, al-Ta`if, Ottoman Empire [now in Saudi Arabia] - d. May 1, 1982, Amman, Jordan), prime minister (1963-64, 1967), defense minister (1963), and foreign minister (1963) of Jordan. A nephew of Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, he married in 1943 Princess Maqbula (a sister of King Talal and aunt of King Hussein of Jordan); he was granted the personal title of prince (amir) by his father-in-law King Abdullah I. He was also Iraqi chargé d'affaires in Transjordan (1946-48) and Jordanian minister to Turkey (1949-50), ambassador to Spain (1953-61), and chief of the royal court (1961-63, 1964-67, 1967-69).
Husseynov, Mirza Davud (Bagir ogly) (b. March 1894, Baku, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. [executed] March 21, 1938), chairman of the Provisional Military-Revolutionary Committee (1920) and people's commissar of foreign affairs (1921) of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. and first secretary of the Communist Party of the Tadzhik S.S.R. (1930-33).
Hussin, Parouk (Sawadjaan) (b. June 2, 1944, Jolo, Sulu province, Philippines), governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (2001-05).
Husson, (Paul) Louis (b. July 24, 1878, Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France - d. Jan. 18, 1963, Cannes, France), acting governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1940).
Hustad, Tormod (Kristoffer) (b. 1889, Nordre Trondhjems amt [now in Trřndelag fylke], Norway - d. 1973), Norwegian politician. He was one of the acting councillors of state (from 1941, ministers) appointed Sept. 25, 1940, under the German occupation. He was in charge of the department/ministry of labour. After the war, he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
Huszár (de Sárvár), Károly, original name Károly Schorn (b. Sept. 10, 1882, Nussdorf [now part of Vienna], Austria - d. Oct. 27, 1941, Budapest, Hungary), prime minister (1919-20) and acting head of state (1919-20) of Hungary. He was also minister of religion and education (1919) and labour and social welfare (acting, 1920).
Hutchinson, (William) Asa (b. Dec. 3, 1950, Bentonville, Ark.), administrator of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (2001-03) and governor of Arkansas (2015- ).
Hutchinson, Eric (Russell) (b, June 19, 1965, Launceston, Tas.), administrator of Norfolk Island (2017- ).
Hutchison, Ferdinand William (b. 1819, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. May 20, 1893, Leichhardt, near Sydney, Australia), Hawaiian politician. In February 1860, he was appointed Circuit Judge for Maui, a position he held until May 1864, when he resigned. When King Kamehameha V came to the throne in 1863, Hutchison became court physician and in 1865 was appointed minister of the interior by the king. Like all office holders the doctor had his critics, and in an abrasive letter appearing in the Hawaiian Gazette of Nov. 24, 1866, he was accused of not knowing the duties of his office, and it further suggested that he resign and begin a course of instruction in one of the public schools where a few months would enable him to "write passable grammar when he entertains the public with letters and to spell the name of his clerk correctly." However, he weathered the storm and held his position until 1873. He also served as president of the Board of Health from 1868 to 1873. One of the doctor's concerns was leprosy, and he is reputed to have been instrumental in selecting Kalaupapa on Molokai as the site for the Leper Settlement. In 1873 Hutchison returned to Maui and became government physician there. Sometime in 1875 Hutchison left the islands and went to Australia. For the next 18 years he lived in the states of Queensland (where in 1887 he was reported to have gone into the bush and not been heard of for several months), Victoria, South Australia, and New South Wales. The correct spelling of his name is Hutchison, but more often than not it was spelled Hutchinson in newspapers and even on official documents.
Hutin, Georges (b. 1899 - d. 1978), acting prefect of Seine département (1950). He was also prefect of Landes (1946) and Alpes-Maritimes (1950-51).
Hutton of Furness, John (Matthew Patrick) Hutton, Baron (b. May 6, 1955, London, England), British defence secretary (2008-09). He was also chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (2005) and secretary of state for work and pensions (2005-07) and business, enterprise, and regulatory reform (2007-08). He was made a life peer in 2010.
Huurtamo, Erkki (Kalervo) (b. Feb. 11, 1917, Hollola, Finland - d. April 2, 1999, Helsinki, Finland), defense minister of Finland (1975) and governor of Kymi (1975-84).
Huwyler, Friedrich (b. Sept. 29, 1942), Landammann of Schwyz (2002-04).
Huxley, Roger (Christopher) (b. 1939 - d. Sept. 5, 2015, Russia), administrator of Ascension (1995-99).
Huy Kanthoul (b. Feb. 1, 1909, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Sept. 13, 1991, Paris, France), prime minister of Cambodia (1951-52). He was also information minister (1948) and national education minister (1948-49, 1951).
Huyke (Bozello), Juan Bernardo (b. June 11, 1880, Arroyo, Puerto Rico - d. Dec. 17, 1961, San Juan, Puerto Rico), acting governor of Puerto Rico (1923).
Huyn de Vernéville, Louis Albert (b. Oct. 17, 1845, Metz, Moselle, France - d. July 27, 1909, Paris, France), resident-superior of Cambodia (1889-94, 1894-97).
Huynh Tan Phat (b. 1913, near My Tho, Vietnam - d. Sept. 30, 1989, Ho Chi Minh City), Vietnamese politician. In the 1930s, he became active in the struggle for the liberation of Vietnam from French rule. During World War II he opposed the Japanese occupation. After the war he joined the Vanguard Youth organization, a movement for social reform and political change, and eventually became secretary-general of the liberal Democratic Party. Despite his high standing in the Democratic Party, which claimed to be opposed to Communism, Phat joined the Viet Minh, the united front guerrilla organization headed by Ho Chi Minh, as the only group constituting an effective resistance against the French. During the First Indochina War (1946-54), Phat, although twice imprisoned, was in charge of the organization's information service. After the Viet Minh defeated the French and an international conference at Geneva divided Vietnam into northern and southern zones, he remained in Saigon, continuing to be active in the Democratic Party. In 1958, when Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem moved to suppress all opposition parties in South Vietnam, Phat and his organization were forced to go underground. In 1960 he became chairman of the Saigon-Cho Lon-Gia Dinh Special Zone Central Committee, which opposed the Diem government; the same year he joined the newly formed National Liberation Front (NLF). From 1964 to 1966 he served as secretary-general of the NLF Central Committee, the most powerful position in the organization, and, in 1969, when the NLF established its Provisional Revolutionary Government, he became its president. His government replaced the U.S.-backed Saigon government in 1975. In 1976-82 he was a vice premier in Vietnam, and in 1982 he became a vice chairman of the State Council.
Huysmans, (Jean Joseph) Camille, original name Camiel Hansen (b. May 26, 1871, Bilzen, Belgium - d. Feb. 25, 1968, Antwerp), prime minister of Belgium (1946-47). He was secretary of the Second International from 1905 to 1921 and devoted much of his time to trying to overcome the differences which were breaking out between the socialist parties in the period before World War I. He came into contact with the leading socialists of the day such as Jean Jaurčs, Wilhelm Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, and Keir Hardie, and became a personal friend of Lenin. He was responsible for the organization of the International conferences at Stuttgart (1907), Copenhagen (1910), Basel (1912), and Stockholm (1917). From 1910 he served in the House of Representatives, first for Brussels and then for Antwerp. He wrote for several socialist newspapers, including Le Peuple, and after the war started the Flemish Volksgazet in Antwerp, where he helped form a Socialist Party branch and became the city's mayor (1933). As minister of education (1925-27), he promoted teaching in Flemish in the Flemish provinces. After serving as chairman of the Chamber of Representatives (1936-39), he fled the Nazi occupation (1940) to London, where he became vice chairman of the Belgian Parliamentary Consultative Committee. After the war he led a coalition ministry (1946-47) and served as minister of education (1947-49) in the succeeding ministry of Paul-Henri Spaak. In 1954-58 he was again chairman of the Chamber of Representatives. When his party dropped him in the 1965 election he decided to stand on his own, proclaiming that he would be Belgium's first centenarian member of parliament. He was defeated, but remained active almost to the end of his life.
Hvoslef, Johan Christian Georg (b. Feb. 13, 1819, Stavern [now in Larvik municipality], Jarlsberg og Laurvigs amt [now Vestfold fylke], Norway - d. June 7, 1889, Kristiansand, Lister og Mandal amt [now Vest-Agder fylke], Norway), governor of Jarlsberg og Larvik amt (1865-82) and Lister og Mandal amt (1882-89).
Hwang In Sung (b. Jan. 9, 1926, Muju, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. Oct. 11, 2010), prime minister of South Korea (1993).
Hwang Kyo Ahn (b. April 15, 1957, Seoul, South Korea), prime minister (2015-17) and acting president (2016-17) of South Korea. He was also justice minister (2013-15).
Hydari, Sir (Muhammad Saleh) Akbar (b. 1894 - d. Dec. 28, 1948, Manipur state, India), governor of Assam (1947-48). He entered the Indian civil service in 1919. His career as an official began in the Madras Presidency, and in 1924 he went to Delhi as undersecretary in the Department of Education, Health and Lands. Subsequently as agent to the governor-general in Ceylon he was immersed in questions of the rights and welfare of the large Indian labour force on the plantations. On the creation of the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research he became its secretary. In the Indian Round-Table Conference sessions in London he served first as secretary to the delegation from the Indian states and later of the Hyderabad delegation led by his distinguished father, Sir Akbar Hydari (1869-1942). Next he had a series of important appointments at Delhi, first as joint secretary of the Department of Education, Health and Lands, and then as secretary of the Labour Department. In the earlier stages of World War II he represented India on the Eastern Group Supply Council, and then he was placed on special duty in the Foreign Affairs Department. Soon after the end of the war he came to Britain on a trade mission, and on the formation of the temporary "caretaker" government in 1946 he became a member in charge of labour, works, mines, power, information and arts, and health. In January 1947 he was designated to the governorship of Assam from the following May. When independence came Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet continued this Muslim official in that high office though Assam formed part of the boundary between East Pakistan and India. His influence was used in the promotion of agreements on matters of administration between the two dominions.
Hyde, Arthur M(astick) (b. July 12, 1877, Princeton, Mo. - d. Oct. 17, 1947, New York City), governor of Missouri (1921-25) and U.S. secretary of agriculture (1929-33).
Hyde, Douglas, Irish Dubhghlas de hÍde; pseudonym An Craoibhín Aoibhinn ("the delightful little branch") (b. Jan. 17, 1860, Frenchpark, County Roscommon, Ireland - d. July 12, 1949, Dublin), president of Ireland (1938-45). An outstanding figure in the struggle for the preservation and extension of the Irish language, he founded the Gaelic League (a nationalistic organization of Roman Catholics and Protestants) in 1893, and the year after became president of the Irish National Literary Society. It was his belief that the nationality of a people found a fuller expression in its own language and traditions than it could in any separate legislature, and for many years he succeeded in keeping politics out of the Gaelic League. But in 1915 a resolution for a "free Ireland" was carried against him and he resigned his presidency. In 1922, the founding of the Irish Free State accorded the Irish language equal status with English. In 1925, he was co-opted as a member of the Senate of the Free State, but he took no part in political affairs. In 1938, when a new constitution created the office of president of Ireland, Hyde was the unanimous choice of all parties and was elected unopposed for a seven-year term. In 1945 he announced he would not seek reelection.
Hylton, (George) Anthony (b. April 27, 1957, Yallahs, St. Thomas parish, Jamaica), foreign minister of Jamaica (2006-07). He was also minister of foreign trade (2000-01, 2006-07), mining and energy (2001-02), and industry, investment, and commerce (2012-16).
Hymans, Paul (Louis Adrien Henri) (b. March 23, 1865, Ixelles, near Brussels, Belgium - d. March 8, 1941, Nice, France), Belgian statesman. In 1900 he entered the Chamber of Deputies as a Liberal member for the capital. His personality and ability soon won for him the leadership of the Liberal Party. During the long period of the dominance of the Catholic party in the Belgian parliament, Hymans was in opposition. In 1914 the parliament unanimously supported the government in its refusal of the German ultimatum which demanded permission for the passage of the German army through the country. Hymans and the Socialist leader, Émile Vandervelde, joined the Government of the Sacred Union as ministers without portfolios. Hymans was sent on a mission to Pres. Woodrow Wilson in August to explain to him the motives of the Belgian government and to enlist the sympathy of the people of the United States. He served as minister to Great Britain from 1915 to 1917 and then became minister of economic affairs. As minister for foreign affairs (1918-20), he represented Belgium at the Versailles peace conference (1919-20), helped draft the covenant of the League of Nations, and served as president of the League's first assembly (1920) in Geneva. After helping to form the customs union of Belgium and Luxembourg in 1921, he played a leading part in negotiating the Dawes Plan (1924), which enabled Germany to resume reparations payments to the Allies. He then served again as minister for foreign affairs (1924-25, 1927-34, 1934-35) and held other government posts, including minister of justice (1926-27).
Hyndman, Frederick Walter (b. Feb. 13, 1904, Charlottetown, P.E.I. - d. Oct. 12, 1995), lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island (1958-63).
Hynninen, Paavo Juho (b. May 31, 1883, Joroinen, Finland - d. May 18, 1960, Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (1957-58). He was also ambassador to Latvia and Lithuania (1928-33), Estonia (1933-40), and Denmark (1946-53).
Hyppolite, (Louis Mondestin) Florvil (b. May 26, 1827, Cap-Haďtien, Haiti - d. March 24, 1896, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), president of the Provisional Government of the Northern Republic (1888-89) and president of Haiti (1889-96); son of Jacques Sylvain Hyppolite. He was also minister of agriculture and police (1888).
Hyppolite, Jacques Sylvain, dit Gelin, ci-devant duc de la Bande du Nord (b. 1782, Cap-Français, Saint-Domingue [now Haiti] - d. Jan. 30, 1857, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), member of the Council of Secretaries of State of Haiti (1845).
Hyseni, Skënder (b. Feb. 17, 1955, Dobratin village, Podujevë municipality, Kosovo), foreign minister (2008-10) and interior minister (2014-17) of Kosovo. He was also minister of culture, youth, and sports (2008).
Hyun Hong Choo (b. Aug. 19, 1940, Seoul, Korea [now in South Korea] - d. May 27, 2017), South Korean diplomat. He was permanent observer to the United Nations (1990-91) and ambassador to the United States (1991-93).
Hyzler, Albert V(ictor) (b. Nov. 20, 1916, Valletta, Malta - d. Oct. 26, 1993), acting president of Malta (1981-82). He was also minister of health (1955-58, 1974-76) and development (1971-74).