Index Co-Cz

J.R.B. Có
Có, João Ribeiro Butiam (b. Oct. 15, 1975), foreign minister of Guinea-Bissau (2018-19). In 2021 he was appointed ambassador to Nigeria.

Có, Joãozinho Vieira (b. Aug. 10, 1963, Bijimita, Biombo region, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), foreign minister of Guinea-Bissau (2002-03). He was also ambassador to Portugal (2002, 2003-06).

Coanda, Constantin (b. March 4, 1857, Craiova, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. June 14 or Sept. 30, 1932, Bucharest, Romania), prime minister and foreign minister of Romania (1918). He was also president of the Senate (1920-22, 1926, 1926-27), minister of industry (1926), and minister of state (1926).

Coard, (Winston) Bernard (b. Aug. 10, 1944, Victoria, Grenada), Grenadian politician. He held membership in the Communist Party, USA; the British Communist Party; and Jamaica's pro-Moscow Workers' Liberation League led by Trevor Munroe (later named the Workers' Party of Jamaica). It is reported that in August 1973 Coard was asked to work with drafting the manifesto of Grenada's New Jewel Movement (NJM). He ran successfully in the Nov. 7, 1976, general elections on the People's Alliance ticket from St. George's. He was part of the coup of March 13, 1979, which brought the NJM to power. In October 1982, he resigned from his positions on the Central Committee, the Political Bureau, and the Organizing Committee. Since Aug. 19, 1978, he had chaired the Organizing Committee, concerned with the daily running of the NJM. He continued as deputy prime minister and remained focused on the economy as finance minister. Coard disagreed with the policies of Prime Minister Maurice Bishop, who attempted to develop a good relationship with the United States and allowed private enterprise to continue on the island. He also disliked Bishop's ideas on grassroots democracy. On Oct. 14, 1983, with the support of the army, Coard overthrew the government. After Bishop was put under house arrest, Coard resigned from government, but not from the party. Bishop and most of his ministers were executed on October 19. U.S. president Ronald Reagan, who had been highly critical of Bishop's government, took this opportunity to intervene and sent in the U.S. Marines. After the invasion, Coard was arrested on Oct. 31, 1983. A trial was held in 1986. Along with 13 others, he was sentenced to death. The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in 1991. In March 2004 the sentence was quashed but he remained in custody until being released in September 2009.

Coates, Joseph Gordon (b. Feb. 3, 1878, Pahi, New Zealand - d. May 27, 1943, Wellington, New Zealand), prime minister (1925-28) and foreign minister (1928) of New Zealand. He was also minister of justice (1919-20), defence (1920), public works (1920-26, 1931-33), native affairs (1921-28), railways (1923-28), mines (1928), agriculture (1928), transport (1931-33), finance and customs (1933-35), and armed forces and war coordination (1942-43) and postmaster-general (1919-25).

Coates, Robert (Carman) (b. March 10, 1928, Amherst, N.S. - d. Jan. 11, 2016), defence minister of Canada (1984-85).

Cobankovic, Petar (b. Jan. 29, 1957, Ilok, Croatia), a deputy prime minister of Croatia (2010-11). He was also minister of agriculture, forestry, and water management (2003-08), regional development, forestry, and water management (2008-09), and agriculture, fisheries, and rural development (2009-11).

Çobanli, Cevat, until Jan. 1, 1935, Cevad Pasha (b. Sept. 14, 1870, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. March 13, 1938, Istanbul), war minister of the Ottoman Empire (1918-19).

Cobb, Henry Venn (b. 1864 - d. Nov. 26, 1949), British resident in Jammu and Kashmir (1914-15) and resident in Mysore and chief commissioner of Coorg (1916-20).

Cobb, Howell (b. Sept. 7, 1815, "Cherry Hill," Jefferson county, Ga. - d. Oct. 9, 1868, New York City), speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1849-51), governor of Georgia (1851-53), and U.S. secretary of the treasury (1857-60). He was also president of the provisional Congress of the Confederate States of America (1861-62).

Cobb, Rufus W(illis) (b. Feb. 25, 1829, Ashville, Ala. - d. Nov. 26, 1913, Birmingham, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1878-82).

Cobb, William T(itcomb) (b. July 23, 1857, Rockland, Maine - d. July 24, 1937, Rockland), governor of Maine (1905-09).

Cobbe, John George (b. 1859, King's County [now County Offaly], Ireland - d. Dec. 29, 1944, Palmerston North, New Zealand), defence minister of New Zealand (1929-35). He was also minister of immigration (1928-30), marine (1928-30, 1931-35), industries and commerce (1928-29), and justice (1930-35).

Cobbina, John Henry (b. Sept. 29, 1919, Essikado [now part of Sekondi-Takoradi], Gold Coast [now Ghana]), interior minister of Ghana (1972-75).

Cobenzl, Johann Ludwig (Joseph) Graf von (b. Nov. 21, 1753, Brussels, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. Feb. 22, 1809, Vienna, Austria), acting foreign minister of Austria (1800-01); cousin of Philipp Graf von Cobenzl. He was also minister to Denmark (1775-77) and Prussia (1777-78) and minister (1779-84) and ambassador (1784-1800) to Russia.

Cobenzl, (Johann) Philipp (Joseph) Graf von (b. May 28, 1741, Laibach, Austria [now Ljubljana, Slovenia] - d. Aug. 30, 1810, Vienna, Austria), acting foreign minister of Austria (1792-93). He was also ambassador to France (1801-05).

Cobham, Charles John Lyttelton, (10th) Viscount (b. Aug. 8, 1909, London, England - d. March 20, 1977, London), governor-general of New Zealand (1957-62). He succeeded as viscount in 1949.

Cobián y Roffignac, Eduardo (b. March 19, 1857, Pontevedra, Spain - d. April 20, 1918, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1910-11). He was also navy minister (1903, 1905) and governor of the Bank of Spain (1911-13).

Cobo (Gutiérrez), Camilo E(nrique) (b. 1835, Santiago, Chile - d. Sept. 26, 1883), finance minister of Chile (1871-72). He was also rector of the National Institute (1872).

Cobos (Navarro), Julio (César Cleto) (b. April 30, 1955, Godoy Cruz, Mendoza, Argentina), governor of Mendoza (2003-07) and vice president of Argentina (2007-11).

Coburn, Abner (b. March 22, 1803, Canaan, Mass. [now in Maine] - d. Jan. 4, 1885, Skowhegan, Maine), governor of Maine (1863-64).

Cocais, José Feliciano Pinto Coelho da Cunha, barão de (b. Dec. 1, 1792, Cocais [now Barão de Cocais], Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. July 9, 1869, Cocais), president of Minas Gerais (1835). He was made baron in 1855.

Cóccaro, Hugo (Omar) (b. 1954, Saladillo, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. July 21, 2019, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (2005-07).

Cocco Ortu, Francesco (b. Oct. 19, 1842, Cagliari, Kingdom of Sardinia [now in Sardegna, Italy] - d. March 4, 1929, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1901-03). He was also mayor of Cagliari (1883-84) and minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce (1897-98, 1906-09).

Cochery, (Louis) Adolphe (b. Aug. 26, 1819, Paris, France - d. Oct. 13, 1900, Paris), French politician. He was minister of posts and telegraphs (1879-85).

Cochery, Georges (Charles Paul) (b. March 20, 1855, Paris, France - d. Aug. 8, 1914, Paris), finance minister of France (1896-98, 1909-10); son of Adolphe Cochery.

Cochran, John P(rice) (b. Feb. 7, 1809, St. George's Hundred, New Castle county, Del. - d. Dec. 27, 1898, New Castle county), governor of Delaware (1875-79).

Cochran, Robert LeRoy (b. Jan. 28, 1886, near Avoca, Neb. - d. Feb. 23, 1963, Lincoln, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1935-41).

Cochrane, Sir Alexander (Forrester Inglis) (b. April 23, 1758 - d. Jan. 26, 1832, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1810-13); knighted 1806.

Cochrane, Sir Archibald Douglas (b. Jan. 8, 1885 - d. April 16, 1958), governor of Burma (1936-41); knighted 1936.

C. Cochrane
Cochrane, Caroline (b. December 1960), premier of the Northwest Territories (2019-23).

Cochrane, Charles Walter Hamilton (b. Aug. 3, 1876 - d. Oct. 26, 1932), British general adviser in Johor (1925-28), resident in Perak (1929-30), and chief secretary of the Federated Malay States (1930-32).

Cochrane, Sir Thomas John (b. Feb. 5, 1789, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Oct. 19, 1872, Ryde, Isle of Wight, England), governor of Newfoundland (1825-34); knighted 1812.

Cockerell, Horace Abel (b. 1832 - d. April 23, 1908), acting lieutenant governor of Bengal (1885).

Cockfield, (Francis) Arthur Cockfield, Baron (b. Sept. 28, 1916, Horsham, Sussex, England - d. Jan. 8, 2007, Oxford, England), British politician. He was president of the Board of Trade (1982-83), chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1983-84), and a vice president of the European Commission and commissioner for the internal market (1985-89). He was knighted in 1973 and made a life peer in 1978.

Cockrel, Ken(neth Vern), Jr. (b. 1965), mayor of Detroit (2008-09).

Cockshutt, Henry (b. July 8, 1868, Brantford, Ont. - d. Nov. 26, 1944, Brantford), lieutenant governor of Ontario (1921-27).

Cocq, (Alphonse Lambert Joseph) Fernand (b. July 8, 1861, Huy, Belgium - d. Dec. 11, 1940, Ixelles [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1931-32).

Codacci Pisanelli, Giuseppe (b. March 28, 1913, Rome, Italy - d. Feb. 2, 1988, Rome), defense minister of Italy (1953). He was also minister without portfolio (for relations with parliament) (1960-63).

Coddington, William (b. 1601, Lincolnshire, England - d. Nov. 1, 1678, Newport, Rhode Island), governor of Rhode Island (1651-53 [in Newport and Portsmouth], 1674-76, 1678).

Coddington, William, Jr. (b. Jan. 18, 1651, Newport, Rhode Island - d. Feb. 5, 1689), governor of Rhode Island (1683-85); son of William Coddington.

Codey, Richard J(ames) (b. Nov. 27, 1946, Orange, N.J.), acting governor (2002, 2004-06) and governor (2006) of New Jersey.

Codreanu, Corneliu (Zelea), originally (until 1901) Corneliu Zelinski (b. Sept. 13, 1899, Iasi, Romania - d. Nov. 30, 1938, Jilava, near Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. He participated widely in anti-Communist and anti-Semitic activities during his university years at Iasi (1919-22). In 1922 he helped found the Association of Christian Students, which, from 1923 to 1927, he affiliated with the League of National Christian Defense (LANC), headed by the anti-Semitic university professor A.C. Cuza. Codreanu was arrested and imprisoned in 1923 for threatening to kill "traitors"; arrested again on a murder charge in 1925, he was acquitted. In 1927 he broke with LANC to form his Legion of the Archangel Michael, which later called itself the Legion or Legionary Movement. He also established a militant subdivision within this group called the Iron Guard (1930), the name which outsiders would eventually apply to the movement at large. Codreanu built in this movement against Communism and Jewry a mystical religious fervour. Despite official persecution and its own terror tactics, the Guard - now renamed the All for the Fatherland Party - had by 1937 become the third-largest party in the state; but its electoral successes moved King Carol II to dissolve it (January 1938) and imprison Codreanu (April 1938). In May he was found guilty of publishing documents vital to the security of the state, of plotting against the social order by appealing for help and instructions to an association of an international character abroad, and of having armed part of his following and organized paramilitary formations for the purpose of civil war. On Nov. 30, 1938, while in transit between prisons (from Râmnicu Sarat to Bucharest), he and 13 of his associates were shot, supposedly while trying to escape.

Codrington, Robert Edward (b. Jan. 6, 1869 - d. Dec. 16, 1908), administrator of North-Eastern Rhodesia (1898-1907) and North-Western Rhodesia (1907-08).

Coelho, Agostinho (b. June 9, 1828, Aveiro, Portugal - d. Nov. 13, 1888, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1879-81) and governor-general of Mozambique (1882-85).

Coelho, Alberto Pinto, Júnior (b. Oct. 3, 1945, Rio Verde, Goiás, Brazil - d. Nov. 20, 2023, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil), governor of Minas Gerais (2014-15).

Coelho, Alfredo Baptista (b. Dec. 14, 1865, Santo Tirso, Portugal - d. June 28, 1952, Lisbon, Portugal), governor-general of Mozambique (1915).

Coelho, Antônio, Neto (b. June 13, 1916 - d. Jan. 22, 1960, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Fernando de Noronha (1954-55).

Coelho, António de Albuquerque, governor of Macau (1718-19) and Portuguese Timor (1722-25).

Coelho, Balduino José, acting president of Piauí (1855).

Coelho, Francisco Ramiro de Assis (b. 180... - d. ...), principal minister of Brazil (1840). He was also justice minister (1839-40).

H. Coelho
Coelho (da Silva), Hernâni (Filomena) (b. Aug. 27, 1964, Uatucarbau, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste]), foreign minister of Timor-Leste (2015-17). He was also ambassador to Australia (2006-09) and South Korea (2013-15) and minister of petroleum (2017-18).

Coelho, Jerônimo Francisco (b. Sept. 30, 1806, Laguna, Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Jan. 16, 1860, Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1844-45, 1857-58). He was also navy minister (1844) and president of Pará (1848-50) and Rio Grande do Sul (1856-57).

Coelho, João Antônio Luiz (b. July 9, 1852, Moju, Pará, Brazil - d. Aug. 16, 1926, Belém, Pará), governor of Pará (1909-13).

Coelho, Levindo Ozanan (b. May 17, 1914, Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. March 30, 1984, Ubá), acting governor of Minas Gerais (1978-79).

Coelho, Luiz Silvestre Gomes (b. April 10, 1883, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil - d. July 4, 1952, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Acre (1942-46).

Coelho, Manuel Maria (b. March 6, 1857, Chaves, Portugal - d. Jan. 10, 1943, Lisbon, Portugal), governor-general of Angola (1911-12), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1917), and prime minister and interior minister of Portugal (1921).

M.I.C. Coelho
Coelho, Maria Izolda Cela de Arruda (b. May 9, 1960, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil), governor of Ceará (2022-23).

Coelho, Nilo Augusto Moraes (b. April 1, 1943, Guanambi, Bahia, Brazil), governor of Bahia (1989-91); nephew of Nilo de Souza Coelho.

Coelho, Nilo de Souza (b. Nov. 2, 1920, Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Nov. 9, 1983, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (1967-71). He was also president of the Federal Senate (1983).

P.P. Coelho
Coelho, Pedro (Manuel Mamede) Passos (b. July 24, 1964, Coimbra, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (2011-15). He was also president of the Social Democratic Youth (1990-95) and the Social Democratic Party (2010-18).

Coelho, Plínio Ramos (b. Feb. 21 or April 21, 1920, Humaitá, Amazonas, Brazil - d. Aug. 5, 2001, Manaus, Brazil), governor of Amazonas (1955-59, 1963-64).

Coelho, (Henrique) Trindade (b. July 1, 1885, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Oct. 8, 1934, Sintra, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1929). He was also minister to Italy (1927-29) and the Vatican (1929-34).

Coelho, Vincent Herbert (b. July 20, 1917, Mangalore, Mysore [now Karnataka], India), Indian political officer in Sikkim (1966-67). He was also chargé d'affaires in Turkey (1957-59), ambassador to Brazil (1963-66) and Japan (1970-72), and high commissioner to Sri Lanka (1972-75).

Coëme, Guy (b. Aug. 21, 1946, Bettincourt [now part of Waremme], Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1988-92). He was also chairman of the Executive of Wallonia (1988) and a Belgian deputy prime minister and minister of communications and public enterprises (1992-94).

Coen Montealegre, Piero (Dario) (b. Dec. 9, 1942, Chinandega, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan diplomat; great-great-grandson of Mariano Montealegre. He was ambassador to Israel (2004-15) and Italy (2006-15).

Coen Ubilla, Piero (Paolo) (b. June 29, 1968), Nicaraguan diplomat; son of Piero Coen Montealegre. He was ambassador to the United Kingdom (2005-07).

Coetsee, Kobie, byname of Hendrik Jacobus Coetsee (b. April 19, 1931, Ladybrand, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa - d. July 29, 2000, Bloemfontein, Free State), justice minister (1980-94), chairman of the Ministers' Council of the House of Assembly (1989-92), and defense minister (1993-94) of South Africa. He was also president of the Senate (1994-97).

Coffey, Dame Thérèse (Anne) (b. Nov. 18, 1971, Billinge, Lancashire, England), British deputy prime minister (2022); knighted 2024. She was also secretary of state for work and pensions (2019-22), health and social care (2022), and environment, food, and rural affairs (2022-23).

Coffey, Titian J(ames) (b. Dec. 5, 1824, Huntingdon, Pa. - d. Jan. 11, 1867, Washington, D.C.), acting U.S. attorney general (1863-64).

Coffi Gadeau, Germain (b. 1913, Gbomizambo, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. Aug. 18, 2000), interior minister of Ivory Coast (1960-63). Also known as a writer, he was a minister of state in 1971-75.

Coffin, O(wen) Vincent (b. June 20, 1836, Mansfield, N.Y. - d. Jan. 3, 1921, Clifton Springs, N.Y.), governor of Connecticut (1895-97).

Coghen, Jacques André, comte (b. Oct. 31, 1791, Brussels, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. May 16, 1858, Brussels), finance minister of Belgium (1831-32). He was created comte (count) in 1837.

Coghlan, Sir Charles (Patrick John) (b. June 24, 1863, King William's Town, Cape Colony [now in South Africa] - d. Aug. 28, 1927, Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia [now Harare, Zimbabwe]), premier of Southern Rhodesia (1923-27); knighted 1910.

Coghlan, Sir William Marcus (b. May 31, 1803, Plymouth, Devon, England - d. Nov. 26, 1885, Ramsgate, Kent, England), political agent (1854-59) and political resident (1859-63) of Aden; knighted 1864.


E. Cohen
Cogo, Margherita (b. Oct. 2, 1951, Tione, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy), president of Trentino-Alto Adige (1999-2002).

Cohen, Sir Andrew (Benjamin) (b. Oct. 7, 1909, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England - d. June 17, 1968, London, England), governor of Uganda (1952-57); knighted 1952.

Cohen, Eli (b. Oct. 3, 1972, Holon, Israel), foreign minister of Israel (2022-24). He has also been minister of economy and industry (2017-20), intelligence (2020-21), and energy (2024- ).

Cohen, Jonathan R(aphael) (b. April 16, 1964, Palo Alto, Calif.), U.S. diplomat. He was acting permanent representative to the United Nations (2019) and ambassador to Egypt (2019-22).

Cohen, Joshua J(ackson), mayor of Annapolis (2009-13).

W.J. Cohen
Cohen, Wilbur J(oseph) (b. June 10, 1913, Milwaukee, Wis. - d. May 18, 1987, Seoul, South Korea), U.S. politician. He helped draft the Social Security Act of 1935 and became the first employee of the Social Security Administration. As assistant secretary of health, education and welfare under Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson, Cohen was instrumental in promoting such important social legislation as the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the Heart Disease, Cancer and Stroke Amendments of 1965, and the Child Health Act of 1967. From 1968 to 1969 he served as secretary of health, education and welfare.

Cohen, William (Sebastian) (b. Aug. 28, 1940, Bangor, Maine), U.S. defense secretary (1997-2001). He was mayor of Bangor (1971-72) and a member of the House of Representatives (1973-79) and Senate (1979-97).

Cohen Gallerstein, Benjamín (Alberto) (b. March 18, 1896, Concepción, Chile - d. March 12, 1960, New York City), Chilean diplomat; great-grandson-in-law of José Argüello Arce. He was ambassador to Bolivia (1939-45) and Venezuela (1945-47).

Cohen-Orgad, Yigal, original surname Cohen (b. Aug. 30, 1937, Tel Aviv, Palestine [now in Israel] - d. Aug. 27, 2019), finance minister of Israel (1983-84).

Cohn, Haim (Herman) (b. March 11, 1911, Lübeck, Germany - d. April 10, 2002, Jerusalem), justice minister of Israel (1952). He was also attorney general (1950-60).

Cohn-Bendit, Daniel (Marc) (b. April 4, 1945, Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, France), European politician. He was the son of German Jewish parents who had emigrated to France in 1933. He lived in France until 1958, when his parents decided to return to Germany. In 1963 he returned to France, holding both citizenships. With his quick tongue and sharp wit, "Danny the Red" (so named for his hair) became famous for his leading part in the May 1968 student protests in France which nearly brought down Charles de Gaulle's government. He was expelled from France and since then lived in Frankfurt, even after the ban was lifted in 1978. He was editor and publisher of the alternative city magazine Pflasterstrand. In 1984 he joined the Green party in Germany and in 1989 became commissioner for multicultural affairs in Frankfurt. In 1994 he was elected to the European Parliament for the German Greens. In October 1998 he was selected to top the list of the French Greens for the June 1999 election to the European Parliament. He quickly stirred up French politics with remarks criticizing both his left-wing allies and the conservative opposition, prompting French Greens leader Dominique Voynet to say he should stop sticking his nose into domestic politics. His call for looser immigration laws led to a clash with Prime Minister Lionel Jospin while the Communists - the Greens' allies in Jospin's "plural left" - were upset by his pledge to outscore them in the European poll (which he did). He and the six Green deputies in the French National Assembly signed an appeal for a "democratic revolution" in Europe with a constitution for the European Union and a reinforced European Parliament. In 2001 he was elected co-leader of the Greens in the European Parliament, a position he held until 2014.

Coimbra, Estácio de Albuquerque (b. Oct. 22, 1872, Barreiros, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Nov. 9, 1937, Recife, Pernambuco), governor of Pernambuco (1911 [acting], 1926-30) and vice president of Brazil (1922-26).

Cokanasiga, Joketani (b. 1937? - d. March 7, 2021, Suva, Fiji), home affairs minister (2001-04) and defense minister (2010-14) of Fiji. He was also minister of works and energy (2000-01), fisheries and forests (2007-08), and primary industries (2008-10).

Cokanauto, Tu'uakitau (b. June 5, 1945 - d. Sept. 13, 2023, Suva, Fiji), Fijian politician; son of Ratu Sir Edward Cakobau; brother of Ratu Viliame Dreunimisimisi and Ratu Epeli Nailatikau. He was minister of local government, housing, and environment (2000-01).

Coke, Richard (b. March 13, 1829, Williamsburg, Va. - d. May 14, 1897, Waco, Texas), governor of Texas (1874-76).

Colak, Barisa (b. Jan. 1, 1956, Listica [now Siroki Brijeg, West Herzegovina canton], Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of West Herzegovina (1996-99). He was also chairman of the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2015, 2017, 2018-19).


Momo Colakovic
Çolak, Emine (b. March 9, 1958, Nicosia, Cyprus), foreign minister of North Cyprus (2015-16).

Colakovic, Mirsada, Bosnian diplomat. She was chargé d'affaires in Greece (2001-02), permanent representative to the United Nations (2012-15), and ambassador to the Netherlands (2016-21).

Colakovic, Momo (b. May 8, 1940, Ponikvica, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro]), president of the Assembly of Vojvodina (2023-24).

Colakovic, Rodoljub (b. June 7, 1900, Bijeljina, Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. March 30, 1983, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1945-48) and a deputy premier of Yugoslavia (1954-63). He was also Yugoslav minister for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1945) and science and culture (1948-50) and chairman of the Council for Science and Culture (1950-58).

Colardeau, (Jean Baptiste Charles) Octave (b. Dec. 4, 1838, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. Feb. 2, 1929, Bouches-du-Rhône département, France), acting governor of New Caledonia (1900).

Colazo, (Mario) Jorge (b. March 4, 1954, Río Tercero, Córdoba province, Argentina), governor of Tierra del Fuego (2004-05).

Colby, Anthony (b. Nov. 13, 1792, New London, N.H. - d. July 13, 1873, New London), governor of New Hampshire (1846-47).

B. Colby
Colby, Bainbridge (b. Dec. 22, 1869, St. Louis, Mo. - d. April 11, 1950, Bemus Point, N.Y.), U.S. politician. In 1901-02 he served in the New York state assembly. He joined Theodore Roosevelt's "Bull Moose" bolt from the Republican Party in 1912, and ran for the U.S. Senate as a Progressive in 1914. He subsequently became identified with the Democrats under Woodrow Wilson, who appointed him vice-president of the U.S. Shipping Board in 1917 and, in 1920, secretary of state. He initiated the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet Union, declaring the Soviet government was not representative of the "free will and purpose" of the Russian people. Colby initially supported Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, but later worked politically against him.

Colby, Sir Geoffrey Francis Taylor (b. March 25, 1901 - d. Dec. 22, 1958), governor of Nyasaland (1947-56); knighted 1949.

W.E. Colby
Colby, William E(gan) (b. Jan. 4, 1920, St. Paul, Minn. - d. April 27, 1996, Rock Point, Md.), CIA director (1973-76). He served with distinction in World War II as a paratrooper for the Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner of the CIA. In 1950 he joined the CIA, serving first in Stockholm (1951-53) and then in Rome (1953-58). As chief of CIA operations in Saigon, South Vietnam (1959-62), and then in all of Asia (1962-67), he orchestrated CIA activities during the Vietnam War. In 1971 he returned to the agency's headquarters in Washington, D.C., where he pursued the directorship. Appointed on May 10, 1973, by Pres. Richard Nixon, he was confirmed by the Senate on August 1 and sworn in September 4. He showed unusual candour while testifying before Congress in 1975 in the wake of various leaks about CIA covert operations, such as spying on U.S. citizens, plotting coups and assassinations abroad, conducting controversial experiments without the knowledge of the subjects, and involving itself in the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal. His candidness, championed by some as having resuscitated CIA credibility during its most troubled period, led to his premature resignation (he served until Sept. 30, 1976) and ultimately brought the agency under congressional oversight. After his forced retirement by Pres. Gerald Ford, Colby became an advocate for the reduction of nuclear arms.

Colcord, Roswell K(eyes) (b. April 25, 1839, North Searsport, Maine - d. Oct. 30, 1939, Carson City, Nev.), governor of Nevada (1891-95).

Cold, Christian (Magdalus Thestrup) (b. June 10, 1863, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Dec. 7, 1934, Copenhagen), governor of the Danish West Indies (1905-08) and foreign minister of Denmark (1922-24).

Coldwell, M(ajor) J(ames William) (b. Dec. 2, 1888, Seaton, Devon, England - d. Aug. 25, 1974, Ottawa, Canada), Canadian politician. He emigrated to Canada in 1910. He served on the city council of Regina, Sask., in 1922-32 and was provincial leader of the Saskatchewan Farmer-Labour Party in 1932-35. In 1935 he was elected to the House of Commons for the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation and from 1942 to 1960 he was leader of the CCF. He was a member of the Canadian delegation to the United Nations assembly in 1946, 1950, 1953, and 1954. At the March 31, 1958, general election he was defeated in the Rosetown-Biggar, Sask., constituency which he had represented since 1935. In the autumn of 1958 he was appointed by the UN to be chairman of a mission evaluating technical aid community planning in India.

Cole, Christopher Okoro (Elnathan Eustace) (b. April 17, 1921, Waterloo village, Sierra Leone - d. after 1990), president of Sierra Leone (April 19-21, 1971). He was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States in 1967-68 and in 1970 was appointed chief justice. In a complicated process of constitutional change when the monarchy was abandoned in 1971, it was provided that Siaka Stevens, then prime minister, would become the "second president," while Cole, who had been appointed interim governor-general on March 31, would serve for two days as "first president." Thereafter he reverted to the post of chief justice, retiring in 1978.

Cole, George E(dward) (b. Dec. 23, 1826, Trenton Falls, N.Y. - d. Dec. 3, 1906, Portland, Ore.), governor of Washington (1866-67).

Cole, W(illiam) Sterling (b. April 18, 1904, Painted Post, N.Y. - d. March 15, 1987, Washington, D.C.), director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (1957-61).

Coleiro Preca
Coleiro Preca, Marie-Louise, née Coleiro (b. Dec. 7, 1958, Qormi, Malta), president of Malta (2014-19). She was also minister of family and social solidarity (2013-14).

Coleman, Sir (Cyril Frederick) Charles (b. 1903, Plymouth - d. June 17, 1974), British city commandant of Berlin (1951-54) and lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1964-69); knighted 1957.

Coleman, Chris(topher B.) (b. Sept. 1, 1961), mayor of St. Paul (2006-18).

Coleman, James P(lemon) (b. Jan. 19, 1914, near Ackerman, Miss. - d. Sept. 28, 1991, Ackerman), governor of Mississippi (1956-60).

Coleman, Jonathan (David) (b. 1966), defence minister of New Zealand (2011-14). He was also minister of immigration and broadcasting (2008-11), state services (2011-14), and health, sport, and recreation (2014-17).

Coleman, Michael B(ennett) (b. Nov. 18, 1954, Indianapolis, Ind.), mayor of Columbus (2000-15). On Nov. 2, 1999, he was elected Columbus's first African-American mayor, with about 60% of the vote. He also became the city's first Democratic mayor since 1971.

Coleman, (William) Peter (b. Dec. 15, 1928, Melbourne, Vic. - d. March 31, 2019, Sydney, N.S.W.), administrator of Norfolk Island (1979-81).

P.T. Coleman
Coleman, (Uifa'atali) Peter Tali (b. Dec. 8, 1919, Pago Pago, American Samoa - d. April 28, 1997, Honolulu, Hawaii), governor of American Samoa (1956-61, 1978-85, 1989-93). He was American Samoa's first Samoan attorney general, first Samoan governor (1956), and first elected governor (1978). He was also a founder of the Pacific Basin Development Council, a grouping of U.S. Pacific territories, and he was a senior officer in the administration of the former Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, which governed Palau, the Marshall Islands, the (Northern) Mariana Islands, and what became the Federated States of Micronesia, serving as district administrator of the Marshalls (1961-65) and Marianas (1965-69) and as deputy high commissioner (1969-77) and acting high commissioner (1976-77).

Coleman, William David (b. 1842, Fayette county, Ky. - d. 1908, Clay Ashland, Liberia), vice president (1892-96) and president (1896-1900) of Liberia. He was also speaker of the House of Representatives (1877-79).

Coleman, William T(haddeus), Jr. (b. July 7, 1920, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. March 31, 2017, Alexandria, Va.), U.S. transportation secretary (1975-77).

Coles, Edward (b. Dec. 15, 1786, Albemarle county, Va. - d. July 7, 1868, Philadelphia, Pa.), governor of Illinois (1822-26); brother-in-law of John Rutherfoord and Andrew Stevenson.

Colesniuc, Tudor, acting defense minister of Moldova (2004).

Colfax, Schuyler (b. March 23, 1823, New York City - d. Jan. 13, 1885, Mankato, Minn.), speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1863-69) and vice president (1869-73).

Colijn, Hendrikus (b. June 22, 1869, Burgerveen, Haarlemmermeer municipality, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. Sept. 18, 1944, Ilmenau, Thüringen, Germany), prime minister of the Netherlands (1925-26, 1933-39). He was also minister of war (1911-13), navy (acting, 1912-13), finance (1923-26 and [acting] 1939), colonial affairs (1925 [acting], 1933-37), economic affairs (1934 [acting], 1939 [acting]), water management (acting, 1935), defense (acting, 1935-37), and foreign affairs (acting, 1937).

Colin, André (Gabriel Marie) (b. Jan. 19, 1910, Brest, Finistère, France - d. Aug. 29, 1978, Carantec, Finistère), minister of Overseas France (1958) and president of the Regional Council of Bretagne (1976-78).

Colina (Riquelme), Rafael de la (b. Sept. 20, 1898, Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. Dec. 27, 1995, Washington, D.C.), Mexican diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (1949-53), Canada (1959-62), and Japan (1962-64) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1953-59).

Collado Mena, Carlos (b. July 12, 1938, Murcia, Spain), president of Murcia (1984-93).

Collan, Mikko, byname of Kaarlo Juhani Mikael Collan, originally Karl Johan Michael Collan (b. July 22, 1881, Nurmes, Finland - d. Oct. 3, 1964, Helsinki, Finland), governor of Turku ja Pori (1917-22). He was also Finnish minister of food provisions (1918-20).

Collantes, Manuel (G.) (b. Aug. 20, 1917, Tanauan, Batangas, Philippines - d. May 28, 2009), acting foreign minister of the Philippines (1984).

Collantes, Nelson (Perez), byname Sonny Collantes (b. May 5, 1952), acting interior secretary of the Philippines (1998). He is mayor of Tanauan (2022- ).


Collares, Alceu de Deus (b. Sept. 12, 1927, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1991-95). He was also mayor of Porto Alegre (1986-89).

Collart, (Eugène) Auguste (b. July 26, 1890, Bettembourg, Luxembourg - d. May 20, 1978, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), Luxembourg politician. He was minister of agriculture, industry, commerce, and labour (1918-20) and chargé d'affaires/minister to the Netherlands (1933-40, 1945-55).

Collas, Sir Richard (John) (b. May 27, 1953, Guernsey), bailiff of Guernsey (2012-20); knighted 2014. He was deputy bailiff in 2005-12.

Collenette, David (Michael) (b. June 24, 1946, London, England), defence minister of Canada (1993-96). He was also minister of transport (1997-2003).

Collet, Agnello Geraque (b. 1862, Bahia province [now state], Brazil - d. April 15, 1929, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Rio de Janeiro (1917-18).

Collet, Bernt Johan (Holger) (b. Nov. 23, 1941, Copenhagen, Denmark), defense minister of Denmark (1987-88).

Collet, Heitor Barcellos (b. March 27, 1898, São Fidélis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Jan. 30, 1974, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting governor of Rio de Janeiro (1937); son of Agnello Geraque Collet.

Collet, Sir Wilfred (b. Nov. 23, 1856 - d. June 29, 1929), governor of British Honduras (1913-17) and British Guiana (1917-23); knighted 1915.

Collett, Sir Henry (b. March 6, 1836 - d. Dec. 21, 1901), acting chief commissioner of Assam (1891); knighted 1891.

Collett, Johan (b. March 22, 1775, Rønnebæksholm manor, near Næstved, Denmark - d. June 19, 1827, Christiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Buskerud (1814-27); brother of Jonas Collett.

Collett, Johan Christian (b. July 23, 1817, Huseby [now part of Lier municipality], Buskerud, Norway - d. April 29, 1895, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Christians amt (1854-59) and Akershus amt (1859-95); son of Johan Collett. He was also Norwegian acting minister of interior (1861) and auditing (1884).

Collett, Jonas (b. March 25, 1772, Rønnebæksholm manor, near Næstved, Denmark - d. Jan. 3, 1851, Christiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Buskerud (1813-14) and finance minister of Norway (1818, 1822-36). He was also minister of interior (1814-16, 1817-18), army (1819), church and education (1819-20), and navy (1820) and minister without portfolio (1819, 1821).

Colley, George (Joseph), Irish Seoirse Ó Colla (b. Oct. 18, 1925, Dublin, Ireland - d. Sept. 17, 1983, London, England), Irish politician. He was first elected to the Dáil (parliament) in 1961. Four years later he was appointed minister of education and in 1966, when he stood unsuccessfully for the Fianna Fáil party leadership, he became minister for industry and commerce. Within the party he was the focus for opposition to Charles Haughey, and their rivalry in some ways blighted Colley's political career. When Haughey was dismissed from the post of minister of finance after a scandal over illegal arms imports, Colley succeeded him (1970-73, 1977-79); but Haughey returned to beat him in the leadership contest in 1977. Colley was tánaiste (deputy prime minister) from 1977 to 1981. He was also minister of the Gaeltacht (1969-73), public service (1977-79), tourism and transport (1979-80), and energy (1980-81).

Collier, Angus Lyell (b. Nov. 10, 1893 - d. Sept. 7, 1971), district commander of Cyrenaica (1943).

Collier, Gershon (Beresford Onesimus) (b. Feb. 16, 1927, Freetown, Sierra Leone - d. May 25, 1994, U.S.), Sierra Leonean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-67), ambassador to the United States (1963-67), and chief justice (1967).

Collier, Henry W(atkins) (b. Jan. 17, 1801, Lynchburg county, Va. - d. Aug. 28, 1855, Bailey's Springs, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1849-53).

F. Collin
Collin, Frank (Joseph) (b. Nov. 3, 1944, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. neo-Nazi leader. He was the son of a Roman Catholic woman and a Jewish man who was imprisoned in the Dachau concentration camp during World War II. After the war Collin's father emigrated to the U.S., and in 1946 he changed the family name from Cohn to Collin. Frank became involved with the National Socialist White People's Party (formerly the American Nazi Party) and in 1970 founded his own National Socialist Party of America, a group of about 25 members that attempted for several years to spread hatred of Chicago's black population. Failing to gain much notice in this endeavour, he shifted his attention to the Jews and in 1977 applied for a permit to hold a rally in Skokie, Ill., a suburb of Chicago. Of the town's 70,000 residents, roughly 40,000 were Jewish. All were outraged by Collin's proposal, and many threatened violence. The Skokie village board tried to prevent a possible riot by acting to block the rally. There were legal struggles between the Nazis and the Skokie village board late in 1977 and early in 1978. By June the U.S. courts had ruled in favour of the Nazis on constitutional grounds, and it appeared that Collin would march in Skokie. At the final moment, however, Collin canceled a Skokie rally scheduled for June 25 because, a year after petitioning, he was granted a permit to march in Chicago's Marquette Park, far from Jewish neighbourhoods but near an area of black-white confrontation. This meeting was held on July 9 with 20 to 25 Nazis, more than 2,000 spectators and counterdemonstrators, and several hundred riot-equipped police in attendance. Collin later told many people he is "a changed man," and "not into that anymore."

Collin, Jean(-Baptiste) (b. Sept. 19, 1924, Paris, France - d. Oct. 18, 1993, Bayeux, Calvados, France), finance minister (1964-71) and interior minister (1971-81) of Senegal.

Colling, Émile (b. April 12, 1899, Clervaux, Luxembourg - d. Sept. 16, 1981, Bofferdange, Lorentzweiler municipality, Luxembourg), Luxembourg politician. He was minister of agriculture (1954-59, 1964-67), public health (1954-64), labour and social security (1959-64), and viticulture, family, population, and social solidarity (1964-67) and ambassador to the Vatican (1968-74).

Collings, Marie, née Allaire (b. 1791 - d. 1853), tenant of Jethou (1846-52) and dame of Sark (1852-53).

Collings, William Frederick (b. 1852 - d. June 20, 1927, Sark), seigneur of Sark (1882-1927); son of William Thomas Collings.

Collings, William Thomas (b. Sept. 4, 1823 - d. March 7, 1882), seigneur of Sark (1853-82); son of Marie Collings.

Collins, D(ennis) Michael (b. June 30, 1944, Toledo, Ohio - d. Feb. 6, 2015, Toledo), mayor of Toledo (2014-15).

Collins, Frederick Howard (b. Oct. 28, 1897, Bedfordshire, England - d. Aug. 24, 1988, St. Catharine's, Ont.), commissioner of Yukon Territory (1955-62).

Collins, (James) Gerard (b. Oct. 16, 1938, Abbeyfeale, County Limerick, Ireland), justice minister (1977-81, 1987-89) and foreign minister (1982, 1989-92) of Ireland. He was also minister of posts and telegraphs (1970-73).

Collins, Sir Godfrey Ferdinando Stratford (b. Nov. 3, 1888 - d. Aug. 3, 1952), acting commissioner of Sind (1935-36); knighted 1945.

Collins, John (b. June 18, 1717, Newport, Rhode Island - d. March 4, 1795, Newport), governor of Rhode Island (1786-90).

Collins, John (b. March 1, 1776, Nanticoke Hundred, Delaware - d. April 16, 1822, Wilmington, Del.), governor of Delaware (1821-22); son-in-law of David Hall.

Collins, Judith (Anne) (b. Feb. 24, 1959, Hamilton, N.Z.), justice minister (2011-14) and attorney general and defence minister (2023- ) of New Zealand. She has also been minister of police and corrections (2008-11, 2015-16), revenue, energy and resources, and ethnic affairs (2016-17), and science, innovation, technology, space, and digitizing government (2023- ) and leader of the National Party (2020-21).

L. Collins
Collins, (Thomas) LeRoy (b. March 10, 1909, Tallahassee, Fla. - d. March 12, 1991, Tallahassee), governor of Florida (1955-61); great-grandson-in-law of Richard K. Call. He was elected a representative in the Florida House of Representatives before winning office in the Florida Senate in 1940. He interrupted his political career to serve in the Navy during World War II but was reelected to the Senate in 1946 and 1950. Collins, who defeated the acting governor in 1954 for a two-year unexpired term, was elected in 1956 to another term in office. He championed racial justice at a time when the civil rights movement was at its zenith. After his 1957 inauguration, he adopted the unpopular stance of promoting racial integration in the schools. As one of the "New South" politicians, Collins modernized the state's educational and health care programs. His positions on civil rights led opponents to give him the nickname "Liberal LeRoy," and his bid for a Senate seat in 1968 was unsuccessful. In Washington, D.C., Collins was president (1961-64) of the National Association of Broadcasters, director (1964-65) of the Federal Community Relations Service, and under secretary of commerce (1965-66).

M.L. Collins
Collins, Martha Layne, née Hall (b. Dec. 7, 1936, Bagdad, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1983-87).

Collins, Martin (Anthony), chief executive officer of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (2009-15).

Michael Collins
Collins, Michael, Irish Mícheál O Coileáin (b. Oct. 16, 1890, Clonakilty, County Cork, Ireland - d. Aug. 22, 1922, Beal-na-Blath, Cork), chairman of the Irish provisional government (1922). He fought in the Easter Rising, was arrested and held in detention at Frongoch, Merioneth, but was released in December 1916. In December 1918 he was one of 27 out of 73 elected Sinn Féin members (most of whom were in jail) to be present when the Dáil Éireann (Irish Assembly) convened in Dublin and declared for the republic. Their elected president, Eamon de Valera, and vice president, Arthur Griffith, were both in prison. Hence, much responsibility fell on Collins, who became first Sinn Féin minister of home affairs and, after arranging for de Valera's escape from Lincoln jail (February 1919), finance minister. He became famous as director of intelligence of the Irish Republican Army. As chief coordinator of the revolutionary movement, he headed the list of men wanted by the British, who placed a price of £10,000 on his head. After the truce of July 1921, Griffith and Collins were sent to London by de Valera as negotiators (October-December 1921). Collins signed the treaty of Dec. 6, 1921, in the belief that it was the best that could be obtained at the time. It gave Ireland dominion status, but its provisions for partition and for an oath of allegiance to the crown were unacceptable to de Valera and other republican leaders. Collins won acceptance for the treaty in the Dáil, and a provisional government was formed with Griffith as president and Collins as chairman. Effective administration was obstructed by mutinous activities of the anti-treaty republicans. As civil war became inevitable, Collins assumed command of the army. On a tour of military inspection, he was shot to death in an ambush.

Collins, Thomas (b. 1732, England - d. March 29, 1789, near Duck Creek, Kent county, Del.), president of Delaware (1786-89).

Collomb, Francisque (b. Dec. 19, 1910, Saint-Rambert-en-Bugey, Ain, France - d. July 24, 2009), mayor of Lyon (1976-89).

Collomb, Gérard (b. June 20, 1947, Chalon-sur-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. Nov. 25, 2023, Saint-Genis-Laval, Métropole de Lyon, France), mayor of Lyon (2001-17, 2018-20), president of the Métropole de Lyon (2015-17), and interior minister of France (2017-18).

Collor de Mello, Fernando (Affonso) (b. Aug. 12, 1949, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Brazil (1990-92); son of Arnon Affonso de Farias Mello; cousin of Marco Aurélio Mendes de Farias Mello. He became mayor of Maceió, the capital of Alagoas state (1979-82), federal deputy for Alagoas (1982-86), and governor of Alagoas (1987-89). In each case he was the candidate of the right-wing Social Democratic Party, which had emerged in 1979 from the former ARENA party (the pro-government party under the military regime from 1964). He gained national prominence as governor for his investigation of "maharajas" (marajas), elite civil servants drawing exorbitant paychecks; Collor cut them from the payroll. Collor's rapid ascendancy as the leading presidential contender in a field of a dozen mostly better-established candidates came within only two months of his nomination on behalf of the small National Reconstruction Party formed in late March 1989. He was elected on Dec. 17, 1989, in the second round of the presidential poll after the first round, in mid-November, had failed to produce a clear majority for a single candidate. On March 15, 1990, he took office as Brazil's youngest president. Full of confidence, he introduced a radical plan to cut inflation, but Brazil's economic woes proved intractable. The initiation of impeachment proceedings led to his resignation in 1992, although he was acquitted of the corruption charges in 1994. In 2007 he became a senator, and in 2010 and 2022 he unsuccessfully ran again for governor of Alagoas.

Colloredo-Waldsee, Franz de Paula (Karl) Graf von (b. May 23, 1736, Vienna, Austria - d. March 10, 1806, Vienna), foreign minister of Austria (1800-05).

Collot, (Georges Henri) Victor (b. March 21, 1750, Châlons-en-Champagne [now in Marne département], France - d. May 13, 1805, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1793-94).

Collot d'Escury, Hendrik baron, (from 1809) heer van Heinenoord (b. Sept. 4, 1773, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. May 14, 1845, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the Second Chamber (1832-33, 1834-35). He was made baron in 1816.

Collure, (Darrel Chandra) Raja (b. June 3, 1938 - d. Dec. 7, 2021, Boralesgamuwa, Sri Lanka), governor of Uva (2019-20) and North Western (2020-21) provinces.

Colnet d'Huart, (Jean François Léonard) Alexandre de (b. June 6, 1821, Bertrange, Luxembourg - d. June 12, 1905, Bertrange), finance minister of Luxembourg (1866-69).

Colom (Martínez), José E(nrique) (b. Feb. 5, 1889, Ponce, Puerto Rico - d. Nov. 16, 1973), acting governor of Puerto Rico (1939).

Colom Argueta, Manuel (b. April 8, 1932, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. [assassinated] March 22, 1979, Guatemala City), Guatemalan politician. He was mayor of Guatemala City (1970-74) and a leading opposition figure.

Á. Colom
Colom Caballeros, Álvaro (b. June 15, 1951, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. Jan. 23, 2023, Guatemala City), president of Guatemala (2008-12); nephew of Manuel Colom Argueta. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1999 and 2003. In 2018 he was arrested on corruption charges. When he died, he was under preventative home arrest still awaiting a trial.

Coloma Gallegos (y Pérez), Francisco (de Paula) (b. April 26, 1912, Muros de Nalón, Asturias, Spain - d. Sept. 28, 1993, Sevilla, Spain), army minister of Spain (1973-75). He was also captain-general of Catalonia (1976-78).

Colomb, Joseph Vincent Christophe (b. Jan. 7, 1814, Toulon, France - d. 1887), commandant-superior of Mayotte (1864-68, 1869-71).

Colombani, Antoine (Padouan) (b. Feb. 25, 1919, Belgodère, Corse [now in Haute-Corse], France - d. Nov. 5, 2007, Paris, France), high commissioner of the Comoros (1966-69). He was also French ambassador to Papua New Guinea (1980-83).

Colombani, Ignace (Jean Aristide) (b. Aug. 18, 1908, Montreal, Canada - d. Aug. 19, 1988, Bastia, Haute-Corse, France), governor of Oubangui-Chari (1950-51) and Chad (1951-56).

Colombani, (Don) Jean (b. Feb. 16, 1903, Isolaccio-di-Fiumorbo, Corse [now in Haute-Corse], France - d. Nov. 21, 1977, Paris, France), governor of Senegal (1955-57) and high commissioner of Niger (1958-60).

Colombet, Jean-François (b. Aug. 14, 1960, Saint-Étienne, Loire, France), prefect of Mayotte (2019-21). In 2021 he became prefect of the French département of Doubs.

Colombi, Arturo (Alejandro) (b. Jan. 6, 1958, Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina), governor of Corrientes (2005-09); cousin of Ricardo Colombi.

Colombi, (Horacio) Ricardo (b. Aug. 30, 1957, Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina), governor of Corrientes (2001-05, 2009-17).


C. Colombo

E. Colombo
Colombini, Enzo (b. June 10, 1958, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1985, 2000-01).

Colombo, Chrystian (Gabriel) (b. Nov. 11, 1952, Zapala, Neuquén, Argentina), cabinet chief of Argentina (2000-01).

Colombo, Emilio (b. April 14, 1920, Potenza, Basilicata, Italy - d. June 24, 2013, Rome, Italy), prime minister (1970-72), finance minister (1973-74, 1988-89), and foreign minister (1980-83, 1992-93) of Italy and president of the European Parliament (1977-79). He was also minister of agriculture (1955-58), foreign trade (1958-59), industry and commerce (1959-63), treasury (1963-70, 1972, 1974-76), budget and economic planning (1968, 1987-88), and justice (1971-72).

Colombo, Giuseppe (b. Dec. 18, 1836, Milan, Austria [now in Italy] - d. Jan. 16, 1921, Milan), finance minister (1891-92) and treasury minister (1896) of Italy. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1899-1900).

Colombo, João Raimundo (b. Feb. 28, 1953, Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (2011-18). He was also mayor of Lages (1989-93, 2001-06).

Colombo, Vittorino (b. April 3, 1925, Albiate, Milano province [now in Monza e Brianza province], Italy - d. June 1, 1996, Milan, Italy), Italian politician. He was minister of foreign trade (1968-69), merchant marine (1969-70, 1978-79), health (1974), posts and telecommunications (1976-78, 1979-80), and transport (1978-79).

Colomé Ibarra, Abelardo (b. Sept. 13, 1939, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba), interior minister (1989-2015) and a vice president of the Council of State (1993-2015) of Cuba.

C. Colonna
Colonna, Catherine (b. April 16, 1956, Tours, France), foreign minister of France (2022-24). She was also ambassador to Italy (2014-17) and the United Kingdom (2019-22).

Colonna (di Paliano), Guido (b. April 16, 1908, Naples, Italy - d. Jan. 27, 1982), Italian politician. He was ambassador to Norway (1958-62) and European commissioner for the internal market (1964-67) and industrial affairs (1967-70).

Colosio (Murrieta), Luis Donaldo (b. Feb. 10, 1950, Magdalena de Kino, Sonora, Mexico - d. March 23, 1994, Tijuana, Mexico), Mexican politician. He joined the governing Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1972. He became a protégé of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, and in 1979 he joined the Secretariat of Budget and Planning under his mentor. Colosio was elected to Congress in 1985 and in 1987 became a member of the PRI's national executive committee before winning election to the Senate in 1988. That same year he became Salinas' presidential campaign manager when the latter was named the PRI's candidate by Pres. Miguel de la Madrid. Colosio's political reputation was tarnished when Salinas emerged victorious by a narrow margin only after a suspicious malfunction of the PRI-controlled Federal Electoral Commission's computer. When he was named head of the party, however, Colosio pledged to spearhead electoral reform and attempted to distance himself from the authoritarian rule of the PRI, in power since 1929. In 1992 Colosio headed the newly created Social Development Secretariat (Sedesol), a program designed to address poverty. His promises of social reform, however, did not prevent the January 1994 uprising in the state of Chiapas, one of the chief beneficiaries of Sedesol. He was designated (Nov. 28, 1993) by Salinas as his handpicked successor, making him the PRI candidate and the odds-on favourite to win the August 1994 elections. While campaigning as a man of the people and one dedicated to democracy, Colosio appeared without the protection of bodyguards. As a result, he proved an easy target for the assassin who gunned him down at a campaign rally.


Colotka, Peter (b. Jan. 10, 1925, Sedliacka Dubová village, Dolný Kubín district, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia] - d. April 21, 2019), prime minister of the Slovak Socialist Republic (1969-88). He was also a deputy premier (1968, 1969-88) and chairman of the Federal Assembly (1969) of Czechoslovakia.

Colquhoun, Archibald Ross (b. March 1848, at sea off Cape of Good Hope - d. Dec. 18, 1914, London, England), administrator of Mashonaland (1890-91).

Colquitt, Alfred H(olt) (b. April 20, 1824, Walton county, Ga. - d. March 26, 1894, Washington, D.C.), governor of Georgia (1877-82). He was also a U.S. senator from Georgia (1883-94).

Colquitt, Oscar B(ranch) (b. Dec. 16, 1861, Camilla, Ga. - d. March 8, 1940, Dallas, Texas), governor of Texas (1911-15).

Colrat, Adolphe (b. April 25, 1955, Lyon, France), high commissioner of French Polynesia (2008-11). He was also prefect of the départements of Ardennes (2004-06), Meurthe-et-Moselle (2011), Manche (2011-13), and Alpes-Maritimes (2013-16).

Colrat (de Montrozier), Maurice (Jean Charles) (b. Sept. 29, 1871, Sarrazac, Lot, France - d. March 5, 1954, Paris, France), justice minister of France (1922-24, 1926).

Colson, Louis (Antoine) (b. Oct. 27, 1875, Toul, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France - d. March 7, 1951, Paris, France), war minister of France (1940).

Colunje, Gil (b. Sept. 1, 1831, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. Jan. 6, 1899, Tabio, Colombia), president of Panamá (1865-66) and foreign minister of Colombia (1872-74).

Colvile, Sir Henry Edward (b. July 10, 1852, Kirkby Mallory, Leicestershire, England - d. [motorcycle accident] Nov. 24, 1907, Frimley, Surrey, England), acting commissioner of Uganda (1893-95); knighted 1895.

Colvin, Sir Auckland (b. March 8, 1838, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India - d. March 24, 1908, Surbiton, Surrey, England), lieutenant governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh (1887-92); knighted 1881; son of John Russell Colvin.

Colvin, Sir Elliot Graham (b. July 18, 1861 - d. Aug. 2, 1940), British resident in Jammu and Kashmir (1903-05) and chief commissioner of Ajmer-Merwara (1905-18); knighted 1911.

Colvin, John Russell (b. May 29, 1807, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India - d. Sept. 9, 1857, Agra, India), British resident in Nepal (1845-46), commissioner of Tenasserim (1846-49), and lieutenant governor of the North-Western Provinces (1853-57).

Colyer, Jeff(rey William) (b. June 3, 1960, Hays, Kan.), governor of Kansas (2018-19).

Coman, Ion (b. March 25, 1926, Bujoreni, Teleorman county, Romania), defense minister of Romania (1976-80). He was also chief of the General Staff (1974-76).

Coman, Teodor (b. Sept. 24, 1928, Izvorul de Jos, Arges county, Romania - d. 1996, Bucharest, Romania), interior minister of Romania (1975-78). He was also ambassador to Jordan (1986-89).

Comanescu, Lazar (b. June 4, 1949, Horezu, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (2008, 2015-17). He was also permanent representative to NATO (1998-2001) and EU (2007-08) and ambassador to Germany (2009-14).

Comay, Michael (Saul) (b. Oct. 17, 1908, Cape Town, South Africa - d. Nov. 6, 1987, Jerusalem), Israeli diplomat. He was ambassador to Canada (1953-57) and the United Kingdom (1970-73) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1960-67).

Combes, (Justin Louis) Émile (b. Sept. 6, 1835, Roquecourbe, Tarn, France - d. May 24, 1921, Pons, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France), prime minister of France (1902-05). He was also minister of public instruction and fine arts (1895-96), worship (1895-96, 1902-05), and interior (1902-05), minister of state (1915-16), and president of the Radical Party (1905-06, 1910-13).

Comboni Salinas, Javier, finance minister of Bolivia (2002-03).

Combs, Bert(ram) T(homas) (b. Aug. 13, 1911, Manchester, Ky. - d. [in flood] Dec. 3/4, 1991, near Rosslyn, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1959-63).

Comegys, Cornelius P(arsons) (b. Jan. 15, 1780, Kent county, Md. - d. Jan. 27, 1851, Dover, Del.), governor of Delaware (1837-41).

Comer, Braxton B(ragg) (b. Nov. 7, 1848, Spring Hill, Barbour county, Ala. - d. Aug. 15, 1927, Birmingham, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1907-11). He was also a U.S. senator from Alabama (1920).

Commoner, Barry (b. May 28, 1917, Brooklyn, New York City - d. Sept. 30, 2012, New York City), U.S. politician. Known as an environmental activist, he was the presidential candidate of the Citizens Party in 1980 (winning 0.3% of the vote).

Compagnet, Maurice (Élie) (b. Feb. 9, 1906, Génos, Hautes-Pyrénées, France - d. March 16, 1971, Nouakchott, Mauritania), finance minister of Mauritania (1957-61).

Compain, Jacques (Marie Julien) (b. May 7, 1912, Paris, France - d. Feb. 11, 1984, Bordeaux, France), governor of French Somaliland (1958-62).

Companys i Jover, Lluís (b. June 21, 1882, El Tarròs [now part of Tornabous municipality], Lleida province, Spain - d. [executed] Oct. 15, 1940, Barcelona, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (1934, 1936-40 [from 1939 in exile]).

Compaoré, Blaise (b. Feb. 3, 1951, Ouagadougou, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), president of Burkina Faso (1987-2014). A member of the Mossi, one of the dominant ethnic groups of Burkina Faso, Compaoré from 1977 to 1981 served as head of section and later company commander in the paracommando regiment based at Dedougou. A brief period in charge of the national commando training centre at Po was interrupted when he was reposted in April 1982 to Bobo Dioulasso, in the far western part of the country. Within a month, however, he was deeply embroiled in national politics, resigning from the national armed forces council when Thomas Sankara, then secretary of state for information, left the government of Saye Zerbo. A year later, when another power struggle saw Sankara put in prison, Compaoré returned to Po and, with Ghanaian and Libyan help, organized the coup that was to install Sankara as head of state in August 1983. Compaoré became minister of state to the presidency (from 1984 in charge of justice). Personally quiet and self-effacing, he at first seemed content to leave the public business of politics to the more charismatic Sankara and the other two of the "four musketeers," Commandant Jean-Baptiste Lingani and Capt. Henri Zongo, both of whom backed his seizure of power on Oct. 15, 1987. Sankara perished during the takeover. The coup was apparently precipitated by disagreements over security and other strategic issues, although Compaoré professed not to have planned it in advance and to have been devastated by the death of his friend. The coup was quietly welcomed by conservative governments in the region, which had sometimes found Sankara's quirky revolution difficult to live with. However, Compaoré faced a difficult task in overcoming his reputation as the murderer of Sankara, who had attracted a considerable following throughout West Africa. After an alleged coup attempt in September 1989, the two remaining key figures from the Sankara regime were executed. He was elected president in 1991, 1998, 2005, and 2010. In 2007-08 he was chairman of the Economic Community of West African States. Popular protests in 2014 led to a military coup that forced his resignation. He then fled to Côte d'Ivoire. Tried in absentia for his role in the killing of Sankara, he was sentenced to life imprisonment in 2022.

Comparini, Anne-Marie (b. July 11, 1947, Orange, Vaucluse, France), president of the Regional Council of Rhône-Alpes (1999-2004).

J. Compton
Compton, Sir John (George Melvin) (b. April 29, 1925, Canouan island, Saint Vincent - d. Sept. 7, 2007, Castries, Saint Lucia), prime minister of Saint Lucia (1979, 1982-96, 2006-07). He was head of St. Lucia's government from 1964, first as chief minister and later, after St. Lucia achieved statehood in association with the U.K. in 1967, as premier. He became the first prime minister of independent St. Lucia in February 1979, but held office for only a little over four months, for in a general election on July 2 the United Workers' Party (UWP) under his leadership was heavily defeated by the St. Lucia Labour Party led by Allan Louisy. But two years later the administration was defeated on a budget measure, and Louisy resigned; Winston Cenac formed a new Labour administration. In January 1982 a bill was introduced in parliament that, in the eyes of the opposition, appeared to condone corrupt practices. Under pressure from both the private and public sectors, the government fell. In the general elections on May 3, 1982, the UWP won 14 of the 17 seats. Although Compton's return to power was hailed in the U.S. and elsewhere as a victory for Western-oriented democracy, it was probably more a tribute to the quiet but strong leadership exerted by Compton. For while Compton's politics were in Caribbean terms slightly to the right of centre, his party's landslide victory owed more to the planning and organization he had undertaken during his 2½ years in opposition. During that time St. Lucia had experienced severe economic decline. Compton concentrated on restoring close links with the U.S., the U.K., Canada, Venezuela, and like-minded regional governments. He was also foreign minister (1979, 1982-87), finance minister (1982-92), and home affairs minister (1987-92). He retired from politics in 1996, but returned in 2005 when he was again elected UWP leader; when the party won the 2006 election, he once again became prime minister. He was knighted in 1997.

P. Compton

Compton, Petrus, foreign minister of Saint Lucia (2004-06). He was also attorney general (2000-04).

Comstock, William A(lfred) (b. July 2, 1877, Alpena, Mich. - d. June 16, 1949, Alpena), governor of Michigan (1933-35).

Comtesse, (Hugo) Robert (b. Aug. 14, 1847, Valangin, Neuchâtel, Switzerland - d. Nov. 17, 1922, La Tour-de-Peilz, Vaud, Switzerland), finance minister (1900, 1903, 1905-09, 1911), justice and police minister (1901), posts and railways minister (1902, 1912), and president (1904, 1910) of Switzerland. He was also president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (1880-81, 1883-84, 1885-86, 1889-90, 1893-94, 1898-99).

Comtois, (Jean) Paul (François) (b. Aug. 22, 1895, Pierreville, Que. - d. [in fire] Feb. 21, 1966, Sillery [now part of Québec], Que.), lieutenant governor of Quebec (1961-66).

Conable, Barber B(enjamin), Jr. (b. Nov. 2, 1922, Warsaw, N.Y. - d. Nov. 30, 2003, Sarasota, Fla.), president of the World Bank (1986-91). A U.S. congressman representing a largely rural section of western New York from 1965 to 1985, he rose to be the senior Republican on the powerful tax-writing House Ways and Means Committee while his party was in the minority. Among the high points of his years in Congress were forcing through the revenue sharing law in 1972 and the Trade Reform Act of 1974, which cleared the way for U.S. negotiations on the lowering of tariff barriers. There were bitter disappointments, none greater than the betrayal he felt during Watergate after years of loyally backing Pres. Richard Nixon's policies. He later refused to answer Nixon's letters or even attend his funeral. The scenario was repeated during his presidency at the World Bank, although he almost doubled its capital budget and sharpened its focus on combating poverty and bolstering primary education. His friendship with Pres. George Bush, dating back to their service together in Congress in the 1960s, turned sour after Bush ascended to the presidency in 1989. Conable announced in early 1991 that he would not seek a second five-year term on the World Bank. "He thought I should be supporting an American agenda; I thought I was there to help the poor people," Conable said in a 1998 interview.

Conant, James B(ryant) (b. March 26, 1893, Boston, Mass. - d. Feb. 11, 1978, Hanover, N.H.), U.S. high commissioner of Germany (1953-55). He was also president of Harvard University (1933-53) and ambassador to West Germany (1955-57).

Concepción Jaramillo, Markova (b. April 25, 1973, David, Chiriquí, Panama), Panamanian politician. She has been minister of social development (2019-20) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2020- ).

Concha (Cárdenas), Carlos (b. Nov. 27, 1888, Callao, Peru - d. Dec. 17, 1944, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (1934-36, 1937-39). He was also minister to Bolivia (1931-34) and ambassador to Brazil (1936) and Chile (1937).

Concha (Berguecio), Francisco Javier (b. Dec. 6, 1848, Santiago, Chile - d. March 9, 1915, Santiago), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1891, 1903-04). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1902-03).

Concha (Ferreira), José Vicente (b. April 21, 1867, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Dec. 8, 1929, Rome, Italy), war minister (1901-02), president (1914-18), and foreign minister (1921) of Colombia. He was also minister to the United States (1902) and the Vatican (1919-29). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in the Constituent Assembly of 1910.

Concha (García-Mauriño), Mae de la, byname of María Asunción Jacoba Pía de la Concha García-Mauriño (b. July 25, 1954, Gijón, Spain), acting president of the government of Baleares (2023).

Concha Castañeda, Juan de la (b. Aug. 29, 1818, Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain - d. Aug. 30, 1903, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1891-92). He was also governor of the Bank of Spain (1900-01).

Concha Subercaseaux, Carlos (Santiago) (b. Sept. 17, 1863, Santiago, Chile - d. March 11, 1917, Viña del Mar, Chile), war and marine minister of Chile (1898-99, 1899); son of Melchor Concha y Toro. He was also minister to Argentina (1900-03) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1905).

Concha Subercaseaux, Juan Enrique (b. May 12, 1876, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 1, 1931, Santiago), Chilean politician; son of Melchor Concha y Toro; brother of Carlos Concha Subercaseaux. He was mayor of Santiago (1903-04).

Concha y Cerda, Melchor de Santiago (b. March 17, 1799, Santiago, Chile - d. May 26, 1883, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1826-27).

Concha y Toro, Melchor (de Santiago) (b. Oct. 10, 1833, Santiago, Chile - d. June 21, 1892, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1869-70); son of Melchor de Santiago Concha y Cerda; grandson-in-law of Francisco Ramón de Vicuña; great-grandson of Mateo de Toro Zambrano y Ureta.

Condat, Georges Mahaman (b. June 16 or Oct. 23, 1924, Maradi, Niger - d. Oct. 25, 2012, Niamey, Niger), Nigerien diplomat. He was ambassador to West Germany and Benelux countries (1962-64) and permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States and Canada (1970-72).

A. Condé

M. Condé
Condé, Alpha (b. March 4, 1938, Boké, French Guinea [now Guinea]), president of Guinea (2010-21). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1993 and 1998. In 2017-18 he was chairman of the African Union.

Conde, Francisco d'Oliveira (b. 1880? - d. Sept. 11, 1962, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil), governor of Acre (1922-23, 1954-55).

Condé, Mamady (b. Nov. 28, 1952, Siguiri, French Guinea [now Guinea]), foreign minister of Guinea (2004-05, 2006-07). He was also ambassador to Algeria (1988-96), China (1996-2000), Italy (2013-14), and the United States (2014-18) and minister of communication (2000-04).

Conde (Orellana), Manuel (Eduardo) (b. Dec. 20, 1956), Guatemalan presidential candidate (2023).

Condeescu, Nicolae (b. Feb. 17, 1876, Cosereni, Ialomita county, Romania - d. July 11, 1936, Urlati, Prahova county, Romania), war minister of Romania (1930-31).

Condell, Claude Forlong (b. Oct. 1, 1865, England - d. May 25, 1945), acting governor of the Falkland Islands (1915) and commissioner of Montserrat (1918-22).

Condor, Sam (Terence) (b. 1949, Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis), deputy prime minister (1995-2013) and foreign minister (2000-01, 2010-13) of Saint Kitts and Nevis. He was also minister of CARICOM affairs, youth, sports, and community affairs (1995-2000), international trade, CARICOM affairs, community and social development, and gender affairs (2000-01), labour, social security, CARICOM affairs, telecommunications, and technology (2001-04), education, youth, social and community development, and gender affairs (2004-08), education, youth, labour, social security, information, and technology (2008-10), national security, labour, social security, and immigration (2010-11), and homeland security, labour, and social security (2011-13) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2015-20).

Cone, Frederick P(reston) (b. Sept. 28, 1871, Benton, Columbia county, Fla. - d. July 28, 1948, Lake City, Fla.), governor of Florida (1937-41).

Confesor, Tomas (Valenzuela) (b. March 2, 1891, Cabatuan, Iloilo, Philippines - d. June 6, 1951, Manila, Philippines), interior secretary of the Philippines (1945). He was also governor of Iloilo (1938-41) and Panay and Romblon (1942-45).

Conflans, Hubert de Brienne, comte de (b. 1690 - d. Jan. 27, 1777, Paris, France), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1748-51).

Conforti, Raffaele (b. Oct. 4, 1804, Calvanico, Kingdom of Naples [Italy] - d. Aug. 3, 1880, Caserta, Italy), interior minister of the Two Sicilies (1848, 1860) and justice minister of Italy (1862, 1878).

Congacou, Tahirou (b. 1911, Djougou, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. June 15, 1993, Cotonou, Benin), president of the National Assembly (1964-65) and acting president and acting foreign, defense, interior, and justice minister (1965) of Dahomey.

Congdon, Frederick Tennyson (b. Nov. 16, 1858, Annapolis, Nova Scotia - d. March 13, 1932, Ottawa, Ont.), commissioner of Yukon Territory (1903-04).

Congleton, Henry Brooke Parnell, (1st) Baron (b. July 3, 1776 - d. [suicide] June 8, 1842, Chelsea, Middlesex [now part of London], England), British secretary at war (1831-32). He was also paymaster general (1835-41). He succeeded as (4th) Baronet in 1812 and was created baron in 1841.

Congonhas do Campo, Lucas Antonio Monteiro de Barros, barão e visconde de (b. Oct. 13, 1767, Congonhas do Campo, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Oct. 10, 1851, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of São Paulo (1824-27); brother of Romualdo José Monteiro de Barros, barão de Paraopeba. He was also president of the Supreme Court of Justice of Brazil (1832-42). He was made baron in 1825 and viscount in 1826.

Congreve, Sir Walter Norris (b. Nov. 20, 1862, Chatham, Kent, England - d. Feb. 28, 1927, Mtarfa, Malta), governor of Malta (1924-27); knighted 1917.

Coniglio, Francesco (b. Oct. 11, 1916, Catania, Italy - d. Sept. 24, 1993, Catania), president of Sicilia (1964-67).

Conille, Garry (b. Feb. 26, 1966, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), prime minister (2011-12, 2024- ) and interior minister (2024- ) of Haiti. He was also United Nations resident coordinator in Burundi (2017-20) and Jamaica (2020-22).

Coninck, Patrice Charles Ghislain ridder de (b. Nov. 19, 1770, Brugge, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. May 22, 1827, Brugge), interior minister (1817-25) and foreign minister (1825) of the Netherlands. He was also prefect of the French départements of Ain (1802-05), Jemappes (1805-10), Bouches-de-l'Escaut (1810-11), and Bouches-de-l'Elbe (1811-13), governor of East Flanders (1815-17), and minister of water management (1820-25), public works (1820-24), and education (1824-25). He became a French baron in 1810 and ridder (knight) in 1816.

Conley, Benjamin (b. March 1, 1815, Newark, N.J. - d. Jan. 10, 1886, Atlanta, Ga.), acting governor of Georgia (1871-72).

Conley, William G(ustavus) (b. Jan. 8, 1866, near Kingwood, W.Va. - d. Oct. 21, 1940, Charleston, W.Va.), governor of West Virginia (1929-33).

Conn, Neil Raymond (b. Aug. 17, 1936, Sydney, N.S.W.), administrator of the Northern Territory (1997-2000).

Connally, John B(owden, Jr.) (b. Feb. 27, 1917, Floresville, Texas - d. June 15, 1993, Houston, Texas), governor of Texas (1963-69). He became an aide to Lyndon B. Johnson, when the latter was a freshman Democratic representative. Connally served in the navy during World War II but returned to the political arena to manage Johnson's brutal but successful Senate campaign in 1948. He put aside party loyalty to help Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican candidate, win the presidency in 1952 but returned to the Democratic fold to manage Johnson's ill-fated attempt to wrest the presidential nomination from John F. Kennedy; he stayed with the ticket, however, when Kennedy named Johnson as his running mate. Though appointed secretary of the navy (1961), he soon resigned to run for governor of Texas. It was during his first term in office that Connally was shot and seriously wounded while riding in the front seat of the presidential limousine in Dallas, Texas, when Kennedy was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963. He was returned to office for two more terms. As secretary of the treasury (1971) under Pres. Richard M. Nixon, Connally took the U.S. off the gold standard and imposed wage and price controls. In 1973, shortly after Johnson died, Connally officially became a Republican. Though indicted by a Watergate grand jury in 1974 for accepting a $10,000 bribe from milk producers, he was acquitted. In 1980 Connally made an unsuccessful bid in the Republican presidential primaries. After spending more than $11 million, he had secured only one delegate.

Connaught and Strathearn, (Prince) Arthur William Patrick Albert (from 1917:) Windsor, (1st) Duke of, (1st) Earl of Essex (b. May 1, 1850, Buckingham Palace, London, England - d. Jan. 16, 1942, Bagshot Park, Surrey, England), governor general of Canada (1911-16). The third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Consort Albert, he was knighted in 1867 and created Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Essex in 1874. He entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, in 1866 and did well in the army, becoming full general in 1893 and field marshal in 1902. He served in Egypt in 1882, commanding the 1st Guards Brigade at Tel el Kebir. He then went to India and held the Bombay command from 1886 to 1890. Returning to England, the duke held various military appointments, notably commander in chief in Ireland (1900-04), inspector general to the forces (1904-07), and commander in chief in the Mediterranean (1907-09). As governor general of Canada (1911-16) he aroused controversy by attempting to intervene in Canadian military affairs. Thereafter he presided over various state functions over the years and finally withdrew from public life in 1928.

Connelly, Brian Norman (b. Dec. 25, 1941), administrator of Ascension (1991-95). He was also British high commissioner to the Solomon Islands (1996-98) and Tonga (1999-2001).

Connelly, Henry (b. 1800, Nelson [now Spencer] county, Ky. - d. Aug. 12, 1866, Santa Fe, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1861-66).

Connemara, Robert Bourke, (1st) Baron (b. June 11, 1827, Hayes, County Meath, Ireland - d. Sept. 3, 1902, London, England), governor of Madras (1886-90); brother of Richard Southwell Bourke, Earl of Mayo; son-in-law of James Andrew Broun Ramsay, Marquess and Earl of Dalhousie. He was created baron in 1887.

Conner, Chuck, byname of Charles F. Conner (b. Dec. 30, 1957, Lafayette, Ind.), acting U.S. secretary of agriculture (2007-08).

Conner, Martin Sennett (b. Aug. 31, 1891, Hattiesburg, Miss. - d. Sept. 16, 1950, Jackson, Miss.), governor of Mississippi (1932-36).

Connolly, Phillip G(eorge) (b. Nov. 14, 1899, Dunedin, New Zealand - d. Feb. 13, 1970), defence and police minister of New Zealand (1957-60).

Connor, John T(homas), byname Jack Connor (b. Nov. 3, 1914, Syracuse, N.Y. - d. Oct. 6, 2000, Boston, Mass.), U.S. secretary of commerce (1965-67). In 1942 he became general counsel for the Office of Scientific Research and Development under Vannevar Bush. His duties included setting up a program to research and produce penicillin. During World War II, he served in the Pacific as an air combat intelligence officer with the Marines. When he returned, he joined the pharmaceutical company Merck in 1947 and became president and chief executive officer in 1955. He served as secretary of commerce from 1965 to 1967, before stepping down to become president and then chairman of Allied Chemical Corp., which later became Allied Signal. During Connor's two years as secretary, several of the department's agencies were spun off into the newly formed Department of Transportation. He left the administration in large part because of a difficult working relationship with Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson. Connor also had begun to oppose the administration's policies in Vietnam. In the 1970s, Connor was a leader of the Committee of Business Executives against the Vietnam War. He served as president and then chairman and CEO of Allied Chemical from 1967 to 1979.

Connor, Seldon (b. Jan. 25, 1839, Fairfield, Maine - d. July 9, 1917, Augusta, Maine), governor of Maine (1876-79).

Conombo, Joseph (Issoufou) (b. Feb. 9, 1917, Kombissiri, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. Dec. 20, 2008, in plane en route from Paris, France, to Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso), foreign minister (1971-74) and prime minister (1978-80) of Upper Volta. He was also mayor of Ouagadougou (1961-65) and director-general for public health (1966-68).

Conrad, Charles M(agill) (b. Dec. 24, 1804, Winchester, Va. - d. Feb. 11, 1878, New Orleans, La.), U.S. secretary of war (1850-53) and acting secretary of state (1852).

Conradi, Gustaf Wilhelm (b. Sept. 3, 1761, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 14, 1846, Gärknäs, Nyland, Finland), governor of Halland (1810-12).

Conradie, David Gideon (b. Aug. 24, 1879, Ceres, Cape Colony [now in Western Cape, South Africa] - d. Sept. 29, 1966, Pretoria, South Africa), administrator of South West Africa (1933-43).

Consalvi (Bottaro), Simón Alberto (b. July 7, 1927, Tovar, Mérida state, Venezuela - d. March 11, 2013, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1977-79, 1985-88). He was also ambassador to Yugoslavia (1961-64), permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-77), interior and justice minister (1988-89), and ambassador to the United States (1989-94).

Conso, Giovanni (Battista) (b. March 23, 1922, Turin, Italy - d. Aug. 2/3, 2015, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1993-94). He was also president of the Constitutional Court (1990-91).

Constans, (Jean Antoine) Ernest (b. May 3, 1833, Béziers, Hérault, France - d. April 7, 1913, Paris, France), interior minister of France (1880-81, 1889-90, 1890-92) and governor-general of French Indochina and lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1887-88). He was also ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1898-1909).

D. Constantin
Constantin, Daniel (Auguste) (b. Sept. 8, 1940, Thonon-les-Bains, Haute-Savoie, France), prefect of Réunion (1989-91) and high commissioner of New Caledonia (2002-05). He was also prefect of Cantal (1986-87), Drôme (1987-89), Sarthe (1991-94), Doubs (1997-98), and Hérault (1998-2002).

Constantin, Nicolae (b. May 28, 1925, Ploiesti, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1979-82, 1984-87). He was also first secretary of the party committee and chairman of the executive committee of Galati county (1977-78), chairman of the State Planning Committee (1979-81), and minister of external trade and international economic cooperation (1982).

Constantine, Sir George Baxandall (b. June 22, 1902 - d. Sept. 8, 1969), acting governor of Sind (1953); knighted 1954.

Constantine, Thomas A. (b. Dec. 23, 1938, Buffalo, N.Y. - d. May 3, 2015, Pinehurst, N.C.), director of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (1994-99).

Constantinescu, Alexandru C., byname Alecu Constantinescu (b. Sept. 4, 1859, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. Nov. 18, 1926, Bucharest), interior minister of Romania (1916-18). He was also minister of agriculture and domains (1909-10, 1914-16, 1918 [acting], 1922-26) and industry and commerce (1918-19).

E. Constantinescu
Constantinescu, Emil (Ion) (b. Nov. 19, 1939, Tighina, Romania [now in Moldova]), president of Romania (1996-2000). He was a low-ranking member of the Communist Party during its period of rule. After the 1989 revolution, he became actively involved in politics by joining the National Salvation Front. He unsuccessfully challenged Ion Iliescu for the presidency in 1992, but led the centre-right Democratic Convention of Romania coalition to victory in the parliamentary and presidential elections in November 1996, defeating Iliescu in a runoff. It was the country's first peaceful transition of power since 1937. The declared priorities of his new administration were to tackle corruption, increase the pace of privatization, and improve relations with neighbouring Hungary. He abandoned his earlier campaign to punish former Communists, but he did remove them from numerous state and cultural institutions. Furthermore, he pushed hard for Romania's entry into both the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. But, more than anything else, he ordered a crackdown on widespread corruption. However, after four years, the president was dissatisfied by the slow rate of economic growth (especially compared to other newly democratic countries in Eastern Europe) and his inability to end graft. In July 2000 he announced his intention not to seek a second term in office. In November, Iliescu was swept back into power.

Constantinescu, Ion (b. April 14, 1930, Bucharest, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1987-88). He was also ambassador to Italy (1983-84) and Malta (1983-85).

Constantinescu, Miron (b. Dec. 13, 1917, Kishinev, Russia [now Chisinau, Moldova] - d. July 18, 1974, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. He was minister of mines and petroleum industry (1948-49) and education (1956-57, 1969-70), chairman of the State Planning Committee (1949-55), a deputy premier (1954-55, 1957), a first deputy premier (1955-57), and president of the Grand National Assembly (1974).

Conté, Alassane, Guinean diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2022-23).

Conte, Giuseppe (b. Aug. 8, 1964, Volturara Appula, Foggia province, Puglia, Italy), prime minister of Italy (2018-21). In 2021 he became leader of the Five Star Movement.

L. Conté
Conté, Lansana (b. 1934, Moussayah village, Dubreka prefecture, Guinea - d. Dec. 22, 2008), president of Guinea (1984-2008). A member of the Soussou (Susu) ethnic group and a Muslim, in 1955 he enlisted in the French army and in 1957 was posted to Algeria during the war of independence. Elected a deputy in 1980, he took part that year in the ruling Democratic Party of Guinea's official pilgrimage to Mecca. In 1984, shortly after the death of Pres. Ahmed Sékou Touré, Colonel Conté assumed power as head of the Military Committee for National Redress (CMRN). In July 1985, Col. Diarra Traoré, a co-leader of Conté's coup but whom Conté had removed from the post of prime minister, attempted to seize power while the president was attending a West African summit in Togo. Troops loyal to Conté swiftly regained control, close to 100 senior military and police officers of the Malinke tribe were summarily executed, and property belonging to Malinkes was looted or destroyed by Soussou hoodlums. On his return from Lomé, Conté pronounced the phrase "wo fatara" meaning "well done" in the Soussou language. Conté legalized political parties in 1992 in response to pressure from the opposition and unrest in the army and civil service but it released a flood of tribal rivalries. He won a turbulent and chaotic multiparty presidential election in 1993 with 51.7% of the vote. The country remained relatively calm until a Feb. 2, 1996, army pay dispute turned into a coup attempt. Conté narrowly escaped death when mutinous troops blasted his presidential palace with shellfire as he huddled in the basement. But unlike in most other African states, the trial of accused coup perpetrators was open and none was sentenced to death. By early 2003 he had been largely incapacitated by various health problems.

Conté, Seydou (b. 1925), justice minister of Guinea (1967-68). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1959-61) and the United States (1961-63) and education minister (1963-67).

Conteh, Abdulai (Osman) (b. Aug. 5, 1945, Pepel, Northern province, Sierra Leone), foreign minister (1977-84), finance minister (1984-85), attorney general and justice minister (1987-91), and first vice president and minister of rural development and internal affairs (1991-92) of Sierra Leone. In 2000-10 he was chief justice of Belize.

Contendas, Antonio Epaminondas de Barros Correia, barão de (b. 1839, Altinho, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. April 13, 1905, Amaraji, Pernambuco), acting president (1881-82, 1882, 1883) and acting governor (1891-92) of Pernambuco. He was made baron in 1889.

M. Conti
Conti, Marco (b. April 14, 1969, Rimini, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (2010).

Conti, Pietro (b. Sept. 8, 1928, Spoleto, Umbria, Italy - d. Sept. 7, 1988, Perugia, Umbria), president of Umbria (1970-76).

Conto (Ferrer), César (b. Jan. 18, 1836, Neguá, Quibdó municipality, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. June 30, 1891, Guatemala City, Guatemala), war and navy minister of Colombia (1871 and [acting] 1872) and president of Cauca (1875-77). He was also treasury minister (1871-72).

Contreras (Miranda), Alex (Alonso) (b. Feb. 10, 1982), economy and finance minister of Peru (2022-24).

Converse, Julius (b. Dec. 17, 1798, Stafford, Conn. - d. Aug. 16, 1885, Dixville Notch, N.H.), governor of Vermont (1872-74).

Convertino, Cosimo (b. Aug. 6, 1952, Brindisi, Italy), president of Puglia (1992).

Conway, Elias N(elson) (b. May 17, 1812, near Greenville, Tenn. - d. Feb. 28, 1892, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1852-60); brother of James S. Conway.

Conway, James S(evier) (b. Dec. 9, 1798, Greene county, Tenn. - d. March 3, 1855, Walnut Hills, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1836-40).

Cony, Samuel (b. Feb. 27, 1811, Augusta, Mass. [now in Maine] - d. Oct. 5, 1870, Augusta), governor of Maine (1864-67).

Cood (Ross), Enrique (b. 1826, Valparaíso, Chile - d. Feb. 27, 1888, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1875).

Coode, Edward James (b. July 25, 1918, Stroud, Gloucestershire, England - d. Jan. 15, 2008), British consul in Tonga (1959-65).

Cook, John (b. 1730, Kent county, Delaware - d. late 1789), acting president of Delaware (1783).

J. Cook
Cook, Sir Joseph (b. Dec. 7, 1860, Silverdale, Staffordshire, England - d. July 30, 1947, Sydney, N.S.W.), prime minister of Australia (1913-14). In 1885 he emigrated to New South Wales. His power of ready speech and force of character brought him soon to the secretaryship of the New South Wales Miners' Association, and his life thenceforth was in politics and public affairs. In 1891 he was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as a Labor member. The outside Labor organizations decided that the members of the parliamentary party had to sign a pledge to support unconditionally whatever programme the party as a whole might ordain should be followed. Cook and the majority of the Labor members refused, and he entered the next assembly as one of George Reid's Free Trade Party. He held posts in the state cabinet until 1899. Beginning his 20-year tenure in the federal parliament in 1901, he became leader of the Free Trade Party in 1908 and the following year formed a coalition with the Liberal government headed by Alfred Deakin. In Deakin's administration (1909-10), he helped establish the Australian navy as minister of defence. He was elected prime minister in 1913 (serving also as home affairs minister) but had inadequate support in parliament and was voted out of office the following year. His government's most imaginative step was to appoint an Inter-State Commission. Cook joined the wartime ministry of William Hughes as minister of the navy (1917-20), served on the Imperial War Cabinet in London (1918), and was Australia's senior delegate to the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. He was treasurer in 1920-21. Between 1921 and his retirement in 1927, he acted as high commissioner for Australia in London and as his country's representative to the League of Nations. He was knighted (G.C.M.G.) in 1918.

Robin Cook
Cook, Robin, byname of Robert Finlayson Cook (b. Feb. 28, 1946, Belshill, Lanarkshire, Scotland - d. Aug. 6, 2005, Inverness, Scotland), British foreign secretary (1997-2001). He entered the House of Commons in 1974 as Labour MP for Edinburgh Central. Because of boundary changes, he moved to become MP for nearby Livingston in 1983. For most of his first 10 years in Parliament, he was a left-wing MP. He also led the minority Labour faction that opposed his own party's plans to create an elected assembly in Scotland. In the 1980s, however, he started his journey toward the political centre. In 1981 he broke with Tony Benn, the unofficial leader of Labour's left wing, because he opposed Benn's decision to seek to wrest the deputy leadership of the Labour Party from the moderate Denis Healey. In 1983 Cook managed Neil Kinnock's successful campaign to become leader of the Labour Party; subsequently, he backed Kinnock's strategy of modernizing the party. Tony Blair's decision to appoint Cook as shadow foreign secretary in 1994, following Blair's election as leader, made Cook one of Blair's three most senior lieutenants. (The other two were deputy leader John Prescott and shadow chancellor Gordon Brown.) At first Cook appeared the most junior of the triumvirate, but he gradually gained ground by virtue of his sharp intellect and even sharper debating skills, which regularly cheered Labour MPs and depressed Conservatives. He chaired Labour's Policy Forum, which oversaw the process of replacing doctrinaire socialism with more market-friendly policies. When Blair became prime minister in 1997, Cook became foreign secretary, but in 2001 he was unexpectedly demoted to become leader of the House of Commons, and he resigned in 2003 in protest over Blair's support for the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq.

Roger Cook
Cook, Roger (Hugh) (b. Aug. 20, 1965, Cottesloe, W.Aus.), premier of Western Australia (2023- ).

Cooke, Sir Howard (Felix Hanlan) (b. Nov. 13, 1915, Goodwill, St. James parish, Jamaica - d. July 11, 2014, Kingston, Jamaica), governor-general of Jamaica (1991-2006). He entered politics in 1938 as one of the founding members of the People's National Party. In 1958 he was elected to the West Indies federal parliament, as the representative for St. James. He entered the Jamaican parliament in 1962, and served as senator until early 1967. He served as a member of the House of Representatives between 1967 and 1980, and was a minister of government between 1972 and 1980, holding the portfolios of pension and social security, education, and labour and public service. He was president of the Senate from 1989 to 1991 and served on the executive of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. He was knighted in 1991.

Cooke (Luciani), Juan Isaac (b. July 29, 1895, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. June 23, 1957, near Montevideo, Uruguay), foreign minister of Argentina (1945-46). He was also ambassador to Brazil (1947-53) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1953-54).

Cooke, Lorrin A(lamson) (b. April 6, 1831, New Marlborough, Mass. - d. Aug. 12, 1902, Winsted, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1897-99).

Cooke, Nicholas (b. Feb. 3, 1717, Providence, Rhode Island - d. Sept. 14, 1782, Providence), governor of Rhode Island (1775-78).

Cookman, Nathaniel George (b. Feb. 21, 1869, Enniscorthy, County Wexford, Ireland - d. Feb. 21, 1907, Dominica), commissioner of the British Virgin Islands (1896-1903).

Cookson, Claude Edward (b. 1879 - d. March 11, 1963), acting governor of Sierra Leone (1930-31). He was colonial secretary (1930-34).

Cool, Wouter (b. May 26, 1848, The Hague, Netherlands - d. Nov. 20, 1928, The Hague), war minister of the Netherlands (1909-11).

Calvin Coolidge
Coolidge, (John) Calvin (b. July 4, 1872, Plymouth, Vt. - d. Jan. 5, 1933, Northampton, Mass.), president of the United States (1923-29). He entered politics in 1899 as city councilman in Northampton. He then rose through a series of political posts, including mayor, state senator, and lieutenant governor, and in 1918 he was elected governor. In September 1919, he was catapulted into the national spotlight when he called out the state guard to quell two days of rioting and disorder resulting from a Boston police strike. At the Republican National Convention of 1920, delegates nominated him for vice president on the first ballot, in a spontaneous gesture of retaliation against the party bosses who had chosen Warren G. Harding to run for president. The slate easily won the election on a "Return to Normalcy" platform. Acceding to the presidency upon Harding's death (Aug. 2, 1923), he inherited a divided party, a fractious Congress, an administration discredited by scandals, and pressing problems of domestic and foreign policy. He brought about an executive reformation, restored integrity at the seat of government, and gained control of his party so that he easily won renomination in 1924. Using the slogan "Keep Cool with Coolidge," he easily won the election after a standpat campaign directed mainly against the "dangerous radicalism" of the third-party (Progressive) candidate, Robert La Follette. An outstanding presidential policy of Coolidge was noninterference in the affairs of business and industry. Regulatory agencies became institutions for the assistance of business, a program of tax reductions favoured capital, and a high protective tariff was maintained. He refused renomination in 1928.

Coolidge, Carlos (b. June 25, 1792, Windsor, Vt. - d. Aug. 15, 1866, Windsor), governor of Vermont (1848-50).

Coolidge, T(homas) Jefferson (b. Aug. 26, 1831, Boston, Mass. - d. Nov. 17, 1920, Boston), U.S. diplomat; grandson of Thomas Mann Randolph; great-grandson of Thomas Jefferson. He was minister to France (1892-93).

Cools, André (Hubert Pierre) (b. Aug. 1, 1927, Flémalle-Grande, Belgium - d. [assassinated] July 18, 1991, Liège, Belgium), deputy prime minister of Belgium (1969-73). He was also minister of budget (1968-71) and economic affairs (1971-73), co-chairman of the Socialist Party (1973-78), chairman of the (French) Socialist Party (1978-81), and president of the Walloon Regional Council (1982-85).

Cools-Lartigue, Sir Louis (b. Jan. 18, 1905 - d. Aug. 21, 1993), governor (1967-78) and interim president (1978-79) of Dominica; knighted 1968.

Coomaraswamy, Punch (b. Oct. 16, 1925, Segamat, Johor [now in Malaysia] - d. Jan. 8, 1999, Singapore), Singaporean politician. He was speaker of parliament (1966-70), high commissioner to India and Sri Lanka (1970-73; also ambassador to Nepal), Bangladesh (1972-73), and Australia and Fiji (1973-76), and ambassador to the United States (1976-84) and Brazil (1978-84).

Cooney, David (John) (b. April 29, 1954, London, England), Irish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-07) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2007-09), the Vatican (2012-14), and Spain (2015-17).

Cooney, Frank H(enry) (b. Dec. 31, 1872, Norwood, Ont. - d. Dec. 15, 1935, Great Falls, Mont.), governor of Montana (1933-35).

Cooney, Patrick (Mark), byname Paddy Cooney (b. March 2, 1931, Dublin, Ireland), minister of justice (1973-77), posts and telegraphs and transport (1981-82), defense (1982-86), and education (1986-87) of Ireland.

Coontz, Robert Edward (b. June 11, 1864, Hannibal, Mo. - d. Jan. 26, 1935, Bremerton, Wash.), governor of Guam (1912-13).

Cooper (Fort), Claudia (María Amelia Teresa Isabel) (b. Sept. 13, 1968, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), economy and finance minister of Peru (2017-18).

Cooper, Edward (b. Oct. 26, 1824, New York City - d. Feb. 25, 1905, New York City), mayor of New York City (1879-81); son of Peter Cooper.

Cooper, Frank Arthur (b. July 16, 1872, Blayney, New South Wales - d. Nov. 30, 1949, Kedron, Brisbane, Qld.), premier (1942-46) and acting governor (1946) of Queensland.

Cooper, Henry Towry Miles (b. August? 1838, Berkshire, England - d. Jan. 9, 1877, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia), acting administrator of Gambia (1872-73, 1875).

Cooper, Job A(dams) (b. Nov. 6, 1843, Greenville, Ill. - d. Jan. 20, 1899, Denver, Colo.), governor of Colorado (1889-91).

Cooper, Myers Y(oung) (b. Nov. 25, 1873, near Saint Louisville, Licking county, Ohio - d. Dec. 7, 1958, Cincinnati, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1929-31).

Peter Cooper
Cooper, Peter (b. Feb. 12, 1791, New York City - d. April 4, 1883, New York City), U.S. presidential candidate (1876). He was an inventor and manufacturer who built the "Tom Thumb" locomotive. Cooper's social views were farsighted; as a member of the Board of Aldermen of New York City, he advocated paid police and firemen, public schools, and improved public sanitation. In 1859 he founded The Cooper Union in New York City, where free courses were offered in science, engineering, and art. In the presidential election of 1876 he headed the minority Greenback Party ticket in order to place before the public his economic views, which ran counter to the prevailing deflationary doctrine. He received 75,973 votes.

Cooper, (William) Prentice (b. Sept. 28, 1895, Shelbyville, Tenn. - d. May 18, 1969, Rochester, Minn.), governor of Tennessee (1939-45). He was also U.S. ambassador to Peru (1946-48).

Cooper, Richard N(ewell) (b. June 14, 1934, Seattle, Wash.), acting U.S. secretary of state (1980). Professor of international economics at Harvard University, he has written extensively on questions of international economic policy. He held several minor offices in the federal government, including deputy assistant secretary of state for international monetary affairs (1965-66), undersecretary of state for economic affairs (1977-81), chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1990-92), and chairman of the National Intelligence Council (1995-97). In 1980 he held the office of acting secretary of state for one day following the resignation of Cyrus Vance.

Cooper, Robert A(rcher) (b. June 12, 1874, Waterloo Township, Laurens county, S.C. - d. Aug. 7, 1953, Greenville, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1919-22).

Cooper, Roy (Asberry, III) (b. June 13, 1957, Nashville, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (2017- ).

Cooper, Warren (Ernest) (b. Feb. 21, 1933, Dunedin, New Zealand), foreign minister (1981-84), defense minister (1990-96), and internal affairs minister (1993-96) of New Zealand. He was also minister of tourism and regional development (1978-81) and broadcasting (1981) and postmaster general (1980-81).

Cooper, William B(arkley) (b. Dec. 16, 1771, near Laurel, Del. - d. April 27, 1849, near Laurel), governor of Delaware (1841-45).

Cooper, Yvette (b. March 20, 1969, Inverness, Scotland), British home secretary (2024- ). She was also chief secretary to the Treasury (2008-09) and secretary of state for work and pensions (2009-10).

Cooray (Wijewarnasuriya), (Pestheruwe Liyanaralalage) Reginald (Rosmand) (b. Nov. 12, 1947 - d. Jan. 13, 2023, Kalutara, Sri Lanka), chief minister of Western province (2000-04, 2004-05, 2005-09) and governor of Northern province (2016-19) and Central province (2018), Sri Lanka. He was also Sri Lankan minister of ethnic affairs and national integration (2000), information and media (2004), minor export crop promotion (2010-15), and aviation services (2015).

Coore, David (Hilton) (b. Aug. 22, 1925, Anchovy, St. James, Jamaica - d. Nov. 14, 2011, Dominican Republic), deputy prime minister and finance minister (1972-78) and foreign minister (1989-93) of Jamaica.

Cooreman, Gerard (François Marie) (b. March 25, 1852, Ghent, Belgium - d. Dec. 2, 1926, Brussels, Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1918). He was also minister of industry and labour (1899) and economic affairs (1918) and chairman of the Chamber of Representatives (1908-12).

Copertino, Giovanni (b. Jan. 25, 1943, Monopoli, Puglia, Italy), president of Puglia (1992-93).

Coppé, Albert (b. Nov. 26, 1911, Brugge, Belgium - d. March 30, 1999, Tervuren, Belgium), Belgian politician. He was minister of public works (1950), economic affairs and middle classes (1950-52), and reconstruction (1952), acting president of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (1967), and European commissioner for budgets, credit and investment, and press and information (1967-70) and social affairs, transport, and budget (1970-73).

Coppet, (Jules) Marcel de (b. May 18, 1881, Paris, France - d. Aug. 31, 1968, Quiberville, Seine-Maritime, France), lieutenant governor of Chad (1926-29, 1930-32), governor of Dahomey (1933-34) and French Somaliland (1934-35), lieutenant governor of Mauritania (1935-36), governor-general of French West Africa (1936-38), and governor-general (1939-40) and high commissioner (1946-47) of Madagascar.

Coppin de Falaën, Feuillen Charles Marie Joseph, baron de (b. March 10, 1800, Falaën, Belgium - d. March 10, 1887, Falaën), member of the Provisional Government of Belgium (1830-31). He was also governor of Brabant (1830-34).

Coppolani, Xavier (Antoine) (b. Feb. 1, 1866, Marignana, Corse, France - d. [assassinated] May 12, 1905, Tidjikja, Mauritania), commissioner of Mauritania (1904-05).

Coquilhat, Camille (Aimé) (b. Oct. 15, 1853, Liége [now Liège], Belgium - d. March 24, 1891, Boma, Congo Free State [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), acting governor-general of the Congo Free State (1890-91).

Cor, Henri (François Charles) (b. May 29, 1864, Lorient, Morbihan, France - d. 1932), acting governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1904-05), governor of Réunion (1908) and Guadeloupe (1909-10), acting governor-general of Madagascar (1910), and governor of Senegal (1911-14).

Corach, Carlos (Vladimiro) (b. April 24, 1935), interior minister of Argentina (1995-99).

Coradin, Jean (Dominique) (b. Sept. 15, 1916, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. Aug. 10, 2001, Port-au-Prince), Haitian diplomat. He was minister to Guatemala (1951-53) and Liberia (1953-54), ambassador to Liberia (1954-56, 1974-77), Peru (1956-58), Cuba (1958-61), Dahomey (1961-71), Ivory Coast (1966-71), and Brazil (1977-80), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-73, 1980-81).

Coral Heredia, Pascual (b. May 17, 1882, Cozumel, Quintana Roo - d. April 16, 1955, Chetumal, Quintana Roo), governor of Quintana Roo (1921).

Corbacho (y Abril), José María (b. March 14, 1785, Arequipa, Peru - d. Oct. 30, 1843, Lima, Peru), foreign and interior minister of Peru (1834).

Corbalán Melgarejo, Ramón (b. Sept. 23, 1863, Copiapó, Chile - d. June 1, 1935, Santiago, Chile), war and marine minister of Chile (1905, 1913-14).

Corbett, J(ohnston) Knox (b. June 20, 1861, Sumter, S.C. - d. April 22, 1934, Tucson, Ariz.), mayor of Tucson (1915-17).

Corbett, James N(ielson), Jr. (b. Sept. 26, 1924, Los Angeles, Calif. - d. June 30, 2007), mayor of Tucson (1967-71); grandnephew of J. Knox Corbett.

Corbett, Tom, byname of Thomas Wingett Corbett, Jr. (b. June 17, 1949, Philadelphia, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (2011-15).

Corbett, William T(heodore) (b. March 23, 1902 - d. April 17, 1971, Arlington, Va.), acting governor of Guam (1956).

Corbier, Claude (Eugène André) (b. June 11, 1927, Caen, France - d. Oct. 7, 2021, Toulon, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (1987-90).

Corbière, Jacques Joseph Guillaume (François) Pierre, comte de (b. May 22, 1767, Cornuz-les-Trois-Maries [now Corps-Nuds, Ille-et-Vilaine], France - d. Jan. 12, 1853, Rennes, Ille-et-Vilaine, France), interior minister of France (1821-28). He was also minister without portfolio (1820-21). He was made comte (count) in 1822.

Corbino, Epicarmo (b. July 18, 1890, Augusta, Sicily, Italy - d. April 25, 1984, Naples, Italy), treasury minister of Italy (1945-46); brother of Orso Mario Corbino. He was also minister of industry and trade (1944).

Corbino, Orso Mario (b. April 30, 1876, Augusta, Sicily, Italy - d. Jan. 23, 1937, Rome, Italy), Italian politician. A prominent physicist, he was minister of education (1921-22) and national economy (1923-24).

Corbyn, Jeremy (Bernard) (b. May 26, 1949, Chippenham, Wiltshire, England), British politician. A left-wing backbench MP for Islington North from 1983, he was elected leader of the Labour Party in a major upset in 2015. Despite a strong mandate from the party membership, his support in the parliamentary party was very limited, and in 2016 the outcome of the "Brexit" referendum, where he was accused of having led a lacklustre pro-Remain campaign, was used as an opportunity for a revolt: most of his shadow cabinet resigned and he then lost a no-confidence vote by 172 to 40. But party members reelected him, 62%-38%, over challenger Owen Smith. When Conservative prime minister Theresa May called an election in 2017, expecting to strengthen her position, she actually was left weaker, as Corbyn led Labour to its best result since 2001. In 2018 his pro-Palestine position, combined with polls showing Labour in the lead, alarmed Zionists; in what many saw as a smear campaign, joined by the right-wing press (and even by Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu), the veteran anti-racist Corbyn was crudely called an anti-Semite, but this had little effect on the poll numbers. While this campaign went into overdrive ahead of the 2019 elections, it was mainly his equivocal Brexit stance (threatening to prolong the uncertainty, as opposed to new Conservative prime minister Boris Johnson's "get Brexit done" message and the Liberal Democrats' clear Remain position) that led to Labour's worst result since 1935 (in terms of seats; the popular vote was still better than in 2010 or 2015). He then said he would not lead Labour into another election. He was succeeded in April 2020 by Sir Keir Starmer, who fully surrendered to the Zionists. Within the month a report leaked showing that senior Labour executives from the party's right wing had worked to sabotage Corbyn to the point of seeking to undermine Labour's chances at the 2017 election and being distraught when it overturned the Tory majority. In October 2020 Corbyn was suspended from the party for the mere statement that the incidence of anti-Semitism in the party had been "dramatically overstated for political reasons." He was reinstated in November, though Starmer continued to withhold the whip from him. Starmer also blocked him from standing again as a Labour candidate in the 2024 election; Corbyn then announced to run as an independent and was finally expelled from Labour. He won reelection well ahead of the Labour candidate.

Corcione, Domenico (b. April 20, 1929, Turin, Italy - d. Jan. 3, 2020, Turin), defense minister of Italy (1995-96). He was also chief of army staff (1989-90) and chief of the defense staff (1990-93).

Corcoran, Des, byname of James Desmond Corcoran (b. Nov. 8, 1928, Millicent, S.Aus. - d. Jan. 3, 2004, Adelaide, S.Aus.), premier of South Australia (1979).

Corcuera Cuesta, José Luis (b. July 2, 1945, Pradoluengo, Burgos province, Spain), interior minister of Spain (1988-93).

Cordeaux, Sir Harry Edward Spiller (b. Nov. 15, 1870 - d. July 2, 1943), acting consul-general (1900-02) and commissioner (1906-09) of British Somaliland and governor of Uganda (1910-11), Saint Helena (1912-20), and the Bahamas (1920-26); knighted 1921.

Cordeiro, Hélsio Pinheiro (b. Nov. 22, 1926, Cachoeiro do Itapemirim, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. Aug. 29, 2000, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo), acting governor of Espírito Santo (1962).


Cordeiro, Vasco (Ilídio Alves) (b. March 28, 1973, San Miguel island, Azores, Portugal), president of the government of the Azores (2012-20).

Corder, Sir Ian (Fergus) (b. Aug. 6, 1960), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (2016-21); knighted 2016.

Cordero Arroyo, Ernesto (Javier) (b. May 9, 1968, Mexico City, Mexico), finance minister of Mexico (2009-11). He was also minister of social development (2008-09) and president of the Senate (2012-13, 2017-18).

Cordero Crespo, Gonzalo (b. March 1, 1910, Cuenca, Ecuador - d. April 16, 1996, Quito, Ecuador), Ecuadorian presidential candidate (1960). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1954-55) and minister of social welfare (1956-60).

Cordero Reyes, Manuel (b. Dec. 4, 1888, Jinotepe, Nicaragua - d. Jan. 12, 1944, Managua, Nicaragua), foreign minister of Nicaragua (1929-30, 1937-40).

Cordero Vega, Luis (Alberto) (b. Aug. 12, 1972, Santiago, Chile), justice minister of Chile (2023- ); husband of Magdalena Atria Barros.

Cordet, Jean-François (Marie Michel) (b. May 4, 1951, Hanoi, North Vietnam [now in Vietnam] - d. Feb. 1?, 2024), prefect of French Guiana (1992-95) and of Martinique (1995-98). He was also prefect of the départements of Aisne (1998-2000), Meurthe-et-Moselle (2000-04), Seine-Saint-Denis (2004-07), Somme (2012-14), and Nord (2014-16).

Cordier, Joseph (Marie Emmanuel) (b. Oct. 14, 1773, Brest [now in Finistère département], France - d. 18...), acting governor of French India (1825-26, 1828-29). As chef des ports et administrateur des comptoirs of the Etablissements français en Inde, he resided at Karia (1818-20), Chandernagor (1820-29), and Pondichéry (1829-36). He was administrator of Chandernagor in 1822-23.

Córdoba (Vallecilla), Jaime (b. July 24, 1842, Cali, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Dec. 9, 1920, Bogotá, Colombia), governor of Cundinamarca (1885-86) and interior minister of Colombia (1909).

Córdova (Parada), Enrique (b. March 2, 1881, Usulután, El Salvador - d. April 5, 1966, San Salvador, El Salvador), war and navy minister of El Salvador (1915-19). He was also minister to Mexico (1911-15).

Cordova, Filippo (b. May 1, 1811, Aidone, Sicily [Italy] - d. Sept. 16, 1868, Florence, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1862, 1867). He was also minister of agriculture, industry, and commerce (1861-62, 1866-67).

Córdova, Henrique Helion Velho de (b. Feb. 18, 1938, São Joaquim, Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Nov. 15, 2020, Lages, Santa Catarina), acting governor of Santa Catarina (1982-83).

Córdova (Muñoz), José María (b. Sept. 8, 1799, Concepción, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. Oct. 17, 1829, El Santuario, Antioquia, Colombia), military governor of Antioquia (1819-20) and war minister of Colombia (1828).

Córdova (Rodríguez), Manuel de Jesús (b. Feb. 13, 1894, Chinameca, San Miguel department, El Salvador - d. ...), member of the Revolutionary Council of Government of El Salvador (1948-49).

Córdova Blanco, Dante (b. June 3, 1943), prime minister of Peru (1995-96). He was also minister of transport, communications, housing, and construction (1993-94) and education (1995-96).

Córdova Moscoso, Wilson (b. May 13, 1917, Quito, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1965). He was also ambassador to Argentina (1964-65).

Córdova Nieto, Andrés F(ernández de) (b. May 8, 1892, Cañar province, Ecuador - d. Oct. 3, 1983), acting president of Ecuador (1939-40). He was minister of public works (1931) and interior (1951), president of the Chamber of Deputies (1939-40), and a presidential candidate (1968).

Córdova Rivas, Rafael (Ángel) (b. Nov. 23, 1923, San José, Costa Rica - d. July 16, 2009, Managua, Nicaragua), member of the Government Junta of National Reconstruction of Nicaragua (1980-85).

Córdova Villalobos, José Ángel (b. Aug. 19, 1953, León, Guanajuato, Mexico), Mexican politician. He was minister of health (2006-12) and education (2012).

Cordovez Chiriboga, Fausto (b. April 18, 1925, Riobamba, Ecuador), treasury minister (1956-58) and defense minister (1966) of Ecuador. He was also mayor of Riobamba (1955-56), minister of agriculture (1968-69) and energy and mines (2005), and ambassador to the Vatican (2007-09).

Cordovez Zegers, Diego (b. Nov. 3, 1935, Quito, Ecuador - d. May 24, 2014, Quito), foreign minister of Ecuador (1988-92). He was also UN special envoy for Afghanistan (1982-88) and Grenada (1983) and Ecuador's permanent representative to the UN (2005-07).

Corea, Sir (George) Claude (Stanley) (b. Sept. 5, 1894, Chilaw, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Sept. 3, 1962, Munich, West Germany), Ceylonese politician/diplomat; knighted 1952. He was minister of labour, industry, and commerce (1936-46), representative to the United Kingdom (1946-48), ambassador to the United States (1948-54), high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1954-57), minister to France and the Netherlands (1956-57), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-61).

Coric, Miroslav (b. May 15, 1956, Mostar [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Herzegovina-Neretva (2001-02, 2003-07).

Cork, Philip Clark (b. 1854 - d. May 21, 1936, Barbican [now part of Kingston], Jamaica), acting governor of British Honduras (1903-04) and Jamaica (1913) and administrator of Saint Lucia (1905-09).


Corkill, Richard (Kenneth) (b. 1951, Douglas, Isle of Man), chief minister of the Isle of Man (2001-04). He resigned in 2004 after he and his wife were briefly arrested by police in connection with allegations concerning their family business, although they were released without charge.

Corlatean, Titus (b. Jan. 11, 1968, Medgidia, Romania), justice minister (2012) and foreign minister (2012-14) of Romania. He was also acting president of the Senate (2020).

Corlett, Andrew (Thomas Kaneen) (b. March 2, 1959), acting lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (2021). He has been second deemster (2011-18) and first deemster (2018- ).

Corman, Igor (b. Dec. 17, 1969, Ciulucani, Moldavian S.S.R.), Moldovan politician. He was ambassador to Germany and Denmark (2004-09) and chairman of parliament (2013-15).

Cormann, Mathias (Hubert Paul) (b. Sept. 20, 1970, Eupen, Belgium), finance minister of Australia (2013-20) and secretary-general of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2021- ). He was also minister of the public service (2018-19).

Corminboeuf, Pascal (b. Feb. 8, 1944), president of the Council of State of Fribourg (2002, 2008).

Cornea, Dimitrie (b. 1816, Iasi, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. 1884, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1876). He was also minister of public works (1862) and justice (1862-63).

A. Cornejo
Cornejo, Alfredo (Víctor) (b. March 20, 1962, San Carlos, Mendoza, Argentina), governor of Mendoza (2015-19, 2023- ).

Cornejo (Bouroncle), Ángel Gustavo (b. Nov. 19, 1875, Arequipa, Peru - d. July 6, 1943), justice and education minister of Peru (1918-19).

Cornejo (Barni), Hernán (Hipólito) (b. July 22, 1945 - d. Feb. 15, 2024), governor of Salta (1987-91). He was also Argentinian ambassador to Ecuador (2000-03).

Cornejo (Zegarra), (Mariano) Lino (b. April 22, 1878, Lima, Peru - d. July 12, 1958, Lima), justice minister of Peru (1939-43). He was also minister of labour (1942-43) and education (1943).

Cornejo (Zenteno), Mariano H(ilario) (b. Oct. 29, 1866 or 1867, Arequipa, Peru - d. March 25, 1942, Paris, France), interior and police minister of Peru (1919). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1901-02) and the Senate (1919-20) and minister to Ecuador (1904-05) and France (1920-30).

R. Cornejo
Cornejo (Díaz), René (Helbert) (b. 1962, Arequipa, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2014). He was minister of housing in 2011-14.

Cornelis (b. July 27, 1953, Sanggau, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Barat (2008-18).

Cornélis, Henri (Arthur Adolf Marie Christopher) (b. Sept. 18, 1910, Bevere, East Flanders province, Belgium - d. 1999, Chaumont-Gistoux, Walloon Brabant province, Belgium), governor-general of Belgian Congo (1958-60).

Cornell, Alonzo B(arton) (b. Jan. 22, 1832, Ithaca, N.Y. - d. Oct. 15, 1904, Ithaca), governor of New York (1880-83).

Corner, Frank Henry (b. May 17, 1920 - d. Aug. 27, 2014, Wellington, N.Z.), administrator of Tokelau (1975-84). He was also New Zealand's permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-67) and ambassador to the United States (1967-72).

Cornesse, (Marie Henri Laurent) Prosper (b. Aug. 10, 1829, Stavelot, Netherlands [now in Liège province, Belgium] - d. June 18, 1889, Messancy, Luxembourg province, Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1870-71).

Corni, Guido (Tommaso) (b. Aug. 25, 1883, Stradella, Lombardia, Italy - d. 1946, Genoa, Italy), governor of Somalia (1928-31).

Cornielje, Clemens (Gerard Antoon) (b. June 10, 1958, Lobith, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. March 17, 2022), queen's/king's commissioner of Gelderland (2005-19).

Corniglion-Molinier, Édouard (Flaminio) (b. Jan. 23, 1898, Nice, France - d. May 9, 1963, Paris, France), justice minister of France (1957). Known as an aviator, he was also minister of state (1953-54) and minister of public works, transport, and tourism (1955-56) and the Sahara (1958).

Cornish, (Robert) Francis (b. May 18, 1942, Bolton, England), British high commissioner to Brunei (1983-86). He was also ambassador to Israel (1998-2001).

Cornulier-Lucinière, Alphonse (Jean Claude René Théodore, comte) de (b. April 15, 1811, Lucinière castle, Joué-sur-Erdre, Loire-Inférieure [now Loire-Atlantique], France - d. March 23, 1886, Nantes, Loire-Inférieure), governor of Cochinchina (1870-71) and mayor of Nantes (1874).

B. Cornut-G.
Cornut-Gentille, Bernard (Alfred Charles) (b. July 26, 1909, Brest, France - d. Jan. 21, 1992, Paris, France), governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1948-51) and French West Africa (1952-56); grandson of Jean Joseph Cornut-Gentille. He was also prefect of the French départements of Ille-et-Vilaine (1944), Somme (1944-45), and Bas-Rhin (1945-47), permanent representative to the United Nations (1956), ambassador to Argentina (1957-58), minister of overseas France (1958-59) and posts and telecommunications (1959-60), and mayor of Cannes (1959-68, 1971-78).

Cornut-Gentille, Jean Joseph (Alfred) (b. Jan. 26, 1839, Paris, France - d. 1918), commandant-particular of Gabon (1883-85).

Cornwall, Charles Wolfran (b. June 15, 1735 - d. Jan. 2, 1789, Westminster [now part of London], England), British politician; cousin and brother-in-law of Charles Jenkinson, Earl of Liverpool. He was speaker of the House of Commons (1780-89).

Cornwall, Clement Francis (b. June 18, 1836, Ashcroft, Gloucestershire, England - d. Feb. 15, 1910, Victoria, B.C.), lieutenant governor of British Columbia (1881-87).

Cornwall, Henry Greyshott (b. 1866? - d. Aug. 28, 1940, Melbourne, Vic.), resident commissioner of Niue (1907-18).

Cornwallis, Charles Cornwallis, (1st) Marquess (b. Dec. 31, 1738, London, England - d. Oct. 5, 1805, Ghazipur [now in Uttar Pradesh], India), governor-general of India (1786-93, 1805) and lord lieutenant of Ireland (1798-1801). He was also British master-general of the ordnance (1795-1801). He succeeded as (2nd) Earl Cornwallis in 1762 and was created Marquess Cornwallis in 1792.

Cornwell, John J(acob) (b. July 11, 1867, near Bennsboro, W.Va. - d. Sept. 8, 1953, Cumberland, Md.), governor of West Virginia (1917-21).

Coroatá, Manoel Gomes da Silva Belfort, barão de (b. June 19, 1788, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil - d. April 21, 1860, São Luís), acting president of Maranhão (1857). He was made baron in 1854.

Coromandel, José Francisco Netto, barão de (b. 1828 - d. Jan. 3, 1886, Queluz [now Conselheiro Lafaiete], Minas Gerais, Brazil), acting president of Minas Gerais (1880-81). He was made baron in 1881.

Corona del Rosal, Alfonso (b. July 1, 1906, Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo, Mexico - d. Dec. 31, 2000, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican politician. As a young man, he fought in the government's war against a Catholic uprising known as the Cristero War (1926-29), which ended with the church promising not to rise up against the anti-clerical 1917 constitution, and the government promising not to crack down as hard on constitutional violations. Gradually the church's freedom and behind-the-scenes influence increased, but its role in public life remained limited. Corona del Rosal served as governor of Hidalgo state (1957-61) and as the president (1958-64) of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which ruled Mexico for 71 years until it lost presidential elections in July 2000. He was also minister of national patrimony (1964-66). His term (1966-70) as chief of government of the Distrito Federal (i.e., mayor of Mexico City) was marred by the 1968 military assault on student demonstrators that killed hundreds. He was considered one of the last surviving officials to have key information concerning the attack by soldiers on the peaceful democracy demonstration in Tlatelolco Plaza. Details are still a mystery, including the exact number of dead and who ordered troops to open fire.

Coronado (Organista), Saturnino (b. Feb. 19, 1892, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico - d. Jan. 4, 1992, Guadalajara), interim governor of Jalisco (1947).

Coronas, Giovanni Rinaldo (b. April 10, 1919, Castelvetrano, Trapani province, Italy - d. Jan. 5, 2008, Rome, Italy), interior minister of Italy (1995-96). He was also chief of police (1979-84).

Coronel (Kinloch), María Amelia (b. 1980), interior minister of Nicaragua (2017- ); sister of Ian Coronel Kinloch and Rodrigo Coronel Kinloch.

Coronel Kinloch, Ian (b. 1970), Nicaraguan diplomat. He was ambassador to China (2022-23).

Coronel Kinloch, Rodrigo, Nicaraguan diplomat. He has been ambassador to Japan (2018- ).

Coronel Matus, Manuel (b. 1864, Masaya, Nicaragua - d. [suicide when threatened by rebels] Aug. 28, 1910, Managua, Nicaragua), foreign minister of Nicaragua (1895-96).

Coronel Zegarra, Cipriano (b. 1809, Tacna, Peru - d. Sept. 16, 1869, Lima, Peru), interior, police, and public works minister of Peru (1863-64). He was also minister-resident to Chile (1855-58) and the United States (1859-60).

Coronel Zegarra (y Castro), Enrique (b. May 6, 1851, Piura, Peru - d. Oct. 14, 1919, Lima, Peru), prime minister and interior and police minister of Peru (1900); son of Cipriano Coronel Zegarra; brother of Félix Cipriano Coronel Zegarra. He was also minister of development and public works (1899-1900).

Coronel Zegarra (y Castro), Félix Cipriano (b. 1846, Piura, Peru - d. March 29, 1897, Lima, Peru), justice and education minister of Peru (1886-87, 1893); son of Cipriano Coronel Zegarra.

Coronini, Ivan, German in full Johann Baptist Alexius Graf (Count) Coronini-Cronberg (b. Nov. 16, 1794, Görz, Austria [now Gorizia, Italy] - d. July 26, 1880, Görz), ban of Croatia (1859-60).

Corpacci (Saadi de Mercado), Lucía (Benigna) (de Mercado by marriage) (b. Dec. 4, 1959, San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Catamarca, Argentina), governor of Catamarca (2011-19); cousin of Ramón Saadi.

Corral (Acosta), Ponciano (b. Nov. 19, 1805, Cartago, New Spain [now in Costa Rica] - d. [executed] Nov. 8, 1855, Granada, Nicaragua), de facto president of Nicaragua (1855). He was also president of the Legislative Assembly (1848-49).

Corral Martínez, Blas (b. Feb. 11, 1883, Presidios, Durango, Mexico - d. April 29, 1947, Rochester, Minn.), governor of Chiapas (interim on various occasions 1914-16) and Durango (1944-47).

Corral Verdugo, Ramón (b. Jan. 10, 1854, Las Mercedes hacienda, Álamos municipality, Sonora, Mexico - d. Nov. 10, 1912, Paris, France), governor of Sonora (1887-91 [acting for Lorenzo Torres], 1895-99) and the Distrito Federal (1900-03) and interior minister (1903-11) and vice president (1904-11) of Mexico.

A. Corrales
Corrales (Álvarez), Arturo (Gerardo) (b. March 27, 1961), foreign minister (2011-13, 2015-16) and security minister (2013-15) of Honduras.

Corrales Ayala (Espinoza), Rafael (b. Sept. 14, 1925, Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico - d. Jan. 27, 2015, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Guanajuato (1985-91). He was also president of Mexico's Chamber of Deputies (1951).

Corrales Bolaños, José Miguel (b. Sept. 29, 1938, Paraíso, Cartago province, Costa Rica), Costa Rican presidential candidate (1998).

Corrales Melgar, Juan (b. 1827, Arequipa, Peru - d. Dec. 4, 1885, Lima, Peru), interior, police, and public works minister of Peru (1878-79).

Corrêa, Angelo Custodio (b. 1804, Cametá, Grão-Pará [now Pará], Brazil - d. June 25, 1855, aboard ship en route from Belém to Cametá, Pará), acting president of Pará (1835, 1850, 1853, 1855).

Corrêa, Francisco Ferreira (b. April 17, 1834, Paranaguá, São Paulo [now in Paraná], Brazil - d. Dec. 5, 1876, Itaguaí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Santa Catarina (1870-71) and Espírito Santo (1871-72).

Correa (Díaz), (Víctor) Germán (b. 1939, Ovalle, Chile), interior minister of Chile (1994). He was also minister of transport and telecommunications (1990-92) and president of the Socialist Party (1992-94).

Corrêa, Innocêncio Serzedello, modernized spelling Inocêncio Serzedelo Correia (b. June 16, 1858, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. June 5, 1932, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Paraná (1890), foreign minister (1892), acting justice and interior minister (1892), and finance minister (1892-93) of Brazil, and prefect of Distrito Federal (1909-10). He was also minister of industry, transport, and public works (1892).

Corrêa, Ivanildo Teles Sirotheau, governor of Fernando de Noronha (1985-86).

Correa (Escobar), José A(ntonio) (b. Oct. 19, 1915, Quito, Ecuador - d. January 2007, Quito), Ecuadorian official. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-60), ambassador to the United States (1963-64) and the United Kingdom (1989-91), and president of the Monetary Board (1982-84).

L.F. Corrêa
Corrêa, Luiz Felipe de Seixas (b. July 16, 1945, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting foreign minister of Brazil (2001). He was ambassador to Mexico (1989-92), Spain (1993-97), Argentina (1997-98), Germany (2005-09), and the Vatican (2009-11) and general secretary of the foreign ministry (1992, 1999-2001).

Corrêa, Manoel Francisco (b. Nov. 1, 1831, Paranaguá, São Paulo [now in Paraná], Brazil - d. July 11, 1905, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1871-73). He was also president of Pernambuco (1862) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1874-77).

Corrêa, Maurício José (b. May 9, 1934, São João do Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Feb. 17, 2012, Brasília, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (1992-94). He was also president of the Superior Electoral Court (2001) and of the Supreme Federal Court (2003-04).

Corrêa, Oscar Dias (b. Feb. 1, 1921, Itaúna, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Nov. 30, 2005, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (1989). He was also president of the Superior Electoral Court (1987-89).

R. Correa
Correa (Delgado), Rafael (Vicente) (b. April 6, 1963, Guayaquil, Ecuador), economy and finance minister (2005) and president (2007-17) of Ecuador; great-great-grandnephew of Eloy Alfaro. A skilled and charismatic political campaigner, he easily defeated Álvaro Noboa, a wealthy banana-plantation owner, in a runoff vote in the 2006 presidential election. In office, he increased agricultural subsidies and dramatically raised spending on health care, education, and other social programs. Although his reformist agenda antagonized some business and media groups, he proved more capable of alliance-building and pragmatism than many in Ecuador's notoriously fractious political elite and he remained widely popular. In September 2008 voters approved a referendum on a new constitution that increased presidential powers over economic and monetary policy. He vowed to carry out an "economic revolution": "Markets should be subject to societies, not the other way around." In December 2008 he announced that Ecuador would default on an interest payment due on a foreign debt, calling it "immoral and illegitimate." Despite concerns that the high cost of his social programs could seriously hamper the economy, he easily won reelection in 2009. Amid the global economic downturn, he introduced austerity measures; in a 2010 incident he was injured by tear gas while addressing police officers protesting benefit cuts and had to be rescued by the military when the hospital he was taken to was surrounded by the protesters. In 2011 he scored a win when voters approved a number of measures in a referendum that critics described as a power grab. In 2012 he granted asylum to Julian Assange, the founder of the WikiLeaks whistleblowing website, who sought refuge in the Ecuadorian embassy in London to avoid extradition to Sweden where he was to be questioned in a sexual assault case; Assange remained in the embassy until 2019. Again reelected in 2013, Correa was ineligible to run again in 2017. Constitutional amendments passed in 2015, to be implemented by 2021, provided for the removal of term limits, but a 2018 referendum instituted them again, blocking him from any attempt to return to office. In 2020 he was found guilty of corruption charges and sentenced to eight years in prison. He lives in Belgium since 2017.

Corrêa, Rivadávia da Cunha (b. July 9, 1866, Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Feb. 9, 1920, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice and interior minister (1910-13) and finance minister (1913-14) of Brazil and prefect of Distrito Federal (1914-16).

Correa Bravo, Agustín (b. April 6, 1865, Aldea de Putú, Talca province, Chile - d. Feb. 24, 1925, Osorno, Chile), finance minister of Chile (1923).

Correa Elías, Javier (b. May 12, 1898, Lima, Peru - d. 1977), foreign minister of Peru (1945-46). He was also ambassador to Chile (1946-49).

Correa Fuenzalida, Guillermo (b. March 10, 1898, Curicó, Chile - d. March 14, 1970, Santiago, Chile), justice minister of Chile (1937-38, 1946-47). He was also minister of education (1937-38).

Correa Labra, Humberto (b. June 21, 1904, Talca, Chile - d. June 17, 1987, Talca), justice minister of Chile (1947).

Correa Palacio, Ruth Stella (b. Nov. 13, 1959, Bogotá, Colombia), justice minister of Colombia (2012-13).

Correa Roberts, Hernán (b. Sept. 12, 1882, Santiago, Chile - d. June 8, 1946, Graneros, Chile), war and marine minister of Chile (1922).

Correa y Garay, Estanislao (b. 1797, Buenos Aires, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata [now in Argentina] - d. July 1, 1878), Peruvian politician. He was mayor of Lima (1860-61).

Correa y Santiago, Pedro (b. April 28, 1831, Lima, Peru - d. Nov. 25, 1892, Lima), finance minister of Peru (1885-86); son of Estanislao Correa y Garay.

Correia, António Augusto Peixoto (b. Oct. 11, 1913, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal - d. March 16, 1988), governor of Cape Verde (1957-58) and Portuguese Guinea (1959-62). He was also Portuguese overseas minister (1962-65).

Correia, Augusto César de Almeida Vasconcelos (b. Sept. 24, 1867, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Sept. 27, 1951, Lisbon), prime minister (1911-12) and foreign minister (1911-13) of Portugal. He was also minister to Spain (1914-18) and the United Kingdom (1918-19).

Correia, Carlos (b. Nov. 6, 1933, Bissau, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. Aug. 14, 2021), prime minister of Guinea-Bissau (1991-94, 1997-98, 2008-09, 2015-16). He was also minister of agricultural planning and natural resources (1973-76), finance (1976-82), commerce and handicrafts (1982-84), and rural development (1984-91).

Correia, Estêvão Alves (b. March 2, 1881, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. July 22, 1949, Cuiabá), acting president of Mato Grosso (1924-26).

Correia, Francisco de Aquino (b. April 2, 1885, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. March 23, 1956, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Mato Grosso (1918-22). He was also archbishop of Cuiabá (1922-56).

Correia, Frederico José (b. Dec. 18, 1817, Aldeias Altas [now Caxias], Maranhão, Brazil - d. May 28, 1881, São Luís, Maranhão), acting president of Maranhão (1866).

Correia, Joaquim Gaudie de Aquino (b. Jan. 30, 1878, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. Oct. 1, 1946, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Maranhão (1931).

Correia, José Vitorino (b. Sept. 3, 1901, Itapecerica, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Aug. 6, 1974, São Paulo, Brazil), federal interventor in Piauí (1946).

Correia, Luís António de Magalhães (b. June 30, 1873, Lisbon - d. 1960), acting governor of Macau (1922-23), acting foreign minister of Portugal (1932), and administrator of Tangier (1945-48).

Correia, Manoel Euphrasio (b. Aug. 16, 1839, Paranaguá, São Paulo [now in Paraná], Brazil - d. Feb. 4, 1888, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), president of Pernambuco (1887-88).

Correia, Paulo (Alexandre Nunes) (b. 1942, Cadé, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. [executed] July 21, 1986), armed forces minister of Guinea-Bissau (1980-82). He was also minister of rural development (1982-84) and justice (1984-85), deputy chairman of the Council of the Revolution (1984), and first deputy chairman of the Council of State (1984-85). He was convicted of plotting a military coup and sentenced to death.

Corrias, Efisio (b. May 31, 1911, Bagno di Romagna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy - d. Jan. 15, 2007, Cagliari, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (1958-66).

Cort, (Leon) Errol (b. May 13, 1958), finance minister of Antigua and Barbuda (2004-09). He was also attorney-general and minister of justice and legal affairs (1999-2001) and minister of national security (2009-14).

Cort van der Linden, Pieter Wilhelm Adriaan (b. May 14, 1846, The Hague, Netherlands - d. July 15, 1935, The Hague), prime minister of the Netherlands (1913-18). He was also justice minister (1897-1901), interior minister (1913-18), and acting foreign minister (1913).

Cortázar (Leal de Ibarra), Modesto (b. June 15, 1783, Briviesca, Burgos province, Spain - d. Jan. 25, 1862, Madrid, Spain), acting prime minister of Spain (1840). He was also justice minister (1840) and foreign minister (1847).

Corte-Real, José Luciano de Castro Pereira (b. Dec. 14, 1834, Oliveirinha, Portugal - d. March 9, 1914), prime minister of Portugal (1886-90, 1897-1900, 1904-06). He was also minister of justice (1869-70) and interior (1879-81, 1886-90, 1897-1900).

Cortelyou, George B(ruce) (b. July 26, 1862, New York City - d. Oct. 23, 1940, Huntington, N.Y.), U.S. secretary of commerce and labor (1903-04), postmaster general (1905-07), and secretary of the treasury (1907-09). He was also chairman of the Republican National Committee (1904-07).

Cortés (Sánchez), Rosalío, also spelled Cortez (baptized June 18, 1820 - d. May 9, 1884, Masaya, Nicaragua), member of the Government Junta (1857), foreign minister (1858, 1860 [acting], 1866-67), and war, interior, and justice minister (1860, 1875-76) of Nicaragua.

Cortés Castro, León (Luis) (b. Dec. 8, 1882, Alajuela, Costa Rica - d. March 3, 1946, Santa Ana, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1936-40). He was also minister to Guatemala (1917-18), president of Congress (1925-26), and minister of education (1929-30) and development and agriculture (1930, 1932-35). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1944.

Cortese, Paolo (b. Dec. 11, 1827, Naples, Two Sicilies [now in Italy] - d. Dec. 21, 1876, Naples), justice minister of Italy (1865).

Corti, Conte Luigi (b. Oct. 24, 1823, Gambarana, Sardinia [now in Italy] - d. Feb. 19, 1888, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (1878). He was also minister to Spain (1867-69) and the United States (1870-75) and ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1880-86) and the United Kingdom (1886-87).

Cortina Mauri, Pedro (b. March 18, 1908, La Pobla de Segur, Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain - d. Feb. 14, 1993, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1974-75). He was also ambassador to France (1966-74).

Cortizo (Cohen), Laurentino, byname Nito Cortizo (b. Jan. 30, 1953, Panama City, Panama), president of Panama (2019-24). He was also president of the National Assembly (2000-01) and minister of agricultural and livestock development (2004-06).

Cortorreal, Francisco (Antonio), Dominican Republic diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2014-20).

Corver Hooft, Jan (b. Dec. 14, 1779, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. July 25, 1855, 's-Graveland, Noord-Holland, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the Second Chamber (1829-30).

Corvetto, Louis Emmanuel, comte, originally Luigi Emanuele Corvetto (b. July 11, 1756, Genoa - d. May 23, 1821, Genoa), member of the Executive Directory (1798-99) and of the Commission of Government (1799-1800) of the Ligurian Republic. He became member of the French Council of State in 1805 and Gallicized his name to Louis Emmanuel Corvetto, was made comte (count) in 1809, and served as finance minister of France (1815-18).

Corwin, Thomas (b. July 29, 1794, Bourbon county, Ky. - d. Dec. 18, 1865, Washington, D.C.), governor of Ohio (1840-42) and U.S. secretary of the treasury (1850-53). He was also minister to Mexico (1861-64).

Cory, William Wallace (b. June 16, 1865, Strathroy, Canada West [now Ont.] - d. Sept. 21, 1943, Montreal, Que.), commissioner of the Northwest Territories (1919-31).

Corydon, Bjarne (Fog) (b. March 1, 1973, Kolding, Denmark), finance minister of Denmark (2011-15).

Coryndon, Sir Robert (Thorne) (b. April 2, 1870, Queenstown, Cape Colony [now in Eastern Cape, South Africa] - d. Feb. 10, 1925, Nairobi, Kenya), administrator of North-Western Rhodesia (1900-07), resident commissioner of Swaziland (1907-16) and Basutoland (1916-17), and governor of Uganda (1918-22) and Kenya (1922-25); knighted 1919.

Corzine, Jon (Stevens) (b. Jan. 1, 1947, Taylorville, Ill.), governor of New Jersey (2006-10). He was also a U.S. senator from New Jersey (2001-06).

Corzo, Julio (César) (b. 1939 - d. September 1989), health minister of Argentina (1989).

Corzo Román, Juan Manuel (b. Oct. 3, 1961, Cúcuta, Norte de Santander, Colombia), Colombian politician. He has been president of the Senate (2011-12) and ambassador to Cuba (2019-22) and Paraguay (2023- ).

Cos-Gayón y Pons, Fernando (b. May 27, 1825, Lérida, Spain - d. Dec. 20, 1898, Madrid, Spain), finance minister (1880-81, 1884-85, 1890-91), justice minister (1891-92), and interior minister (1895-97) of Spain.

Cosby, William (b. 1690, Stradbally Hall, Queen's County, Ireland - d. March 10, 1736, New York City), governor of New York (1732-36).

L. Cosgrave
Cosgrave, Liam (Thomas), Irish Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair (b. April 13, 1920, Templeogue, County Dublin, Ireland - d. Oct. 4, 2017, Dublin, Ireland), prime minister of Ireland (1973-77); son of William Thomas Cosgrave. He entered the Dáil (Irish parliament) as a Fine Gael member in 1943, and he retained his seat until his retirement from politics in 1981. In 1948, when the first interparty government replaced Eamon de Valera's Fianna Fáil regime, which had been in power for the previous 16 years, Cosgrave became parliamentary secretary to the taoiseach (prime minister) and to the minister for industry and commerce. It was a short-lived administration, going out of power after three years, in 1951. But it was back again in 1954 for another three years, at which time Cosgrave became minister for external affairs and led the first Irish delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in 1956. Cosgrave succeeded James Dillon as leader of Fine Gael in 1965 and eight years later, in coalition with the Labour Party, secured the prime ministry. In the face of continuing deterioration of the political situation in Northern Ireland, Cosgrave supported the British government in its establishment of a coalition executive there and its plans for a Council of Ireland to link the governments of the republic and the North. His National Coalition was defeated in the general elections of June 1977, largely on the economic issues of inflation and unemployment.

Cosgrave, Sir William Alexander (b. 1879 - d. Sept. 11, 1952), chief commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1935-38); knighted 1938.

W.T. Cosgrave
Cosgrave, William Thomas, Irish Liam Tomás Mac Cosgair (b. June 6, 1880, Dublin, Ireland - d. Nov. 16, 1965, Dublin), prime minister of Ireland (1922-32). At an early age, he was attracted to the Irish nationalist movement Sinn Féin. He took part in the Easter Rising (1916) and was afterward interned by the British for a short time. In 1917 he was elected to Parliament for the city of Kilkenny. In the sweeping election victory of Sinn Féin in 1918, he became a member of the first Dáil Éireann (Irish Assembly). He was made minister for local government in the first republican ministry; and, during the struggle with the British, his task was to organize the refusal of local bodies to cooperate with the British in Dublin. He was a supporter of the 1921 treaty settlement with Great Britain, and he became minister of local government in Ireland's newly formed provisional government. He became the first prime minister of the Irish Free State. In the Dáil there was no serious opposition, since Eamon de Valera's party, which refused to take the oath prescribed in the treaty, abstained from attendance. But neither Cosgrave nor his ministry enjoyed much popularity. Following a 1927 bill declaring that no candidature for the Dáil should be accepted unless the candidate declared himself willing to sit and to take the oath of allegiance, de Valera and his party decided to attend sessions in the Dáil, and, since this greatly altered the parliamentary situation, Cosgrave decided to hold a general election. The election in September 1927 left his party numerically the largest in the Dáil but without an overall majority. He continued in office until de Valera's decisive victory at the 1932 general election. In 1944 he resigned from the leadership of the United Ireland Party (Fine Gael).

P. Cosgrove
Cosgrove, Sir Peter (John) (b. July 28, 1947, Sydney, N.S.W.), governor-general of Australia (2014-19); knighted 2014. He was chief of army (2000-02) and chief of the Defence Force (2002-05).

Cosgrove, Samuel G(oodlove) (b. April 10, 1847, Tuscarawas county, Ohio - d. March 28, 1909, Paso Robles, Calif.), governor of Washington (1909).

D. Cosic
Cosic, Dobrica (b. Dec. 29, 1921, Velika Drenova, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. May 18, 2014, Belgrade, Serbia), president of Yugoslavia (1992-93). He served in World War II with the Partisans and afterward became a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and a member of parliament. He also became a prominent novelist. His strong Serbian nationalism led to his expulsion from the Central Committee in 1968. He resumed his political activity in the 1980s. He was initially an ally of Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic. Elected the first president of the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, he supported the government of Prime Minister Milan Panic and opposed the attempt to oust him in September 1992. In 1993 Cosic was removed from office by the Federal Assembly after being found to have exceeded his powers by delaying the appointment of a prime minister and federal judges, and by conducting foreign policy without consent of parliament.

Cosic, Kresimir (b. Oct. 23, 1949, Zagreb, Croatia), acting defense minister of Croatia (1998).

Cosic, Zdenko (b. Jan. 22, 1961, Buhovo, near Listica [now Siroki Brijeg, West Herzegovina canton], Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of West Herzegovina (2010, 2010-23).

Cosio (Masden), Pedro (b. Oct. 8, 1873, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Aug. 25, 1943), finance minister of Uruguay (1913-16, 1933-34). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1917-18, 1932-33), the United States (1918-19), and Germany (1927-32).

Cosío Vidaurri, (Augusto) Guillermo (b. Sept. 4, 1929, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico - d. Nov. 13, 2019, Guadalajara), governor of Jalisco (1989-92). He was also mayor of Guadalajara (1971-73).

Cospedal (García), María Dolores de (b. Dec. 13, 1965, Madrid, Spain), president of the Junta of Castilla-La Mancha (2011-15) and defense minister of Spain (2016-18).

Cossiga, Francesco (Maurizio) (b. July 26, 1928, Sassari, Sardinia, Italy - d. Aug. 17, 2010, Rome, Italy), president of Italy (1985-92). A second cousin of Communist Party leader Enrico Berlinguer, he joined the Christian Democrat Party in 1945. After holding minor party offices, he was first elected to parliament in 1958 and achieved cabinet office as minister without portfolio in 1974. In 1976 Prime Minister Aldo Moro offered Cossiga the post of minister of the interior. In that post, Cossiga displayed qualities of decisiveness and courage in dealing with two national emergencies - the Friuli earthquake of 1976 and the campaign of political terrorism culminating in the kidnapping and murder of Moro in 1978. He personally supervised the nationwide search for the kidnappers and their hostage. On learning of Moro's murder, Cossiga resigned his office. He then disappeared from the limelight until he was unexpectedly called upon to try to form a government and end Italy's longest postwar political crisis. Three other leading politicians had tried and failed after the indecisive general election of June 1979, but Cossiga succeeded within 48 hours in forming a coalition of Christian Democrats, Liberals, and Social Democrats. One of his first acts was to install sophisticated telecommunications and computerized information-storage systems. He then dealt speedily with a number of controversial banking, political, and diplomatic appointments that had been hanging fire for months. He headed two successive cabinets in 1979-80. He became chairman of the Senate in 1983. On June 24, 1985, he was elected president by the combined houses of parliament on the first ballot, something that had not happened since the election in 1946 of Enrico De Nicola.

Cossío, Fernando (Álvaro), finance minister of Bolivia (1994-95). He was also ambassador to the United States (1996-97).

Costa, Adroaldo Mesquita da (b. July 9, 1894, Taquari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Dec. 12, 1985, Taquari), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1947-50).

Costa, Afonso Augusto da (b. March 6, 1871, Seia, Portugal - d. May 11, 1937, Paris, France), prime minister of Portugal (1913-14, 1915-16, 1917). He was also minister of justice (1910-11) and finance (1913-14, 1915-17, 1917) and president of the Assembly of the League of Nations (1926).

Costa, Alberto Romão Madruga da (b. April 15, 1940, Horta, Faial island, Azores, Portugal - d. Nov. 14, 2014, Ponta Delgada, Azores), president of the government of the Azores (1995-96).

Costa, Alfredo (Jorge) Nobre da (b. Sept. 10, 1923, Lisbon, Portugal - d. April 1, 1996, Lisbon), prime minister of Portugal (1978). He was also minister of industry and technology (1977-78).

Costa, Alvaro Antonio da (b. Sept. 18, 1838, Bahia province [now state], Brazil - d. Aug. 20, 1905, Juazeiro, Bahia), acting president of Rio Grande do Norte (1885).

António Costa
Costa, António (Luís Santos da) (b. July 17, 1961, Lisbon, Portugal), interior minister (2005-07) and prime minister (2015-24) of Portugal. He was also minister of parliamentary affairs (1997-99) and justice (1999-2002) and mayor of Lisbon (2007-15).

Costa, Antonio Correia da (b. 1782, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. 1854, Chapada dos Guimarães), president of Mato Grosso (1831-34, 1836 [acting], 1840 [acting], 1842-43 [acting]).

Costa, Antonio Correia da (b. Feb. 5, 1857, Cuiabá, Brazil - d. July 30, 1920, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Mato Grosso (1895-98).

Costa, Antonio Theodorico da (b. July 15, 1828, Aracati, Ceará, Brazil - d. Sept. 25, 1897, Fortaleza, Ceará), acting president of Ceará (1882, 1883).

Costa, Arthur de Souza (b. May 26, 1893, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. April 12, 1957, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1934-45). He was also president of the Bank of Brazil (1932-34).

Costa, Benedito, Neto (b. Sept. 26, 1895, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 11, 1981, São Paulo, Brazil), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1946-47).

Costa, Cândido José da (b. April 14, 1845 - d. Dec. 10, 1909), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1890-91).

Costa, Canrobert Pereira da (b. Oct. 18, 1895, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Oct. 31, 1955, Rio de Janeiro), war minister of Brazil (1946-51).

Costa, Celestino Rocha da (b. Sept. 25, 1938 - d. Dec. 23, 2010, Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1988-91). He was also minister of education and culture (1976-77), national education, sport, and justice (1977-78), justice (1978-82), commerce (1983-86), and education, labour, and social welfare (1986-88).

Costa, Clóvis Nova da (b. Nov. 16, 1915, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil - d. June 22, 1979, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Rio Branco/Roraima (1947-49, 1961-63).

Costa, Eduardo (b. April 27, 1823, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. July 13, 1897, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1862, 1890-91, 1893-95). He was also minister of justice and education (1862-67, 1868, 1893) and interior (1895), attorney general (1878-90), and national interventor in Santiago del Estero (1892-93).

Costa, Eduardo Augusto Ferreira da (b. Oct. 14, 1865, Carnide parish, Lisbon, Portugal - d. May 1, 1907, Luanda, Angola), governor-general of Angola (1903-04, 1906-07).

E. de F. da Costa
Costa, Elmano de Freitas da (b. April 12, 1970, Baturité, Ceará, Brazil), governor of Ceará (2023- ).

Costa, Emigdio Adolfo Victorio da (b. c. 1853 - d. Nov. 30, 1926, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Piauí (1883-84).

Costa, Euclides Zenóbio da (b. May 9, 1893, Corumbá, Mato Grosso [now in Mato Grosso do Sul], Brazil - d. Sept. 29, 1963, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1954). He was also ambassador to Paraguay (1958-61).

Costa, Fernando Correia da (b. Aug. 29, 1903, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. Dec. 2, 1987, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), governor of Mato Grosso (1951-56, 1961-66); son of Pedro Celestino Correia da Costa. He was also mayor of Campo Grande (1948-51).

Costa, Fernando de Souza (b. June 10, 1886, São Paulo, Brazil - d. [automobile accident] Jan. 21, 1946, Anhanguera highway, near Louveira, São Paulo, Brazil), federal interventor in São Paulo (1941-45). He was also Brazilian minister of agriculture (1937-41).

Costa, Fernando dos Santos (b. Dec. 19, 1899, northern Portugal - d. Oct. 15, 1982, Lisbon, Portugal), defense minister of Portugal (1944-58). He was commissioned in 1918 and became acquainted with António de Oliveira Salazar during the 1920s. In 1936 Costa was appointed deputy minister of war and during World War II, when he was viewed as sympathetic to the Axis, rose to become a key figure in the government. After the discovery of a plot in 1947, Costa, who had been accused by the opposition of complicity in the death in custody of the leading conspirator, established his role as the mainstay of Salazar's power. Costa saved the dictator again in 1958 from the electoral challenge of Gen. Humberto Delgado, but by this time Salazar was wary of Costa's own power and dismissed him. He made a bid to replace Salazar in 1968, when the dictator retired due to ill health, but failed and in the revolution of 1974 stayed in Portugal where, surprisingly, he was allowed to live on unmolested.

Costa, Flávio Dino de Castro e (b. April 30, 1968, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil), governor of Maranhão (2015-22) and justice minister of Brazil (2023- ).

Costa, Francisco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses da Costa, visconde da (b. Jan. 2, 1757, Basto, Portugal - d. Nov. 4, 1833, Mancelos, Portugal), governor of Mozambique (1797-1801). He was made viscount in 1826.

Costa, Francisco Seixas da (b. Jan. 28, 1948, Vila Real, Portugal), Portuguese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-02) and ambassador to Brazil (2005-08), France (2009-13), and Monaco (2010-13).

Costa, Frederico Augusto Rodrigues da (b. Oct. 29, 1851, São Sebastião das Cabaceiras do Passé [now São Sebastião do Passé], Bahia, Brazil - d. Dec. 30, 1932, Salvador, Bahia), governor of Bahia (1930).

Gabriel Costa
Costa, Gabriel (Arcanjo Ferreira da) (b. Dec. 11, 1954, Príncipe), prime minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (2002, 2012-14). He was also ambassador to Portugal (2000-02).

Costa, Giacomo Giuseppe (b. Nov. 24, 1833, Milan, Austria [now in Italy] - d. Aug. 15, 1897, Ovada, Piemonte, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1896-97).

Costa (Santolalla), Gino (Francisco) (b. Jan. 27, 1956, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), interior minister of Peru (2002-03); cousin of Augusto Ferrero Costa, Carlos Ferrero Costa, and Eduardo Ferrero Costa.

Costa, Gregorio José de Oliveira (b. March 25, 1842, Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, Brazil - d. June 20, 1902, Pindamonhangaba), president of Paraíba (1880).

Costa, Guilherme Posser da: see Posser da Costa, Guilherme.

Costa, Harry Amorim (b. May 23, 1927, Cruz Alta, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. [car accident] Aug. 20, 1988, near Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), governor of Mato Grosso do Sul (1979).

Costa, Humberto (b. Sept. 2, 1906, Santa Ana, El Salvador - d. ...), member of the Revolutionary Council of Government of El Salvador (1948-50).

Costa, Ignacio Francisco de Araujo, acting president of Piauí (1828-29).

Costa, Irapuan, Júnior (b. Dec. 23, 1937, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil), governor of Goiás (1975-79). He was also mayor of Anápolis (1973-74).

Costa, João Gualberto Torreão da (b. May 16, 1860, Maranhão province [now state], Brazil - d. Sept. 23, 1916), president of Maranhão (1898-1902).

Costa, Jorge Nova da (b. Dec. 13, 1925), governor of Amapá (1985-90).

Costa, José Carvalho da, acting governor of Angola (1725-26).

Costa, José de Araujo (b. Aug. 25, 1820, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil - d. Sept. 18, 1882, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil), acting president of Piauí (1878).

Costa, José Francisco da (b. Sept. 6, 1912 - d. ...), governor of Fernando de Noronha (1951-54, 1958-61).

Costa, José Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses da Costa, conde da (b. May 19, 1814, Mancelos, Portugal - d. Dec. 10, 1879, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Cape Verde (1864-69) and governor-general of Mozambique (1874-77). He was created conde (count) in 1875.

Costa, José Horácio (b. Dec. 16, 1859, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. June 6, 1922, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Espírito Santo (1890).

Costa, José Mariano da (b. 1838, Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil - d. August 1905), acting president of Maranhão (1888).

Costa, Manoel Marcondes de Moura e (b. 1829, Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Sept. 27, 1888, Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo), acting president of São Paulo (1882).

Costa, Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da (b. Jan. 14, 1863, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 17, 1929, Lisbon), minister of war (1926) and prime minister, interior minister, and acting president (1926) of Portugal.

M.P. da Costa
Costa, Manuel Pinto da (b. Aug. 5, 1937, Água Grande, São Tomé), president (1975-91, 2011-16), defense minister (1975-77, 1982-86), and foreign minister (1985-86) of São Tomé and Príncipe. He founded the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe (MLSTP) in Gabon in 1972. In 1974, taking advantage of a military coup in Portugal, he returned and persuaded the new government in Lisbon to recognize the MLSTP as the sole representative of the people and to grant independence a year later. He became the first president and set his country on a politically nonaligned course. He was also minister of agriculture and land reform (1975-77, 1978-82), labour and social security (1977-78), and economy and planning (1987-88). He announced his decision to retire from politics following the defeat of his party in the first multiparty parliamentary elections in 1991. However, he returned to the office 20 years later, defeating Evaristo Carvalho in a runoff. In 2016 Carvalho almost won in the first round and Costa then withdrew from the runoff.

Costa, Manuel Saturnino (Domingos) da (b. Nov. 29, 1942, Bolama, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. March 10, 2021, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau), interior minister (1980-82) and prime minister (1994-97) of Guinea-Bissau. He was also ambassador to Cuba (1977-79) and the Soviet Union (1979-80), minister of public works, construction, and town planning (1982-83), and minister of the presidency of the Council of Ministers (2009).

Costa, Mário Correia da (b. Feb. 4, 1886, Cuiabá, Brazil - d. Sept. 7, 1937, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president (1926-30) and governor (1935-37) of Mato Grosso; son of Antonio Correia da Costa.

Costa, Pedro Celestino Correia da (b. July 5, 1860, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. Jan. 22, 1932, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Mato Grosso (1908-11 [acting], 1922-24); brother of Antonio Correia da Costa (1857-1920); grandson of Antonio Correia da Costa (1782-1854).

Costa, Rodrigo da (b. Nov. 10, 1657 - d. Nov. 16, 1722), captain-general of Madeira (1690-94), governor-general of Brazil (1702-05), and viceroy of Portuguese India (1707-12).

Costa, Ronaldo (b. April 23, 1930, Florianópolis, Brazil - d. Oct. 21, 1990, Santiago, Chile), Brazilian diplomat. He was ambassador to Chile (1987-90).

Costa, Ronaldo, Filho (b. Jan. 15, 1960, Washington, D.C.), Brazilian diplomat; son of Ronaldo Costa. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2020-23).

Costa, Sérgio Correia Afonso da (b. Feb. 19, 1919, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Sept. 29, 2005, Rio de Janeiro), Brazilian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Italy (1960), ambassador to Canada (1962-66), the United Kingdom (1968-73), and the United States (1983-86), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-83).

Costa, Vasco (Fernando Leote de) Almeida e (b. 1932 - d. July 25, 2010, Lisbon, Portugal), interior minister of Portugal (1975-76) and governor of Macau (1981-86).

Costa, Vivaldo (Silvino da) (b. Nov. 1, 1939, Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), acting governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1994-95).

Z. da Costa
Costa, Zacarias (Albano) da (b. Jan. 16, 1964, Remexio, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste]), foreign minister of Timor-Leste (2007-12).

Costa Du Rels, Adolfo (b. June 19, 1891, Sucre, Bolivia - d. May 16, 1980, La Paz, Bolivia), finance minister (1927-28) and foreign minister (1948) of Bolivia. He was also ambassador to Argentina (1941-43) and France (1948-52).

Costa-Foru, Gheorghe (b. Oct. 26, 1820, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. Nov. 28, 1876, Bucharest), foreign minister of Romania (1871-73). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1870-71) and diplomatic agent to Austria-Hungary (1873-76).

Costa Gomes
Costa Gomes, Francisco da (b. June 30, 1914, Chaves, Portugal - d. July 31, 2001, Lisbon), president of Portugal (1974-76). He was appointed undersecretary of state for the armed forces by dictator António Salazar in 1958. However, he later was fired because he disagreed with the wars which began in 1961 against independence movements in Portugal's five African colonies. He had served as supreme commander of Portuguese forces in Angola and Mozambique. After Salazar died and was replaced by Marcelo Caetano (1968), Costa Gomes returned as armed forces chief (1972) but resigned six weeks before the military coup of April 25, 1974, that toppled the 42-year rightist dictatorship. He was one of the seven members of the junta which took power after the coup. The bloodless revolution was led by army captains weary of the protracted colonial wars in Africa. Two years later, they restored democracy to Portugal. Gen. António de Spínola headed the military junta but stepped down five months later and was replaced by Costa Gomes, also a general, who served as president until elections were staged in 1976. He was promoted to marshal, Portugal's highest military rank, in 1981.

Costa Méndez, Nicanor (b. Oct. 30, 1922, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Aug. 2, 1992, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1966-69, 1981-82). He was also ambassador to Chile (1962-64).

Costabal Llona, Martín (Ignacio) (b. July 28, 1949, Santiago, Chile), finance minister of Chile (1989-90). He was also director of budgets (1981-84).

Costachescu, Nicolae (b. Feb. 18, 1876, Husi, Romania - d. July 14, 1939, Iasi, Romania), Romanian politician. He was minister of education (1928-31) and president of the Senate (1932-33).

Costallat, Bibiano Sérgio Macedo da Fontoura (b. Sept. 9, 1845, Porto Alegre, Brazil - d. Dec. 8, 1904, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting war minister of Brazil (1894). He was also minister of industry, transport, and public works (1894) and navy (acting, 1894).

Costas, Ion (Grigore) (b. Feb. 22, 1944, Tarigrad, Moldavian S.S.R.), interior minister (1990-92) and defense minister (1992) of Moldova.

Costas, Manuel (b. 1820, Puno, Peru - d. 1883, Arequipa, Peru), prime minister (1864) and first vice president (1872-76) of Peru. He was also minister of interior, police, and public works (1864) and president of the Senate (1883).

Coste, Edmond Charles Guillaume Ghislain de la (b. Feb. 24, 1788, Mechelen, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. March 30, 1870, Brussels, Belgium), interior minister of the Netherlands (1830). He was also governor of Antwerp (1828-29) and Liége (1846-47).

Coste-Floret, Paul (b. April 9, 1911, Montpellier, Hérault, France - d. Aug. 27, 1979, Montpellier), French war minister (1947). He was also minister of overseas France (1947-49, 1950), information (1952), and public health and population (1953-54) and a minister of state (1953).

J.A. Costello
Costello, John A(loysius), Irish Seán Ua Coisdealbha (b. June 20, 1891, Dublin, Ireland - d. Jan. 5, 1976, Dublin), prime minister of Ireland (1948-51, 1954-57). He was attorney general (1926-32) and represented the government at imperial conferences and at the League of Nations. He was elected to the Dáil (parliament) in 1933 for the Fine Gael party. He owed his selection as prime minister to a coalition of several parties and prominent independent politicians united in opposition to Eamon de Valera's Fianna Fáil (Republican Party). During his first term as prime minister, he introduced into the Dáil the Republic of Ireland Act (1948), by which Ireland withdrew from the Commonwealth; the Republic of Ireland was formally inaugurated on April 18, 1949. The "Mother and Child" health scheme, strongly opposed by the Catholic hierarchy, and a dispute with the farming community over the price of milk were among the issues which led Costello to seek a dissolution of the Dáil in May 1951. After the general election of June 1951 Fianna Fáil formed a government. In the next election (May 1954), Fianna Fáil was defeated, and Costello again formed a coalition government. It was marked by a sharp increase in acts of terrorism by the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Seán MacBride, leader of the small Clann na Poblachta party, tabled a motion of no confidence, based on the weakening state of the economy; then Fianna Fáil tabled its own motion of no confidence, and, rather than face almost certain defeat, Costello again asked the president to dissolve parliament. In the subsequent general elections (March 1957), Fianna Fáil returned to office. Costello resigned as opposition leader in 1959.

Costello, Michael John (b. March 23, 1948, Albury, N.S.W.), Australian diplomat. He was acting permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-89).

Costello, Peter (Howard) (b. Aug. 14, 1957, Melbourne, Vic.), treasurer of Australia (1996-2007); son-in-law of Peter Coleman.

Cota, Roberto (b. July 13, 1968, Novara, Piemonte, Italy), president of Piemonte (2010-14).

Cota Montaño, Leonel (Efraín) (b. April 19, 1956, Santiago, Baja California Sur, Mexico), governor of Baja California Sur (1999-2005). He was also mayor of La Paz (1997-99) and president of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (2005-08).

Côté, Jean-Pierre (b. Jan. 9, 1926, Montreal, Que. - d. July 10, 2002, Montreal), lieutenant governor of Quebec (1978-84).

Cotegipe, João Maurício Wanderley, barão de (b. Oct. 23, 1815, São Francisco das Chagas da Barra do Rio Grande [now Barra], Bahia, Brazil - d. Feb. 13, 1889, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister (1875-77, 1885-88) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1885-88) of Brazil. He was also president of Bahia (1852-55), minister of navy (1855-56, 1868-70), finance (1856-57, 1875-78), justice (1887), and interior (acting, 1887-88), president of the Senate (1882-85), and president of the Bank of Brazil (1888-89). He was made baron in 1860.

Cotinguiba, Bento de Mello Pereira, barão de (b. 1780, Vila Nova [now Neópolis], Sergipe, Brazil - d. Sept. 23, 1866, Vila Nova), president of Sergipe (1836-37). He was made baron in 1849.

Cottenham, Charles (Christopher) Pepys, (1st) Earl of (b. April 29, 1781, London, England - d. April 29, 1851, Pietra Santa, near Lucca, Tuscany [Italy]), British lord chancellor (1836-41, 1846-50). He was also solicitor general (1834) and master of the rolls (1834-36). He was knighted in 1834 and created Baron Cottenham in 1836 and Earl of Cottenham and Viscount Crowhurst in 1850.

Cottesloe, Thomas Francis Fremantle, (1st) Baron (b. March 11, 1798, London, England - d. Dec. 3, 1890, Swanbourne, Buckinghamshire, England), British secretary at war (1844-45). He was also chief secretary for Ireland (1845-46). He was created a baronet in 1821 and Baron Cottesloe in 1874; from 1822 he was also authorized to use the title Baron Fremantle of the Austrian nobility.

Cotti, Flavio (b. Oct. 18, 1939, Muralto, Ticino, Switzerland - d. Dec. 16, 2020, Locarno, Ticino), president of the Council of State of Ticino (1977-78, 1981-82) and president of the Christian Democratic People's Party (1984-87), interior minister (1987-93), president (1991, 1998), and foreign minister (1993-99) of Switzerland.

Cottier, Anton (b. Dec. 4, 1943, Jaun [Bellegarde], Fribourg, Switzerland - d. Nov. 3, 2006), president of the Christian Democratic People's Party (1994-97) and of the Council of States (2001-02) of Switzerland.

Cotton, Sir Henry (John Stedman) (b. Sept. 13, 1845, Kumbakonam, Madras [now in Tamil Nadu], India - d. Oct. 22, 1915, London, England), chief commissioner of Assam (1896-1902); knighted 1902.

Coty, René (Jules Gustave) (b. March 20, 1882, Le Havre, France - d. Nov. 22, 1962, Le Havre), president of France (1954-59). He became a municipal councillor in Le Havre in 1908 and a councillor-general for Seine-Inférieure (now Seine-Maritime) in 1919. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1923. He sat with the left Republicans and specialized in matters of merchant shipping and government reform. In December 1930 he served briefly as undersecretary of the interior. In 1935 he left the Chamber to enter the Senate. He remained relatively inactive during World War II and returned to the Chamber in 1945. He was minister of reconstruction and urban affairs in 1947-48 and then returned to the Council of the Republic (as the Senate had been renamed) and became one of its four vice presidents. He was rather unknown to the public when in the tumultuous presidential election of 1953 he was chosen president (December 23) after six days and 13 ballots. He had not originally been a candidate and when, on the 12th ballot, with the election hopelessly deadlocked, a group of right-wing senators suddenly entered his name, it must have been entirely outside his expectations that he should become president. Coty served with dignity but was less active in trying to influence policy than his predecessor, Vincent Auriol, had been. He watched impotently as the Fourth Republic descended ever deeper into governmental instability until it was apparent in May 1958 that the system was hopelessly blocked. After a revolution broke out in Algiers that month, Coty's threat to resign induced the National Assembly to elect Gen. Charles de Gaulle as prime minister. Coty retired in January 1959, two years before the end of his septennate, to allow de Gaulle to assume the presidency of the Fifth Republic.

Coubeau, Oger (b. Sept. 8, 1885 - d. 19...), resident of Urundi (1933-35).

Coubertin, Pierre (de Frédy), baron de (b. Jan. 1, 1863, Paris, France - d. Sept. 2, 1937, Geneva, Switzerland), president of the International Olympic Committee (1896-1916, 1919-25).

Couceiro, Henrique Mitchell de Paiva (Cabral) (b. Dec. 30, 1861, São Mamede parish, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Feb. 11, 1944, São Sebastião da Pedreira parish, Lisbon), governor-general of Angola (1907-09) and chairman of the Governing Junta of Portugal in rebellion (1919).

Couchepin, Arthur (Joseph Marie) (b. March 1, 1869, Martigny-Bourg, Valais, Switzerland - d. April 11, 1941, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Valais (1907-08, 1912-13) and president of the Federal Tribunal of Switzerland (1935-36).

Couchepin, François (b. Jan. 19, 1935, Martigny, Valais, Switzerland - d. Feb. 23, 2023), federal chancellor of Switzerland (1991-99); grandson of Arthur Couchepin.

P. Couchepin

Couchepin, Pascal (Roger) (b. April 5, 1942, Martigny, Valais, Switzerland), economy minister (1998-2002), interior minister (2003-09), vice president (2002, 2007), and president (2003, 2008) of Switzerland; grandnephew of Arthur Couchepin.

Coudert, Pierre (Léonard Alphonse) (b. April 22, 1900 - d. July 16, 1970), administrator-superior of the Comoros (1950-56).

Couillard (de l'Espinay), Philippe (b. June 26, 1957, Montreal, Que.), premier of Quebec (2014-18).

A. Coulibaly

O. Coulibaly

Tieman Coulibaly
Coulibaly, Ally (b. Jan. 1, 1951, Niéméné, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2020-21). He was also ambassador to France (2011-12) and minister of African integration and Ivorians abroad (2012-20).

Coulibaly, Gnenema (Mamadou) (b. Aug. 10, 1962, Korhogo, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), Ivorian politician. He was minister of human rights and civil liberties (2011-16) and justice (2012-16).

Coulibaly, Lanzeni (Namogo Poto) (b. March 21, 1935, Korhogo, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire] - d. June 28, 2010, Créteil, Val-de-Marne, France), Ivorian politician. He was attorney general (1968-75), ambassador to Guinea (1978-81), minister of public health and population (1981-83) and justice (1983-86), a minister of state (1986-89), and president of the Supreme Court (1989-93).

Coulibaly, Mamadou Sangafowa (b. Dec. 10, 1964, Korhogo, Ivory Coast [now Côte d'Ivoire]), Ivorian politician. He was minister of agriculture (2010-19).

Coulibaly, (Daniel) Ouezzin (b. July 1, 1909, Pouy village, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso] - d. Sept. 7, 1958, Paris, France), prime minister of Upper Volta (1957-58).

Coulibaly, Sori (b. 1925, Sokolo, north of Ségou, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (1969-70). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-66), ambassador to the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Mongolia (1966-68), and minister of labour and public service (1970-75) and rural development (1975-78).

Coulibaly, Tieman (Hubert) (b. 1967, Bamako, Mali), foreign minister (2012-13, 2017-18) and defense minister (2015-16) of Mali. He was also minister of territorial administration (2017).

Coulibaly, Tiéna (b. c. 1952, Boré, Mali), finance minister (1988-91, 2012-13), defense minister (2017-18), and justice minister (2018-19) of Mali. He was also ambassador to the United States (2014-17).

Coulson, Sir John (Eltringham) (b. Sept. 13, 1909, Gosforth, England - d. Nov. 15, 1997), secretary-general of the European Free Trade Association (1965-72); knighted 1957.

Coumbassa, Saliou (b. Feb. 2, 1932, Boké, French Guinea [now Guinea]), Guinean politician. He was minister of justice (1971), education (1986-90), and social affairs and employment (1990-91) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-86).

Counsell, Marilyn Trenholme (b. Oct. 22, 1933, Baie Verte, New Brunswick, Canada), lieutenant governor of New Brunswick (1997-2003).

Couper, Sir George Ebenezer Wilson, (2nd) Baronet (b. April 29, 1824 - d. March 5, 1908), chief commissioner of Oudh (1871-76, 1877-82) and lieutenant governor of the North-Western Provinces (1876-82). He succeeded as baronet in 1861.

Courbet, (André) Amédée (Anatole Prosper) (b. June 26, 1827, Abbeville, Somme, France - d. June 11, 1885, aboard his flagship Le Bayard in the harbour of Makung, Taiwan), governor of New Caledonia (1880-82).

Courmo, Barcourgné (b. 1916, Say, Niger - d. Nov. 16, 1993, Niamey, Niger), finance minister (1958-70) and foreign minister (1970) of Niger. In 1963-65 he was also economy minister.

Cournarie, Pierre Charles (Albert) (b. Aug. 26, 1895, Terrasson, Dordogne, France - d. Sept. 29, 1968, La Bachellerie village, Dordogne), governor of the French Cameroons (1940-43), governor-general of French West Africa (1943-46), and governor of New Caledonia (1948-51).

Cournoyea, Nellie J(oy) (b. March 4, 1940, Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Canada), government leader (1991-94) and premier (1994-95) of the Northwest Territories.

Courrejolles, Charles Louis Théobald (b. Feb. 5, 1842, Vervins, Aisne, France - d. 1902), administrator of Kwangchowan (1898-1900).

Courson de la Villeneuve, Tanguy (Robert) de (b. April 27, 1911, Kharkov, Russia [now Kharkiv, Ukraine] - d. April 20, 2001, Belgium), French diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Saarland (1956) and ambassador to Congo (Kinshasa) (1968-70) and Norway (1971-75).

Court, Sir Charles (Walter Michael) (b. Sept. 29, 1911, Crawley, Sussex, England - d. Dec. 22, 2007, Nedlands, Western Australia), premier of Western Australia (1974-82); knighted 1972.

Court, Joseph (Urbain) (b. July 1, 1881, Lutzelhouse, Bas-Rhin, France - d. May 1948, Paris, France), governor of French Sudan (1930-31), lieutenant governor of Niger (1935-38), and governor of Réunion (1938-39).

Court, (from 1823, Jonkheer) Paulus Emmanuel Anthony de la (b. Dec. 24, 1760, Gemert [now part of Gemert-Bakel], Staats-Brabant [now Noord-Brabant], Netherlands - d. April 5, 1848, Oostelbeers [now part of Oirschot], Noord-Brabant), president of the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic (1796).

R. Court
Court, Richard (Fairfax) (b. Sept. 27, 1947, Nedlands, Western Australia), premier of Western Australia (1993-2001); son of Sir Charles Court. He was also ambassador to Japan (2017-20).

E. Courtenay
Courtenay, Eamon (Harrison) (b. June 11, 1960, British Honduras [now Belize]), foreign minister of Belize (2006-07, 2020-23); son of Vernon Harrison Courtenay. He was also attorney general and minister of investment and foreign trade (2003-04).

Courtenay, Vernon Harrison (b. 1932, British Honduras [now Belize] - d. Aug. 15, 2009, Ladyville, Belize), foreign and home affairs minister of Belize (1984-85). He was also attorney general (1969-74, 1984-85).

Courtois, Bernard (Georges Alexandre) (b. March 23, 1935, Melle, Deux-Sèvres, France), prefect of French Guiana (1984-86). He was also prefect of the départements of Lot-et-Garonne (1986-87) and Pas-de-Calais (1993-96).

Courtot de Cissey, Ernest (Louis Octave) (b. Dec. 23, 1810, Paris, France - d. June 15, 1882, Paris), war minister (1871-73, 1874-76) and vice chairman of the Council of Ministers (1874-75) of France.

Cousebandt d'Alkemade, Alexandre (b. April 26, 1840, Oudenaarde, Belgium - d. Nov. 2, 1922, Brussels, Belgium), war minister of Belgium (1899-1907).

Cousin, Victor (b. Nov. 28, 1792, Paris, France - d. Jan. 13, 1867, Cannes, Alpes-Maritimes, France), French minister of public instruction (1840). He was also known as a philosopher.

Cousin-Montauban, Charles Guillaume (Marie Apollinaire Antoine), comte (count) de Palikao (b. June 24, 1796, Paris, France - d. Jan. 8, 1878, Versailles, France), prime minister of France (1870). Commissioned in the army in 1815, he passed through the staff college and went with the 1823 expedition to Spain to restore Fernando VII to the throne. He served in Algeria from 1831 to 1857, rising to the rank of divisional general in 1855 and commanding the province of Constantine. From 1857 to 1860 he held three commands in metropolitan France before being sent to China in 1860 to command French troops in the joint Anglo-French expedition sent to enforce Chinese compliance with the Treaty of Tientsin (1858). He defeated a large force of Chinese troops at Baliqiao (French: Palikao), a place near Beijing, on September 21 and entered the Chinese capital on October 12; worldwide indignation was aroused when troops under his command took part in the pillage and burning of the summer palaces outside Beijing. A hero at home, however, he was appointed to the French Senate in December and named comte de Palikao by Napoléon III in 1862. In 1865 he was appointed to command the 4th Army Corps at Lyon. After the outbreak of the Franco-German War, he was not given a command in the field, but was designated prime minister by the empress regent Eugénie on Aug. 9, 1870. His government, which lasted less than a month, witnessed the downfall of the Second Empire. Despite his reorganization of the country's military resources, he was unable to prevent the catastrophic defeat at Sedan (September 1-2). Ousted by the republican revolution of September 4, he fled to Belgium.

Cousins, Roger (George) (b. September 1942, London, England), acting governor of Anguilla (2000). He was deputy governor in 1997-2002.

Cousseran, Paul (Jules) (b. July 30, 1922, Uzerche, Corrèze, France - d. July 22, 2000, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France), prefect of Réunion (1969-72) and high commissioner of French Polynesia (1977-81). He was also ambassador to Gabon (1963-64) and prefect of the départements of Haute-Savoie (1972-74), Essonne (1974-77), and Corse-du-Sud (1981-82).

Coussirou, Jean (Marie) (b. Jan. 22, 1930, Larche, Corrèze, France - d. May 6, 2006), prefect of Mayotte (1976-78). He was also prefect of the départements of Gers (1978-80), Allier (1981-82), Meurthe-et-Moselle (1982-84), Hérault (1985-86), Vienne (1986-89), and Haute-Garonne (1989-92).

Cousturier, Paul (Jean François) (b. April 14, 1849, Montereau, Seine-et-Marne, France - d. July 27, 1921, Aix-en-Provence, Bouches-du-Rhône, France), governor of French Guinea (1900-04) and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1904-05) and acting lieutenant governor of Gabon (1905).

Coutanche (of St. Brelade in the Island of Jersey and of the City of Westminster), Alexander (Moncrieff) Coutanche, Baron (b. May 9, 1892, St. Saviour, Jersey - d. Dec. 18, 1973, St. Brelade, Jersey), bailiff (1935-61) and president of the Superior Council (1940-45) of Jersey. He was knighted in 1945 and made a life peer in 1961.

Coutinho, António Alva Rosa (b. Feb. 14, 1926, Lisbon, Portugal - d. June 2, 2010), high commissioner of Angola (1974-75).

Coutinho, António da Fonseca, acting governor of Angola (1748-49).

Coutinho, António Luís Gonçalves da Câmara (b. 1638 - d. 1702, Bahia, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (1689-90), governor-general of Brazil (1690-94), and viceroy of Portuguese India (1698-1701).

Coutinho, Flávio Ribeiro (b. July 20, 1882, Pilar, Paraíba, Brazil - d. May 26, 1963, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (1956-58).

Coutinho, Francisco Benedicto da Fonseca (b. 1833? - d. Jan. 6, 1916, Borba, Amazonas, Brazil), acting governor of Amazonas (1903-04).

Coutinho, Francisco Inocêncio de Sousa (b. Dec. 28, 1726, Vila Viçosa, Portugal - d. Feb. 6, 1780, Madrid, Spain), governor of Angola (1764-72). He was also Portuguese ambassador to Spain (1775-80).

Coutinho, Francisco Maurício de Sousa (b. 1764 - d. 1823), governor of Grão-Pará (1790-1803); son of Francisco Inocêncio de Sousa Coutinho; brother of Rodrigo Domingos de Sousa Coutinho Teixeira de Andrade Barbosa, conde de Linhares, and Domingos António de Sousa Coutinho, conde e marquês de Funchal.

Coutinho, Henrique da Silva (b. Nov. 6, 1845, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. June 14, 1915, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1890-91, 1904-08).

Coutinho, Honorio Pereira de Azeredo, president of Maranhão (1849-51).

Coutinho, João Francisco de Sousa (b. March 23, 1804, Desterro [now Florianópolis], Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Sept. 11, 1869, Desterro), acting president of Santa Catarina (1862, 1868).

Coutinho, João José (b. Dec. 9, 1809, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. April 16, 1870, Rio de Janeiro), president of Santa Catarina (1850-59).

Coutinho, José Caetano da Silva (b. Feb. 13, 1768, Caldas da Rainha, Portugal - d. Jan. 27, 1833, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of the Senate of Brazil (1827-32). He was bishop of Rio de Janeiro (1807-33).

Coutinho, José Lino dos Santos (b. March 31, 1784, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. July 24, 1836, São Salvador da Bahia), principal minister of Brazil (1831-32).

Coutinho, Luiz Pereira da Nobrega e Souza (b. 17..., Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. Dec. 21, 1826), war minister of Brazil (1822). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1826).

Coutinho, Ricardo Vieira (b. Nov. 18, 1960, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (2011-19). He was also mayor of João Pessoa (2005-10).

Coutinho, Saturnino de Souza e Oliveira (b. Nov. 29, 1803, Petrópolis, Brazil - d. April 18, 1848, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1847-48). He was also president of Rio Grande do Sul (1839-40, 1841-42) and minister of finance (1847) and justice (1848).

Coutinho, Vicente de Paulo Dale (b. Nov. 5, 1910, Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil - d. May 24, 1974, Brasília, Brazil), army minister of Brazil (1974).

Coutinho, Vítor Hugo de Azevedo (b. Nov. 12, 1871, Macau - d. June 27, 1955, Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1914-15) and governor-general of Mozambique (1924-26). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1913-14, 1915, 1917) and navy minister (1914-15, 1915-17, 1922-23).

Couto, Antonio Corrêa do (b. Nov. 2, 1827, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. July 5, 1879, Cáceres, Mato Grosso), president of Piauí (1859).

Couto, João Lopes da Silva (b. July 6, 1807, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 30, 1889, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1838-40, 1842).

Couto, José Luiz de Almeida (b. Oct. 28, 1833, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. Oct. 9, 1895, Salvador), president of São Paulo (1884-85) and Bahia (1885, 1889).

Couto, Manoel Soares do, acting president of Minas Gerais (1833).

Couto, Miguel, Filho (b. May 8, 1900, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. May 2, 1969, Guarapari, Espírito Santo, Brazil), governor of Rio de Janeiro (1955-58). He was also Brazilian health minister (1953-54).

Couto, Norberto M(anuel) (b. Nov. 4, 1933 - d. Jan. 29, 2018), defense minister (1981) and acting foreign minister (1981) of Argentina.

Couto, Ronaldo Costa (b. Oct. 3, 1942, Luz, Minas Gerais, Brazil), governor of Distrito Federal (1985) and interior minister of Brazil (1985-87). He was also minister of labour (1988-89).

Coutts, Sir Walter (Fleming) (b. Nov. 30, 1912, Aberdeen, Scotland - d. Nov. 4, 1988), administrator of Saint Vincent (1948-55), acting governor of Kenya (1959), and governor (1961-62) and governor-general (1962-63) of Uganda; knighted 1961. He was also minister of education, labour, and lands of Kenya (1956-58).

Couve de Murville
Couve de Murville, (Jacques) Maurice, original surname (until 1925) Couve (b. Jan. 24, 1907, Reims, France - d. Dec. 24, 1999, Paris, France), French politician. He joined the corps of finance inspectors in 1930 and in 1940 became director of external finance in the Ministry of Finance. He served in the cabinet of Philippe Pétain and Pierre Laval until 1943, when he joined Gen. Henri Giraud in Algiers and became commissioner of finance in the Free French government under Charles de Gaulle. Upon the war's end he served as director general of political affairs in the foreign ministry, and he took an important part in the complex diplomatic negotiations that attended the European postwar settlement. He held posts as ambassador to Italy (1945), Egypt (1950-54), NATO (1954), the U.S. (1955), and West Germany (1956-58). In 1958 de Gaulle became president and appointed him foreign minister, a position he held for a record 10 years. He helped sign a friendship treaty with West Germany and was instrumental in France's barring Great Britain from the Common Market, pulling out of NATO, and recognizing the People's Republic of China. Defeated the first time that he ran for political office (1967), he ran again as deputy to the National Assembly and was elected (1968). De Gaulle appointed him finance minister (May-July 1968) and then prime minister (1968-69). He was appointed inspector general of finances in 1969, and he also served as president of the foreign affairs committee of the National Assembly (1973-78) and as a member of the French delegation to the UN (1978-81). Pres. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing made him special emissary to Lebanon at Egyptian president Anwar as-Sadat's request during the 1976 civil war in Lebanon. He held his National Assembly seat to 1986, then served in the Senate to 1995.

Couzens, Frank (b. Feb. 28, 1902, Detroit, Mich. - d. Oct. 31, 1950, Detroit), mayor of Detroit (1933 [acting], 1934-38); son of James Couzens.

Couzens, James (b. Aug. 26, 1872, Chatham, Ont. - d. Oct. 22, 1936, Detroit, Mich.), mayor of Detroit (1919-22).

Covarrubias (Ortúzar), Álvaro (José Miguel) (b. Feb. 19, 1824, Santiago, Chile - d. April 24, 1899, Santiago), foreign and interior minister of Chile (1864-67). He was also president of the Senate (1868-73, 1876-81) and president of the Supreme Court (1883-87).

Covarrubias (Ortúzar), Manuel A(lejandro) (b. March 10, 1861, Santiago, Chile - d. Oct. 21, 1936, Santiago), war and marine minister of Chile (1906); son of Álvaro Covarrubias. He was also mayor of Santiago (1898-99) and minister of industry and public works (1900-01).

Covarrubias Acosta, Miguel F(rancisco) (b. Jan. 29, 1856, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico - d. July 7, 1924, Paris, France), foreign minister of Mexico (1920). He was also minister to Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (1904-07), Venezuela (1904-05), the United Kingdom (1907-11), Austria-Hungary (1911-12), and Russia (1913) and chargé d'affaires in Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Russia, Sweden, and Norway (1914-15).

Covarrubias Villaseñor, Marcos (Alberto) (b. July 2, 1967, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico), governor of Baja California Sur (2011-15).

Covas, Mário, Júnior (b. April 21, 1930, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil - d. March 6, 2001, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (1995-2001). He entered politics in 1962 when he was elected to Congress for the Brazilian Democratic Party. As he began his second term in 1966, the military regime stripped him of his political rights after he defended a fellow congressman who had criticized the armed forces. In 1979, Covas returned to Congress. Four years later, he was appointed mayor of the city of São Paulo. Covas was elected to the Senate in 1986, and two years later, he and then senator Fernando Henrique Cardoso founded the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB). Covas was the party's candidate in the 1989 presidential elections, but came in fourth. Cardoso went on to win in 1994, with Covas being elected governor of São Paulo. Many analysts credit Covas for saving the PSDB from ruin, when he rallied to stop the party from supporting the Fernando Collor de Mello government shortly before a series of corruption scandals led to Collor's impeachment and eventual resignation. Before he was diagnosed with his second case of cancer, Covas was tipped as a candidate to succeed Cardoso in the 2002 election. But even with dubious health, Covas was considered a chief player in the selection of a candidate for the presidential race. He was known for fighting back when offended, breaking loose from his bodyguards to engage in verbal battles with hecklers and striking state workers. He died halfway through his second four-year term at the helm of Brazil's most populous state; Cardoso decreed seven days of national mourning. His grandson Bruno Covas Lopes (b. April 7, 1980, Santos - d. May 16, 2021, São Paulo) was mayor of São Paulo from 2018 to his death.

H. Coveney

S. Coveney
Coveney, Hugh (b. July 20, 1935, Cork, Ireland - d. March 14, 1998, off Robert's Cove, Kinsale, Ireland), Irish politician. Coveney, first elected to parliament in 1981, was a senior figure in the Fine Gael party in Cork. He was lord mayor of Cork in 1982-83 and defence and marine minister in 1994-95. His body was recovered from the sea after he apparently fell off a cliff while trying to rescue one of his dogs.

Coveney, Simon (b. June 16, 1972, Cork, Ireland), defence minister (2014-16, 2020-22), foreign minister (2017-22), and deputy prime minister (2017-20) of Ireland; son of Hugh Coveney. He was also minister for agriculture, marine and food (2011-16), housing, planning and local government (2016-17), and enterprise, trade, and employment (2022-24).

Covert, Walter Harold (b. Dec. 23, 1865, Musquash, New Brunswick - d. Aug. 20, 1949, Dartmouth, N.S.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1931-37).

D. Covic
Covic, Dragan (b. Aug. 20, 1956, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), finance minister and deputy prime minister (1998-2001) and acting prime minister (2001) of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He became the Croat member of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2002 and was its chairman in 2003-04; he was sacked in March 2005 after refusing to step down in the face of serious corruption charges relating to his time as finance minister. In June 2005 he became president of the Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In November 2006 he was sentenced to five years in prison. An appeal of his conviction led to a retrial, during which the court decided it had no jurisdiction over the case. Later he became chairman of the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2012, 2014-15, 2019-20, 2021-22, 2024- ). He was again elected as Croat member of the Presidency in 2014 and was its chairman (2015-16, 2017-18).

N. Covic
Covic, Nebojsa (b. July 2, 1958, Belgrade, Serbia), acting prime minister of Serbia (2003). He was a rising star in Slobodan Milosevic's Socialist Party and mayor of Belgrade in 1994-97. But Covic, who stood behind Milosevic during government-organized rallies, was expelled from the party after he conceded defeat to the opposition in elections for Belgrade city hall in the winter of 1996-97. Zoran Djindjic took over as mayor. Covic subsequently formed the Democratic Alternative, which became one of the smaller parties in the DOS alliance. A politician who does not shy away from firm action, he reportedly brought a truck laden with weapons to Belgrade on the eve of the Oct. 5, 2000, uprising which ousted Milosevic. He went into hiding after police issued an arrest warrant. After the overthrow of the old regime, Covic became a deputy prime minister of Serbia, first under Prime Minister Milomir Minic and, from January 2001, under Djindjic. He won praise from Western governments for the way he helped end a local Albanian guerrilla insurgency which gripped southern Serbia east of Kosovo in 2001. Instead of deploying the heavy-handed tactics Milosevic used in a failed attempt to quell a 1998-99 uprising in Kosovo, he helped engineer a peace deal under which rebels lay down their arms in return for improved rights for the Albanian community. He is also the government's point man for Kosovo, the majority Albanian province in southern Serbia which came under international administration in 1999. He openly opposed some of Djindjic's reform policies and supported Yugoslav Pres. Vojislav Kostunica, who ran against a candidate backed by Djindjic in the failed Serbian presidential election of December 2002. He briefly became acting prime minister after the assassination of Djindjic.

Covic, Predrag (b. Jan. 11, 1969, Donji Dolac, near Listica [now Siroki Brijeg, West Herzegovina canton], Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of West Herzegovina (2023- ).

Cowan, James Henry (b. Sept. 28, 1856, Chiswick, Middlesex [now part of London], England - d. Aug. 7, 1943), acting commissioner of Weihaiwei (1901-02).

Cowap, John Geoffrey, byname Geoff Cowap (b. May 19, 1930, London, England - d. Dec. 11, 2015, Wallaroo, N.S.W.), acting administrator of Norfolk Island (1968). He was official secretary in 1966-70.

Coward, Sir John (Francis) (b. Oct. 11, 1937 - d. May 30, 2020), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1994-2000); knighted 1990.

B. Cowen
Cowen, Brian, Irish Brian Ó Comhain (b. Jan. 10, 1960, Tullamore, County Offaly, Ireland), deputy prime minister (2007-08) and prime minister (2008-11) of Ireland. He was catapulted into the Dáil at the very young age of 24 due to the untimely death of his father, Ber Cowen, in 1984. His deep roots in the Fianna Fáil (FF) party go back not only to his father but to his grandfather, who was a county councillor in Offaly. He backed Albert Reynolds in his unsuccessful tilt for taoiseach in 1991 before Charles Haughey was finally ousted in February 1992, and was appointed to ministerial office when Reynolds took the helm. FF was in coalition with the Progressive Democrats (a party formed by FF dissidents) at the time and Cowen earned a lot of publicity with his declaration "If in doubt leave them out." It was a stance he repeated later before accepting them as partners under Bertie Ahern. His record as a minister in five departments - labour (1992-93), transport, energy and communications (1993-94), health and children (1997-2000), foreign affairs (2000-04), and finance (2004-08) - was not spectacular but he showed a knack of keeping out of political trouble and made no serious mistakes. Appointed health minister after the FF victory in 1997, he famously described that department as "Angola" because landmines were liable to go off any time. He could not disguise his relief at being moved to foreign affairs in 2000. While there he presided over the continuing and complex developments in the Northern Ireland peace process and was involved in Ireland's campaign for a seat on the UN Security Council. Moved to finance after FF suffered a drubbing in the local and European elections of 2004, his budgets were more traditional, with a greater emphasis on social inclusion, than those of his predecessor Charlie McCreevy. After Ahern's resignation in 2008, he succeeded him as party leader and prime minister. As Ireland was caught in the global financial crisis, he had to ask for an EU-IMF bailout in 2010 and introduced austerity measures. In January 2011 he stepped down as FF leader ahead of early elections in which the party suffered a crushing defeat.

Z. Cowen

Cowen, Sir Zelman (b. Oct. 7, 1919, Melbourne, Vic. - d. Dec. 8, 2011, Toorak, Vic.), governor-general of Australia (1977-82); knighted 1976.

Cowie, William Clark (b. April 8, 1849, Friockheim, Forfarshire [now Angus], Scotland - d. Sept. 14, 1910, Bad Nauheim, Hessen, Germany), chairman of the British North Borneo Chartered Company (1909-10).

Cowles, Leila (Teresa) Rachid (Lichi) de (b. March 30, 1955, Asunción, Paraguay), foreign minister of Paraguay (2003-06). She was also ambassador to Argentina (1999-2000) and the United States (2000-03).

Cowley, Henry Wellesley, (1st) Baron, original surname Wesley (b. Jan. 20, 1773, Dangan Castle, County Meath, Ireland - d. April 27, 1847, Paris, France), British diplomat; brother of Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley, William Wellesley-Pole, Earl of Mornington, and Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington. He was ambassador to Spain (1811-21), Austria (1823-31), and France (1835, 1841-46). Adopting the surname Wellesley sometime after 1789, he was knighted in 1812 and created baron in 1828.

Cowper, Francis Thomas de Grey Cowper, (7th) Earl (b. June 11, 1834, London, England - d. July 19, 1905, Panshanger, Hertfordshire, England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1880-82); great-great-great-grandson of William Cowper, Earl Cowper. He succeeded as earl in 1856.

Cowper, Steve, byname of Stephen Cambreleng Cowper (b. Aug. 21, 1938, Petersburg, Va.), governor of Alaska (1986-90).

Cowper, William Cowper, (1st) Earl (b. June 24, 1665 - d. Oct. 10, 1723, Colne Green, Hertfordshire, England), British lord keeper (1705-07) and lord chancellor (1707-10, 1714-18). He succeeded as (3rd) Baronet in 1706 and was created Baron Cowper in 1706 and Earl Cowper and Viscount Fordwich in 1718.

A. Cox
Cox, Archibald, (Jr.) (b. May 17, 1912, Plainfield, N.J. - d. May 29, 2004, Brooksville, Maine), U.S. solicitor general (1961-65). He served as a speechwriter and adviser to John F. Kennedy in the Senate and in his campaign for the presidency. President Kennedy then appointed Cox solicitor general, which remained the highest federal position he held. He took over the investigation of the Watergate scandal on May 18, 1973. In April Pres. Richard M. Nixon had forced Attorney General Richard Kleindienst to resign and chosen Elliot Richardson to succeed Kleindienst; as the price for Richardson's confirmation, the Democratic-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee insisted that a special prosecutor be named. In that role, Cox wound up in a confrontation with the White House, where Nixon appointees suspected he was out to get the president. Over five months Cox built up a prosecution staff of energetic young lawyers and widened his investigation into a number of areas, including reports of suspicious financial dealings among members and former members of the Nixon administration. Cox tried to force the White House to turn over the tapes of Oval Office conversations that ultimately proved that there had been a conspiracy to cover up the administration's ties to the Watergate burglary. When Nixon resisted surrendering the tapes, Cox took the matter to the courts, which ruled in his favour. But Nixon would not give in, and the "Saturday Night Massacre" ensued: Nixon ordered Richardson to dismiss Cox, Richardson refused and resigned, his deputy William D. Ruckelshaus likewise refused and was himself dismissed, and finally Cox was dismissed by the solicitor general, Robert H. Bork. From 1980 to 1992 Cox was chairman of Common Cause, a nonpartisan "citizens' lobby."

Cox, Channing H(arris) (b. Feb. 28, 1879, Manchester, N.H. - d. Aug. 20, 1968, West Harwich, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1921-25).

Cox, Sir Charles Thomas (b. 1858 - d. Jan. 30, 1933), administrator of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla (1899-1904); knighted 1913.

Cox, Cyril Hewitt (b. March 14, 1899, Gawler, South Australia - d. Oct. 17, 1994, Canberra, A.C.T.), acting official representative in the Cocos Islands (1957-58).

Cox, (Cyril) Eugene (b. 1928, Somerset, Bermuda - d. Jan. 9, 2004, Burlington, Mass.), finance minister of Bermuda (1998-2004).

Cox, Sir (Charles) Henry (Fortnom) (b. 1880 - d. Aug. 14, 1953), chief British representative (1924-27) and British resident (1927-39) in Transjordan; knighted 1937.

Cox, Jacob D(olson) (b. Oct. 27, 1828, Montreal, Lower Canada [now Quebec] - d. Aug. 4, 1900, Magnolia, near Gloucester, Mass.), governor of Ohio (1866-68) and U.S. secretary of the interior (1869-70).

J.M. Cox
Cox, James M(iddleton) (b. March 31, 1870, Jacksonburg, Ohio - d. July 15, 1957, Dayton, Ohio), U.S. politician. Entering Democratic politics, he early became identified with the programs of party leader Woodrow Wilson, future U.S. president. Cox served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1909-13) and as governor of Ohio (1913-15, 1917-21), where he introduced workmen's compensation, minimum wage, and the initiative and referendum legislation. Cox was nominated for president by the Democrats in 1920 and campaigned in favour of Wilson's program for U.S. entry into the League of Nations, but he was defeated in a landslide in which the Republicans not only recaptured the presidency but won the largest number of seats in the U.S. House of Representatives they had ever held. Cox then retired from active politics. In 1933 he was a member of the American delegation to the World Monetary and Economic Conference in London.

Cox, John I(saac) (b. Nov. 23, 1855, Blountville, Tenn. - d. Sept. 5, 1946, Abingdon, Va.), governor of Tennessee (1905-07).

Pat Cox

Paula Cox

Percy Cox
Cox, Pat, Irish Pádraig Mac Coiligh (b. Nov. 28, 1952, Dublin, Ireland), president of the European Parliament (2002-04).

Cox, Paula (Ann) (b. 1964?, Canada), finance minister (2004-12) and premier (2010-12) of Bermuda; daughter of Eugene Cox. She was also home affairs and public safety minister (1998-2001), education minister (2001-04), and attorney general and justice minister (2003-04).

Cox, Sir Percy (Zachariah) (b. Nov. 20, 1864, Herongate, Essex, England - d. Feb. 20, 1937, Melchbourne, Bedfordshire, England), British political agent and consul in Muscat and Oman (1899-1904), political resident in the Persian Gulf (1904-20), and civil commissioner (1917-18) and high commissioner (1920-23) of Iraq; knighted 1911.

Cox, Spencer (James) (b. July 11, 1975, Fairview, Utah), governor of Utah (2021- ).

Cox, William (John Ellis) (b. April 1, 1936, Hobart, Tasmania), acting governor (2004) and governor (2004-08) of Tasmania. He was a puisne judge (1982-95) and chief justice (1995-2004) of the Supreme Court of Tasmania.

Cox Méndez, Ricardo (b. Sept. 14, 1870, Concepción, Chile - d. May 4, 1952, Santiago, Chile), war and marine minister of Chile (1914-15).

Coye-Felson, Janine, Belizean diplomat. She was acting permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-12).

Cozzens, William C(ole) (b. Aug. 26, 1811, Newport, R.I. - d. Dec. 17, 1876, Newport), governor of Rhode Island (1863).

Craddock, Sir Reginald (Henry) (b. March 11, 1864, Dharmsala, Punjab [now Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh], India - d. Feb. 10, 1937, London, England), chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1907-12) and lieutenant governor of Burma (1918-22); knighted 1911.

Craft, Kelly (Knight), née Kelly Dawn Guilfoil (b. Feb. 24, 1962, Fayette county, Ky.), U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (2019-21). She was also ambassador to Canada (2017-19).

Crafts, Samuel C(handler) (b. Oct. 6, 1768, Woodstock, Connecticut - d. Nov. 19, 1853, Craftsbury, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1828-31).

Craggs, James, the Younger (b. April 9, 1686, Westminster [now part of London], England - d. Feb. 16, 1721), British secretary at war (1717-18) and secretary of state for the Southern Department (1718-21).

Craig, George N(orth) (b. Aug. 6, 1909, Brazil, Ind. - d. Dec. 17, 1992, Indianapolis, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1953-57).

Craig, Sir (Albert) James (Macqueen) (b. July 13, 1924, Liverpool, England - d. Sept. 26, 2017), British political agent in the Trucial States (1961-64); knighted 1981. He was also ambassador to Syria (1976-79) and Saudi Arabia (1979-84).

Craig, Sir James Henry (b. 1748, Gibraltar - d. Jan. 12, 1812, London, England), commandant of Cape Colony (1795-97) and governor of Lower Canada (1807-11); knighted 1797.

Craig, Locke (b. Aug. 16, 1860, Bertie county, N.C. - d. June 9, 1924, Asheville, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1913-17).

Craigavon, James Craig, (1st) Viscount (b. Jan. 8, 1871, Sydenham, Belfast, Ireland [now in Northern Ireland] - d. Nov. 24, 1940, Glencraig, County Down, Northern Ireland), leader of the Ulster Unionist Party and prime minister of Northern Ireland (1921-40). He was created a baronet in 1918 and a viscount in 1927.

Craik, Sir Henry Duffield, (3rd) Baronet (b. 1876 - d. March 26, 1955), governor of Punjab (1938-41). He succeeded as baronet in 1929.

Crainiceanu, Grigore (C.) (b. July 19, 1852, Crainici, Mehedinti county, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. Oct. 1, 1935, Bucharest, Romania), war minister of Romania (1909-11). He was also chief of the General Staff (1907-09).

Cramer, Jaap, byname of Jacob Cramer (b. Feb. 25, 1899, Heukelum, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. April 25, 1998, Assen, Drenthe), queen's commissioner of Drenthe (1951-64).

R. Cramer
Cramer, Robert (Christian) (b. Feb. 7, 1954, Amsterdam, Netherlands), president of the Council of State of Genève (2003-04).

Cranbrook, Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, (1st) Earl of, original name Gathorne Hardy (b. Oct. 1, 1814, Bradford, Yorkshire, England - d. Oct. 30, 1906, Hemsted Park, Kent, England), British home secretary (1867-68) and war secretary (1874-78, 1886). He was also president of the Poor Law Board (1866-67), India secretary (1878-80), lord president of the council (1885-86, 1886-92), and chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1886). He was created Viscount Cranbrook in 1878 (assuming the additional surname of Gathorne) and Baron Medway and Earl of Cranbrook in 1892.

Crane, Arthur Griswold (b. Sept. 1, 1877, Davenport Center, N.Y. - d. Aug. 11, 1955, Cheyenne, Wyo.), acting governor of Wyoming (1949-51).

Crane, Winthrop M(urray) (b. April 23, 1853, Dalton, Mass. - d. Oct. 2, 1920, Dalton), governor of Massachusetts (1900-03).

Cranston, John (b. 1625, London, England - d. March 12, 1680, Newport, Rhode Island), governor of Rhode Island (1678-80).

Cranston, Samuel (b. Aug. 7, 1659, Newport, Providence Plantations [now Rhode Island] - d. April 26, 1727, Newport), governor of Rhode Island (1698-1727); son of John Cranston; nephew of Walter Clarke; grandson-in-law of Roger Williams.

Cranworth, Robert Monsey Rolfe, (1st) Baron (b. Dec. 18, 1790, Cranworth, Norfolk, England - d. July 26, 1868, London, England), British lord chancellor (1852-58, 1865-66). He was also solicitor general (1834, 1835-39). He was knighted in 1835 and created baron in 1850.

Crapo, Henry H(owland) (b. May 22, 1804, Dartmouth, Mass. - d. July 22, 1869, Flint, Mich.), governor of Michigan (1865-69).

Craufurd, Clifford Henry (b. May 15, 1859, London, England - d. May 30, 1900, Twickenham, Middlesex [now part of London], England), acting commissioner of the British East Africa Protectorate (1896-97, 1899).

Cravinho, João (Titterington) Gomes (b. June 16, 1964, Lisbon, Portugal), defense minister (2018-22) and foreign minister (2022-24) of Portugal.

Craw, Charles (b. June 9, 1918, Riverton, New Zealand - d. 1994), New Zealand diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Thailand (1958-61), ambassador to France (1964), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-68).

Crawford, Coe I(saac) (b. Jan. 14, 1858, near Volney, Iowa - d. April 25, 1944, Yankton, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (1907-09). He was also a U.S. senator from South Dakota (1909-15).

Crawford, David Gordon (b. June 10, 1928 - d. Sept. 6, 1981), British consul-general in (Muscat and) Oman (1969-71). He was also ambassador to Qatar (1974-78).

Crawford, Sir Frederick (b. March 9, 1906 - d. May 27, 1978), governor of Seychelles (1951-53) and Uganda (1957-61); knighted 1953.

Crawford, George W(alker) (b. Dec. 22, 1798, Columbia county, Ga. - d. July 27, 1872, "Bel Air" estate, near Augusta, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1843-47) and U.S. secretary of war (1849-50); cousin of William H. Crawford.

Crawford, James Adair (b. 1857 - d. Oct. 13, 1936, London, England), acting political resident in the Persian Gulf (1893) and acting chief commissioner of Baluchistan (1896).

Crawford, John Willoughby (b. 1817, Manorhamilton, County Leitrim, Ireland - d. May 13, 1875, Toronto, Ont.), lieutenant governor of Ontario (1873-75).

Crawford, Samuel J(ohnson) (b. April 10, 1835, near Bedford, Ind. - d. Oct. 21, 1913, Topeka, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1865-68).

Crawford, Sir (Robert) Stewart (b. Aug. 27, 1913 - d. Oct. 11, 2002), political resident in the Persian Gulf (1966-70); knighted 1966.

W.H. Crawford
Crawford, William H(arris) (b. Feb. 24, 1772, Amherst county [now Nelson county], Virginia - d. Sept. 15, 1834, Elberton, Ga.), U.S. presidential candidate (1824). A Jeffersonian Republican, he entered elective politics in 1803, winning a seat in the Georgia legislature. In 1807 he went to Washington to fill the unexpired term of Georgia's deceased U.S. senator Abraham Baldwin. In the Senate, he quickly earned a reputation for wisdom and sound judgment, and the Georgia legislature elected him to a full term as senator in 1811. He backed U.S. preparations for and the declaration of war against Britain in 1812 and - unlike most Democratic Republicans - favoured a tariff and extension of the charter of the Bank of the United States. When Vice President George Clinton died in 1812, Crawford was elected president pro tempore of the Senate but left the position the following year to become minister to France. In 1815 Pres. James Madison appointed Crawford secretary of war and in 1816 named him secretary of the treasury. A leading candidate for the 1816 presidential nomination, he deferred to James Monroe, who was elected and who retained Crawford as secretary of the treasury. Monroe was reelected virtually without opposition in 1820. In 1824 Crawford was again a presidential prospect, along with John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson. He won the vote of the party caucus, but by 1824 the caucus system had fallen into disrepute, and its choice proved meaningless. At the time of the election Crawford was paralyzed and nearly blind as the result of a stroke. Although his supporters claimed that he was steadily improving, he finished a distant third behind Adams and Jackson. Crawford refused Adams' invitation to stay on as secretary of the treasury.

Craxi, Bettino, byname of Benedetto Craxi (b. Feb. 24, 1934, Milan, Italy - d. Jan. 19, 2000, Hammamet, Tunisia), prime minister of Italy (1983-87). He joined the Socialist Youth Movement in his late teens and became a member of the Italian Socialist Party's central committee in 1957. He won a seat on the city council of Milan in 1960, was elected to a seat in the national Chamber of Deputies in 1968, and became one of three deputy secretaries of the Socialist Party in 1970. When the Socialists performed badly in the 1976 general elections, Craxi became the party's general secretary. He proceeded to unite the faction-ridden party, committed it to moderate social and economic policies, and tried to dissociate it from the much larger Communist Party. He also used the Socialists' role in coalition building to give the party a voice three or four times greater than its electoral weight. Under Craxi's leadership the Socialists were members in five of Italy's six coalition governments from 1980 to 1983. Craxi's decision to pull out of the Christian Democrat-led coalition in April 1983 provoked general elections in June that resulted in his being invited to form a government. He became Italy's first Socialist prime minister, forming a coalition government with the Christian Democrats and several small, moderate parties. He pursued anti-inflationary fiscal policies and steered a pro-American course in foreign affairs. He formed a new coalition government in 1986 but resigned in early 1987. In February 1993 multiple charges of political corruption forced Craxi, who denied the allegations, to resign his post as party leader. In 1994 he went into self-imposed exile in Tunisia. He was convicted in absentia for involvement in illegal financing of parties.

Creagh, Charles Vandeleur (b. 1842 - d. Sept. 18, 1917), governor of North Borneo (1888-95).

Creagh, Sir (Garrett) O'Moore (b. April 2, 1848, Cahirbane, County Clare, Ireland - d. Aug. 9, 1923, London, England), political resident of Aden (1898-1900); knighted 1903.

Crean, Frank, byname of Francis Daniel Crean (b. Feb. 28, 1916, Hamilton, Vic. - d. Dec. 2, 2008, Melbourne, Vic.), treasurer (1972-74) and deputy prime minister (1975) of Australia. He was a member of parliament from 1951 to 1977.

S. Crean
Crean, Simon (Findlay) (b. Feb. 26, 1949, Melbourne, Vic. - d. June 25, 2023, Germany), Australian politician; son of Frank Crean. He was an official of the Storemen and Packers Union before being elected president of the Australian Council of Trade Unions in 1985. In this position he negotiated a number of wage agreements with the Labor government of Bob Hawke. In 1990 he resigned this position to enter parliament as member for Hotham, Victoria. He immediately entered the ministry as minister for science, and was later minister for primary industry and energy (1991-93) and for employment, education and training (1993-96). After Labor's defeat in 1996, he became a senior opposition frontbencher. He was deputy opposition leader and shadow treasurer in 1998-2001. In November 2001 he was elected unopposed as leader of the Labor Party in succession to Kim Beazley. But he proved unable to connect with the voters enough to lift his approval rating to a respectable level. He stepped down in November 2003, becoming the first Labor leader not to have contested an election. When Labor returned to power in 2007, he became trade minister, moving in June 2010 to education, employment, social inclusion, and workplace relations, and in September 2010 to the arts, regional development, and local government. In March 2013 he called for a spill of all leadership positions in the party, urging Kevin Rudd to challenge Prime Minister Julia Gillard, with himself standing for deputy leader. But Rudd refused, and Crean was dismissed from the ministry.

Creanga, Pavel (Simion) (b. Oct. 26, 1933, Salcuta, Romania [now in Moldova] - d. Jan. 19, 2004), defense minister of Moldova (1992-96, 1996-97).

Creasy, Sir Gerald Hallen (b. Nov. 1, 1897 - d. June 9, 1983), governor of Gold Coast (1948-49) and Malta (1949-54); knighted 1946.

Creel Cuilty, Enrique C(lay de Jesús) (b. Aug. 30, 1854, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico - d. Aug. 17, 1931, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Chihuahua (1904-06, 1907-10) and foreign minister of Mexico (1910-11). He was also ambassador to the United States (1907-08).

Creel Miranda, Santiago (b. Dec. 11, 1954, Mexico City, Mexico), interior minister of Mexico (2000-05); great-grandson of Enrique C. Creel Cuilty. He was also president of the Senate (2007-08).

Creft, Jacqueline (b. 1947 - d. [executed] Oct. 19, 1983, St. George's, Grenada), Grenadian politician; common-law wife of Maurice Bishop. She was minister of education, youth, social affairs, women's affairs, culture, and sport (1981-83).

Creixems (Savignon), Rubén (Eduardo) (b. March 26, 1957), justice minister of Venezuela (1994-96).

Cremers, Eppo, byname of Epimachus Jacobus Johannes Baptista Cremers (b. June 15, 1823, Groningen, Netherlands - d. Oct. 27, 1896, Zürich, Switzerland), foreign minister of the Netherlands (1864-66). He was also chairman of the Second Chamber (1884, 1885-87, 1887-88).

Crémieux, (Isaac) Adolphe (b. April 30, 1796, Nîmes, Gard, France - d. Feb. 10, 1880, Paris, France), justice minister of France (1848, 1870-71).

Cremin, Cornelius (Christopher), byname Con Cremin (b. Dec. 6, 1908, Kenmare, County Kerry, Ireland - d. April 18, 1987, Kenmare), Irish diplomat. He was minister to Germany (1944-45), chargé d'affaires in Portugal (1945-46), ambassador to France (1950-54), the Vatican (1954-56), and the United Kingdom (1956-58, 1963-64), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-74).

Cremona, John J(oseph) (b. Jan. 6, 1918, Xaghra, Gozo, Malta - d. Dec. 24, 2020), acting president of Malta (1976). He was attorney general (1957-64) and chief justice (1971-81).

Cremona, (Antonio) Luigi (Gaudenzio Giuseppe) (b. Dec. 7, 1830, Pavia, Austria [now in Italy] - d. June 10, 1903, Rome, Italy), Italian politician. Also known as a mathematician, he was minister of education (1898).

Cren, Pierre Vincent (b. July 13, 1815, Brest, France - d. ...), commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1864-72).

Crépeau, Michel (Édouard Jean) (b. Oct. 30, 1930, Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendée, France - d. March 30, 1999, Paris, France), French politician. He was introduced to politics in 1948, when he joined the Radical Party of the time. He was mayor of the Atlantic coastal town of La Rochelle since 1971. At one point (1978-81), he served as president of the Movement of Radicals of the Left, a small party allied with the Socialists. He was a presidential candidate in the 1981 election won by Pres. François Mitterrand. During his long political career, Crépeau headed various ministries, including environment (1981-83), commerce (1984-86), and justice (1986). Crépeau was first elected deputy in 1973, again in 1986, and finally in 1997. The longtime lawmaker was known for his incisive questions and lyrical orations before the French parliament. At the time of his death, Crépeau served as president of the Radical, Citizen and Green group in the National Assembly, which brought together several small parties. He died a week after collapsing in his National Assembly seat from a heart attack, minutes after asking a question about savings accounts.

Crerar, Thomas Alexander (b. June 17, 1876, Molesworth, Ont. - d. April 11, 1975, Victoria, B.C.), interior minister of Canada (1935-36). He was also minister of agriculture (1917-19 and [acting] 1935), railways and canals (1929-30), immigration and colonization (1935-36), and mines and resources (1935-45) and superintendent-general of Indian affairs (1935-36).

Crescentini, Giorgio (b. 1950), captain-regent of San Marino (1984).

Crespo (Torres), Joaquín (Sinforiano de Jesús) (b. Aug. 22, 1841, San Francisco de Cara [no longer existing], Aragua, Venezuela - d. April 16, 1898, La Mata Carmelera, Cojedes, Venezuela), president of Venezuela (1884-86, 1892-94, 1894-98). He was also president of Guárico (1874-76), war and navy minister (1876, 1876-77), and president of Guzmán Blanco (1882-84), a short-lived state comprising present Aragua, Guárico, Miranda, and Nueva Esparta. He first served as a puppet president (1884-86) under strongman Antonio Guzmán Blanco. Guzmán's fall from power precipitated strife in Venezuela that lasted until 1892, when Crespo became dictator as "the hero of duty." He served as elected president in 1894-98. This term was noted for the bitter feelings between the United States and Britain brought about by the Venezuelan boundary dispute. Britain claimed that the western boundary of British Guiana extended into territory claimed by Venezuela. Crespo appealed to U.S. president Grover Cleveland to arbitrate the matter. Invoking the Monroe Doctrine, the U.S. threatened Britain with war. The British then accepted arbitration, and most of the area was awarded to Britain. In 1898 Crespo became governor of Miranda, but was killed while commanding government forces against an insurrection led by Gen. José Manuel Hernández.

Crespo, Luiz Augusto (b. Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. July 16, 1890, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil), president of Goiás (1878-79).

Crespo, Vítor (Manuel Trigueiros) (b. March 21, 1932, Porto de Mós, central Portugal - d. Dec. 17, 2014), high commissioner of Mozambique (1974-75). He was also Portuguese minister of cooperation (1975-76).

Crespo, Vítor Pereira (b. Dec. 2, 1932, Milagres, Leiria district, Portugal - d. Sept. 30, 2014), Portuguese politician. He was education minister in 1980-83 and president of the Assembly of the Republic in 1987-91.

Crespo Toral, Jorge (b. May 12, 1923, Cuenca, Ecuador - d. Aug. 6, 2017), Ecuadorian presidential candidate (1968).

Cresson, Édith, née Campion (b. Jan. 27, 1934, Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, France), prime minister of France (1991-92). She joined the Socialist Party in 1965 and worked vigorously in François Mitterrand's failed presidential campaign of that year. In February 1975 at the Pau congress of the Socialist Party, she took her place in the party's National Secretariat, in charge of youth and students. In 1975 she was asked by the Socialists to run for a parliamentary seat in Châtellerault, a conservative bastion southwest of Paris. She lost but earned her reputation as a fighter and pragmatist rather than an ideologue. She again ran unsuccessfully for parliament in 1978 but was elected mayor of Thuré (1977) and member of the European Parliament (1979). In 1981 she became agriculture minister. In 1983 she was elected mayor of Châtellerault, the only Socialist to unseat a conservative mayor in that year's election. That same year she was appointed minister of tourism and foreign trade; the next year, industrial redeployment and foreign trade. In 1986 she was elected as a Socialist deputy from Vienne. In 1988 she became minister of European affairs but, frustrated by the government's inability to encourage French competition with Japanese and German industries, she quit that post in October 1990. When Michel Rocard resigned in 1991, Mitterrand appointed Cresson premier, but rising unemployment and declining popular support for the Socialist Party prompted Mitterrand to replace her after less than a year. In 1995 she became a member of the European Commission, responsible for research and education. Allegations of corruption against her and other commissioners led to the mass resignation of the commission in 1999.

Creswell, Frederic (Hugh Page) (b. Nov. 13, 1866, Gibraltar - d. Aug. 25, 1948, Kuilsriver, near Cape Town, South Africa), defense minister of South Africa (1924-33). He was also leader of the South African Labour Party (1910-33) and minister of labour (1924-25, 1929-33).

Cretu, Corina (b. June 24, 1967, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian politician. She was EU commissioner for regional policy (2014-19).

Cretulescu, Nicolae, old spelling Kretzulescu (b. March 1, 1812, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. June 26, 1900, Leordeni, Romania), prime minister of Walachia (1859) and Romania (1862-63, 1865-66, 1867). He was also finance minister (1857-58) and interior minister and acting foreign minister (1859) of Walachia and Romanian minister of interior (1862-63, 1866), justice (1862-63, 1863, 1864-65, 1871), education and worship (1864-65, 1879-80), finance (1865-66), agriculture and public works (1866, 1871-73), and commerce (1871-73), diplomatic agent and consul general to Germany (1873-76), minister to Italy (1880-81), Russia (1881-86), and France (1891-93), president of the Senate (1889-90), and president of the Romanian Academy (1872-73, 1895-98).

Creutz, Ernst, originally Erengisle Larsson (b. 1584? - d. [killed] February 1635), governor of Norrland (1631-35).

Creutz, Ernst Johan friherre (b. May 20, 1619 - d. Feb. 24, 1684, Åbo [now Turku], Finland), governor of Nyland och Tavastehus (1652-66), Åbo och Björneborg (1666-67), and Västmanland (1667-74); son of Ernst Creutz; brother of Lorentz friherre Creutz (1615-1676). He was made friherre (baron) in 1654.

Creutz, Ernst Johan greve (b. Feb. 12, 1675, Åbo [now Turku], Finland - d. April 3, 1742, Christineholm, Södermanland, Sweden), governor of Östergötland (1721-27); son of Ernst Johan friherre Creutz. He was raised from friherre (baron) to greve (count) in 1731.

Creutz, Gustaf greve (b. May 10, 1683 - d. Aug. 13, 1746, at sea), governor of Österbotten (1739-46); son of Johan greve Creutz.

Creutz, Gustaf Philip greve (b. May 1731, Anjala, Finland - d. Oct. 30, 1785, Stockholm, Sweden), chancellery president of Sweden (1783-85); grandson of Johan greve Creutz; nephew of Gustaf greve Creutz. He was also minister to Spain (1763-66) and minister (1766-72) and ambassador (1772-83) to France.

Creutz, Johan greve (b. April 7, 1651 - d. Sept. 16, 1726, Åbo [now Turku], Finland), governor of Nyland och Tavastehus (1703-19); son of Lorentz friherre Creutz (1615-1676); brother of Lorentz friherre Creutz (1646-1698). He was made greve (count) in 1719.

Creutz, Lorentz friherre (b. 1615 - d. [in sinking of ship Stora Kronan during naval battle] June 1, 1676, near Öland island, Sweden), governor of Åbo och Björneborg (1649-55) and Kopparberg (1655-63); son of Ernst Creutz. He was made friherre (baron) in 1654.

Creutz, Lorentz friherre (b. March 31, 1646, Pernå [now part of Loviisa], Finland - d. Feb. 7, 1698, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Åbo och Björneborg (1683-98); son of the above.

Crewe, Robert (Offley Ashburton) Crewe-Milnes, (1st) Marquess of (b. Jan. 12, 1858, London, England - d. June 20, 1945, near Leatherhead, Surrey, England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1892-95). He was also British lord president of the council (1905-08, 1915-16), colonial secretary (1908-10), lord privy seal (1908-11, 1912-15), secretary of state for India (1910-15), president of the Board of Education (1916), ambassador to France (1922-28), and secretary of state for war (1931). He succeeded as (2nd) Baron Houghton in 1885 and was created Earl of Crewe in 1895 and Earl of Madeley and Marquess of Crewe in 1911.

Crill, Sir Peter (Leslie) (b. Feb. 1, 1925 - d. Oct. 3, 2005), bailiff of Jersey (1986-95); knighted 1987. Earlier he was solicitor general (1962-69), attorney general (1969-74), and deputy bailiff (1975-85).

Cripps, Sir (Richard) Stafford (b. April 24, 1889, London, England - d. April 21, 1952, Zürich, Switzerland), British chancellor of the exchequer (1947-50); knighted 1930; son of Charles Cripps, Baron Parmoor; nephew-in-law of Sidney Webb, Baron Passfield. He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1940-42), lord privy seal (1942), minister of aircraft production (1942-45) and economic affairs (1947), and president of the Board of Trade (1945-47).

Cripwell, Richard (John) (b. October 1962, Northern Ireland), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (2013-15) and lieutenant governor of Guernsey (2022- ).

Crisona, James J. (b. Aug. 30, 1907, Brooklyn, New York City - d. Sept. 4, 2003, Manhattan, New York City), borough president of Queens (1958).

Crispi, Francesco (b. Oct. 4, 1819, Ribera, Sicily - d. Aug. 12, 1901, Naples), prime minister of Italy (1887-91, 1893-96). He helped plan the successful 1848 uprising in Sicily but the island was regained by the Bourbon king Ferdinand II in 1849. Crispi and the republicans hoped eventually to unify Italy by beginning a revolution in Sicily, and in 1859 he twice travelled to Sicily, using forged passports, to organize another uprising. After much delay, he persuaded Giuseppe Garibaldi to invade Sicily in May 1860 with his band of volunteers, known as "the Thousand," to assist the popular uprising there. Quickly conquering the whole island, Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator and named Crispi interior minister. In that position Crispi came into conflict with Count Cavour, premier of Sardinia-Piedmont, who wanted to annex Sicily. After Crispi's forced resignation, Sicily was annexed to the newly created Kingdom of Italy (1860). When the leftists came to power, he was elected president of the chamber (1876). Invited to be interior minister in the cabinet of Agostino Depretis (1877), he was within a few months forced to resign over a charge of bigamy. When Depretis died, Crispi formed his first cabinet (1887). A large budgetary deficit, necessitating increased taxes, toppled his government in 1891. Nevertheless, in 1893 he again became premier. While he greatly improved the economic situation, he became increasingly repressive, brutally crushing a socialist uprising in Sicily. He also embarked upon a disastrous foreign policy. He tried to turn Italy into a colonial power in Africa. The disastrous Italian defeat at the Battle of Adowa in 1896 at the hands of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia earned Crispi a vote of censure that caused him to resign.

Crissinger, Daniel R(ichard) (b. Dec. 10, 1860, Tully Township, Marion county, Ohio - d. July 12, 1942, Marion, Ohio), governor of the Federal Reserve System (1923-27).

Crist, Charlie, byname of Charles Joseph Crist, Jr. (b. July 24, 1956, Altoona, Pa.), governor of Florida (2007-11).

Cristea, Miron, secular name Elie (Gheorghe) Cristea (b. July 20, 1868, Toplita, Romania - d. March 6, 1939, Cannes, France), prime minister of Romania (1938-39). In 1910 he was elected Greek Orthodox bishop of Caransebes, Romania. In 1918, at the end of World War I, he was a member of the delegation which approached King Ferdinand with the decision which had been voted at Alba in July that Transylvania, which had been under Hungarian rule, should join itself to Romania. After the union was effected, he was (1919) unanimously chosen metropolitan of Walachia and archbishop of Bucharest, and as such primate of Romania. Early in 1925 a plenary meeting of the Holy Synod unanimously decided on the creation of a patriarchate for the Romanian Orthodox Church and raised the primate to the rank of patriarch. His enthronement as first patriarch of Romania took place in Bucharest in October 1925. In 1926 he was appointed in his capacity as patriarch by King Ferdinand to be a member of the Regency Council, and he carried out the duties of that appointment from 1927 to 1930 during the interval between King Ferdinand's death and the return of Prince Carol to seize the throne. On a journey to Palestine in 1927, he visited the patriarch of Constantinople and other heads of Orthodox churches; in 1936 he went to England at the invitation of the archbishop of Canterbury and was received by King Edward VIII. After the resignation of the Octavian Goga cabinet in February 1938, he was appointed prime minister as King Carol II decided that the patriarch's prestige would add authority to an administration which was designed to break with the unsatisfactory party connections of the past. He attempted to achieve political stability and unity amid increasing popular support for the Fascist Iron Guard.

Cristiani (Burkard), Alfredo (Félix) (b. Nov. 22, 1947, San Salvador, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (1989-94). In 1984, Cristiani joined the right-wing Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA), founded in 1981 by Roberto D'Aubuisson to oppose the guerrilla Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN). He sought to moderate ARENA and attracted a coalition of peasants, businessmen, and landed oligarchs to its banner. In 1989, when D'Aubuisson was forced to step aside because of U.S. opposition to his extremism, Cristiani led ARENA to victory in the presidential election. As president, he opened serious discussions with the guerrilla leaders and, following the murder of six politically active Jesuit priests that fall, acknowledged the army's responsibility and promised an army shake-up. After UN-sponsored peace talks and numerous reforms in response to rebel demands, all parties to the fighting signed a far-reaching accord in 1992. Constitutionally barred from succeeding himself, he yielded power to ARENA's freely elected Armando Calderón Sol.

Cristo (Bustos), Juan Fernando (b. July 11, 1964, Cúcuta, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (2014-17, 2024- ). He was also ambassador to Greece (1996-97) and president of the Senate (2013-14).

Critchley, Thomas Kingston, byname Tom Critchley (b. Jan. 27, 1916, Melbourne, Vic. - d. July 14, 2009, Sydney, N.S.W.), Australian high commissioner to Papua New Guinea (1974-78). He was also ambassador to Thailand (1969-74) and Indonesia (1978-81).

Crittenden, John J(ordan) (b. Sept. 10, 1787, near Versailles, Woodford county, Ky. - d. July 26, 1863, Frankfort, Ky.), U.S. attorney general (1841, 1850-53) and governor of Kentucky (1848-50).

Crittenden, Robert (b. Jan. 1, 1797, Woodford county, Ky. - d. Dec. 18, 1834, Vicksburg, Miss.), acting governor of Arkansas (1819); brother of John J. Crittenden.

Crittenden, Thomas T(heodore) (b. Jan. 1, 1832, near Shelbyville, Ky. - d. May 29, 1909, Kansas City, Mo.), governor of Missouri (1881-85); nephew of John J. Crittenden.

Crittenden, Thomas T(heodore), Jr. (b. Dec. 23, 1863, near Springfield, Ill. - d. July 31, 1938, Kansas City, Mo.), mayor of Kansas City, Mo. (1908-10); son of Thomas T. Crittenden.

Crivella, Marcelo Bezerra (b. Oct. 9, 1957, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Brazilian politician. A bishop of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God and nephew of the church's founder Edir Macedo, he was minister of fisheries (2012-14) and mayor of Rio de Janeiro (2017-21).

Crkvenac, Mato (b. Feb. 20, 1945, Donja Petricka, Croatia), finance minister of Croatia (2000-03).


Crnadak, Igor (b. July 28, 1972, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina), foreign minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2015-19).

Crnic, Ivica (b. Jan. 9, 1951, Zagreb, Croatia), justice minister of Croatia (1992-95).

Croce, Benedetto (b. Feb. 25, 1866, Pescasseroli, L'Aquila province, Italy - d. Nov. 20, 1952, Naples, Italy), Italian politician. Better known as a philosopher, he was minister of education (1920-21) and a minister without portfolio (1944).

Crocetta, Rosario (b. Feb. 8, 1951, Gela, Sicilia, Italy), president of Sicilia (2012-17). As mayor of Gela (2003-09), he was supposed to be the first openly gay mayor in Italy.

Crocicchia, Horace Valentin (b. Nov. 6, 1888, Tulle, Corrèze, France - d. Oct. 12, 1976, Nice, France), governor of French India (1936-38), Ivory Coast (1939-41), and French Guinea (1942-44).

Crocker, William Maunder (b. 1843, near Okehampton, Devon, England - d. May 7, 1899), governor of North Borneo (1887-88).

Crocket, Alison, acting governor of Bermuda (2020). She was deputy governor in 2018-22.

Croes, Betico, byname of Gilberto François Croes (b. Jan. 25, 1938, Santa Cruz, Aruba - d. Nov. 26, 1986), Aruban politician. In 1971 he committed himself to fight for a "Status Aparte" for Aruba, i.e. its detachment from the rest of the Netherlands Antilles. This was achieved on Jan. 1, 1986. But just minutes from celebrating the realization of his dream, a fatal car accident on Dec. 31, 1985, resulted in him slipping into a coma from which he never returned.

Croitor, Dumitru (b. Oct. 2, 1959), governor of Gagauzia (1999-2002). He has also been Moldovan ambassador to Switzerland (2003-05) and Turkey (2020- ).

Crokaert, Paul (Gustave Corneille) (b. Dec. 1, 1875, Brussels, Belgium - d. April 4, 1955, Brussels), defense minister of Belgium (1932). He was also minister of colonies (1931-32).

Crombet (Hernández-Baquero), Jaime (Alberto) (b. April 3, 1941, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba - d. May 24, 2013, Havana, Cuba), a vice premier of Cuba (1990-93). He was also first secretary of the Communist Party committees of Havana city (1977-78) and Pinar del Río province (1980-83) and ambassador to Angola (1979-80).

Crombie, Tony, byname of Anthony Campbell Crombie (b. October 1956), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (2004-06).

Cromer, Evelyn Baring, (1st) Earl of, Viscount Errington of Hexham, Viscount Cromer, Baron Cromer of Cromer, also called (1883-92) Sir Evelyn Baring (b. Feb. 26, 1841, Cromer Hall, Norfolk, England - d. Jan. 29, 1917, London, England), British administrator. In 1872 his cousin, Thomas George Baring, Baron Northbrook, just named viceroy to India, took him along as his private secretary. His obvious administrative qualities were highly appreciated by his superiors. His colleagues, however, dubbed him "Vice-Viceroy" and "Over-Baring," nicknames which clearly bespoke his self-assured efficiency and ability to command - traits invaluable in a leader of men, though not necessarily conducive to popularity among his equals. His manner was gruff to his equals, condescending and patronizing to his subordinates and to the people he chose to describe as the "subject races." Imbued with immense common sense and a profound belief in himself and his country, he could not abide cant or hypocrisy. He was the typical Victorian colonial administrator, eminently fair and just but with little to endear him save an occasional flash of humour. In 1883 he became British agent and consul-general in Egypt with plenipotentiary powers, having in the interim been knighted. Until his resignation he remained the real ruler of Egypt. The system worked well during the first 10 years, for the khedive Tawfiq Pasha abdicated all responsibility to the English. In 1892 a young new ruler, Abbas Hilmi Pasha, gave encouragement to a budding nationalist movement. Baring, who had been raised to the peerage as Lord Cromer, succeeded in intimidating him quite thoroughly. In 1907 London adopted a more accommodating attitude toward Egypt. Cromer realized that a change was impending and, as his health had deteriorated, resigned office.

Crommelin, Jan Pieter van Wickevoort (b. July 14, 1763, Haarlem, Netherlands - d. May 6, 1837, Haarlem), acting foreign minister of Holland (1810). He was also president of the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic (1796) and chairman of the Second Chamber of the Netherlands (1817-18).

Crommelin, Wigbold (b. Sept. 13, 1712, Haarlem [now in Noord-Holland], Netherlands - d. March 5, 1789, Grave, Staats-Brabant [now Noord-Brabant], Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1752-54, 1757-68).

Crompton, Michael Robin (b. March 19, 1938), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1988-90).

Cromwell, George (b. July 3, 1860, Brooklyn [now in New York City] - d. Sept. 17, 1934, Staten Island, New York City), borough president of Richmond (1898-1913).

Cromwell, James H(enry) R(oberts) (b. June 4, 1896, New York City - d. March 19, 1990, Mill Valley, Calif.), U.S. diplomat; brother-in-law of Douglas MacArthur. He was minister to Canada (1940).

Cronberg, Fredrik Magnus friherre (b. Aug. 21, 1668, Stockholm, Sweden - d. April 23, 1740, Stockholm), governor of Västerbotten (1717-19) and Uppsala (1719-28); grandson of Anders Gyldenklou. He was made friherre (baron) in 1717.

Cronhielm, Polykarpus friherre, originally Polykarpus Crumbügel (b. 1629, Dippoldiswalde, Saxony [Germany] - d. April 14, 1698, Västerås, Västmanland, Sweden), governor of Skaraborg (1690-93) and Västmanland (1693-98). He was ennobled under the name Cronhielm in 1675 and made friherre (baron) in 1691.

Cronhielm af Flosta, Gustaf greve, until 1712 Gustaf friherre Cronhielm (b. July 18, 1664, Stockholm, Sweden - d. June 3, 1737, Stockholm), governor of Västmanland (1698-1710) and chancellery president of Sweden (1719); son of Polykarpus friherre Cronhielm. He was made greve (count) in 1712.

Cronhielm af Flosta, Johan greve (b. Jan. 14, 1707 - d. Jan. 27, 1782, Norrköping, Sweden), governor of Malmöhus (1769-72); son of Gustaf greve Cronhielm af Flosta.

Cronhielm af Hakunge, Polycarpus Erik greve (b. Jan. 23, 1797, Ryd, Östergötland, Sweden - d. Nov. 21, 1856, Falun, Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden), governor of Kopparberg (1853-56).

Cronhielm af Hakunge, Salomon greve (count), until 1719 Salomon friherre (baron) Cronhielm (b. 1666 - d. Feb. 24, 1724, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Närke och Värmland (1707-14); son of Polykarpus friherre Cronhielm.

Cronhjort, Abraham friherre (b. Jan. 1, 1634, Kockenhusen, Livonia, Sweden [now in Latvia] - d. Nov. 12, 1703, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland), governor of Nyland och Tavastehus (1696-1703). He was made friherre (baron) in 1696.

Cronhjort, Carl Gustaf friherre (b. Sept. 16, 1694, Kalmar, Sweden - d. July 7, 1777, Kläckeberga socken, Kalmar, Sweden), governor of Västernorrland (1755-56); son of Abraham friherre Cronhjort.

Cronin, Jerry, byname of Jeremiah Cronin, Irish Diarmaid Ó Cróinín (b. Sept. 15, 1925, Currabeha, Fermoy, County Cork, Ireland - d. Oct. 19, 1990), defence minister of Ireland (1970-73).

Cronman, Johan friherre (b. Nov. 2, 1662 - d. July 26, 1737, Malmö, Sweden), governor of Malmöhus (1727-37). He was made friherre (baron) in 1727.

Cronstedt, Fredrik (Johan) greve (b. Dec. 8, 1807, Västerås-Barkarö socken, Västmanland, Sweden - d. May 24, 1869, Västerås, Västmanland), governor of Västmanland (1863-69); grandson of Fredrik Adolf Ulrik greve Cronstedt.

Cronstedt, Fredrik Adolf Ulrik greve (b. Dec. 1, 1744, Stockholm, Sweden - d. April 14, 1829, Stockholm), governor of Gävleborg (1781-1812); grandson of Jakob greve Cronstedt.

Cronstedt, Jakob greve, originally (until 1693) Jakob Olderman (b. Nov. 23, 1668, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Feb. 21, 1751, Stockholm), governor of Kronoberg (1719-27). He became friherre (baron) in 1719 and greve (count) in 1731.

Cronstedt, Johan Adam greve (b. Nov. 12, 1749, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Feb. 21, 1836, Stockholm), governor of Östergötland (1810-17); brother of Fredrik Adolf Ulrik Cronstedt; grandson of Jakob greve Cronstedt.

Crook, Kenneth Roy (b. July 30, 1920 - d. July 24, 2012), governor of the Cayman Islands (1971-74). He was also British ambassador to Afghanistan (1976-79).

Crosbie, John (Carnell) (b. Jan. 30, 1931, St. John's, Newfoundland - d. Jan. 10, 2020), finance minister (1979-80) and justice minister (1984-86) of Canada and lieutenant governor of Newfoundland and Labrador (2008-13). He was also minister of transport (1986-88), international trade (1988-91), and fisheries and oceans (1991-93).

Crosby, John Schuyler (b. Sept. 19, 1839, Albany, N.Y. - d. Aug. 8, 1914, Newport, R.I.), governor of Montana (1883-84).

Crosby, Robert (Berkey) (b. March 26, 1911, North Platte, Neb. - d. Jan. 7, 2000, Lincoln, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1953-55).

Crosby, William G(eorge) (b. Sept. 10, 1805, Belfast, Mass. [now in Maine] - d. March 21, 1881, Belfast), governor of Maine (1853-55).

Crose, William Michael (b. Feb. 8, 1867, Greencastle, Ind. - d. April 4, 1929, San Diego, Calif.), governor of American Samoa (1910-13).

Crosetto, Guido (b. Sept. 19, 1963, Cuneo, Italy), defense minister of Italy (2022- ).

Crosland, (Charles) Anthony (Raven) (b. Aug. 29, 1918, St. Leonards, Sussex, England - d. Feb. 19, 1977, Oxford, England), British foreign secretary (1976-77). He entered Parliament in 1950 and served Labour governments as minister of state for economic affairs (1964-65), secretary of state for education and science (1965-67), local government and regional planning (1969-70), and the environment (1974-76), and president of the Board of Trade (1967-69). When James Callaghan became prime minister, Crosland succeeded him as foreign secretary. He died in office.

B.M. Cross
Cross, Burton M(elvin) (b. Nov. 15, 1902, Augusta, Maine - d. Oct. 22, 1998, Augusta), governor of Maine (1952-53, 1953-55). Cross, a Republican who emphasized fiscal conservatism, entered the state House of Representatives in 1941 and moved on to the state Senate in 1945. He was elected governor in 1952 but lost his reelection bid two years later to Edmund Muskie. He was actively involved in preserving the Maine gubernatorial mansion known as the Blaine House.

Cross, Richard Assheton Cross, (1st) Viscount (b. May 30, 1823, Red Scar [now part of Preston], Lancashire, England - d. Jan. 8, 1914, Broughton-in-Furness, Lancashire), British home secretary (1874-80, 1885-86). He was also secretary of state for India (1886-92), chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1895), and lord privy seal (1895-1900). He was knighted in 1880 and created viscount in 1886.

Cross, Sir Ronald (Hibbert), (1st) Baronet (b. May 9, 1896, Pendleton, Lancashire, England - d. June 3, 1968, London, England), governor of Tasmania (1951-58). He was also British minister of economic warfare (1939-40) and shipping (1940-41) and high commissioner to Australia (1941-45). He was made a baronet in 1941.

Cross, Wilbur L(ucius) (b. April 10, 1862, Mansfield, Conn. - d. Oct. 5, 1948, New Haven, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1931-39).

Crosthwaite, Charles Gilbert (b. 1878 - d. July 30, 1940, Suffolk, England), British political agent and consul in Muscat and Oman (1924-25, 1925-26).

Crosthwaite, Sir Charles Haukes Todd (b. Dec. 5, 1835, Donnybrook, County Dublin, Ireland - d. May 28, 1915, Shamley Green, Surrey, England), chief commissioner of British Burma (acting, 1883-84), the Central Provinces (1884-85), and Burma (1887-90) and lieutenant governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh (1892-95); knighted 1888.

Crosthwaite, Sir Robert Joseph (b. Jan. 17, 1841 - d. July 2, 1917), chief commissioner of Ajmer-Merwara (1895-98); knighted 1897; brother of Sir Charles Haukes Todd Crosthwaite.

Croswell, Charles M(iller) (b. Oct. 31, 1825, Newburgh, N.Y. - d. Dec. 13, 1886, Adrian, Mich.), governor of Michigan (1877-81).

Crothers, Austin L(ane) (b. May 17, 1860, near Conowingo, Md. - d. May 25, 1912, Elkton, Md.), governor of Maryland (1908-12).

Crouch, Julia (Catherine) (b. 1967?, Bushey, Hertfordshire, England), governor of Anguilla (2023- ).

Crounse, Lorenzo (b. Jan. 26, 1834, Sharon, N.Y. - d. May 13, 1909, Omaha, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1893-95).

Crouse, Lloyd Roseville (b. Nov. 19, 1918, Lunenburg, N.S. - d. April 28, 2007, Lunenburg), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1989-94).

Crowby, Patrick (Joseph Manarewo Kalpuaso) (b. July 6, 1958, Port Vila, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu] - d. Dec. 27, 2013, Nouméa, New Caledonia), internal affairs minister of Vanuatu (2008-09, 2011, 2011, 2013). He was mayor of Port Vila in 1997-2004.

Crowder, Enoch H(erbert) (b. April 11, 1859, Edinburg, Mo. - d. May 7, 1932, Washington, D.C.), secretary of state and justice of Cuba (under U.S. occupation, 1906-08). He was also U.S. ambassador to Cuba (1923-27).

Crowe, Sir Colin (Tradescant) (b. Sept. 7, 1913, Japan - d. July 19, 1989, Cirencester, England), British diplomat; knighted 1963. He was chargé d'affaires in the United Arab Republic (1959-61), ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1963-64), high commissioner to Canada (1968-70), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-73).

Crowe, E(dwin) Norman (b. Feb. 13, 1905 - d. April 27, 1992), chairman of the Executive Council of the Isle of Man (1967-71).

Croÿ-Roeulx (et de Solre), Étienne (Gustave Emmanuel Antoine Engelbert Marie) de Croÿ, prince de (b. Sept. 9, 1898, Brussels, Belgium - d. Jan. 8, 1990, Brussels), administrator of Tangier (1954).

Cruce, Lee (b. July 8, 1863, near Marion, Ky. - d. Jan. 16, 1933, Los Angeles, Calif.), governor of Oklahoma (1911-15).

Cruchaga Tocornal, Miguel (b. May 4, 1869, Santiago, Chile - d. May 3, 1949, Santiago), finance minister (1903-04), interior minister (1905-06), and foreign minister (1932-37) of Chile. He was also minister to Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay (1908-13) and Germany, the Netherlands, and Russia (1913-20), minister (1920-22) and ambassador (1922-25) to Brazil, minister to the United Kingdom (1925-26), ambassador to the United States (1926-27, 1931-32), and president of the Senate (1937-41).


Cruder, Giancarlo (b. Nov. 23, 1947, Tarcento [now in Friuli-Venezia Giulia], Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1996-98).

Cruickshank, (Chiefton) Allan, foreign minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1998-2001). He was also minister of health (1984-85), education (1984-86), communications and works (1986-89), agriculture and labour (1989-97), industry (1989-94), and tourism and information (1998-2001) and deputy prime minister (1991-94).

Cruickshank Smith, Eduardo (Newton) (b. Jan. 29, 1958, Limón, Costa Rica), Costa Rican politician. He was president of the Legislative Assembly (2020-21) and a minor presidential candidate (2022).

Cruikshank, John Augustus Cockburn (b. April 5, 1909, London, England - d. Nov. 16, 1957), commissioner of the British Virgin Islands (1946-54).

Crump, Sir Henry Ashbrooke (b. 1863 - d. Sept. 16, 1941), acting chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1912); knighted 1921.

Cruppi, Jean (b. May 22, 1855, Toulouse, France - d. Oct. 16, 1933, Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, France), foreign minister (1911) and justice minister (1911-12) of France. He was also minister of commerce and industry (1908-09).

Crusebjörn, Jesper Ingevald (b. July 12, 1843, Grödinge socken, Stockholm county, Sweden - d. June 24, 1904, Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (1891-1904) and war minister of Sweden (1899-1903).

Crusius, Yeda Rorato (b. July 26, 1944, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (2007-11). He was also Brazilian minister of planning (1993).

Cruvinel, Belarmino (b. May 21, 1894, Uberaba, São Paulo, Brazil - d. 1974), acting federal interventor in Goiás (1946).

A.M. da Cruz
Cruz, António (Manuel de Mendonça) Martins da (b. Dec. 28, 1946, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (2002-03). He was also ambassador to Spain (1999-2002).

Cruz, Francisco José da (b. 1955, Kalandula, Angola), Angolan diplomat. He has been ambassador to Ethiopia (2019-23) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2023- ).

Cruz, Getúlio Alberto de Souza (b. Nov. 17, 1950, Boa Vista, Rio Branco [now Roraima], Brazil), governor of Roraima (1985-87).

Cruz, Guilherme Francisco (b. 1842 - d. Sept. 2, 1893), president of Pará (acting, 1873-74) and Goiás (1886).

Cruz, João Carlos Lopes Cardoso de Freitas (b. March 27, 1925, Lisbon, Portugal - d. [traffic accident] Dec. 30, 1984, near Trujillo, Extremadura, Spain), foreign minister of Portugal (1978-80). He was also chargé d'affaires in Madagascar (1960-62) and ambassador to West Germany (1971-73), the United Kingdom (1980-84), and Spain (1984).

Cruz (Prieto), José María de la (b. March 25, 1799, Concepción, Chile - d. Nov. 23, 1873), war and marine minister of Chile (1830-31). He was also intendant of Valparaíso (1842-43) and Concepción (1846-51).

Cruz (y Goyeneche), Luis de la (b. Aug. 25, 1768, Concepción, Chile - d. Oct. 9, 1828, Rancagua, Chile), war and marine minister of Chile (1826).

Cruz, Luiz Silverio Alves (b. 1829, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil - d. 1894, Campinas), president of Goiás (1886-87).

Cruz, Ted, byname of Rafael Edward Cruz (b. Dec. 22, 1970, Calgary, Alta.), U.S. politician. He was solicitor general of Texas in 2003-08. A favourite of the right-wing Tea Party movement, he was elected a U.S. senator in 2012. In the Senate, he became unpopular even among his own Republican Party for stunts like a pointless 21-hour filibuster against the Affordable Care Act (during which among other things he read the Dr. Seuss tale "Green Eggs and Ham") or his calling the Republican majority leader Mitch McConnell a liar on the Senate floor. In 2015 he launched a campaign for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination, presenting himself as an outsider standing against the "Washington cartel." He represented the pure orthodoxy of U.S. conservatism, taking extreme positions like opposing abortion even for rape victims and calling for the carpet-bombing of the "Islamic State" ("I don't know if sand can glow in the dark, but we're going to find out"). After the more moderate candidates dropped out one by one, he was left among the last two viable contenders, second only to the even more controversial (though less ideologically rigid) Donald Trump. This led to his winning a number of endorsements simply as the anti-Trump candidate, including from Sen. Lindsey Graham, who shortly before had joked that if Cruz were murdered on the Senate floor and the trial were held there, no one would be convicted. Born in Canada to a mother who held U.S. citizenship, he was himself a U.S. citizen from birth, though whether that made him a "natural-born citizen" as the constitution requires of presidents (or if actual birth on U.S. soil is required) is a question that has never been definitively settled (George W. Romney in 1968 was in a similar situation), but a disqualification was considered unlikely. In April 2016 he named Carly Fiorina as his running mate. By this time it was mathematically impossible for him to win a majority of delegates, but he stayed on in the hope Trump would not reach a majority either; in an open convention the anti-Trump forces might then come together in supporting Cruz. After a clear defeat in Indiana in May, however, he ended his campaign. Speaking at the convention in July, he did not endorse Trump, telling listeners to "vote your conscience" in November. Yet in September, he did endorse the man who had mocked him as "Lyin' Ted" and insinuated his father was involved in the Kennedy assassination and whom he himself had called a "serial philanderer," "pathological liar," "utterly amoral," and a "sniveling coward." In the 2018 Senate election, he defeated Democratic challenger Beto O'Rourke by less than 3 percentage points in deeply Republican Texas. After Trump's defeat in 2020, Cruz joined Trump's attempts to overturn the results and in early January 2021 riled up Republicans with comparisons of the situation to the Revolutionary War, but when, days later, people of such mindset, further incited by Trump, violently stormed the Capitol, he tried to disclaim responsibility.

Cruz-Coke (Lassabe), Eduardo (b. April 22, 1899, Valparaíso, Chile - d. March 18, 1974, Santiago, Chile), Chilean presidential candidate (1946). He was also minister of health and social security (1937-38) and ambassador to Peru (1958-60).

Cruz de Lemos, (Manuel) Vladimir de la (b. July 17, 1946), Costa Rican politician. He was a minor presidential candidate (1998, 2002, 2006) and ambassador to Venezuela (2008-10).

Cruz Díaz, Aníbal (b. 1865? - d. Dec. 18, 1910, Washington, D.C.), war and marine minister of Chile (1904). He was also chargé d'affaires (1893) and minister (1907-10) to the United States.

Cruz Méndez, Manuel de la (b. 1805 - d. Nov. 12, 1874, Cochabamba, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1842-44). He was also chargé d'affaires in Peru (1832-35) and Chile (1835-39).

Cruz Ponce, Lisandro (b. Dec. 11, 1911, La Calera, Chile - d. Aug. 25, 1997, Mexico City, Mexico), justice minister of Chile (1970-72). He was also minister of labour (1946).

Cruz Porras, Arturo (José) (b. Dec. 18, 1923, Jinotepe, Carazo department, Nicaragua - d. July 9, 2013, Managua, Nicaragua), member of the Government Junta of National Reconstruction of Nicaragua (1980-81). After the 1979 revolution, he was named the Sandinistas' first Central Bank president. He was then sent to Washington, D.C., to serve as ambassador to the United States. But his relationship with the Sandinista Front was short-lived. Before the second anniversary of the revolution, he defected from the ruling party; the Sandinistas, he said, "had no moral brakes" and "Sandinista ethics permitted any type of action or behavior for the cause." So when the Sandinistas announced presidential elections in 1984, Cruz, who was working for the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington at the time, was the first to scoff at the idea. He said he was convinced the Sandinistas, with their absolute grip over the state electoral machinery, would orchestrate an electoral farce to try to justify their continuance in power. But Cruz was eventually urged by the CIA to run as the opposition candidate in the 1984 presidential election, and went on the U.S. intelligence agency's payroll. In a 2011 interview, Cruz said he had a series of secret meetings with CIA handlers in Washington-area bars and in his home in Bethesda, Md. The CIA's plan, he said, was to get Cruz to campaign against Ortega just long enough to rally anti-Sandinista sentiments in the countryside, but then drop out of the race before the vote. He said the CIA wanted to use the elections as an excuse to campaign openly against the Sandinistas, but then withdraw his candidacy to deny Ortega the satisfaction of winning a legitimate poll. Cruz said once the campaign started, he was moved by genuine anti-Sandinista sentiment in the countryside and wanted to make his fake campaign real. But neither the CIA nor the Sandinistas wanted that to happen. He said he felt used by the CIA and eventually dropped out of the race, allowing Ortega to win an essentially uncontested poll.

Cruz Sequeira, Arturo (José) (b. Aug. 13, 1953, Managua, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan diplomat; son of Arturo Cruz Porras; cousin of Noel Sacasa Cruz. He was ambassador to the United States (2007-09).

R.E. Cruz
Cruz Uclés, Ramón Ernesto (b. Jan. 4, 1903, San Juan de Flores, Honduras - d. Aug. 6, 1985, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), president of Honduras (1971-72). He was minister (1946-47) and ambassador (1947-48) to El Salvador and became a member of the Supreme Court in 1949. From 1958 to 1960 he defended his country's territorial rights in a border dispute with Nicaragua before the International Court of Justice at The Hague, Netherlands; the court upheld the boundaries between the two countries. In the 1963 presidential election, Cruz was the National Party candidate, but Gen. Oswaldo López Arellano was brought to power by a military coup. When Cruz was elected president in 1971, he became the first president of the country to serve under the new national unity system, in which the National and Liberal parties shared congressional seats, cabinet posts, and judicial positions. Though the system was endorsed by outgoing president López, who remained commander of the armed forces, the military overthrew Cruz in 1972 and reinstated López.

Cruzat (Hurtado), Ricardo (b. Oct. 18, 1845, Santiago, Chile - d. Jan. 7, 1905), foreign minister (1891) and finance minister (1902-03) of Chile.

B. Crvenkovski
Crvenkovski, Branko (b. Oct. 12, 1962, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister (1992-98, 2002-04) and president (2004-09) of Macedonia.

Crvenkovski, Krste (b. 1921 - d. July 21, 2001), secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Macedonia (1963-69).

Crvenkovski, Stevo (b. March 18, 1947, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia] - d. Feb. 4, 2004, Skopje), foreign minister of Macedonia (1993-96); son of Krste Crvenkovski. He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1997-2003).

Csáky (de Körösszeg et Adorján), Albin gróf (b. April 19, 1841, Korompa, Hungary [now Krompachy, Slovakia] - d. Dec. 15, 1912, Budapest, Hungary), Hungarian politician. He was minister of religion and education (1888-94) and president of the House of Magnates (1900-06, 1910-12).

Csáky (de Körösszeg et Adorján), Imre gróf (b. Feb. 16, 1882, Szepesmindszent, Hungary [now Bijacovce, Slovakia] - d. May 22, 1961, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain), foreign minister of Hungary (1920); son of Albin gróf Csáky; brother of Károly gróf Csáky.

Csáky (de Körösszeg et Adorján), Károly gróf (b. April 10, 1873, Szepesmindszent, Hungary [now Bijacovce, Slovakia] - d. April 30, 1945, Budapest, Hungary), defense minister of Hungary (1923-29); son of Albin gróf Csáky.

Csáky, Pál (b. March 21, 1956, Sahy, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), a deputy prime minister of Slovakia (1998-2006). He was also chairman of the Hungarian Coalition Party (2007-10).

Csatay (de Csataj), Lajos vitéz, original name (to 1906) Lajos Tuczentaller (b. Aug. 1, 1886, Arad, Hungary [now in Romania] - d. [suicide] Nov. 19, 1944), defense minister of Hungary (1943-44).

Csatorday, Károly (b. July 3, 1926, Budapest, Hungary - d. July 23, 1972, Budapest), Hungarian diplomat. He was minister to Japan (1960-61) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1962-70). He died in the crash of his glider plane in a competition.

Csehák, Judit (b. Jan. 16, 1940, Szekszárd, Hungary), a deputy premier of Hungary (1984-87). She was also minister of social affairs and health (1987-90) and health, social and family affairs (2002-03).

Cuaderno (y Pascual), Miguel, also called Miguel Cuaderno, Sr. (b. Dec. 12, 1890, Balanga, Bataan, Philippines - d. Jan. 14, 1975), finance secretary of the Philippines (1946-49). He was also governor of the Central Bank (1949-60).

Cuadra, Eulogio, finance minister of Nicaragua (1913-17).

Cuadra (Luque), Pedro Lucio (b. April 14, 1842, Santiago, Chile - d. April 24, 1894, Santiago), finance minister (1882-84) and interior minister (1888) of Chile. He was also president of the Senate (1886-87) and minister of justice and public instruction (1887-88).

Cuadra, Pedro Rafael, finance minister of Nicaragua (1911-13).

Cuadra (Fabres), Sergio de la (b. Jan. 5, 1942, Santiago, Chile - d. Oct. 5, 2021), finance minister of Chile (1982). He was also president of the Central Bank (1981-82).

Cuadra Chamorro, Joaquín, finance minister of Nicaragua (1979-85). He was also president of the Central Bank (1985-90).

Cuadra Pasos, Carlos (b. April 20, 1879, Granada, Nicaragua - d. Jan. 29, 1964, Granada), foreign minister of Nicaragua (1923-24, 1926-28).

Cuadra Rabines, Alejandro (b. June 5, 1907, Junín, Peru - d. Nov. 8, 1996), war minister of Peru (1956-58, 1960-62).

J. Cuadra
Cuadra Somarriba, Jaime (José) (b. June 27, 1926, Matagalpa, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 3, 2007, Matagalpa), Nicaraguan politician. The Conservative Party congressman was the first civilian defense minister in Nicaraguan history (1997-98) and thereafter became interior minister (1998-99), agriculture minister (1999-2000), and president of the National Assembly (2002-04).

Cuadros Quiroga, José (b. 1908, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. June 27, 1975, Cochabamba), interior minister of Bolivia (1957-58). He was also ambassador to Ecuador (1954-56) and France (1958-60) and agriculture minister (1956-57).

Cuadros Sánchez, Augusto (b. Aug. 8, 1915, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. 2006), finance minister of Bolivia (1960-64, 1979-80). He was also ambassador to West Germany (1957-58).

Cubas Grau, Raúl (Alberto) (b. Aug. 23, 1943, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1998-99). A member of the Colorado Party, he briefly served as finance minister in 1996. He was elected president as a stand-in for Lino Oviedo, who was sentenced to jail for leading a coup attempt in 1996. Cubas emphasized the urgency of his administration's aim of rejuvenating the economy and tackling the scourge of drug trafficking and poverty within the country. He also proposed policies to reduce political corruption and increase the international image of his nation. However, within days of taking office he freed Oviedo, which led Congress to start impeachment proceedings against him in February 1999. After the assassination of Vice Pres. Luis María Argaña on March 23, Cubas resigned on March 28. He sought refuge in Brazil on March 30, flying in on a Brazilian air force plane. He returned to Paraguay in 2002.

Cubbon, Sir Mark (b. 1784 - d. April 23, 1861, Suez, Egypt), commissioner of Mysore (1834-61) and Coorg (1836-61); knighted 1856.

Cuberos Niño, Leandro (b. Dec. 24, 1876, Chinácota, Santander [now in Norte de Santander], Colombia - d. Nov. 10, 1934, Maracaibo, Venezuela), Colombian politician. He was president of the Senate (1927).


Cubillos Sallato, Hernán (b. Feb. 25, 1936, Viña del Mar, Chile - d. April 11, 2001, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1978-80).

Cubitt, Sir Thomas Astley (b. April 9, 1871 - d. May 19, 1939), governor of Bermuda (1931-36); knighted 1931.

Cucalón (Camacho), Henry (Eduardo) (b. June 8, 1973, Guayaquil, Ecuador), minister of gobierno of Ecuador (2023).

Çuçi, Bledi, byname of Bledar Çuçi (b. Nov. 14, 1970, Tiranë, Albania), interior minister of Albania (2020-23). He was also minister of agriculture and rural development (2019-20).

Cudahy, John (Clarence) (b. Dec. 10, 1887, Milwaukee, Wis. - d. [fall from horse] Sept. 6, 1943, near Milwaukee), U.S. diplomat. He was ambassador to Poland (1933-37) and Belgium (1940) and minister to Ireland (1937-40) and Luxembourg (1940).

Cudmore, Derek George (b. Nov. 9, 1923 - d. Dec. 20, 1981), governor of the British Virgin Islands (1971-74).

Cué Monteagudo, Gabino (b. Feb. 23, 1966, Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico), governor of Oaxaca (2010-16). He was also mayor of Oaxaca (2002-04).

Cuéllar Abaroa, Crisanto (b. Feb. 15, 1901, Atlangatepec, Tlaxcala, Mexico - d. July 16, 1989, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala), interim governor of Tlaxcala (1970).

Cuéllar Bastidas, Parmenio (b. April 6, 1942), Colombian politician. He was justice minister (1998-99) and governor of Nariño (2001-03).

Cuéllar Suárez, Rubén Darío (b. March 27, 1963), Bolivian politician. He was prefect of Santa Cruz (2005-06) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2020).

Cuello Baute, Alfredo Ape (b. July 23, 1973, Valledupar, Cesar, Colombia), Colombian politician; son of Alfredo Cuello Dávila. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (2006-07).

Cuello Camilo, Federico Alberto (b. 1966, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), Dominican Republic diplomat. He has been ambassador to Belgium, the Czech Republic, and Poland (2005-09), the United Kingdom (2011-18), Qatar (2019-20), and South Korea (2020- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-11).

Cuello Dávila, Alfredo, Colombian politician; son of Manuel Germán Cuello Gutiérrez. He was mayor of Valledupar (1982-83).

Cuello Gutiérrez, Manuel Germán (b. Sept. 7, 1915, La Junta, La Guajira, Colombia - d. Nov. 15, 2006, Valledupar, Cesar, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was mayor of Valledupar (1968) and governor of Cesar (1971-74).

Cuenca Chaux, Carlos Alberto (b. Aug. 6, 1973, Algeciras, Huila, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (2019-20).

Cuenco, Manuel (Alesna) (b. Nov. 10, 1907, Cebu, Philippines - d. Oct. 18, 1970), Philippine politician; son of Mariano Jesus Cuenco. He was governor of Cebu (1946-51) and secretary of health (1964-65).

Cuenco (y Lopez), Mariano Jesus (b. Jan. 16, 1888, Carmen, Cebu, Philippines - d. Feb. 25, 1964, Manila, Philippines), Philippine politician. He was governor of Cebu (1931-34), secretary of public works and communications (1936-39), and president of the Senate (1949-51).

Cuervo (Urisarri), Antonio B(asilio) (b. June 13, 1834, Bogotá, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Feb. 19, 1893, Bogotá), acting president of Tolima (1876), war minister (1888-90 and [acting] 1892-93) and interior minister (1892-93) of Colombia, and governor of Cundinamarca (1891-92).

Cuervo Márquez, Carlos (b. Aug. 2, 1858, Bogotá, Granadine Confederation [now Colombia] - d. Sept. 11, 1930, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister (1899-1900, 1909) and interior minister (1909) of Colombia; nephew of Antonio B. Cuervo. He was also minister of education (1904-06, 1912-14) and minister to the Vatican (1907-08), Venezuela (1919-20), Argentina (1920-22), and Mexico (1927-30).

Cuervo Márquez, Luis (b. July 1, 1863, Bogotá, Colombia - d. [drowned] Aug. 20, 1941, Zulia River, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1919-21); brother of Carlos Cuervo Márquez; nephew of Antonio B. Cuervo. He was also chargé d'affaires in the United States (1900-01).

Cuervo Rubio, Gustavo (b. Dec. 24, 1890, Pinar del Río, Cuba - d. April 3, 1978, Miami, Fla.), vice president (1940-44) and foreign minister (1945) of Cuba.

Cuetos (y Castro), Olegario de los (b. March 6, 1795, El Ferrol, La Coruña province, Spain - d. Dec. 28, 1844, Madrid, Spain), acting foreign minister of Spain (1843). He was also minister of navy, commerce, and overseas (1843).

Cueva Membreño, Juan José, Honduran diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-94) and ambassador to Peru (2004-13) and Argentina (2014-16).

Cuevas, Serafin (R.) (b. June 25, 1928, Bacoor, Cavite, Philippines - d. Feb. 9, 2014), justice secretary of the Philippines (1998-2000).

Cuevas Argote, Javier Gonzalo, finance minister of Bolivia (2003-04).

Cuevas Cancino, Francisco (b. May 7, 1921, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Feb. 18, 2008, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico), Mexican diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-70, 1978-79) and ambassador to Brazil (1979-80), Belgium (1980-83), the United Kingdom and Ireland (1983-86), and Austria (1986-90).

Cuevas Contreras, Luis Alberto (b. March 23, 1896, Temuco, Chile - d. July 29, 1973, Santiago, Chile), interior minister of Chile (1946-47).

Cuevas Mackenna, (Juan) Francisco (b. May 23, 1910, Santiago, Chile - d. May 26, 1988, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1955). He was also minister of mining (1953-54).

Cufer, Uros (b. 1970), finance minister of Slovenia (2013-14).

Cuffaro, Salvatore (b. Feb. 21, 1958, Raffadali, Agrigento province, Sicilia, Italy), president of Sicilia (2001-08). A member of the Forza Italia party, he was charged on Sept. 2, 2004, with aiding and abetting the Mafia by passing on privileged information. He went on trial on Feb. 1, 2005. Found guilty in January 2008, he was jailed for seven years in January 2011 after losing a final appeal.

Cuinier, Pierre Étienne (b. April 24, 1824, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe - d. Nov. 20, 1888), governor of Réunion (1879-86).

Cujba, Alexandru (b. 1969, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Moldova]), Moldovan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-12).

Culafic, Dobroslav-Toro (b. Jan. 16, 1926, Andrijevica, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. June 3, 2011, Podgorica, Montenegro), a deputy premier (1974-78) and interior minister (1984-89) of Yugoslavia and secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Montenegro (1982-84).

Culberson, Charles A(llen) (b. June 10, 1855, Dadeville, Ala. - d. March 19, 1925, Washington, D.C.), governor of Texas (1895-99).

Culev, Nake (b. July 26, 1972, Kavadarci, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), interior minister of North Macedonia (2020). He was also director of the Intelligence Agency (2012-17).

Cullen, Bud, byname of Jack Sydney George Cullen (b. April 20, 1927, Creighton Mine, near Sudbury, Ont. - d. July 5, 2005, Ottawa, Ont.), Canadian minister of national revenue (1975-76), manpower and immigration (1976-77), and employment and immigration (1977-79).

Cullen (y Rodríguez del Fresno), José María (b. 1823 - d. 1876), governor of Santa Fe (1854-56).

M. Cullen
Cullen, Sir Michael (John) (b. Feb. 5, 1945, London, England - d. Aug. 19, 2021, Whakatane, N.Z.), finance minister (1999-2008), treasurer (1999-2002), deputy prime minister (2002-08), and attorney general (2005, 2006-08) of New Zealand; knighted 2012.

Cullen (y Rodríguez del Fresno), Patricio (b. 1826 - d. 1877), governor of Santa Fe (1862-65); brother of José María Cullen.

Cullen (y Rodríguez del Fresno), Tomás (b. 1835 - d. ...), political chief of Santa Fe (1861); brother of José María Cullen and Patricio Cullen.

Cullen, Sir William (Portus) (b. May 28, 1855, Mount Johnstone, near Jamberoo, New South Wales - d. April 6, 1935, Leura, N.S.W.), acting governor of New South Wales (1913, 1917-18, 1923-24, 1930); knighted 1911. He was chief justice (1910-25) and lieutenant-governor (1910-30).

Cullom, Shelby M(oore) (b. Nov. 22, 1829, Monticello, Ky. - d. Jan. 28, 1914, Washington, D.C.), governor of Illinois (1877-83).

Cultiaux, Didier (Pierre Roger) (b. June 9, 1943, Paris, France), high commissioner of New Caledonia (1994-95). He was also prefect of the French départements of Territoire de Belfort (1990-93), Aude (1993-94), Seine-et-Marne (1995-98), Puy-de-Dôme (1999-2002), and Calvados (2002-04).

Culver, Chet, byname of Chester John Culver (b. Jan. 25, 1966, Washington, D.C.), governor of Iowa (2007-11).

Cumber, Sir John Alfred (b. Sept. 30, 1920 - d. May 18, 1991), administrator of the Cayman Islands (1964-68) and commissioner of Anguilla (1969); knighted 1985.

Cumine, Alexander (b. July 28, 1851 - d. Oct. 15, 1909), commissioner of Sind (1902-03).

Cuming, T(homas) B(arney) (b. Dec. 25, 1827, Genesee county, N.Y. - d. March 23, 1858, Omaha, Neb.), acting governor of Nebraska (1854-55, 1857-58).

Cumming, Alfred (b. Sept. 4, 1802, Sand Hills, near Augusta, Ga. - d. Oct. 9, 1873, Augusta), governor of Utah (1858-61).

Cumming, Sir Duncan Cameron (b. Aug. 10, 1903 - d. Dec. 10, 1979), chief administrator of Cyrenaica (1943-45) and Eritrea (1951-52); knighted 1953.

Cummings, Alexander (b. Nov. 17, 1810, Williamsport, Pa. - d. July 16, 1879, Ottawa, Ont.), governor of Colorado (1865-67).

Cummings, Homer S(tillé) (b. April 30, 1870, Chicago, Ill. - d. Sept. 10, 1956, Washington, D.C.), U.S. attorney general (1933-39). He was also chairman of the Democratic National Committee (1919-20).

K. Cummings
Cummings, Karen (Roslyn Vanessa), foreign minister of Guyana (2019-20).

Cummins, Albert B(aird) (b. Feb. 15, 1850, Carmichaels, Pa. - d. July 30, 1926, Des Moines, Iowa), governor of Iowa (1902-08) and president pro tempore of the United States Senate (1919-25). He was a senator from Iowa in 1908-26.

Cummins, Hugh Gordon (Hylvestra) (b. Feb. 2, 1891, St. James, Barbados - d. Oct. 26, 1970, Bridgetown, Barbados), premier of Barbados (1958-61). He was also minister of social services (1954-56) and speaker of the House of Assembly (1956-58).

Cumplido Cereceda, Francisco (Guillermo) (b. Oct. 23, 1930, Santiago, Chile - d. July 16, 2022), justice minister of Chile (1990-94).

Çumrali, (Mehmet) Sedat (b. 1904, Çumra, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] - d. April 6, 1974, Konya, Turkey), justice minister of Turkey (1963-64).

Cunek, Jirí (b. Feb. 22, 1959, Zlín, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czech politician. He was chairman of the Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party (2006-09), a deputy prime minister and minister of regional development (2007, 2008-09), and governor of Zlínský kraj (2016-20).

Cunha, Aécio Neves da (b. March 10, 1960, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil), governor of Minas Gerais (2003-10); grandson of Tancredo de Almeida Neves. He was also president of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies (2001-02) and a presidential candidate (2014).

Cunha, Antônio Álvares da Cunha, (1º) conde da (b. c.1700 - d. July 9, 1791, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Angola (1753-58) and Minas Gerais (1763) and viceroy of Brazil (1763-67); nephew of Luís da Cunha. He was made conde da Cunha in 1760.

Cunha, Antonio Augusto Pereira da, president of Goiás (1854 [acting], 1855-57) and Rio Grande do Sul (acting, 1866-67).

Cunha, Antonio Galdino da (b. Papari [now Nísia Floresta], Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. Aug. 6, 1883, Goianinha, Rio Grande do Norte), acting president of Rio Grande do Norte (1861, 1863).

Cunha, António José Baptista Cardoso e (b. Jan. 28, 1933, Leiria, Portugal - d. Jan. 25, 2021, Lisbon, Portugal), Portuguese politician. He was minister of agriculture and fisheries (1980-81) and European commissioner for fisheries (1986-89) and personnel administration, energy, Euratom Supply Agency, small businesses, and tourism (1989-93).

Cunha, Antonio Nunes da, acting president of Mato Grosso (1848).

Cunha, Augusto José da (b. April 1, 1834, Lisbon, Portugal - d. June 24, 1919, Lisbon), finance minister of Portugal (1889-90, 1890-91). He was also minister of public works, commerce, and industry (1897-98).

Cunha, Balbino Candido da (b. April 15, 1833, São João del Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Dec. 5, 1905, São João del Rei), president of Paraná (1888-89).

Cunha, Domingos José da, Junior, president of Pará (1873).

Cunha, Eduardo (Cosentino da) (b. Sept. 29, 1958, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (2015-16). Found guilty of corruption, money laundering, and tax evasion, he was sentenced to 15 years and 4 months in prison in 2017.

Cunha, João Paulo (b. June 6, 1958, Caraguatatuba, São Paulo, Brazil), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (2003-05).

Cunha, Joaquim de Lemos (b. Sept. 28, 1891 - d. October 1940, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Piauí (1931).

Cunha, Joaquim Vieira da (b. March 3, 1805, Piratini, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. June 25, 1886, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul), acting president of Rio Grande do Sul (1868).

Cunha, José Antônio Flores da (b. March 5, 1880, Santana do Livramento municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Nov. 4, 1959, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul), federal interventor/governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1930-37). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (1955-56).

Cunha, José Henrique Carneiro da (b. July 21, 1867, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Feb. 18, 1944, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting governor of Pernambuco (1919).

Cunha, José Joaquim da, president of Rio Grande do Norte (1850-52) and Pará (1852-53).

Cunha, Luís da (b. Jan. 23 or 25, 1662, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Oct. 9, 1749, Paris, France), Portuguese diplomat. He was ambassador to Great Britain (1697-1712, 1715-19), France (1701-04, 1723-25, 1737-49), and Spain (1719-20).

Cunha, Manoel Clementino Carneiro da (b. Nov. 24, 1825, Paraíba [now João Pessoa], Paraíba, Brazil - d. Feb. 5, 1890), acting president of Paraíba (1857, 1860) and president of Amazonas (1860-63) and Pernambuco (1876-77).

Cunha, Manoel José Marinho da (d. Dec. 22?, 1871, Paraíba do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Norte (1868-69).

Cunha, Manoel Lopes da (b. July 25, 1855, Penalva, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Sept. 5, 1924, São Luís, Maranhão), president of Maranhão (1902-06).

Cunha, Manoel Maria Carneiro da (b. 1760 - d. 18...), acting president of Paraíba (1835, 1836).

Cunha, Manoel Pereira da, acting president of Maranhão (1834).

Cunha, Paulo (Arsénio Veríssimo) (b. Sept. 1, 1908, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 17, 1986, Lisbon), foreign minister of Portugal (1950-58).

Cunha, Pedro Alexandrino da (b. October 1801, Lisbon, Portugal - d. July 6, 1850), governor-general of Angola (1845-48) and governor of Macau (1850).

Cunha, Pedro Leitão da (b. 1822, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. Nov. 16, 1887), president of Santa Catarina (1862-63).

Cunha, Vasco (Tristão) Leitão da (b. Sept. 2, 1903, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. June 11, 1984, Rio de Janeiro), foreign minister of Brazil (1964-66); great-grandson of Ambrósio Leitão da Cunha. He was also minister to Finland (1950-52), ambassador to Belgium (1954-56), Cuba (1956-61), the Soviet Union (1962-64), and the United States (1966-68), and minister of health (1964).

Cunhal, Álvaro (Barreirinhas) (b. Nov. 10, 1913, Sé Nova parish, Coimbra, Portugal - d. June 13, 2005, Lisbon), general secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party (1961-92). He formed the PCP into one of the main centres of resistance to the right-wing dictatorship of António Salazar and spent 11 years in prison under the regime. Following the 1974 "carnation revolution" that overthrew the dictatorship, Cunhal's Communists came close to seizing power in alliance with radical members of the armed forces. The PCP declined since the peak of its power in the turmoil following the revolution.

Cuningham, Charles Alexander (b. Jan. 29, 1842 - d. Feb. 24, 1925), political resident of Aden (1895-98).

A.G. Cunningham
Cunningham, Sir Alan Gordon (b. May 1, 1887, Dublin, Ireland - d. Jan. 30, 1983, Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England), high commissioner of Palestine (1945-48); brother of Andrew Cunningham, Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope. He was commissioned into the Royal Artillery in 1906 and served throughout World War I with the Royal Horse Artillery on the Western Front. Between the wars he held two staff appointments, at the Straits Settlements and as instructor at the Small Arms School, Netheravon. In 1937 he became commander of the Royal Artillery of the 1st Division and in 1938 was given command of the 5th Anti-Aircraft Division. In 1940 he commanded several infantry divisions in the U.K. As general officer commanding British forces in Kenya, he played a leading role in the campaign that resulted in the surrender of Italian forces in Ethiopia in May 1941; Cunningham's forces, comprising South, East, and West African troops, covered some 2,700 km in 57 days and took 50,000 prisoners. Cunningham's share in the Ethiopian campaign gained him a knighthood. He then commanded the British 8th Army in the opening phase of the Libyan Desert offensive against the German Afrikakorps under Gen. Erwin Rommel. Rommel's early success put Cunningham on the defensive, and on Nov. 25, 1941, he was replaced as 8th Army commander by Gen. Neil Ritchie. During the remainder of the war he held commands in the U.K. In 1945 he was promoted to full general and was appointed high commissioner and commander in chief, Palestine. In face of a mounting tide of violence and almost insuperable administrative problems, the government at this time was still trying to mediate between Arabs and Jews. But when it seemed that efforts at reconciliation had no hopes of success, the decision was taken to end the mandate and British troops were withdrawn in May 1948.

Cunningham, Barry (Thomas) (b. Oct. 26, 1939, Pakenham, Vic. - d. Sept. 12, 2018, Warragul, Vic.), administrator of the Cocos Islands (1990-92).

Cunningham, Sir George (b. March 23, 1888, Broughty Ferry, Forfarshire [now Angus], Scotland - d. Dec. 8, 1964, Teddington, Middlesex [now part of London], England), governor of the North-West Frontier Province (1937-46, 1947-48); knighted 1935.

Cunningham, Glenn (Clarence) (b. Sept. 10, 1912, Omaha, Neb. - d. Dec. 18, 2003, Omaha), mayor of Omaha (1948-54). When he took office as mayor at the age of 35, he was the youngest person ever to hold that job. Later, he was elected to represent Nebraska's second district in the U.S. Congress where he served 14 years (1957-71).

Cunningham, Glenn (Dale) (b. Sept. 16, 1943, Jersey City, N.J. - d. May 25, 2004, Jersey City), mayor of Jersey City (2001-04). After an unsuccessful run in 1989, he was elected as the first black mayor of Jersey City in 2001.

Cunningham, James B(lair) (b. Sept. 2, 1952, Allentown, Pa.), acting U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (2001). He was also ambassador to Israel (2008-11) and Afghanistan (2012-14).

Cunningham, Russell M(cWhorter) (b. Aug. 25, 1855, Mount Hope, Ala. - d. June 6, 1921, Birmingham, Ala.), acting governor of Alabama (1904-05).

Cunningham of Hyndhope, Andrew (Browne) Cunningham, (1st) Viscount (b. Jan. 7, 1883, Dublin, Ireland - d. June 12, 1963, London, England), British first sea lord (1943-46). He was knighted in 1939 and created Baron Cunningham of Hyndhope in 1945 and viscount in 1946.

Cuno, Wilhelm (Carl Josef) (b. July 2, 1876, Suhl, Prussia [now in Thüringen], Germany - d. Jan. 3, 1933, Aumühle, Prussia [now in Schleswig-Holstein], Germany), chancellor of Germany (1922-23). He entered the civil service in 1900 and from 1907 to 1916 served with distinction in the imperial treasury. During World War I, he headed the office of grain management (until July 1916), served in the food ministry, and again in the treasury as general adviser on the war economy. In 1919 he represented his government as an economic expert during the peace negotiations. Following the suicide of shipping magnate Albert Ballin, Cuno succeeded to the direction of the Hamburg-American Line (December 1918), the largest German shipping concern, and in this position frequently acted as unofficial spokesman for German foreign political interests. After twice refusing cabinet appointments in governments of the Weimar Republic, Cuno was finally persuaded to accept the chancellorship (November 1922). To this office he brought the advantages of a creditable international reputation and the strong support of German business and industry. His ministry nonetheless succeeded neither in securing a much-needed readjustment of war reparations nor in halting inflation. With the Franco-Belgian invasion of the Ruhr over defaulted reparations payments (January 1923), he urged a national policy of passive resistance. Though proving successful in certain respects, it ultimately taxed beyond endurance the resilience of an already crippled economy. The initial popular support for the passive resistance accordingly waned, and at the end of July he was threatened with defeat in the Reichstag. To avoid this he resigned (August 1923), being succeeded by Gustav Stresemann, who was able to initiate a policy of reconciliation.

Cuomo, Andrew (Mark) (b. Dec. 6, 1957, Queens, New York City), U.S. secretary of housing and urban development (1997-2001) and governor of New York (2011-21); son of Mario Cuomo; son-in-law (1990-2005) of Robert F. Kennedy. After serving a brief stint on the governor's staff, he worked as an assistant district attorney in Manhattan. In 1986 he founded the nonprofit organization Housing Enterprise for the Less Privileged (HELP USA); he ran it full-time from 1988. In 1991 Mayor David Dinkins named him to chair the New York City Commission on the Homeless. He joined the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in 1993, in the Bill Clinton administration, as assistant secretary for community planning and development. During Clinton's second term he served as HUD secretary. With the end of the Clinton administration, Cuomo announced his intention to run for governor of New York. Republican George Pataki, who had defeated Cuomo's father in 1994, was running for a third term. However, state Democratic leaders had already chosen State Comptroller H. Carl McCall as their preferred candidate and Cuomo withdrew from the race one week before the Democratic primary. Pataki defeated McCall in the 2002 general election. Cuomo then ran successfully for state attorney general in 2006, building a reputation by investigating the student-loan industry, Wall Street bankers, and the office of State Comptroller Alan G. Hevesi, a fellow Democrat. In 2010 the path to the governorship was open. Democrat Eliot Spitzer had resigned in scandal, and David Paterson, who succeeded him, faced his own scandals and opted not to run. Despite being the incumbent attorney general, Cuomo ran as an outsider. He called for reforming state government; reducing taxes, expenditures, and regulations; and curtailing the influence of special interests. His Republican opponent, Buffalo developer and Tea Party favourite Carl Paladino, ran a campaign marred by political gaffes and lacking in specific proposals. Cuomo defeated Paladino 61%-34%; he was reelected in 2014, defeating Westchester county executive Rob Astorino 54%-41%, and in 2018, defeating Dutchess county executive Marc Molinaro 59%-37%. In 2021 he resigned after an investigation by the state attorney general's office found he sexually harassed 11 women.

M. Cuomo
Cuomo, Mario (Matthew) (b. June 15, 1932, Queens, New York City - d. Jan. 1, 2015, Manhattan, New York City), governor of New York (1983-95). The Democrat was defeated in his 1974 bid for the nomination for lieutenant governor by a ticket headed by an old friend, Hugh Carey. One of Carey's first appointments as governor was Cuomo as his secretary of state. After Cuomo was defeated by Ed Koch in the New York City mayoral primary in 1977, he joined the ticket in Carey's 1978 reelection campaign. When Cuomo ran for governor four years later, he had to wage a fierce rematch against Koch in the Democratic primary. The popular New York mayor, who was favoured in the polls, blundered early in the campaign, antagonizing upstate New Yorkers. Cuomo, while advocating liberal policies, capitalized on his simple, conservative family life and upset Koch by more than 80,000 votes. When voters went to the polls to elect a governor on Nov. 2, 1982, they were faced with a classic choice of the old versus the new. Republican businessman Lewis Lehrman, a strong supporter of Pres. Ronald Reagan's policies, advocated social welfare cuts, tougher anti-crime laws, reinstatement of capital punishment, and a 40% tax cut; while Cuomo harked back to the Great Society of the 1960s and the necessity of aid to the needy, despite budget deficits. Lehrman waged a powerful campaign using effective television ads and was reported to have spent as much as $8 million. But in the end it was Cuomo's traditional coalition of liberals, labour unions, and minorities that prevailed. At the 1984 Democratic national convention, Cuomo gave the keynote address. His impassioned speech told of a nation divided into "the lucky and the left-out" and of the need for a new Democratic leadership to unify the "family of America" with renewed "common sense and compassion." He was reelected over Republican Andrew O'Rourke in 1986 and Republican Pierre A. Rinfret and Conservative Herbert I. London in 1990, but was defeated by Republican George Pataki in 1994.

Curcio, Renato (b. Sept. 23, 1941, Monterotondo, near Rome, Italy), founder of Italy's Red Brigades. He played a prominent part in the 1968 students revolt. The Red Brigades' acts of terrorism began in 1970. They included a long series of kidnappings, robberies, and murders of lawyers, judges, and police. Curcio was arrested at Pinerolo in September 1974 after being betrayed by a former monk who had infiltrated the Red Brigades organization. In February 1975 he escaped after a raid on the prison at Casale Monferrato led by his wife, who in June that year was shot dead by police during a gun battle. Curcio was recaptured in January 1976 after another gun battle when police discovered him in an apartment in Milan. He received a seven-year sentence from a Milan court in 1977 for illegally possessing firearms, assaulting a policeman, and resisting arrest. When the assassination of former premier Aldo Moro, the most sensational political murder since Fascist times, took place in Rome in May 1978, Curcio was in police custody in Turin, on trial for armed robbery, kidnapping, conspiracy, and armed subversion against the state. He told the court: "The act of revolutionary justice carried out against Aldo Moro is the highest act of humanity possible in this class-ridden society." On June 23 he was sentenced to 15 years in prison for terrorist crimes carried out up to 1974. During the two years and one month that the trial of Curcio and 14 accomplices lasted, no fewer than 17 people, including Moro and his five police bodyguards, were killed by the Red Brigades in their campaign of "total warfare" against the Italian establishment. He remained in custody until April 7, 1993.

Cureau, Adolphe (Louis) (b. June 1, 1864, Chartres, France - d. Nov. 9, 1913, Paris, France), lieutenant governor of Haut-Oubangui (1900-04) and chief administrator (1906-09) and lieutenant governor (1909-10) of Middle Congo.

Curiel (Rodríguez), José (b. March 22, 1937, Coro, Falcón, Venezuela - d. Jan. 8, 2022, Caracas, Venezuela), governor of Falcón (1995-2000). He was also Venezuelan minister of public works (1969-74).

Curlewis, John Stephen (b. March 31, 1863, Paarl, Cape Colony [now in Western Cape, South Africa] - d. Aug. 24, 1940, Pretoria, South Africa), acting governor-general of South Africa (1937). He was chief justice (1937-38).

Curley, James M(ichael) (b. Nov. 20, 1874, Boston, Mass. - d. Nov. 12, 1958, Boston), U.S. politician. The lifelong Democrat entered politics in 1899, winning a seat on the Boston common council. He was state legislator (1902-03), Boston alderman, city councilman, and U.S. representative (1911-14) before being elected mayor of Boston for four separate 4-year terms, in 1913, 1921, 1929, and 1945, and being defeated seven times for this office (1917, 1925, 1937, 1941, 1949, 1951, 1955). He centralized the powers of patronage in his own hands and distributed public-works jobs in such a way as to retain the loyalty and support of his working-class electoral base. Unable in 1932 to win a seat in the Massachusetts delegation to the Democratic convention, he contrived by means he never explained to be elected a delegate from Puerto Rico. As governor of Massachusetts (1935-37), he spent New Deal funds lavishly on public works programs. He won a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives again in 1942 and was reelected two years later. During his last tenure as mayor (1946-50), he spent 5 months in federal prison following a conviction for mail fraud. Pres. Harry S. Truman secured his release (November 1947) and later (1950) granted him a full pardon, but Curley - who had foiled an attempt by Republicans to have him replaced while he was in prison - lost further reelection bids and finally retired from politics. He was the obvious prototype of Frank Skeffington, the fictional mayor of Edwin O'Connor's popular novel The Last Hurrah (1956). He was described as the "last of the big city political bosses" - the group of powerful municipal leaders that included Frank Hague of Jersey City, N.J., Tom Pendergast of Kansas City, Mo., Edward J. Kelly of Chicago, and Ed Crump of Memphis, Tenn.

Currea (Bonilla), Aníbal (d. 1910), war and navy minister of Colombia (1863).

Currea Cubides, Hernando (b. Dec. 7, 1919, Bogotá, Colombia - d. June 18, 2003, Bogotá), defense minister of Colombia (1970-74). He was also commander of the army (1968-69) and the armed forces (1969-70) and ambassador to Portugal (1975-79).

Currie, Archibald (b. March 7, 1889, Beneden Cottica district, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Nov. 28, 1986), prime minister (1952-55) and governor (1962-64) of Suriname. He was also minister of finance (1950-51), economic and social affairs (1951-52), and interior (1952-55).

Currie, Sir Walter (b. 1819, Jersey? - d. June 7, 1872, Grahamstown, Cape Colony [now in Eastern Cape, South Africa]), government agent in Basutoland (1868); knighted 1860.

Currier, Moody (b. April 22, 1806, Boscawen, N.H. - d. Aug. 23, 1898, Manchester, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1885-87).

Currigan, Thomas G(uida) (b. July 8, 1920, Denver, Colo. - d. Dec. 27, 2014, Chicago, Ill.), mayor of Denver (1963-68).

Curry, George (b. April 3, 1861, Greenwood Plantation, West Feliciana parish, La. - d. Nov. 27, 1947, Albuquerque, N.M.), governor of New Mexico (1907-10).

Curry, George L(aw) (b. July 2, 1820, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. July 28, 1878, Portland, Ore.), governor of Oregon (1853 [acting], 1854-59).

Curtin, Andrew Gregg (b. April 22, 1815, Bellefonte, Pa. - d. Oct. 7, 1894, Bellefonte), governor of Pennsylvania (1861-67). He was also U.S. minister to Russia (1869-72).

J. Curtin
Curtin, John (Joseph Ambrose) (b. Jan. 8, 1885, Creswick, Victoria - d. July 5, 1945, Canberra, A.C.T.), prime minister of Australia (1941-45). From 1911 to 1915 he was secretary of the Timber Workers' Union. During World War I he gave up this position in order to become secretary of the Anti-Conscription League. His activities in this capacity brought him into conflict with the law and led to a sentence of imprisonment. In 1924 he was selected by the Labor Party to attend the International Labour Organization conference at Geneva. In 1928 he entered the federal parliament as member for Fremantle. In 1935 he was elected quite unexpectedly and by a majority of one as leader of the Labor Party. By unifying the party, Curtin prepared for its assumption of power in 1941. He served as a member of the Advisory War Council in 1940 and the following year became prime minister and minister for defense coordination (from 1942, defense). He led a full-scale national mobilization for war, winning difficult political battles in 1942-43 for expansion of federal taxation and broader conscription. He changed Australia's traditional military dependence on Great Britain when Japanese advances to the south in 1941-42 led him to appeal principally to the U.S. for aid and to transfer Australian troops from the Middle East, a move that angered British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. In the general elections of August 1943 he was returned with a triumphant majority. When Curtin died, he had already established welfare-state economic policies that guided Australia's growth during the postwar period.

Curtis, Charles (b. Jan. 25, 1860, North Topeka, Kan. - d. Feb. 8, 1936, Washington, D.C.), vice president of the United States (1929-33). He was also president pro tempore of the Senate (1911) and Senate majority leader (1925-29). Curtis, who spent some years as a child on a reservation, was the first person with significant (probably 1/8) Native American ancestry to be vice president.

Curtis, Edward J(ay) (b. 1827, Worcester, Mass. - d. Dec. 30, 1895, Boise, Idaho), acting governor of Idaho (1870-71, 1871, 1875).

Curtis, Henry O(sborne) (b. Nov. 18, 1888 - d. Jan. 28, 1964), commander of the Allied occupation forces in Iceland (1940-42).

Curtis, Kenneth M(erwin) (b. Feb. 8, 1931, Curtis Corner, Maine), governor of Maine (1967-75). He was also ambassador to Canada (1979-81).

Curtis, Oakley C(hester) (b. March 29, 1865, Portland, Maine - d. Feb. 22, 1924, Falmouth, Maine), governor of Maine (1915-17).

Curtis, Richard John Froude (b. 1897 - d. Jan. 7, 1987, Jersey), British resident in Brunei (1929).

Curtius, Julius (b. Feb. 7, 1877, Duisburg [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. Nov. 10, 1948, Heidelberg [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany), foreign minister of Germany (1929-31). He was also economy minister (1926-29).

Curto, António Duarte Ramada (b. Jan. 24, 1848, Sesimbra, Portugal - d. June 25, 1921, Lisbon, Portugal), governor-general of Angola (1897-1900, 1904-06). He was also civil governor of Lisbon (1910).

Curton, Émile (Marius) de (b. Dec. 7, 1908, Saint-Cernin, Cantal, France - d. Nov. 30, 1993, Marignane, Bouches-du-Rhône, France), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1940-41).

Curzon of Kedleston, George Nathaniel Curzon, (1st) Marquess, (1st) Viscount Scarsdale, (1st) Baron Ravensdale (b. Jan. 11, 1859, Kedleston Hall, Derbyshire, England - d. March 20, 1925, London, England), viceroy of India (1899-1905) and British foreign secretary (1919-24). He was created Baron Curzon of Kedleston in 1898, Earl Curzon of Kedleston, Viscount Scarsdale, and Baron Ravensdale in 1911, and marquess in 1921.

Cushing, Caleb (b. Jan. 17, 1800, Salisbury, Mass. - d. Jan. 2, 1879, Newburyport, Mass.), U.S. attorney general (1853-57). He was also minister to China (1843-45) and Spain (1874-77).

Cushing, Thomas (b. March 24, 1725, Boston, Massachusetts Bay [now Mass.] - d. Feb. 28, 1788, Boston), acting governor of Massachusetts (1785).

Cusin, Gaston (b. June 15, 1903, Annecy, France - d. Oct. 17, 1993), governor-general (1956-57) and high commissioner (1957-58) of French West Africa.

Cutileiro, José (Pires) (b. Nov. 20, 1934, Évora, Portugal - d. May 17, 2020, Brussels, Belgium), secretary-general of the Western European Union (1994-99). He was also Portuguese ambassador to Mozambique (1980-83) and South Africa (1989-91).

Cutler, John C(hristopher) (b. Feb. 5, 1846, Sheffield, England - d. [suicide] July 30, 1928, Salt Lake City, Utah), governor of Utah (1905-09).

Cutler, Nathan (b. May 29, 1775, Lexington, Massachusetts Bay [now Mass.] - d. June 8, 1861, Farmington, Maine), acting governor of Maine (1829-30).

R. Cutler

Cutler, Sir (Arthur) Roden (b. May 24, 1916, Manly, Sydney, N.S.W. - d. Feb. 21, 2002, Sydney), governor of New South Wales (1966-81). He was awarded the Victoria Cross (1941) for his bravery during the Syrian campaign in World War II, and was knighted in 1965. He was also Australian high commissioner to New Zealand (1946-52), Ceylon (1952-55), and Pakistan (1959-61), minister to Egypt (1955-56), and ambassador to the Netherlands (1965-66).

Cuttaree, Jaya Krishna, also called Jayen Cuttaree (b. June 22, 1941), foreign minister of Mauritius (2003-05). He was also minister of labour and industrial relations (1982-83), justice (1990-91), housing (1990-93), industry (1995-97), and commerce, industry, and international trade (2000-03).

Cuvillier, Jacques Philippe (b. April 21, 1774, Rochefort [now in Charente-Maritime département], France - d. Aug. 31, 1857, Saintes, Charente-Maritime), governor of Île Bourbon (1832-38).

Cuy, Catalino (Salandanan), byname Lito Cuy (b. Nov. 25, 1957), acting interior secretary of the Philippines (2017-18).


Cvetkovic, Mirko (b. Aug. 16, 1950, Zajecar, Serbia), finance minister (2007-08, 2011-12) and prime minister (2008-12) of Serbia.

Cvijanovic, Zeljka, née Grabovac (b. March 4, 1967, Teslic [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister (2013-18) and president (2018-22) of the Republika Srpska and chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2022-23).

Cvitan, Onesin (b. Feb. 16, 1939, Tribunj, near Sibenik, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia]), interior minister of Croatia (1991). He was also mayor of Split (1990-91) and ambassador to Ukraine (1992-95) and Macedonia (1995-97).

Cwele, Siyabonga (Cyprian) (b. Sept. 3, 1958), home affairs minister of South Africa (2018-19). He has also been minister of intelligence (2008-09), state security (2009-14), and telecommunications and postal services (2014-18) and ambassador to China (2021- ).

Cwiakalski, Zbigniew (b. March 9, 1950, Lancut, Poland), justice minister and prosecutor-general of Poland (2007-09).

Cyrankiewicz, Józef (Adam Zygmunt) (b. April 23, 1911, Tarnów, Austria-Hungary [now in Poland] - d. Jan. 20, 1989, Warsaw, Poland), prime minister of Poland (1947-52, 1954-70). He became secretary of the Kraków branch of the Polish Socialist Party (PSP) in 1935. He was captured by German forces in 1939, but he escaped and joined the Polish underground. Recaptured in 1941, he spent the remainder of the war in the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz. Cyrankiewicz was named secretary-general of the pro-Soviet PSP Central Executive Committee in 1945. As prime minister he presided over the forcible merger (1948) of the PSP with the Soviet-backed Polish Workers' Party to form the Polish United Workers' Party. Although he was briefly demoted to deputy prime minister in November 1952, he was reinstated as chairman of the new Council of Ministers in March 1954. On Dec. 7, 1970, Cyrankiewicz and West German Chancellor Willy Brandt signed the treaty that formally established the German-Polish border. Later that month Cyrankiewicz and controversial First Secretary Wladyslaw Gomulka were forced out of office after food-price increases touched off riots in several Polish cities. Cyrankiewicz then held the ceremonial post of chairman of the Council of State (president) until 1972. He also served as chairman of the Polish Peace Committee (1973-86).

Cyrillo, Carlos, Júnior (b. Dec. 25, 1886, Curitiba, Brazil - d. May 31, 1965, São Paulo, Brazil), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1958-59). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1949-51).

Czaputowicz, Jacek (Krzysztof) (b. May 30, 1956, Warsaw, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (2018-20).

Czartoryski, Adam Jerzy ksiaze (Prince) (b. Jan. 14, 1770, Warsaw, Poland - d. July 15, 1861, Montfermeil, France), foreign minister of Russia (1804-06) and president of the National Government of Poland (1831). He was also Russian minister to Sardinia (1799-1801).

Czechowicz, Gabriel (b. Oct. 2, 1876, near Minsk, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. Jan. 22, 1938, Warsaw, Poland), finance minister of Poland (1926, 1926-29).

Czechowski, Jan (b. May 16, 1894, Baby, Poland - d. Dec. 14, 1972, Lódz, Poland), justice minister of Poland (1944).

Czernin von und zu Chudenitz, Ottokar Graf (Count) (b. Sept. 26, 1872, Dimokur, Austria [now Dymokury, Czech Republic] - d. April 4, 1932, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Austria-Hungary (1916-18); great-grandson of Karl Freiherr von Canitz und Dallwitz. He was also minister to Romania (1913-16).

Czerwinska, Teresa (Tatiana), née Tumanowska (b. Sept. 7, 1974, Daugavpils, Latvian S.S.R.), finance minister of Poland (2018-19).

Czettel, Hans (b. April 20, 1923, Vienna, Austria - d. Sept. 27, 1980, Ternitz, Niederösterreich, Austria), interior minister of Austria (1964-66).

Czinege, Lajos (b. March 24, 1924, Karcag, Hungary - d. May 10, 1998, Leányfalu, Hungary), defense minister of Hungary (1960-84). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Szolnok county (1957-60) and a deputy premier (1984-87).

Czuma, Andrzej (Bobola) (b. Dec. 7, 1938, Lublin, Poland), justice minister and prosecutor-general of Poland (2009).

Czyrek, Józef (b. July 20, 1928, Bialobrzegi, Poland - d. June 3, 2013), foreign minister of Poland (1980-82).