Rulers

Countries T

Contents of this page:
Taiwan - Tajikistan - Tanzania - Thailand - Timor-Leste - Togo - Tokelau - Tonga - Trinidad and Tobago - Tunisia - Turkey - Turkmenistan - Turks and Caicos Islands - Tuvalu

Taiping: see under China.

Taiwan

Note: Names are given in Wade-Giles transliteration or in the specific form some persons have adopted for foreign use.
 8 May 1895                Treaty of Shimonoseki, handing Taiwan over to Japan,
                           in force
25 May 1895                Republic of Taiwan inaugurated, in resistance to the
                           handover
 2 Jun 1895                handover of Taiwan to Japan formally executed, while
                           resistance continues, especially in Tainan city
21 Oct 1895                Republic of Taiwan extinguished by Japan
25 Oct 1945                Taiwan is returned to the Republic of China
 8 Dec 1949                Taiwan becomes the seat of the Republic of China, which
                           controls only the island (plus small islands of Fujian
                           province) and gradually loses international recognitionš
                           (for the Republic of China before 1949, see China)

Republic of Taiwan

25 May 1895 - 21 Oct 1895  nien-hao (era name): Yung-ch'ing

Presidents
25 May 1895 -  5 Jun 1895  T'ang Ching-sung                   (b. 1841 - d. 1903)
   Jun 1895 - 21 Oct 1895  Liu Yung-fu                        (b. 1837 - d. 1917)

Japanese rule

Governors-general
17 Jun 1895 -  2 Jun 1896  Motonori Kabayama                  (b. 1837 - d. 1922)
 2 Jun 1896 - 14 Oct 1896  Viscount Taro Katsura              (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
14 Oct 1896 - 26 Feb 1898  Maresuke Nogi                      (b. 1849 - d. 1912)
26 Feb 1898 - 11 Apr 1906  Baron Gentaro Kodama               (b. 1852 - d. 1906)
11 Apr 1906 -  1 May 1915  Viscount (from 1907, Count)
                           Samata Sakuma                      (b. 1844 - d. 1915)
 1 May 1915 -  6 Jun 1918  Sadayoshi Ando                     (b. 1853 - d. 1932)
 6 Jun 1918 - 24 Oct 1919  Motojiro Akashi                    (b. 1864 - d. 1919)
29 Oct 1919 -  2 Sep 1923  Baron Kenjiro Den                  (b. 1853 - d. 1930)
 6 Sep 1923 -  1 Sep 1924  Kakichi Uchida                     (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
 1 Sep 1924 - 16 Jul 1926  Takio Izawa                        (b. 1869 - d. 1949)
16 Jul 1926 - 16 Jun 1928  Mitsunoshin Ueyama                 (b. 1870 - d. 1938)
16 Jun 1928 - 30 Jul 1929  Takeji Kawamura                    (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
30 Jul 1929 - 16 Jan 1931  Eizo Ishizuka                      (b. 1866 - d. 1942)
16 Jan 1931 -  2 Mar 1932  Masahiro Ota                       (b. 1870 - d. 1951)
 2 Mar 1932 - 26 May 1932  Hiroshi Minami                     (b. 1869 - d. 1946)
27 May 1932 -  2 Sep 1936  Kenzo Nakagawa                     (b. 1875 - d. 1944)
 2 Sep 1936 - 27 Nov 1940  Seizo Kobayashi                    (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
27 Nov 1940 - 30 Dec 1944  Kiyoshi Hasegawa                   (b. 1883 - d. 1970)
30 Dec 1944 - 25 Oct 1945  Rikichi Ando                       (b. 1884 - d. 1946)

Republic of China

Presidents
21 Jan 1949 -  1 Mar 1950  Li Tsung-jen (acting)              (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
 1 Mar 1950 -  5 Apr 1975  Chiang Kai-shek                    (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
 5 Apr 1975 - 20 May 1978  Yen Chia-kan                       (b. 1905 - d. 1993)
20 May 1978 - 13 Jan 1988  Chiang Ching-kuo                   (b. 1910 - d. 1988)
13 Jan 1988 - 20 May 2000  Lee Teng-hui                       (b. 1923)
20 May 2000 - 20 May 2008  Chen Shui-bian                     (b. 1950)
20 May 2008 -              Ma Ying-jeou                       (b. 1950)

Presidents of the Executive Yuan (premiers) 3 Jun 1949 - 8 Mar 1950 Yen Hsi-shan (b. 1883 - d. 1960) 8 Mar 1950 - 7 Jun 1954 Ch'en Ch'eng (1st time) (b. 1898 - d. 1965) 7 Jun 1954 - 30 Jun 1958 Yu Hung-chun (b. 1898 - d. 1960) 30 Jun 1958 - 16 Dec 1963 Ch'en Ch'eng (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Dec 1963 - 29 May 1972 Yen Chia-kan (s.a.) 29 May 1972 - 30 May 1978 Chiang Ching-kuo (s.a.) 30 May 1978 - 20 May 1984 Sun Yun-suan (b. 1913 - d. 2006) 20 May 1984 - 21 May 1989 Yu Kuo-hwa (b. 1914 - d. 2000) 21 May 1989 - 30 May 1990 Lee Huan (b. 1917 - d. 2010) 30 May 1990 - 10 Feb 1993 Hau Pei-tsun (b. 1919) 10 Feb 1993 - 1 Sep 1997 Lien Chan (b. 1936) 1 Sep 1997 - 20 May 2000 Vincent Siew (b. 1939) 20 May 2000 - 6 Oct 2000 Tang Fei (b. 1932) 6 Oct 2000 - 1 Feb 2002 Chang Chun-hsiung (1st time) (b. 1938) 1 Feb 2002 - 1 Feb 2005 Yu Shyi-kun (b. 1948) 1 Feb 2005 - 25 Jan 2006 Frank Hsieh (b. 1946) 25 Jan 2006 - 21 May 2007 Su Tseng-chang (b. 1947) 21 May 2007 - 20 May 2008 Chang Chun-hsiung (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 May 2008 - 10 Sep 2009 Liu Chao-shiuan (b. 1943) 10 Sep 2009 - 6 Feb 2012 Wu Den-yih (b. 1948) 6 Feb 2012 - 18 Feb 2013 Sean Chen (b. 1949) 18 Feb 2013 - Jiang Yi-huah (b. 1960)

Taiwan province

Governors
25 Oct 1945 - 16 May 1947  Ch'en Yi                           (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
16 May 1947 -  5 Jan 1949  Wei Tao-ming                       (b. 1900 - d. 1978)
 5 Jan 1949 - 21 Dec 1949  Ch'en Ch'eng                       (s.a.)
21 Dec 1949 - 16 Apr 1953  Wu Gwo-jen                         (b. 1903 - d. 1984)
16 Apr 1953 -  7 Jun 1954  Yu Hung-chun                       (s.a.)
 7 Jun 1954 - 16 Aug 1957  Yen Chia-kan                       (s.a.)
16 Aug 1957 -  1 Dec 1962  Chow Chih-jou                      (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
 1 Dec 1962 -  5 Jul 1969  Huang Chieh                        (b. 1902 - d. 1994)
 5 Jul 1969 -  6 Jun 1972  Chen Ta-ching                      (b. 1905 - d. 1973)
 6 Jun 1972 - 20 May 1978  Shieh Tung-min                     (b. 1907 - d. 2001)
12 Jun 1978 -  5 Dec 1981  Lin Yang-kang                      (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
 5 Dec 1981 - 20 May 1984  Lee Teng-hui                       (s.a.)
 9 Jun 1984 - 16 Jun 1990  Chiu Chuang-huan                   (b. 1925)
16 Jun 1990 - 25 Feb 1993  Lien Chan                          (s.a.)
20 Mar 1993 - 21 Dec 1998  James Soong                        (b. 1942)
21 Dec 1998 - 20 May 2000  Chao Shou-po                       (b. 1941)
20 May 2000 -  4 Feb 2002  Chang Po-ya (f)                    (b. 1942)
 4 Feb 2002 - 10 Oct 2003  Fan Kuang-chun                     (b. 1939)
10 Oct 2003 - 25 Jan 2006  Lin Kuang-hua                      (b. 1945)
21 Dec 2007 - 20 May 2008  Lin Si-yao                         (b. 1961)
20 May 2008 - 10 Sep 2009  Tsai Hsung-hsiung                  (b. 1941)
10 Sep 2009 - 24 Feb 2010  Chang Jin-fu                       (b. 1948)
24 Feb 2010 -              Lin Junq-tzer                      (b. 1944)

Fukien (Fujian) province

Governors (in Taiwan province Jul 1956 - 15 Jan 1996)
23 Nov 1949 -    Jan 1955  Hu Lien                            (b. 1907 - d. 1977)
   Feb 1955 - 21 May 1986  Tai Chung-yu                       (b. 1910 - d. 1986)
   Jun 1986 -    Feb 1998  Wu Chin-tzan                       (b. 1936)
   Feb 1998 -    May 2007  Yen Chung-cheng                    (b. 1938)
21 May 2007 - 28 Nov 2007  Yang Cheng-hsi (acting)            (b. 1945)
28 Nov 2007 - 20 May 2008  Chen Chin-jun                      (b. 1956)
20 May 2008 - 10 Sep 2009  Hsueh Hsiang-chuan                 (b. 1944)
10 Sep 2009 - 18 Feb 2013  James Cherng-tay Hsueh             (b. 1956)
18 Feb 2013 -  1 Aug 2013  Chen Shyh-kwei                     (b. 1952)
 1 Aug 2013 - 30 Sep 2013  Luo Ying-shay (f)                  (b. 1951)
   Oct 2013 -              Schive Chi                         (b. 1947)
šThe People's Republic of China replaced Taiwan in the UN on 15 Nov 1971; the U.S. switched recognition from Taiwan to the People's Republic on 1 Jan 1979. Currently, Taiwan has diplomatic relations with 22 countries (Belize, Burkina Faso, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Nicaragua, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Săo Tomé and Príncipe, Solomon Islands, Swaziland, Tuvalu, Vatican City).

Tajikistan

 9 Sep 1991                independence declared (Republic of Tajikistan)
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)

Presidents
31 Aug 1991 - 23 Sep 1991  Kadriddin Aslonov (acting)         (b. 1947 - d. 1992)
23 Sep 1991 -  7 Oct 1991  Rakhmon Nabiyev (1st time)         (b. 1930 - d. 1993)
                           (acting)
 7 Oct 1991 -  2 Dec 1991  Akbarsho Iskandarov (1st time)     (b. 1951)
                           (acting)
 2 Dec 1991 -  7 Sep 1992  Rakhmon Nabiyev (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 7 Sep 1992 - 19 Nov 1992  Akbarsho Iskandarov (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
19 Nov 1992 -              Emomali Rakhmonov (from Mar 2007,
                           Emomalii Rakhmon)                  (b. 1952)
                           (acting to 27 Nov 1992; chairman Supreme Council
                           27 Nov 1992 - 16 Nov 1994)

Prime ministers 25 Jun 1991 - 9 Jan 1992 Izatullo Khayoyev (b. 1936) 9 Jan 1992 - 21 Sep 1992 Akbar Mirzoyev (b. 1939) 21 Sep 1992 - 18 Dec 1993 Abdumalik Abdullajanov (b. 1949) (acting to 20 Nov 1992) 18 Dec 1993 - 2 Dec 1994 Abdujalil Samadov (b. 1949 - d. 2004) (acting to 27 Dec 1993) 2 Dec 1994 - 8 Feb 1996 Jamshed Karimov (b. 1940) 8 Feb 1996 - 20 Dec 1999 Yakhyo Azimov (b. 1947) 20 Dec 1999 - 23 Nov 2013 Akil Akilov (b. 1944) 23 Nov 2013 - Kokhir Rasulzoda (b. 1961)

Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous province

Chairman of the Provincial Council
       1990 -        1992  Akbarsho Iskandarov                (s.a.)
Chairman of the Supreme Council
       1992 -        1993  Akbarsho Iskandarov                (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Executive Committee
   Dec 1994 - 25 Nov 2006  Alimamad Niyozmamadov              (b. 1943)
25 Nov 2006 - 19 Nov 2013  Kadyr Kasymov (from Jun 2007,
                           Kodiri Kosim)
                           (acting to 12 Feb 2007)
19 Nov 2013 -              Shodikhon Jamshedov

Tangier: see under Morocco.
Tannu Tuva: see under Russia.

Tanzania

28 Apr 1888                Germany obtains a lease of the coastal strip from the
                           sultan of Zanzibar
       1891                German protectorate (German East Africa)
       1916                British occupation
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate (Tanganyika)
13 Dec 1946                United Nations trust territory
 9 Dec 1961                independence
 9 Dec 1962                Republic of Tanganyika
26 Apr 1964                United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
29 Oct 1964                United Republic of Tanzania

Reichskommissar
 8 Feb 1889 - 21 Feb 1891  Hermann von Wissmann               (b. 1853 - d. 1905)
Governors
14 Feb 1891 - 15 Sep 1893  Julius Freiherr von Soden          (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
15 Sep 1893 - 25 Feb 1895  Friedrich Radbod Freiherr von
                           Schele                             (b. 1847 - d. 1904)
26 Apr 1895 -  3 Dec 1896  Hermann von Wissmann               (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1896 - 12 Mar 1901  Eduard (from 1 Jan 1900, von)
                           Liebert                            (b. 1850 - d. 1934)
12 Mar 1901 - 15 Apr 1906  Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen       (b. 1866 - d. 1910)
15 Apr 1906 - 22 Apr 1912  Georg Albrecht Freiherr von
                           Rechenberg                         (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
22 Apr 1912 - 14 Nov 1918  Albert Heinrich Schnee             (b. 1871 - d. 1949)
Administrator
 9 Oct 1916 - 22 Jul 1920  Horace Archer Byatt (from
                           1918, Sir Horace Archer Byatt)     (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
Governors
22 Jul 1920 -  5 Mar 1925  Sir Horace Archer Byatt            (s.a.)
 5 Mar 1925 -    Jan 1931  Donald Charles Cameron             (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
   Jan 1931 -    Feb 1934  George Stewart Symes               (b. 1882 - d. 1962)
   Feb 1934 -        1938  Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael       (b. 1882 - d. 1969)
       1938 - 19 Jun 1941  Sir Mark Young                     (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
19 Jun 1941 - 28 Apr 1945  Sir Wilfrid Edward Francis Jackson (b. 1883 - d. 1971)
28 Apr 1945 - 18 Jun 1949  Sir William Denis Battershill      (b. 1896 - d. 1959)
18 Jun 1949 -    Jun 1958  Sir Edward Francis Twining         (b. 1899 - d. 1967)
15 Jul 1958 -  9 Dec 1961  Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull        (b. 1909 - d. 1998)
Governor-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 9 Dec 1961 -  9 Dec 1962  Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull        (s.a.)
Presidents
 9 Dec 1962 -  5 Nov 1985  Julius Nyerere                     (b. 1922 - d. 1999)
 5 Nov 1985 - 23 Nov 1995  Ali Hassan Mwinyi                  (b. 1925)
23 Nov 1995 - 21 Dec 2005  Benjamin Mkapa                     (b. 1938)
21 Dec 2005 -              Jakaya Kikwete                     (b. 1950)

Chief minister 2 Sep 1960 - 1 May 1961 Julius Nyerere (s.a.) Prime ministers 1 May 1961 - 22 Jan 1962 Julius Nyerere (s.a.) 22 Jan 1962 - 9 Dec 1962 Rashidi Kawawa (1st time) (b. 1926 - d. 2009) 17 Feb 1972 - 13 Feb 1977 Rashidi Kawawa (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Feb 1977 - 7 Nov 1980 Edward Moringe Sokoine (1st time) (b. 1938 - d. 1984) 7 Nov 1980 - 24 Feb 1983 Cleopa David Msuya (1st time) (b. 1931) 24 Feb 1983 - 12 Apr 1984 Edward Moringe Sokoine (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Apr 1984 - 5 Nov 1985 Salim Ahmed Salim (b. 1942) 5 Nov 1985 - 9 Nov 1990 Joseph Warioba (b. 1940) 9 Nov 1990 - 7 Dec 1994 John Malecela (b. 1934) 7 Dec 1994 - 28 Nov 1995 Cleopa David Msuya (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Nov 1995 - 30 Dec 2005 Frederick Sumaye (b. 1950) 30 Dec 2005 - 9 Feb 2008 Edward Lowassa (b. 1953) 9 Feb 2008 - Mizengo Pinda (b. 1948)

Zanzibar

14 Sep 1806                Al ´Bu Sa`id lineage from Oman begins to rule Zanzibar
 6 Apr 1861                Zanzibar separated from Oman and style Sultan recognized
                           by U.K. mediation
 7 Nov 1890                British protectorate proclaimed
       1895                coastal domains of Zanzibar become Kenya Protectorate
                           under U.K. (and are relinquished to Kenya on Kenya's
                           independence 12 Dec 1963)
10 Dec 1963                British protectorate terminated
12 Jan 1964                People's Republic of Zanzibar
27 Apr 1964                united with Tanganyika

Hamis (informally, sultans)
- Al ´Bu Sa`id dynasty -
14 Sep 1806 - 19 Oct 1856  Sayyid Sa`id ibn Sultan            (b. 1791? - d. 1856)
19 Oct 1856 -  6 Apr 1861  Sayyid Majid ibn Sa`id             (b. 1834 - d. 1870)
Sultans
- Al ´Bu Sa`id dynasty -
 6 Apr 1861 -  7 Oct 1870  Sayyid Majid ibn Sa`id             (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1870 - 26 Mar 1888  Sayyid Barghash ibn Sa`id          (b. 1837 - d. 1888)
27 Mar 1888 - 13 Feb 1890  Sayyid Khalifa ibn Sa`id           (b. 1852 - d. 1890)
13 Feb 1890 -  5 Mar 1893  Sayyid `Ali ibn Sa`id              (b. 1854 - d. 1893)
 5 Mar 1893 - 25 Aug 1896  Sayyid Hamid ibn Thuwayni          (b. 1857 - d. 1896)
25 Aug 1896 - 27 Aug 1896  Sayyid Khalid ibn Barghash         (b. 1874 - d. 1927)
27 Aug 1896 - 18 Jul 1902  Sayyid Hamud ibn Muhammad          (b. 1853 - d. 1902)
18 Jul 1902 -  8 Dec 1911  Sayyid `Ali ibn Hamud              (b. 1884 - d. 1918)
 9 Dec 1911 -  9 Oct 1960  Sayyid Khalifa ibn Kharub          (b. 1879 - d. 1960)
 9 Oct 1960 -  1 Jul 1963  Sayyid `Abd Allah ibn Khalifa      (b. 1910 - d. 1963)
 1 Jul 1963 - 12 Jan 1964  Sayyid Jamshid ibn `Abd Allah      (b. 1929)
Presidents
12 Jan 1964 -  7 Apr 1972  Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume          (b. 1905 - d. 1972)
                           (from 20 Dec 1971 president of the Revolutionary Council)
11 Apr 1972 - 30 Jan 1984  Sheikh Mwinyi Aboud Jumbe          (b. 1920)
30 Jan 1984 - 24 Oct 1985  Ali Hassan Mwinyi                  (s.a.)
                           (acting to 19 Apr 1984)
24 Oct 1985 - 25 Oct 1990  Idris Abdul Wakil                  (b. 1925 - d. 2000)
25 Oct 1990 -  8 Nov 2000  Salmin Amour                       (b. 1948)
 8 Nov 2000 -  3 Nov 2010  Amani Abeid Karume                 (b. 1948)
 3 Nov 2010 -              Ali Mohamed Shein                  (b. 1948)

Chief ministers 23 Feb 1961 - 5 Jun 1961 Geoffrey Charles Lawrence (acting) (b. 1915 - d. 1994) 5 Jun 1961 - 24 Jun 1963 Sheikh Muhammad Shamte Hamadi (b. 1907) Prime ministers 24 Jun 1963 - 12 Jan 1964 Sheikh Muhammad Shamte Hamadi (s.a.) 12 Jan 1964 - 27 Apr 1964 Abdullah Kassim Hanga (b. 1932 - d. 1969) Chief ministers 21 Feb 1983 - 6 Feb 1984 Ramadhani Haji Faki 6 Feb 1984 - 22 Jan 1988 Seif Sharif Hamad (b. 1943) 25 Jan 1988 - 1 Nov 1995 Omar Ali Juma (b. 1941 - d. 2001) 1 Nov 1995 - 15 Nov 2000 Mohamed Gharib Bilal (b. 1945) 15 Nov 2000 - Nov 2010 Shamsi Vuai Nahodha (b. 1962) British consuls-general 1891 - 1893 Gerald Herbert Portal (from 1892, Sir Gerald Herbert Portal) (b. 1858 - d. 1894) 1893 - 1894 James Rennell Rodd (b. 1858 - d. 1941) 1894 - 1900 Arthur Henry Hardinge (from 1897, Sir Arthur Henry Hardinge) (b. 1859 - d. 1933) 1900 - 1904 Sir Charles Eliot (b. 1862 - d. 1931) 1904 - 1909 Basil Shillito Cave (b. 1865 - d. 1931) 1909 - 13 Feb 1913 Edward Clarke (b. 1860 - d. 1913) Residents 1 Jul 1913 - 1922 Francis Barrow Pearce (b. 1866 - d. 1926) 1922 - 1923 John Houston Sinclair (b. 1871 - d. 1961) Jan 1924 - 1929 Alfred Claud Hollis (from 1927, Sir Alfred Claud Hollis) (b. 1874 - d. 1961) Dec 1929 - 1937 Richard Sims Donkin Rankine (from 1932, Sir Richard Sims Donkin Rankine) (b. 1875 - d. 1961) Oct 1937 - 1940 John Hathorn Hall (b. 1894 - d. 1979) 1941 - 1946 Henry Guy Pilling (b. 1886 - d. 1953) 1946 - 1951 Vincent Goncalves Glenday (b. 1891 - d. 1970) 1952 - 1954 John Dalzell Rankine (b. 1907 - d. 1987) 2 Nov 1954 - 1959 Henry Steven Potter (from 1956, Sir Henry Steven Potter) (b. 1904 - d. 1976) 1959 - 1963 Arthur George Rixson Mooring (b. 1908 - d. 1969)

Taqali: see under Sudan, The.
Tegucigalpa: see under Honduras.

Thailand

       1350                Kingdom of Ayutthaya
   Dec 1767                Kingdom of Thonburi
 6 Apr 1782                Kingdom of Krung Thep (Bangkok)
     c.1856                Kingdom of Siam (this term comes into gradual official use)
24 Jun 1939                Kingdom of Thailand
 8 Sep 1945 - 20 Jul 1949  name "Siam" authorized for foreign use

Kings
11 Jul 1688 -        1703  Phetracha
       1703 -        1709  Luang Sorasak "Phra Chao Sua"      (b. 1662 - d. 1709)
       1709 -    Jan 1733  Phumintharacha
   Jan 1733 - 13 Apr 1758  Borommakot                         (b. c.1682 - d. 1758)
   May 1758 -    Aug 1758  Uthumphon
   Aug 1758 -  7 Apr 1767  Ekatat
   Dec 1767 -  6 Apr 1782  Taksin                             (b. 1734 - d. 1782)
- Chakkri dynastyš -
 6 Apr 1782 -  7 Sep 1809  Buddha Yodfa = Rama I              (b. 1737 - d. 1809)
 7 Sep 1809 - 21 Jul 1824  Buddha Loetla = Rama II            (b. 1768 - d. 1824)
21 Jul 1824 -  2 Apr 1851  Nangklao = Rama III                (b. 1788 - d. 1851)
 3 Apr 1851 -  1 Oct 1868  Mongkut = Rama IV                  (b. 1804 - d. 1868)
 2 Oct 1868 - 23 Oct 1910  Chulalongkorn = Rama V             (b. 1853 - d. 1910)
23 Oct 1910 - 26 Nov 1925  Vajiravudh = Rama VI               (b. 1881 - d. 1925)
26 Nov 1925 -  2 Mar 1935  Prajadhipok = Rama VII             (b. 1893 - d. 1941)
 2 Mar 1935 -  9 Jun 1946  Ananda Mahidol = Rama VIII         (b. 1925 - d. 1946)
 7 Mar 1935 - 12 Aug 1935    Prince Oscar Anuvatana           (b. 1883 - d. 1935)
                             (president of Council of Regency)
   Aug 1935 - 31 Jul 1944    Prince Aditya Dibabha            (b. 1904 - d. 1946)
                             (president of Council of Regency)
31 Jul 1944 -  5 Dec 1945    Pridi Banomyong (regent)         (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
 9 Jun 1946 -              Bhumibol Adulyadej = Rama IX       (b. 1927)
                             Presidents of Council of Regency:
16 Jun 1946 - 24 Mar 1950    Prince Rangsit of Chainat
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
 5 Jun 1950 -  6 Mar 1951    Prince Rangsit of Chainat
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
   Mar 1951 -  2 Dec 1951    Prince Dhani Nivat               (b. 1885 - d. 1974)

Prime ministers 10 Dec 1932 - 24 Jun 1933 Phya Manopakornnitithada (b. 1884 - d. 1948) 24 Jun 1933 - 26 Dec 1938 Phya Phaholphonphayuhasena (b. 1889 - d. 1958) 26 Dec 1938 - 1 Aug 1944 Plaek Pibulsongkram (1st time) (b. 1897 - d. 1964) 1 Aug 1944 - 17 Jul 1945 Khuang Aphaiwong (1st time) (b. 1902 - d. 1968) 31 Aug 1945 - 17 Sep 1945 Thawi Bunyaket (b. 1904 - d. 1971) 17 Sep 1945 - 31 Jan 1946 Seni Pramoj (1st time) (b. 1905 - d. 1997) 31 Jan 1946 - 24 Mar 1946 Khuang Aphaiwong (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Mar 1946 - 23 Aug 1946 Pridi Banomyong (s.a.) 23 Aug 1946 - 9 Nov 1947 Thawan Thamrongnawasawat (b. 1901 - d. 1988) 10 Nov 1947 - 8 Apr 1948 Khuang Aphaiwong (3rd time) (s.a.) 8 Apr 1948 - 17 Sep 1957 Plaek Pibulsongkram (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Sep 1957 - 1 Jan 1958 Pote Sarasin (b. 1905 - d. 2000) 1 Jan 1958 - 20 Oct 1958 Thanom Kittikachorn (1st time) (b. 1911 - d. 2004) 20 Oct 1958 - 8 Dec 1963 Sarit Thanarat (b. 1908 - d. 1963) (acting to 10 Feb 1959) 8 Dec 1963 - 14 Oct 1973 Thanom Kittikachorn (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 9 Dec 1963; chairman National Executive Council 26 Nov 1971 - 18 Dec 1972) 14 Oct 1973 - 27 Feb 1975 Sanya Thammasak (b. 1907 - d. 2002) 27 Feb 1975 - 17 Mar 1975 Seni Pramoj (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Mar 1975 - 20 Apr 1976 Kukrit Pramoj (b. 1911 - d. 1995) 20 Apr 1976 - 6 Oct 1976 Seni Pramoj (3rd time) (s.a.) 6 Oct 1976 - 23 Nov 1980 Sa-ngad Chaloryu (b. 1915 - d. 1980) (chairman Administration Reform Council; from 20 Oct 1977, chairman Revolutionary Council; from 12 Nov 1977, chairman National Policy Council) 8 Oct 1976 - 20 Oct 1977 Thanin Kraivichien (b. 1927) 12 Nov 1977 - 3 Mar 1980 Kriangsak Chomanan (b. 1917 - d. 2003) 3 Mar 1980 - 4 Aug 1988 Prem Tinsulanonda (b. 1920) 4 Aug 1988 - 23 Feb 1991 Chatichai Choonhavan (b. 1922 - d. 1998) 23 Feb 1991 - 7 Mar 1991 Sunthorn Kongsompong (b. 1931? - d. 1999) (chairman National Peacekeeping Council) 7 Mar 1991 - 7 Apr 1992 Anand Panyarachun (1st time) (b. 1932) 7 Apr 1992 - 24 May 1992 Suchinda Kraprayoon (b. 1933) 24 May 1992 - 10 Jun 1992 Meechai Ruchupan (acting) (b. 1938) 10 Jun 1992 - 23 Sep 1992 Anand Panyarachun (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Sep 1992 - 13 Jul 1995 Chuan Leekpai (1st time) (b. 1938) 13 Jul 1995 - 1 Dec 1996 Banharn Silpa-archa (b. 1932) 1 Dec 1996 - 9 Nov 1997 Chavalit Yongchaiyudh (b. 1932) 9 Nov 1997 - 9 Feb 2001 Chuan Leekpai (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Feb 2001 - 19 Sep 2006 Thaksin Shinawatra (b. 1949) 5 Apr 2006 - 23 May 2006 Chidchai Vanasatidya (b. 1946) (acting for Thaksin) 19 Sep 2006 - 1 Oct 2006 Sonthi Boonyaratkalin (b. 1946) (leader of Democratic Reform Council) 1 Oct 2006 - 29 Jan 2008 Surayud Chulanont (b. 1943) 29 Jan 2008 - 9 Sep 2008 Samak Sundaravej (b. 1935 - d. 2009) 9 Sep 2008 - 2 Dec 2008 Somchai Wongsawat (b. 1947) (acting to 18 Sep 2008) 2 Dec 2008 - 15 Dec 2008 Chaovarat Chanweerakul (acting) (b. 1936) 15 Dec 2008 - 8 Aug 2011 Abhisit Vejjajiva (b. 1964) 8 Aug 2011 - 7 May 2014 Yingluck Shinawatra (f) (b. 1967) 7 May 2014 - 22 May 2014 Niwattumrong Boonsongpaisan (b. 1948) (acting) 22 May 2014 - Prayuth Chan-ocha (b. 1954) (director of Peace and Order Maintaining Command to 25 Aug 2014)
šThe Chakkri rulers were often referred to as "the king of the first/second/etc. reign." During the king of the third reign, his two predecessors were referred to as "the First King" and "the Middle King," respectively; the then current king not wanting to be "the Last King," but careful to avoid referring to his predecessors "by name," erected two statues to represent them, gave names to the statues (Buddha Yodfa, Buddha Loetla), and made those names the "official" referents for the respective kings; he himself became Nangklao. Vajiravudh, the king of the sixth reign, decided in 1916 to refer henceforth to the rulers of the dynasty as Rama I, Rama II, and so on, he being Rama VI. This device was rejected by his successor Prajadhipok, the king of the seventh reign, but informally re-adopted later. It is quite commonly used by officials under the current king of the ninth reign.

Lanna

       1259                Lanna kingdom founded
       1558                under Burmese suzerainty
       1774                under Thai suzerainty
       1892                incorporated into Siam; royalty continues until 1939

Kings
       1675 -        1707  Chephutarai
       1707 -        1727  Mangraenara
       1727 -        1759  Ong Kham
       1759 -        1761  Chan
       1761 -        1762  Khi Hut
       1763 -        1768  Abhayagamani
       1768 -        1771  Moyagamani
Princes (title Chao)
       1775 -        1813  Kawila                             (b. 17... - d. 1813)
       1813 -        1821  Thammalangka                       (b. c.1755 - d. 1821)
       1821 -        1825  Kham Fan                           (b. c.1754 - d. 1825)
       1825 -        1846  Phutthawong                        (b. ... - d. 1846)
       1846 -        1854  Mahawong                           (b. ... - d. 1854)
       1856 -        1870  Kavilorot                          (b. ... - d. 1870)
       1871 -        1897  Inthavichayanon                    (b. 1817 - d. 1897)
       1901 -        1911  Suriyawong
       1911 -        1939  In Kaeo Nowarat

Patani

    bf.1400                Patani kingdom founded
       1786                Thai occupation
       1816                split into 7 divisions (Patani, Rahman, Jalar, Sai, Legeh,
                           Jering, Nongcik)
       1902                incorporated into Siam

Kings
       1690 -        1707  Raja Mas Kelatan
       1707 -        1710  Raja Mas Jayam (1st time)
       1710 -        1719  Raja Dewi (f)
       1719 -        1723  Raja Bendang Badan
       1723 -        1724  Raja Laksamana Dajang
       1724 -        1726  Raja Mas Jayam (2nd time)
       1726 - 12 Aug 1729  Along Yunus                        (b. ... - d. 1729)
       1729 -        1776  ...
       1776 -        1786  Sultan Muhammad
       1786 -        1791  Tengku Lamidin
       1791 -        1808  Datok Pengkalan
       1808 -        1815  Nai Khwan Sai
       1815 -        1816  Nai Pai

Tibet: see under China.

Timor-Leste

       1642                Portuguese colony (Portuguese Timor); subordinated to
                           Portuguese India
       1844                subordinated to Macau
       1896                separate colony
17 Dec 1941 - 20 Feb 1942  occupied by Dutch and Australian forces
20 Feb 1942 -  5 Sep 1945  occupied by Japan
28 Nov 1975                Democratic Republic of East Timor proclaimed
 7 Dec 1975                occupied by Indonesia
17 Jul 1976                annexed by Indonesia (Timor Timur province)
19 Oct 1999                annexation rescinded
25 Oct 1999                UN administration
20 May 2002                independence (Democratic Republic of East Timor)
 6 Aug 2003                Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (date of communication
                           to the United Nations that Portuguese name is to be left
                           untranslated)

Captain-major
       1697 -        1702  Domingos da Costa
Governors
   Feb 1702 -        1705  António Coelho Guerreiro
       1705 -        1706  Lourenço Lopes
       1706 -        1708  Manuel Ferreira de Almeida
                           (1st time)
       1708 -        1709  Jácome de Morais Sarmento
       1709 -        1714  Manuel de Souto-Maior
       1714                Manuel Ferreira de Almeida
                           (2nd time)
       1714 -        1718  Domingos da Costa
       1718 -        1719  Francisco de Melo e Castro
       1719 -        1722  Manuel de Santo António
       1722 -        1725  António de Albuquerque Coelho
       1725 -        1729  António Moniz de Macedo (1st time)
       1729 -        1731  Pedro de Melo
       1731 -        1734  Pedro de Rego Barreto da Gama e
                           Castro
       1734 -        1739  António Moniz de Macedo (2nd time)
       1741 -        1745  Manuel Leonís de Castro
       1745 -        1748  Francisco Xavier Doutel
       1748 -        1751  Manuel Correia de Lacerda
       1751 -        1759  Manuel Doutel de Figueiredo Sarmento
       1759 -        1760  Sebastiăo de Azevedo e Brito
       1760 -        1763  vacant
       1763 -        1765  Dionisio Gonçalves Rebelo Galvăo
       1765 -        1768  vacant
       1768 -        1776  António José Teles de Meneses
       1776 -        1779  Caetano de Lemos Telo de Meneses
       1779 -        1782  Lourenço de Brito Correia
       1782 -        1785  Joăo Anselmo de Almeida Soares
       1785 -        1788  Joăo Baptista Vieira Godinho
       1788 -        1790  Feliciano António Nogueira Lisboa
       1790 -        1794  Joaquim Xavier de Morais Sarmento
       1794 -        1800  Joăo Baptista Verquaim
       1800 -        1804  José Joaquim de Sousa
       1804 -        1807  Joăo Vicente Soares da Veiga
       1807 -        1810  António de Mendonça Corte-Real
       1810                António Botelho Homem Bernardes
                           Pessőa
       1812 -        1815  Vitorino Freire da Cunha Gusmăo
       1815 -        1819  José Pinto Alcoforado de Azevedo
                           e Sousa
       1821 -        1832  Manuel Joaquim de Matos Góis
       1832                Miguel da Silveira Lorena
       1834 -        1839  José Maria Marques
       1839 -        1844  Frederico Leăo Cabreira
       1844 -        1848  Juliăo José da Silva Vieira
       1848 -        1851  António Olavo Monteiro Tôrres
       1851 -        1852  José Joaquim Lopes de Lima
       1852 -        1856  Manuel de Saldanha da Gama
       1856 -        1859  Luís Augusto de Almeida Macedo
       1859 -        1863  Afonso de Castro
       1863 -        1864  José Manuel Pereira de Almeida
       1864 -        1866  José Eduardo da Costa Meneses
       1866 -        1869  Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
       1870 -        1871  Joăo Clímaco de Carvalho
       1873 -        1876  Hugo Goodair de Lacerda Castelo
                           Branco (1st time)
       1876 -        1878  Joaquim António da Silva Ferrăo
       1878 -        1880  Hugo Goodair de Lacerda Castelo
                           Branco (2nd time)
       1880 -        1881  Augusto César Cardoso de Carvalho  (b. 1836 - d. 1905)
       1882 -        1883  Bento da França Pinto de Oliveira  (b. 1833 - d. 1889)
       1883 -        1885  Joăo Maria Pereira
       1885 -        1887  Alfredo de Lacerda Maia
       1887 -        1888  António Francisco da Costa
       1888 -        1890  Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade    (b. 1851 - d. 1900)
       1891 -        1894  Cipriano Forjaz
       1894 -        1908  José Celestino da Silva
       1908 -        1909  Eduardo Augusto Marqués
       1910                Alfredo Augusto Soveral Martins
       1911 -        1917  Filomeno da Câmara Melo Cabral     (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
       1917 -        1919  Luís Augusto de Oliveira Franco
                           (acting)
       1919 -        1921  Manuel Paulo de Sousa Gentil       (b. 1870 - d. 1937)
       1921 -        1923  José de Paiva Gomes
       1924 -        1926  Raimundo Enes Meira
       1926 -        1928  Teófilo Duarte                     (b. 1898 - d. 1958)
       1929 -        1930  Cesário Augusto de Almeida Viana
       1930 -        1933  Antonio Baptista Justo
       1933 -        1936  Raúl de Antas Manso Preto Mendes
                           Cruz
       1937 -        1939  Álvaro Eugenio Neves de Fontoura
       1940 -  8 Dec 1945  Manuel de Abreu Ferreira de
                           Carvalho                           (b. 1893 - d. af.1956)
17 Dec 1941 -        1942    William Watt Leggatt             (b. 1894 - d. 1968)
                             (commander of Australian forces)
17 Dec 1941 -        1942    Nico Leonard Willem van Straten  (b. 1897 - d. 1968)
                             (commander of Dutch forces)
       1942 -        194.    Sadashichi Doi
                             (commander of Japanese forces)
       1946 -        1950  Óscar Freire de Vasconcelos Ruas
31 Dec 1950 - 14 Jul 1958  César Maria de Serpa Rosa          (b. 1899 - d. 1968)
14 Jul 1958 - 22 Jun 1959  Manuel Albuquerque Gonçalves de
                           Aguiar (acting)
22 Jun 1959 -    Apr 1963  Filipe José Freire Temudo Barata   (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
   Apr 1963 -        1963  Francisco António Pires Barata
                           (acting)
       1963 -        1968  José Alberty Correia
       1968 -    Jan 1972  José Nogueira Valente Pires        (b. 1914 - d. 2010)
   Jan 1972 -    Jul 1974  Fernando Alves Aldeia
   Jul 1974 -    Nov 1974  Nívio Herdade (acting)
18 Nov 1974 - 26 Aug 1975  Mário Lemos Pires                  (b. 1930 - d. 2009)
Presidents (from 7 Dec 1975 in rebellion against Indonesian rule)
28 Nov 1975 -    Sep 1978  Francisco Xavier do Amaral         (b. 1937 - d. 2012)
   Sep 1978 - 31 Dec 1978  Nicolau dos Reis Lobato (acting)   (b. 1952 - d. 1978)
President of the Provisional Government
17 Dec 1975 - 17 Jul 1976  Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo            (b. 1913 - d. 1988)
Governors
       1976 -        1978  Arnaldo dos Reis Araújo            (s.a.)
       1978 -        1982  Guilherme Maria Gonçalves          (b. 1919 - d. 1999)
18 Sep 1983 - 18 Sep 1992  Mário Viegas Carrascalăo           (b. 1937)
18 Sep 1992 - 25 Oct 1999  Abilio José Osório Soares          (b. 1947 - d. 2007)
Administrators
25 Oct 1999 - 16 Nov 1999  Ian Martin (U.K.) (acting)         (b. 1946)
16 Nov 1999 - 19 May 2002  Sérgio Vieira de Mello (Brazil)    (b. 1948 - d. 2003)
Presidents
20 May 2002 - 20 May 2007  Xanana Gusmăo                      (b. 1946)
20 May 2007 - 20 May 2012  José Ramos-Horta                   (b. 1949)
11 Feb 2008 - 13 Feb 2008    Vicente Guterres                 (b. 1955)
                             (acting for Ramos-Horta)
13 Feb 2008 - 17 Apr 2008    Fernando de Araújo               (b. 1963)
                             (acting for Ramos-Horta)
20 May 2012 -              Taur Matan Ruak                    (b. 1956)

Chief minister 20 Sep 2001 - 20 May 2002 Mari Alkatiri (b. 1949) Prime ministers 20 May 2002 - 26 Jun 2006 Mari Alkatiri (s.a.) 26 Jun 2006 - 19 May 2007 José Ramos-Horta (s.a.) (acting to 10 Jul 2006) 19 May 2007 - 8 Aug 2007 Estanislau da Silva (b. 1952) 8 Aug 2007 - Xanana Gusmăo (s.a.)

Togo

 5 Jul 1884                German protectorate
26 Aug 1914                British and French occupation
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandates
       1946                United Nations trust territory

Commissioners (from 17 Nov 1893, Landeshauptleute; from 18 Apr 1898, governors)
 6 Jul 1884 - 26 Jun 1885  Heinrich Randad
                           (provisional consul)
26 Jun 1885 -    May 1887  Ernst Falkenthal                   (b. 1858 - d. 1911)
   Jul 1887 - 17 Oct 1888  Jesco von Puttkamer (1st time)     (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
                           (acting)
17 Oct 1888 - 14 Apr 1891  Eugen von Zimmerer                 (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
 4 Jun 1892 - 13 Aug 1895  Jesco von Puttkamer (2nd time)     (s.a.)
18 Nov 1895 - 20 Jan 1902  August Köhler                      (b. 1858 - d. 1902)
 1 Dec 1902 - 27 Jul 1905  Waldemar Horn                      (b. 1864 - d. 19...)
27 Jul 1905 -  7 Nov 1910  Johann Nepomuk Julius Graf Zech
                           auf Neuhofen                       (b. 1868 - d. 1914)
31 Mar 1911 - 19 Jun 1912  Edmund Brückner                    (b. 1871 - d. 1935)
19 Jun 1912 - 26 Aug 1914  Adolf Friedrich Herzog von
                           Mecklenburg-Schwerin               (b. 1873 - d. 1969)

British Togoland

       1957                part of Ghana

Administrators
       1920 -        1927  Francis Walter Fillon Jackson      (b. 1881 - d. 1936)
       1927 -        1957  the governors of Gold Coast
                           (see Ghana)

French and independent Togo

 1 Jan 1935 -        1937  administratively combined with Dahomey
30 Aug 1956                autonomy (Autonomous Republic of Togo)
 5 Mar 1958                Republic of Togo
27 Apr 1960                independence (Togolese Republic)

Commissioners (1935-37 administrators-superior)
 4 Sep 1916 - 27 Apr 1917  Gaston Léopold Joseph Fourn        (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
27 Apr 1917 - 31 Jan 1922  Alfred Louis Woelffel              (b. 1873 - d. 19...)
31 Jan 1922 - 27 Dec 1931  Auguste François Bonnecarrčre      (b. 1875 - d. 1966)
                           (acting to 22 Dec 1922)
27 Dec 1931 - 18 Oct 1933  Robert de Guise
18 Oct 1933 -  7 May 1934  Léon Charles Alphonse Pętre
                           (acting)
 7 May 1934 -  1 Jan 1935  Maurice Bourgine                   (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
 1 Jan 1935 - 25 Sep 1936  Léon Geismar
25 Sep 1936 -  1 Jan 1941  Lucien Montagné                    (b. 1886 - d. 1942)
 1 Jan 1941 - 19 Nov 1941  Léonce Joseph Delpech              (b. 1886 - d. 1954)
                           (acting to 28 Aug 1941)
19 Nov 1941 - 12 Apr 1942  Jean-François de Saint-Alary       (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
12 Apr 1942 - 31 Aug 1943  Pierre Jean André Saliceti         (b. 1893 - d. 1946)
31 Aug 1943 - 10 Jan 1944  Albert Mercadier (acting)
10 Jan 1944 -  8 Mar 1948  Jean Noutary                       (b. 1896 - d. 1962)
                           (acting to 4 Nov 1944)
 8 Mar 1948 - 20 Sep 1951  Jean Cédile                        (b. 1908 - d. 1984)
20 Sep 1951 - 25 Apr 1952  Yves Digo                          (b. 1897 - d. 1974)
25 Apr 1952 -  3 Feb 1955  Laurent Péchoux                    (b. 1904 - d. 2000)
 3 Feb 1955 - 21 Sep 1956  Jean Bérard                        (b. 1910 - d. 1999)
                           (acting to 6 Aug 1955)
High commissioners
21 Sep 1956 - 23 Mar 1957  Jean Bérard                        (s.a.)
23 Mar 1957 -    Jun 1957  Joseph Édouard Georges Rigal       (b. 1908 - d. 1980)
                           (acting)
   Jun 1957 - 27 Apr 1960  Georges Spénale                    (b. 1913 - d. 1983)
Presidents
27 Apr 1960 - 13 Jan 1963  Sylvanus Olympio                   (b. 1902 - d. 1963)
                           (Head of State to 12 Apr 1961)
13 Jan 1963 - 15 Jan 1963  Emmanuel Bodjollé                  (b. 1928)
                           (chairman Insurrection Committee)
16 Jan 1963 - 13 Jan 1967  Nicolas Grunitzky                  (b. 1913 - d. 1969)
                           (acting to 5 May 1963)
14 Jan 1967 - 14 Apr 1967  Kléber Dadjo                       (b. 1914 - d. 1979)
                           (chairman National Reconciliation Committee)
14 Apr 1967 -  5 Feb 2005  Étienne Eyadéma (from 8 May 1974,
                           Gnassingbé Eyadéma)                (b. 1937 - d. 2005)
 5 Feb 2005 - 25 Feb 2005  Faure Gnassingbé (1st time)        (b. 1966)
                           (acting from 21 Feb 2005)
25 Feb 2005 -  4 May 2005  Abass Bonfoh (acting)              (b. 1948)
 4 May 2005 -              Faure Gnassingbé (2nd time)        (s.a.)

Prime ministers 10 Sep 1956 - 16 May 1958 Nicolas Grunitzky (s.a.) 16 May 1958 - 12 Apr 1961 Sylvanus Olympio (s.a.) 27 Aug 1991 - 23 Apr 1994 Joseph Kokou Koffigoh (b. 1948) 23 Apr 1994 - 20 Aug 1996 Edem Kodjo (1st time) (b. 1938) 20 Aug 1996 - 21 May 1999 Kwassi Klutse (b. 1945) 21 May 1999 - 31 Aug 2000 Eugene Koffi Adoboli (b. 1934?) 31 Aug 2000 - 29 Jun 2002 Agbeyome Kodjo (b. 1954) 29 Jun 2002 - 9 Jun 2005 Koffi Sama (b. 1944) 9 Jun 2005 - 20 Sep 2006 Edem Kodjo (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Sep 2006 - 6 Dec 2007 Yawovi Agboyibo (b. 1943) 6 Dec 2007 - 8 Sep 2008 Komlan Mally (b. 1960) 8 Sep 2008 - 23 Jul 2012 Gilbert Houngbo (b. 1961) 23 Jul 2012 - Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu (b. 1958)

Tokelau

    bf.1600                Fakaofo (the senior polity) founded; Nukunonu and Atafu
                           later become independent
       1889                British protectorate
29 Feb 1916                Tokelau (as Union Group) becomes part of the British
                           colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (see Kiribati)
       1925                separated from Gilbert and Ellice Islands; administered by the
                           governor-general of New Zealand
       1926                governor-general's powers delegated to the administrator
                           of Western Samoa
       1946                renamed Tokelau Islands
 1 Jan 1949                attached to New Zealand
 9 Dec 1976                renamed Tokelau

Fakaofo

Rulers (title Aliki)
        ... -         ...  Letaiolo
        ... -         ...  Poufau
      *1841*               Taupe
       1846 -        1852* Havaiki I
      *1858*               Lika
      *1871*               Longotahi
       18.. -    May 1881  Vaopuka
       1881 -        1890* Te Taulu
      *1892*               Tavita Te Fuli
       1902 - 29 Feb 1916  Ielemia Havaiki II

Nukunonu

Rulers (title Aliki)
        ... -         ...  Sunga
        ... -         ...  Kakaia
        ... -         ...  Ngala
        ... -         ...  Ulua
        ... -         ...  Falevai
        ... - 29 Feb 1916  Takua

Atafu

Rulers (title Aliki)
        ... -         ...  Toniua
        ... -         ...  Foli
        ... -         ...  Tongia
        ... -         ...  Fafie
        ... - 29 Feb 1916  Tuilaka

Tokelau

Administrators
       1949 -    Feb 1960  Guy Richardson Powles              (b. 1905 - d. 1994)
   Feb 1960 - 31 Mar 1965  John Bird Wright                   (b. 1909)
   Jun 1965 -        1968  Owston Paul Gabites                (b. 1913 - d. 1993)
       1968 -        1971  Richard Basil Taylor               (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
       1971 -        1972  Duncan MacIntyre                   (b. 1915 - d. 2001)
       1972 -        1973  Matiu Rata                         (b. 1934 - d. 1997)
       1973 -        1975  William Gray Thorp
       1975 -        1984  Frank Henry Corner                 (b. 1920)
       1984 -        1988  Harold Huyton Francis
   Feb 1988 -        1990  Neil Walter (1st time)             (b. 1942)
       1990 -    Jan 1992  Graham Ansell                      (b. 1931)
   Jan 1992 -    Mar 1993  Brian Absolum
   Mar 1993 - 28 Feb 2003  Lindsay Watt
 1 Mar 2003 - 17 Oct 2006  Neil Walter (2nd time)             (s.a.)
17 Oct 2006 -        2009  David Payton                       (b. 1952?)
       2009 -        2011  John Allen (acting)
       2011 -              Jonathan Kings

Heads of government (Ulu-o-Tokelau) Feb 1993 - Feb 1994 Salesio Lui (1st time) Feb 1994 - Feb 1995 Keli Neemia (b. 1940?) Feb 1995 - Feb 1996 Lepaio Simi Feb 1996 - Feb 1997 Pio Tuia (1st time) (b. 1943?) Feb 1997 - Feb 1998 Falima Teao Feb 1998 - Feb 1999 Kuresa Nasau (1st time) Feb 1999 - Feb 2000 Pio Tuia (2nd time) (s.a.) Feb 2000 - Feb 2001 Kolouei O'Brien (1st time) Feb 2001 - Feb 2002 Kuresa Nasau (2nd time) Feb 2002 - Feb 2003 Pio Tuia (3rd time) (s.a.) Feb 2003 - Feb 2004 Kolouei O'Brien (2nd time) Feb 2004 - Feb 2005 Patuki Isaako Feb 2005 - 15 Feb 2006 Pio Tuia (4th time) (s.a.) 15 Feb 2006 - Feb 2007 Kolouei O'Brien (3rd time) Feb 2007 - 23 Feb 2008 Kuresa Nasau (3rd time) 23 Feb 2008 - 21 Feb 2009 Pio Tuia (5th time) (s.a.) 21 Feb 2009 - 22 Mar 2010 Foua Toloa (1st time) 22 Mar 2010 - 11 Mar 2011 Kuresa Nasau (4th time) 11 Mar 2011 - Feb 2012 Foua Toloa (2nd time) Feb 2012 - Mar 2013 Kelihiano Kalolo Mar 2013 - Feb 2014 Salesio Lui (2nd time) Feb 2014 - Kuresa Nasau (5th time)

Tonga

Note: From ancient times Tonga had a highly tabooed supreme ruler, the Tu'i Tonga. The tradition claims that in the 16th century the Tu'i Tonga delegated political authority to a side branch of the royal family, with the style Tu'i Ha'atakalaua, and that around 1600 the Tu'i Ha'atakalaua further delegated political authority to the Tu'i Kanokupolu. The office of Tu'i Ha'atakalaua expired 10 May 1799. The Tu'i Kanokupolu office continued, with some interruptions, and indeed the future King Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupou I was the last Tu'i Kanokupolu (although his successors as kings and queen regarded themselves as continuing holders of this office). The last Tu'i Tonga served until 9 Dec 1865, at which point Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupou ruled alone as Tu'i Kanokupolu. On 4 Nov 1875 Tonga was established as a kingdom.
 4 Nov 1875                Kingdom of Tonga
       1905                British protectorate
 5 Jun 1970                independence

Rulers (title Tu'i Tonga)
       17..  -       1770  Fatafehi Tu'i Pulotu 'i Langi
                           Tu'oteau
       1770 -        1784  Fatafehi Paulaho                   (b. ... - d. 1784)
       1784 -        1786  Fatafehi Ma'ulupekotofa
       1786 -        1793  vacant
       1793 -        1810  Fatafehi Fununuiava                (b. 1765 - d. 1810)
       1810 -        1827  vacant
       1827 -  9 Dec 1865  Fatafehi Laufilitonga (from 1851,
                           Samuelio Fatafehi Laufilitonga)    (b. 1797 - d. 1865)
Chiefs (title Tu'i Ha'atakalaua)
        ... -         ...  Mapa
        ... -         ...  Fuatakifolaha
        ... -        1777  Maealiuaki
       1777 - 10 May 1799  Mulikiha'amea                      (b. ... - d. 1799)
Chiefs (title Tu'i Kanokupolu)
        ... -         ...  Tupoulahi
        ... -        1777  Maealiuaki
       1777 -        1782  Tu'i Halafatai
       1782 -        17..  Tupoulahisi'i
       17.. -        1793  Mulikiha'amea                      (b. ... - d. 1799)
       1793                Tupoumahe'ofo (f)                  (b. 1745 - d. 1793)
       1793 - 29 Apr 1797  Tupou Mumui                        (b. 1733 - d. 1797)
       1797 - 21 Apr 1799  Finau Tuku'aho                     (b. 1753 - d. 1799)
                           (regent 1793-97)
21 Apr 1799 - 22 Apr 1799  Ma'afu'olimuloa                    (b. 17... - d. 1799)
22 Apr 1799 -        1812  Tupou Malohi                       (b. 17... - d. 1812)
                           (in Fiji exile 1800-05)
       1812 -        1820  Tupouto'a                          (b. 17... - d. 1820)
       1820 -        1826  vacant
       1826 - 18 Nov 1845  'Alea Motu'a Tupouifaletuipapai    (b. ... - d. 1845)
                           (from 18 Jan 1830, Josiah Tupou)
18 Nov 1845 -  4 Nov 1875  Siaosi Taufa'ahau Tupou Maeakafa   (b. 1797 - d. 1893)
Kings/Queens
 4 Nov 1875 - 18 Feb 1893  George Tupou I                     (s.a.)
18 Feb 1893 -  5 Apr 1918  George Tupou II                    (b. 1874 - d. 1918)
 5 Apr 1918 - 16 Dec 1965  Salote Tupou III (f)               (b. 1900 - d. 1965)
16 Dec 1965 - 11 Sep 2006  Taufa'ahau Tupou IV                (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
11 Sep 2006 - 18 Mar 2012  George Tupou V                     (b. 1948 - d. 2012)
18 Mar 2012 -              Tupou VI                           (b. 1959)

Prime ministers 1876 - 18 Dec 1879 Tevita Unga (b. c.1824 - d. 1879) Apr 1881 - Jul 1890 Shirley Waldemar Baker (b. 1836 - d. 1903) Jul 1890 - 1893 Siaosi Tuku'aho (b. 1854 - d. 1897) 1893 - Jan 1905 Siosateki Tonga (b. 1853 - d. 1913) Jan 1905 - 30 Sep 1912 Sione Mateialona (b. 1852 - d. 1925) 30 Sep 1912 - 30 Jun 1922 Tevita Tu'ivakano (b. 1869 - d. 1923) 30 Jun 1922 - Jul 1940 Uiliame Tupoulahi Tungi (b. 1887 - d. 1941) Jul 1940 - 12 Dec 1949 Solomone Ula Ata (b. 1883 - d. 1950) 12 Dec 1949 - 16 Dec 1965 Crown Prince Tupouto'a Tungi (= Taufa'ahau Tupou IV) (s.a.) 16 Dec 1965 - 21 Aug 1991 Prince Fatafehi Tu'ipelehake (b. 1922 - d. 1999) 21 Aug 1991 - 3 Jan 2000 Baron Vaea (b. 1921 - d. 2009) 3 Jan 2000 - 11 Feb 2006 Prince 'Ulukalala Lavaka Ata (= Tupou VI) (s.a.) 11 Feb 2006 - 22 Dec 2010 Feleti Sevele (b. 1944) (acting to 30 Mar 2006) 22 Dec 2010 - Tu'ivakano (b. 1952) British consuls 1901 - 1909 Hamilton Hunter (b. 1846 - d. 1923) 1909 - 1913 W. Telfer Campbell (b. 1863 - d. 19...) 1913 - 1917 Henry Eugene Walter Grant (b. 1855 - d. 1934) 1917 - 1926 Islay McOwan (b. 1871 - d. 1948) 1926 - 1937 James Scott Neill (b. 1889 - d. 1958) 1937 - 1943 Arthur Leopold Armstrong (b. 1888 - d. 1973) 1943 - 1949 Charles Walter Trevor Johnson (b. 1893 - d. ...) 1949 - 1954 James Edward Windrum (b. 1895 - d. 1992) 1954 - 1957 Charles Robert Harley Nott (b. 1904 - d. 1997) 1957 - 1959 Archibald Cameron Reid (1st time) (b. 1915 - d. 1994) 1959 - 1965 Edward James Coode (b. 1918) 1965 - 1970 Archibald Cameron Reid (2nd time) (s.a.)

Ha'apai-Vava'u

late 18th century          Ha'apai-Vava'u archipelago develops high degree of autonomy,
                           but subject to the Tu'i Tonga, and notionally the Tu'i
                           Kanokupolu, although the chiefs were often the most powerful
                           persons in all of Tonga
   Mar 1833                incorporated into Tonga

Chiefs (nominally governors)
      *1777 - 12 Jun 1797  Finau 'Ulukalala I 'i Ma'ufanga    (b. 1748 - d. 1799)
       1797 -        1799  Takitakimalohi
       1799 -        1809  Finau 'Ulukalala II 'i Feletoa     (b. c.1750 - d. 1809)
       1809 -        1811  Finau 'Ulukalala III Moengangongo  (b. c.1786 - d. 1811)
       1811 -    Mar 1833  Finau 'Ulukalala IV Tuabayi        (b. ... - d. 1833)

Tonkin: see under Vietnam.
Toro: see under Uganda.
Tranquebar: see under India.
Transcaucasia: see under Georgia.
Transjordan: see Jordan.
Transkei: see under South African homelands.
Transnistria: see under Moldova.
Transvaal: see under South Africa.
Transylvania: see under Romania.
Trieste: see under Italy.

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad

       1532                Spanish colony
18 Feb 1797                taken by Britain
       1802                Spain formally cedes Trinidad to Britain
 1 Jan 1899                part of Trinidad and Tobago

Governors
       1699 -        1704  Francisco Ruíz de Aguirre
       1704 -        1711  Felipe de Artieda
       1711 -        1716  Cristóbal Félix de Guzmán
       1716 -        1721  Pedro de Jara
       1721                Juan de Orvay (acting)
       1721 -        1726  Martín Pérez de Anda y Salazar
       1726 -        1730  Agustín de Arredondo
       1730 -        1733  Bartolomé de Aldunate y Rada
       1733 -        1735  José Orbay + Pedro Ximenes (acting)
       1735 -    Jan 1746  Esteban Simón de Lińan y Vera
   Jan 1746 -    Jun 1746  Félix Espinosa de los Monteros
       1746 -  7 Jan 1752  Juan José Salcedo
 7 Jan 1752 - 17 Jan 1757  Francisco Manclares
17 Jan 1757 -  6 Apr 1760  Pedro de la Moneda
 6 Apr 1760 -        1762  Jacinto San Juan
       1762 -  5 Apr 1766  José Antonio Gil
 5 Apr 1766 - 31 Mar 1773  José de Flores
31 Mar 1773 - 30 Dec 1776  Juan de Dios Váldez y Yarza
30 Dec 1776 - 11 Jul 1779  Manuel Falquez (military governor) (b. ... - d. 1779)
       1776 - 31 Mar 1781  Martín de Salaverria
                           (civil governor)
31 Mar 1781 - 23 Jan 1784  Juan Francisco Machado
23 Jan 1784 - 18 Oct 1784  Antonio Barreto (acting)
18 Oct 1784 - 18 Feb 1797  José María Chacón
18 Feb 1797 -    Feb 1797  Sir Ralph Abercromby               (b. 1734 - d. 1801)
   Feb 1797 -    Feb 1803  Thomas Picton                      (b. 1758 - d. 1815)
   Feb 1803 -    Jul 1804  Commission
                           - William Fullarton                (b. 1758 - d. 1808)
                           - Samuel Hood                      (b. 1762 - d. 1814)
                           - Thomas Picton                    (s.a.)
   Jul 1804 - 27 Sep 1811  Sir Thomas Hislop                  (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
27 Sep 1811 - 14 Jun 1813  William Munro
14 Jun 1813 -    Jan 1828  Sir Ralph James Woodford           (b. 1784 - d. 1828)
   Jan 1828 -    Apr 1828  J.V. Capadose (acting)
   Apr 1828 - 10 Mar 1829  Charles Felix Smith                (b. 1786 - d. 1858)
10 Mar 1829 - 22 Apr 1833  Lewis Grant (from 1831,
                           Sir Lewis Grant)                   (b. ... - d. 1852)
22 Apr 1833 -  9 Mar 1839  Sir George Fitzgerald Hill         (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
 9 Mar 1839 -    Apr 1840  John Alexander Mein (acting)
   Apr 1840 -        1846  Henry George Macleod
       1846 -        1854  George Francis Robert Harris,
                           Baron Harris                       (b. 1810 - d. 1872)
10 Mar 1854 -        1857  Sir Charles Elliot                 (b. 1801 - d. 1875)
26 Jan 1857 -        1864  Robert William Keate               (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
 6 Sep 1864 -        1866  Sir John Henry Thomas
                           Manners-Sutton                     (b. 1814 - d. 1877)
 7 Nov 1866 -        1870  Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon     (b. 1829 - d. 1912)
25 Jun 1870 -        1874  James Robert Longden               (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
 2 May 1874 -        1874  William Wellington Cairns          (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
20 Nov 1874 -        1880  Henry Turner Irving                (b. 1833 - d. 1923)
 2 Nov 1880 -        1884  Sir Sanford Freeling               (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
19 Jun 1884 -        1885  Sir Frederick Palgrave Barlee      (b. 1827 - d. 1884)
                           (acting)
24 Jan 1885 -        1885  Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock        (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
 9 Oct 1885 -        1891  Sir William Robinson               (b. 1836 - d. 1912)
19 Aug 1891 -        1897  Sir Frederick Napier Broome        (b. 1842 - d. 1896)
 2 Jun 1897 -  1 Jan 1899  Sir Hubert Edward Henry Jerningham (b. 1842 - d. 1914)

Tobago

       1628                Dutch colony (Nieuw Walcheren)
       1684                neutral territory
       1762                British colony (Tobago)
 2 Jun 1781 - 15 Apr 1793  French rule
       1802 -        1803  French rule
       1833 -        1889  part of the Windward Islands (see under Grenada)
 1 Jan 1899                part of Trinidad and Tobago
       1980                autonomy

Lieutenant governors
12 Nov 1764 -    Jul 1766  Alexander Brown                    (b. ... - d. 1766)
 2 Dec 1766 - 16 Oct 1767  William Hill
16 Oct 1767 -        1769  Roderick Gwynne
       1769 -        1771  Robert William Stewart (acting)
       1771 -        1777  William Young                      (b. ... - d. 1788)
       1777 -        1779  Peter Campbell (acting)            (b. ... - d. 1779)
       1779 -        1781  John Graham (acting)
       1781 -  2 Jun 1781  George Ferguson
Governors (from 1889 commissioners)
 2 Jun 1781 -        1784  Philibert François Rouxel de
                           Blanchelande                       (b. 1735 - d. 1793)
       1784 -        1786  René Marie, vicomte d'Arrot
       1786 -        1789  Arthur, comte Dillon               (b. 1750 - d. 1794)
       1789 -        1792  Antoine de Jobal de Poigny
       1792 -        1793  Philippe Marie de Marguenat
       1793 - 15 Apr 1793  Laroque de Monteil
       1793 -        1794  William Myers (acting)
       1794 -        1795  George Poyntz Ricketts             (b. 1749 - d. 1800)
       1795 -        1796  William Lindsay                    (b. 17... - d. 1796)
       1797 -        1799  Stephen de Lancey                  (b. 17... - d. 1799)
       1799 -        1800  Joseph Robley (1st time) (acting)
       1800                Richard Master                     (b. 17... - d. 1800)
       1800 -        1801  Joseph Robley (2nd time) (acting)
       1801 -        1802  Hugh Lyle Carmichael (acting)      (b. 1764 - d. 1813)
 7 Nov 1802 - 26 Dec 1802  François de Sahuguet d'Amarzit     (b. 1756 - d. 1802)
       1803                César Berthier                     (b. 1765 - d. 1819)
30 Jun 1803 -    Jul 1803  Thomas Picton (acting)
   Jul 1803 -    Aug 1803  William Johnstone (acting)
   Aug 1803 -    Jul 1804  Donald MacDonald (acting)          (b. 17... - d. 1804)
   Jul 1804 -        1807  John Halkett                       (b. 1768 - d. 1852)
       1807 -        1815  Sir William Young                  (b. 1749 - d. 1815)
       1816 -        1827  Sir Frederick Philipse Robinson    (b. 1763 - d. 1852)
       1828 -        1833  Nathaniel Blackwell
       1833 -        1845  Henry Charles Darling              (b. 1780 - d. 1845)
       1845 -        1850  Laurence Graeme                    (b. ... - d. 1850)
       1851                David Robert Ross                  (b. ... - d. 1851)
       1852                Dominick Daly                      (b. 1798 - d. 1868)
       1852 -    Feb 1854  Henry Yates (acting)
   Feb 1854 -        1856  Willoughby J. Shortland            (b. 1804 - d. 1869)
       1856                James Kirk (acting)
       1856 -        1857  James Henry Keens (acting)
       1857 -        1864  James Vickery Drysdale
       1865 -        1872  Cornelius Hendricksen Kortright    (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
       1872 -        1875  Herbert Taylor Ussher              (b. 1836 - d. 1880)
       1875 -        1877  Robert William Harley
       1877 -        1880  Augustus Frederick Gore            (b. 1826 - d. 1887)
                           (administrator)
       1880 -        1882  Edward Laborde
       1883 -        1884  John Worrell Carrington            (b. 1847 - d. 1913)
       1885                Lorraine Gudded Hay (1st time)
       1885 -        1887  Robert Baxter Llewelyn             (b. 1845 - d. 1919)
       1888 -        1892  Lorraine Gudded Hay (2nd time)
       1892                Thomas Crossley Rayner             (b. 1860 - d. 1914)
       1892 -        1897  William Low
       1897                S.W. Snaggs (acting)
       1897 -  1 Jan 1899  J. Clanforgael O'Halloran (acting)
Chairmen of the House of Assembly
   Dec 1980 - 16 Dec 1986  A.N.R. Robinson                    (b. 1926 - d. 2014)
16 Dec 1986 - 31 Oct 1989  Jeff Davidson
 1 Nov 1989 -    Dec 1996  Lennox Denoon                      (b. 1930 - d. 2007)
Chief secretaries of the House of Assembly
   Dec 1996 - 31 Jan 2001  Hochoy Charles
 1 Feb 2001 -              Orville London                     (b. 1945)

Trinidad and Tobago

 1 Jan 1899                Trinidad and Tobago united
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  part of the Federation of the West Indies (with Antigua,
                           Barbados, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica,
                           Montserrat, St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia,
                           St. Vincent, and Turks and Caicos Islands)
31 Aug 1962                independence
 1 Aug 1976                Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Governors
 1 Jan 1899 -        1900  Sir Hubert Edward Henry Jerningham (s.a.)
 4 Dec 1900 -        1904  Sir Cornelius Alfred Moloney       (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
30 Aug 1904 - 29 Aug 1908  Sir Henry Moore Jackson            (b. 1849 - d. 1908)
11 May 1909 -    Jan 1916  Sir George Ruthven Le Hunte        (b. 1852 - d. 1925)
 1 Jun 1916 -        1921  Sir John Robert Chancellor         (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
 1 Jan 1922 -        1924  Sir Samuel Herbert Wilson          (b. 1873 - d. 1950)
22 Nov 1924 -        1930  Sir Horace Archer Byatt            (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
22 Mar 1930 -        1936  Sir Alfred Claud Hollis            (b. 1874 - d. 1961)
17 Sep 1936 -        1938  Sir Arthur George Murchison
                           Fletcher                           (b. 1878 - d. 1954)
 8 Jul 1938 -        1942  Sir Hubert Winthrop Young          (b. 1885 - d. 1950)
 8 Jun 1942 -        1947  Sir Bede Edmund Hugh Clifford      (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
 7 Mar 1947 -        1950  Sir John Valentine Wistar Shaw     (b. 1894 - d. 1982)
19 Apr 1950 -        1955  Sir Hubert Elvin Rance             (b. 1898 - d. 1974)
23 Jun 1955 -        1960  Sir Edward Betham Beetham          (b. 1905 - d. 1979)
 4 Jul 1960 - 31 Aug 1962  Sir Solomon Hochoy                 (b. 1905 - d. 1983)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
31 Aug 1962 - 15 Sep 1972  Sir Solomon Hochoy                 (s.a.)
15 Sep 1972 -  1 Aug 1976  Sir Ellis Clarke                   (b. 1917 - d. 2010)
Presidents
 1 Aug 1976 - 13 Mar 1987  Ellis Clarke                       (s.a.)
                           (acting to 29 Jan 1977)
13 Mar 1987 - 19 Mar 1987  Michael Williams (acting)          (b. 1929)
19 Mar 1987 - 19 Mar 1997  Noor Hassanali                     (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
19 Mar 1997 - 17 Mar 2003  A.N.R. Robinson                    (b. 1926 - d. 2014)
17 Mar 2003 - 18 Mar 2013  George Maxwell Richards            (b. 1931)
18 Mar 2013 -              Anthony Carmona                    (b. 1953)

Prime ministers 28 Oct 1956 - 29 Mar 1981 Eric Williams (b. 1911 - d. 1981) (chief minister to 9 Jul 1959, then premier to Dec 1961) 30 Mar 1981 - 18 Dec 1986 George Chambers (b. 1928 - d. 1997) 18 Dec 1986 - 17 Dec 1991 A.N.R. Robinson (s.a.) 17 Dec 1991 - 9 Nov 1995 Patrick Manning (1st time) (b. 1946) 9 Nov 1995 - 24 Dec 2001 Basdeo Panday (b. 1933) 24 Dec 2001 - 26 May 2010 Patrick Manning (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 May 2010 - Kamla Persad-Bissessar (f) (b. 1952)

Federation of the West Indies

Governor-general
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  Patrick George Thomas
                           Buchan-Hepburn, Baron Hailes       (b. 1901 - d. 1974)

Prime minister 18 Apr 1958 - 31 May 1962 Sir Grantley Herbert Adams (b. 1898 - d. 1971)

Tripolitania: see under Libya.
Tristan da Cunha: see under Saint Helena.
Tu`a: see under Wallis and Futuna.

Tunisia

       1574                incorporation into Ottoman Empire, with varying and
                           ultimately increased autonomy
15 Jul 1705                Tunisian Regency under de facto hereditary Husayni dynasty
25 Oct 1871                while continuing to recognize nominal Ottoman suzerainty,
                           Bey ceases paying tribute
12 May 1881                becomes French protectorate by treaty
20 Mar 1956                French protectorate terminated, independent Tunisian Realm
                           (literally Tunisian Kingdom) inaugurated (this style already
                           appears on 1950 coins)
25 Jul 1957                Tunisian Republic

Beysš
- Banu al-Husayn dynasty -
15 Jul 1705 -  7 Sep 1735  al-Husayn                          (b. 1669 - d. 1740)
 7 Sep 1735 - 22 Sep 1756  Ali                                (b. 1689 - d. 1756)
22 Sep 1756 - 11 Feb 1759  Muhammad ar-Rashid                 (b. 1710 - d. 1759)
                           (in rebellion from Aug 1756)
12 Feb 1759 -  9 Feb 1777  Ali                                (b. 1712 - d. 1782)
 9 Feb 1777 - 15 Sep 1814  Hammuda                            (b. 1759 - d. 1814)
16 Sep 1814 - 21 Nov 1814  `Uthman                            (b. 1763 - d. 1814)
21 Nov 1814 - 28 Mar 1824  Mahmud                             (b. 1757 - d. 1824)
29 Mar 1824 - 20 May 1835  al-Husayn                          (b. 1784 - d. 1835)
20 May 1835 - 10 Oct 1837  al-Mustafa                         (b. 1786 - d. 1837)
10 Oct 1837 - 30 May 1855  Ahmad                              (b. 1806 - d. 1855)
30 May 1855 - 22 Sep 1859  Muhammad                           (b. 1810 - d. 1859)
23 Sep 1859 - 27 Oct 1882  Muhammad as-Sadiq                  (b. 1813 - d. 1882)
28 Oct 1882 - 11 Jun 1902  Ali Muddat                         (b. 1817 - d. 1902)
11 Jun 1902 - 11 May 1906  Muhammad al-Hadi                   (b. 1855 - d. 1906)
11 May 1906 - 10 Jul 1922  Muhammad an-Nasir                  (b. 1855 - d. 1922)
10 Jul 1922 - 11 Feb 1929  Muhammad al-Habib                  (b. 1858 - d. 1929)
11 Feb 1929 - 19 Jun 1942  Ahmad                              (b. 1862 - d. 1942)
19 Jun 1942 - 15 May 1943  Muhammad al-Munsif                 (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
15 May 1943 - 25 Jul 1957  Muhammad al-Amin                   (b. 1881 - d. 1962)
Presidents
25 Jul 1957 -  7 Nov 1987  Habib Bourguiba                    (b. 1903 - d. 2000)
 7 Nov 1987 - 14 Jan 2011  Zine El Abidine Ben Ali            (b. 1936)
14 Jan 2011 - 15 Jan 2011  Mohamed Ghannouchi (interim)       (b. 1941)
15 Jan 2011 - 13 Dec 2011  Fouad Mebazaa (interim)            (b. 1933)
13 Dec 2011 -              Moncef Marzouki                    (b. 1945)

Prime ministers 1800 - 23 Jan 1815 Sidi Yusuf Sahib al-Tabi (b. 17... - d. 1815) 1822 - 1829 Sidi Husain Khoja (b. ... - d. bf.1858) 1829 - 1837 Sidi Rashid al-Shakir Sahib al-Taba`a (b. c.1795 - d. 1837) 1837 - 22 Oct 1873 Mustapha Khaznadar (b. 1817 - d. 1878) 22 Oct 1873 - 21 Jul 1877 Kheireddine Pacha (b. 1822 - d. 1890) 21 Jul 1877 - 24 Aug 1878 Mohamed Khaznadar (1st time) (b. c.1810 - d. 1889) 24 Aug 1878 - 12 Sep 1881 Mustapha Ben Ismaďl (b. ... - d. 1887) 12 Sep 1881 - Oct 1882 Mohamed Khaznadar (2nd time) (s.a.) Oct 1882 - 4 Feb 1907 Aziz Bouattour (b. 1825 - d. 1907) 18 Feb 1907 - Jun 1908 Mhamed Djellouli (b. 1834 - d. 1908) Jun 1908 - Jun 1915 Youssef Djaďt (b. 1830 - d. 1915) Oct 1915 - May 1922 Taieb Djellouli (b. 1857 - d. 1944) May 1922 - 20 Oct 1926 Mustapha Dinguizli (b. 1865 - d. 1926) 3 Nov 1926 - 2 Mar 1932 Khelil Bouhageb (b. 1863 - d. 1942) 2 Mar 1932 - 31 Dec 1942 Hédi Lakhoua (b. 1872 - d. 1949) 1 Jan 1943 - 15 May 1943 M'Hamed Chenik (1st time) (b. 1889 - d. 1976) 15 May 1943 - 21 Jul 1947 Slaheddine Baccouche (1st time) (b. 1883 - d. 1959) 21 Jul 1947 - 17 Aug 1950 Mustapha Kaak (b. 1893 - d. 1984) 17 Aug 1950 - 26 Mar 1952 M'Hamed Chenik (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Apr 1952 - 2 Mar 1954 Slaheddine Baccouche (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Mar 1954 - 6 Jul 1954 Mohamed Salah Mzali (b. 1896 - d. af.1972) 6 Jul 1954 - 7 Aug 1954 Georges Dupoizat (acting) (b. 1909 - d. 1975) 7 Aug 1954 - 11 Apr 1956 Tahar Ben Ammar (b. 1885 - d. 1985) 11 Apr 1956 - 25 Jul 1957 Habib Bourguiba (s.a.) 7 Nov 1969 - 2 Nov 1970 Bahi Ladgham (b. 1913 - d. 1998) 2 Nov 1970 - 23 Apr 1980 Hédi Nouira (b. 1911 - d. 1993) 23 Apr 1980 - 8 Jul 1986 Mohamed Mzali (b. 1925 - d. 2010) 8 Jul 1986 - 2 Oct 1987 Rachid Sfar (b. 1933) 2 Oct 1987 - 7 Nov 1987 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (s.a.) 7 Nov 1987 - 27 Sep 1989 Hédi Baccouche (b. 1930) 27 Sep 1989 - 17 Nov 1999 Hamed Karoui (b. 1927) 17 Nov 1999 - 27 Feb 2011 Mohamed Ghannouchi (s.a.) 27 Feb 2011 - 24 Dec 2011 Béji Caďd Essebsi (b. 1926) 24 Dec 2011 - 14 Mar 2013 Hamadi Jebali (b. 1949) 14 Mar 2013 - 29 Jan 2014 Ali Larayedh (b. 1955) 29 Jan 2014 - Mehdi Jomaa (b. 1962) French resident ministers (from 23 Jun 1885, residents-general) 13 May 1881 - 28 Feb 1882 Théodore Roustan (b. 1833 - d. 1906) 28 Feb 1882 - 28 Oct 1886 Paul Cambon (b. 1843 - d. 1924) 23 Nov 1886 - 5 Nov 1892 Justin Massicault (b. 1838 - d. 1892) Nov 1892 - 14 Nov 1894 Maurice Rouvier (b. 1842 - d. 1911) 14 Nov 1894 - Nov 1900 René Millet (b. 1849 - d. 1919) Nov 1900 - 27 Dec 1901 Benoît de Merkel (interim) 27 Dec 1901 - 1906 Stephen Pichon (b. 1857 - d. 1933) 7 Feb 1907 - 26 Oct 1918 Gabriel Alapetite (b. 1854 - d. 1932) 26 Oct 1918 - 1 Jan 1921 Étienne Flandin (b. 1853 - d. 1922) 1 Jan 1921 - 2 Jan 1929 Lucien Saint (b. 1867 - d. 1938) 18 Feb 1929 - 29 Jul 1933 François Manceron (b. 1872 - d. 1937) 29 Jul 1933 - 21 Mar 1936 Marcel Peyrouton (1st time) (b. 1887 - d. 1983) 17 Apr 1936 - 18 Oct 1938 Armand Guillon (b. 1880 - d. 1968) 22 Nov 1938 - 3 Jun 1940 Eirik Labonne (b. 1888 - d. 1971) 3 Jun 1940 - 22 Jul 1940 Marcel Peyrouton (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jul 1940 - 10 May 1943 Jean-Pierre Esteva (b. 1880 - d. 1951) 10 May 1943 - 22 Feb 1947 Charles Emmanuel Mast (b. 1889 - d. 1977) 22 Feb 1947 - 13 Jun 1950 Jean Mons (b. 1906 - d. 1989) 13 Jun 1950 - 13 Jan 1952 Louis Périllier (b. 1900 - d. 1986) 13 Jan 1952 - 2 Sep 1953 Jean de Hauteclocque (b. 1893 - d. 1957) 2 Sep 1953 - 5 Nov 1954 Pierre Voizard (b. 1896 - d. 1982) 5 Nov 1954 - 31 Aug 1955 Pierre Boyer de Latour (b. 1896 - d. 1976) High commissioner 13 Sep 1955 - 20 Mar 1956 Roger Seydoux Fornier de Clausonne (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
šFull style (from 1735) Basha Bay Tunis, Sahib al-Mamlaka at-Tunisiyya, i.e., Pasha Bey of Tunis, Lord of the Tunisian Realm; in French Bey de Tunis, Seigneur de la Régence de Tunis.
Tunja: see under Colombia.

Turkey

       1473                Ottoman (or Osmanli) Empire
 1 Nov 1922                Turkish State
29 Oct 1923                Turkish Republic

Rulers (title Padishah, Hünkar
- Osman dynasty -
 6 Feb 1695 - 22 Aug 1703  Mustafa II "Gazi"                  (b. 1664 - d. 1703)
22 Aug 1703 -  1 Oct 1730  Ahmet III                          (b. 1673 - d. 1736)
 2 Oct 1730 - 13 Dec 1754  Mahmut I "Gazi," "Kambur"          (b. 1696 - d. 1754)
14 Dec 1754 - 30 Oct 1757  Osman III                          (b. 1696 - d. 1757)
30 Oct 1757 - 21 Jan 1774  Mustafa III                        (b. 1717 - d. 1774)
21 Jan 1774 -  7 Apr 1789  Abdülhamit I                       (b. 1725 - d. 1789)
 7 Apr 1789 - 29 May 1807  Selim III "Cilhandar," "Ilhami"    (b. 1761 - d. 1808)
29 May 1807 - 28 Jul 1808  Mustafa IV                         (b. 1779 - d. 1808)
28 Jul 1808 -  1 Jul 1839  Mahmut II "Adlî"                   (b. 1785 - d. 1839)
 1 Jul 1839 - 25 Jun 1861  Abdülmecit I "Gazi"                (b. 1823 - d. 1861)
25 Jun 1861 - 30 May 1876  Abdülaziz I                        (b. 1830 - d. 1876)
30 May 1876 - 31 Aug 1876  Murat V                            (b. 1840 - d. 1904)
31 Aug 1876 - 27 Apr 1909  Abdülhamit II "Gazi," "Kanli,"
                           "Bedros"                           (b. 1842 - d. 1918)
27 Apr 1909 -  3 Jul 1918  Mehmet V Resat "Gazi"              (b. 1844 - d. 1918)
 3 Jul 1918 -  1 Nov 1922  Mehmet VI Vahidettin               (b. 1861 - d. 1926)
Speaker of the Turkish Grand National Assembly
 1 Nov 1922 - 29 Oct 1923  Mustafa Kemal Pasha                (b. 1881 - d. 1938)
Presidents
29 Oct 1923 - 10 Nov 1938  Mustafa Kemal Pasha (from 1 Jan
                           1935, Kemal Atatürk)               (s.a.)
10 Nov 1938 - 11 Nov 1938  Mustafa Abdülhalik Renda (acting)  (b. 1881 - d. 1957)
11 Nov 1938 - 22 May 1950  Ismet Inönü                        (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
22 May 1950 - 27 May 1960  Mahmut Celal Bayar                 (b. 1883 - d. 1986)
27 May 1960 - 28 Mar 1966  Cemal Gürsel                       (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
                           (chairman Committee of National Unity to 28 May 1960,
                           Head of State 28 May 1960 - 26 Oct 1961)
28 Mar 1966 - 29 Mar 1973  Cevdet Sunay                       (b. 1900 - d. 1982)
29 Mar 1973 -  6 Apr 1973  Tekin Ariburun (acting)            (b. 1905 - d. 1993)
 6 Apr 1973 -  6 Apr 1980  Fahri Korutürk                     (b. 1903 - d. 1987)
 6 Apr 1980 - 12 Sep 1980  Ihsan Sabri Çaglayangil (acting)   (b. 1908 - d. 1993)
12 Sep 1980 -  9 Nov 1989  Kenan Evren                        (b. 1917)
                           (chairman National Security Council to 27 Oct 1980,
                           Head of State 27 Oct 1980 - 12 Nov 1982)
 9 Nov 1989 - 17 Apr 1993  Turgut Özal                        (b. 1927 - d. 1993)
17 Apr 1993 - 16 May 1993  Hüsamettin Cindoruk (acting)       (b. 1933)
16 May 1993 - 16 May 2000  Süleyman Demirel                   (b. 1924)
16 May 2000 - 28 Aug 2007  Ahmet Necdet Sezer                 (b. 1941)
28 Aug 2007 - 28 Aug 2014  Abdullah Gül                       (b. 1950)
28 Aug 2014 -              Recep Tayyip Erdogan               (b. 1954)

Grand viziers 11 Sep 1697 - 4 Sep 1702 Amcazade Hüseyin Pasha (b. 1644 - d. 1702) 4 Sep 1702 - 24 Jan 1703 Daltaban Mustafa Pasha (b. ... - d. 1703) 24 Jan 1703 - 22 Aug 1703 Rami Mehmed Pasha (b. 1654 - d. 1706) 22 Aug 1703 - 17 Nov 1703 Kavanoz Nisanci Ahmed Pasha (b. ... - d. 1705) 17 Nov 1703 - 28 Sep 1704 Damad Hasan Pasha (b. 1655 - d. 1713) 28 Sep 1704 - 25 Dec 1704 Kalaylikoz Haci Ahmed Pasha (b. 1645 - d. 1715) 25 Dec 1704 - 3 May 1706 Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1st time) (b. 1660 - d. 1712) 3 May 1706 - 16 Jun 1710 Damad Çorlulu Ali Pasha (b. 1670 - d. 1711) 16 Jun 1710 - 18 Aug 1710 Köprülüzade Damad Numan Pasha (b. 1670 - d. 1719) 18 Aug 1710 - 20 Nov 1711 Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Nov 1711 - 12 Nov 1712 Aga Yusuf Pasha (b. ... - d. 1714) 12 Nov 1712 - 6 Apr 1713 Silahdar Süleyman Pasha (3rd time) 6 Apr 1713 - 27 Apr 1713 Ibrahim Hoca Pasha 27 Apr 1713 - 5 Aug 1716 Sehid Damad Silahdar Ali Pasha (b. 1667 - d. 1716) 5 Aug 1716 - 26 Aug 1717 Haci Halil Pasha (b. 1655 - d. 1733) 26 Aug 1717 - 9 May 1718 Nisanci Mehmed Pasha (b. 1670 - d. 1728) 9 May 1718 - 1 Oct 1730 Nevsehirli Damad Ibrahim Pasha (b. 1670 - d. 1730) 1 Oct 1730 - 22 Jan 1731 Damad Silahdar Mehmed Pasha (b. ... - d. 1737) 22 Jan 1731 - 10 Sep 1731 Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha (b. ... - d. 1742) 10 Sep 1731 - 12 Mar 1732 Topal Osman Pasha (b. ... - d. 1732/33) 12 Mar 1732 - 12 Jul 1735 Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (1st time) (b. 1689 - d. 1758) 12 Jul 1735 - 9 Jan 1736 Gürcü Ismail Pasha 9 Jan 1736 - 6 Aug 1737 Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (b. ... - d. 1756) 6 Aug 1737 - 19 Dec 1737 Muhsinzade Abdullah Çelebi (b. 1660 - d. 1749) 19 Dec 1737 - 22 Mar 1739 Yegen Mehmed Pasha (b. ... - d. 1745) 22 Mar 1739 - 23 Jun 1740 Haci Ivazzade Mehmed Pasha (b. 1675 - d. 1743) 23 Jun 1740 - 21 Apr 1742 Nisanci Haci Ahmed Pasha 21 Apr 1742 - 23 Sep 1742 Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Sep 1742 - 9 Aug 1746 Said Hasan Pasha (b. 1679 - d. 1748) 9 Aug 1746 - 24 Aug 1747 Tiryaki Haci Mehmed Pasha (b. 1680 - d. 1751) 24 Aug 1747 - 3 Jan 1750 Boynuegri Seyyid Abdullah Pasha (b. ... - d. 1761) 3 Jan 1750 - 1 Jul 1752 Divitdar Mehmed Pasha 1 Jul 1752 - 15 Feb 1755 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (1st time) (b. ... - d. 1765) 15 Feb 1755 - 18 May 1755 Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 18 May 1755 - 24 Aug 1755 Naili Abdullah Pasha (b. 1698 - d. 1758) 24 Aug 1755 - 25 Oct 1755 Nisanci Biyikli Ali Pasha (b. ... - d. 1755) 25 Oct 1755 - 1 Apr 1756 Mehmed Said Pasha 1 Apr 1756 - 11 Jan 1757 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Jan 1757 - 8 Apr 1763 Koca Mehmed Ragib Pasha (b. 1698 - d. 1763) 8 Apr 1763 - 1 Nov 1763 Hamza Hamid Pasha (b. 1700 - d. 1770) 1 Nov 1763 - 28 Mar 1765 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 28 Mar 1765 - 7 Aug 1768 Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1st time) (b. 1706 - d. 1773) 7 Aug 1768 - 20 Oct 1768 Silahdar Mahir Hamza Pasha (b. 1727 - d. 1768) 20 Oct 1768 - 12 Aug 1769 Yaglikçizade Nisani Mehmed Emin Pasha (b. 1723 - d. 1769) 12 Aug 1769 - 12 Dec 1769 Moldovanci Ali Pasha 12 Dec 1769 - 25 Oct 1770 Ivazzade Halil Pasha (b. 1724 - d. 1777) 25 Oct 1770 - 11 Dec 1771 Silahdar Mehmed Pasha (b. 1710 - d. 1771) 11 Dec 1771 - 4 Aug 1774 Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Aug 1774 - 6 Jul 1775 Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st time) (b. 1732 - d. 1783) 6 Jul 1775 - 5 Dec 1777 Dervis Mehmed Pasha (b. 1729/30 - d. 1777) 5 Dec 1777 - 1 Sep 1778 Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha (b. 1716 - d. 1784) 1 Sep 1778 - 21 Aug 1779 Kalafat Mehmed Pasha (b. ... - d. 1792) 21 Aug 1779 - 20 Feb 1781 Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha (b. 1735 - d. 1781) 20 Feb 1781 - 25 Aug 1782 Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Aug 1782 - 31 Dec 1782 Yegen Haci Mehmed Pasha (b. 1726 - d. 1786) 31 Dec 1782 - 31 Mar 1785 Halil Hamid Pasha (b. 1736 - d. 1785) 31 Mar 1785 - 24 Jan 1786 Sahin Ali Pasha (b. ... - d. 1789) 24 Jan 1786 - 20 May 1789 Koca Yusuf Pasha (1st time) (b. ... - d. 1800) 20 May 1789 - 3 Dec 1789 Kethuda Çerkes Hasan Pasha (b. ... - d. 1810) 3 Dec 1789 - 30 Mar 1790 Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha (b. 1713 - d. 1790) 30 Mar 1790 - 15 Feb 1791 Rusçuklu Cezayirli Hasan Serif Pasha (b. ... - d. 1791) 15 Feb 1791 - 4 May 1792 Koca Yusuf Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 May 1792 - 19 Oct 1794 Damad Melek Mehmed Pasha (b. 1720 - d. 1802) 19 Oct 1794 - 30 Aug 1798 Izzet Mehmed Pasha (b. 1743 - d. 1812) 30 Aug 1798 - 24 Apr 1805 Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (1st time) (b. ... - d. 1818) 24 Apr 1805 - 14 Nov 1806 Hafiz Ismail Pasha 14 Nov 1806 - 18 Jun 1807 Hilmi Ibrahim Pasha 18 Jun 1807 - 28 Jul 1808 Çelebi Mustafa Pasha (b. ... - d. 1810) 28 Jul 1808 - 15 Nov 1808 Alemdar Mustafa Pasha "Bayrakdar" (b. 1755/56 - d. 1808) 15 Nov 1808 - 1 Jan 1809 Memis Pasha (b. ... - d. 1809) 1 Jan 1809 - 10 Apr 1811 Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Apr 1811 - 5 Sep 1812 Laz Ahmed Pasha 5 Sep 1812 - 1 Apr 1815 Hursid Ahmed Pasha (b. ... - d. 1822) 1 Apr 1815 - 5 Jan 1818 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1st time) (b. 1780 - d. 1859) 5 Jan 1818 - 5 Jan 1820 Dervis Mehmed Pasha (b. 1765 - d. 1837) 5 Jan 1820 - 26 Mar 1821 Seyyid Ali Pasha 28 Mar 1821 - 30 Apr 1821 Benderli Ali Pasha 30 Apr 1821 - 10 Nov 1822 Haci Salih Pasha 10 Nov 1822 - 10 Mar 1823 Hamdullah Abdullah Pasha (b. ... - d. 1823) 10 Mar 1823 - 13 Dec 1823 Silahdar Ali Pasha 13 Dec 1823 - 14 Sep 1824 Mehmed Said Galip Pasha (b. 1763/64 - d. 1829) 14 Sep 1824 - 24 Oct 1828 Benderli Selim Sirri Pasha (b. 1771 - d. 1831) 24 Oct 1828 - 28 Jan 1829 Izzet Mehmet Pasha (1st time) 28 Jan 1829 - 18 Feb 1833 Resid Mehmed Pasha (b. ... - d. 1836) 18 Feb 1833 - 2 Jul 1839 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Jul 1839 - 8 Jun 1840 Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha (b. c.1756 - d. 1855) 8 Jun 1840 - 4 Dec 1841 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Dec 1841 - 30 Aug 1842 Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) 30 Aug 1842 - 28 Sep 1846 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (4th time) (s.a.) 28 Jul 1846 - 29 Apr 1848 Mustafa Resid Pasha (1st time) (b. 1800 - d. 1858) 29 Apr 1848 - 12 Aug 1848 Ibrahim Sarim Pasha (b. 1801 - d. 1853) 12 Aug 1848 - 26 Jan 1852 Mustafa Resid Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jan 1852 - 5 Mar 1852 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (5th time) (s.a.) 5 Mar 1852 - 6 Aug 1852 Mustafa Resid Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 6 Aug 1852 - 3 Oct 1852 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (1st time) (b. 1815 - d. 1871) 3 Oct 1852 - 14 May 1853 Damad Mehmed Ali Pasha (b. 1813 - d. 1868) 14 May 1853 - 29 May 1854 Mustafa Naili Pasha (1st time) (b. 1798 - d. 1871) 29 May 1854 - 23 Nov 1854 Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (1st time) (b. 1813 - d. 1865) 23 Nov 1854 - 2 May 1855 Mustafa Resid Pasha (4th time) (s.a.) 2 May 1855 - 1 Nov 1856 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Nov 1856 - 6 Aug 1857 Mustafa Resid Pasha (5th time) (s.a.) 6 Aug 1857 - 22 Oct 1857 Mustafa Naili Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Oct 1857 - 7 Jan 1858 Mustafa Resid Pasha (6th time) (s.a.) 7 Jan 1858 - 18 Oct 1859 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 18 Nov 1859 - 24 Dec 1859 Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Dec 1859 - 28 May 1860 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (1st time) (b. 1811 - d. 1882) 28 May 1860 - 6 Aug 1861 Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 6 Aug 1861 - 22 Nov 1861 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (4th time) (s.a.) 22 Nov 1861 - 5 Jan 1863 Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1st time) (b. 1815 - d. 1869) 5 Jan 1863 - 1 Jun 1863 Yusuf Kamil Pasha (b. 1808 - d. 1876) 1 Jun 1863 - 5 Jun 1866 Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Jun 1866 - 11 Feb 1867 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Feb 1867 - 7 Sep 1871 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (5th time) (s.a.) 7 Sep 1871 - 31 Jul 1872 Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1st time) (b. 1818 - d. 1883) 31 Jul 1872 - 19 Oct 1872 Midhat Pasha (1st time) (b. 1822 - d. 1884) 19 Oct 1872 - 15 Mar 1873 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 15 Mar 1873 - 15 Apr 1873 Mehmed Esad Pasha (1st time) (b. 1828 - d. 1875) 15 Apr 1873 - 15 Feb 1874 Sirvanizade Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (b. 1828 - d. 1874) 15 Feb 1874 - 26 Apr 1875 Hüseyin Avni Pasha (b. 1820 - d. 1876) 26 Apr 1875 - 26 Aug 1875 Mehmed Esad Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Aug 1875 - 12 May 1876 Mahmud Nedim Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 May 1876 - 19 Dec 1876 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (4th time) (s.a.) 19 Dec 1876 - 5 Feb 1877 Midhat Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Feb 1877 - 11 Jan 1878 Tunuslu Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (b. 1818 - d. 1893) Chief ministers 11 Jan 1878 - 4 Feb 1878 Ahmed Hamdi Pasha (b. 1826 - d. 1885) 4 Feb 1878 - 18 Apr 1878 Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1st time) (b. 1823 - d. 1891) 18 Apr 1878 - 28 May 1878 Mehmed Sadik Pasha (b. 1825 - d. 1901) 28 May 1878 - 4 Jun 1878 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (s.a.) 4 Jun 1878 - 4 Dec 1878 Mehmed Esad Saffet Pasha (b. 1814 - d. 1883) 4 Dec 1878 - 29 Jul 1879 Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha (b. 1821 - d. 1890) 29 Jul 1879 - 18 Oct 1879 Arifi Pasha (b. 1830 - d. 1895) 18 Oct 1879 - 9 Jun 1880 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) (b. 1838 - d. 1914) 9 Jun 1880 - 12 Sep 1880 Mehmed Kadri Pasha 12 Sep 1880 - 2 May 1882 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 May 1882 - 12 Jul 1882 Nureddin Pasha 12 Jul 1882 - 1 Dec 1882 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Dec 1882 - 3 Dec 1882 Ahmed Vefik Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) Grand viziers 3 Dec 1882 - 25 Sep 1885 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) (s.a.) 25 Sep 1885 - 4 Sep 1891 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (1st time) (b. 1832 - d. 1913) 4 Sep 1891 - 8 Jun 1895 Ahmed Cevad Pasha (b. 1851 - d. 1900) 8 Jun 1895 - 2 Oct 1895 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Oct 1895 - 7 Nov 1895 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Nov 1895 - 9 Nov 1901 Halil Rifat Pasha (b. 1820 - d. 1901) 9 Nov 1901 - 14 Jan 1903 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 14 Jan 1903 - 22 Jul 1908 Mehmed Ferid Pasha (b. 1852 - d. 1914) 22 Jul 1908 - 5 Aug 1908 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (4th time) (s.a.) 5 Aug 1908 - 14 Feb 1909 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 14 Feb 1909 - 14 Apr 1909 Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1st time) (b. 1855 - d. 1922) 14 Apr 1909 - 5 May 1909 Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (1st time) (b. 1845 - d. 1936) 5 May 1909 - 12 Jan 1910 Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Jan 1910 - 30 Sep 1911 Ibrahim Hakki Pasha (b. 1863 - d. 1918) 30 Sep 1911 - 22 Jul 1912 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (5th time) (s.a.) 22 Jul 1912 - 29 Oct 1912 Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (b. 1839 - d. 1918) 29 Oct 1912 - 23 Jan 1913 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (4th time) (s.a.) 23 Jan 1913 - 11 Jun 1913 Mahmud Sevket Pasha (b. 1856 - d. 1913) 12 Jun 1913 - 4 Feb 1917 Said Halim Pasha (b. 1865 - d. 1921) 4 Feb 1917 - 14 Oct 1918 Mehmed Talat Pasha (b. 1874 - d. 1921) 14 Oct 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Ahmed Izzet Pasha (b. 1864 - d. 1937) 11 Nov 1918 - 4 Mar 1919 Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Mar 1919 - 2 Oct 1919 Damad Adil Ferid Pasha (1st time) (b. 1854 - d. 1923) 2 Oct 1919 - 8 Mar 1920 Ali Riza Pasha (b. 1859 - d. 1932) 8 Mar 1920 - 5 Apr 1920 Salih Pasha (b. 1864 - d. 1939) 5 Apr 1920 - 21 Oct 1920 Damad Adil Ferid Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Oct 1920 - 4 Nov 1922 Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) Prime ministers (in opposition until 4 Nov 1922) 24 Jan 1921 - 12 Jul 1922 Fevzi Pasha (b. 1876 - d. 1950) 12 Jul 1922 - 14 Aug 1923 Hüseyin Rauf Bey (b. 1881 - d. 1964) 14 Aug 1923 - 30 Oct 1923 Ali Fethi Bey (1st time) (b. 1880 - d. 1943) 30 Oct 1923 - 21 Nov 1924 Ismet Pasha (1st time) (s.a.) 21 Nov 1924 - 6 Mar 1925 Ali Fethi Bey (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Mar 1925 - 27 Sep 1937 Ismet Pasha (from 1 Jan 1935, Ismet Inönü) (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Sep 1937 - 25 Jan 1939 Mahmut Celal Bayar (s.a.) 25 Jan 1939 - 8 Jul 1942 Refik Saydam (b. 1881 - d. 1942) 9 Jul 1942 - 7 Aug 1946 Sükrü Saracoglu (b. 1887 - d. 1953) 7 Aug 1946 - 10 Sep 1947 Recep Peker (b. 1889 - d. 1950) 10 Sep 1947 - 16 Jan 1949 Hasan Saka (b. 1886 - d. 1960) 16 Jan 1949 - 22 May 1950 Semsettin Günaltay (b. 1883 - d. 1961) 22 May 1950 - 27 May 1960 Adnan Menderes (b. 1899 - d. 1961) 28 May 1960 - 30 Oct 1961 Cemal Gürsel (s.a.) 30 Oct 1961 - 20 Nov 1961 Fahri Özdilek (acting) (b. 1898 - d. 1989) 20 Nov 1961 - 21 Feb 1965 Ismet Inönü (3rd time) (s.a.) 21 Feb 1965 - 27 Oct 1965 Suat Hayri Ürgüplü (b. 1903 - d. 1981) 27 Oct 1965 - 26 Mar 1971 Süleyman Demirel (1st time) (s.a.) 26 Mar 1971 - 17 Apr 1972 Nihat Erim (b. 1912 - d. 1980) 17 Apr 1972 - 15 Apr 1973 Ferit Melen (b. 1906 - d. 1988) (acting to 22 May 1972) 15 Apr 1973 - 25 Jan 1974 Naim Talu (b. 1919 - d. 1998) 25 Jan 1974 - 17 Nov 1974 Bülent Ecevit (1st time) (b. 1925 - d. 2006) 17 Nov 1974 - 31 Mar 1975 Sadi Irmak (b. 1904 - d. 1990) 31 Mar 1975 - 21 Jun 1977 Süleyman Demirel (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1977 - 21 Jul 1977 Bülent Ecevit (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Jul 1977 - 5 Jan 1978 Süleyman Demirel (3rd time) (s.a.) 5 Jan 1978 - 12 Nov 1979 Bülent Ecevit (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Nov 1979 - 12 Sep 1980 Süleyman Demirel (4th time) (s.a.) 20 Sep 1980 - 13 Dec 1983 Bülent Ulusu (b. 1923) 13 Dec 1983 - 31 Oct 1989 Turgut Özal (s.a.) 31 Oct 1989 - 9 Nov 1989 Ali Bozer (acting) (b. 1925) 9 Nov 1989 - 23 Jun 1991 Yildirim Akbulut (b. 1935) 23 Jun 1991 - 20 Nov 1991 Mesut Yilmaz (1st time) (b. 1947) 20 Nov 1991 - 16 May 1993 Süleyman Demirel (5th time) (s.a.) 16 May 1993 - 25 Jun 1993 Erdal Inönü (acting) (b. 1926 - d. 2007) 25 Jun 1993 - 6 Mar 1996 Tansu Çiller (f) (b. 1946) 6 Mar 1996 - 28 Jun 1996 Mesut Yilmaz (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jun 1996 - 30 Jun 1997 Necmettin Erbakan (b. 1926 - d. 2011) 30 Jun 1997 - 11 Jan 1999 Mesut Yilmaz (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Jan 1999 - 18 Nov 2002 Bülent Ecevit (4th time) (s.a.) 18 Nov 2002 - 14 Mar 2003 Abdullah Gül (s.a.) 14 Mar 2003 - 28 Aug 2014 Recep Tayyip Erdogan (s.a.) 28 Aug 2014 - Ahmet Davutoglu (b. 1959) (acting to 29 Aug 2014)
šThe full style of the rulers was, since about 1500, Sultan Hân N.N., Padishah, Hünkar, Hakan ül-Berreyn vel-Bahreyn. Padishah is pure Persian for Great King, Hünkar is a contraction of Middle Persian Khudavendigar, originally an epithet of semi-divine status, Hakan is the Mongol style of the successors of Chinggiz Han, and ül-Berreyn vel-Bahreyn is Arabic al-Barrayn wa al-Bahrayn, meaning literally "of both lands and both seas." Sultan is an Aramaism in Arabic, originally meaning "power," and only gradually being made into a style for rulers. In the Ottoman system every close relative of the ruler, male and female, was styled Sultan, either before or after the name.

Hatay

 5 Sep 1938                Sanjak of Alexandretta separated from Syria as State of Hatay
23 Jul 1939                incorporated into Turkey

Head of State
 5 Sep 1938 - 23 Jul 1939  Tayfur Sökmen                      (b. 1892 - d. 1980)

Prime minister 5 Sep 1938 - 23 Jul 1939 Abdurrahman Melek (b. 1896 - d. 1978)

Turkmenistan

27 Oct 1924                Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic proclaimed
13 May 1925                accession to the Soviet Union (see Soviet republics)
27 Oct 1991                independence declared (Turkmenistan)
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)

Chairmen of the Revolutionary Committee
   Oct 1924 -    Dec 1924  Kaikhaziz Sardarovich Atabayev     (b. 1887 - d. 1937)
   Dec 1924 -    Feb 1925  Nedirbay Aytakov                   (b. 1894 - d. 1938)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
   Feb 1925 -    Aug 1937  Nedirbay Aytakov                   (s.a.)
Presidents
 2 Nov 1990 - 21 Dec 2006  Saparmurat Niyazov
                           (from 22 Oct 1993:) "Turkmenbashi" (b. 1940 - d. 2006)
21 Dec 2006 -              Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov        (b. 1957)
                           (acting to 14 Feb 2007)

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars Feb 1925 - Aug 1937 Kaikhaziz Sardarovich Atabayev (s.a.) Prime minister 30 Oct 1990 - 13 Nov 1991 Khan Akhmedov (b. 1936 - d. 2006)

Turks and Caicos Islands

       1799                part of Bahamas
       1848                separate colony
       1874                part of Jamaica
 4 Jul 1959                separate colony; part of the Federation of the West Indies
                           (see under Trinidad and Tobago) to 31 May 1962

Presidents
       1848 -        1854  Frederick Henry Alexander Forth
       1854 -        1862  William Robert Inglis              (b. 1823 - d. 1888)
       1862 -        1869  Alexander Wilson Moir              (b. 1825 - d. 1897)
       1869 -        1872  Alexander Augustus Melfort
                           Campbell
       1872 -        1874  Daniel Thomas Smith
Commissioners
       1874 -        1878  Daniel Thomas Smith
       1878                Edward Noel Walker
       1878 -        1883  Robert Baxter Llewelyn             (b. 1845 - d. 1919)
       1883 -        1885  Frederick Shedden Sanguinetti      (b. 1847 - d. 1906)
       1885 -        1888  Henry Moore Jackson
       1888 -        1891  Alexis Wynns Harriott
       1891 -        1893  Henry Huggins
       1893 -        1899  Edward John Cameron                (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
       1899 -        1901  Geoffrey Peter St. Aubyn           (b. 1858 - d. 1921)
       1901 -        1905  William Douglas Young              (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
       1905 -        1914  Frederick Henry Watkins            (b. 1859 - d. 1928)
       1914 -        1923  George Whitfield Smith
       1923 -        1932  Harold Ernest Phillips             (b. 1877 - d. 1941)
       1933 -        1934  Hugh Houston Hutchings             (b. 1869 - d. 1937)
       1934 -        1936  Frank Cecil Clarkson
       1936 -        1940  Hugh Charles Norwood Hill
       1940 -        1946  Edwin Porter Arrowsmith            (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
       1947 -        1952  Cyril Eric Wool-Lewis
       1952 -        1955  Peter Bleackley
       1955 -        1958  Ernest Gordon Lewis                (b. 1918 - d. 2006)
       1958 -  4 Jul 1959  Geoffrey Colin Guy                 (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
Administrators
 4 Jul 1959 -        1965  Geoffrey Colin Guy                 (s.a.)
       1965                Robert Everard Wainwright
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1913 - d. 1990)
       1965 -        1967  John Anthony Golding               (b. 1920)
       1967 -        1971  Robert Everard Wainwright
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1971 -    Apr 1973  Alexander Graham Mitchell          (b. 1923)
Governors
   Apr 1973 -    May 1975  Alexander Graham Mitchell          (s.a.)
   May 1975 -    Jul 1978  Arthur Christopher Watson          (b. 1927 - d. 2001)
   Aug 1978 -    Sep 1982  John Clifford Strong               (b. 1922)
   Oct 1982 -    Jan 1987  Christopher J. Turner              (b. 1933)
   Jan 1987 -    Jun 1993  Michael Bradley                    (b. 1933 - d. 2010)
   Jun 1993 -    Sep 1996  Martin Bourke                      (b. 1947)
   Oct 1996 -    Jan 2000  John Kelly                         (b. 1941)
27 Jan 2000 - 26 Nov 2002  Mervyn Jones                       (b. 1942)
26 Nov 2002 - 16 Dec 2002  Cynthia Astwood (f) (acting)       (b. 1946)
16 Dec 2002 - 21 Jun 2005  Jim Poston                         (b. 1945 - d. 2007)
21 Jun 2005 - 11 Jul 2005  Mahala Wynns (f) (1st time)        (b. 1948)
                           (acting)
11 Jul 2005 - 16 Jul 2008  Richard Tauwhare                   (b. 1959)
16 Jul 2008 -  5 Aug 2008  Mahala Wynns (f) (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 5 Aug 2008 - 22 Aug 2011  Gordon Wetherell                   (b. 1948)
22 Aug 2011 - 12 Sep 2011  Martin Stanley (acting)            (b. 1948)
12 Sep 2011 - 15 Sep 2013  Damian Roderic Todd                (b. 1959)
15 Sep 2013 -  4 Oct 2013  Anya Williams (f) (acting)
 4 Oct 2013 -  9 Oct 2013  Huw Shepheard (acting)
 9 Oct 2013 -              Peter Beckingham                   (b. 1949)

Chief ministers Aug 1976 - 9 May 1980 J.A.G.S. McCartney (b. 1945 - d. 1980) 19 Jun 1980 - Nov 1980 Oswald O. Skippings (1st time) (b. 1953) Nov 1980 - 28 Mar 1985 Norman B. Saunders (b. 1943) 28 Mar 1985 - 24 Jul 1986 Nathaniel J.S. Francis (b. 1912 - d. 2004) Jul 1986 - May 1987 Advisory Council (interim) - Ariel Misick (b. 1951) - Emmanuel Missick - Clement Howell (b. 1935 - d. 1987) - Carlos W. Simons (b. 1954) May 1987 - Mar 1988 Advisory Council (interim) - Daniel Malcolm - Tom Lightbourne - Herbie Ingham Mar 1988 - Apr 1991 Oswald O. Skippings (2nd time) (s.a.) Apr 1991 - 3 Feb 1995 Washington Misick (b. 1950) 3 Feb 1995 - 15 Aug 2003 Derek Taylor (b. 1951) 15 Aug 2003 - 9 Aug 2006 Michael Misick (b. 1966) Premiers 9 Aug 2006 - 23 Mar 2009 Michael Misick (s.a.) 23 Mar 2009 - 14 Aug 2009 Galmo Williams 18 Aug 2009 - 15 Oct 2012 Advisory Council (interim) - Joseph Connolly - Edith Cox (f) - Theo Durham - Carlton Mills - Eugene Otuonye (to 13 Jul 2011) - Doreen Quelch-Missick (f) - John Smith - Clayton Thomas (b. 1961?) (from 11 Aug 2011) (plus ex officio the governor, deputy governor, chief executive, attorney general, and permanent secretary, finance) 13 Nov 2012 - Rufus Ewing (b. 1967?)

Tuscany: see under Italian states.

Tuvalu

       1892                part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (see Kiribati)
 1 Oct 1975                separate dependency
 1 Oct 1978                independence

Chiefs of Funafuti (title Aliki tupu)
        ... -         ...  Telematua
        ... -         ...  Kaitosuga
        ... -         ...  Tailoa I
        ... -         ...  Tailoa II
        ... -         ...  Tepaolo
        ... -         ...  Salaika
        ... -         ...  Polau
        ... -         ...  Tauasa
        ... -         ...  Silimaiau
        ... -         ...  Tila
        ... -         ...  Sokomani
        ... -         ...  Talafou
        ... -         ...  Featule
        ... -         ...  Teleke
        ... -         ...  Matavai
        ... -         ...  Iakopo
        ... -         ...  Manu
      *1892 -        1902  Elia                               (b. 18... - d. 1902)
Commissioner
 1 Oct 1975 -  1 Oct 1978  Thomas H. Layng
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 1 Oct 1978 -  1 Mar 1986  Fiatau Penitala Teo (from 2 Jun
                           1979, Sir Fiatau Penitala Teo)     (b. 1911 - d. 1998)
 1 Mar 1986 -  1 Oct 1990  Sir Tupua Leupena                  (b. 1922 - d. 1996)
 1 Oct 1990 -  1 Dec 1993  Sir Toaripi Lauti                  (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
 1 Dec 1993 - 21 Jun 1994  Tomu Sione                         (b. 1941)
21 Jun 1994 - 26 Jun 1998  Tulaga Manuella (from 15 Feb 1996,
                           Sir Tulaga Manuella)               (b. 1936)
26 Jun 1998 -  9 Sep 2003  Sir Tomasi Puapua                  (b. 1938)
 9 Sep 2003 - 15 Apr 2005  Faimalaga Luka                     (b. 1940 - d. 2005)
15 Apr 2005 - 19 Mar 2010  Filoimea Telito (from 12 Jan 2007,
                           Sir Filoimea Telito)               (b. 1945 - d. 2011)
19 Mar 2010 - 16 Apr 2010  Sir Kamuta Latasi (acting)         (b. 1936)
16 Apr 2010 -              Iakoba Taeia Italeli (from 21 Jun
                           2011, Sir Iakoba Taeia Italeli)

Chief minister 2 Oct 1975 - 1 Oct 1978 Toalipi Lauti (s.a.) Prime ministers 1 Oct 1978 - 8 Sep 1981 Toalipi Lauti (from 1980, Toaripi Lauti) (s.a.) 8 Sep 1981 - 16 Oct 1989 Tomasi Puapua (s.a.) 16 Oct 1989 - 10 Dec 1993 Bikenibeu Paeniu (1st time) (b. 1956) 10 Dec 1993 - 24 Dec 1996 Kamuta Latasi (s.a.) 24 Dec 1996 - 27 Apr 1999 Bikenibeu Paeniu (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Apr 1999 - 8 Dec 2000 Ionatana Ionatana (b. 1938 - d. 2000) 8 Dec 2000 - 24 Feb 2001 Lagitupu Tuilimu (acting) 24 Feb 2001 - 14 Dec 2001 Faimalaga Luka (s.a.) 14 Dec 2001 - 2 Aug 2002 Koloa Talake (b. 1934) 2 Aug 2002 - 27 Aug 2004 Saufatu Sopoanga (b. 1952) 27 Aug 2004 - 14 Aug 2006 Maatia Toafa (1st time) (b. 1954) (acting to 11 Oct 2004) 14 Aug 2006 - 29 Sep 2010 Apisai Ielemia (b. 1955) 29 Sep 2010 - 24 Dec 2010 Maatia Toafa (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Dec 2010 - 1 Aug 2013 Willy Telavi (b. 1958) 1 Aug 2013 - Enele Sopoaga (b. 1956) (acting to 5 Aug 2013)

Two Sicilies: see under Italian states.