Index Tj-Tz

Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer, Alidius Warmoldus Lambertus (b. March 7, 1888, Groningen, Netherlands - d. Aug. 16, 1978, Wassenaar, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1925-33) and governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies (1936-45); son of Edzard Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer. He was also Dutch minister to Belgium (1933-36) and ambassador to France (1946-48).

Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer, Edzard (b. Feb. 21, 1859, Maarseveen, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Jan. 18, 1936, The Hague, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Groningen (1917-25). He was also mayor of Groningen (1900-17).

Tjeenk Willink, Herman (Diederik) (b. Jan. 23, 1942, Amsterdam, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the First Chamber (1991-97).

Tjibaou, Jean-Marie (b. Jan. 30, 1936, Hienghène parish, eastern coast of New Caledonia - d. May 4, 1989, Wadrilla, New Caledonia), New Caledonian leader. He was ordained a priest in 1965. In 1970, feeling that the priesthood confined him to a "mystico-religious ghetto," he left and devoted himself primarily to social work. In 1977 he was elected mayor of Hienghène and vice-president of the Union Calédonienne, the main independence party. He was elected vice-premier in the government of New Caledonia in 1982. A moderate, concerned chiefly with economic and social affairs, he emerged on Nov. 18, 1984, in Hienghène, as a deeply determined supporter of "the active boycott policy adopted by the FLNKS" (the Front de Libération Nationale Kanake et Socialiste, a militant independence movement of the Kanaks [Melanesians]). A few days later he was confirmed as the political leader of the independence movement. In 1984-85 there were violent confrontations between the Kanaks of the FLNKS and the caldoches, those of European descent. France decided to institute a "transitional regime" that would allow the groups concerned to express their views on the future of the country. Four regions were set up, and regional elections were held in September 1985. In October, as expected, Tjibaou, Léopold Jorédié, and Yeiwéné Yeiwéné, all three members of the Union Calédonienne, were elected premiers of the three regions where the independence movement had won the elections. Tjibaou stated that the division of the country into regions would allow the independence faction to "organize independence at the grassroots." Tjibaou and Yeiwéné were assassinated by members of a Kanak splinter group who believed the FLNKS had sold out the idea of independence by signing the 1988 Matignon peace accord.

Tjiriange, (Ernest) Ngarikutuke (b. July 12, 1943, Windhoek, South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. June 23, 2021, Windhoek), justice minister of Namibia (1990-2003). He was also attorney general (2000-01), minister without portfolio (2003-05, 2005-06), and minister of veterans affairs (2006-10).

Tjokroadisoerjo, (Raden Mas Panji) Soerachman (b. Aug. 30, 1894, Wonosobo, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Nov. 16, 1952, The Hague, Netherlands), finance minister of Indonesia (1945-46). He was also minister of welfare (1945).

Tjokroaminoto, Harsono (b. April 24, 1912, Madiun, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. April 22, 1992, Jakarta, Indonesia), a deputy prime minister of Indonesia (1955-56). He was also minister without portfolio (1950), minister of state for improving and cleaning the state apparatus (1968-71), and ambassador to Switzerland (1972-75).

Tjokrohadisurjo, Iskaq (b. July 11, 1896, Ngoro, near Jombang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. Sept. 11, 1984), home affairs minister of Indonesia (1951-52). He was also mayor of Surakarta (1946) and minister of economic affairs (1953-54).

Tjokrokusumo, Mistar (b. Sept. 13, 1926, Pare, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. Sept. 22, 1984, Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Selatan (1980-84).

Tjokropranolo (b. May 20, 1924, Temanggung, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. July 22, 1998, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jakarta (1977-82).

Tjon Kie Sim, Erik (Leopold) (b. Nov. 18, 1937, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. April 12, 2009, Paramaribo), foreign minister of Suriname (1985-86). He was also minister of natural resources and energy (1982-85) and public works, telecommunications, and construction (1984-85).

Tjondronegoro, Sudjarwo (b. March 2, 1914, Lawang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. Dec. 8, 1972, Jakarta, Indonesia), Indonesian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1953-57).

Tkachenko, Oleksandr (Mykolayovych) (b. March 7, 1939, Shpola, Cherkassy [Cherkasy] oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. Jan. 4, 2024), Ukrainian politician. He was chairman of the Executive Committee of Ternopol oblast (1982-85), minister of agriculture (1985, 1991-92), chairman of the State Agro-Industrial Committee (1989-90), a first deputy premier (1990-91), and chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (1998-2000).

Tkachev, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 23, 1960), head of the administration of Krasnodar kray (2001-15). In 2015-18 he was Russian minister of agriculture.

Tkatchenko, Justin (Wayne) (b. June 2, 1972), foreign minister of Papua New Guinea (2022-23, 2024- ). He has also been minister of sports and Pacific Games (2012-16), sports and tourism (2016), sports and APEC (2016-17), lands and physical planning and APEC 2018 (2017-19), housing and urban development (2019-22), and national events (2023- ).


Tkeshelashvili, Eka(terine) (b. May 23, 1977, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Georgia (2008). She was also justice minister (2007-08) and deputy prime minister and state minister for reintegration (2010-12).

Tkhakushinov, Aslan(chery Kitovich) (b. July 12, 1947, Ulyap, Krasnogvardeysky rayon, Adygey autonomous oblast, Krasnodar kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), president (2007-11) and head of the republic (2011-17) of Adygeya.

Tkhilayshvili, Aleksandr (Dursunovich) (b. 1914, Khutsubani, Batum oblast, Russia [now in Ajaria, Georgia]), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1954-61) and first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1961-75) of the Adzhar A.S.S.R.

Tlalajoe, Thabang Edwin, Lesotho diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2023).

Tlass, Mustafa (Abdul Kader) (b. May 11, 1932, Rastan, Syria - d. June 27, 2017, Paris, France), defense minister of Syria (1972-2004). He was also chief of staff of the army (1968-72).

Tleuberdi, Mukhtar (Beskenuly) (b. June 30, 1968, Aksu, Chimkent oblast [now in Turkestan oblast], Kazakh S.S.R.), foreign minister (2019-23) and a deputy prime minister (2021-23) of Kazakhstan. He was also ambassador to Malaysia (2004-09), Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines (2005-09), and Switzerland, the Vatican, and Liechtenstein (2009-16). In 2023 he was appointed ambassador to Austria.

Tlostanov, Kalimet (Tutovich) (b. Feb. 13 [Jan. 31, O.S.], 1908, Aushiger, Terek oblast [now in Kabardino-Balkariya republic], Russia - d. 1990), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kabardian A.S.S.R. (1951-57) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kabardino-Balkar A.S.S.R. (1957-59). He was also people's commissar of agriculture (1943-45).

Tlou, Sheila (Dinotshe), née Morake (b. 1953), Botswanan politician; wife of Thomas Tlou. She was health minister (2004-08).

Tlou, Thomas (b. June 1, 1932, Gwanda, Matabeleland South, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. June 28, 2010, Johannesburg, South Africa), Botswanan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-81).


Tlustý, Vlastimil (b. Sept. 19, 1955, Slaný, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), finance minister of the Czech Republic (2006-07).

Tmetuchl, Roman (b. Feb. 11, 1926, Palau - d. July 1, 1999, Palau), Palau politician. As chairman of the Palau Political Status Commission, he led residents to reject the Micronesia Constitution, later adopted only by what became the Federated States of Micronesia. He was a presidential candidate in 1980, 1984, and 1988 and governor of Airai state (1981-90).

To Huu, original name Nguyen Kim Thanh (b. Oct. 4, 1920, Hue, Vietnam - d. Dec. 9, 2002, Hanoi, Vietnam), Vietnamese politician. He became active in politics and joined the Communist Party in 1938. At age 19, he was imprisoned by the French, but he escaped three years later. Fighting alongside Ho Chi Minh, To Huu, who began writing poetry at the age of 6, publicly proclaimed that "I am both a revolutionary and a poet. For me, poems are a weapon for the revolution." One of his most famous poems, "Since Then," described his awakening to Communism as the moment when the "sun of truth shone on my heart." In postwar Vietnam, he held a number of senior government posts. He joined the Politburo in 1976 and was appointed deputy prime minister in 1980. He was ousted from the government in 1986 for mishandling the economy. His works continued to be taught in schools throughout Vietnam.

To Lam (b. July 10, 1957, Nghia Tru commune, Van Giang district, Hung Yen province, North Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), president of Vietnam (2024- ). He was also minister of public security (2016-24).

Toafa, Maatia (b. May 1, 1954), prime minister (2004-06, 2010) and finance minister (2013-19) of Tuvalu. He was also deputy prime minister and minister of works, communications, and transport (2002-04).

Toba, Petre (b. June 18, 1964, Bucharest, Romania), interior minister of Romania (2015-16).

Tobar (Guarderas), Carlos R(odolfo) (baptized Nov. 4, 1853, Quito, Ecuador - d. April 19, 1920, Barcelona, Spain), foreign minister of Ecuador (1889, 1911-12). He was also minister to Chile (1894, 1903-04), Brazil (1903-05, 1909), and Argentina (1903-05, 1910).

Tobar Borgoño, Carlos M(anuel) (b. 1883, Quito, Ecuador - d. Dec. 14, 1923, Paris, France), foreign minister of Ecuador (1916-19); son of Carlos R. Tobar.

Tobar Zaldumbide, Carlos (b. Dec. 29, 1912, Quito, Ecuador - d. July 21, 1995, Quito), foreign minister of Ecuador (1956-60); son of Carlos M. Tobar Borgoño; grandson of Carlos R. Tobar. He was also ambassador to France (1963-64) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-89).


Tobback, Louis (Marie Joseph) (b. May 3, 1938, Leuven, Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1988-94, 1998). He was also minister of modernization of public services and national scientific and cultural institutions (1988-92) and civil service (1992-94), mayor of Leuven (1995-2018), and a deputy prime minister (1998).

Tobey, Charles W(illiam) (b. July 22, 1880, Roxbury, Mass. - d. July 24, 1953, Bethesda, Md.), governor of New Hampshire (1929-31).

Tobgay, Lyonchhen (Dasho) Tshering (b. Sept. 16, 1965), prime minister of Bhutan (2013-18, 2024- ). He was awarded the lungmar scarf (and with it the title Dasho) in 2014.

Tobgye, Lyonpo Sonam (b. Nov. 15, 1949, Nangkor, Pema Gatshel, Bhutan), chief advisor of Bhutan (2013). He was chief justice of the High Court (1991-2009) and the Supreme Court (2010-14). He was given the Lyonpo title in 1998.

Tobiesen, Frederik Christian Heinrich Emil (b. May 14, 1829, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. May 19, 1908, Copenhagen), interior minister of Denmark (1874-75).

B. Tobin
Tobin, Brian (Vincent) (b. Oct. 21, 1954, Stephenville, Nfld.), premier of Newfoundland (1996-2000). He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons as MP for Humber-St. Barbe-Baie Verte, Nfld., in 1980 and reelected in 1984, 1988, and 1993; he was parliamentary secretary to the minister of fisheries and oceans (1981-84), opposition forestry critic and associate critic for transport (1984-87), opposition critic for regional industrial expansion and privatization (1987-88), chairman of the Liberal caucus (1988-90), opposition critic for transport (1989-90), opposition critic for employment (1990-92), chair of the caucus committee on communications (1992), and minister of fisheries and oceans (1993-96). As member of the Liberal "Rat Pack," along with Don Boudria, John Nunziata, and Sheila Copps, he was credited with keeping the spark alive in the Liberal Party. He prevented a bill imposing a user pay system in Atlantic Canada that would have hurt inshore fishermen - in 1987 he forced the debate to be postponed for the summer recess and the proposal was never revived. He imposed a series of moratoria on Atlantic groundfisheries - he successfully stood up to two U.S. trawlers off the East Coast and imposed a licencing fee on American vessels going through Canadian waters. In 1994, he announced at the United Nations that Canada would seize foreign fishing vessels outside the 200-mile-limit - in the following confrontation, a Spanish trawler was arrested and later threats to expand the campaign if European Union ships did not stop fishing for turbot led to a settlement with the EU. In 1996 he became premier of Newfoundland; he resigned that position to return to the federal cabinet as industry minister (2000-02).

M.J. Tobin
Tobin, Maurice J(oseph) (b. May 22, 1901, Roxbury, Mass. - d. July 19, 1953, Boston, Mass.), U.S. politician. He served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1926-28), was mayor of Boston (1938-45), and governor of Massachusetts (1945-47). In 1948 Pres. Harry S. Truman appointed him secretary of labour. In 1949 and early 1950 Tobin led in campaigns to repeal the Taft-Hartley labour law, to raise unemployment benefits, and institute larger retirement benefits for labour. When a clothing union official, alarmed at unemployment, advocated in May 1950 a 35-hour week, Tobin called the idea impractical "at present." Later Tobin was called upon to supervise the supply of labour for U.S. remobilization, and on September 29 he set up an office of defense manpower to develop "plans, policies, and programs" for assuring adequate labour supplies to war plants.

Tobolin, Ivan (Osipovich) (b. 1885 - d. 1941), chairman of the Communist Party (1918) and chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1918) of the Turkestan S.F.R.

Toby, Jean (François) (b. Jan. 29, 1900, Saint-Pierre Quilbignon [now part of Brest], Finistère, France - d. June 28, 1964, Plougonvelin, Finistère), lieutenant governor of Niger (1942-54) and governor of Ivory Coast (1943) and of the French Settlements in Oceania/French Polynesia (1954-58).

Tocornal (Tocornal), Ismael (b. April 5, 1850, Santiago, Chile - d. Oct. 6, 1929, Santiago), interior minister of Chile (1901-02, 1909-10, 1912, 1917, 1921-22); son of Manuel Antonio Tocornal. He was also minister of industry and public works (1901) and president of the Senate (1918-19) and the Central Bank (1925-29).

Tocornal (Jiménez), Joaquín (b. 1788, Santiago, Chile - d. 1865, Santiago), foreign and interior minister (1832-35, 1837-40) and finance minister (1835-41) of Chile. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1841).

Tocornal (Jordán), José (Luis) (b. 1835, Santiago, Chile - d. March 18, 1914, Santiago), minister of foreign affairs, worship, and colonization of Chile (1890).

Tocornal (Doursther), Juan Enrique (b. April 5, 1865, Santiago, Chile - d. July 15, 1955, Santiago), finance minister (1897) and foreign minister (1916) of Chile. He was also ambassador to Argentina (1923-25) and the United Kingdom (1933-35).

Tocornal (Grez), Manuel Antonio (b. June 12, 1817, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 15, 1867, Santiago), foreign and interior minister (1862-64) and acting finance minister (1862-63) of Chile; son of Joaquín Tocornal. He was also minister of justice, worship, and education (1849-50), president of the Chamber of Deputies (1864-67) and the Senate (1867), and rector of the University of Chile (1866-67).

Tocqueville, Alexis (Charles Henri Clérel) de (b. July 29, 1805, Verneuil, Eure, France - d. April 16, 1859, Cannes, Alpes-Maritimes, France), foreign minister of France (1849). He is mainly known as a writer and political philosopher. In 1831 he went to the U.S. to study the prison system. After a year he returned home, resigned his post as a judge, and composed De la Démocratie en Amérique (4 vols., 1835-40; Democracy in America), which, though technically a study of American democracy, was composed with an eye to conditions in France and Europe since 1789, arguing that modern society was led to sacrifice liberty to equality but that a properly organized society could hope to retain liberty. He lost his first bid for the Chamber of Deputies in 1837 but was elected in 1839 and sat as an independent until 1848. Contemptuous of socialists, he opposed the demands of the Parisian workers in June 1848, whose uprising was bloodily suppressed. After the revolution he was again elected, was a member of the assembly's constitutional committee and foreign minister for a few months. In 1851 he protested against the coup of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte and was imprisoned at Vincennes. After his release he composed in his enforced retirement the first volume of L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution (1856; The Old Regime and the Revolution) but died before he could complete the work. In it he asserted an essential continuity between the old regime and the revolution in their common effort to centralize French institutions.

Tod, David (b. Feb. 21, 1805, near Youngstown, Ohio - d. Nov. 13, 1868, Youngstown), governor of Ohio (1862-64). He was also U.S. minister to Brazil (1847-51).

D.R. Todd
Todd, Damian Roderic, byname Ric Todd (b. Aug. 29, 1959), governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands (2011-13). He was also British ambassador to Slovakia (2001-04) and Poland (2007-11) and high commissioner to Cyprus (2014-16).

Todd, Sir (Reginald Stephen) Garfield (b. July 13, 1908, Invercargill, New Zealand - d. Oct. 13, 2002, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe), prime minister of Southern Rhodesia (1953-58). He came to Southern Rhodesia in 1934 as a missionary for the Church of Christ. A school he established 400 km southwest of the capital Harare produced many of the country's black political leaders, who studied and later taught there. He entered parliament for the governing white supremacist United Party in 1946. His rugged good looks, fluent oratory, and lucid memory smoothed his path to the premiership in 1953. He was also minister of labour (1954-58), native education (1955-57), and labour and social welfare (1958). He deployed white troops to crush striking black mineworkers and faced mounting unrest over unpopular land reforms. He claimed he was forced to resign after hardliners in his party opposed his plans to liberalize voting rights for blacks and to improve education services for the black majority, but colleagues said his autocratic unpredictability triggered his replacement by Sir Edgar Whitehead. Out of office, Todd joined African nationalist leaders in 1960 in a call for British troops to remove Whitehead by force. When Whitehead was himself replaced by Ian Smith, who declared unilateral independence from Britain in 1965, he was restricted to his ranch. He was detained by the Smith regime in 1972-76. Nominated a senator after Zimbabwe's 1980 independence, Todd at first strongly supported Robert Mugabe's policies but later accused him of allowing rampant corruption to destroy the hopes of a rising black generation. He became a bitter critic of President Mugabe and in 2002 was stripped of his passport and vote under new citizenship laws. He was knighted in 1986, with Mugabe's approval, at the behest of the New Zealand government.

H. Todd
Todd, Hugh (Hilton), foreign minister of Guyana (2020- ).

Todd, John Rawling (b. Feb. 15, 1929 - d. July 18, 2002), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1967-75).

R. Todd
Todd, Ron(ald) (b. March 11, 1927, Walthamstow, East London, England - d. April 30, 2005, Romford, Essex, England), British union leader. His active trade union career began while working for Ford. He eventually became the chief negotiator for the company's huge labour force and from there graduated to become the head of the nation's biggest trade union, the Transport and General Workers' Union. His election to the general secretaryship in 1984 was disfigured by allegations of ballot-rigging; as a result a further election was called the following year. He was always a blunt public speaker who did not encode his speeches. The period of his leadership could be counted as one of the most difficult ones for the trade union movement in the 20th century. In fact since Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher effectively shut out the trade unions from her domestic economic policies, most of Todd's negotiations, not always amicable, were with Labour leader Neil Kinnock. Sometimes he was at odds with Kinnock over Labour's plans to reform trade union legislation, but he was equally occasionally at odds with his own trade union colleagues. The ongoing row was generally over Labour's plans for "selective" reform of so-called union bashing legislation passed during the Thatcher years, while many trade unionists wanted the entirety of this legislation to be wiped from the statute book. In 1990, he found himself accused of double standards. At the Trades Union Congress he agreed that his union would support the Labour line while at the same time agreeing to back a motion which conflicted with it. It was also around this period that he mounted an attack on the moderates within his union who, he claimed, were trying to oust him from office before his retirement in 1992.

Todd, William Frederic (b. May 2, 1854, St. Stephen, New Brunswick - d. March 16, 1935, St. Stephen), lieutenant governor of New Brunswick (1923-28).

Todde, Alessandra (b. Feb. 6, 1969, Nuoro, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (2024- ).

Todea, Alexandru (Gheorghe) Cardinal (b. June 5, 1912, Teleac village, Transylvania, Hungary [now in Romania] - d. May 21, 2002, Târgu Mures, Transylvania), archbishop of Fagaras and Alba Iulia, head of the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church (1990-94). He studied theology in Rome and was ordained as a priest in 1939. He returned to Romania in 1940. Between 1946 and 1948 he was imprisoned several times. In 1948, as the Communist state took the official position that "no religious community and none of its officials may have relations with religious communities abroad" and that "foreign religious cults may not exercise jurisdiction on Romanian territory," he was again arrested. He escaped from prison and remained in hiding for three years, during which he was secretly made a bishop at a meeting of church leaders. He was arrested again in 1951. After a trial in 1952, he was handed a life sentence to forced labour. He was released 12 years later, when Communist leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej amnestied all political prisoners. He then continued to fight for religious freedom, writing over 30 petitions to Communist authorities. At a secret meeting in 1986, the church's bishops elected Todea leader of the church, giving him the rank of metropolitan. After the collapse of the regime in 1989, the church was recognized by the state. In 1990, Pope John Paul II recognized Todea as leader of the Romanian Eastern Rite church. A year later the Vatican gave him the rank of cardinal. He retired from the executive leadership of the church in 1994 after suffering a paralyzing stroke.

Todhunter, Sir Charles George (b. Feb. 16, 1869 - d. March 1, 1949), acting governor of Madras (1924); knighted 1921.

Todorov, Nikolay (Todorov) (b. June 21, 1921, Varna, Bulgaria - d. Aug. 27, 2003, Sofia, Bulgaria), acting president of Bulgaria (1990). He was ambassador to Greece in 1979-83 and speaker of the constituent Grand National Assembly in 1990-91.

Todorov (Tsachev), Petur (b. Feb. 3, 1881, Lovech, Bulgaria - d. Jan. 30, 1955, Sofia, Bulgaria), finance minister of Bulgaria (1923-26, 1934-35). He was also minister to Yugoslavia (1944-45).

S. Todorov
Todorov (Georgiev), Stanko (b. Dec. 10, 1920, Pernik, Bulgaria - d. Dec. 17, 1996), prime minister (1971-81) and acting president (1990) of Bulgaria. He joined the Communist movement as a youth. His party career took off after the Communists seized power in 1944. He was minister of agriculture (1952-57), chairman of the State Planning Commission (1959-62), and a deputy premier (1959-66) and became a member of the policy-setting Communist Party Politburo in 1961. He served as prime minister under Bulgaria's Communist strongman, Todor Zhivkov. In 1981-90 he was parliament chairman. As pressure mounted throughout Eastern Europe for change, Todorov was among a group of reform-minded top-level Communists who toppled Zhivkov in a Politburo coup in November 1989, opening the way for multiparty elections in 1990. Although he won a parliament seat, Todorov resigned later that year, citing health reasons, and withdrew from politics.

Todorovic, Dragan (b. Jan. 25, 1953, Gornji Milanovac, Serbia), a deputy prime minister of Serbia (1998-99). He was also minister of transportation and communications (1998-99).

Todorovic, Mijalko (b. Sept. 25, 1913, Knic, Serbia - d. March 3, 1999, Belgrade, Serbia), Yugoslav politician. He was minister of agriculture and forestry (1948-53), a deputy premier (1958-63), and president of the Federal Assembly (1971-74).

Todres, Vladimir (Zakharovich), byname Selektor (b. March 18, 1897, Mashurino, Yekaterinoslav province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Feb. 2, 1959, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Moldavian A.S.S.R. (1937).

Tofa, Abdu Dawakin (b. 1932, Kwa [now in Kano state], Nigeria - d. Feb. 27, 2003), governor of Kano (1983).

Toft, Hans Carl (b. Jan. 7, 1914, Thisted, Denmark - d. Sept. 29, 2001), interior minister of Denmark (1969-71).

Togbe, Jacques D(abra) (b. May 3, 1930, Akloa, Togo), Togolese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-76).

Togliatti, Palmiro (b. March 26, 1893, Genoa, Italy - d. Aug. 21, 1964, Yalta, Ukrainian S.S.R.), Italian politician. He joined a revolutionary group of the Socialist Party, formed by Antonio Gramsci, and launched with him the weekly L'Ordine nuovo ("New Order") in 1919. The paper became the rallying point for the left wing that broke away from the Socialist Party in 1921 and formed the Communist Party. In 1924 he became a member of the party's Central Committee. When, in 1926, almost all the leaders of the party, banned by Benito Mussolini, were arrested, Togliatti, who had attended a plenum of the Comintern executive, remained in Moscow and became secretary-general of the party in exile. He organized clandestine party congresses at Lyon (1926) and Cologne (1931) and became a member of the Comintern secretariat (1935), using the name Ercoli. During World War II he broadcast from the U.S.S.R. to Italy, encouraging the resistance movement. He returned to Italy in March 1944 and joined the government of Pietro Badoglio in April as minister without portfolio. He later served as vice premier (1944-45) and justice minister (1945-46). When in May 1947 Alcide De Gasperi expelled the Communists from the government, Togliatti launched a series of general strikes in northern Italy. A revolutionary situation arose when he was gravely wounded by a young Fascist on July 14, 1948; workers rose on strike all over Italy and resisted troops in street fighting. Advocating an "Italian road to socialism," he did not aim at the overthrow of the parliamentary system and rejected interference by any centralized international organization in the policy of national parties. He made the Italian Communist Party the most powerful in western Europe. In 1964 the Soviet Union renamed the city of Stavropol, in Kuybyshev (now Samara) oblast, in his honour (as Tolyatti).

Togo, Shigenori (b. December 1882, Kagoshima prefecture, Kyushu, Japan - d. July 23, 1950, Sugamo prison, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He entered foreign service and was stationed successively in Hankow, Mukden, and Switzerland. In 1918 he was named embassy second secretary, and stationed in Berlin. For two years beginning in 1921 he was in Tokyo as chief of the first section of the European and American Bureau of Affairs. Later he went to Washington, D.C., as first secretary of the embassy, and to Berlin as embassy councillor. He was named ambassador in 1937, serving in Berlin for a year, and then in Moscow until September 1940. On Oct. 18, 1941, he was named foreign minister in the government of Premier Hideki Tojo, and was in that post at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack. He also held the position of foreign minister in the Baron Kantaro Suzuki cabinet just before Japan's surrender. In 1948 he was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment by an international war crimes tribunal.

Togoimi, Youssouf (b. March 26, 1953, Zouar, Chad - d. Sept. 24, 2002, Tripoli, Libya), justice minister (1991-93), defense minister (1995-97), and interior minister (1997) of Chad. A former comrade of Pres. Idriss Déby in the fight against the Libyans in the late 1980s, he launched a rebellion in a northern Chad region bordering Libya in December 1998. He headed the Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad. On Aug. 28, 2002, he was injured after his vehicle struck a land mine in northern Chad; he was flown to the Libyan capital Tripoli for treatment, where he died the next month.

Togou, Djime, until about 1973 Pierre Djime (b. July 10, 1933, Fort-Lamy [now N'Djamena], Chad), interior minister of Chad (1989-90). He was also minister of health (1968-71) and president of the Supreme Court (1971-73).

Togoyev, Daniil (Nikolayevich) (b. Aug. 14 [Aug. 2, O.S.], 1891, Khristianovskoye, Terek oblast [now Digora, North Ossetia-Alania republic], Russia - d. [executed] Nov. 30, 1939), chairman of the Executive Committee of North Ossetian autonomous oblast/A.S.S.R. (1935-37).

Toh Chin Chye (b. Dec. 10, 1921, Batu Gajah, Perak, Federated Malay States [now in Malaysia] - d. Feb. 3, 2012, Singapore), deputy prime minister of Singapore (1959-68). He was also minister of science and technology (1968-75), health (1975-81), and education (1975-77).

Tohá (Morales), Carolina (Monserrat) (b. May 12, 1965, Santiago, Chile), interior minister of Chile (2022- ); daughter of José Tohá González.

Tohá González, Jaime (Manuel) (b. June 16, 1938, Chillán, Chile), Chilean politician; brother of José Tohá González. He was minister of agriculture (1973), economy, development, and reconstruction (1993-94), and public works (1998-2000), chairman of the National Energy Commission (1990-94), intendant of Bío-Bío region (2000-06, 2008-10), and ambassador to Cuba (2007-08).

Tohá González, José (b. Feb. 6, 1927, Chillán, Chile - d. March 15, 1974, Santiago, Chile), interior minister (1970-72) and defense minister (1972-73) of Chile. The junta announced that he hanged himself in a military hospital, but later investigations indicated that he was strangled.

Tohá Veloso, María Soledad (b. Aug. 24, 1965, Chillán, Chile), Chilean politician; niece of José Tohá González and Jaime Tohá González. She was intendant of Bío-Bío region (2006-08).

Tohian, Paul (b. Nov. 28, 1949 - d. May 13, 2004, Kavieng, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea), governor of New Ireland (1997-2002). He was also Papua New Guinean minister of defense (1992-94), administrative services (1994-97), and public service (1997).

Toihiri, Mohamed (b. Aug. 20, 1955), Comoran diplomat. Also known as a novelist, he was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (2007-12).

Toiv, Luvsandorjiyn (b. 1915, in present Bayankhongor aymag, Mongolia - d. July 29, 1970, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister of Mongolia (1968-70). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-66).

Toivo ya Toivo, (Herman) Andimba (b. Aug. 22, 1924, Omangundu, South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. June 9, 2017), Namibian political leader. In early 1950 he helped to form an organization to assist Ovambo contract workers in South Africa. In 1959 he helped to form the Ovambo People's Organization, the precursor to the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO). When he tried to smuggle a tape to the UN Trusteeship Council listing the grievances of Ovambo workers, he was arrested and placed under restriction in Ovamboland. In 1966 the authorities discovered a training camp for SWAPO guerrillas at Ongulumbashe in Ovamboland. Toivo and his associates were arrested and put on trial for treason two years later. He was sentenced to 20 years in prison. He was released in March 1984 after 16 years, nearly all of which were spent on Robben Island, where South Africa confined many of its political prisoners. Despite his long incarceration he tried to resist being released until all the other Namibian political prisoners were freed with him; he was literally compelled to leave his prison cell. He at once announced his determination to resume his struggle for Namibian independence, but though he was the veteran leader of SWAPO, he insisted that its younger president, Sam Nujoma, should continue as leader. Instead, Toivo was elected secretary-general. It was hoped that under his moderating influence SWAPO would be drawn into the South African-supported Multi-Party Conference, but Toivo quickly dispelled that illusion. Only in 1989 did he return from exile and became actively involved in preparing Namibia for independence, which was achieved in 1990. He was appointed a member of the Namibian Legislative Assembly and became minister of mines and energy (1990-99), labour (1999-2002), and prisons (2002-04).

Tojo, Hideki, until 1941 called Eiki Tojo (b. Dec. 30, 1884, Tokyo, Japan - d. Dec. 23, 1948, Sugamo prison, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1941-44). He graduated from the Imperial Military Academy in 1905 and from the Military Staff College in 1915. He served as a military attaché in Switzerland and Germany in 1919-22. In 1928 he was given command of the 1st Infantry Regiment, one of the two which mutinied in Tokyo in 1936. Known as an efficient administrator, skillful field commander, and stern disciplinarian, he became chief of staff of the Kwantung army in Manchuria in 1937. He was vice-minister of war (1938-39) and minister of war (1940-41) in the governments of Duke Fumimaro Konoe and was one of the leading advocates of Japan's pact with Germany and Italy (1940). He succeeded Konoe as prime minister on Oct. 18, 1941, remaining minister of war and also holding the portfolios of home affairs (1941-42), foreign affairs (1942), education (1943), commerce and industry (1943), and munitions (1943-44) and the post of chief of the General Staff (1944). One of the most aggressive militarists in the Japanese leadership, he was determined to consolidate and extend Japanese power in Asia and the Pacific. He ordered the attack on the U.S. base at Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941, and thereafter scored smashing victories throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific. But when the Japanese forces were unable to sustain their gains in the face of the Allied counteroffensive and, especially, when the Mariana Islands were lost, he was held responsible and was compelled to resign in July 1944. Following Japan's surrender, his arrest was ordered; he was saved when he shot himself in a suicide attempt (Sept. 11, 1945), but was indicted as a war criminal (April 29, 1946) and subsequently tried before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, found guilty (Nov. 12, 1948), and hanged.

Toka, Salchak (Kalbakkhorekovich) (b. Dec. 15 [Dec. 2, O.S.], 1901, Mergen, China [now in Tuva, Russia] - d. May 11, 1973, Kyzyl, Tuva A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party (1932-44). After the incorporation of Tuva into the U.S.S.R., he was first secretary of the Tuva regional committee (1944-73), and a candidate member (1952-71) and member (1971-73) of the Central Committee, of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Tokai, Motosaburo (b. March 13, 1915, Hyogo prefecture, Japan - d. May 2, 1985), home affairs minister of Japan (1971-72). He was also director-general of the Hokkaido Development Agency (1971-72) and minister of construction (1978-79).

Tokarski, Julian (b. Dec. 25, 1903, Czersk, Poland - d. Aug. 15, 1977, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1959-65). He was also minister of heavy industry (1950-52), engineering industry (1952-55), and motor industry (1955-56).

Tokayev, Kasymzhomart (Kemelevich), also spelled Kassym-Jomart Tokayev (b. May 17, 1953, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), foreign minister (1994-99, 2002-07), prime minister (1999-2002), and president (2019- ) of Kazakhstan. He has also been chairman of the Senate (2007-11, 2013-19) and chairman of the Security Council (2022- ).

Tokely, Justin, governor of Sava (2019-22) and interior minister of Madagascar (2022-24).

Tokobayev, Moldogazy (b. 1905, Toru-Aygyr, Russia [now in Issyk-Kul oblast, Kyrgyzstan] - d. May 21, 1974, Frunze, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan]), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kirgiz S.S.R. (1943-45). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Dzhalal-Abad (1938-40) and Talas (1945-48) oblasti. He was also known as a poet and playwright.

Tokonami, Takejiro (b. Jan. 6, 1867 [Dec. 1, 1866, lunar calendar], Satsuma province [in present Kagoshima prefecture], Japan - d. Sept. 8, 1935), governor of Karafuto (1908) and home affairs minister of Japan (1918-22). He was also governor of Tokushima (1904-05) and Akita (1905-06) and minister of railways (1931-32) and communications (1934-35).

Tokpakbayev, Sat (Besimbayevich) (b. Sept. 17, 1939, Kaztsik, Alma-Ata oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), defense minister of Kazakhstan (1999-2001). He was also chairman of the Committee for National Security (1993-95).

Toksin, Vasily (Ivanovich) (b. Dec. 29 [Dec. 17, O.S.], 1899, Yanshikhovo-Norvashi, Kazan province [now in Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. Jan. 30, 1942, Kotlas, Arkhangelsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1932-37). He was also people's commissar of finance (19...-32).

Tokunaga, Masatoshi (b. Aug. 25, 1913, Kikugawa [now part of Shimonoseki], Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan - d. Sept. 23, 1990), Japanese politician. He was minister of transport (1973-74) and president of the House of Councillors (1980-83).

Tol, Graf Karl (Fyodorovich), German Karl Wilhelm Graf von Toll (b. April 19 [April 8, O.S.], 1777, Keskfer manor, Russia [now in Martna parish, Lääne county, Estonia] - d. May 5 [April 23, O.S.], 1842, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian official. He was head of the Chief Administration of Communications and Public Buildings (1833-42). He was made an Austrian Freiherr (baron) in 1814 and a Russian Graf (count) in 1829.

Tol, Graf Karl (Karlovich), German Karl Wilhelm Graf von Toll (b. Aug. 12, 1834, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Feb. 14, 1893, Copenhagen, Denmark), Russian diplomat; son of Graf Karl (Fyodorovich) Tol. He was minister-resident to Saxe-Weimar (1876-82) and minister to Denmark (1882-93).

Tol, Graf Sergey (Aleksandrovich) (b. June 30, 1848, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Jan. 19, 1923, Baden-Baden, Germany), governor of St. Petersburg (1889-1903); nephew of Graf Karl (Karlovich) Tol; son-in-law of Graf Dmitry (Andreyevich) Tolstoy.

Tola Cires, Fernando (José Ignacio) (b. May 30, 1885, Lima, Peru - d. July 13, 1949, Lima), finance minister of Peru (1935). He was also minister to Czechoslovakia (1937-...).

Tola Mendoza, Enrique (b. Aug. 26, 1917, Lima, Peru - d. Jan. 6, 1996, Lima), Peruvian politician; son of Fernando Tola Cires. He was minister of development and public works (1946, 1965, 1967-68) and education (1967).

Tolba, Mohamed Ould (b. Dec. 31, 1962, R'Kiz, Trarza region, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2002-03). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-07).

Tolbert, Stephen A(llen) (b. Feb. 16, 1922, Bensonville, Liberia - d. [plane crash] April 29, 1975, Atlantic Ocean near Greenville, Liberia), finance minister of Liberia (1972-75); brother of William R. Tolbert, Jr.

W.R. Tolbert
Tolbert, William R(ichard), Jr. (b. May 13, 1913, Bensonville, Liberia - d. April 12, 1980, Monrovia, Liberia), president of Liberia (1971-80). He entered politics in the early 1940s. In 1943 he was elected to the House of Representatives where Pres. William Tubman singled him out for the vice-presidency, which he held for 20 years (1951-71). Tolbert was also Liberia's leading Baptist and the president (1965-70) of the Baptist World Alliance. When Tolbert came to power in 1971 he attempted to stamp out the corruption and inefficiency that had grown under Tubman, and to reinvigorate the economy. But in time corruption seeped back, and the economic climate of 1980 was against him. The March arrest of opposition leaders who had called for a general strike sparked a coup led by Master Sgt. Samuel Doe. Tolbert was shot at once and his older brother Frank was also later executed.

Al. Toledo
Toledo (Manrique), Alejandro (Celestino) (b. March 28, 1946, Cabana, Áncash department [now region], Peru), president of Peru (2001-06). A former shoeshine boy, he benefited from scholarships and won a doctorate in economics from Stanford University (1976), then established himself as an economist working for major international organizations. In 1995 he first ran for president, finishing fourth. In 2000, incumbent Alberto Fujimori's smear tactics ultimately helped Toledo, who led the centrist Perú Posible party. Toledo dropped out of the runoff in protest and launched a series of popular demonstrations against Fujimori's claimed victory. After Fujimori resigned in November, Toledo led the pack of new candidates for the April 2001 elections and won 36.5% of the vote in the first round. His opponent, former president Alan García, exploited media allegations against Toledo of infidelity, immoral behaviour, and cocaine use. Toledo also fell out with campaign chief Álvaro Vargas Llosa (son of Mario Vargas Llosa, the novelist who lost the 1990 presidential race to Fujimori), who began to advocate blank ballots to protest the candidacies of both Toledo and García. On the other hand, Toledo was aided by his wife, Belgian-born American anthropologist Eliane Karp, who gave campaign speeches in Quechua (which Toledo himself did not speak). He won the June runoff with 53.1% of the ballots. Fewer than 3% of votes were blank. Toledo, called "El Cholo" ("the Indian"), became Peru's first democratically elected president of Quechua ethnicity. Held back by scandals and by his own dissolute handling of power, he never really connected to his people and walked a high wire as heads of state in neighbouring countries were brought down by popular resistance. Poverty and discontent persisted, although the economy grew about 5% a year. He ran for the presidency again in 2011, coming only fourth with 15.6% of the vote, and in 2016, faring even worse (1.3%). Facing corruption charges, he was arrested in the U.S. in 2019 on a Peruvian extradition request; he was extradited in 2023.

Toledo, Aníbal Benício de (b. June 21, 1881, Miranda, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. July 13, 1962, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Mato Grosso (1930).

Toledo, Joaquim Floriano de (b. June 9, 1794, São Paulo, Brazil - d. April 18, 1875, São Paulo), acting president of São Paulo (1848, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868).

Toledo, Manoel Dias de (b. April 23, 1802, Porto Feliz, São Paulo, Brazil - d. March 6, 1874, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Minas Gerais (1835-36).

Toledo, Pedro Manuel de (b. June 29, 1860, São Paulo, Brazil - d. July 29, 1935, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in São Paulo (1932); grandson of Joaquim Floriano de Toledo; nephew of Afonso Celso de Assis Figueiredo, visconde de Ouro Preto. He was also Brazilian minister of agriculture (1910-13) and transport and public works (acting, 1912) and ambassador to Italy (1914-17), Spain (1917-19), and Argentina (1919-26).

Toledo (Carranza), Ricardo (b. 1958), Costa Rican presidential candidate (2006); grandson of Ricardo Toledo Escalante. He was also minister of the presidency (2003-04) and ambassador to Argentina (2009-10).

Toledo Corro, Antonio (b. April 1, 1919, Escuinapa, Sinaloa, Mexico - d. July 6, 2018, Mazatlán, Sinaloa), governor of Sinaloa (1981-86). He was also Mexican minister of agrarian reform (1978-80).

Toledo Escalante, Ricardo (b. May 22, 1904, San José, Costa Rica - d. July 2, 1959, San José), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1949-50). He was also ambassador to Guatemala (1953).

Tolentino, Antonio Nicoláo (b. Sept. 10, 1810, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. July 3, 1888), president of Rio de Janeiro (1856 [acting], 1857-58).

A.M. Tolentino
Tolentino, Arturo M(odesto) (b. Sept. 19, 1910, Manila, Philippines - d. Aug. 2, 2004, Manila), foreign minister of the Philippines (1984-85). He served as a congressman representing Manila from 1949 to 1957, and as senator from 1957 until 1972, when Congress was abolished with the declaration of martial law. He held the Senate presidency from 1965 to 1966. A renowned authority on the constitution and a respected lawmaker, he authored or sponsored some 2,000 bills. A stalwart in the Nacionalista Party, Tolentino was a strong contender for the party's nomination as standard-bearer in the 1965 presidential election, but his presidential hopes faded when a disgruntled Ferdinand Marcos bolted the Liberal Party and joined the Nationalists. As foreign minister under President Marcos, he led the Philippine delegation to the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, where he pressed for the adoption of the archipelagic doctrine, which benefited the Philippines and other country archipelagoes. He was Marcos' running mate in the 1986 snap elections. Marcos and Tolentino were proclaimed the winners, and Tolentino took his oath on Feb. 16, 1986. Nine days later, Marcos was forced to flee to Hawaii by the "people power" revolt. In July 1986 Tolentino was proclaimed acting president by hundreds of Marcos loyalists, including soldiers, who had barricaded themselves at the Manila Hotel to install a rebel government. When the massive popular support the rebels were expecting failed to materialize, Tolentino agreed to disperse his followers. In 1992, he was reelected senator and served his term until 1995.

J. Tolentino

H. Tolentino
Tolentino (Araújo), Jorge (Homero) (b. Jan. 16, 1963), defense minister (2011-14) and foreign minister (2014-16) of Cabo Verde. He has also been ambassador to Germany (2005-10), Spain (2011), and Ethiopia (2016- ).

Tolentino Dipp, Hugo (b. Aug. 28, 1930, Santo Domingo de Guzmán, Dominican Republic - d. July 15, 2019), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (2000-03). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1982-86).

Tolgfors, Sten (Sture) (b. July 17, 1966, Forshaga, Värmland, Sweden), defense minister of Sweden (2007-12) and governor of Västra Götaland (2022- ). He was also minister of trade (2006-07).

Tolkunov, Lev (Nikolayevich) (b. Jan. 22, 1919, Bukreyevka, Kursk province [now oblast], Russia - d. July 13, 1989), Soviet politician. He was chief editor of Izvestiya (1965-76, 1983-84) and chairman of the Soviet of the Union (1984-88).

Toll, Johan Kristoffer greve (b. Feb. 1, 1743, Finja socken [now part of Hässleholm municipality], Kristianstad [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. May 21, 1817, Bäckaskog [now part of Kristianstad municipality], Kristianstad [now in Skåne]), governor-general of Skåne (1801-09). He was made friherre (baron) in 1799 and greve (count) in 1814.

Toloa, Foua (b. Aug. 24, 1955 - d. June 23, 2015, California), Ulu of Tokelau (2009-10, 2011-12). He was faipule of Fakaofo in 2008-14.

Tolokonsky, Viktor (Aleksandrovich) (b. May 27, 1953), governor of Novosibirsk oblast (2000-10), plenipotentiary of the president in Sibirsky federal district (2010-14), and governor of Krasnoyarsk kray (2014-17). He was also mayor of Novosibirsk (1993-2000).

Tolstikov, Vasily (Sergeyevich) (b. Nov. 6 [Oct. 24, O.S.], 1917, Tula, Russia - d. April 29, 2003, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the party committee of Leningrad oblast (1962-70) and ambassador to China (1970-78) and the Netherlands (1979-82).

Tolstoshein, Konstantin (Borisovich) (b. March 9, 1952, Artyom, Primorsky kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting governor of Primorsky kray (2001, 2001). He was also mayor of Vladivostok (1994-96).

Tolstov, Sergey (Yevlampiyevich) (b. Oct. 8, 1849, Topolinsky village, Uralsk oblast, Russia [now Oteshkali Atambayev, Atyrau oblast, Kazakhstan] - d. [executed] March 1921, in present Arkhangelsk oblast, Russia), governor of Terek oblast (1899-1905).

Tolstoy, Graf Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. Aug. 13, 1878, Khilkovo, Samara province, Russia - d. Aug. 23, 1919, Taganrog, Russia), governor of Vilna (1916-17). He was a brother of Soviet writer Aleksey Tolstoy.

Tolstoy, Graf Aleksandr (Petrovich) (b. Jan. 28, 1801, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. July 21, 1873), governor of Tver (1834-37) and military governor of Odessa (1837-40); son of Graf Pyotr (Aleksandrovich) Tolstoy. He was also chief procurator of the Holy Synod (1856-62).

Tolstoy, Graf Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) (b. 1738 - d. May 5, 1815), governor of Simbirsk (1797-99); great-grandson of Ivan (Andreyevich) Tolstoy.

Tolstoy, Graf Dmitry (Aleksandrovich) (b. 1754 - d. Aug. 11 [July 30, O.S.], 1832), governor of Mogilyov (1812-20); great-grandson of Graf Pyotr (Andreyevich) Tolstoy; son-in-law of Knyaz Aleksandr Vyazemsky.

Tolstoy, Graf Dmitry (Andreyevich) (b. March 13 [March 1, O.S.], 1823, Moscow, Russia - d. May 7 [April 25, O.S.], 1889, St. Petersburg, Russia), interior minister of Russia (1882-89); great-great-great-grandson of Graf Pyotr (Andreyevich) Tolstoy; son-in-law of Dmitry Bibikov; brother-in-law of Nikolay Zamyatnin. He was also chief procurator of the Holy Synod (1865-80), minister of education (1866-80), and president of the Imperial St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences (1882-89).

Tolstoy, Graf Ilya (Andreyevich) (b. July 20, 1757 - d. March 21, 1820), governor of Kazan (1815-20); great-grandson of Graf Pyotr (Andreyevich) Tolstoy; grandfather of novelist Graf Lev Tolstoy (Leo Tolstoy).

Tolstoy, Ivan (Andreyevich) (b. 1644 - d. Sept. 5 [Aug. 25, O.S.], 1713, Cherkassk [now Starocherkasskaya, Rostov oblast], Russia), governor of Azov (1707-11); brother of Graf Pyotr (Andreyevich) Tolstoy.

Tolstoy, Graf Ivan (Ivanovich) (b. May 19, 1858, Luga, St. Petersburg province, Russia - d. May 20, 1916, Gaspra, near Yalta, Russia [now in Ukraine]), Russian politician; son of Graf Ivan (Matveyevich) Tolstoy. He was education minister (1905-06) and mayor of St. Petersburg/Petrograd (1912-16).

Tolstoy, Graf Ivan (Matveyevich) (b. April 3, 1806 - d. Oct. 3, 1867), Russian minister of posts and telegraphs (1865-67). He was made a Graf in 1866.

Tolstoy, Graf Pyotr (Aleksandrovich) (b. May 12, 1770 - d. Sept. 28, 1844, Moscow, Russia), governor-general of Vyborg (1801-02) and St. Petersburg (1802-05); brother of Graf Dmitry (Aleksandrovich) Tolstoy; great-grandson of Graf Pyotr (Andreyevich) Tolstoy. He was also ambassador to France (1807-08).

Tolstoy, Graf Pyotr (Andreyevich) (b. 1645 - d. Feb. 10 [Jan. 30, O.S.], 1729, Solovetsky monastery, Russia), Russian official. He was ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1702-14) and president of the Collegium of Commerce (1718-21). He was made Graf (count) in 1724.

Tolstykh, Boris (Leontyevich) (b. May 18, 1936, Snytkin, Kursk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Aug. 5, 2017), Soviet politician. He was a deputy premier (1987-89) and chairman of the state committees for Science and Technology (1987-89) and Computer Technology and Information Science (1989-91).

Tolubayev, Asanaly (b. 1896, Chala-Kazaki, Semirechye oblast, Russia [now in Kyrgyzstan] - d. 1962), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kirgiz S.S.R. (1938-43).

Tolubeyev, Nikita (Pavlovich) (b. Nov. 11, 1922, Yekaterinoslav, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Dnipro, Ukraine] - d. June 1, 2013), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the party committee of Dnepropetrovsk oblast (1961-63) and ambassador to Cyprus (1968-70), Cuba (1971-79), and Bulgaria (1979-83).

Tolusic, Tomislav (b. Feb. 12, 1979, Virovitica, Croatia), a deputy prime minister of Croatia (2018-19). He was also prefect of Virovitica-Podravina (2008-16) and minister of regional development and EU funds (2016) and agriculture (2016-19).

Tom, Peter (b. 1964 - d. Nov. 5, 2018), Solomon Islands politician. He was minister of women, youth, and children's affairs (2007-09), home affairs (2009-10), and women, youth, children, and family affairs (2011-14).

D. Toma
Toma, Donato (b. Dec. 4, 1957, Naples, Italy), president of Molise (2018-23).

Toma, Maiava Iulai (b. July 5, 1940, Apia, Western Samoa [now Samoa]), Western Samoan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-89), ambassador to the United States and high commissioner to Canada (1978-89), and ombudsman (1994-2020).

Tomac, Zdravko (b. May 24, 1937, Garcin, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Jan. 4, 2020, Zagreb, Croatia), a deputy prime minister of Croatia (1991-92). He was a presidential candidate in 1997.

Tomada, Carlos (Alfonso) (b. May 4, 1948, Buenos Aires, Argentina), labour minister of Argentina (2003-15). In 2020-23 he was ambassador to Mexico.

Tomal, Zdzislaw (b. March 19, 1921, Rogów, Poland - d. Aug. 18, 1984, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1969-76). He was also chairman of the Presidium of the People's Council of Koszalinskie województwo (1957-66) and a deputy chairman of the Council of State (1976-84).

Toman, Miroslav (b. May 28, 1935, Viten, Czechoslovakia [now part of Strázov, Czech Republic] - d. [car accident] July 21, 2023, near Klatovy, Czech Republic), a deputy premier of Czechoslovakia (1986-88). He was also minister of agriculture of the Czech Socialist Republic (1981-83) and Czechoslovakia (1983-88) and chairman of the State Planning Commission and first deputy premier of the Czech Socialist Republic (1988-90).

Toman, Miroslav (b. Feb. 6, 1960, Zatec, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czech politician; son of the above. He was agriculture minister (2013-14, 2018-21).

Tomar, António Bernardo da Costa Cabral, (1º) marquês e (1º) conde de (b. May 9, 1803, Fornos de Algodres, Portugal - d. Sept. 1, 1889, Foz do Douro, Porto, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1849-51). He was also minister of justice (1839-42, 1844-45) and interior (1842-46, 1849-51), minister to Brazil (1859-60), and minister (1870-77) and ambassador (1877-85) to the Holy See. He became count in 1845 and marquess in 1878.

Américo Tomás
Tomás, Américo de Deus Rodrigues (b. Nov. 19, 1894, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Sept. 18, 1987, Cascais, near Lisbon), president of Portugal (1958-74). Educated at Lisbon Naval Academy, he served during World War I on ships protecting troop convoys for the Western Front. He was largely responsible for the major hydrographic survey of Portugal's coastline, on which he himself worked (1920-36). He was appointed special assistant to the minister of the navy in 1936 and president of the National Board for the Merchant Navy in 1940. As minister of the navy (1944-58), he instituted a program of building new merchant ships and lighthouses. He became a rear admiral in 1951. Chosen by Prime Minister António Salazar to fill the office of president, Tomás defeated Gen. Humberto Delgado in the 1958 elections, which were held under a limited franchise. He was reappointed to the office by an electoral college in 1965 and 1972. Tomás traveled widely in the Portuguese colonies and favoured retention of power by military force. When Salazar became incapacitated by illness in 1968, Tomás replaced him as prime minister with Marcelo Caetano. After being deposed by the revolution of April 1974, Tomás spent four years in exile before he was allowed to return to Portugal in 1978.

Tomás, Augusto da Silva (b. Oct. 6, 1957, Cabinda province, Angola), finance minister of Angola (1995-96). He was also governor of Cabinda (1991-95) and transport minister (2008-18).

Tomas King (Tomas), Alfredo, justice minister of Equatorial Guinea (1981-82).

Tomasi Kulimoetoke I (d. 1928), king of `Uvea (Wallis) (1924-28).

Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, original name Tomasi Iloaï (b. July 26, 1918, Mata-Utu, Wallis - d. May 7, 2007, Mata-Utu), prime minister (1953-57) and king (1959-2007) of `Uvea (Wallis); grandson of Tomasi Kulimoetoke I.

Tomasini, René (b. April 16, 1919 - d. May 5, 1983), French politician; general secretary of the Union of Democrats for the Republic (1971-72).

Tomasini, Roberto (Jorge) (b. April 15, 1929, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Sept. 12, 2015, Buenos Aires), public works minister of Argentina (1985-86). He was also ambassador to Mexico (1986-89).

Tomasov, Mikhail (Timofeyevich) (b. Sept. 11, 1896, Bolshiye Yaushi, Kazan province [now in Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. May 16, 1978, Gorky, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Nizhny Novgorod, Russia]), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Chuvash autonomous oblast/A.S.S.R. (1924-25).

Tómasson, Tómas Á(rmann) (b. Jan. 1, 1929, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. June 3, 2017), Icelandic diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium (1971-77, 1984-86), Luxembourg (1976-77, 1985-87), France and Portugal (1982-85), Spain (1983-85), Cape Verde (1983-86), Greece (1985-87), the Soviet Union, Hungary, and Romania (1987-90), East Germany (1988-90), Bulgaria (1988-92), the United States (1990-93), Canada, Mexico, Uruguay, and Argentina (1991-94), Venezuela (1991-96), Brazil (1992-95), Israel and Tunisia (1996-99), and Egypt (1997-99) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-82, 1993-94).

Tomassoni, Mirco (b. April 24, 1969, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2007-08, 2018-19).

Tomaszewski, Janusz (Teofil) (b. Sept. 13, 1956, Pabianice, Poland), interior minister (and a deputy prime minister) of Poland (1997-99).

N. Tombalbaye
Tombalbaye, N'Garta, until Aug. 30, 1973, François Tombalbaye (b. June 15, 1918, Bessada, Chad - d. April 13, 1975, N'Djamena, Chad), prime minister (1959-75) and president (1960-75) of Chad. He became a trade union organizer and helped found the Parti Progressiste Tchadien (PPT) in 1947. In 1952 he was elected to the territorial assembly, although the PPT was defeated. The PPT became the strongest party in the 1957 elections, however, and Chad was granted self-government in 1958. When PPT leader Gabriel Lisette was unable to form a coalition government, Tombalbaye replaced him as party leader. He became prime minister in 1959 and, on Chad's independence in 1960, head of state. He sponsored a new constitution and was elected president in 1962. All opposition parties were abolished. His regime was faced with numerous coup attempts and rebellions. Violence erupted in 1965 between the Sudanic Muslims of northern Chad and the Bantus of the south. The Chad National Liberation Front (FROLINAT) was founded in June 1966 to unite Muslim opposition to Tombalbaye's government. He received financial and military aid from France to fight a guerrilla war against the Muslim rebels. Despite an agreement with the rebels in 1971, fighting continued. He also faced opposition from elements of the military. Gen. Félix Malloum, the commander of the armed forces, was arrested on charges of conspiring against the government in 1973. As part of a policy of Africanization to expunge French influence, he changed his first name from François to N'Garta and that of the capital from Fort-Lamy to N'Djamena in 1973. Gen. Noël Odingar led a military revolt against the government in 1975, and Tombalbaye was killed when machine-gun and mortar fire was directed at his official residence in the capital.

Tombalbaye, Salomon Ngarbaye (b. Nov. 30, 1949, Kyabé, Chad - d. March 2, 2010, aboard plane en route to Paris, France), Chadian politician; son of N'Garta Tombalbaye. He was appointed minister of health in 1994 but refused the appointment. He was minister of posts and telecommunications in 1996-97.

Tomblin, Earl Ray (b. March 15, 1952, Logan county, W.Va.), governor of West Virginia (2010-17).

Tombura, Joseph James (b. Sept. 12, 1929, Wau, southern Sudan - d. Sept. 17, 1992, Khartoum, Sudan), chairman of the High Executive Council of Southern Sudan (1982-83). He was also governor of Equatoria (1983-85).

Tomcic, Zlatko (b. July 10, 1945, Zagreb, Croatia), acting president of Croatia (2000). He was minister of construction and environmental protection (1993-94), president of the Croatian Peasant Party (1994-2005), and president of the Sabor (Assembly) (2000-03).

Tomcsányi, Vilmos Pál (b. Feb. 8, 1880, Budapest, Hungary - d. May 7, 1959, Budapest), justice minister (1920-22) and interior minister (1921) of Hungary. He was also governor of Carpatho-Ukraine (1942-44).

Tome, David (b. 1969), Solomon Islands politician. He was minister of provincial government and institutional strengthening (2012, 2015-17), police, national security, and correctional services (2012), and agriculture and livestock (2012-14).


Tomegah Dogbé, Victoire (Sidémého Dzidudu) (b. Dec. 23, 1959, Badougbe [now in Vo prefecture], Togo), prime minister of Togo (2020- ). She was also minister of grassroots development, crafts, and youth (2010-20).

Tomeh, George J(oseph) (b. 1921, Damascus, Syria), Syrian politician. He was minister of economy (1964-65) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-72).

Tomeing, Litokwa (b. Oct. 14, 1939, Wotje Atoll, Marshall Islands - d. Oct. 12, 2020), president of the Marshall Islands (2008-09). He was speaker of the Nitijela in 2000-08.

Tomelleri, Angelo (b. June 26, 1924, Verona, Italy - d. June 23, 1985), president of Veneto (1970-72, 1973-80).

Tomenko, Mykola (Volodymyrovych) (b. Dec. 11, 1964, Malyye Kanevtsy, Cherkassy oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Mali Kanivtsi, Cherkasy oblast, Ukraine]), a deputy prime minister of Ukraine (2005).

V. Tomenko
Tomenko, Viktor (Petrovich) (b. May 12, 1971, Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Krasnoyarsk kray (2011-18) and governor of Altay kray (2018- ).

Tomic, Dragan (b. Dec. 9, 1935, Gornja Bukovica, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. June 21, 2022), president of the National Assembly (1994-2001) and acting president (1997) of Serbia.

Tomic, Dragan, byname of Dragomir Tomic (b. Oct. 5, 1937, Zbevac, Bujanovac, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), a deputy prime minister of Serbia (1998-2000). He was also a minister without portfolio (1994-98).

Tomic, Neven (b. April 21, 1958, Mostar [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), finance minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994-96).

Tomic (Romero), Radomiro (b. May 7, 1914, Calama, Chile - d. Jan. 3, 1992, Santiago, Chile), Chilean presidential candidate (1970). He was also president of the Christian Democratic Party (1946-47, 1952-53) and ambassador to the United States (1965-68).

Tomita, Kojiro (b. Nov. 1 [Oct. 1, lunar calendar], 1872, Kawakita, Kochi prefecture, Japan - d. March 23, 1938), Japanese politician. He was speaker of the House of Representatives (1936-37).

Tomka, Peter (b. June 1, 1956, Banská Bystrica, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), president of the International Court of Justice (2012-15). He was also Slovakia's permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-97, 1999-2003).

Tomkins, Stanley Charles (b. Dec. 3, 1870 - d. Dec. 17, 1946), acting governor of Uganda (1910-11).

Tomlinson, Gideon (b. Dec. 31, 1780, Stratford, Conn. - d. Oct. 8, 1854, Fairfield, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1827-31).

Tommo Monthe, Michel (b. March 26, 1947, Bana, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), Cameroonian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2008- ).

Tommy, David Daroll, Gambian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2013).

Tomorowicz, Bohdan (b. April 1, 1923, Warsaw, Poland - d. Dec. 4, 2007), Polish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-69).

Tomov, Aleksandur (Trifonov) (b. April 27, 1954, Sofia, Bulgaria), a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (1990-91). He was a minor presidential candidate in 1996.

Tomov, Konstantin (Kotsev), byname Kosta Tomov (b. Oct. 8, 1888, Kunino, Bulgaria - d. April 27, 1935, Sofia, Bulgaria), interior minister (1921) and war minister (1921-23) of Bulgaria.

Tompkins, Daniel D.1 (b. June 21, 1774, Fox Meadows [now Scarsdale], New York - d. June 11, 1825, Tompkinsville, Staten Island [now part of New York City], N.Y.), governor of New York (1807-17) and U.S. vice president (1817-25).
1 He appears to have added the middle initial merely to distinguish himself from another Daniel Tompkins in his school classes.

Tomsic, Vida, née Bernot (b. June 26, 1913, Ljubljana, Austria-Hungary [now in Slovenia] - d. Dec. 10, 1998, Ljubljana), president of the People's Assembly of Slovenia (1962-63). She was also president of the Council of the People of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia (1967-69).

Ton Duc Thang (b. Aug. 19, 1888, My Hoa Hung village, Dinh Thanh district, Long Xuyen province, Vietnam - d. March 30, 1980, Hanoi, Vietnam), president of North Vietnam (1969-76) and of Vietnam (1976-80). He was involved early in anti-colonialist agitation. In 1912 he went to France and joined the French navy. In April 1919, at Sevastopol aboard the battle cruiser Waldeck-Rousseau which was operating against Soviet revolutionaries, he participated in an uprising that almost succeeded in turning the ship over to the Bolsheviks. Discharged, he returned to Vietnam in 1920. In 1929 he was arrested for his revolutionary activities and was sentenced to 20 years hard labour, which he served on the Poulo Condore (Con Son) prison island off the southern coast of Vietnam. Freed after the August 1945 revolution which brought Ho Chi Minh's Vietnam League for Independence (Viet Minh) to power, he was appointed president of Hoi Lien Hien Quoc Dan Viet Nam (Lien Viet), the National Popular Front Association, in 1951. Following the Geneva Conference of 1954, which recognized Viet Minh rule in North Vietnam, the Lien Viet was reorganized under the name Mat tran To quoc (Fatherland Front). With him as president, it tried to attract the allegiance of the South Vietnamese. He also served as vice-chairman and then chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly. In 1960 he became vice president of North Vietnam. He became president after the death of Ho Chi Minh and held the largely ceremonial post until his own death. His neutrality in internal Communist Party affairs helped to avoid splits in the Vietnamese leadership. He was also chairman of the Soviet-Vietnamese Friendship Society from 1950 to 1969 and was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize in 1955.

Tonchev, Dimitur (Stoyanov) (b. Oct. 26, 1859, Kalofer, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. Feb. 20, 1937, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister (1900-01) and finance minister (1913-18) of Bulgaria. He was also minister of justice (1886, 1888-91), trade and agriculture (1894), and public works, roads, and communications (1899-1900) and chairman of the National Assembly (1887-88).

Toncic-Sorinj, Lujo (b. April 12, 1915, Vienna, Austria - d. May 20, 2005, Salzburg, Austria), foreign minister of Austria (1966-68) and secretary-general of the Council of Europe (1969-74).

Tonckens (Joachimus Lunsinghszoon), Warmolt (b. Nov. 22, 1848, Peize, Drenthe, Netherlands - d. Sept. 9, 1922, Utrecht, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1888-89 [acting], 1896-1902).

Tønder, Dag (b. June 27, 1907, Salangen, Tromsø amt [now Troms fylke], Norway - d. July 14, 1989), acting governor of Finnmark (1951-55).

Tondo, Renzo (b. Aug. 7, 1956, Tolmezzo, Udine province, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (2001-03, 2008-13).

Tone, Viliami Va'inga (b. 1965), Tongan diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2018- ).

G. Tonelli
Tonelli, Gilles (Raymond) (b. Nov. 27, 1957), foreign minister of Monaco (2015-19). He was also councillor for equipment, environment, and town planning (2005-06, 2009-11) and for finance and economy (2006-09) and ambassador to Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (2011-15).

Tonelli, Ideler (Santiago) (b. Dec. 18, 1924, Bragado, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Aug. 10, 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentine labour minister (1987-89) and federal interventor in Corrientes (1993).

A. Tong
Tong, Anote (b. June 11, 1952, Fanning island, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Kiribati]), president of Kiribati (2003-16). He served as senior assistant secretary in the Ministry of Education (1976-77) and secretary for the Ministry of Communication and Works (1980-82). He was the minister for natural resources development in 1994-96 and the member of parliament for Maiana Island and a senior member of the Boutokaan Te Koaua party in 1996-2003. In 2003 he defeated his brother Harry Tong in the presidential election. He also took on the External Affairs and Immigration portfolio.

Tong Sang, Gaston (b. Aug. 7, 1949, Bora Bora, French Settlements in Oceania [now French Polynesia]), president of French Polynesia (2006-07, 2008-09, 2009-11). He has also been mayor of Bora Bora (1989- ) and president of the Assembly (2018-23).

Tong Siv Eng (b. 1919 - d. June 12, 2001, Bangkok, Thailand), Cambodian politician. She and her husband, Pung Peng Cheng, were among Norodom Sihanouk's closest aides during the monarch's six decades in Cambodia's political spotlight. She began teaching Sihanouk's 12 children in 1956. She was elected to the National Assembly in 1958 and became Cambodia's first female minister in 1959. She served in Sihanouk's governments as Minister of Social Action (1959-63) and then as Minister of Health (1963-68). She was reelected to a third term in the National Assembly which was cut short in 1970 when Sihanouk was overthrown in a coup. She played an unheralded but crucial behind-the-scenes role in helping to end Cambodia's protracted civil war in the late 1980s. In 1987 and 1988, she brokered the first three meetings between then-prince Sihanouk and Prime Minister Hun Sen, leaders of opposing factions in the civil war. Sihanouk led anti-Communist forces against Hun Sen's Vietnamese-backed government. The three meetings in France triggered a process that led to the Paris Peace Accords in 1991, ending more than 20 years of civil strife.

Tonha, Pedro Maria, byname Pedalé (b. 1941? - d. July 22, 1995, London, England), defense minister of Angola (1980-95). He was also provincial commissioner of Huambo (1977-79).

Tonin, Matej (b. July 30, 1983, Ljubljana, Slovenia), defense minister of Slovenia (2020-22). He was also speaker of the National Assembly (2018).

Tõnisson, Aleksander (b. April 17, 1875, Härjanurme, Tartu county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. [executed] June 30, 1941, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), war minister (1920) and defense minister (1932-33) of Estonia. He was also mayor of Tartu (1934-39) and Tallinn (1939-40).

Tõnisson, Jaan (b. Dec. 22 [Dec. 10, O.S.], 1868, Tänassilma, Viljandi county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. af. 1941, U.S.S.R.), prime minister (1919-20, 1920), state elder (1927-28, 1933), and foreign minister (1931-32) of Estonia.

Tõniste, Toomas (b. April 26, 1967, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), finance minister of Estonia (2017-19).


Tonkin, David (Oliver) (b. July 20, 1929 - d. Oct. 1, 2000), premier of South Australia (1979-82).

Tonnini, Adele (b. June 24, 1977), captain-regent of San Marino (2023).

Toole, Joseph K(emp) (b. May 12, 1851, Savannah, Mo. - d. March 11, 1929, Helena, Mont.), governor of Montana (1889-93, 1901-08); son-in-law of William S. Rosecrans.

Toom, Willem den (b. July 11, 1911, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Dec. 13, 1998, Amersfoort, Netherlands), defense minister of the Netherlands (1967-71).

Toome, Indrek (Kherbertovich) (b. Sept. 19, 1943, Tallinn, Estonia - d. Feb. 28?, 2023), premier of the Estonian S.S.R. (1988-90). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Tartu city (1978-84) and a deputy premier (1984-88).

Topaç, Mehmet (b. 1939, Usak, Turkey - d. [assassinated] Sept. 29, 1994, Ankara, Turkey), justice minister of Turkey (1988-89).

Topal, Stepan (Mikhailovich) (b. Jan. 8, 1938, Comrat, Romania [now in Gagauzia, Moldova] - d. Sept. 29, 2018), chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1990-91) and president (1991-95) of Gagauzia.

Topalli, Jozefina (Çoba), née Çoba (b. Nov. 26, 1963, Shkodër, Albania), Albanian politician. She was chairman of the Assembly (2005-13).

Topaloglu, Ahmet (b. 1914, Kadirli, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. April 12, 1981, Ankara, Turkey), interior minister (1961-62) and defense minister (1965-71) of Turkey. He was also governor of Hatay (1957-60) and minister of customs and monopolies (1965).

Topete y Carballo, Juan Bautista (b. May 24, 1821, San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico - d. Oct. 29, 1885, Madrid, Spain), acting prime minister of Spain (1870-71, 1872). He was also minister of navy (1868-69, 1870, 1872, 1874), overseas (1869, 1871-72), foreign affairs (1870-71), and war (1870-71).

Topi, Bamir (Myrteza) (b. April 24, 1957, Tiranë, Albania), president of Albania (2007-12). He was also minister of agriculture and food (1996-97).

Topolánek, Mirek (b. May 15, 1956, Vsetín, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of the Czech Republic (2006-09). He was leader of the Civic Democratic Party (2002-10) and a presidential candidate in 2018.

Topolansky (Saavedra), Lucía (b. Sept. 25, 1944, Montevideo, Uruguay), vice president of Uruguay (2017-20); wife of José Mujica.

Topoyev, Esen (Tolenovich) (b. Feb. 28, 1952, Kyzyl-Kiya, Kirgiz S.S.R.), defense minister of Kyrgyzstan (1999-2005).

Toptani, Abdi Bej (b. 1864, Tiranë, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. 1942, Tiranë), member of the High Council of Albania (1920-21). He was also minister of finance (1912-13) and agriculture (1914).

Toptani, Esat (Salih) Pashë (b. 1863, Tiranë, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. [assassinated] June 13, 1920, Paris, France), chairman of the Provisional Government of Albania (1914-16). He was also minister of interior (1913, 1914) and war (1914).

Topuzlu, Cemil, until Jan. 1, 1935, Cemil Pasha (b. March 6, 1866, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Jan. 24, 1958, Istanbul), Ottoman official. He was governor and mayor of Constantinople (1912-14, 1919-20) and minister of public works (1920).

Tor (Faus), Imma (b. April 12, 1966, Sant Julià de Lòria, Andorra), foreign minister of Andorra (2023- ). She was also ambassador to France (1999-2007), Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Slovenia (2007-11), and Germany (2009-11).

Tora, James (b. July 16, 1956), Solomon Islands politician. He was minister of national reconciliation, unity, and peace (2005-06), mines and energy (2006), infrastructure and development (2006), home affairs (2007-09), and police, national security, and correctional services (2009-11).

Toranzo Fernández, Fernando (b. Sept. 12, 1950, Venado, San Luis Potosí, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (2009-15).

Torashima, Kazuo (b. Jan. 6, 1928, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan - d. Nov. 1, 2005), director-general of the Defense Agency of Japan (2000).

Torato, Paul (Paken) (b. Jan. 1, 1951), justice minister of Papua New Guinea (1980-81). He was also minister of primary industry (1981-82), lands and physical planning (1985-86), forests (1986-87), and police (1987).

Torcy, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis de (b. Sept. 14, 1665, Paris, France - d. Sept. 2, 1746, Paris), foreign minister of France (1696-1715).

Tordoya (Montoya), Pedro José (b. July 1813, Caravelí, Arequipa, Peru - d. July 31, 1883, Lima, Peru), prime minister and minister of justice, education, and worship of Peru (1867). He was titular bishop of Tiberiopolis (1860-75) and bishop of Cusco (1875-80).

Torello (Mhul), Pablo (b. Oct. 9, 1864, Mercedes, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Dec. 11, 1943, Buenos Aires, Argentina), acting foreign minister of Argentina (1920-21). He was also minister of public works (1916-22).

Toreno, Francisco de Borja Queipo de Llano (y Gayoso de los Cobos), conde de (b. Nov. 6, 1840, Madrid, Spain - d. Jan. 31, 1890, Madrid), foreign minister of Spain (1879-80); son of José María Queipo de Llano Ruiz de Saravia, conde de Toreno. He was also mayor of Madrid (1874-75) and minister of development (1875-79).

Toreno, José María Queipo de Llano Ruiz de Saravia, conde de, vizconde de Matarrosa (b. Nov. 26, 1786, Oviedo, Spain - d. Sept. 16, 1843, Paris, France), finance minister (1834-35) and prime minister and foreign minister (1835) of Spain. He succeeded as count in 1808.

Torey, (Lucky) Mike (b. Sept. 24, 1951, Lagos, Nigeria - d. Nov. 16, 2013), administrator of Ondo (1993-94) and Enugu (1994-96).

Toribiong, Johnson (b. July 22, 1946, Airai village, Palau), president of Palau (2009-13); nephew of Roman Tmetuchl. He was formerly ambassador to Taiwan (2001-08). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1992 and 2020.

Toriello Garrido, (Federico) Guillermo (b. Nov. 11, 1911, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. Feb. 24, 1997, Havana, Cuba), foreign minister of Guatemala (1945, 1954); brother of Jorge Toriello Garrido. He was also ambassador to the United States (1952-54).

Toriello Garrido, Jorge (b. April 23, 1908, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. June 16, 1998), member of the Revolutionary Government Junta of Guatemala (1944-45).

Torlopov, Vladimir (Aleksandrovich) (b. Nov. 14, 1949, Syktyvkar, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the republic of Komi (2002-10).

Tormasov, Graf Aleksandr (Petrovich) (b. Aug. 22 [Aug. 11, O.S.], 1752 - d. Nov. 25 [Nov. 13, O.S.], 1819, Moscow, Russia), governor of Vilna (1796), military governor of Kiev (1803-06) and Georgia and the Caucasus (1809-11), and governor-general of Livonia, Estonia, and Courland (1806-08) and Moscow (1814-19). He was made Graf (count) in 1816.

Tormasov, Pyotr (Petrovich) (b. 1757 - d. 1831), governor of Vitebsk (1813-18); brother of Graf Aleksandr Tormasov.

Tornaco, Marie Camille Louis de Gonzague Ghislain, baron de (b. April 6, 1807, Sterpenich, France [now in Luxembourg province, Belgium] - d. March 8, 1880, Brussels, Belgium), Belgian politician. He was chairman of the Senate (1879-80).

Tornaco, Baron (Marie) Victor de (b. July 7, 1805, Sterpenich, France [now in Luxembourg province, Belgium] - d. Sept. 26, 1875, Voort [now part of Borgloon], Limburg province, Belgium), prime minister and foreign minister of Luxembourg (1860-67). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1855-56) and the Assembly of Estates (1859-60) and minister of public works (1860-64).

Törne, Mikael von (b. June 22, 1726, Åkarp, Malmöhus [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. May 16, 1796, Ekensberg, Södermanland [now in Stockholm county], Sweden), governor of Älvsborg (1775-85).

Törne, Mikael von (b. Sept. 17, 1775, Stockholm, Sweden - d. March 23, 1854, Hamburg [Germany]), governor of Jämtland (1818-41); son of the above.

Törnebladh, Carl (Peter) (b. Nov. 3, 1774, Östra Torså socken, Kronoberg, Sweden - d. June 17, 1844, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister for justice of Sweden (1840-43).

Tornérhjelm, Gustaf (David Rudolf) (b. July 7, 1854, Norra Vram, Malmöhus [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. May 28, 1934), governor of Malmöhus (1902-09).

Törnflycht, Michael greve (b. November 1683, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Aug. 20, 1738, Hässelbyholm, Södermanland, Sweden), governor of Södermanland (1727-32) and Stockholm city (1732-38); brother of Olof friherre Törnflycht. He became friherre (baron) in 1719 and greve (count) in 1731.

Törnflycht, Olof greve (b. Nov. 16, 1680, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 22, 1737, Erstavik, Stockholm county, Sweden), governor of Kronoberg (1718-19) and Stockholm (1719-27) counties. He became friherre (baron) in 1719 and greve (count) in 1731.

Törngren, Ralf (Johan Gustaf) (b. March 1, 1899, Uleåborg [now Oulu], Finland - d. May 16, 1961, Turku, Finland), finance minister (1945-48), foreign minister (1953-54, 1956-57, 1959-61), and prime minister (1954) of Finland. He was also minister of social affairs (1944-45, 1950-51, 1951-52) and deputy prime minister (1959-61).

Törnudd, Klaus (Mattias) (b. Dec. 26, 1931, Helsinki, Finland), Finnish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-91) and ambassador to France (1993-96).

Toro (Torres), Dilian Francisca (b. Jan. 7, 1959, Guacarí, Valle del Cauca, Colombia), Colombian politician. She has been president of the Senate (2006-07) and governor of Valle del Cauca (2016-20, 2024- ).

Toro (y Blanco), Fermín (del) (b. July 14, 1806, El Valle, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Dec. 23, 1865, Caracas), finance minister (1847, 1858) and foreign minister (1858) of Venezuela. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1834) and minister to New Granada (1844-46) and France and Spain (1846-47, 1860-61).

Toro (Ruilova), José David (b. June 24, 1898, Sucre, Bolivia - d. July 25, 1977, Santiago, Chile), president of Bolivia (1936-37). He was also minister of development and communications (1930) and interior and justice (1930).

Toro Hurtado, Gaspar (b. May 30, 1848, Melipilla, Chile - d. Feb. 14, 1933, Santiago, Chile), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1892, 1895-96).

Toro Jiménez, Fermín (b. Oct. 26, 1933, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Sept. 8, 2021), Venezuelan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-06).

Toro Zambrano y Ureta, Mateo de, conde de la Conquista (b. Sept. 20, 1727, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 26/27, 1811, Santiago), governor (1810) and president of the Government Junta (1810-11) of Chile.


Toroama, Ishmael (b. 1968, Rorena, Bougainville, Papua and New Guinea [now Papua New Guinea]), president of Bougainville (2020- ).

Torode, Mike, byname of Michael William Torode, chief minister of Guernsey (2007-08).


Torp, Oscar Fredrik (b. June 8, 1893, Hafslund, near Sarpsborg, Norway - d. May 1, 1958, Oslo, Norway), prime minister of Norway (1951-55). He was also mayor of Oslo (1935-36), minister (1940-45 in exile) of social affairs (1936-39), finance (1939-42), defense (1942-45), supply and reconstruction (1945-48), and trade and shipping (acting, 1954), governor of Vestfold (1948-58), and president of the Storting (1955-58).

Torra, Quim, in full Joaquim Torra i Pla (b. Dec. 28, 1962, Girona, Catalonia, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (2018-20).

Torralba González, Diocles, a vice premier of Cuba (1972-89). He was also minister of sugar industry (1977-85) and transport (1985-89).

Torre (Vidaurre), Aníbal Víctor de la (b. 1827 - d. 1880), foreign minister of Peru (1875-76). He was also prefect of La Libertad (1870-73) and minister to Bolivia (1873-75) and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay (1878-80).

Torre, Francisco Serrano y Domínguez (Cuenca y Guevara Vasconcellos), duque de la, conde de San Antonio (b. Oct. 17, 1810, Isla de León [now San Fernando], Cádiz province, Spain - d. Nov. 26, 1885, Madrid, Spain), governor of Cuba (1859-62) and foreign minister (1863), president of the Provisional Government (1868-69), president of the Executive Power (1869, 1874), regent (1869-71), prime minister (1871, 1872, 1874), and war minister (1871, 1872) of Spain. He was made duke in 1862.

Torre (y Luna Pizarro), Pedro Antonio de la (b. Jan. 17, 1801, Valle de Majes [now in Arequipa region], Peru - d. Sept. 22, 1843, Lima, Peru), finance minister of Peru (1843).

Torre, Xavier (Antoine) (b. 1910 - d. January 2003), high commissioner of French Cameroons (1958-60).

Torre (Muñoz), Carlos (Alberto) de la (b. March 13, 1971, Quito, Ecuador), economy and finance minister of Ecuador (2017-18).

Torre Cantú, Egidio (b. June 19, 1957, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico), governor of Tamaulipas (2011-16). He was also mayor of Ciudad Victoria (2000-01).

Torre Díaz, Álvaro (b. 1889, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico - d. 1944, Mérida), interim governor of Yucatán (1917-18). He was also Mexican minister (1920-22) and ambassador (1922-24) to Brazil.

Torre González, Agustín (María) de la (b. Dec. 25, 1844, Nepeña, Áncash department [now region], Peru - d. Aug. 24, 1929, Chorrillos, Peru), finance minister of Peru (1893-94, 1909). He was also minister of development and public works (1901, 1911), second vice-president (1919-24), and president of the Central Reserve Bank (1925-27).

Torreão, Basilio Quaresma (b. 1787, Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. February 1868, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Norte (1833-36) and Paraíba (1836-38).

Torreão, Enéas de Araujo (b. Sept. 30, 1842, Goianinha, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. July 17, 1914, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Ceará (1886-88).

Torreblanca Galindo, (Carlos) Zeferino (b. March 14, 1954, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico), governor of Guerrero (2005-11). He was also mayor of Acapulco (1999-2002).

Torrelio Villa, Celso (b. June 3, 1933, Padilla, Chuquisaca, Bolivia - d. April 24, 1999, Buenos Aires, Argentina), interior and justice minister (1981) and president (1981-82) of Bolivia. It took him 25 years to rise from sublieutenant to brigadier general but only seven months to win his next promotion to general of division on July 23, 1981. He was chosen to join the ruling military junta by virtue of his seniority, and his appointment as president followed from his position as senior member of that body. He was above U.S. suspicion of involvement in the drug business, and the U.S. reestablished diplomatic relations with Bolivia in early November 1981. Torrelio's actions in promising an increased role for foreign firms in the mining, metallurgical, and petroleum sectors, freedom from fears of nationalization, and acceptance of an International Monetary Fund presence in running the economy marked him as someone who rejected the nationalistic economic model in place in Bolivia since 1952. Torrelio lifted almost all restrictions on civil rights and after 10 months handed power to another soldier, Guido Vildoso Calderón, who governed only 3 months before a civilian president, Hernán Siles Zuazo, took office.

Torrens, Sir Arthur Wellesley (b. Aug. 18, 1809 - d. Aug. 24, 1855, Paris, France), lieutenant governor of Saint Lucia (1844-48); knighted 1855; grandson of Robert Patton.

Torrens, Sir Henry d'Oyley (b. Feb. 24, 1823 - d. Dec. 1, 1889, England), governor of Cape Colony (acting, 1886) and Malta (1888-89); knighted 1887.

Torres, Alberto de Seixas Martins (b. Nov. 26, 1865, Porto das Caixas [now part of Itaboraí], Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. March 29, 1917, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1896-97) and president of Rio de Janeiro (1897-1900).

Torres, Anderson Gustavo (b. Sept. 25, 1976, Brasília, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (2021-23).

Á.V. Torres
Torres (Pérez), Ángel Víctor (b. March 30, 1966, Arucas, Gran Canaria, Spain), president of the government of Canarias (2019-23).

A. Torres

I. Torres
Torres (Vásquez), Aníbal (b. Dec. 28, 1942, Chota, Cajamarca, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2022). He was also justice minister (2021-22).

Torres, Francisco Xavier (b. 17..., Coimbra, Portugal - d. 18...), president of the provisional government of Ceará (1821-22).

Torres, Ignacio (Agustín), byname Nacho Torres (b. May 4, 1988, Trelew, Chubut, Argentina), governor of Chubut (2023- ).

Torres, José Barbosa (d. June 11, 1882, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Alagoas (1882).

Torres, José Joaquim Fernandes (b. April 17, 1797, Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Dec. 24, 1869), finance minister (1847) and interior minister (1866-68) of Brazil. He was also justice minister (1846-47) and president of São Paulo (1857-60) and Minas Gerais (1862, 1863).

Torres, José Luso (b. June 10, 1880, São Bento, Maranhão, Brazil - d. June 20, 1960, São Luís, Maranhão), federal interventor in Maranhão (1930).

Torres (y Meléndez), Luis Emeterio (b. March 2, 1844, Guadalupe y Calvo mining camp, Chihuahua, Mexico - d. Sept. 9, 1935, Los Angeles, Calif.), governor of Sonora (1879-81, 1883-87, 1891-95, 1899-1903, 1907-11) and political chief of the Northern District of Baja California (1888-92).

Torres, Luis P(rotacio) (b. April 8, 1880, Manila, Philippines - d. Jan. 9, 1956), justice secretary of the Philippines (1923-28). He was also mayor of Baguio (1950-51).

Torres, Luiz da Motta Feo e (b. March 16, 1769, Lisbon, Portugal - d. May 27, 1823, Lisbon), governor of Ceará (1790-99), Paraíba (1802-05), and Angola (1816-19).

Torres (Velásquez), Óscar (Nicolás) (b. 1890?, Áncash department [now region], Peru - d. Oct. 26, 1975, Lima, Peru), war minister of Peru (1945-46). He was also minister of education (1948).

Torres, Paulo Francisco (b. May 29, 1903, Cantagalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Jan. 12, 2000, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Acre (1955-56) and Rio de Janeiro (1964-66). He was also mayor of Teresópolis (1936) and president of the Senate of Brazil (1973-75).

R. Torres
Torres, Ralph (Anthony Deleon Guerrero) (b. Aug. 6, 1979, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands), governor of the Northern Mariana Islands (2015-23). He was Senate president (2013-15) and lieutenant governor (2015).

Torres (Casanova [2003-11:] de Colom), Sandra (Julieta) (b. Oct. 5, 1955, Melchor de Mencos, Petén, Guatemala), Guatemalan politician; sister of Rolando Torres Casanova; ex-wife of Álvaro Colom Caballeros. She has been secretary-general of the National Unity of Hope (2012-21, 2021- ) and a presidential candidate (2015, 2019, 2023).

Torres Aciego, Jorge (Celso) (b. Oct. 20, 1927, Caraz, Áncash department [now region], Peru - d. May 5, 1999, Lima, Peru), defense minister of Peru (1990-91). He was also ambassador to Israel (1992-95).

Torres Agudo, Pedro (Arturo) (b. Jan. 11, 1932, Valencia, Carabobo, Venezuela), justice minister of Venezuela (1988-89).

Torres Bodet, Jaime (b. April 17, 1902, Mexico City, Mexico - d. May 13, 1974, Mexico City), foreign minister of Mexico (1946-48) and director-general of UNESCO (1948-52). A noted writer, he was also chargé d'affaires in Belgium (1938-40), education minister (1943-46, 1958-64), and ambassador to France (1954-58).

Torres Casanova, (Luis) Rolando (b. 1952?), Guatemalan politician. He was a minor presidential candidate in 1995.

Torres Corzo, Teófilo (b. Aug. 9, 1946, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. Oct. 15, 2023), interim governor of San Luis Potosí (1992-93).

Torres Falcón, Víctor (Manuel) (b. April 28, 1959, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (2023-24).

J.J. Torres
Torres Gonzales, Juan José (b. March 5, 1921, Sacaba, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. June 1/2, 1976, Argentina), president of Bolivia (1970-71). He was also ambassador to Uruguay (1965-66), minister of labour (1966-67), and chief of the general staff (1967-68). He lived in Argentina from 1973 and was a leading member of the Bolivian opposition in exile. On June 1, 1976, he was kidnapped from his home in Buenos Aires and was found shot dead in an automobile trunk outside the city on the following day.

Torres Hevia, Carlos (b. Feb. 24, 1894, Coquimbo, Coquimbo, Chile - d. Feb. 12, 1989, La Herradura, Coquimbo), interior minister of Chile (1952). He was also commander-in-chief of the navy (1948-52).

Torres Landa, Juan José (b. April 16, 1911, El Saucillo hacienda, Cuerámaro, Guanajuato, Mexico - d. June 16, 1980, San José Iturbide, Guanajuato), governor of Guanajuato (1961-67). He was also Mexican ambassador to Brazil (1971-74).

Torres López, Jorge (Juan) (b. Feb. 20, 1954, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico), governor of Coahuila (2011). He was also mayor of Saltillo (2007-09).

Torres Manzo, Carlos (b. April 25, 1923, Coalcomán, Michoacán, Mexico - d. Oct. 14, 2019, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Michoacán (1974-80). He was also Mexican minister of industry and commerce (1970-74).

Torres Sánchez, Enrique (b. Feb. 22, 1903, Nazas, Durango, Mexico - d. [assassinated] April 1, 1965, Colonia J. Agustín Castro, Durango), governor of Durango (1950-56).

Torres y T.L.
Torres y Torres Lara, Carlos (Guillermo Juan) (b. November 1942, Lima, Peru - d. June 16, 2000, Lima), prime minister and foreign minister of Peru (1991). He was also minister of labour (1990-91) and president of the Congress (1997-98).

Torretta, Pietro (Paolo) Tomasi, marchese della (b. April 7, 1873, Palermo, Italy - d. Dec. 4, 1962, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (1921-22). He was also minister to Bavaria (1913-15), Russia (1917-18), and Austria (1919-21), ambassador to the United Kingdom (1922-27), and president of the Senate (1944-46).

Torrico (Camacho), Andrés María (b. Nov. 8, 1795, Punata, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata [now in Bolivia] - d. Aug. 28, 1875, Sucre, Bolivia), foreign minister of South Peru (1836-37) and Bolivia (1837-38) and finance minister of Bolivia (1848).

Torrico (González), Juan Crisóstomo (b. Jan. 21, 1808, Lima, Peru - d. March 27, 1875, Paris, France), supreme chief of Peru (1842). He was also minister of foreign affairs and justice (1849) and war and the navy (1852-54) and minister to France (1864-65).

Torrico (Mendiburu), (José) Rufino (b. June 8, 1833, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 13, 1920), war and navy minister of Peru (1886-87, 1894); son of Juan Crisóstomo Torrico. He was also mayor of Lima (1880-81, 1883-84).

Torrico Lemoine, Rafael (b. 1869, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. April 24, 1942), foreign minister of Bolivia (1930).

M. Torrijos
Torrijos (Espino), Martín (Erasto) (b. July 18, 1963, Panama City, Panama), president of Panama (2004-09). The son of former military strongman Gen. Omar Torrijos Herrera, he was sent by his father at the age of 15 to fight in Nicaragua's civil war. The younger Torrijos belonged to a Panamanian brigade fighting alongside the Sandinista rebel group. In 1992, he joined the campaign staff of Panamanian presidential candidate Ernesto Pérez Balladares. He was made vice-minister of government and justice after the Revolutionary Democratic Party (PRD) won the election. He was chosen by the PRD as the candidate to replace Pérez Balladares in 1999. A shy public speaker with his father's good looks, Torrijos ran on an ambiguous "populist-lite" platform, which consisted of unspecified plans to ease economic reforms made by Pérez Balladares, while still maintaining a pro-business atmosphere in Panama. Critics say the PRD platform lacked substance, but many said a Torrijos victory could be a positive step in Panama's economic and social development. Once the far-and-away favourite to win the election, Torrijos watched his support slide, and finally lost to opposition candidate Mireya Moscoso. In 2004, however, his lead in the opinion polls held through the election. Economic growth averaged 8.6% in 2004-08 and in October 2006 Panamanian voters overwhelmingly supported in a national referendum his plan to expand the Panama Canal, one of the largest investment projects in Latin America; crime, however, went up. He was an unsuccessful candidate again in 2024, running for the Popular Party after having resigned from the PRD.

O. Torrijos
Torrijos Herrera, Omar (Efraín) (b. Feb. 13, 1929, Santiago de Veraguas, Panama - d. July 31, 1981, near Penonomé, western Panama), de facto ruler of Panama (1968-81). In 1952 he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the National Guard (the country's only military force), becoming lieutenant colonel in 1966 and colonel in 1968. He was named military aide to Pres. Arnulfo Arias in October 1968. Less than two weeks later Torrijos and Col. Boris Martínez led a coup that toppled Arias. The next year, he effectively took sole power by exiling Martínez and taking the title of brigadier general. A newly elected assembly in 1972 gave him full civil and military powers for a six-year term as Chief of Government and Supreme Leader of the Panamanian Revolution. He won agreement with U.S. president Jimmy Carter for the pact (signed Sept. 7, 1977) that would transfer sovereignty of the Panama Canal to Panama by the end of 1999. In 1978, he relinquished the post of chief of government, though he retained command of the National Guard. Torrijos, who once described himself as a "dictator with a heart," represented no clear ideology. He visited Fidel Castro in Cuba and backed the Sandinista National Liberation Front's effort to overthrow Pres. Anastasio Somoza of Nicaragua. On the other hand, he suppressed leftist labour agitators and students in Panama and allowed the deposed shah of Iran to reside on the Panamanian island of Contadora in December 1979. He was also responsible, together with the Vatican, for persuading the Argentine government to release former president Isabel Perón from house arrest and permit her exile to Spain. He died in an airplane crash in a jungle area while making a military inspection tour.

Torshin, Aleksandr (Porfiryevich) (b. Nov. 27, 1953, Mitoga, Kamchatka oblast [now kray], Russian S.F.S.R.), Russian politician. He was acting chairman of the Federation Council (2011).

Töry, Gusztáv (b. Oct. 24, 1857, Pest [now part of Budapest], Hungary - d. Oct. 31, 1925, Budapest), justice minister of Hungary (1918). He was also president of the Royal Curia (1920-25).

Tory, James Cranswick (b. Oct. 24, 1862, Port Shoreham, Nova Scotia - d. June 26, 1944, Halifax, N.S.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1925-30).

Tosenovský, Evzen (b. Feb. 26, 1956, Ostrava, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Moravskoslezský kraj (2000-08). He was also chairman of the Association of Czech Regions, established in 2001 to help solve common problems of regions and to serve as their platform for communication with central government offices.

Toshev, Andrey (Slavov) (b. April 4, 1867, Eski Zagra, Ottoman Empire [now Stara Zagora, Bulgaria] - d. Jan. 10, 1944, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister of Bulgaria (1935). He was also diplomatic agent in Montenegro (1905-06), Greece (1906-08), and Serbia (1908-09) and minister to Serbia (1909-13), the Ottoman Empire (1913-14), Switzerland (1915-16), Austria-Hungary (1917-18), and Austria (1918-20).

Toska, Haki (b. 1920, Gjirokastër, Albania), finance minister of Albania (1976-82). He was also a deputy premier (1966-70).

Toskovski, Pance (b. June 14, 1982), interior minister of North Macedonia (2024- ).

Tosovský, Josef (b. Sept. 28, 1950, Náchod, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of the Czech Republic (1997-98). In December 1989 he became chief of the Czechoslovak (from 1993, Czech) central bank. He often clashed over monetary policy with Premier Václav Klaus, an economist who was credited early on as the architect of the post-Communist transformation, but who saw his political fortunes collapse late in 1997. An inflation hawk who earned the 1995 "Banker of the Year" honour at the International Bankers' Forum, Tosovský reluctantly accepted Pres. Václav Havel's plea in December 1997 to guide the country to early polls in June 1998. He was picked by Havel as a compromise choice after Klaus's three-party centre-right administration fell apart over a funding scandal within Klaus's Civic Democratic Party. Tosovský insisted that his stint as premier should be short-term and come with assurances that his role in the central bank would be waiting for him. His deputy at the bank, meanwhile, carried the title of "acting governor." The erudite and unassuming Tosovský had a solid reputation in financial markets but was little known outside. However, he soon earned an 85% public approval rating while rebuilding the government. But his lack of affiliation to any political party made him an easy target for partisan bickering and almost scuttled the confirmation of his caretaker government. He refused to bend to demands from either end of the political spectrum. In July 1998 he was reappointed governor of the central bank. He resigned in 2000 and from 2001 worked for the Financial Stability Institute within the Bank for International Settlements in Switzerland. In 2007 he was considered for the post of managing director of the International Monetary Fund.

Tosta (Carrasco), Vicente (b. Oct. 23, 1886, Jesús de Otoro, Intibucá, Honduras - d. Aug. 7, 1930, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), provisional president of Honduras (1924-25). He was also minister of war and navy (1919-20, 1925-29), development, public works, and agriculture (1920), and interior, justice, and sanitation (1929-30) and governor of Copán (1921-23).

Tostrup, Hans (b. Oct. 20, 1799, Hjelmeland, Stavanger amt [now Rogaland fylke], Norway - d. Jan. 27, 1856, Christiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Nordre Bergenhus amt (1844-52) and Christians amt (1852-54).

Tóth, Július (b. May 6, 1935, Zvolen, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), finance minister of Slovakia (1992-94).

Tóth, Vilmos (b. May 28, 1832, Szecsány, Hungary - d. June 14, 1898, Nyitraivánka, Hungary), interior minister of Hungary (1871-73). He was also president of the House of Magnates (1896-98).

Tóthová, Katarína (b. Feb. 6, 1940, Bratislava, Slovakia), justice minister (1992-94) and a deputy prime minister (1994-98) of Slovakia.

Toti, Giovanni (b. Sept. 7, 1968, Viareggio, Toscana, Italy), president of Liguria (2015- ).

Totleben, Graf Eduard (Ivanovich) (b. May 20 [May 8, O.S.], 1818, Mitava, Courland, Russia [now Jelgava, Latvia] - d. July 1, 1884, Soden, Prussia [now Bad Soden, Hessen], Germany), governor-general of Vilna, Kovno, and Grodno (1880-84). He was also interim governor-general of Odessa (1879-80). He was made Graf (count) in 1879.

Totoyev, Viktor (Soslanbekovich) (b. 1908 - d. ...), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the North Ossetian A.S.S.R. (1947-55). He was also people's commissar of agriculture (1940-44).

Tottie, Anders (Wilhelm Reinhold) (b. April 26, 1902, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 27, 1995), governor of Jämtland (1954-69).

Totu, Ioan (V.) (b. May 14, 1931 - d. April 21, 1992, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1986-89). He was also a deputy premier (1982-86) and chairman of the State Committee for Planning and Techno-Material Supply (1989). One of 21 former Communist officials charged with trying to crush the revolution that toppled Nicolae Ceausescu in December 1989, he was sentenced to 16 years in prison on April 20, 1992. He then committed suicide by hanging himself.

Touadéra, Faustin Archange (b. April 21, 1957, Bangui, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), prime minister (2008-13) and president (2016- ) of the Central African Republic.

Toubon, Jacques (b. June 29, 1941, Nice, France), justice minister of France (1995-97). He was also minister of culture and Francophonie (1993-95).

Toucey, Isaac (b. Nov. 5, 1796, Newtown, Conn. - d. July 30, 1869, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1846-47) and U.S. attorney general (1848-49) and secretary of the Navy (1857-61).

Touch Kim (b. Jan. 5, 1921, Kampot, Cambodia), finance minister of Cambodia (1958-59, 1960-61, 1967-68). He was also minister of labour, social action, and reform (1956), coordination, research, and reform (1956-57), economic affairs (1957), public works and telecommunications (1957-58), and public health (1957-58) and governor of the National Bank (1969-70).

Touchard, Philippe Victor (b. July 21, 1810, Versailles, France - d. Feb. 20, 1879, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1857-59).

Touhami, Hassan al- (b. 1924, Quesna, al-Minufiyah governorate, Egypt - d. Dec. 9, 2009), secretary-general of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (1974-75).

Toukan, Ahmad (Abdul Fattah) (b. Aug. 15, 1903, Nablus, Ottoman Empire [now in Palestine] - d. Jan. 4?, 1981, Amman, Jordan), foreign minister (1951, 1967, 1969) and prime minister (1970) of Jordan. He was also minister of public works and construction (1950), education (1950-51, 1953-54), and defense (1968-69, 1969-70) and chief of the royal court (1972-73).

Toukan, Bahauddin (b. Sept. 9, 1910 - d. ...), Jordanian diplomat. He was minister to Egypt (1948-51), ambassador to Turkey (1951-54) and the United Kingdom (1956-58), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-61, 1971-72).

Toukan, Fawwaz (Ahmad) (b. Sept. 6, 1940, Jerusalem, Palestine), Jordanian politician; son of Ahmad Toukan. He was minister of social development (1988-89).

Toukan, Jamal, until 1952 Jamal Bey Toukan (b. 1906 - d. ...), foreign minister of Jordan (1954). He was also minister to Lebanon (1950-54).

Toukan, Kadri (Hafez) (b. 1910, Nablus, Ottoman Empire [now in Palestine] - d. 1971), foreign minister of Jordan (1964-65).

Toukan, Umayya (Salah) (b. Feb. 26, 1946, Amman, Transjordan [now Jordan]), finance minister of Jordan (2011-12, 2013-15). He was also ambassador to the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg (1996-2000), governor of the Central Bank (2001-10), and a deputy prime minister (2020-21).

Toulon, Lodewijk van (b. Aug. 17, 1767, Gouda, Netherlands - d. Jan. 5, 1840, Utrecht, Netherlands), governor of Utrecht (1831-40). He was also mayor of Gouda (1815-31) and chairman of the Second Chamber (1830-31).

Toumpas, Ioannis (Nikolaou) (b. Jan. 24, 1901 - d. 1995), foreign minister of Greece (1966). He was also minister of interior (1964-65, 1965), public order (1965), public works (1965), Northern Greece (1965, 1965), and industry (1965-66).

Toungara, Adama (b. June 11, 1943, Duékoué, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), Ivorian politician. He has been mayor of Abobo (2001-18), minister of mines (2011-13) and petroleum and energy (2011-17), and ombudsman (2018- ).

Toungui, Paul (b. Sept. 7, 1950, Okondja, Gabon), finance minister (1990-94, 2002-08) and foreign minister (2008-12) of Gabon; husband of Pascaline Mferri Bongo Ondimba. He was also minister of mines, energy, and oil (1994-2002).

Toura Gaba, Pierre (Jules) (b. Dec. 28, 1920, Maibyan, near Moissala, Chad - d. March 7, 1998, N'Djamena, Chad), foreign minister of Chad (1960-61). He was also minister of agriculture, stockbreeding, waters, fisheries, and forestry (1957-58), agriculture (1958-59), public works (1959), public works and telecommunications (1959-60, 1962), and education (1961-62) and ambassador to West Germany (1966-73) and the United States (1977-79) where he remained in exile until 1991.

Touray, Isatou (b. March 17, 1955, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia), vice president of The Gambia (2019-22). She was also minister of trade, industry, regional integration, and employment (2017-18) and health and social welfare (2018-19).

Touray, Kebba S(atou) (b. Nov. 4, 1953), finance minister of The Gambia (2013-15). He was also ambassador to Spain (2007-12) and Morocco (2015-16) and minister of trade, industry, regional integration, and employment (2012-13).

O. Touray
Touray, Omar (Alieu) (b. Nov. 5, 1965, Farafenni, Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (2008-09). In 2002-08 he served as ambassador to Ethiopia and high commissioner to South Africa and Kenya. In 2007 he was appointed permanent representative to the United Nations, but did not take up the post. In 2022 he became president of the Commission of the Economic Community of West African States.

Touray, Shekou Momodou (b. Sept. 22, 1945, Bonthe Sherbro, Sierra Leone), Sierra Leonean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-13).

Touré, Abdoulaye (b. Dec. 16, 1923, Kankan, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. [executed] July 7/8, 1985, Kindia, Guinea), foreign minister of Guinea (1979-84). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-72) and minister of the trade and communications domain (1972-79).

A.S. Touré
Touré, Ahmed Sékou (b. Jan. 9, 1922, Faranah, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. March 26, 1984, Cleveland, Ohio), president (1958-84) and foreign minister (1958-61) of Guinea. He became a trade union leader and organized the first successful strike (76 days) in French West Africa. He became active in politics when he helped Félix Houphouët-Boigny of Ivory Coast form the African Democratic Rally (Rassemblement Démocratique Africain) in 1946. In 1947 he set up the Guinean Democratic Party. Touré, who proved to be a powerful orator, was elected to the French National Assembly in 1951 and 1954, but both times was not allowed to take his seat. In 1955 he was elected mayor of Conakry, and he was finally admitted to the National Assembly in 1956. As vice president of the Executive Council of Guinea from 1957, he advocated plans for the country's industrialization. When in 1958 the French territories were offered to decide by referendum on whether to join a new French Community or to become independent, Touré led a successful campaign for independence, declaring that "we prefer poverty in liberty to wealth in slavery." On Oct. 2, 1958, Guinea was declared independent and he became the first head of an independent state in French-speaking Africa. The abrupt withdrawal of French personnel and equipment threatened an economic breakdown, and Touré accepted support from the Communist bloc while also seeking help from Western nations. By 1961 he was committed to nonalignment. He was a strong supporter of Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah's plans for the political unity of Africa; when Nkrumah was deposed in 1966, Touré granted him asylum. After exiles in Portuguese Guinea attempted an invasion in 1970, he ruled increasingly with an iron hand. He was reelected without opposition in 1961, 1968, 1974, and 1982.

A.T. Touré

Aminata Touré
Touré, Amadou Toumani ("ATT") (b. Nov. 4, 1948, Mopti, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. Nov. 10, 2020, Istanbul, Turkey), president of Mali (1991-92, 2002-12).

Touré, Aminata (b. Oct. 12, 1962, Dakar, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (2013-14). She was justice minister in 2012-13.

Touré, Boubacar, Guinea-Bissauan diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium (1984-90) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-95).

Touré, Facinet (b. June 11, 1934, Mamou, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. June 14, 2021, Conakry, Guinea), foreign minister of Guinea (1984-85). He was also minister of transport and public works (1988-90) and justice (1990-92), a minor presidential candidate (1993), and ombudsman (2011-18).

Touré, Hamadoun (b. Sept. 3, 1953), secretary-general of the International Telecommunication Union (2007-14).

Touré, Ismaël (b. 1925, Faranah, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. [executed] July 8, 1985, Kindia, Guinea), economy and finance minister of Guinea (1969-79); half-brother of Ahmed Sékou Touré. He was also minister of works (1957-59), posts, telegraphs, and transport (1959-61), public works and transport (1961-62), economic development (1963-69), and mines and geology (1979-84).

Touré, Kèlètigui Fama (b. 1958? - d. Nov. 30, 2020, New York City), Guinean diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2020).

Mamadi Touré

S. Touré
Touré, Mamadi (b. Dec. 11, 1952, Kankan, French Guinea [now Guinea]), foreign minister of Guinea (2017-21). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-17).

Touré, Mamoudou (b. April 2, 1928, Kaédi, Mauritania - d. Dec. 28, 2017, Dakar, Senegal), finance minister of Senegal (1982-88). He was also Mauritanian ambassador to Western European countries (1961-62) and Senegalese minister of planning and cooperation (1981-83).

Touré, Sidya (b. Aug. 15, 1945, Dimbokro, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), prime minister of Guinea (1996-99). He was also minister of economy, finance, and planning (1996-97). He was cleared of plotting to overthrow the government by an appeals court on July 21, 2004. During the three months that he was under investigation, he was barred from talking to the press, holding public meetings, and leaving the country. He was a presidential candidate in 2010.

Touré, Younoussi (b. Dec. 27, 1941, Niodougou, Timbuktu region, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. Oct. 17, 2022, Paris, France), prime minister of Mali (1992-93). He was also president of the National Assembly (2012-14).

Tourinho, Mário Alves Monteiro (b. Sept. 12, 1871, Antonina, Paraná, Brazil - d. Oct. 25, 1964, Curitiba, Paraná), federal interventor in Paraná (1930-31).

Tournie, Henri (Charles Ferdinand Louis) (b. March 10, 1852, Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France - d. ...), interim governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1896).

Toussaint, Alec, foreign minister of Haiti (1990). He was also chargé d'affaires in the Vatican (1989-90).

Toussaint-Louverture, Louverture also spelled L'Ouverture, original name François Dominique Toussaint (b. May 20, 1743, Bréda, near Cap-François [now Cap-Haïtien], Saint-Domingue [now Haiti] - d. April 7, 1803, Fort-de-Joux, France), Haitian leader. Born into slavery, he was legally freed in 1777. A sudden slave revolt in August 1791 found him uncommitted at first, but he ultimately joined the black forces. By 1793 his military victories had won him the sobriquet Louverture, as a man who "makes an opening everywhere." When France went to war with Spain and Britain that year, he joined the Spaniards of the neighbouring colony of Santo Domingo. His victories in the north, mulatto successes in the south, and British occupation of the coasts combined to bring the French close to disaster. Yet, in May 1794, after France had freed all slaves, which Spain and Britain refused to do, he went over to the French. The French governor, Étienne Laveaux, made him lieutenant governor, and the Spaniards were expelled. He eased Laveaux out in 1796. French commissioner Léger Félicité Sonthonax made Toussaint governor-general, but Toussaint forced Sonthonax out as well in 1797. He rid himself of another nominal French superior, Gabriel Hédouville, in 1798, and in the same year forced the withdrawal of the British. Controlling all Saint-Domingue, he then overran Spanish Santo Domingo (1801) and freed its slaves. In command of the entire island, he dictated a constitution that made him governor-general for life with near absolute powers. The restoration of peace between France and Britain was the prelude to his downfall. A force of 30,000 troops sent to restore French authority arrived in January 1802. In May, he agreed to lay down his arms. A few weeks later, suspected of plotting an uprising, he was seized and sent to Fort-de-Joux in the French Alps, where he died.

Touzet, André (b. July 7, 1883, Bordeaux, France - d. May 26, 1956), resident-superior of Laos (1938-40).

Tovar (Aguilar), Agustín (b. Aug. 28, 1852, Arequipa, Peru - d. 1915), prime minister of Peru (1907). He was also minister of development and public works (1900-01), war (1901), and interior and police (1907) and president of the Senate (1911-12).

Tovar, Manoel Vieira de Albuquerque (b. April 28, 1776 - d. July 14, 1833), governor of Espírito Santo (1804-11) and Angola (1819-21) and captain-general of the Azores (1824-28).

Tovar (y Chamorro), Manuel (Bernardino) (b. May 19, 1844, Sayán, Chancay province, Lima department [now region], Peru - d. May 25, 1907, Tarma, Peru), justice and education minister of Peru (1885-86). He was also archbishop of Lima (1898-1907).

R. Tovar
Tovar Faja, Roberto (b. Nov. 12, 1944, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (2002-06). He was also chairman of the Legislative Assembly (1992-93) and minister of the presidency (1998-99).

Tovar Tamayo, Orlando (b. Feb. 2, 1933, El Tocuyo, Venezuela), justice minister of Venezuela (1970-71). He was also ambassador to Chile (1971-74).

Tovmasyan, Suren (Akopovich) (b. Jan. 2, 1910 [Dec. 20, 1909, O.S.], Shinuayr, Yelizavetpol province, Russia [now in Armenia] - d. Feb. 10, 1980, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Armenian S.S.R. (1953-60). He was also Soviet ambassador to North Vietnam (1961-64) and Libya (1965-70).

Tovua, Sir Paul (Joseph) (b. Nov. 7, 1947, Satamailoha village, Betilonga, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands - d. Feb. 5, 2021, Honiara, Solomon Islands), foreign minister of Solomon Islands (1985-88); knighted 2013. He was also minister of natural resources (1977-81) and speaker of parliament (1993-2001).

Toweett, Taaitta, formerly Elisha Kipyegon arap Toweett (b. May 5, 1925, Kericho, Kenya - d. [after car accident] October 2007), Kenyan politician. He was minister of labour and housing (1961-62), lands, survey, and town planning (1962-63), education (1969-74, 1976-79), and housing and social services (1974-76).

Towers, (Thomas) Gordon (b. July 5, 1919, Red Deer, Alta. - d. June 8, 1999, Red Deer), lieutenant governor of Alberta (1991-96).

Townley, Athol (Gordon) (b. Oct. 3, 1905, Hobart, Tas. - d. Dec. 24, 1963, East Melbourne, Vic.), defence minister of Australia (1958-63). He was also minister of social services (1951-54), air and civil aviation (1954-56), immigration (1956-58), and supply (1958).

Towns, George W(ashington Bonaparte) (b. May 4, 1802, Wilkes county, Ga. - d. July 15, 1854, Macon, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1847-51).

Townsend, John G(illis), Jr. (b. May 31, 1871, Bishop Station, Worcester county, Md. - d. April 10, 1964, Philadelphia, Pa.), governor of Delaware (1917-21).

Townsend, M(aurice) Clifford (b. Aug. 11, 1884, Blackford county, Ind. - d. Nov. 11, 1954, Hartford City, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1937-41).

Townsend, Steve, byname of Stephen Thomas Townsend (b. July 10, 1961), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (2020, 2020-21, 2021, 2021-22, 2022). He was appointed jointly with his wife Fiona Kilpatrick in 2019, both filling the post in alternate periods.

Townshend, Charles (b. Aug. 27, 1725 - d. Sept. 4, 1767, London, England), British secretary at war (1761-62) and chancellor of the exchequer (1766-67); grandson of Charles Townshend, Viscount Townshend; brother of George Townshend, Marquess Townshend. He was also first lord of trade (1763).

Townshend, Charles Townshend, (2nd) Viscount (b. April 18, 1674, Raynham, Norfolk, England - d. June 21, 1738, Raynham), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1717). He was also British ambassador to the United Netherlands (1709-11), secretary of state for the Northern Department (1714-16, 1721-30), and lord president of the council (1720-21).

Townshend, George Townshend, (1st) Marquess (b. Feb. 28, 1724, London, England - d. Sept. 14, 1807, Raynham, Norfolk, England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1767-72) and governor of Jersey (1796-1807); grandson of Charles Townshend, Viscount Townshend. He succeeded as (4th) Viscount Townshend in 1764 and was created marquess in 1787.

Towpik, Andrzej (Kazimierz) (b. 1939, Brzesc, Poland [now Brest, Belarus]), Polish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-10).

Toxopeus, Edzo (Hendrik) (b. Feb. 19, 1918, Amersfoort, Netherlands - d. Aug. 23, 2009, Oegstgeest, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (1959-65) and queen's commissioner of Groningen (1970-80).

Toxqui Fernández de Lara, Alfredo (b. Aug. 5, 1913, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla, Mexico - d. April 1, 2004, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1975-81). He was also Mexican ambassador to Algeria (1981-82) and mayor of San Pedro Cholula (1993-96).

Toydemir, Cemil Cahit (b. 1883, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. July 14, 1956, Istanbul), defense minister of Turkey (1946-47). He was also general commander of gendarmerie (1939-40).

Toyliyev, Sapardurdy, Turkmen Sapardurdy Toýlyýew (b. 1959, Tashauz oblast, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Dashoguz velayat, Turkmenistan]), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (2011-18, 2021-22). He has also been chairman of the State Committee for Tourism and Sports (2011) and president of the Academy of Sciences (2018- ).

Toyoda, Katsuzo (b. Dec. 27, 1882 - d. 1939), governor of Karafuto (1926-27). He was also governor of Fukui (1924-26).

Toyoda, Teijiro (b. August 1885, Wakayama prefecture, Japan - d. Nov. 21, 1961, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1941). He was also minister of commerce and industry (1941), overseas affairs (1941), transport and communications (1945), and munitions (1945).


Tozaka, (George) Milner (b. Oct. 21, 1951), foreign minister of the Solomon Islands (2014-19). He was also high commissioner to Australia (2000-05) and minister for public service (2006, 2007-10).

Tozoun, Kokou (Biossey) (b. Jan. 3, 1955, Sokodé, Togo), foreign minister of Togo (2003-05). He was also minister of civil service, work, and employment (1998-2003), communication and civic education (2005-06), and justice (2007-11).

Trabucchi, Giuseppe (b. June 29, 1904, Verona, Italy - d. Dec. 6, 1975, Verona), finance minister of Italy (1960-63). He was also minister of foreign trade (1963).

Trad, Petro, Arabic Butrus Turad (b. 1886, Beirut, Lebanon - d. April 5, 1947, Beirut), president of Lebanon (1943). He was also speaker of parliament (1934-35, 1937-39).

Trædal, Nils (b. Nov. 29, 1879, Sunndal, Romsdal [now Møre og Romsdal], Norway - d. Oct. 12, 1948, Oslo, Norway), acting prime minister of Norway (1932). He was also minister of education and church affairs (1931-33) and chairman of the Agrarian Party (1938-48).

Traficant, James (Anthony, Jr.) (b. May 8, 1941, Youngstown, Ohio - d. [following tractor accident] Sept. 27, 2014, Youngstown), U.S. politician. He was sheriff of Mahoning County in 1981-85. In 1983 state prosecutors charged him with taking bribes to overlook gambling and other illicit activities. A local jury acquitted him; Traficant said he was running his own sting operation when he took the money. He later lost a civil tax case and was ordered to pay more than $100,000 in back taxes. Traficant first won election to Congress as a Democrat in 1984, after his acquittal. He won reelection eight times. He feuded with his party while taking an isolationist and populist path. He broke fully with Democrats in 2001 when he voted with Republicans to seat Dennis Hastert as speaker of the House. He continued to call himself a Democrat, but his party stripped him of committee assignments and regarded him an outcast. He declined to join the Republicans, a move that would have made reelection difficult in his district. Easily recognizable among the gray suits of Congress, Traficant often wore '70s-vintage denim or plaid jackets with bell-bottom pants. He regularly took advantage of the platform his seat in Congress presented him, delivering speeches that his colleagues largely ignored but were watched by a national C-SPAN television audience. There, he berated the enforcers of federal tax law, the Internal Revenue Service, as the "Internal Rectal Service." His trademark expression, "Beam me up," came from the old Star Trek TV show. In April 2002 he was convicted of bribery, racketeering, corruption, and tax evasion. On July 24 he was expelled from the House. On July 30 he was sentenced to eight years in prison. From prison he ran for the House as an independent in November, winning 15% of the vote. He was released in September 2009.

Trajkovski, Boris (b. June 25, 1956, Strumica, Macedonia - d. Feb. 26, 2004, near Bitonja, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of Macedonia (1999-2004). He took a post in municipal administration in 1997 and became deputy foreign minister in 1998. During the Kosovo crisis in 1999 he accused NATO of paying too little attention to the ethnic tensions brewing in Macedonia. He became presidential candidate for the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE) and defeated Social Democrat Tito Petkovski in the November 1999 runoff. From the beginning, his term was marked by tensions between Slavic-speaking Macedonians and the former Yugoslav republic's large ethnic Albanian minority. Although his powers were limited and his role largely ceremonial, he presided over a NATO-brokered peace deal in 2001 that ended months of armed clashes and prevented a full-blown civil war in the state. The opposition criticized him for being too lenient towards ethnic Albanian rebels. He pledged to lead the country towards membership of the EU and NATO which, he believed, offered the best hope of lasting stability. He was killed when the plane that was to take him to Mostar for an economic conference crashed in thick fog.

Tramandaí, Antero José Ferreira de Brito, barão de (b. Jan. 11, 1787, Porto Alegre, Brazil - d. Feb. 5, 1856, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1832-35). He was also navy minister (1832, 1834-35) and president of Rio Grande do Sul (1837) and Santa Catarina (1840-48). He was made baron in 1855.

Tramecourt, Jerzy Albin de (b. March 1, 1889, Lublin, Poland - d. [executed] November 1939), governor of Poleskie (acting, 1937) and Lubelskie (1937-39) województwa.

Trammell, Park (b. April 9, 1876, Macon county, Ala. - d. May 8, 1936, Washington, D.C.), governor of Florida (1913-17). He was also a U.S. senator from Florida (1917-36).

Trampczynski, Wojciech (Stefan) (b. Feb. 8, 1860, Deblowo, near Gnesen [Gniezno], Prussia [now in Poland] - d. Sept. 2, 1953, Poznan, Poland), Polish politician. He was governor of Poznanskie województwo (1919) and marshal of the Sejm (1919-22) and the Senate (1922-27).

Trampe, Adam Johan Frederik Poulsen, greve af (b. Sept. 10, 1798, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Aug. 8, 1876, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway), governor of Nordlands amt (1829-33) and Nordre Trondhjems amt (1833-57).

Trampe, Frederik Christopher, greve af (b. June 19, 1779, Krabbesholm, Denmark - d. July 19, 1832, Rotvold [now part of Trondheim], Norway), governor of Søndre Trondhjems amt (1810-32).

Tran Cong Tuong (b. Aug. 10, 1915, Go Cong province [in present Tien Giang province], Cochinchina [now in Vietnam] - d. 1990), chairman of the Legal Affairs Committee of (North) Vietnam (1972-78).

Tran Dai Quang
Tran Dai Quang (b. Oct. 12, 1956, Quang Thien commune, Kim Son district, Ninh Binh province, North Vietnam [now in Vietnam] - d. Sept. 21, 2018, Hanoi, Vietnam), president of Vietnam (2016-18). He was also minister of public security (2011-16).

Tran Duc Luong
Tran Duc Luong (b. May 5, 1937, Pho Khanh village, Duc Pho district, Quang Ngai province, central Vietnam), president of Vietnam (1997-2006). He joined the Communist Party on Dec. 19, 1959, and became a full member on Jan. 3, 1961. He was elected to the National Assembly in 1981 and became head of its Science and Technology Commission. He was elected an alternate member of the party's powerful Central Committee in March 1982 and a full member in December 1986. In 1987, he was appointed vice chairman of the Council of Ministers (deputy prime minister), a post he held until he became president. In 1990 he headed a Hanoi delegation to Moscow to negotiate new trade terms after a disintegrating Soviet Union announced it was ending massive aid to its Southeast Asian ally. Unlike other pragmatists in Vietnam's elite power structure, he was viewed as a proponent of a cautious rather than open-arms approach to the free-market reform process which was introduced in the late 1980s. He was elected a member of the Politburo in June 1996. He emerged late as frontrunner for the presidency; political sources said he was a compromise candidate after no agreement could be reached on whether to appoint Defense Minister Gen. Doan Khue or Foreign Minister Nguyen Manh Cam, a career diplomat. While endowed with economic expertise, he was viewed as being politically closer to the centre of the ruling Communist Party than to the southern reformers at the upper levels of the Hanoi leadership. As such, he sat at the opposite end of Vietnam's narrow political spectrum to the new, reform-minded prime minister, Phan Van Khai. He was elected to a second term as president in 2002. His tenure was marked by several trips abroad to drum up investment, trade, and agricultural cooperation.

Tran Hong Ha (b. April 19, 1963, Kim Loc commune, Can Loc district, Ha Tinh province, North Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), a deputy prime minister of Vietnam (2023- ). He was also minister of natural resources and environment (2016-23).

Tran Huu Duc (b. Jan. 15, 1910, Duong Le Dong village [now in Trieu Thuan commune, Trieu Phong district], Quang Tri province, Annam [now in Vietnam] - d. Aug. 21, 1993, Hanoi, Vietnam), a deputy premier of North Vietnam (1974-76). He was also minister of state farms (1960-63), minister of the prime minister's office (1965-76), and director of the Supreme People's Procuracy (1976-81) of (North) Vietnam.

Tran Luu Quang (b. Aug. 30, 1967, Trang Bang, Tay Ninh province, South Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), a deputy prime minister of Vietnam (2023- ). He was also secretary of the party committees of Tay Ninh province (2015-19) and Haiphong city (2021-23).

Tran Phuong, original name Vu Van Dung (b. Nov. 1, 1927, My Hao, Hung Yen province, Tonkin [now in Vietnam]), a deputy premier of Vietnam (1982-86). He was also minister of internal trade (1981-82).

Tran Quang Huy, also known as Vu Duc Hue and Nguyen Huy Khoi (b. Feb. 4, 1922, Dong Ve commune, Dong Son district, Thanh Hoa province, Annam [now in Vietnam] - d. June 27, 1995, Hanoi, Vietnam), chairman of the Legal Affairs Committee of Vietnam (1980-81). He was also secretary of the party committee of Hanoi (1945-46).

Tran Quynh (b. Jan. 1, 1920, Trieu Dong commune, Trieu Phong district, Quang Tri province, Annam [now in Vietnam] - d. Oct. 7, 2005, Hanoi, Vietnam), a deputy premier of Vietnam (1981-87). He was also secretary of the party committees of Ninh Thuan (1946-47), Binh Thuan (1947), and Khanh Hoa (1948-49) and chairman of the State Commission for Science and Technology (1977-80).

Tran Thien Khiem (b. Dec. 15, 1925, Saigon [now Ho Chi Minh City], Vietnam - d. June 24, 2021, California), prime minister of South Vietnam (1969-75). He was also minister of defense (1964, 1972-75) and interior (1968-73), ambassador to the United States (1964-65) and Taiwan (1965-68), and deputy prime minister (1969).

Tran Van Chuong (b. June 2, 1898 - d. [murdered] July 23, 1986, Washington, D.C.), foreign minister of Vietnam (1945). He was South Vietnam's ambassador to the United States in 1954-63.

Tran Van Do (b. Nov. 15, 1904, Phu Ly, Vietnam - d. Dec. 20, 1990, Châtenay-Malabry, Hauts-de-Seine, France), foreign minister of South Vietnam (1954-55, 1965-68).

Tran Van Huong (b. Dec. 1, 1903, My Tho, Vietnam - d. Jan. 27, 1982, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), prime minister (1964-65, 1968-69), vice president (1971-75), and president (1975) of South Vietnam. He was also mayor of Saigon (1954-55, 1964).

Tran Van Huu (b. 1896, Vinh Long, Vietnam - d. Jan. 17, 1984, Paris, France), premier of South Vietnam (1950-52). A member of the wealthy landowning class and former governor of Cochinchina (southern Vietnam), he was named premier by the French-appointed chief of state and former emperor Bao Dai in 1950; he also held the portfolios of foreign affairs and defense. He pressed for greater independence for Vietnam while seeking more widely based Western aid in the struggle against the Communist Viet Minh. However, he was considered by many Vietnamese to be too representative of a narrow, French-influenced sector of society and failed to unite the country. Replaced in 1952, he lived in France from 1955. He came to be known as a spokesman of the "Third Force" which wanted Vietnam to be united free of foreign influence, supporting neither the southern U.S.-backed regime nor the Communist North Vietnamese. Adversaries charged his tactics played into the hands of the Communist leaders. He hailed the January 1973 Paris peace treaty as "the freeing of the Vietnamese people from the yoke of foreign domination."

Tran Van Lam (b. 1913, Cholon [now part of Ho Chi Minh City], Vietnam - d. Feb. 6, 2001, Canberra, Australia), foreign minister of South Vietnam (1969-73). He was also ambassador to Australia (1961-64) and New Zealand (1962-64) and president of the Senate (1973-75). He settled in Australia after the fall of the Saigon government in 1975.

Tran Van Tra, also called Tran Nam Trung (b. 1918, Quang Ngai province, Vietnam - d. April 20, 1996, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), defense minister of South Vietnam (1975-76; in Provisional Revolutionary Government from 1969).

Tran Van Tuan (b. Feb. 10, 1950), interior minister of Vietnam (2007-11).

Tranchevent, Auguste Victor Arnoux (b. March 19, 1835, Saint-Brieuc, Côtes-du-Nord [now Côtes-d'Armor], France - d. February 1894), interim commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1876-77).

Traoré, Abakar Sanga (b. Oct. 12, 1932, Mao, Chad), finance minister of Chad (1966-68). He was also prefect of Logone Occidental (1971-75) and Tandjilé (1975-...).

Diarra Traoré

Dioncounda Traoré
Traoré, Diarra (b. 1935 - d. July 8, 1985), prime minister of Guinea (1984). He was also minister of national education (1984-85). He was executed following a coup attempt of July 4, 1985.

Traoré, Dioncounda (b. Feb. 23, 1942, Kati, French Sudan [now Mali]), defense minister (1993-94), foreign minister (1994-97), and interim president (2012-13) of Mali. He was president of the National Assembly in 2007-12.

H. Traoré

I. Traoré
Traoré, (Nabéré) Honoré (b. Sept. 28, 1957, Dédougou, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), head of state of Burkina Faso (2014). He became chief of the armed forces in 2011.

Traoré, Ibrahim (b. March 14, 1988, Kéra, near Bondokuy, Mouhoun province, Burkina Faso), transitional president of Burkina Faso (2022- ).

Traoré, Jean (b. 1938 - d. July 20, 1999), foreign minister of Guinea (1985-92). He was also minister of mining and geology (1984) and minister of state for planning and natural resources (1985).

K.J.M. Traoré

L. Traoré
Traoré, Karamoko Jean Marie (b. Oct. 14, 1972, Nouna, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), foreign minister of Burkina Faso (2023- ).

Traoré, Lassana (b. 1945, Bamako, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (2002-04).

Traoré, Mamady (b. 1952, Sareya, French Guinea [now Guinea]), Guinean diplomat/politician. He has been chargé d'affaires in Libya (1992-93), ambassador to Nigeria (1998-2002) and Kuwait (2017- ), permanent representative to the United Nations (2002-03), and minister of commerce, industry, tourism, and crafts (2007-08).

Traoré, Mohamed Lamine (b. 1940, Forécariah, French Guinea [now Guinea]), Guinean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-89).

M. Traoré
Traoré, Moussa (b. Sept. 23, 1936, Sébétou, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. Sept. 15, 2020, Bamako, Mali), head of state of Mali (1968-91). He served first in the French army before joining the army of newly independent Mali in 1960, rising to the rank of lieutenant in 1964. In 1968 he seized power in a military coup, overthrowing Pres. Modibo Keita. Infighting among the military continued for some time; in 1972 he imprisoned his former commanding officer, Capt. Yoro Diakité, for plotting to overthrow the government. He established a one-party state in 1976. As secretary-general of the Mali People's Democratic Union, he was elected president without opposition in 1979 and 1985. Mali's former close links with the U.S.S.R. were replaced by developing relations with France and the U.S., fostered by the economic adjustment policies pursued since 1981. His heavy-handed and increasingly bloody military rule ended in a 1991 coup by military officers, who in a rare move in Africa voluntarily yielded power to a civilian transition government the following year. Traoré was condemned to death in 1993 for allegedly ordering the killing of more than 100 demonstrators. Pres. Alpha Oumar Konaré later commuted the sentence to life in prison. In 1999 he was again sentenced to death for misappropriating public funds, but the sentence was again commuted. Konaré pardoned him in 2002.

Traoré, Seydou (b. Feb. 3, 1927, Sofara, French Sudan [now Mali]), Malian diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium, Sweden, and West Germany (1968-69) and the United States (1969-75) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-75, 1979-84).

Trapans, Janis Arveds (b. June 24, 1938, Riga, Latvia), defense minister of Latvia (1994-95).

Trapeznikov, Dmitry (Viktorovich) (b. April 12, 1981, Krasnodar, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting head of the Donetsk People's Republic (2018). He became mayor of Elista (capital of Kalmykia) in 2019.

Trapl, Karel (b. Aug. 31, 1881, Chrudim, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. April 7, 1940, Prague, Bohemia and Moravia [now Czech Republic]), finance minister of Czechoslovakia (1931-36).

Trapp, Martin E(dwin) (b. April 18, 1877, Robinson, Kan. - d. July 26, 1951, Oklahoma City, Okla.), governor of Oklahoma (1923-27).

Trarieux, Ludovic (b. Nov. 30, 1840, Aubeterre-sur-Dronne, Charente, France - d. March 13, 1904, Paris, France), justice minister of France (1895).


Trautmann, Catherine (Elisabeth), née Argence (b. Jan. 15, 1951, Strasbourg, France), French politician. As mayor of Strasbourg (1989-97, 2000-01), she became a hero for leading a dogged resistance to the far right. She had the city's statue of Joan of Arc removed to prevent the National Front from staging a ceremony around it in April 1997. She was minister of culture in 1997-2000.

Trauttmansdorff(-Weinsberg), Ferdinand Fürst zu, originally Ferdinand von Trauttmansdorff (b. Jan. 12, 1749, Vienna, Austria - d. Aug. 27, 1827, Vienna), acting foreign minister of Austria (1801). He was also minister to Mainz (1785-87). He was made Fürst (prince) in 1805.

Travanut, Renzo (b. April 1, 1946, Aquileia [now in Friuli-Venezia Giulia], Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1994).

Travassos, Manoel José de Freitas (b. July 8, 1812, São Pedro do Rio Grande [now Rio Grande], Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Aug. 24, 1885, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio de Janeiro (1871 [acting], 1873-74).

Traverse, Ivan (Ivanovich), French Jean-Baptiste Prévost de Sansac, marquis de Traversay (b. July 23, 1754, Le Diamant, Martinique - d. May 31 [May 19, O.S.], 1831, Romanchino, St. Petersburg province, Russia), Russian minister of sea forces/navy (1809-28). He was also commander of the Black Sea Fleet (1802-11).

Travnikov, Andrey (Aleksandrovich) (b. Feb. 1, 1971, Cherepovets, Vologda oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Novosibirsk oblast (2017- ). He was also mayor of Vologda (2016-17).

Traxler, Vieri (b. May 23, 1928, Fauglia, Pisa province, Italy - d. Dec. 23, 2002), Italian diplomat. He was ambassador to Zaire (1976-79) and Brazil (1983-86), permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-93), and UN special representative to Sudan (1993-96).

Traykov (Girovski), Georgi (b. April 8, 1898, Vurbeni, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. Jan. 14, 1975), chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly of Bulgaria (1964-71). He was also minister of agriculture (1946-50), a deputy premier (1947-56), a first deputy premier (1956-64), and president of the National Assembly (1971-72).

Traynor, Oscar (b. March 21, 1886, Dublin, Ireland - d. Dec. 15, 1963, Dublin), defence minister of Ireland (1939-48, 1951-54). He was also minister of posts and telegraphs (1936-39) and justice (1957-61).

Trazegnies (Granda), Fernando (Carlos Léopold) de (b. Sept. 3, 1935, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1998-2000); great-grandson of José Granda. He was also ambassador of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta to Peru (1995-98).

Treacher, Sir William Hood (b. Dec. 1, 1849, Wellington, Somerset, England - d. May 3, 1919), governor of North Borneo (1881-87), British resident in Selangor (1892-96) and Perak (1896-1902), and resident-general of the Federated Malay States (1902-04); knighted 1904.

Treadell, Vicki, byname of Victoria Marguerite Treadell, née Jansz (b. Nov. 4, 1959, in present Malaysia), governor of Pitcairn Island (2010-14). She has been British high commissioner to New Zealand and Samoa (2010-14), Malaysia (2014-19), and Australia (2019- ).

Treadwell, James (b. Feb. 10, 1920 - d. Jan. 7, 2010), British political agent in Abu Dhabi (1968-71). He then became the first British ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (1971-73).

Treadwell, John (b. Nov. 23, 1745, Farmington, Connecticut - d. Aug. 19, 1823, Farmington), governor of Connecticut (1809-11).

Trebilco, Raymond Edward, byname Ray Trebilco (b. 1926, Box Hill, Vic. - d. June 1998), administrator of Norfolk Island (1982-85).

Treby, Sir George (baptized Jan. 1, 1643 - d. Dec. 13, 1700, Kensington, Middlesex [now part of London], England), British politician; knighted 1681. He was solicitor general (1689) and attorney general (1689-92).

Treby, George (b. 1684? - d. March 8, 1742), British secretary at war (1718-24); son of Sir George Treby.

Tredgold, Sir Robert Clarkson (b. June 2, 1899, Bulawayo, Matabeleland [now in Zimbabwe] - d. April 8, 1977, Marandellas, Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), justice and defense minister (1936-43) and acting governor (1953-54) of Southern Rhodesia; knighted 1951. He was also minister of native affairs (1941-43) and chief justice (1950-55) of Southern Rhodesia and chief justice (1955-60) and acting governor-general (1957) of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.

Tredos, Ferdinand Charles Alexandre (b. June 20, 1820, Villefranche-de-Conflent, Pyrénées-Orientales, France - d. ...), acting governor of Senegal (1869).

Treen, David C(onner) (b. July 16, 1928, Baton Rouge, La. - d. Oct. 29, 2009, Metairie, La.), governor of Louisiana (1980-84).

Trees, Stanley Graham (b. May 17, 1914 - d. April 1997), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (1975-78).

Treffel, Jean-Francis (b. March 15, 1955, Paris, France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (2017-18). He was also prefect of the French départements of Mayenne (2019-21) and Allier (2021-22).

Treffenberg, (Nils) Curry (Engelbrekt) (b. March 1, 1825, Göteborg, Sweden - d. Sept. 1, 1897, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Västernorrland (1873-80) and Kopparberg (1880-92).

Treholt, Thorstein (b. April 13, 1911, Skoger, Jarlsberg og Larvik amt [now Vestfold fylke], Norway - d. March 17, 1993), governor of Oppland (1976-81). He was also Norwegian agriculture minister (1971-72, 1973-76).

Treichler, Johann Jakob (b. Nov. 26, 1822, Richterswil, Zürich, Switzerland - d. Sept. 7, 1906, Zürich, Switzerland), president of the government of Zürich (1867, 1868-69).

Treilhard, Achille Libéral, comte (b. Dec. 27, 1785, Paris, France - d. Aug. 3, 1855, Le Plessis-Pâté, Seine-et-Oise [now in Essonne], France), prefect of police of Paris (1830). He was also prefect of the départements of Montserrat (1812-13), Bouches-de-l'Èbre-Montserrat (1813-14), Gers (1815), Haute-Garonne (1815), and Seine-Inférieure (1830).

Trejo Noel, Ramón Alberto (b. Aug. 7, 1920, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. [air accident] May 14, 1984, near Ushuaia, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (1983-84).

Trejo y Lerdo de Tejada, Carlos (b. Nov. 5, 1879, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Dec. 3, 1941, Mexico City), governor of Baja California (1930-31). He was also Mexican education minister (1930).

Trejos Benavides, Eugenio (b. April 13, 1959), Costa Rican politician. He was rector of the Technological Institute of Costa Rica (2003-11), a minor presidential candidate (2010), and ambassador to Honduras (2015-18).

Trejos Escalante, Fernando (José Francisco del Rosario) (b. Feb. 27, 1922, San José, Costa Rica - d. July 29, 2003), Costa Rican presidential candidate (1974); cousin of José Joaquín Trejos Fernández.

Trejos Fernández, José Joaquín (b. April 18, 1916, San José, Costa Rica - d. Feb. 10, 2010, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1966-70).

Trelles Montes, (Julio) Óscar (b. Aug. 23, 1904, Andahuaylas, Apurímac, Peru - d. Oct. 2, 1990, Lima, Peru), prime minister and interior minister of Peru (1963-64). He was also minister of public health (1945-46), ambassador to France (1964-65), and president of the Senate (1980-81).

Tremelloni, Roberto (b. Oct. 30, 1900, Milan, Italy - d. Sept. 8, 1987, Brunico, Bolzano province, Italy), finance minister (1954-55, 1963-66), treasury minister (1962-63), and defense minister (1966-68) of Italy. He was also minister of industry and commerce (1947-48) and minister without portfolio (for European Recovery Program affairs) (1948-49).

Tremenheere, Charles William (b. April 9, 1813 - d. Oct. 28, 1898), political resident of Aden (1870-72).

Tremonti, Giulio (Carlo Danilo) (b. Aug. 18, 1947, Sondrio, Italy), finance minister of Italy (1994-95, 2001-04, 2005-06, 2008-11). He was also a deputy prime minister (2005-06).

Trench, Sir David (Clive Crosbie) (b. June 2, 1915 - d. Dec. 4, 1988), high commissioner for the Western Pacific (1961-64) and governor of Hong Kong (1964-71); knighted 1962.

Trench, Martin Edwin (b. Nov. 30, 1869, Dennison, Minn. - d. Jan. 6, 1927, Worcester, Mass.), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (1925-27).

Trendota, Józef (b. Jan. 14, 1921, Tarnów, Poland - d. Aug. 4, 1989, Warsaw, Poland), finance minister of Poland (1969-71). He was also chairman of the State Prices Commission (1972-76).

Trenta, Elisabetta (b. June 4, 1967, Velletri, near Rome, Italy), defense minister of Italy (2018-19).

Trentinian, (Louis) Edgard de (b. Aug. 25, 1851, Brest, France - d. May 24, 1942, Paris, France), governor of French Sudan (1895-99).

Trepczynski, Stanislaw (b. April 7, 1924, Lódz, Poland - d. June 20, 2002), president of the UN General Assembly (1972-73). He was also Polish ambassador to Italy (1977-81).

Trepov, Aleksandr (Fyodorovich) (b. Sept. 27 [Sept. 15, O.S.], 1862 - d. Nov. 10, 1928, Nice, France), prime minister of Russia (1916-17); brother of Fyodor Trepov, Dmitry Trepov, and Vladimir Trepov; brother-in-law of Aleksandr Mosolov. He was also minister of communications (1915-17).

Trepov, Dmitry (Fyodorovich) (b. Dec. 2, 1855 - d. Sept. 2, 1906), Russian official; brother of Fyodor Trepov; brother-in-law of Aleksandr Mosolov. He was governor-general of St. Petersburg (1905).

Trepov, Fyodor (Fyodorovich) (b. May 13, 1854 - d. March 27, 1938), Russian official; brother-in-law of Aleksandr Mosolov. He was governor of Vyatka (1894-96), Volyn (1896-98), and Kiev (1898-1903) and governor-general of Kiev, Podolia, and Volyn (1908-14).

Trepov, Vladimir (Fyodorovich) (b. Jan. 6, 1860 - d. [executed] July 22, 1918, Kronshtadt [now part of St. Petersburg], Russia), Russian official; brother of Fyodor Trepov and Dmitry Trepov; brother-in-law of Aleksandr Mosolov. He was governor of Tavrida (1902-05).

Tres Rios, Joaquim Egydio de Souza Aranha, barão, visconde, conde e marquês de (b. March 19, 1821, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil - d. May 19, 1893, São Paulo, Brazil), acting president of São Paulo (1878-79, 1881, 1881-82). He was made baron in 1872, viscount in 1879, count in 1880, and marquess in 1887.

Treub, (Marie) Willem (Frederik) (b. Nov. 30, 1858, Voorschoten, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. July 24, 1931, The Hague, Netherlands), finance minister of the Netherlands (1914-16, 1917-18). He was also minister of agriculture, industry, and trade (1913-14).

Treurnicht, Andries (Petrus) (b. Feb. 19, 1921, Piketberg, South Africa - d. April 22, 1993, Cape Town, South Africa), South African politician. He was a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church (1946-60) and became the editor of its influential journal Die Kerkbode. In this capacity he came to the attention of Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd, who was seeking some philosophical justification for the policy of apartheid. Treurnicht provided this and was invited by Verwoerd's successor, B.J. Vorster, to become editor of the new Pretoria daily Hoofstad (1967-71), a mouthpiece of conservative opinion. A staunch supporter of the ruling National Party (NP), he was elected to parliament as NP member for Waterberg in a 1971 by-election and eventually joined the government as deputy minister for Bantu administration and education (1976-78), (Bantu) education and training (1978-79), and plural relations (1978-79), and as minister of public works, statistics, and tourism (1979-80) and state administration and statistics (1980-82). He was also Transvaal leader of the NP (1978-82). Known as "Dr. No" for his firm stand against any dilution of the apartheid system (he triggered the Soweto uprising of 1976 when he insisted that black children be taught in Afrikaans), his views clashed with reformers of the governing party, and in 1982 he left the cabinet and broke away from the NP when it accepted a proposal to create a tricameral parliament, with separate chambers for Coloureds and Indians. He then founded the Conservative Party, which won 23 seats in the 1987 elections, becoming the official opposition. He always distanced himself and his party from violence and from militant right-wing groups such as the neo-Nazi Afrikaner Resistance Movement and towards the end of his life softened the party's approach and participated in multiparty constitutional talks.

Trevaskis, Sir (Gerald) Kennedy (Nicholas) (b. Jan. 1, 1915, Hove, Sussex, England - d. March 14, 1990, near Crawley, Sussex), high commissioner of the Federation of South Arabia (1963-64); knighted 1963.

Trevelyan, Sir Charles Edward, (1st) Baronet (b. April 2, 1807, Taunton, Somerset, England - d. June 19, 1886, London, England), governor of Madras (1859-60). He was knighted in 1848 and created baronet in 1874.

Trevelyan, Humphrey Trevelyan, Baron (b. Nov. 27, 1905, Hindhead, Surrey, England - d. Feb. 8, 1985, London, England), British diplomat. He joined the Indian Civil Service in 1929. After he was transferred (1932) to the Political Department, he worked successively in the central princely states, in Delhi, Gwalior, Mysore, and Bahawalpur, and in the southern Rajputana states before being sent (1944) to Washington, D.C., as secretary to the agent-general for India. He returned to Delhi (1946) as joint secretary in the External Affairs Department but left when India achieved independence (1947). Trevelyan successively served as counsellor in Baghdad (1948-51), economic and financial adviser at the U.K. High Commission for Germany (1951-53), British chargé d'affaires at Beijing (1953-55), and ambassador to Egypt (1955-56) at the time of the Suez crisis. He went as under secretary to the UN in 1958 but soon resigned to become ambassador to Iraq (1958-61). He was deputy under secretary of state at the Foreign Office in London (1962) before going as ambassador to Moscow (1962-65). He retired in 1965 but was sent by Prime Minister Harold Wilson as high commissioner in Southern Arabia (1967) during the troubles in Aden that preceded the establishment of independent Yemen (Aden). Knighted in 1955, he was created a life peer in 1968.

Treviño (González), Jacinto B(las) (b. Sept. 11, 1883, Guerrero, Coahuila, Mexico - d. Nov. 6, 1971, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was minister of war and marine (1914) and industry, commerce, and labour (1920).

Treviño (Leal), (José) Jerónimo (de los Dolores) (b. Nov. 20, 1836, La Escondida hacienda, Cadereyta municipality, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Nov. 14, 1914, Laredo, Texas), governor of Nuevo León (1867-71, 1877, 1913). He was also Mexican minister of war and marine (1880-81).

Treviño Martínez, Jorge (Alonso) (b. Nov. 2, 1935, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1985-91).

Trévise, Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, duc de (b. Feb. 13, 1768, Le Cateau-Cambrésis [now in Nord département], France - d. [assassinated] July 28, 1835, Paris, France), prime minister and war minister of France (1834-35). He was also ambassador to Russia (1830-32). He was created duc de Trévise in 1808.

Trevor, Sir Arthur Charles (b. April 6, 1841, Jalalabad, Afghanistan - d. Sept. 22, 1920), commissioner of Sind (1889-91); knighted 1898.

Trevor, Arthur Prescott (b. March 17, 1872 - d. April 4, 1930), British political agent and consul in Muscat and Oman (1910-11), political agent in Bahrain (1912-14), and political resident in the Persian Gulf (1915-17 [acting], 1919-20 [acting], 1920-24).

Trevor, George Herbert (b. Jan. 29, 1840 - d. July 10, 1927), chief commissioner of Ajmer-Merwara (1890-95).

Trézel, Camille Alphonse (b. Jan. 5, 1780, Paris, France - d. April 11, 1860, Paris), war minister of France (1847-48).

Tria, Giovanni (b. Sept. 28, 1948, Rome, Italy), finance minister of Italy (2018-19).

Triaca, (Alberto) Jorge (b. May 13, 1941 - d. Oct. 22, 2008, Buenos Aires, Argentina), labour minister of Argentina (1989-91).

Triaca, Jorge (Alberto) (b. March 30, 1974, Buenos Aires, Argentina), labour minister of Argentina (2015-19); son of the above.

Triantaphyllakos, Nikolaos (b. Nov. 20 [Nov. 8, O.S.], 1855, Tripoli, Greece - d. Sept. 16, 1939, Athens, Greece), prime minister and foreign minister of Greece (1922). He was also minister of justice (1897), interior (1898-99, 1901-02, 1909-10, 1915), ecclesiastical affairs and public education (provisional, 1909), marine (provisional, 1922), a minister without portfolio (1922), and high commissioner of Constantinople (1922).

Trias y Closas, Mariano (b. Oct. 12, 1868, San Francisco de Malabon [now General Trias], Cavite, Philippines - d. Jan. 22, 1914, Manila, Philippines), finance secretary (1899) and war secretary (1899) of the Philippine Republic. He was also governor of Cavite (1898, 1901-05).

Tribbitt, Sherman W(illard) (b. Nov. 9, 1922, Easton, Md. - d. Aug. 14, 2010, Milford, Del.), governor of Delaware (1973-77).

Triches, Euclides (b. April 23, 1919, Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Feb. 11, 1994, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1971-75). He was also mayor of Caxias do Sul (1951-54).

Trichkov, Krustyu (Sergeev) (b. April 12, 1923, Belitsa, Bulgaria), a deputy premier of Bulgaria (1976-81). He was also first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Blagoevgrad district (1959-71) and chairman of the State and People's Control Committee (1976-81).

Trier, Herman (Martin) (b. May 10, 1845, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Sept. 1, 1925, Copenhagen), Danish politician. He was speaker of the Folketing (1901-05).

Trifily, secular name Trifily Inikhov (d. 1702), Locum Tenens of Moscow and All Russia (1700-01). He was metropolitan of Nizhny Novgorod (1697-99) and Krutitsy (1699-1702).

Trifonov, Ivaylo (Pelov) (b. June 1, 1941, Gorni Dabnik, Bulgaria), a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (1994-95). He was also ambassador to Yugoslavia (1997-2001).

Trifunovic, Bogdan (b. Dec. 28, 1933, Turija, Vojvodina, Serbia - d. July 25, 2007, Belgrade, Serbia), chairman of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia (1989-90). In 1993-96 he was president of the Constitutional Court of Yugoslavia and in 1996-99 Yugoslav ambassador to France.

Trifunovic, Milos (b. Oct. 30, 1871, Uzice, Serbia - d. Feb. 19, 1957, Belgrade, Serbia), acting foreign minister (1926) and prime minister in exile (1943) of Yugoslavia. He was also minister of education (1917-18, 1920, 1922-23, 1926-27, 1941-43), religious affairs (1917-18, 1924-26), public works (1924), and internal affairs (1943).

Trigo Loubiere, Jacques, finance minister of Bolivia (2001-02).

Triki, Ali (Abdessalam), Triki also spelled Treiki or Treki, Arabic `Ali `Abd al-Salam al-Tariki (b. 1938, Misurata, Libya - d. Oct. 19, 2015, Cairo, Egypt), foreign minister of Libya (1976-82, 1984-86) and president of the United Nations General Assembly (2009-10). He was also Libya's permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-84, 1986-91, 2003-04) and ambassador to France (1995-2001).

Ch. Trikoupis
Trikoupis, Charilaos (Spyridonou) (b. July 23, 1832, Navplion, Greece - d. April 11, 1896, Cannes, France), Greek statesman; son of Spyridon Trikoupis. After representing the London Greeks in the Constituent Assembly in Athens (1862) and serving as minister to the United Kingdom (1862-65), he entered the Chamber of Deputies in 1865 and became foreign (1866-68, 1875, 1877-78, 1878, 1880, 1882-83), interior (1875, 1882-83, 1888), finance (1878, 1880, 1883-85, 1886-90, 1892-93, 1893-95), and military (1882-85, 1886-90) minister. He was prime minister for short periods in 1875, 1878, and 1880, but at first had no opportunity to begin carrying out his policy - to develop the resources of the country and create an army and navy. He became prime minister for the fourth time in 1882 and at once set about the task of putting Greek finance upon a firmer basis and of increasing the prosperity of the country by building roads, railways, and harbours. He was defeated in the general election of April 1885 and replaced by Theodoros Diligiannis, but resumed office in May 1886. His difficulties were increased by the large expenditures which had been incurred by Diligiannis for military preparations. Trikoupis nevertheless believed that he could raise the value of Greek paper currency to par in a few years, and based his calculations on that assumption. His dexterity in finance was generally admired, and his schemes for the construction of roads and railways met with success. But Greece could not meet its obligations, and he failed in his attempts to make terms with the creditors of the country. He resigned in 1890, but returned to power twice again, in 1892-93 and 1893-95. After the general election of 1895, at which he was defeated, he retired from public life. Though he has been criticized for being excessively ambitious and far too optimistic, his abilities and character were unquestioned. He had no sympathy with the arts of the demagogue.

Trikoupis, Spyridon (Ioannou) (b. April 20, 1788, Missolonghi, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. Feb. 24, 1873, Athens, Greece), secretary of state (1828-29), foreign minister (1829, 1832-33, 1844, 1855-56), and prime minister (1833) of Greece. He was also minister of ecclesiastic affairs and public education (1833, 1844) and justice (1844) and minister to the United Kingdom (1834-37, 1841-43, 1849-62).

Trillard, Adolphe Joseph Antoine (b. April 18, 1826, Fort-de-France, Martinique - d. ...), governor of French India (1875-78).

Trillo-Figueroa y Martínez-Conde, Federico (b. May 23, 1952, Cartagena, Spain), defense minister of Spain (2000-04). He was also president of the Congress of Deputies (1996-2000) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2012-17).

Trimble, Allen (b. Nov. 24, 1783, Augusta county, Va. - d. Feb. 3, 1870, Hillsboro, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1822 [acting], 1826-30).

D. Trimble
Trimble, (William) David Trimble, Baron (b. Oct. 15, 1944, Belfast, Northern Ireland - d. July 25, 2022), Northern Ireland politician. He began his political career in 1973 when he joined the Vanguard Party, which was established after the abolition of Northern Ireland's parliament in 1972. He supported the strikes by Protestant workers that brought down the short-lived power-sharing assembly in 1974. Later Vanguard split, and Trimble, as part of its relatively moderate faction, joined the mainstream Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) in 1978. When the Irish Republican Army (IRA) called a ceasefire in 1994, he opposed negotiations with its political wing Sinn Féin and warned his party not to make concessions to terrorism. In 1995 his record as a hardliner helped him win the leadership of the UUP. But he agreed to take part in peace talks which embraced every political group in Northern Ireland. It was the dialogue between Trimble and Roman Catholic leader John Hume that was crucial. Both had enough credit with the more militant members of their communities to deliver the necessary compromises to secure what became known as the Good Friday Agreement (April 10, 1998). In October 1998 the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the two architects of the agreement. Trimble walked a tightrope as first minister (from July 1, 1998) of a new 108-member Northern Ireland Assembly in which Protestants and Catholics shared power. In 2001 he resigned as the IRA stalled on disarmament; he was reelected four months later. His government was suspended in 2002 after allegations the IRA was spying on U.K. officials in the province and still failing to hand over weapons. He was also a member of the British Parliament from 1990 until 2005, when he lost his seat and the UUP was decimated; he then resigned as party leader. In 2006 he was made a life peer.

Trimborn, Karl (b. Dec. 2, 1854, Cologne, Prussia [Germany] - d. July 25, 1921, Bonn, Germany), interior minister of Germany (1918). He was also chairman of the Centre Party (1920-21).

Trindade, Teófilo José da (b. Jan. 27, 1856 - d. Dec. 10, 1936), foreign minister of Portugal (1915). He was also minister of colonies (1915).

Trinh Dinh Dung (b. Aug. 25, 1956, Vinh Phuc province, North Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), a deputy prime minister of Vietnam (2016-21). He was also secretary of the party committee of Vinh Phuc province (2004-10) and minister of construction (2011-16).

Trinh Xuan Lang (b. Sept. 4, 1927, Hanoi, Vietnam), Vietnamese diplomat. He was ambassador to Indonesia (1981-84) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-93).

Trinkle, E(lbert) Lee (b. March 12, 1876, Wytheville, Va. - d. Nov. 25, 1939, Richmond, Va.), governor of Virginia (1922-26).

Triolle, Alain (b. Feb. 3, 1961), acting high commissioner of New Caledonia (2002). He was also prefect of Ardèche département (2015-17).

Trip, Hendrik Rudolph (b. April 2, 1779, 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands - d. Jan. 7, 1865, The Hague, Netherlands), war minister of the Netherlands (1834-40). He was also chairman of the First Chamber (1845-49).

Tripathi, (Pandit) Kamlapati (b. Sept. 3, 1905 - d. Oct. 8, 1990), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1971-73). He was also Indian minister of shipping and transport (1973-75) and railways (1975-77, 1980).

K.N. Tripathi
Tripathi, Keshari Nath (b. Nov. 10, 1934, Allahabad, United Provinces [now Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Jan. 8, 2023, Prayagraj), governor of West Bengal (2014-19), Bihar (2014-15, 2017), Meghalaya (2015), and Mizoram (2015).

Tripathy, Sarasiva (b. April 21, 1910 - d. Sept. 9, 1980, Cuttack, Orissa [now Odisha], India), chief minister of Orissa (1965-67).

Tripp, (John) Peter (b. March 27, 1921, London, England - d. Dec. 11, 2010, London), British political agent in the Trucial States (1955-58) and Bahrain (1962-65). He was also ambassador to Libya (1970-74) and Thailand (1978-81) and high commissioner to Singapore (1974-78).

Tristán (y Moscoso), (Juan) Pío de (b. July 11, 1773, Arequipa, Peru - d. Aug. 24, 1859, Lima, Peru), acting viceroy of Peru (1824-26), acting finance minister (1836) and foreign, interior, and war and navy minister (1836-37) of North Peru, and provisional president of South Peru (1838-39).

Tritle, Frederick A(ugustus) (b. Aug. 7, 1833, near Chambersburg, Pa. - d. Nov. 18, 1906, Phoenix, Ariz.), governor of Arizona (1881-85).

Trittin, Jürgen (b. July 25, 1954, Bremen, West Germany), German politician. As a student he was active in a Communist group, but in 1980 he joined the Greens, becoming a member of their more radical "fundamentalist" or "Fundi" wing. But he also proved capable of compromise. He served in Gerhard Schröder's cabinet in Niedersachsen when the northern state was run by a coalition of Social Democrats (SPD) and Greens from 1990 to 1994. As the state's minister for European and federal affairs, he showed flexibility in accepting projects the Greens had previously opposed such as bringing the Expo 2000 world fair to Hannover. But he also remained true to his left-wing roots, by advocating liberal asylum policies and accusing Germany's big parties of making racist sentiment acceptable. His ministry was widely regarded as one of the best-run in the state government. He held the national co-leadership of the Greens in 1994-98. Some moderate Greens accused him of not keeping the "Fundis" under control after a party congress in March 1998 approved hardline plans to raise petrol prices and rejected keeping German soldiers in Bosnia. The party had to hold a second congress in June to water down the decisions after they alienated many potential voters. After the September 1998 federal election, he became environment minister under Chancellor Schröder, keeping the post until the end of the SPD-Green government in 2005. He left the Bundestag at the end of 2023.

Trivedi, Sir Chandulal Madhavlal (b. July 2, 1893 - d. March 14, 1980, Kapadvanj, Gujarat, India), governor of Orissa (1946-47), Punjab (1947-53), and Andhra Pradesh (1953-57); knighted 1945.

Trivedi, Ram Krishna (b. Jan. 1, 1921, Myingyan, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. Nov. 19, 2015, Lucknow, India), governor of Gujarat (1986-90). He was also chief election commissioner of India (1982-85).

Troadec, (Jean) René (b. July 6, 1908, Plounéour-Trez, Finistère, France - d. Aug. 10, 1986, Lesneven, Finistère), governor of Chad (1956-59).

Tróccoli, Antonio (Américo) (b. Feb. 21, 1925, Tres Arroyos, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Feb. 27, 1995), interior minister of Argentina (1983-87).

Trócsányi, László (b. March 6, 1956, Budapest, Hungary), justice minister of Hungary (2014-19). He was also ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (2000-04) and France (2010-14).

Troelstra, Pieter Jelles (b. April 20, 1860, Leeuwarden, Netherlands - d. May 12, 1930, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He began his career as a leader of "Young Friesland," a Frisian revival group. He joined the Social Democratic League in 1890 but opposed the anarchist tendencies of its leader, Domela Nieuwenhuis, and co-founded the Social Democratic Labour Party in August 1894, becoming its parliamentary leader in 1897. Although he called for revolution, he primarily used parliamentary tactics. By 1900 his party was dominant on the left, and it soon established itself as the second largest in the country. As its leader in the Second Chamber (lower house) from 1897 to 1925, he supported unemployment insurance legislation (passed in 1913), helped write a constitutional revision granting universal male suffrage (1917), and championed female suffrage in local elections and old-age insurance laws (passed in 1919). As a Socialist leader in a neutral country, he was foremost in the effort to hold an international Socialist conference in Stockholm in May 1917 to attempt bringing about peace. He was accused of being pro-German, in that he had made visits to Berlin to confer with an undersecretary of state for foreign affairs, and accordingly was later refused admission to England. When he led an abortive attempt to overthrow the monarchy in November 1918, the majority of his party and the Socialist trade unions disavowed his actions, and his control over the party was damaged. He nevertheless remained popular with the workers. He retired as party leader in 1924 and from parliament in 1925.

Trøen, Tone Wilhelmsen, née Wilhelmsen (b. Feb. 23, 1966, Bærum, Akershus, Norway), Norwegian politician. She was president of the Storting (2018-21).

Troenco, Valeriu (b. June 2, 1957, Coscodeni, Moldavian S.S.R.), defense minister of Moldova (2014-15).

Trofimov, Aleksandr (Stepanovich) (b. October 1903 - d. June 15, 1980, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R. (1959-63). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Balashov oblast (1954-57).

Trofin, Virgil (b. July 23, 1926, Lipovat, Vaslui county, Romania - d. July 4, 1984, Calarasi, Romania), a deputy premier of Romania (1972-74, 1978-81). He was also minister of internal trade (1972-74), forestry and building materials (1977-78), and mines, oil, and geology (1979-81) and first secretary of the party committee and chairman of the executive committee of Brasov county (1974-77).

Tróia, Moysés (Wille) Lupion de, also spelled Troya (b. March 25, 1908, Jaguariaíva, Paraná, Brazil - d. Aug. 29, 1991, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Paraná (1947-51, 1956-61).

Troil, Birger Gustaf Samuel friherre von (b. March 12, 1868, Vasa [Vaasa], Finland - d. Oct. 13, 1926, Helsinki, Finland), governor of Viborg (1907-10); son of Gustaf Axel Samuel friherre von Troil.

Troil, (Georg Gabriel) Emil von (b. June 9, 1800, Jumkil socken [now part of Uppsala municipality], Uppsala, Sweden - d. Nov. 19, 1859, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Kristianstad (1856-59).

Troil, Gustaf Axel Samuel friherre von, byname Gösta von Troil (b. Sept. 25, 1837, Pemar socken, Åbo och Björneborg, Finland - d. March 26, 1909, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Sankt Michel (1884-89) and Åbo och Björneborg (1889-91); son of Samuel Werner friherre von Troil. He was also director of the Bank of Finland (1875-84).

Troil, Knut friherre von (b. Sept. 4, 1760, Uppsala, Sweden - d. Oct. 4, 1825, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Åbo och Björneborg (1806-16). He was made a Finnish friherre (baron) in 1809.

Troil, Samuel (Gustaf) von (b. May 7, 1804, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Nov. 3, 1880, Malmö, Sweden), governor of Malmöhus (1851-74); cousin of Emil von Troil.

Troil, Samuel Werner friherre von (b. April 3, 1798, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Aug. 27, 1865, Tavastehus [now Hämeenlinna], Finland), governor of Åbo och Björneborg (acting, 1856), Sankt Michel (1856-63), and Tavastehus (1863-65); son of Knut friherre von Troil.

Troina, Gaetano (b. Feb. 14, 1987, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2023-24).

Trøjborg, Jan (b. Dec. 14, 1955, Horsens, Denmark - d. May 6, 2012, Aarhus, Denmark), defense minister of Denmark (2000-01). He was also minister of industry (1993-94), transport (1994-96), business and industry (1996-98), research (1998-99), and development cooperation (1999-2000).

Trolle, Eric Birger (b. Sept. 23, 1863, Klågerup, Malmöhus [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. April 21, 1934, Mösseberg, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1905-09) and governor of Östergötland (1912-30). He was also minister to Germany (1909-12).

Trolle-Wachtmeister, Axel (Knut) greve (b. March 13, 1812, Stockholm, Sweden - d. April 7, 1907, Kristianstad, Kristianstad [now in Skåne], Sweden), governor of Kristianstad (1866-83); son of Hans Gabriel greve Trolle-Wachtmeister.

Trolle-Wachtmeister, Carl Axel greve (b. May 8, 1754, Karlskrona, Blekinge, Sweden - d. April 5, 1810, Trolle-Ljungby socken [now part of Kristianstad municipality], Kristianstad [now in Skåne], Sweden), prime minister for justice of Sweden (1809-10).

Trolle-Wachtmeister, Hans Gabriel greve (b. Sept. 11, 1782, Stockholm, Sweden - d. July 11, 1871, Kristianstad, Kristianstad [now in Skåne], Sweden), prime minister for justice of Sweden (1840); son of Carl Axel greve Trolle-Wachtmeister.

Tromont, Michel (Jules Arthur) (b. June 24, 1937, Quiévrain, Hainaut, Belgium - d. July 9, 2018, Audregnies, Hainaut), Belgian politician. He was minister of francophone education (1981-83) and governor of Hainaut (1983-2004).

Tromp, Jossy, byname of Francisco José Tromp (b. Aug. 21, 1925 - d. March 2014), administrator of Aruba (1973-79).

Troncoso (Castillo), Raúl (b. April 27, 1935, Santiago, Chile - d. Nov. 28, 2004, Santiago), defense minister (1998) and interior minister (1998-2000) of Chile. He was also ambassador to Italy (1990-92).

Troncoso de la Concha, Manuel de Jesús (María Ulpiano) (b. April 3, 1878, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - d. May 30, 1955, Ciudad Trujillo [now Santo Domingo]), member of the Council of Secretaries (1911), vice president (1938-40), and president (1940-42) of the Dominican Republic. From 1943 to his death he was president of the Senate.

Tronin, Andrey (Vasilyevich) (b. Oct. 9 [Sept. 26, O.S.], 1901, Seligurt, Vyatka province [now in Udmurtia republic], Russia - d. 1977), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars/Council of Ministers of the Udmurt A.S.S.R. (1937-48). He was also people's commissar of health (1935-37?).

Trooz, Jules (Henri Ghislain Marie) de (b. Feb. 21, 1857, Leuven, Belgium - d. Dec. 31, 1907, Brussels, Belgium), interior minister (1899-1907) and cabinet chief (1907) of Belgium.

Troshchinsky, Dmitry (Prokofyevich) (b. Oct. 26, 1749 - d. Feb. 26, 1829), justice minister of Russia (1814-17). He was also minister of imperial lands (1802-06).

Trost, Carlisle A(lbert) H(erman) (b. April 24, 1930, Valmeyer, Ill. - d. Sept. 29, 2020, Maryland), U.S. chief of naval operations (1986-90).

L. Trotsky
Trotsky, Lev (Davidovich), commonly known in English as Leon Trotsky, original name Lev Davidovich Bronshtein (b. Nov. 7 [Oct. 26, O.S.], 1879, Yanovka, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Aug. 21, 1940, Coyoacán, Mexico City, Mexico), Russian revolutionary. In 1898 he was arrested for revolutionary activity and spent 4½ years in prison and in exile in Siberia. He escaped in 1902 with a forged passport bearing the name Trotsky, which he adopted as his revolutionary pseudonym. Upon the outbreak of revolutionary disturbances in 1905, he returned to Russia. Again jailed (1906) and exiled to Siberia, he once again escaped in 1907. He returned to Russia in May 1917, was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet in October, was a leader in the November revolution, and became people's commissar of foreign affairs (1917-18) and of war (1918-25). As war commissar, he had the formidable task of building the new Red Army out of the shambles of the old Russian army and turning back attacks by the anti-Communist White armies in the 1918-20 civil war. He was clearly established as the number-two man next to Vladimir Lenin and was one of the initial five members of the Politburo when that top Communist Party body was created in 1919. In the struggle for power following Lenin's death (1924), however, he fell prey to Iosif Stalin's greater cunning and ruthlessness. Trotsky was expelled in October 1926 from the Politburo and in 1927 from the Central Committee and then from the party itself. In January 1928, he was exiled to remote Alma-Ata. In January 1929 he was banished from the territory of the Soviet Union, moving successively to Turkey, France (1933), Norway (1935), and Mexico (1937). He remained the leader of an anti-Stalinist opposition and in 1938 his followers founded a Fourth International. He was finally assassinated by a Stalinist agent, Ramón Mercader.

Trotsky, Vitaly (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 31 [Dec. 19, O.S.], 1835 - d. May 22 [May 9, O.S.], 1901, Vilna, Russia [now Vilnius, Lithuania]), governor-general of Vilna, Kovno, and Grodno (1897-1901). He was also governor of Syrdarya oblast (1878-83).

Trott, Lyndon (Sean) (b. 1964?), chief minister of Guernsey (2008-12, 2023- ).

Trott zu Solz, August (Clemens Bodo Paul Wilhelm) von (b. Dec. 29, 1855, Imshausen, Hesse-Kassel [now part of Bebra, Hessen, Germany] - d. Oct. 27, 1938, Imshausen), Oberpräsident of Brandenburg (1905-09) and Hessen-Nassau (1917-19).

Trotta, Frederico (b. Aug. 27, 1899, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. December 1980, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Iguaçu (1946) and Guaporé (1947-48).

Trotter, Jonathan (b. 1797, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England - d. April 5, 1865, New York City), mayor of Brooklyn (1835-36).

Trotzig, Mårten friherre (b. 1646 - d. May 23, 1706, Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden), governor of Östergötland (1702-06). He was made friherre (baron) in 1705.

Trought, (Walter) Stuart (b. 1950), president of the States of Alderney (2011-19).

Trouillé, Pierre (Albert) (b. Jan. 25, 1907, Vic-de-Bigorre, Hautes-Pyrénées, France - d. Jan. 20, 1986), prefect of Martinique (1947-50). He was also prefect of the French départements of Corrèze (1944), Sarthe (1950-56), Loire-Atlantique (1956-62), and Indre-et-Loire (1962-63).

Trouillot, Georges (Marie Denis Gabriel) (b. May 7, 1851, Champagnole, Jura, France - d. Nov. 21, 1916, Paris, France), French politician. He was minister of colonies (1898, 1909-10) and commerce, industry, and posts and telegraphs (1902-05, 1905-06).

Troup, George M(ichael), also called George McIntosh Troup (b. Sept. 8, 1780, McIntosh's Bluff, Ga. [now in Ala.] - d. April 26, 1856, Montgomery county, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1823-27).

Trousdale, William (b. Sept. 23, 1790, Orange county, N.C. - d. March 27, 1872, Nashville, Tenn.), governor of Tennessee (1849-51). He was also U.S. minister to Brazil (1853-57).

Trouvé-Chauvel, Ariste Jacques (b. Nov. 8, 1805, La Suze, Sarthe, France - d. Oct. 13, 1883, Paris, France), prefect of Seine département (1848) and finance minister of France (1848). He was also mayor of Le Mans (1840-43).

M. Trovoada
Trovoada, Miguel (dos Anjos da Cunha Lisboa) (b. Dec. 27, 1936, São Tomé), prime minister (1975-79) and president (1991-95, 1995-2001) of São Tomé and Príncipe. In 1960 he co-founded the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe (MLSTP) with Manuel Pinto da Costa. The MLSTP then began operating out of its headquarters in Gabon. Trovoada held the post of secretary-general for foreign affairs 1961-75, and was instrumental in gaining Organization of African Unity recognition for the MLSTP in 1972. Following independence from Portugal in 1975, he became the country's first prime minister, while da Costa became president. The MLSTP became the sole legal party. He was also minister of defense and foreign affairs (1975), economy coordination, cooperation, and tourism (1975-78), and trade, industry, and fisheries (1978-79). Relations between the two leaders turned sour and President da Costa abolished the office of prime minister in 1979. Later that year Trovoada was charged with plotting against the government; he was imprisoned for 21 months and in 1981 exiled to France. He returned in 1990 after a new constitution was adopted officially ending one-party rule. The MLSTP lost the legislative elections and, running unopposed as an independent candidate, Trovoada won the country's first free presidential election. In 1995 he was deposed in a bloodless coup, but was soon reinstated after agreeing to pardon the soldiers who participated in the coup. International threats to cut off aid to the country hastened the government's restoration. In 1996 he was reelected to another five-year term, running against former president da Costa. However, the MLSTP won a majority of seats in the 1998 legislative elections. In 2001 he was ineligible for reelection, having served the maximum two terms permitted by the constitution. He was UN special representative for Guinea-Bissau and head of the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau in 2014-16.

P. Trovoada
Trovoada, Patrice (Emery) (b. March 18, 1962, Libreville, Gabon), foreign minister (2001-02) and prime minister (2008, 2010-12, 2014-18, 2022- ) of São Tomé and Príncipe; son of Miguel Trovoada. He was a presidential candidate in 2006.

Trowbridge, Sir Richard (John) (b. Jan. 21, 1920, England - d. May 4, 2003, England), governor of Western Australia (1980-83); knighted 1975. After a sea-going career in which he had commanded the Fishery Protection Squadron (1962-64), the guided missile destroyer HMS Hampshire (1967-69), and the Royal Yacht Britannia (1970-75), Rear Admiral Trowbridge found himself summoned from retirement in 1980 to become governor. By that stage in the relationship between Britain and her former colony, it was highly unusual for a non-Australian to be asked to fill such a post, but there was no obvious homegrown candidate available at the time. The premier of the state, Sir Charles Court, happened to be in London, where an old friend was serving as deputy private secretary to the queen; both men knew Trowbridge, and it was decided to ask him. The fact that he was a naval officer somewhat quietened the incipient noises of discontent from Labor politicians in Canberra, and he went on to serve as governor for three years, during which he managed to visit all the shires of the state.

Troy, John W(eir) (b. Oct. 31, 1868, Dungeness, Wash. - d. May 2, 1942, Juneau, Alaska), governor of Alaska (1933-39).

Troyanovsky, Aleksandr (Antonovich) (b. Jan. 13 [Jan. 1, O.S.], 1882, Tula, Russia - d. June 23, 1955, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet diplomat. He was ambassador to Japan (1928-33) and the United States (1934-38).

Troyanovsky, Oleg (Aleksandrovich) (b. Nov. 24, 1919, Moscow, Russia - d. Dec. 21, 2003, Moscow), Soviet diplomat; son of Aleksandr Troyanovsky. He was ambassador to Japan (1967-76) and China (1986-90) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1976-86).

Trubacheyev, Vasily (Ilich) (b. 1895, Kundulun ulus, Irkutsk province, Russia - d. 1938), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Buryat-Mongol autonomous oblast (1922-23) and the Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. (1923-24). He was also people's commissar of health (1920s).

Trubetskoy, Knyaz (Prince) Ivan (Yuryevich) (b. June 28 [June 18, O.S.], 1667 - d. Jan. 27 [Jan. 16, O.S.], 1750), governor-general of Kiev (1722-23) and Moscow (1739); nephew of Knyaz Vasily Golitsyn.

Trubetskoy, Knyaz (Prince) Ivan (Yuryevich) (b. 1703 - d. 1744), Russian official; son of Knyaz Yury Trubetskoy; brother of Knyaz Nikita Trubetskoy. He was president of the Collegium of Justice (1740-44).

Trubetskoy, Knyaz (Prince) Nikita (Yuryevich) (b. June 5 [May 26, O.S.], 1699, Moscow, Russia - d. Oct. 27 [Oct. 16, O.S.], 1767), Russian prosecutor-general (1740-60) and president of the Collegium of War (1760-63); son of Knyaz Yury Trubetskoy.

Trubetskoy, Knyaz (Prince) Nikolay (Nikolayevich) (b. Sept. 8 [Aug. 27, O.S.], 1836 - d. Aug. 2 [July 20, O.S.], 1902), governor of Minsk (1886-1902); son-in-law of Aleksandr Bezak.

Trubetskoy, Knyaz (Prince) Yury (Yuryevich) (b. April 30 [April 20, O.S.], 1668 - d. Sept. 19 [Sept. 8, O.S.], 1739), governor of Belgorod (1727-30); brother of Knyaz Ivan Trubetskoy (1667-1750); nephew of Knyaz Vasily Golitsyn.

Trubnikov, Vyacheslav (Ivanovich) (b. April 25, 1944, Irkutsk, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. April 18, 2022), director of the External Intelligence Service of Russia (1996-2000). He was also ambassador to India (2004-09).

Trucco, Pedro (Agustín), public works minister of Argentina (1986-87).

Trucco Franzani, Manuel (b. March 18, 1875, Cauquenes, Chile - d. Oct. 25, 1954, Santiago, Chile), interior minister (1931) and acting president (1931) of Chile.

Trucco Gaete, Manuel (b. Dec. 7, 1913, Santiago, Chile - d. 1995), Chilean diplomat; son of Manuel Trucco Franzani. He was ambassador to Bolivia (1959-62), the United States (1975-77), and Belgium (1984-88) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1981-84).

J. Trudeau
Trudeau, Justin (Pierre James) (b. Dec. 25, 1971, Ottawa, Ont.), prime minister of Canada (2015- ); son of Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Born while his father was prime minister, he entered life in the public eye; U.S. president Richard Nixon toasted him in 1972 as "the future prime minister of Canada." Soon after he delivered a moving eulogy for his father in 2000 that thrust him again into the national spotlight, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien let it be known that there was a place for him in the Liberal Party. In 2002-06 he served as chairman of the board of directors of Katimavik, the national youth volunteer organization established by his father in 1977. After being courted to stand for parliament by Liberal leader Stéphane Dion, in 2008 he ran for and won the seat of Papineau, an ethnically diverse riding in Montreal. In 2011, even as the Liberals flopped - falling from the official opposition to the third party - Trudeau was reelected. He acted as party spokesman on youth and multiculturalism, citizenship and immigration, and amateur sports, among other areas. Handsome, youthful, and charismatic, he was seen by many as the Liberals' best hope to lead them back to prominence. In 2013, after mounting an exhaustive campaign, he won the party leadership, trouncing a crowded field in an online and phone-in vote in which he captured 78% of the more than 100,000 votes cast. Conservatives sought to define him as an intellectual lightweight with a pretty face and a famous name who was ill prepared to lead Canada. Yet he prepared with scrappy determination and won a majority in the 2015 election. He appointed a cabinet with equal numbers of men and women "because it's 2015." In 2017 he apologized on behalf of the government to indigenous people and the LGBT community for past mistreatment. In 2018 he legalized recreational cannabis. That he was the antithesis to right-wingers such as U.S. president Donald Trump who rail against "political correctness" was epitomized when he half-jokingly told a woman who had used the word "mankind": "We'd like to say 'peoplekind.'"

P.E. Trudeau
Trudeau, (Joseph Phillippe) Pierre (Yves) Elliott (b. Oct. 18, 1919, Montreal, Que. - d. Sept. 28, 2000, Montreal), prime minister of Canada (1968-79, 1980-84). Elected as a "new wave" Liberal to the House of Commons in 1965, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson appointed him parliamentary secretary in 1966 and minister of justice and attorney general in 1967. When Pearson announced that he would retire, Trudeau campaigned for the leadership of the Liberal Party. His colourful personality and progressive ideas made him the most popular candidate, and he was elected at the leadership convention on April 6, 1968, and became prime minister two weeks later. In a general election on June 25 he won a majority for the Liberal Party. Cosmopolitan and witty with a flair for celebrity, he represented a sharp departure for Canadians from generally dry, provincial politicians of the past. He took a strong stand against terrorists from the Front de Libération du Québec in 1970, invoking the War Measures Act. Although he lost his parliamentary majority in the 1972 elections, he continued to head a minority government, and he regained a majority in 1974. In the elections of May 1979, the Progressive Conservative Party won power as a minority government. Trudeau assured the Canadian people that he would soon retire from political life. But when the Progressive Conservative government was brought down on a vote on the budget in December, he reconsidered his decision. The Liberal Party was returned to power in the general election of Feb. 18, 1980. He then set out to reform Canada's constitution, his proposals including "patriation," i.e., the transfer of the authority to amend Canada's constitution from the British Parliament to Canada. This was realized on April 17, 1982, when Queen Elizabeth II declared Canada's independence from the British Parliament. He retired in 1984.

Trueba Urbina, Alberto (b. Sept. 19, 1903, Campeche, Campeche, Mexico - d. Feb. 22, 1984), governor of Campeche (1955-61).

Truitard, Léon (Hippolyte Claudius) (b. Aug. 9, 1885, Chagny, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. Jan. 2, 1972, Dijon, France), governor of Réunion (1936-38) and Dahomey (1940-43).

Truitt, George (b. 1756, near Felton, Delaware - d. Oct. 8, 1818, near Felton), governor of Delaware (1808-11).

C.H. Trujillo
Trujillo (García), Carlos Holmes (b. Sept. 23, 1951, Cartago, Valle del Cauca, Colombia - d. Jan. 26, 2021, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister (1997-98), foreign minister (2018-19), and defense minister (2019-21) of Colombia. He was also mayor of Cali (1988-90), minister of education (1992-93), and ambassador to Austria (1998-99), Russia (1999-2001), Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark (2004-06), Iceland (2005-06), and Belgium and Luxembourg (2006-11).

Trujillo (Molina), Héctor (Bienvenido) (b. April 6, 1908, San Cristóbal, Dominican Republic - d. Oct. 19, 2002, Miami, Fla.), war and navy minister (1942-52) and president (1952-60) of the Dominican Republic; brother of Rafael Trujillo.

Trujillo (Gutiérrez), José Vicente (b. Sept. 15, 1889, Esmeraldas, Ecuador - d. May 27, 1970, Guayaquil, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1945-47). He was also president of the Senate (1933-34) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1952-58).

Trujillo (Vásquez), Julio César (b. March 25, 1931, Ibarra, Ecuador), Ecuadorian presidential candidate (1984). He was also president of the Tribunal of Constitutional Guarantees (1982).

R. Trujillo
Trujillo (Molina), Rafael (Leonidas) (b. Oct. 24, 1891, San Cristóbal, Dominican Republic - d. May 30, 1961, Ciudad Trujillo [now Santo Domingo], Dominican Republic), dictator of the Dominican Republic (1930-61). In 1918 he entered the Dominican army, which was trained by U.S. Marines during the U.S. occupation of 1916-24. He rose from lieutenant to commanding colonel in the national constabulary between 1919 and 1925 and became a general in 1927. He seized power in the military revolt against Pres. Horacio Vásquez in 1930. For the next 31 years, he remained in absolute control of the Dominican Republic, primarily through his command of the army, whether serving officially as president himself (1930-38, 1942-52) or through a president he placed in office. The capital Santo Domingo was renamed Ciudad Trujillo after him in 1936. He also had a string of resounding titles like Generalissimo. In 1937, 15,000 illegal Haitian immigrants were massacred. Though he modernized the economy, the resulting benefits were inequitably distributed in favour of his own family and supporters. While his rule brought a degree of stability to the republic that it had not previously enjoyed, the people lost their civil and political liberties; he took harsh measures to protect his power and had many of his political opponents murdered. Nevertheless, domestic opposition continued to grow during the later years of his regime, and to this were added foreign pressures to liberalize his rule; in 1960 his government, which had given refuge to a number of ousted Latin American dictators, was ostracized by the Organization of American States. He finally lost support in the army, and this led to his assassination by army elements who ambushed his car and shot him.

Trujillo García, Mario (b. Jan. 21, 1920, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico - d. Jan. 10, 2007), governor of Tabasco (1971-76); nephew of Francisco Trujillo Gurría.

Trujillo Gurría, Francisco (b. 1900, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico - d. 1948), governor of Tabasco (1939-42). He was also Mexican minister of labour (1943-46).

Trujillo Largacha, Julián (b. Jan. 28, 1828, Popayán, Cauca, Colombia - d. July 18, 1883, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister (1861-63), war and navy minister (1864), and president (1878-80) of Colombia. He was also president of the Chamber of Representatives (1866-67), president of Cauca (1867-69, 1873-75) and Antioquia (1877), minister of treasury (1870), and minister to Ecuador (1870-72).

Truly, Richard H(arrison) (b. Nov. 12, 1937, Fayette, Miss. - d. Feb. 27, 2024, Genesee, Colo.), administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1989-92). He was a former astronaut.

Truman, Harry S.1 (b. May 8, 1884, Lamar, Mo. - d. Dec. 26, 1972, Kansas City, Mo.), president of the United States (1945-53). He entered politics with the help of Thomas Pendergast, a Democratic boss of Jackson county, Missouri, who achieved statewide power in the early 1930s; Truman was not in his inner circle, but after three individuals rejected Pendergast's offer of support in the 1934 U.S. Senate primary contest, Truman, his fourth choice, quickly accepted. He entered the Senate in 1935 under the cloud of being the puppet of a crooked boss. The outlook for his reelection in 1940 was gloomy as the Pendergast machine lay in shambles. Yet because of the last-minute support of Robert E. Hannegan, a young St. Louis Democratic sub-boss, he won by a slender margin. The advancement of Hannegan to chairman of the Democratic National Committee in 1944 led to a successful effort to have Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt replace Vice Pres. Henry A. Wallace with Truman on the 1944 presidential ticket. When Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945, Truman became president. World War II ended officially on September 2, after atomic bombs had been dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on Truman's orders. In the 1948 presidential campaign, all public opinion polls showed that New York Gov. Thomas E. Dewey, the Republican nominee, would be an easy winner. Undaunted, Truman carried out a "give 'em hell" campaign and in November upset a complacent Dewey by a 114-electoral-vote margin. He developed a "containment" policy against Communism, thus setting the course of U.S. foreign policy for decades to come. When Communist North Korea attempted to seize South Korea in 1950, he sent U.S. forces to Korea with UN sanction; the war continued throughout his presidency.
1 The family was reluctant to choose between his grandfathers - Anderson Shippe Truman and Solomon Young - in selecting his middle name and so gave him only the letter S as a compromise.

Trumbull, John H(arper) (b. March 4, 1873, Ashford, Conn. - d. May 21, 1961, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1925-31).

Trumbull, Jonathan, original spelling (until 1766) Trumble (b. Oct. 12, 1710, Lebanon, Connecticut - d. Aug. 17, 1785, Lebanon), governor of Connecticut (1769-84).

Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr. (b. March 26, 1740, Lebanon, Connecticut - d. Aug. 7, 1809, Lebanon), speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1791-93) and governor of Connecticut (1797-1809); son of Jonathan Trumbull.

Trumbull, Joseph (b. Dec. 7, 1782, Lebanon, Conn. - d. Aug. 4, 1861, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1849-50); grandson of Jonathan Trumbull.

Trumka, Richard L(ouis) (b. July 24, 1949, Nemacolin, Pa. - d. Aug. 5, 2021), president of the United Mine Workers of America (1982-95) and of the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (2009-21).

Trump, Donald (John) (b. June 14, 1946, New York City), president of the United States (2017-21). In 2015 the billionaire businessman (or arguably gigantic con-artist) and television personality (The Apprentice) became a candidate for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination. Confounding many pundits who thought his candidacy would soon fizzle, his poll numbers rose and he went on to dominate the race and win 27 of the first 40 state contests. Vowing to "make America great again" and explicitly rejecting "political correctness," his frequent controversial statements (such as describing Mexican immigrants as criminals and rapists "and some, I assume, are good people," or proposing a "complete shutdown" of Muslims entering the country "until we figure out what's going on") often enough only made him more popular, but in any case kept him at the centre of attention and prevented other candidates from raising their profile. He attacked his competitors on a personal level, for example branding Jeb Bush as "low-energy" and speaking of "Little Marco" (Rubio) and "Lyin' Ted" (Cruz), which made the campaign a surreal spectacle to the point that in one debate Trump felt compelled to defend the substantiality of his male member against insinuations to the contrary made earlier by Rubio in a futile attempt to hit Trump with his own weapons. One dropped-out candidate, Lindsey Graham, summarized the situation by saying the party had gone "batshit crazy." It hardly seemed to hurt Trump that his factual claims were often blatantly wrong (one fact-checking organization rated 78% of checked statements as either mostly false, false, or pants on fire) and that his knowledge of substantive political issues stood in inverse relation to his oversized ego, indicating an extraordinary anti-"establishment" sentiment at the GOP base. By May 2016 he seemed to be the almost inevitable nominee and began to turn his attention to "Crooked Hillary" (Clinton), his presumptive Democratic opponent. In July he named Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate and was officially nominated by the Republican convention. Despite his astounding flaws, voters (especially white, male, rural, and poorly-educated ones) threw, in the words of filmmaker Michael Moore, this "human hand grenade" into the system and expressed "the biggest 'fuck you' in human history" as he upset Clinton in November (though losing the popular vote). He was, at 70, the oldest person yet to win the presidency, the first since Dwight D. Eisenhower not to have held prior political office, and the first ever with neither political nor military background. Any expectation that the campaign Trump would be replaced by a different, presidential Trump was immediately dispelled, and his presidency predictably produced an unbroken string of craziness, his method appearing to be to get out of one scandal or embarrassment by creating another, and responding to the resultant critical attention by denouncing mainstream media as "fake news" or even "enemy of the people." He at various times endorsed torture, police violence, wartime plunder, and ethnic cleansing, gave pardons to war criminals, promoted deranged conspiracy theories, and described a rally of white supremacists as including "very fine people." While he kept a core of fanatic supporters (who, dominating the Republican Party, turned the latter into a bizarre personality cult to which even people like the aforementioned Cruz, Rubio, and Graham had to subscribe for the sake of their career), within five months polls showed more people supporting his impeachment than approving of him, and the international standing of the U.S. plummeted. By 2019 polls showed as many as 51% saying the president was racist. His inexplicable hesitancy to say anything critical of Russia - even while trashing U.S. allies - and many Russian connections among his associates produced suspicions of his campaign's collusion with Russian efforts to influence the election, and in 2017-19 a special counsel, Robert Mueller, investigated the matter, but did not find any conspiracy (although several Trump associates were convicted of various crimes). In September 2019 House Democrats launched an impeachment inquiry following revelation of Trump's attempt to press the president of Ukraine to "investigate" potential 2020 rival Joe Biden. In December the House passed two articles of impeachment; his acquittal by the Republican Senate (February 2020) was a foregone conclusion. Thereafter events were dominated by the COVID-19 pandemic (where Trump's indecisive policy, apparently driven by concern that the economic damage of lockdowns would threaten his reelection, led to the U.S. having one of the world's worst death rates from the virus) and further appalling cases of police violence against black people, prompting nationwide protests and riots (Trump characteristically taking a "law and order" stance, without addressing the causes). In November he was defeated by "Sleepy Joe" (Biden), but denied reality and claimed he "won this election, by a lot," making baseless charges of fraud and obstructing the transition. Finally he incited a mob of his followers which stormed the Capitol while Congress was counting the electoral vote on Jan. 6, 2021; this move backfired, leading to calls for his removal even before his term expired, at least a small number of Republicans turning against him, and, worst of all, a ban from his favourite outlet for his propaganda, the Twitter short messaging service. On January 13 he became the only president to be impeached a second time (in the Senate trial, when he had already left office, most Republicans still would not vote to convict). A Washington Post count of his false or misleading claims as president reached 30,573 (averaging 21 a day). Rarely has an advanced country been so debased (or debased itself) as the U.S. under Trump. The long-term effect of his having dragged one of the two major parties, and at least a third of the nation, into his moral and epistemological netherworld, where neither truth nor basic decency counted for anything, remained incalculable. After the 2022 midterm elections, in which many candidates aligned with him were defeated, he nevertheless announced a 2024 presidential run. (Billionaire Elon Musk, who had just bought Twitter, then lifted Trump's ban there.) In March 2023 he became the first former U.S. president to be indicted (in connection with payments made during the 2016 campaign to silence claims of an extramarital affair); a second indictment followed in June (over mishandling classified documents) and a third (over his attempts to overturn the 2020 election, on the federal level) and fourth (ditto, in Georgia) in August. Nevertheless, in March 2024, before any of these trials could get off the ground, he essentially secured his nomination, when the last of an initially significant set of challengers gave up. In May he was found guilty in the first-named case.

Truong Cang (b. 1913 - d. ...), finance minister (1957-58, 1959) and foreign minister (1958) of Cambodia. He was also ambassador to China (1964-69) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-73).

Truong Chinh
Truong Chinh, original name Dang Xuan Khu (b. Feb. 9, 1907, Ha Nam Ninh province, Vietnam - d. Sept. 30, 1988, Hanoi, Vietnam), Vietnamese statesman. He began political activities in 1925 and joined the Revolutionary Youth League. He was a founding member of the Indochinese Communist Party (PCI) in 1930. Like many of his colleagues, he was imprisoned by the French colonial rulers (1932-36) and at the outbreak of World War II fled to China where he helped organize forces that under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh defeated the Japanese occupation forces in 1945 and proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In the ensuing war against the French, he directed the propaganda machine. From 1941, by which time he had changed his name to Truong Chinh ("Long March") after the epic march of Chinese leader Mao Zedong, he was secretary-general of the PCI. In 1951 the Vietnam Workers' Party was born, with him again as secretary-general. He lost this post in 1956, when his brutal drive to collectivize agriculture had the country on the verge of revolt, but by April 1958 he was restored to prominence as a deputy premier and president of the Scientific Research Council (until 1960). Following the death of Ho Chi Minh in 1969, he, Le Duan, and Pham Van Dong were the top three leaders who led the Communists to victory over the U.S.-backed government of South Vietnam. He was chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly (1960-81) and president of the State Council (1981-87). In 1986, after the death of his rival, Le Duan, he again became secretary-general, but, in a surge of grassroots criticism of the party leadership, was ousted five months later. Even though in the end he spoke out in favour of reform, he was seen as a symbol of failed economic policies. He served as a party adviser until his death.

Truong Hoa Binh (b. April 13, 1955, Long An province, South Vietnam [now in Vietnam]), a deputy prime minister of Vietnam (2016-21). He was also chief justice of the Supreme People's Court (2007-16).

Truong My Hoa (b. Aug. 18, 1945, Binh An commune, Go Cong Dong district, Tien Giang province, Vietnam), vice president of Vietnam (2002-07).

Truong Nhu Tang (b. Nov. 14, 1923, Cholon [now part of Ho Chi Minh City], Vietnam - d. Nov. 8, 2005, Paris, France), justice minister of South Vietnam (1975-76; in Provisional Revolutionary Government from 1969). He defected in 1979 and lived in France from 1980.

Truong Tan Sang
Truong Tan Sang, byname Tu Sang (b. Jan. 21, 1949, My Hanh, Duc Hoa district, Long An province, Vietnam), president of Vietnam (2011-16). He was also secretary of the party committee of Ho Chi Minh City (1996-2000).

Truong Vinh Trong, also known as Hai Nghia (b. Nov. 11, 1942, Binh Hoa commune, Giong Trom district, Ben Tre province, Cochinchina [now in Vietnam] - d. Feb. 19, 2021, Luong Quoi commune, Giong Trom district), a deputy prime minister of Vietnam (2006-12). He was also secretary of the party committee of Dong Thap province (2000-01).

Trúpita (y Giménez de Cisneros), Juan Bautista (b. Aug. 13, 1815, Huércal-Overa, Almería province, Spain - d. June 14, 1873, Valdeolivas, Cuenca province, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1864). He was also governor of the Bank of Spain (1866-68).

Truro, Thomas Wilde, (1st) Baron (b. July 7, 1782, London, England - d. Nov. 11, 1855, London), British lord chancellor (1850-52). He was also solicitor general (1839-41) and attorney general (1841, 1846). He was knighted in 1840 and created baron in 1850.

Trushin, Vasily (Petrovich) (b. Sept. 19, 1934 - d. Jan. 16, 2006), acting interior minister of the Soviet Union (1991).

Trushnikov, Valery (Georgiyevich) (b. Jan. 1, 1950, Krasny Yar, Serovsky rayon, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. June 17/18, 2008), chairman of the government (1991-94, 1995-96, 1996) and acting head of the administration (1993-94) of Sverdlovsk oblast.

Truss, Liz, byname of Elizabeth Mary Truss (b. July 26, 1975, Oxford, England), British foreign secretary (2021-22) and prime minister (2022). Once a Liberal Democrat activist, she later described that as a teenage misadventure. She stood as Conservative candidate for Parliament in 2001 and 2005 but lost. She was elected as a councillor in Greenwich, London, in 2006, and from 2008 also worked for the right-of-centre Reform think tank. Conservative leader David Cameron put her on his "A-list" of priority candidates for the 2010 election and she was selected to stand for the safe seat of South West Norfolk. She co-authored a book, Britannia Unchained (2012), with four other Conservative MPs, which recommended stripping back state regulation to boost the U.K.'s position in the world, marking her out as a prominent advocate of free-market policies. In 2012 she entered government as an education minister and she subsequently became environment secretary (2014-16), justice secretary (2016-17, the first woman in that office), chief secretary to the Treasury (2017-19), president of the Board of Trade (2019-21), and minister for women and equalities (2019-22). As foreign secretary she took a hard line against Russia's invasion of Ukraine. After the resignation of Prime Minister Boris Johnson, she won a leadership election, defeating Rishi Sunak in the final round, 57%-43%. When her mini-budget unveiled £45 billion of tax cuts in her third week, it was widely blamed for reducing the value of the pound and panicked financial markets, forcing her to resign after 45 days in office, making her Britain's shortest-serving prime minister. Curiously it was during her term that the longest-serving monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, died. She lost her seat in the 2024 election, the first former prime minister to be defeated since Ramsay MacDonald in 1935.

Trutch, Sir Joseph William (b. Jan. 18, 1826, Ashcott, Somerset, England - d. March 2, 1904, Taunton, Somerset), lieutenant governor of British Columbia (1871-76); knighted 1889.

Trutnev, Yury (Petrovich) (b. March 1, 1956, Perm, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Perm oblast (2000-04) and plenipotentiary of the president in Dalnevostochny federal district (2013- ). He has also been mayor of Perm (1996-2000) and minister of natural resources (2004-12) and a deputy prime minister (2013- ) of Russia.

Trygger, Ernst (b. Oct. 27, 1857, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 23, 1943, Stockholm), prime minister (1923-24) and foreign minister (1928-30) of Sweden.

Tsafendas, Dimitri (b. Feb. 14, 1918, Lourenço Marques [now Maputo], Mozambique - d. Oct. 7, 1999, Sterkfontein, near Johannesburg, South Africa), South African assassin. He was a parliamentary messenger when he stabbed Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd to death in parliament in Cape Town on Sept. 6, 1966. The assassin claimed that a giant "tapeworm" in his stomach had forced him to kill Verwoerd, who was widely considered the architect of apartheid. Ruled insane, Tsafendas was imprisoned and in 1994 transferred to a mental institution. It was never clearly established if Tsafendas, the son of a Greek father and Mozambican mother, targeted Verwoerd for institutionalizing the system of white rule in South Africa. During the decades that Tsafendas was incarcerated, apartheid was strengthened, with the country's white rulers crushing attempts by the African National Congress and other groups to overthrow it. The system finally collapsed with the nation's first all-race elections in 1994.

Tsagarayev, Mikhail (Gatsirovich) (b. July 14, 1926, Verkhny Zgid, North Ossetian autonomous oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. [now North Ossetia-Alania republic, Russia]), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the North Ossetian A.S.S.R. (1975-88). He was also deputy premier (1966-75).

Tsahkna, Margus (b. April 13, 1977, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R.), defense minister (2016-17) and foreign minister (2023- ) of Estonia. He was also minister of social protection (2015-16).

Tsai Ing-wen, Pinyin Cai Yingwen (b. Aug. 31, 1956, Taipei, Taiwan), president of Taiwan (2016-24). She entered politics as a consultant for Taiwan's eventually successful bid to join the World Trade Organization, and worked her way up by way of a series of largely anonymous governmental tasks, including drafting Pres. Lee Teng-hui's "special state-to-state" model for relations with China. After the 2000 election of a Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) government, she was given a high-profile appointment as chairwoman of the Mainland Affairs Council - the government agency responsible for crafting cross-strait policy. After joining the party in 2004, she went on to serve briefly as legislator-at-large (2005-06) and vice-premier (2006-07). She was chairperson of the DPP in 2008-12 and 2014-18, the first woman to lead the DPP since the party's establishment in 1986. She was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2012, when the party also suffered a crushing defeat in legislative elections. She resigned as party leader but returned to the position in 2014, and the DPP made significant gains under her leadership, with an impressive showing in the 2014 nationwide local elections. Widely seen as "unorthodox" by DPP political standards, she was temperamentally relaxed and pragmatic. Since assuming the party's top job, she avoided former leader Chen Shui-bian's brinkmanship and pressure politics, opting instead for a more conciliatory approach aimed at reducing tension and building consensus. In 2016 she was elected as Taiwan's first female president, and the DPP won control of the legislature for the first time. She pledged to lead a more accountable and transparent government and "build a consistent, predictable, and sustainable cross-strait relationship." In 2018 she resigned the party chairmanship again after mayoral election defeats; taking up the position again in 2020 (following reelection as president), she resigned it for the same reason in 2022.

Tsakirov, Gennady (Grigoryevich) (b. Aug. 25, 1935 - d. Feb. 25, 2005), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kalmyk A.S.S.R. (1984-89).

Tsaldari, Lina (b. 1887, Athens, Greece - d. Oct. 17, 1981, Athens), Greek politician; daughter of Spyridon Lampros; wife of Panagis Tsaldaris. She was minister of social welfare (1956-58), the first female Greek minister (and remaining the only one until 1981).

Tsaldaris, Konstantinos (Stavrou) (b. April 14, 1884, Alexandria, Egypt - d. Nov. 15, 1970, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1946-47, 1947); nephew of Panagis Tsaldaris. He was also minister of justice, national education, social welfare, hygiene, and press and information (1946 [provisional]), foreign affairs (1946-50), agriculture (1947), and finance, coordination, and political coordination (1947 [provisional]), general administrator of Northern Greece (1947 [provisional]), a deputy prime minister (1947, 1947-49, 1949-50, 1950), and a minister without portfolio (1950).

Tsaldaris, Panagis (b. March 17, 1867, Kamari, Greece - d. May 17, 1936, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1932-33, 1933-35). He was also minister of justice (1915), communications (1920-22), interior (1920-21, 1926-27, 1935), finance (1932 and [provisional] 1935), aviation (1934), and foreign affairs (1935).

Tsalikov, Akhmet (Tambulatovich) (b. 1882, Nogkau, Terek oblast [now in North Ossetia-Alania], Russia - d. Sept. 2, 1928, Warsaw, Poland), chairman of the People's Council of the Terek People's Soviet Republic (1918).

Tsalikov, Ruslan (Khadzhismelovich) (b. July 31, 1956, Ordzhonikidze, North Ossetian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia]), acting governor of Moscow oblast (2012).

Tsallagov, Kosta (Kirillovich) (b. 1895, Unal, Terek oblast [now in North Ossetia-Alania republic], Russia - d. [executed] July 13, 1938), chairman of the Executive Committee of North Ossetian autonomous oblast (1930-33).

Tsamados, Michail (Nikolaou) (b. Sept. 29, 1879, Athens, Greece - d. 1963), acting foreign minister of Greece (1945). He was also chargé d'affaires in the United States (1923-24).

Tsang (Yam-kuen), Donald, Pinyin Zeng Yinquan (b. Oct. 7, 1944, Hong Kong), finance secretary (1995-2001), chief secretary (2001-05), and chief executive (2005-12) of Hong Kong. He was knighted in 1997 during British rule, just before the handover of Hong Kong to China, after which he dropped the title Sir.

Tsankov, Aleksandur (Tsolov) (b. June 29, 1879, Orehovo, Bulgaria - d. July 17, 1959, Belgrano, Argentina), prime minister of Bulgaria (1923-26). Originally a social democrat, he moved considerably to the right and in 1922 became leader of National Concord (Naroden Zgovor), a conservative group drawn from the political intelligentsia and former officers, which conspired to overthrow the radical Agrarian regime of Aleksandur Stamboliyski. To him fell the premiership after the military coup of June 9, 1923, but resistance to his rule claimed thousands of lives during the following months. His new political coalition, the "Democratic Entente," representative of all parties except the Agrarians and the Communists, secured a large majority in the November 1923 elections. He severely repressed even the moderate opposition, but civil disturbances continued. On April 14, 1925, an attempt was made on the life of King Boris III, and on the next day an army general was killed; at the funeral of the general, a bomb was hurled into Sofia cathedral, killing 123 people and wounding 323 others, including Tsankov. He also was education minister during his premiership. He resigned in January 1926 and was made president of the Sobranye (parliament) until he became education minister again (1930-31). During the 1930s he headed the Bulgarian fascist movement, but in 1943 he opposed Adolf Hitler's demand for the deportation of Bulgarian Jews. In September 1944, after the Soviet occupation of his country, he formed a short-lived Bulgarian government-in-exile in Vienna under German auspices and tried to recruit a volunteer corps. He was captured by U.S. forces in Badgastein, Austria, in April 1946 and was interned for several months. Having been sentenced to death in absentia by Bulgarian courts, he emigrated to Argentina in 1948.

Tsankov, Dragan (Kiriakov) (b. Oct. 28, 1828, Svishtov, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. March 11, 1911, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister (1880, 1883-84), foreign minister (1880), and interior minister (1880, 1883-84, 1886) of Bulgaria. He was also diplomatic agent to the Ottoman Empire (1879-80), minister of public works, agriculture, and commerce (1883), and chairman of the National Assembly (1902-03).

Tsankov (Veselinov), Georgi (b. March 26, 1913, Kutina, near Sofia, Bulgaria - d. Nov. 21, 1990, Sofia), interior minister (1951-62) and a deputy premier (1962) of Bulgaria.

Tsanov, Iliya (Hadzhitomakev) (b. 1835, Vidin, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. March 14, 1901, Sofia, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1884-86). He was also diplomatic agent to the Ottoman Empire (1882-84).

Tsanova, Iliyana (Dimitrova) (b. Jan. 19, 1976, Sofia, Bulgaria), a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (2013, 2014).

Tsapin, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. May 24, 1949), head of the administration of Voronezh oblast (1996). He was also mayor of Voronezh (1990-91, 1995-96, 1997-2001).

Tsaregorodtsev, Aleksandr (Dmitriyevich) (b. Aug. 26, 1946), healthcare and medical industry minister of Russia (1995-96).

Tsasa-di-Ntumba, César (b. 1945?, Kimbenza, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. May 5, 2008, Kinshasa, Congo [Kinshasa]), governor of Bas-Congo (2001-06).

Tsatsos, Konstantinos (Dimitriou) (b. July 1, 1899, Athens, Greece - d. Oct. 8, 1987, Athens), president of Greece (1975-80). Following the German occupation of his country, he escaped to the Middle East. After serving as adviser to the government-in-exile, he served after World War II as minister of hygiene and social welfare (1945), the interior (1945), justice (1945, 1967), aviation (1945), press and information (1945), religious affairs and education (1949), the presidency of the government (1956-58, 1958-61), social welfare (1962-63), and culture and science (1974). He was a close associate of Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis and continued to hold ministerial office until the coup of 1967 precipitated the installation of a military dictatorship. Tsatsos was an active opponent of the regime, and when it was overthrown in 1974, he helped to draft the country's new constitution. In 1975 parliament elected him as chief of state. He was succeeded as president by Karamanlis in 1980 and devoted his retirement to writing and scholarly work.

Tsaty Boungou, (Destin) Arsène (b. Feb. 2, 1952), foreign minister of Congo (1995-97).

Tschentscher, Peter (b. Jan. 20, 1966, Bremen, West Germany), first mayor of Hamburg (2018- ).

Tscherning, Anton Frederik (b. Dec. 12, 1795, Frederiksborg, Denmark - d. June 29, 1874, Copenhagen, Denmark), war minister of Denmark (1848).

Tschirschky und Bögendorff, Heinrich Leonhard von (b. Aug. 15, 1858, Hosterwitz [now part of Dresden], Saxony [Germany] - d. Nov. 15, 1916, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Germany (1906-07). He was also minister-resident to Luxembourg (1900-02) and ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1907-16).

Tschoffen, Paul (Marie Joseph Raymond) (b. May 8, 1878, Dinant, Belgium - d. July 11, 1961, Liège, Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1925). He was also minister of industry, labour, and social security (1924-25, 1925), railways, maritime affairs, posts and telegraphs (acting, 1925), and colonies (1929, 1932-34).


Tschudi, Hans Peter (b. Oct. 22, 1913, Basel, Switzerland - d. Sept. 30, 2002, Basel), president of Switzerland (1965, 1970). Formerly president of the government of Basel-Stadt (1955-56), he was elected to the coalition cabinet as a representative of the left-of-centre Social Democrats and served as interior minister from 1960 until his resignation at the end of 1973. He was credited with reforming the Swiss social security system, leading to a doubling of the level of pensions.

Tschütscher, Klaus (b. July 8, 1967), head of government and finance minister of Liechtenstein (2009-13).

Tsedashiyev, Gurodarma (Tsedashiyevich) (b. Nov. 5, 1948, Kunkur, Agin-Buryat autonomous okrug, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Zabaikalsky kray, Russia] - d. c. 2015), chairman of the Executive Committee (1990-91) and head of the administration (1991-96) of Agin-Buryat autonomous okrug.

Tsedenbal, Yumjaagiyn (b. Sept. 17, 1916, Uvs province, Mongolia - d. April 20, 1991, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Mongolian leader. In 1939 he joined the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and entered the government as deputy minister (later minister) of finance. He was first secretary of the MPRP Central Committee (1940-54, 1958-84) and after serving as deputy commander in chief of the Army and chief of the Army's political directorate, he rose to deputy premier (1948-52) and then premier (1952-74) and head of state (chairman of the People's Great Khural, 1974-84). His growing cult of personality and increasingly autocratic rule bound Mongolia to a repressive, hardline pro-Soviet policy. He stationed Soviet troops along Mongolia's border with China, replaced traditional Mongolian script with Russian Cyrillic characters, and clung to a stagnant, Soviet-inspired centrally planned economy. Tsedenbal was unexpectedly removed from office in 1984 while on holiday in the Soviet Union, where he remained in exile. He was formally denounced by the Mongolian government in 1988, but he was too ill to return for trial. Parliament stripped Tsedenbal of his title Marshal and revoked his right to wear dozens of medals (including "Hero of Mongolia" and "Hero of Labour") in 1990 during the country's transition to democracy, but Pres. Natsagiyn Bagabandi posthumously restored Tsedenbal's honours in 1997.

Tsekher, Aron (Abramovich) (b. 1895, near Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. 1938), executive/first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Dagestan A.S.S.R. (1931-34). He was also executive secretary of the party committee of Adygey autonomous oblast (1929-31).

Tsekoa, Mohlabi (Kenneth) (b. Aug. 13, 1945), finance minister (2001-02) and foreign minister (2002-04, 2007-15) of Lesotho. He was also high commissioner to the United Kingdom and ambassador to Ireland, Spain, and Portugal (1989-96) and minister of education (2004-07).

Tsekov, Serhiy (Pavlovych) (b. Sept. 28, 1953, Simferopol, Crimea oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of parliament of Crimea (1995).

Tserendorj, (Khicheengüi Beise) Balingiyn (b. May 25, 1868 - d. Feb. 13, 1928), foreign minister (1915-19, 1922-23), prime minister (1923-24), acting head of state (1924), and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1924-28) of Mongolia.

Tsereteli, Irakly (Georgiyevich) (b. Dec. 2 [Nov. 20, O.S.], 1881, Kutaisi, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. May 20, 1959, New York City), acting interior minister of Russia (1917). He was also a member of the State Duma (1907) and minister of posts and telegraphs (1917).

Tsering, Lyonpo Dawa (b. Sept. 29, 1935, Kalimpong, India - d. May 2007), foreign minister of Bhutan (1972-98). He was also minister of development (1969-72).

Tsevegmid, Dondogiyn (b. March 26, 1915, Dornod aymag, Mongolia - d. 1991), a deputy premier of Mongolia (1972-87). He was also ambassador to China (1962-67), chairman of the People's Great Khural (1969-72), and minister of culture (1980-84).

Tshanov, Amalbek (Kozybakuly) (b. April 4, 1943, Sovetskoye, Yuzhno-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Turkestan oblast, Kazakhstan]), head of Zhambyl oblast (1995-98). He was also mayor of Chimkent/Shymkent (1992-94) and Kazakh minister of construction, housing, and territorial development (1994-95).

Tsheehama, (Angura) Peter Tshirumbu (b. March 31, 1941, Onangodhi, Omusati region, South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. Oct. 3, 2010, Otjiwarongo, Otjozondjupa region, Namibia), acting defense minister of Namibia (2005). He was also minister of safety and security (2005-08).

Tshêkêdi a Kgama, also called Tshekedi Khama (b. Sept. 17, 1905, Serowe, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. June 10, 1959, London, England), regent of baNgwato (1926-33, 1933-49); son of Kgama III Boikanyo a Sekgoma and half-brother of Sekgoma II a Kgama.

Tshering, Lyonpo Dago (b. July 17, 1941, Paro, Bhutan), home affairs minister of Bhutan (1991-98). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-80, 1984-87) and ambassador to Bangladesh (1980-84) and India, Nepal, and Japan (1998-2008).

Tshering, Doma (b. 1968), Bhutanese diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-23) and ambassador to Canada and Brazil (2018-23).

Lotay Tshering

Tshering, Lyonchhen (Dasho) Lotay (b. May 10, 1969), prime minister of Bhutan (2018-23). He was awarded the lungmar scarf (and with it the title Dasho) in 2020.

Tshering, Lyonpo Ugyen (b. Aug. 8, 1954), foreign minister of Bhutan (2008-13). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-98) and minister of labour and human resources (2003-08). He was conferred the title of Dasho in 1998 and that of Lyonpo in 2003.

Tshiani (Muadiamvita), Noël (Kabamba) (b. Dec. 25, 1957, Mpemba-Nzeo, Kasaï, Belgian Congo [now in Lomami, Congo (Kinshasa)]), Congo (Kinshasa) politician. He was a minor presidential candidate (2018, 2023).

Tshibala (Nzenze), Bruno (b. Feb. 20, 1956, Tshilenge, Kasaï, Belgian Congo [now in Kasaï-Oriental, Congo (Kinshasa)]), prime minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2017-19).

Tshibanda (Ntungamulongo), Raymond (b. Nov. 20, 1950, Lomela, Kasaï, Belgian Congo [now in Kasaï-Oriental, Congo (Kinshasa)]), foreign minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2012-16). He was also minister of environment, nature conservation, and tourism (1996-97) and international and regional cooperation (2008-12).

Tshimbombo Mukuna, (Jacques) (b. June 12, 1946, Costermansville, Belgian Congo [now Bukavu, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 24, 2021, Kinshasa, Congo [Kinshasa]), governor of Kinshasa (1985-86). He was also minister of youth, sports, and leisure of Zaire (1986-88).

Tshiongo Tshibinkubula wa Ntumba, Gilbert (b. Aug. 19, 1942, Katende Mission, Lusambo province, Belgian Congo [now in Sankuru province, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Feb. 1, 2021, Kinshasa, Congo), governor of Kasaï Occidental (2006). He was also energy minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2010-12).

É. Tshisekedi

F. Tshisekedi
Tshisekedi (wa Mulumba), Étienne (b. Dec. 14, 1932, Luluabourg, Belgian Congo [now Kananga, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Feb. 1, 2017, Brussels, Belgium), Congo (Kinshasa)/Zaire politician. A member of the Luba tribe from Kasaï Occidental province, he was interior minister (1965-68), justice minister (1968-69), and ambassador to Morocco (1969-71). He broke with Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko in 1980 and formed the Union for Democracy and Social Progress. He served as prime minister in 1991 and 1992-94 but was toppled both times after clashes with Mobutu. He was named prime minister a third time April 2, 1997, but angered Mobutu the next day by dismissing parliament and offering six cabinet posts to rebels, who rejected the offer. Mobutu fired him April 9. He was a presidential candidate in 2011. Coming second to incumbent Joseph Kabila, he dismissed the results and had himself "sworn in" on December 23.

Tshisekedi (Tshilombo), Félix (Antoine) (b. June 13, 1963, Léopoldville [now Kinshasa], Congo), president of Congo (Kinshasa) (2019- ); son of Étienne Tshisekedi. In 2021-22 he was president of the African Union.

Tshombe, Moise (Kapenda) (b. Nov. 10, 1919, Musumba, Katanga, Belgian Congo [now in Lualaba, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 29, 1969, Algiers, Algeria), Congolese politician. In 1951-53 he was a member of the Katanga provincial council. In 1956 he became head of a Lunda cultural group, and in 1959 founding president of Conakat (Confédération des Associations Tribales du Katanga), a political party supported by the Lunda and by the Belgian mining monopoly Union Minière du Haut Katanga, which controlled the province's rich copper mines. At the Brussels conference called (January 1960) to discuss independence for the Congo, his proposals for a loose confederation of semiautonomous provinces were rejected in favour of Patrice Lumumba's plan for a strongly centralized republic. In elections in May, Conakat won only 8 of 137 seats in the national parliament, but with its allies won a majority in Katanga's provincial assembly, and he became president of the province. With the mutiny of the Force Publique (militia) soon after independence, he declared the secession of Katanga (July 11). He failed to win diplomatic recognition for his state, and in 1963 the United Nations intervened with force and defeated his troops. He then went to live in Madrid, Spain. Recalled in 1964 by Pres. Joseph Kasavubu to become premier (and foreign minister) of the Congo, he had to deal with a rebellion in the east. He was dismissed in 1965 ostensibly for using white mercenaries to suppress the revolt, but he also seemed to threaten Kasavubu's position. He returned to Spain and in March 1967 was sentenced to death in absentia on charges of high treason. In July 1967, his plane was hijacked and he was taken to Algeria. Algeria refused Congolese demands for his extradition and he remained under house arrest near Algiers.

Tshwete, Steve, byname of Stephen Vukile Tshwete (b. Nov. 12, 1938, Springs, South Africa - d. April 26, 2002, Pretoria, South Africa), South African politician. He became involved in politics from an early age, and after leaving school joined the struggle of the African National Congress to overthrow South Africa's apartheid regime. He was arrested in 1963 and sentenced in 1964 to a 15-year term on Robben Island, the notorious island prison off the coast of Cape Town where Nelson Mandela was incarcerated for 18 years. He served as sports minister under President Mandela from 1994 and took up the portfolio of safety and security in 1999 when Thabo Mbeki succeeded Mandela.

Tsiamalili, Peter (Sobby) (b. 1952? - d. April 15, 2007, Torokina, Bougainville, Papua New Guinea), Papua New Guinean diplomat. He was ambassador to Fiji (1980s-90s) and Belgium (1990s).

Tsiamalili, Peter, Jr., in full Peter Lemai Tsiamalili, internal security minister (2022-24) and police minister (2024- ) of Papua New Guinea; son of Peter Tsiamalili.

Tsiang, Tingfu F(uller), Pinyin Jiang Tingfu (b. Oct. 21, 1895, Shaoyang, Hunan, China - d. Oct. 9, 1965, New York City), Nationalist Chinese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1947-62) and ambassador to the United States (1962-65).

Tsiebo, Calvin (b. July 12, 1902, Andoharana, Toliara, Madagascar - d. 2008), vice president of Madagascar (1960-72 [1970-72 one of four]). He was also minister of social affairs (1960-70).


Tsikunov, Yury (Fyodorovich) (b. 1947, Tambov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting governor of Kostroma oblast (2007).

Tsintsabadze, Grigory (Nayevich), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Adzhar A.S.S.R. (1952-53).

Tsipras, Alexis (Pavlou) (b. July 28, 1974, Athens, Greece), prime minister (2015, 2015-19) and foreign minister (2018-19) of Greece. Chairman of the Coalition of the Radical Left (Syriza) in 2008-23, he became the youngest Greek prime minister since 1865.

Ph. Tsiranana
Tsiranana, Philibert (b. Oct. 18, 1910, Anahidrano, Madagascar - d. April 16, 1978, Antananarivo, Madagascar), president of Madagascar (1959-72). He founded the Madagascar Social Democratic Party in 1956 and headed the provisional government after France granted partial autonomy to Madagascar in 1958. He became the country's first elected president in May 1959, and in 1960 proclaimed the island's full independence from French colonial rule. He pursued policies of anti-Communism and continued cooperation with France and other Western states. Tsiranana was overwhelmingly reelected in 1965 and again in January 1972, but after worker and student riots in May 1972 he handed over power to a military government and finally stepped down in October. In 1975 he was tried and acquitted of responsibility for the assassination of Col. Richard Ratsimandrava, who headed the government briefly in February of that year.

Tsiranana, Pierre (b. Sept. 25, 1951, Antananarivo, Madagascar), governor of Mahajanga (2002-03); son of Philibert Tsiranana.

Tsirimokos, Ilias (Ioannou) (b. Aug. 2, 1907, Lamia, Greece - d. July 13, 1968, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1965). He was also minister of justice (1944 [Communist government]), finance, social welfare, education, and religious affairs (1944 [provisional, Communist government]), national economy (1944), interior (1965), the presidency of the government (1965 [provisional]), and foreign affairs (1965-66), president of the Vouli (1963-64), and a deputy prime minister (1965-66).

Tsironikos, Ektor (b. 1882, Arachova, Greece - d. 1968), deputy prime minister of Greece (collaborator government, 1944). He was also minister of agriculture (1942-43 and [provisional] 1944), provisioning (1942-43 [provisional], 1943-44 [provisional]), finance and economy (1943-44), and national welfare (1944 [provisional]).

Tsivilyov, Sergey (Yevgenyevich) (b. Sept. 21, 1961, Zhdanov, Stalino oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Mariupol, Donetsk oblast, Ukraine]), governor of Kemerovo oblast (2018-24). He has also been Russian minister of energy (2024- ).

Tsizaraina, Émile (b. 1945, Fénérive-Est, eastern Madagascar), governor of Toamasina (2002-05).

Tskhakaya, Mikhail (Grigoryevich) (b. May 4 [April 22, O.S.], 1865, Khuntsi, Kutaisi province, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. March 19, 1950, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), co-chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1923-27, 1928-31) and chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian S.S.R. (1924-25, 1929-30).

Tskhovrebashvili, Valentin (Vladimirovich) (b. 1933), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast (1990-91).

Tskhovrebashvili, Vladimir (Gedevanovich) (b. 1905, Bugauri, Russia [now in Georgia] - d. May 1977), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast (1938-49) and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian S.S.R. (1953).

A. Tskhovrebov

Tskhovrebov, Andrey (Viktorovich), acting foreign minister of South Ossetia (2016).

Tskhovrebov, Kazbulat (Inalovich) (b. Jan. 16, 1980, Tskhinvali, South Ossetian autonomous oblast, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of South Ossetia (2015-16).

Tskitishvili, Maya (b. June 2, 1974, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), acting prime minister of Georgia (2021). She was minister of regional development and infrastructure (2018-21), a deputy prime minister (2018-21), and first deputy prime minister (2021).

Tsochatzopoulos, Akis, byname of Apostolos-Athanasios Tsochatzopoulos (b. Dec. 10, 1939, Athens, Greece - d. Aug. 27, 2021, Athens), interior minister (1987-89, 1993-94, 1995-96), acting prime minister (1996), and defense minister (1996-2001) of Greece. He was also minister of public works (1981-84), minister assigned to the prime minister (1984-85), minister of labour (1985), the presidency of the government (1985-87), public order (1989), transport and communications (1989-90), and development (2001-04).

Tsochev, Kiril (Petrov) (b. April 4, 1947, Sofia, Bulgaria), a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (1994, 1995-96). He was also minister of trade (1994) and trade and foreign economic relations (1995-96).

Tsogtbaatar, Damdin(giyn) (b. 1970, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister of Mongolia (2017-20). He was also minister of nature, environment, and tourism (2012-13) and construction and urban development (2015-16).

Tsogwane, Slumber (b. Sept. 21, 1960, Rakops, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), vice president of Botswana (2018- ). He was also minister of local government and rural development (2014-18).

Tsolakoglou, Georgios (K.) (b. April 1886, Rentina, Greece - d. May 22, 1948, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (collaborator government, 1941-42). He was also minister of provisioning (provisional, 1941-42), interior and public security (1941-42), and justice (1942).

Tsolov, Tano (Dimitrov) (b. June 27, 1918, Chomakovtsi, Bulgaria - d. April 26, 1990, Sofia, Bulgaria), a deputy premier (1962-71) and a first deputy premier (1971-81) of Bulgaria. He was also minister of heavy industry (1952-59) and chairman of the Committee for Industry and Technical Progress (1959) and the State Planning Committee (1968-71).

Tsonev, Nikolay (Georgiev) (b. June 9, 1956, Pernik, Bulgaria), defense minister of Bulgaria (2008-09).

Tsongas, Paul E(fthemios) (b. Feb. 14, 1941, Lowell, Mass. - d. Jan. 18, 1997, Boston, Mass.), U.S. politician. He became one of Pres. John F. Kennedy's first Peace Corps volunteers, serving in Ethiopia and the West Indies. He began his political career in 1968 when he was elected to the City Council in Lowell. From then on, he never lost a race in Massachusetts. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1974 and served two terms before his election to the Senate in 1978. He didn't seek a second term after he was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The soft-spoken Tsongas was one of the first nationally known Democrats to try to give the party a pro-business direction, which became the central theme of his 1992 bid for the presidency. Running after having battled cancer, he also drew attention to the issue of a candidate's health disclosure. He won the New Hampshire primary in February 1992 and went on to win in Maryland, Utah, Arizona, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. In the end, he could not hold off Bill Clinton. After dropping out of the presidential race in March, Tsongas joined former U.S. senator Warren Rudman (Rep., N.H.) to form the Concord Coalition, a public interest group focusing attention on the nation's economic problems. His widow Niki Tsongas also was a Democratic U.S. representative from Massachusetts (2007-19).

Tsouderos, Emmanouil (b. June 19, 1882, Rethymno, Crete, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. Feb. 10, 1956, Genoa, Italy), prime minister and foreign minister of Greece (1941-44; from 1941 in exile). He was also minister of communications (1924), finance (1924, 1924, 1924, 1941 [provisional], 1943-44), economy (1941 [pr.], 1943-44 [pr.]), defense (1941 [pr.], 1942, 1943 [pr.]), labour (1942 [pr.]), interior (1942-44), agriculture (1942-44 [pr.]), education (1943-44 [pr.]), and coordination (1945-46, 1950, 1950-51), a deputy prime minister (1945-46, 1951), and a minister without portfolio (1952-55).

Tsuchiya, Yoshihiko (b. May 31, 1926, Tokyo, Japan - d. Oct. 5, 2008), Japanese politician. He was director-general of the Environment Agency (1979-80), president of the House of Councillors (1988-91), and governor of Saitama (1992-2003).

Tsuda, Bungo (b. April 24, 1918 - d. Nov. 8, 2007, Yokohama, Japan), governor of Kanagawa (1967-75).

Tsugba, Vyacheslav (Mikhailovich) (b. Jan. 1, 1944, Aatsy village, Gudauta rayon, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), prime minister of Abkhazia (1999-2001). He was also first deputy premier (1978-89).

Tsukada, Juichiro (b. Feb. 9, 1904, Joetsu, Niigata, Japan - d. May 23, 1997), governor of Niigata (1961-66). He was also Japanese minister of posts and telecommunications and director-general of the Administrative Management Agency and the Autonomy Agency (1953-54).

Tsukamoto, Seiji (b. Dec. 5 [Nov. 5, lunar calendar], 1872 - d. July 11, 1945), governor of Kwantung (1931-32). He was also chief of the Legislative Bureau (1924-25) and chief of the cabinet secretariat (1925-27) of Japan.

Tsukanov, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) (b. March 22, 1965, Lipova village, Gusev district, Kaliningrad oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Kaliningrad oblast (2010-16) and plenipotentiary of the president in Severo-Zapadny federal district (2016-17) and Uralsky federal district (2018-20). In 2017-18 he was assistant of the president for local self-government.

Tsulukidze, Ilya (Vladimirovich) (b. April 28, 1950), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Adzharia (1991).

Tsuruoka, Senjin (b. June 2, 1907, Chiba prefecture, Japan - d. July 8, 1987), Japanese diplomat. He was minister (1956-58) and ambassador (1958-59) to the Vatican, ambassador to Sweden (1962-66) and Switzerland (1966-67), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-71).

Tsushima, Juichi (b. Jan. 1, 1888, Kagawa prefecture, Japan - d. Feb. 7, 1967), finance minister of Japan (1945, 1945). He was also director-general of the Defense Agency (1957-58).

Tsushko, Vasyl (Petrovych) (b. Feb. 1, 1963, Nadrechnoye [Nadrichne], Odessa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), interior minister of Ukraine (2006-07). He was also minister of economy (2010) and leader of the Socialist Party (2010-11). He was a minor presidential candidate in 2014, declaring his withdrawal before the election.

Tsutsumi, Yasujiro, also called Kojiro Tsutsumi (b. March 7, 1889, Hatasho [now part of Aisho], Shiga, Japan - d. April 26, 1964, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He was speaker of the House of Representatives (1953-54).

Tsvangirai, Morgan (Richard) (b. March 10, 1952, Gutu area, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Feb. 14, 2018, South Africa), prime minister of Zimbabwe (2009-13). He became secretary-general of the main labour federation, the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions, in 1988 and led it away from its traditional alliance with Pres. Robert Mugabe's ruling party. In 1989 he was imprisoned for six weeks on allegations of spying for South Africa. In 1997, unidentified assailants tried to throw him from a 10th-floor window. In 1999 he founded the Movement for Democratic Change and led labour-backed protests and national strikes against deepening economic hardships. He lost to Mugabe in presidential elections in 2002 marred by extensive violence and voting irregularities. In 2003, after an 18-month trial, he was acquitted of treason in a case stemming from an alleged plot to assassinate Mugabe. In March 2007, police beat and tortured him during and after his arrest for attending an opposition meeting the government had banned. Images shown on news broadcasts around the world of his bruised and bloodied face came to symbolize the challenges his movement faced. He was again a presidential candidate in 2008 and outpolled Mugabe in the first round; he claimed he won an outright majority, but official results showed him just short of 50%. He withdrew from the runoff, citing a campaign of violence against his supporters. Mugabe consistently described Tsvangirai as a stooge of Britain and the United States. Tsvangirai repeatedly shied from defiant anti-government street protests, preferring a strategy of lower profile civil disobedience. He finally became prime minister as part of a power-sharing agreement that allowed Mugabe to remain president. In the following years his standing eroded, however, and in the 2013 presidential elections Mugabe won outright in peaceful circumstances, defeating Tsvangirai 61%-34%. Tsvangirai called it a "farce" but the election was broadly endorsed by African Union observers.

Tsvetanov, Tsvetan (Genchev) (b. April 8, 1965, Sofia, Bulgaria), interior minister and a deputy prime minister of Bulgaria (2009-13). He was also chairman of Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria (2006-10).

Tsvetkov, Boris (Atanasov) (b. March 23, 1918, Hotovo, southwestern Bulgaria - d. Nov. 19?, 2018), Bulgarian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Switzerland (1951-52), ambassador to Algeria (1962-65) and Italy (1970-76), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-88).

V. Tsvetkov


Tsvetkov, Valentin (Ivanovich) (b. Aug. 27, 1948, Magadan, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. [assassinated] Oct. 18, 2002, Moscow, Russia), governor of Magadan oblast (1996-2002).

Tsybulsky, Aleksandr (Vitalyevich) (b. July 15, 1979, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Nenets autonomous okrug (2017-20) and Arkhangelsk oblast (2020- ).

Tsydenov, Aleksey (Sambuyevich) (b. March 16, 1976, Petrovsk-Zabaikalsky, Chita oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Zabaikalsky kray, Russia]), head of the republic of Buryatia (2017- ).

Tsydenova, Gunsyn (Ayusheyevna) (b. May 1909, Ust-Orot ulus, Zabaikalsky oblast [now in Buryatia], Russia - d. 1994), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. (1941-47).

Tsyrempilon, Dorzhi (Tsyrempilovich) (b. 1908, Gilbir ulus, Irkutsk province, Russia - d. 1983), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1947-51, 1955-60) and of the Council of Ministers (1951-54) of the Buryat-Mongol (from 1958 Buryat) A.S.S.R.

Tuason, Pedro (Tiangco) (b. Sept. 15, 1884, Balanga, Bataan, Philippines - d. June 28, 1961), justice secretary of the Philippines (1953-58). He was also attorney general (1921) and solicitor general (1936-38).

Tubelis, Juozas (b. April 9, 1882, Ilgalaukiai village, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Sept. 30, 1939, Kaunas, Lithuania), prime minister (1929-38) and foreign minister (1929) of Lithuania. He was also minister of agriculture (1918-19, 1938), education (1919-20), and finance (1927-38) and governor of the Bank of Lithuania (1938-39).

Tubino, João José Batista (b. June 24, 1905, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil - d. May 11, 1982, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Alagoas (1966).

Tubman, Robert Colden (b. June 15, 1939, Cape Palmas, Liberia), finance minister of Liberia (1986-87). He was also minister of justice (acting, 1979) and labour (1987).

W.V.S. Tubman
Tubman, William V(acanarat) S(hadrach) (b. Nov. 29, 1895, Harper, Liberia - d. July 23, 1971, London, England), president of Liberia (1944-71). At about age 19, he received a temporary appointment as a junior collector of customs. He later won election to the local legislature and occupied various public offices, including trial judge, public prosecutor, and arbitration referee. He was elected to the Senate in 1923 and reelected in 1929. In 1930 a League of Nations commission found Liberia guilty of failing to halt the sale of its people into slavery to cocoa planters on Fernando Póo (Spanish Guinea), forcing Pres. Charles D.B. King to resign; Tubman, who had served as an adviser to King, was compelled to quit the Senate. He was, however, reelected in 1934. He opposed the entrenched establishment of American-descended Liberians who had long dominated the national government. Although himself the descendant of American immigrants, Tubman, calling himself the "Convivial Cannibal from the Downcoast Hinterlands," was so effective in advancing the constitutional rights of the majority tribespeople that the leadership of the True Whig Party "kicked him upstairs" to the Supreme Court as an associate justice in 1937. In 1943 he unexpectedly announced his candidacy for the presidency and he won handily in seven successive elections. In June 1944 he and his predecessor, Edwin Barclay (whose granddaughter he married in 1948), returned a visit by U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt and became the first black guests in the White House since Booker T. Washington in 1901. As president he continued his efforts to extend full rights to the tribespeople. He ended what was regarded as the American economic stranglehold by encouraging other countries to come in. He died in office.

Tubman, Winston (A.) (b. Jan. 26, 1941, Pleebo, Maryland county, Liberia), Liberian presidential candidate (2005, 2011); brother of Robert Colden Tubman; nephew of William V.S. Tubman. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-81) and justice minister (1982-83).

Tubylov, Afanasy (Ilich) (b. Feb. 21, 1929, Malaya Kibya, Votyak autonomous oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Udmurtia republic, Russia] - d. Jan. 2, 2016), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Udmurt A.S.S.R. (1977-90). He was also minister of education (1974-77).

Tubylov, Valentin (Kuzmich) (b. Nov. 13, 1935), chairman of the Supreme Council of Udmurtia (1990-95).

Tuccaro, George L(ester) (b. May 10 or 12, 1950, Fort Chipewyan, Alta.), commissioner of the Northwest Territories (2010-16).

Tuchyna, Jozef (b. Nov. 11, 1941, Krásna Ves, Slovakia - d. Nov. 9, 2019, Piestany, Slovakia), interior minister of Slovakia (1992-94). He was also chief of staff of the armed forces (1994-98).

Tuck, William M(unford) (b. Sept. 28, 1896, Halifax county, Va. - d. June 9, 1983, South Boston, Halifax county), governor of Virginia (1946-50).

Tucker, Alexander Lauzun Pendock (b. Nov. 2, 1861 - d. Nov. 30, 1941), acting chief commissioner of Baluchistan (1905-07).

Tucker, Henry (b. 1742 - d. 1808), acting governor of Bermuda (1796, 1796-98, 1803-05, 1806); son-in-law of George James Bruere.

Tucker, Sir Henry (James) (b. March 14, 1903 - d. Jan. 9, 1986), government leader of Bermuda (1968-71); knighted 1961.

J.G. Tucker
Tucker, Jim Guy, byname of James Guy Tucker, Jr. (b. June 13, 1943, Oklahoma City, Okla.), governor of Arkansas (1992-96). The Democrat was elected prosecutor in Little Rock in 1970. In 1972 he was elected Arkansas attorney general, the office Bill Clinton would win four years later when Tucker was elected to succeed Wilbur Mills in Congress. 1978 was the crucial year for both: Clinton ran for governor and won the nomination and election without serious competition; Tucker ran for senator, finishing second in the first primary, just ahead of Congressman Ray Thornton, then lost the runoff 55%-45% to Gov. David Pryor. Tucker ran against Clinton for governor in 1982, when the Republican who beat Clinton in 1980 was the incumbent; Clinton finished first with 42% and Tucker third with 23%. Tucker was elected lieutenant governor in 1990 and cooperated with Clinton during the 1992 presidential campaign. After the election, there was a moment of untidiness in the transition: Tucker's succession was challenged because of differing sections of the state constitution. Only in early December 1992 was it established that Tucker would be governor. In the July 1993 special election for lieutenant governor, Republican Mike Huckabee beat the impeccably pro-Clinton Democrat Nate Coulter. Tucker was dogged by charges of scandal. He was a business partner of Madison Guaranty Savings & Loan operator James McDougal; it was alleged that companies he controlled failed to pay back more than $1 million to failed McDougal entities. But in the 1994 election he was nominated without opposition - the first time that happened since 1914 - and defeated Republican Sheffield Nelson 60%-40%, even while Lieutenant Governor Huckabee was reelected 59%-41%. In July 1996 Tucker resigned following his conviction on fraud and conspiracy charges.

S. Tucker
Tucker, Sarah (Georgina) (b. December 1968), governor of Montserrat (2022- ).

Tucker, Thomas T(udor) (b. June 25, 1745, Port Royal, Bermuda - d. May 2, 1828, Washington, D.C.), treasurer of the United States (1801-28); brother of Henry Tucker.

Tucker, Tilghman M(ayfield) (b. Feb. 5, 1802, near Lime Stone Springs, N.C. - d. April 3, 1859, near Bexar, Ala.), governor of Mississippi (1842-44).

Tudela Chopitea, Alejandro (Ignacio) (b. Feb. 7, 1953, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), justice minister of Peru (2005-06).

Tudela van B.
Tudela van Breugel(-Douglas), Francisco (Antonio Gregorio) (b. July 20, 1955, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1995-97); son of Felipe Tudela y Barreda; grandson of Casper baron van Breugel Douglas. He was among the hostages held by MRTA rebels from Dec. 17, 1996, to April 22, 1997. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2000). In 2000 he became vice president but resigned the same year.

Tudela y Barreda, Felipe (b. Sept. 3, 1915, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru - d. Nov. 4, 2017), Peruvian diplomat; son of Francisco Tudela y Varela. He was ambassador to Brazil (1951-53).

Tudela y Varela, Francisco (b. Dec. 24, 1876, Paris, France - d. Nov. 19, 1962, Lima, Peru), foreign minister (1913, 1917-18) and prime minister (1917-18) of Peru. He was also mayor of Miraflores (1912-13, 1913-15) and Lima (1915), minister of finance and commerce (1914), president of the House of Representatives (1915-16), ambassador to the United States (1919) and Spain (1939-40), and president of the Central Reserve Bank (1945-48).

Tudjman, Franjo (b. May 14, 1922, Veliko Trgovisce, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Dec. 10, 1999, Zagreb, Croatia), president of Croatia (1990-99). He began fighting for Croatia's sovereignty at age 15, when he became a revolutionary Marxist. Having joined Tito's anti-fascist Partisans in 1941, he rose in the Yugoslav National Army to become one of Yugoslavia's youngest generals in 1960. After realizing that Communist Yugoslavia was not going to grant sovereignty to Croatia, he became disillusioned with his life as a general and a Marxist. In 1961 he retired from military service and later became a professor of history in Zagreb. His thesis that "Serbianized" central authorities in Belgrade were inflating crimes committed in World War II by the Croatian Ustasa regime, while minimizing Croatian contributions to the anti-fascist movement, resulted in his expulsion from the Communist Party in 1967 and dismissal from his job. His dissident activities brought him two periods of imprisonment in 1972 and 1981; he also had his military honours revoked. Inspired by the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, he formed the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ). After a three-month campaign in which he recruited 600,000 party members, he defeated the Communist Party in 1990 parliamentary elections and was named president. Croatia declared itself independent in June 1991 and he pushed through a new constitution unfavourable to the large ethnic Serb minority. In 1995 he succeeded in reasserting control over Serb areas of Croatia occupied by the Yugoslav army. He was reelected in 1992 and 1997, but his authoritarian style led to an erosion of domestic support for the HDZ, and his non-cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia led to international isolation. He died in office.

Tudor, Sir James Cameron (b. Oct. 18, 1919, St. Michael, Barbados - d. July 9, 1995, Bridgetown, Barbados), foreign minister of Barbados (1971-72, 1986-89); knighted 1986. One of the founders of the Democratic Labour Party in 1955, he was also education minister (1961-67), high commissioner to the U.K. (1972-75) and Canada (1990-92), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1976-79).

Tudorache, Dragos (b. Jan. 14, 1975, Bârlad, Vaslui county, Romania), interior minister of Romania (2016-17).

Tudose, Mihai (b. March 6, 1967, Braila, Romania), prime minister of Romania (2017-18). He was also minister of economy, commerce, and tourism (2014-15).

Tueni, Ghassan (b. Jan. 5, 1926, Beirut, Lebanon - d. June 8, 2012, Beirut), Lebanese politician. He was deputy premier (1970-71), minister of information (1970-71, 1976-77), education (1970-71), labour and tourism (1975-76), industry and petroleum affairs (1975-77), and social affairs (1976-77), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-82).

Tuesta (Cárdenas), David (Alfredo) (b. Nov. 29, 1967, Lima, Peru), economy and finance minister of Peru (2018).

Tugambayeva, Maryam, also known as Mariya Tuganbayeva (b. 1907, Cholpon, Przhevalsk uyezd, Russia [now in Kyrgyzstan] - d. March 19, 1986), deputy chairman (1932-37) and joint acting chairman (1937) of the Central Executive Committee of the Kirgiz S.S.R.

Tugan-Baranovsky, Mikhail (Ivanovich) (b. Jan. 8, 1865, Solenoye, near Kharkov, Russia [now Kharkiv, Ukraine] - d. Jan. 21, 1919, on train between Kiev and Odessa, Ukraine), finance minister of Ukraine (1917); brother-in-law of Dmitry Lyubimov.

Tugendhat, Christopher (Samuel) Tugendhat, Baron (b. Feb. 23, 1937, London, England), British politician. He was European commissioner for budget, financial control, and financial institutions (1977-85) and a vice president of the Commission (1981-85). He was made a life peer in 1993.

Tuggar, Yusuf (Maitama) (b. March 12, 1967, North-Eastern state [in present Bauchi state], Nigeria), foreign minister of Nigeria (2023- ). He was also ambassador to Germany (2017-23).

Tugwell, Rexford G(uy) (b. July 10, 1891, Sinclairville, N.Y. - d. July 21, 1979, Santa Barbara, Calif.), governor of Puerto Rico (1941-46).

Tugzhanov, Yeraly (Lukpanovich) (b. May 13, 1963, Shagatay, Uralsk oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakhstan]), head of Mangistau oblast (2017-19) and Aktobe oblast (2022-23). He was also chairman of the Federation of Trade Unions (2019-20) and a deputy prime minister (2020-22) of Kazakhstan.

Tuia, Pio (Iosefo) (b. 1943?), Ulu-o-Tokelau (1996-97, 1999-2000, 2002-03, 2005-06, 2008-09). He was faipule of Nukunonu in 1996-2011.

Tuiasosopo, Palauni M(ariota) (b. 1937? - d. Jan. 13, 2020, Hillsboro, Ore.), secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1986-88).

Tuilimu, Lagitupu, finance minister (1999-2001) and acting prime minister (2000-01) of Tuvalu.

Tu'i'onetoa, Pohiva (b. June 30, 1951 - d. March 19, 2023, U.S.), prime minister and foreign minister of Tonga (2019-21). He was also auditor-general (1983-2014) and minister of labour, commerce, industries, police, prisons, and fire services (2014-17), labour, commerce, industries, trade, revenue, and customs (2017-18), and finance and national planning (2018-19).

Tuioti, Sili Epa, finance minister of Samoa (2016-21).

Tu'ipelehake, Prince Fatafehi, original name Sione Ngu Manumataongo (b. Jan. 7, 1922, Nuku'alofa, Tonga - d. April 10, 1999, Auckland, N.Z.), prime minister of Tonga (1965-91). A son of Queen Salote, he was the younger brother of King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV. He was educated at Gatton Agricultural College, Queensland, and at Newington College in Sydney. The title Tu'ipelehake, the second most powerful in the kingdom, was awarded to him in 1945. On the death of Salote in 1965, his older brother, who had been prime minister, became king and appointed Tu'ipelehake to the life-time tenure of prime minister. After he had a stroke in 1991 he retired and Baron Vaea took over the position. Tu'ipelehake was a strong advocate of the royal-dominated political system. "There are not many of us who have a clear understanding of what is going on beyond Tonga," he said in a rare interview. "Our local politicians are only good enough within Tonga. When we move out to the international arena I think this is the best approach - for government to call in only our capable people." Like a number of Pacific leaders, Tu'ipelehake was a dedicated Christian and in later life became a fundamentalist, speaking in tongues and practicing faith healing. He was severely ill after retiring in 1991 and lived at 'Atalanga, the royal residency in Epsom, Auckland. He was 11th in the line of succession to the throne.

Tuisano, Fofo (Filipo), Ulu of Tokelau (2020-21). He has been faipule of Fakaofo (2020- ).

Tuita, Siosaia Aleamotu'a Laufilitonga, (from 1972) 8th Tuita, (from 1980) Baron Tuita of 'Utungake (b. Aug. 29, 1920, Lapaha, Tongatapu, Tonga - d. Nov. 30, 1998), deputy prime minister of Tonga (1972-89). He was also governor of Vava'u (1956-62) and minister of lands (acting, 1962), police (1964-65), lands and survey (1965-89), health (1965-72), and natural resources (1972-89).

Tuita, Siosaia Ma'ulupekotofa, 9th Tuita (b. March 21, 1951), Tongan politician; son of Siosaia Aleamotu'a Laufilitonga Tuita. He was high commissioner to the United Kingdom and ambassador to the United States (1989-92), governor of Vava'u (1998-2002), and minister of agriculture, food, and fisheries (2002-06) and lands, survey, natural resources, and environment (2006-10).

Tuivaga, Sir Timoci (Uluiburotu) (b. Oct. 21, 1931, Suva, Fiji - d. Dec. 30, 2015, Suva), Fijian jurist; son-in-law of Tupeni Baba. He was chief justice (1980-2002).

Tu'ivakano, (17th), original name Siale'ataongo Kaho (b. Jan. 15, 1952, Niutoua, Hahake, Tongatapu, Tonga), prime minister (2010-14) and foreign and defense minister (2011-14) of Tonga; grandnephew of Tevita Tu'ivakano. He succeeded to his noble title Tu'ivakano in January 1986. He was also speaker of the Legislative Assembly (2002-04, 2014-17) and minister of works and disaster relief (2005-06) and training, employment, youth, and sports (2006-10).

Tu'ivakano, Tevita, original name Polutele Kaho (b. Dec. 25, 1869 - d. Aug. 4, 1923), prime minister of Tonga (1912-22). He was appointed (14th) Tu'ivakano in 1912.

Tuju, Raphael (b. March 30, 1959, Ndori, Bondo district, Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (2005-08). He was also minister of tourism and information (2003-04) and information and communications (2004-05).

Tukhvatullin, Fatykh (Nasyrovich) (b. March 16 [March 4, O.S.], 1894, Chubukly, Ufa province [now in Tatarstan republic], Russia - d. [executed] July 10, 1938, Ufa, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting chairman of the Provisional Military-Revolutionary Committee of the Bashkir A.S.S.R. (1920).

Tukmakov, Vladimir (Alekseyevich) (b. Jan. 28, 1969, Syktyvkar, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Komi (2014-16).

Tukuitonga, Colin (Fonotau), director-general of the Pacific Community (2014-20).

Tukur, (Alhaji) Bamanga (b. Sept. 15, 1935, Jada [now in Adamawa state], Nigeria), governor of Gongola (1983).


Tulafono, Togiola (Talalelei Aitu) (b. Feb. 28, 1947, Aunu'u island, American Samoa), governor of American Samoa (2003-13).

Tulbure, Alexei (b. April 24, 1966, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Moldova]), Moldovan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-08).

Tulea, Oleg (b. March 31, 1980, Causeni, Moldavian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Moldova (2020). He was also ambassador to Hungary, Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2016-20); in November 2020 he was again appointed ambassador to Hungary.

Tulenheimo, Antti (Agathon), original surname (until 1906) Thulé (b. Dec. 4, 1879, Kangasala, Finland - d. Sept. 3, 1952, Helsinki, Finland), governor of Häme (1918-19) and interior minister (1918-19) and prime minister (1925) of Finland. He was also rector of the University of Helsinki (1926-31) and mayor of Helsinki (1931-44).

Tuleyev, Aman (Gumirovich), original full name Amangeldy Moldagazyevich Tuleyev (b. May 13, 1944, Krasnovodsk, Turkmen S.S.R. [now Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan] - d. Nov. 20, 2023), chairman of the Executive Committee (1990-91) and head of the administration (1997-2001, 2001-18) of Kemerovo oblast and a Russian presidential candidate (1991, 2000). He was also Russian minister of cooperation with the Commonwealth of Independent States (1996-97).

Tulk, Beaton (b. May 22, 1944, Ladle Cove, Newfoundland - d. May 23, 2019), premier of Newfoundland (2000-01).

Tull, Sir Louis (Randall) (b. Jan. 27, 1938, Lears, Barbados), foreign minister of Barbados (1981-85); knighted 2006. He was also minister of education (1976-81) and commerce, industry, and consumer affairs (1985-86) and attorney general (1981-85).

Tully, James, byname Jim Tully (b. Sept. 18, 1915, Carlanstown, County Meath, Ireland - d. May 20, 1992), defence minister of Ireland (1981-82). He was also minister of local government (1973-77).

Tulo, Sam (b. Oct. 10, 1946, Lemanmanu village, North Solomons province [Bougainville], Papua New Guinea - d. May 6, 2013, Haku, Bougainville, Papua New Guinea), administrator of North Solomons province (1990-95). He was also education minister of Papua New Guinea (1980-82, 1985).

Tulumovic, Denijal (b. Dec. 25, 1959, Zivinice, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Tuzla (2019-21).

Tumanov, Vladislav (Nikolayevich) (b. Jan. 29, 1958), head of the administration of Pskov oblast (1992-96).

Tumba Nzeza, Marie, foreign minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2019-21).

Tumkhadzhiyev, Isa (Abubakarovich) (b. Dec. 8, 1981), acting prime minister of Chechnya (2012, 2024).

Tun, Petrus (b. March 19, 1936 - d. March 22, 1999, Honolulu, Hawaii), vice president of the Federated States of Micronesia (1979-83) and governor of Yap (1987-95).

Tun Tin (b. 1920, Myitkyina, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. May 1, 2020), prime minister of Burma (1988). He was also minister of labour (1974-75), cooperatives (1975-78), and planning and finance (1978-88).

Tung Chee-hwa, Pinyin Dong Jianhua (b. May 29, 1937, Shanghai, China), chief executive of Hong Kong (1997-2005). He moved to Hong Kong with his family in 1947 and joined the Orient Overseas shipping business founded by his father, who died in 1982. In 1986 the company ran into serious financial trouble, and the Chinese government backed a bailout investment, cementing Tung's ties of loyalty to Beijing. In 1984 China and Britain agreed that Hong Kong would revert to China July 1, 1997, with its traditional way of life to remain essentially unchanged for 50 years. In 1985 he became a member of the council that drafted the post-handover constitution, known as the Basic Law. He served in other advisory capacities with the Chinese government and also as a member (1992-96) of the Executive Council of Hong Kong. On Dec. 11, 1996, he was chosen to become the first chief executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, assuming office on July 1, 1997, for a five-year term. Critics saw him as China's man in Hong Kong rather than as a protector of Hong Kong's rights. He came under fire for supporting Beijing's decision to abolish Hong Kong's legislature, which had been elected in 1995, and to replace it with an appointed provisional legislature upon the transfer of sovereignty. Later in 1997 the economy plunged into recession during the Asian financial crisis and critics complained his government did not do enough to revive the economy. He also faced an avian flu outbreak that peaked in 1998, and, after his reelection on Feb. 28, 2002, an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003; with SARS, he was sharply criticized for responding slowly. Also in 2003, half a million people marched to protest a proposed anti-subversion law supported by Tung. In 2005 he resigned and was elected a vice chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Tungelfeldt, Anders (b. March 17, 1682 - d. March 16, 1751), governor of Jönköping (1747-51).

Tunhammar, Göran (Magnus) (b. Dec. 22, 1946, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Skåne (2006-12).

Tunis, Nabeela (Farida), née Koromah, foreign minister of Sierra Leone (2019-21). She has also been minister of planning and economic development (2018-19) and tourism and cultural affairs (2023- ).

Tunnell, Ebe W(alter) (b. Dec. 31, 1844, Blackwater, Sussex county, Del. - d. Dec. 18, 1917, Lewes, Del.), governor of Delaware (1897-1901).

Tünnermann Bernheim, Carlos (b. May 10, 1933, Managua, Nicaragua - d. March 26, 2024, Managua), Nicaraguan politician. He was minister of education (1979-84) and ambassador to the United States (1984-88).

Tuominen, Heikki (Aukusti) (b. Dec. 5, 1920, Perniö [now part of Salo], Finland - d. July 21, 2010, Helsinki, Finland), interior minister (1971-72, 1972-75) and finance minister (1975) of Finland.

E. Tuomioja

S. Tuomioja
Tuomioja, Erkki (Sakari) (b. July 1, 1946, Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (2000-07, 2011-15); son of Sakari Tuomioja. A member of parliament in 1970-79 and from 1991, he was chairman of the Social Democratic parliamentary faction in 1996-99 and minister of trade and industry in 1999-2000. He has also been president of the Nordic Council (2008, 2022).

Tuomioja, Sakari (Severi) (b. Aug. 29, 1911, Tampere, Finland - d. Sept. 9, 1964, Helsinki, Finland), finance minister (1945), foreign minister (1951-52), and prime minister (1953-54) of Finland. He was also governor of the Bank of Finland (1945-55), minister of trade and industry (1950), ambassador to the United Kingdom (1955-57) and Sweden (1961-64), and executive secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (1957-60).

Tuoyo, Sunny (Esijolomi) (b. Feb. 24, 1938 - d. Dec. 17, 2022, Lagos state, Nigeria), administrator of Ondo (1978-79).

Tupac Amaru
Tupac Amaru II, original name José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera (b. 1742?, Tinta region, Peru - d. May 18, 1781, Cusco, Peru), Peruvian Indian revolutionary. Although he received a formal Jesuit education, he maintained his identification with the Indian population and read Los comentarios reales de los Incas ("Royal Commentaries of the Incas"), a prohibited book which sang the glories of his ancient race. He was a cacique (or curaca), i.e., indigenous chief, in the Tinta region of southern Peru. In November 1780 he seized and hanged the corregidor (provincial administrator) Antonio de Arriaga, with whom he had more than once remonstrated, to no avail, about the oppression of Indians. Condorcanqui, who claimed to be a descendant of the last Inca ruler, Tupac Amaru (killed in 1572), then adopted his name and proclaimed a rebellion. It was the last general Indian rebellion against Spain. At first it had the support of some Creoles (Spaniards born in America), but those were later convinced by the Spanish authorities that it was a battle between Indians and Europeans. He advanced against Cusco, the old Inca capital, at the head of 6,000 men, was defeated, but escaped into the hills and a few weeks later appeared again, this time leading an army of 20,000. This was again defeated, but he escaped another time and continued the fight until he was finally captured with his family in April 1781 and taken to Cusco, where he first had to witness the execution of his wife, son, and other associates and then was mutilated, drawn and quartered, and beheaded. The rebellion, which extended to parts of present-day Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile, was kept up until November 1781. The Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement founded in Peru in 1982 named itself after him.

Tupini, Umberto (b. May 27, 1889, Rome, Italy - d. Jan. 7, 1973, Rome), justice minister of Italy (1944-45). He was also minister of public works (1947-50) and tourism and entertainment (1959-60), minister without portfolio (public administration reform 1954-55, sports and tourism 1959), and mayor of Rome (1956-58).

Tupou VI
Tupou VI, formerly (2006-12) Prince Tupouto'a Lavaka, or (until 2006) Prince 'Ulukalala Lavaka Ata, in full Prince Lavaka Ata 'Aho'eitu' Unuaki'otona Tuku'aho, 7th Lavaka Ata Kalaniuvalu, 7th 'Ulukalala (b. July 12, 1959, Nuku'alofa, Tonga), foreign minister (1998-2004), defense minister (1998-2004), prime minister (2000-06), and king (2012- ) of Tonga; son of Taufa'ahau Tupou IV; son-in-law of Baron Vaea. He was granted the titles 'Ulukalala and Lavaka Ata in 1989. On Sept. 27, 2006, he was appointed crown prince (backdated to September 11). In 2008 he became Tonga's first high commissioner to Australia.

Tupou, 'Aloua Fetu'utolu (b. March 26, 1949, Neiafu, Vava'u, Tonga - d. April 16, 2005, Nuku'alofa, Tonga), defense minister of Tonga (2004-05). He commanded the Tonga Defence Services from 1977 to 2000, when he was appointed as Tonga's high commissioner (ambassador) in Britain, a post that included representing the South Pacific nation to European Union members, Israel, Russia, and Switzerland. As military chief, he led the first South Pacific peacekeeping force which was deployed in 1994 in Papua New Guinea's civil-war-torn island of Bougainville.

Tupou Mumui (b. 1733 - d. April 29, 1797), chief (Tu'i Kanokupolu) of Tonga (1793-97).

Tupouniua, Mahe ('Uli'uli) (b. July 20, 1927, Nuku'alofa, Tonga - d. October 2007, Auckland, N.Z.), finance minister (1960-72, 1979-82) and deputy prime minister (1965-72) of Tonga and director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation (1972-80, 1983-86).

Tupouniua, Mahe 'Uli'uli Sandhurst (b. July 15, 1966), Tongan diplomat; son of Mahe Tupouniua. He was ambassador to China (2009-10) and the United States (2013-18) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-18).

Tupouto'a (b. 17... - d. 1820), Tu'i Kanokupolu of Tonga (1812-20).

Tupp, Enn (b. Oct. 30, 1941, Lääne-Viru county, Estonia), defense minister of Estonia (1994-95).

Tupper, Sir Charles, (1st) Baronet (b. July 2, 1821, Amherst, Nova Scotia [now in Canada] - d. Oct. 30, 1915, Bexleyheath, Kent [now part of London], England), prime minister of Canada (1896). In 1855 he was elected to the Nova Scotia Legislative Assembly, where his star rose rapidly. He became provincial secretary (1857-60, 1863-67) and premier (1864-67). For some time he had been interested in the union of the British North American provinces and in 1864 the opportunity came to do something about it. Once he had set his mind on confederation he devoted all his considerable energy and determination to its realization, and ignored the growing opposition to union in Nova Scotia. With a majority in the legislature, he pushed confederation through, and in 1867 Nova Scotia became a province of Canada. Despite violent opposition to his action, he was elected in Cumberland for the new Canadian House of Commons. He served in Sir John Macdonald's Conservative government in 1870-73 and again after 1878. As minister of railways and canals (1879-84), he was involved in the arrangements for building the Canadian Pacific Railway. In 1884-87 and 1888-96 he was high commissioner to London. He came back to Canada to help the Conservative government, first to become minister of finance (1887-88) and then in 1896 to become secretary of state and, after Mackenzie Bowell's resignation, prime minister, before the Conservative Party's defeat in the general election of that year. He served as leader of the opposition until 1900 when he retired after sustaining his first personal election defeat in 40 years. He was knighted in 1879 and created a baronet in 1888.

Tupper, William Johnston (b. June 29, 1862, Halifax, Nova Scotia - d. Dec. 16, 1947, Winnipeg, Man.), lieutenant governor of Manitoba (1934-40).

Tupua Tamasese Lealofi IV (b. May 8, 1922 - d. July 1, 1983), prime minister of Western Samoa (1970-73, 1975-76).

Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole (b. June 3, 1905, Vaimoso, Samoa - d. April 5, 1963, Apia, Western Samoa [now Samoa]), co-head of state of Western Samoa (1962-63).

Tupurkovski, Vasil (b. April 8, 1951, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), Macedonian politician. He was the last Macedonian member of the Yugoslav collective presidency (1989-91). He has been president of the Olympic Committee (1992- ) and a deputy prime minister (1999-2000) of (North) Macedonia. In 1999 he was presidential candidate for the Democratic Alternative.

Tuquero, Artemio G(elacio) (b. 1932?, Victoria, Tarlac, Philippines), justice secretary of the Philippines (2000-01).

Turabi, Hassan (Abdullah) al-, Arabic Hasan `Abd Allah al-Turabi (b. Feb. 1, 1932, Kassala, eastern Sudan - d. March 5, 2016, Khartoum, Sudan), Sudanese leader. He became secretary-general of the Islamic Charter Front. In 1965-68 he was a member of the Constituent Assembly. Although he was originally a prominent opponent of the Gaafar Nimeiry regime and was often detained for his activities during the 1970s, he later reconciled with the dictator and served in his cabinet. The 1983 implementation of Shari`ah (Islamic law) under Turabi's counsel as attorney general led to his imprisonment two years later following the fall of the Nimeiry regime. The National Islamic Front (NIF), the political party that Turabi founded in 1986, participated in the coalition government of elected prime minister Sadiq al-Mahdi (Turabi's brother-in-law) but was implicated in the coup that replaced Mahdi with Gen. Omar al-Bashir in 1989. A fundamentalist Islamic military regime was established, and Turabi, by most assessments, assumed the determining role in the government. Although Bashir banned all political parties, the titular leader relied increasingly on advisers and officials drawn from the NIF elite. On March 22, 1991, the government instituted in the predominantly Muslim northern states a stringent code of Islamic religious law. The European-educated Turabi lent to Islamic fundamentalism a cosmopolitan, intellectual cast. His eloquent writings on legal theory and politics espoused a conservative form of populism, ostensibly somewhat at odds with traditional clerical authority. He was speaker of parliament in 1996-99. In December 1999 he was removed from positions of power by his former ally Bashir. He was detained on Feb. 21, 2001, for reaching an agreement with southern rebels, and placed under house arrest three months later; he was pardoned on Oct. 13, 2003. He was again arrested on March 31, 2004, the government accusing him of being implicated in an attempted coup. He was released on June 30, 2005. In January 2009 he was once again arrested after calling on Bashir to surrender to the International Criminal Court.

Turaki, Ibrahim Saminu (b. July 14, 1963), governor of Jigawa (1999-2007).

Turanskaya, Tatyana (Mikhailovna) (b. Nov. 20, 1972, Belgorod-Dnestrovsky, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyy, Ukraine]), prime minister of Transnistria (2013-15).

Turay, Edward Mohamed (b. Oct. 24, 1945 - d. June 25, 2023, United Kingdom), Sierra Leonean politician. He was a presidential candidate (1996) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2010-18).

Turay, Fanday (b. Sept. 23, 1967), Sierra Leonean diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2021- ).

Turbay, Gabriel (b. Jan. 10, 1901, Bucaramanga, Colombia - d. Nov. 17, 1947, Paris, France), interior minister (1933-34) and foreign minister (1937-38, 1942-43) of Colombia. He was also minister to Belgium and Italy (1930-32) and Peru (1934), ambassador to the United States (1939-42, 1944-45), and a presidential candidate (1946).

J.C. Turbay
Turbay Ayala, Julio César, sometimes called Turco (a disparaging reference to his Arab forebears) (b. June 18, 1916, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Sept. 13, 2005, Bogotá), president of Colombia (1978-82). By the age of 21 he was mayor of the town of Girardot. He served in the House of Representatives in 1943-53 and became a leader of the Liberal Party. He was minister of mines and energy (1957-58), foreign minister (1958-61), UN ambassador (1967-69), president of the Senate (1969-70, 1974-75), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1973) and to the United States (1975-76). During all those years he built a network of alliances that made him boss of the Liberal Party but also incurred the disapproval of Colombians who disliked machine politics. One of his most vocal detractors was fellow Liberal (and former president) Carlos Lleras Restrepo, who challenged Turbay in an indirect primary for the party's 1978 presidential nomination. Turbay turned back the challenge, but he was unable to heal the breach in the party ranks. After a stormy campaign, he narrowly defeated the Conservative candidate, Belisario Betancur Cuartas. Turbay's victory signaled the emergence of Colombia's middle class into the realm of political power formerly restricted to the very wealthy. While clearly not advocating the drastic social changes some critics claimed must be enacted to save Colombian democracy, he made it clear that he regarded his success as a triumph over the ruling elite. Taking office in the midst of labour and student unrest and guerrilla violence, he soon decreed a "security statute" that limited personal freedoms, restricted news coverage, and allowed civilians accused of terrorism to be tried in military courts. In 1980 he negotiated the release of dozens of diplomats held hostage by leftist rebels for 61 days. After his presidential term he remained a major political player and was ambassador to the Vatican (1987-88, 1995-98) and Italy (1991-93).

Turbay Quintero, Claudia (b. 1952), Colombian diplomat; daughter of Julio César Turbay Ayala. She was ambassador to Uruguay (2002-09), Switzerland (2010-13), and Ghana (2013-22).

Turbay Turbay, (Luis) Hernando (b. Neiva, Colombia - d. 1990), Colombian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (1980-81).

Turbott, Sir Ian (Graham) (b. March 9, 1922, Whangarei, N.Z. - d. Aug. 11, 2016), administrator of Antigua (1958-64) and administrator (1964-67) and governor (1967-68) of Grenada; knighted 1968.

Turcan, Vladimir (b. Oct. 14, 1954, Slobozia, Moldavian S.S.R.), interior minister of Moldova (1999-2001). He was also ambassador to Russia and Finland (2002-05) and Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Armenia (2003-05) and president of the Constitutional Court (2019-20).


Turchak, Andrey (Anatolyevich) (b. Dec. 20, 1975, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), governor of Pskov oblast (2009-17) and acting head of the republic, chairman of the government of Altay (2024- ). He was also secretary of the General Council of the United Russia party (2017-24).

Turchynov, Oleksandr (Valentynovych) (b. March 31, 1964, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Dnipro, Ukraine]), acting prime minister (2010, 2014) and acting president (2014) of Ukraine. He was head of the Security Service (2005), first deputy prime minister (2007-10), chairman of parliament (2014), and secretary of the National Security and Defense Council (2014-19).

Ture, Kwame, original name Stokely Carmichael (b. June 29, 1941, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad - d. Nov. 15, 1998, Conakry, Guinea), black activist. He moved to the United States in 1952. In the 1960s he plunged into the civil rights revolution. He joined the first freedom rides - bus trips aimed at desegregating public transportation - and suffered the first of what was to be about three dozen jailings when he reached Mississippi. In May 1966, he was elected national chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Witnessing the brutality inflicted upon nonviolent civil-rights demonstrators, he came to support a more radical approach. He raised the rallying cry of "Black Power" as he led a freedom march in Mississippi and was seen as an indirect contributor to the fiery riots that burned through U.S. inner cities that summer. He led a voter-registration drive in Lowndes county, Ala., which raised black enrollment from 70 to 2,600. The Lowndes County Freedom Organization was founded to field candidates in the November election; none were elected, but the organization's panther symbol inspired the creation of the militant Black Panther Party. He did not run for another term as SNCC chairman in 1967 and in February 1968 was made honorary "prime minister" of the Black Panthers. In 1969 he broke with them because they favoured working with radical whites. He said history showed such alliances had "led to complete subversion of the blacks by the whites." He made his home in Guinea, embraced Pan-Africanism, and organized the All-African People's Revolutionary Party. In 1978 he adopted the name Kwame Ture after Pres. Ahmed Sékou Touré of Guinea and former Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah.

Turegaliyev, Nariman (Turegaliyevich) (b. July 19, 1964, Yesensay, Uralsk oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakhstan]), head of Zapadno-Kazakhstan oblast (2022- ). He was also mayor of Uralsk (2016-17).

Türel, Ali Riza (b. 1899, Salonika, Ottoman Empire [now Thessaloniki, Greece] - d. Sept. 25, 1960, Zürich, Switzerland), justice minister of Turkey (1943-46).

Turello, Vinicio (b. Jan. 22, 1930, Bicinicco [now in Friuli-Venezia Giulia], Italy - d. June 17, 2013, Udine, Friuli-Venezia Giulia), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1992-93).

Turgenev, Aleksandr (Mikhailovich) (b. Nov. 6 [Oct. 26, O.S.], 1772, Moscow, Russia - d. June 30 [June 18, O.S.], 1862), governor of Tobolsk (1823-25), Bessarabia (1828), and Kazan (1828).

A.R.J. Turgot
Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques, baron de l'Aulne (b. May 10, 1727, Paris, France - d. March 18, 1781, Paris), French comptroller general of finance (1774-76). In January 1752 he became a deputy solicitor general and in December a counselor magistrate to the Parlement (supreme court of law) in Paris. In 1753 he bought, as was the custom, the office of maître des requêtes, the stepping-stone to the upper levels of royal bureaucracy. With 39 other maîtres he was called upon to serve in the Royal Chamber, which acted as a supreme court in 1753-54, when the Parlement was exiled for defying the crown. In 1753-56 he accompanied J.C.M. Vincent de Gournay, intendant of commerce, on his tours of inspection to various French provinces. As an economist he owed a great deal to Gournay, unlike the other Physiocrats, who swore only by François Quesnay. In August 1761 he was appointed intendant of the généralité of Limoges. He was left there for 13 years and displayed his capacities as a reformer. He substituted for the corvée (unpaid work required of peasants for the upkeep of roads) a small tax in money and paid a small wage to those working on the roads, and so improved the methods of construction that he built more than 700 km of the finest highways in the country. After serving briefly as minister of marine, he was appointed comptroller general of finance by Louis XVI on Aug. 24, 1774. Realizing that the young king was inexperienced, he sought to avoid political storms and first concentrated on economies and minor reforms, but in January 1776 he introduced his famous Six Edicts. It was on the sixth edict, that abolishing the corvée, that his enemies, who defended privilege, focused their attack. They succeeded in undermining his position with the king, and he was dismissed on May 12, 1776, and his reforms abandoned.

Turgot, Louis Félix Étienne, marquis de (b. Sept. 26, 1796, Bons, Calvados, France - d. Oct. 2, 1866, Versailles, France), foreign minister of France (1851-52). He was also ambassador to Spain (1853-58) and Switzerland (1858-66).

Turgumbayev, Yerlan (Zamanbekovich) (b. Aug. 14, 1962, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), interior minister of Kazakhstan (2019-22). He has also been adviser to the president (2022- ).

Turgunov, Yevgeny (Ilich) (b. July 5, 1947, Andizhan, Uzbek S.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast (1988-90).

Turgut, Mustafa Asim, until Jan. 1, 1935, Mustafa Asim Bey (b. 1870 - d. 1937), foreign minister of the Ottoman Empire (1911-12). He was also ambassador to Belgium (1908), Sweden (1908-09), Bulgaria (1909-11), and Persia (1914-16).

Turi-assú, Manoel de Souza Pinto de Magalhães, barão de (b. 1796, Porto, Portugal - d. Nov. 12, 1862, Maranhão province [now state], Brazil), acting president of Maranhão (1852, 1854). He was made baron in 1854.

Turisbekov, Zautbek (Kausbekovich) (b. Dec. 15, 1951, Sastobe, Yuzhno-Kazakhstan oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Turkestan oblast, Kazakhstan]), head of Yuzhno-Kazakhstan oblast (1993-97) and interior minister of Kazakhstan (2003-05). He was also ambassador to Uzbekistan (2007-09), Russia (2009-12), and Ukraine and Moldova (2012-15).

D. Türk
Türk, Danilo (b. Feb. 19, 1952, Maribor, Slovenia), president of Slovenia (2007-12). He was permanent representative to the United Nations in 1992-2000. He lost his reelection bid as president in 2012.

Türk, Hikmet Sami (b. 1935, Of, Trabzon province, Turkey), defense minister (1999) and justice minister (1999-2002) of Turkey.

Türkes, Alparslan, original name Hüseyin Feyzullah (b. Nov. 25, 1917, Nicosia, Cyprus - d. April 4, 1997, Ankara, Turkey), Turkish politician. He expressed open admiration for Adolf Hitler during World War II and was arrested and tried for advocating fascism and pan-Turkism. In 1948 he graduated from the Turkish Military Academy. The same year he was sent to the U.S. where he was given military education. In 1959, he was made a colonel. He was a leader of the military overthrow of the Turkish government in 1960. Following the coup, he ended his military career. In 1965 he was elected chairman of the Republican Peasants Nation Party and was elected to parliament for Ankara. The party manifesto was revised by Türkes according to his right-wing nationalist views, and published in a book named The Nine Lights. In 1969 the party was renamed Nationalist Action Party (MHP). He was also the founder of the paramilitary organization Gray Wolves (Bozkurtlar), notorious for eliminating supposed enemies of Turkey at home and abroad. In 1975-77 and 1977-78 he served as deputy prime minister. Following a coup in 1980 the party was banned and he was arrested and tried. He remained in prison for four and a half years. When the ban was lifted in 1987, Türkes was reelected chairman of the MHP. He returned to parliament in 1991, but his party was shut out of the legislature in the 1995 elections.

Türkes, (Yildirim) Tugrul (b. Dec. 1, 1954, Istanbul, Turkey), a deputy prime minister of Turkey (2015-17); son of Alparslan Türkes. He was also leader of the Bright Turkey Party (1998-2002).

Turki ibn Abdullah (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. Oct. 21, 1971), Saudi prince; son of Abdullah. He was governor of Riyadh (2014-15).

Turki ibn Faysal (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. Feb. 15, 1945, Makkah, Saudi Arabia), Saudi prince; son of Faysal. He was head of the General Intelligence Directorate (1977-2001) and ambassador to the United Kingdom and Ireland (2003-05) and the United States (2005-07).

Turki ibn Nasir (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. April 14, 1948, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - d. Jan. 30, 2021), Saudi prince; son of Nasir. He was president of meteorology and environment protection (2001-13).

Turki ibn Talal (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. May 11, 1968), Saudi prince; son of Talal. He is governor of Asir (2018- ).

Türkmen, Ilter (b. Nov. 8, 1927, Istanbul, Turkey - d. July 6, 2022), foreign minister of Turkey (1980-83). He was also ambassador to Greece (1968-72), the Soviet Union (1972-75), and France (1988-91) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-78, 1985-88).

Türkoglu, Kemal (b. 1911, Mardin, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. March 12, 2005), justice minister of Turkey (1961).

Turkovic, Bisera (b. Dec. 8, 1954, Sisak, Croatia), foreign minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2019-23). She was also ambassador to Croatia (1993-94), Hungary (1994-96), the United States (2005-09), Mexico (2006-09), Brazil (2007-09), Belgium (2012-18), and Qatar (2018-19) and minister of European integration (2000-01).

Turlais, Dainis (b. Nov. 24, 1950, Madona, Latvian S.S.R.), interior minister of Latvia (1995-97). He was also mayor of Riga (2019).

Turlakov, Marko (Ivanov) (b. Sept. 14, 1872, Kurdzhali, Ottoman Empire [now Surnevo, Bulgaria] - d. Oct. 21, 1941, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria), finance minister of Bulgaria (1920-23). He was also minister of railways, posts, and telegraphs (1919-20) and justice (1919-20).

Turnage, Thomas K. (b. June 27, 1923, Conroe, Texas - d. Dec. 10, 2000, Rancho Mirage, Calif.), administrator of the U.S. Veterans Administration (1986-89). He spent 39 years in the Army, including combat service during World War II and the Korean War, and retired in 1982 as a major general. He served as the director of Selective Service and as an executive in a blue-ribbon manpower planning task force under Defense Secretary Casper Weinberger. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal and Bronze Star, among many decorations. He was the last administrator of the Veterans Administration and played a major role in preparing the agency to become a cabinet department in 1989. At the time, it was the largest independent agency in the federal government, with more than 240,000 employees and an annual budget of more than $25 billion.

Turnbull, Sir Alfred Clarke (b. Oct. 14, 1881, Balclutha, Otago, N.Z. - d. Sept. 17, 1962, Stamford, Conn.), administrator of Western Samoa (1935-46); knighted 1946.

C. Turnbull
Turnbull, Charles (Wesley) (b. Feb. 5, 1935, Estate Thomas, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands - d. July 3, 2022, Washington, D.C.), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (1999-2007).

Turnbull, Lucy, née Hughes (b. 1958), lord mayor of Sydney (2003-04); wife of Malcolm Turnbull.

M. Turnbull
Turnbull, Malcolm (Bligh) (b. Oct. 24, 1954, Sydney, N.S.W.), prime minister of Australia (2015-18). He was chairman of the Australian Republican Movement in 1993-2000. In 2004 he entered politics as Liberal member for the Sydney seat of Wentworth. In the Liberal ministry of John Howard he was parliamentary secretary to the prime minister in 2006-07 and minister for environment and water resources in 2007. After the defeat of the Howard government he was shadow treasurer until he successfully challenged Brendan Nelson's leadership and was elected leader of the Liberal Party and leader of the opposition on Sept. 16, 2008. However, after the Labor government secured his support for a carbon-emissions trading scheme, he was himself challenged by some Liberal MPs, and, on Dec. 1, 2009, defeated by Tony Abbott by 42 votes to 41. When Abbott became prime minister in 2013, Turnbull became communications minister. On Sept. 14, 2015, he challenged Abbott for the leadership and won by 54 votes to 44. In 2017 he organized a postal survey on same-sex marriage and campaigned for a yes vote, which won by 61.6%; the consequent law was passed later that year. In August 2018 he survived a challenge by Peter Dutton but then stood aside when he received a petition from a majority of Liberal MPs demanding a ballot to select a new leader. He was succeeded by Scott Morrison. He then said he would resign from parliament.

Turnbull, Sir Richard (Gordon) (b. July 7, 1909, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England - d. Dec. 21, 1998, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England), governor (1958-61) and governor-general (1961-62) of Tanganyika and high commissioner of the Federation of South Arabia (1964-67); knighted 1958.

Turnbull, Sir Roland (Evelyn) (b. June 9, 1905 - d. Dec. 23, 1960), British resident in Brunei (1934-37) and governor of British North Borneo (1954-59); knighted 1956.

Turner, Christopher (John) (b. Aug. 17, 1933, Kingston upon Thames, England - d. Oct. 30, 2014, Chichester, England), governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1982-87) and Montserrat (1987-90).

Turner, Daniel W(ebster) (b. March 17, 1877, Corning, Iowa - d. April 15, 1969, Corning), governor of Iowa (1931-33).

Turner, Sir (Tomkyns) Hilgrove (b. 1764 - d. May 7, 1843, Jersey), lieutenant governor of Jersey (1814-16) and governor of Bermuda (1826-32).

Turner, James (b. Dec. 20, 1766, Southampton county, Virginia - d. Jan. 15, 1824, "Bloomsbury" plantation, near Warrenton, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1802-05). He was also a U.S. senator from North Carolina (1805-16).

J. Turner
Turner, John (Napier Wyndham) (b. June 7, 1929, Richmond, Surrey, England - d. Sept. 18, 2020, Toronto, Ont.), prime minister of Canada (1984). After his father died, his mother, a Canadian, took him to Canada in 1932. He won his first election to the House of Commons as a Liberal Party member in 1962 for the Montreal riding of St. Lawrence-St. George. When his riding disappeared in redistricting, he won a seat for the riding of Ottawa-Carleton in 1968. He lost a bid for leadership of the Liberals in 1968 to Pierre Elliott Trudeau. He held several cabinet positions: minister without portfolio (1965-67), registrar general (1967-68), minister of corporate and consumer affairs (1968), solicitor general (1968), minister of justice and attorney general (1968-72), and minister of finance (1972-75). He abruptly resigned the last post on a political disagreement in September 1975 and resigned from parliament in February 1976. When Trudeau announced in February 1984 that he would not seek reelection as Liberal Party leader, Turner ran for the post and won (June 16). Two weeks later he reached what he called his "crowning career achievement"; he was sworn in as prime minister. He soon called a federal election for September 4, using for his campaign slogan, "Today we celebrate our future." His new preelection cabinet, however, looked very much like Trudeau's old cabinet, which had become unpopular. In the elections his party was routed by the Progressive Conservatives under Brian Mulroney. Turner, who won in the riding of Vancouver Quadra, was the only Liberal elected west of Winnipeg. As leader of the opposition in the House of Commons, he vowed that he would rebuild his party. But the Liberals lost a second general election to the Conservatives in 1988, and in 1990 Turner resigned as party leader and left parliament.

Turner, (Robert) Leigh (b. March 13, 1958), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (2006-08). In 2008-12 he was British ambassador to Ukraine.

Turner, Roy J(oseph) (b. Nov. 6, 1894, Lincoln county, Okla. - d. June 11, 1973, Oklahoma City, Okla.), governor of Oklahoma (1947-51).

S. Turner
Turner, Stansfield (b. Dec. 1, 1923, Highland Park, Ill. - d. Jan. 18, 2018, Seattle, Wash.), CIA director (1977-81).

Turner, Stephen Edward (b. March 25, 1946), acting administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1990).

Turner, Thomas G(oodwin) (b. Oct. 24, 1810, Warren, R.I. - d. Jan. 3, 1875, Warren), governor of Rhode Island (1859-60).

Turney, L(eander) J(ay) S(harpe) (b. Aug. 21, 1819 - d. May 20, 1881, near Barton, Ill.), acting governor of Washington (1861-62).

Turney, Peter (b. Sept. 27, 1827, Jasper, Tenn. - d. Oct. 28, 1903, Winchester, Tenn.), governor of Tennessee (1893-97).

Turnquest, Harcourt L(owell) (b. June 4, 1943, Long Island, Bahamas - d. Dec. 29, 2018), Bahamian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-97) and high commissioner to Canada (2000-03).

O. Turnquest
Turnquest, Sir Orville (Alton) (b. July 19, 1929, Grants Town, New Providence, Bahamas), governor-general of The Bahamas (1995-2001). He was first appointed cabinet minister in August 1992, following the Free National Movement (FNM) landslide victory at the polls over the Progressive Liberal Party, which had ruled for more than 25 years. He served as deputy prime minister, minister of justice, and minister of foreign affairs, and as the member of parliament for Montagu before he resigned from front-line politics in November 1994. He then became the nation's fifth Bahamian-born governor-general, sworn in on Jan. 3, 1995. Upon his appointment, he was awarded the honour of Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George by the queen. Recognized as the most celebrated governor-general in Bahamian history, Sir Orville transformed that post, welcoming a wide cross section of persons to Government House, which he often referred to as "The People's House." The patron of the One Bahamas celebrations, Sir Orville took the message of unity to all Family Islands, visiting all schools, a personal goal he undertook. Sir Orville was to retire on Oct. 31, 2001, but the date was pushed back to November 13 to accommodate a formal leave of Queen Elizabeth II in a farewell audience at Buckingham Palace. Sir Orville retired to pave the way for his son Tommy to become prime minister, should the FNM become the next government in the upcoming general elections.

Turnquest, (Kevin) Peter (b. Aug. 22, 1964, Acklins, Bahamas), deputy prime minister and finance minister of The Bahamas (2017-20).

Turnquest, Tommy, byname of Orville Alton Thompson Turnquest (b. Nov. 16, 1959), Bahamian politician; son of Sir Orville Turnquest. He was minister of public works (1997-2000), public service and national insurance (2000-01), immigration (2000-01, 2007-08), tourism (2001-02), and national security (2007-12).

Turnsek, Tit (b. Dec. 25, 1938, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), defense minister of Slovenia (1997-98). He was also ambassador to China (1998-2000).

Turrettini, Bernard (Maurice) (b. July 25, 1911, Paris, France - d. March 2, 2007, Geneva, Switzerland), Swiss diplomat. He was ambassador to Venezuela (1961-66) and Sweden (1974-76) and permanent observer to the United Nations (1966-74).

Tursumbayev, Baltash (Moldabayevich) (b. Oct. 24, 1946, Maly Borankul, Omsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Aug. 14, 2022, Almaty, Kazakhstan), head of Kostanay oblast (1993-95). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee of Severo-Kazakhstan oblast (1986-89), chairman of the State Committee for the Agro-Industrial Complex (1989-90) and first deputy premier (1990) of the Kazakh S.S.R., and a Kazakh deputy prime minister (1991-93, 1998-99), agriculture minister (1992-93), secretary of the Security Council (1995-96), and ambassador to Turkey (1996-98).

Tursunkhodzhayev, Saydulla (b. 1891, Tashkent, Russia [now in Uzbekistan] - d. [executed] 1938), chairman of the Communist Party of the Turkestan S.F.R. (1919?-20). He was also executive secretary of the Communist Party of Bukhara (1920-22).

Tursunov, Hikmatulla (Kuchkarovich) (b. 1953), defense minister of Uzbekistan (1997-2000).

Tursunov, Minavar (Tursunovich) (b. 1915), foreign minister and deputy premier of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1969-80). He was also mayor of Tashkent (1956-58).

Tursunov, Rakhimbobo (b. 1917 - d. Feb. 17, 1995, Puli Chukur, Tajikistan), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast (1951-56).

Tursunov, Saginbek (Tokabayevich) (b. July 5, 1946, Karaganda, Kazakh S.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee (1989-90), first secretary of the party committee (1990-91), and head (1992-93) of Taldykorgan oblast; brother-in-law of Nursultan Nazarbayev. He was also Kazakh ambassador to Germany (1993-95), Austria (1995, 1996-2002), and Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia (2002-06) and head of the administration of the president (1995-96).

Turtelboom, Annemie (b. Nov. 22, 1967, Ninove, East Flanders, Belgium), interior minister (2009-11) and justice minister (2011-14) of Belgium.

Turyshev, Sergey (Dmitriyevich) (b. Oct. 8 [Sept. 25, O.S.], 1906, Uzhginskaya volost, Vologda province, Russia - d. April 2, 1974, Syktyvkar, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1939-45) and Council of Ministers (1947-50) of the Komi A.S.S.R. He was also minister of communal services (1953-57).

Tusar, Vlastimil (b. Oct. 18, 1880, Prague, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. March 22, 1924, Berlin, Germany), prime minister of Czechoslovakia (1919-20). He was also minister to Germany (1921-24).

Tusevljak, Spasoje (b. May 28, 1952, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2000).

Tushnolobov, Gennady (Petrovich) (b. Oct. 11, 1953, Azanka, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Perm kray (2013-17). He was also mayor of Solikamsk (1989-90, 1992-97).

Tusk, Donald (Franciszek) (b. April 22, 1957, Gdansk, Poland), prime minister of Poland (2007-14, 2023- ) and president of the European Council (2014-19).

Tuskayev, Taimuraz (Ruslanovich) (b. Aug. 22, 1966, Ordzhonikidze, North Ossetian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia]), prime minister of North Ossetia-Alania (2016-21).

Tuson, Francis Edward (b. Aug. 17, 1850, India - d. Feb. 7, 1923), acting chief commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1904).

Tuttle, Hiram A(mericus) (b. Oct. 16, 1837, Barnstead, N.H. - d. Feb. 10, 1911, Pittsfield, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1891-93).

Tutuhatunewa, Frans L(odewijk) J(ohannis) (b. June 16 or 26, 1923, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia] - d. Oct. 22, 2016, Breda, Netherlands), president of the South Moluccas in exile (1993-2010).

Tutuianu, Adrian (b. Aug. 1, 1965, Malu cu Flori, Dîmbovita [now Dâmbovita] county, Romania), defense minister of Romania (2017).

Tutzó Bennàsar, Francesc (b. 1940, Maó, Minorca island, Baleares, Spain), president of the General Inter-Island Council of Baleares (1982-83).

Tu'ugahala, Paino (b. Oct. 9, 1915, Akaaka village, Wallis island - d. March 31, 1992, Nouméa, New Caledonia), prime minister of `Uvea (1959-92).


Tuvdendorj, Sharavdorjiyn (b. 1966?), defense minister of Mongolia (1999-2000). He was general secretary of the Mongolian National Democratic Party.

Tuxen, Christian Frederik (Frands Elias) (b. Feb. 14, 1837, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Feb. 23, 1903, Frederiksberg, Denmark), war minister of Denmark (1897-99).

Tuxworth, Ian (Lindsay) (b. June 18, 1942, Wollongong, N.S.W. - d. Jan. 21, 2020, Perth, W.Aus.), chief minister of the Northern Territory (1984-86).

Tuyaa, Nyam-Osoryn (b. 1958, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), foreign minister of Mongolia (1998-2000).

Tuyll van Serooskerken van Vleuten, Jan Maximiliaan baron van (b. Oct. 13, 1771, Zuilen, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Nov. 25, 1843, Haarlem, Netherlands), governor of Utrecht (1814-28) and Noord-Holland (1828-39).

Tuymebayev, Zhanseit (Kanseitovich) (b. July 8, 1958, Kazakh S.S.R.), head of Yuzhno-Kazakhstan oblast (2016-18) and Turkestan oblast (2018-19). He was also Kazakh ambassador to Russia (2006-07) and Turkey (2010-16) and minister of education and science (2007-10).

Tüzemen, (Mustafa) Ekrem (b. 1915, Hozat, Ottoman Empire [now in Tunceli province, Turkey] - d. Sept. 6, 1966), justice minister of Turkey (1961).

Tüzer, Ahmet Fikri (b. 1878, Sumnu, Ottoman Empire [now Shumen, Bulgaria] - d. Aug. 16, 1942, Ankara, Turkey), interior minister (1942) and acting prime minister (1942) of Turkey.

Tuzhba, Irakli (Vakhtangovich) (b. Oct. 13, 1978, Sukhumi, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), acting foreign minister of Abkhazia (2024).

Tuzu, Constantin (b. 1912 - d. ...), a deputy premier of Romania (1963-65). He was also minister of heavy industry (1960-61) and metallurgy and machine-building industry (1961-63).

Tvalchrelidze, Georgy (Grigoryevich) (b. Aug. 20 [Aug. 8, O.S.], 1896 - d. April 13, 1968), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Adzhar A.S.S.R. (1940-44). He was also minister of state control of the Georgian S.S.R. (1954-56).

Tveiten, Ivar (Petterson) (b. Dec. 18, 1850, Veum, Fyresdal municipality, Bratsberg amt [now Telemark fylke], Norway - d. April 17, 1934, Brokke, Fyresdal), Norwegian politician. He was president of the Storting (1919, 1920-21) and minister of education and church affairs (1924-26).

Tvrdík, Jaroslav (b. Sept. 11, 1968, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), defense minister of the Czech Republic (2001-03).

Twagiramungu, Faustin (b. Aug. 14, 1945, Cyangugu province, Rwanda - d. Dec. 2, 2023), prime minister of Rwanda (1994-95); son-in-law of Grégoire Kayibanda. When Pres. Juvénal Habyarimana authorized a multiparty system in 1991, a year after the start of the rebellion by minority Tutsis from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), Twagiramungu, a member of the country's Hutu majority, revamped the party founded by his father-in-law, the Democratic Republican Movement (MDR), and became one of the principal opponents to the Habyarimana regime. The MDR, which formed part of the transition government, split into two factions. One, opposed to any negotiation with the RPF, drew closer to the extremists in the "Hutu Power" movement, while the other was amenable to negotiations. Twagiramungu, whose calm manner belied a razor-sharp tongue, headed the moderate faction, thus becoming the ally of his future rival Paul Kagame. A peace accord signed in August 1993 provided for the installation of a power-sharing government in which the RPF was included and of which Twagiramungu should have been prime minister, but the power-sharing government never got off the ground. Genocide began in the night of April 6, 1994. In the space of 100 days, one million people - Tutsis and moderate Hutus - were slaughtered. Twagiramungu, seen as a traitor by the masterminds of the genocide, took refuge with the UN mission in Rwanda, which evacuated him. After the genocide, the RPF, victorious militarily, appointed him prime minister of the transition government. But collaboration between him and Kagame, the guerrilla leader turned vice president and defense minister, who held the real strings of power, rapidly became difficult. In August 1995 he was dismissed following political disagreements with Kagame and Pres. Pasteur Bizimungu. He moved to Belgium where he tried to organize the political opposition, always refusing any rapprochement with the perpetrators of the genocide. After eight years of exile he returned to Rwanda on June 20, 2003, to run in presidential elections. He refused to accept the results which had incumbent Kagame winning 95% of the vote.

Twardo, Stanislaw (b. Dec. 13, 1883, Warsaw, Poland - d. Nov. 8, 1982, Warsaw), government commissar of Warsaw (1918-19) and governor of Warszawskie województwo (1927-34).

Tweed, William M(agear), byname Boss Tweed (b. April 3, 1823, New York City - d. April 12, 1878, New York City), U.S. politician. He became a New York City alderman (1852-53) and sat in Congress (1853-55) and in the state Senate (1868-72). One of the most notorious political bosses of the city Democratic Party's Tammany Hall organization (its co-leader in 1858-67 and sole leader in 1867-71), he was made commissioner of public works for the city in 1870, and, as head of the "Tweed Ring," controlled its finances. For a time the Tweed Ring, with his henchmen - Peter Sweeny, city chamberlain (treasurer); Richard B. Connolly, city comptroller; and A. Oakey Hall, mayor - controlled the city without interference. They defrauded the city to the extent of at least $30 million through padded and fictitious charges and also profited extravagantly from tax favours. Votes were openly bought and other nefarious vote-getting methods were employed. City judges became notoriously corrupt. Attempts within Tammany to oust the Tweed Ring failed, and in 1870 he forced through the state legislature a charter that greatly increased the powers of the ring. He maintained personal popularity because of his generosity to the poor. In 1871 his gigantic frauds were exposed by the New York Times and Harper's Weekly (where Thomas Nast's satirical cartoons regularly referred to him as William Marcy Tweed, identifying him with Sen. William L. Marcy, who had first said, "To the victor belong the spoils"; in later sources he still often erroneously appears with this middle name). A committee of 70, organized to fight Tammany, elected most of its candidates that year, although Tweed himself was returned to the state Senate (but did not take his seat). He was tried for felony; after the jury could not reach a verdict, he was convicted in a second trial and given a 12-year prison sentence (1873). In 1875 this was reduced by a higher court, and he was released; rearrested immediately to face civil charges, he escaped and, when convicted, fled via Cuba to Spain (1876), but was extradited and died in a New York jail.

Tweedie, Lemuel John (b. Nov. 30, 1849, Chatham, New Brunswick - d. July 15, 1917, Chatham), lieutenant governor of New Brunswick (1907-12).

Tweedsmuir of Elsfield, John Buchan, (1st) Baron (b. Aug. 26, 1875, Perth, Scotland - d. Feb. 11, 1940, Montreal, Quebec), governor general of Canada (1935-40). He was a writer of highly popular adventure stories, including The Thirty-nine Steps (1915) and Greenmantle (1916). When he entered politics in 1927, he was elected member of Parliament for the Scottish Universities. Upon accepting his appointment as governor general of Canada, he also received a peerage. In 1936, encouraged by Lady Tweedsmuir, he created the Governor General's Literary Awards, which continue to be Canada's most prestigious recognition of literary merit. He was the first governor general who died during his term of office since Confederation.

Twent van Raaphorst, Adriaan Pieter (b. Feb. 5, 1745, Delft, Netherlands - d. June 28, 1816, Wassenaar, Netherlands), interior minister of Holland (1808-09). He was also mayor of Gouda (1785) and minister of water management (1809-10).

Twining (of Tanganyika and of Goldaming), Edward Francis Twining, Baron (b. June 29, 1899, Westminster, London, England - d. July 21, 1967, Westminster), administrator of Saint Lucia (1944-46) and governor of British North Borneo (1946-49) and of Tanganyika (1949-58). He was knighted in 1949 and created a life peer in 1958.

Twynam, Sir Henry Joseph (b. April 24, 1887 - d. Oct. 21, 1966), governor of the Central Provinces and Berar (1940-46); knighted 1940.

Tyagi, Vedpal (b. Dec. 28, 1915, Kotah [now Kota, Rajasthan], India), acting governor of Rajasthan (1977). He was chief justice of Rajasthan High Court (1975-77).

Tyahnybok, Oleh (Yaroslavovych) (b. Nov. 7, 1968, Lvov [Lviv], Ukrainian S.S.R.), Ukrainian politician. Leader of the far-right Svoboda party (2004- ), he was a minor presidential candidate in 2010 and 2014.

Tyazhlov, Anatoly (Stepanovich) (b. Oct. 11, 1942, Chelyabinsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. July 28, 2008), chairman of the Executive Committee (1990-91) and head of the administration (1991-2000) of Moscow oblast.

Tyler, J(ames) Hoge (b. Aug. 11, 1846, "Blenheim," Caroline county, Va. - d. Jan. 3, 1925, East Radford, Va.), governor of Virginia (1898-1902).

Tyler, John (b. Feb. 28, 1747, Charles City county, Virginia - d. Jan. 6, 1813, Charles City county), governor of Virginia (1808-11).

Tyler, John (b. March 29, 1790, Charles City county, Va. - d. Jan. 18, 1862, Richmond, Va.), president of the United States (1841-45); son of John Tyler (1747-1813). He began his political career in the Virginia legislature (1811-16, 1823-25, 1839) and was elected a U.S. congressman (1816-21), state governor (1825-27), and U.S. senator (1827-36). He consistently supported states' rights and a strict construction of the constitution. In 1836, when the Senate voted to withdraw a censure of Pres. Andrew Jackson for his removal of federal funds from the Bank of the United States, Tyler refused to vote for it as directed by the Virginia legislature. Instead, he resigned his seat, thereby enhancing his reputation as one of Jackson's most implacable foes. In 1840 the opposition Whig party nominated him for the vice presidency in an effort to attract Southern support. William Henry Harrison and Tyler won after a campaign that avoided the issues and stressed innocuous party insignia and the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too!" When Harrison became the first president to die in office, Tyler's opponents proposed to recognize him as acting president only, but he successfully claimed all the rights and privileges of office, establishing an important precedent. When he vetoed bills to create a new national bank, all but one member of the cabinet resigned; he promptly appointed new members who shared his states'-rights views. Tyler was now a president without a party. In 1844 he was renominated for the presidency by an irregular convention but withdrew in favour of the Democratic nominee, James K. Polk. On the eve of the Civil War he stood firmly against secession, and exerted himself to preserve the Union, but his efforts failed. He was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives but died before it assembled.

Tyler-Haywood, (June) Sandra (b. March 5, 1957), acting governor of the Falkland Islands (2014). She was also British ambassador to Eritrea (2010-12).

Tymes, Frantisek (b. Oct. 14, 1895, Lipník, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. Oct. 2, 1968, Brno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), a deputy premier of Czechoslovakia (1947-48).

Tyminski, Józef (b. July 23, 1894 - d. Oct. 18, 1945, Budapest, Hungary), governor of Krakowskie województwo (1937-39).

Tyminski, Stanislaw, byname Stan Tyminski (b. Jan. 27, 1948, Pruszków, Poland), Polish presidential candidate (1990, 2005). He was also leader of Party X (1991-95). He lived abroad, mainly in Canada, most of the time from 1969.

Tymoshenko, Yuliya (Volodymyrivna), surname before marriage (1979) Telegina, originally Grigyan (b. Nov. 27, 1960, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Dnipro, Ukraine]), prime minister of Ukraine (2005, 2007-10). She and her husband founded a fuel distribution company and she went on to become head of Unified Energy Systems, a natural-gas middleman. In that post, she became one of Ukraine's richest and most powerful oligarchs dubbed the "gas princess." She then moved smoothly into a political career, adopting her trademark "Ukrainian" braided hairstyle. She was first elected to parliament in 1996 and was appointed deputy prime minister for fuel and energy under Prime Minister Viktor Yushchenko in 1999. In early 2001, she was dismissed and briefly jailed on corruption charges. In November 2001 she founded the Bloc of Yuliya Tymoshenko. She became a world icon of democratic change during Ukraine's Orange Revolution protests of 2004. She was more exciting to protesters than her Orange Revolution partner Yushchenko, who claimed he had been robbed of victory in presidential elections. Tymoshenko became prime minister when Yushchenko won a court-ordered repeat election. The facade of unity soon cracked and the two leaders quarreled incessantly. Yushchenko fired her after nine months, but she returned to the premiership in 2007. The tensions between them virtually paralyzed the government. In 2010 Viktor Yanukovych, the very man the Orange Revolution had accused of trying to steal power from Yushchenko, rode a wave of voter discontent to narrowly beat Tymoshenko for the presidency. In October 2011 she was sentenced to seven years in prison for exceeding her powers when she signed a gas deal with Russia in 2009. She was released from prison in February 2014 at the peak of the revolt against President Yanukovych. In May 2014 she was again a presidential candidate but lost to Petro Poroshenko. In 2019 she only came third.

Tyncherov, Amin (Khalilovich) (b. 1907, Bastanov, Tambov province, Russia - d. 1980), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1938-40).

Tyndall, Joseph (Adolphus) (b. Sept. 12, 1927, British Guiana [now Guyana]), acting secretary-general of the Caribbean Community (1977-78). He was also agriculture minister of Guyana (1980-82).

Työläjärvi, Pirkko (Annikki) (b. Sept. 8, 1938, Jämsä, Finland), governor of Turku ja Pori (1985-97). She was also Finnish minister of social affairs and health (1977-79) and trade and industry (1981-82).

Tyomkin, Mark (Moiseyevich) (b. 1895, Kozelets, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Chernihiv oblast, Ukraine] - d. 1980, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), executive/first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Votyak/Udmurt autonomous oblast (1930-33). He was also executive secretary of the party committee of Chernigov province (1921).

Tyrrell, Sir Francis Graeme (b. 1876 - d. July 18, 1964), acting governor of Ceylon (1933); knighted 1934. He was chief secretary (1932-37).

Tyrtov, Pavel (Petrovich) (b. July 15 [July 3, O.S.], 1836, Mironezhye, Tver province, Russia - d. March 17 [March 4, O.S.], 1903, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian navy minister (1896-1903).

Tyrtyshov, Yury (Pavlovich) (b. July 27, 1967, Zimnyaya Stavka, Stavropol kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Stavropol kray (2012-13).

Tytler, Robert Christopher (b. Sept. 25, 1818, Allahabad [now Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Sept. 10, 1872, Simla [now Shimla, Himachal Pradesh], India), superintendent of the Andaman Islands (1862-64).

Tyulyayev, Pavel (Fyodorovich) (b. 1905, Pokrovka, Samara province, Russia - d. Aug. 31, 1946, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Crimea (1944-45). He was also chairman of the executive committee of Krasnodar kray (1940-44).

Tyurin, Andrey (Sergeyevich) (b. Aug. 6, 1970, Ulyanovsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting chairman of the government of Ulyanovsk oblast (2021).

Tyuryakulov, Nazir (b. 1893 - d. [executed] Nov. 3, 1937), chairman of the Executive Bureau (1920) and executive secretary (1922) of the Communist Party and chairman of the Central Executive Committee (1921-22) of the Turkestan A.S.S.R. He was also Soviet ambassador to Hejaz and Nejd/Saudi Arabia (1930-35).

Tzalam(-Mendez), Dame Froyla (b. San Antonio, Belize), governor-general of Belize (2021- ); knighted 2022.

Tzannetakis, Tzannis (Petrou) (b. Sept. 13, 1927, Gytheio, Greece - d. April 1, 2010, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1989). He served as a navy officer but resigned on April 22, 1967, one day after a military coup that established a dictatorship. In 1969-71 he was imprisoned. After the political changeover of 1974 he joined the New Democracy party and was continuously elected MP from 1977. He was minister of public works (1980-81), tourism (1989, 1989-90), defense (1989-90), and culture (1990-91) and minister of state (1991-92). He was prime minister, foreign minister, and minister of tourism in the coalition government of New Democracy and Coalition of the Left in July-October 1989. In 1990-93 he was vice-premier in the government of Konstantinos Mitsotakis. He was also a member of the Political Council and the Electoral Planning Committee of New Democracy.

Tzavellas, Kitsos (Photou) (b. 1801, Souli, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. March 22 [March 10, O.S.], 1855, Athens, Greece), military minister (1844-48, 1849) and prime minister (1847-48) of Greece.