Rulers

Countries Se-So

Contents of this page:
Senegal - Serbia - Seychelles - Sierra Leone - Singapore - Sint Eustatius - Sint Maarten - Slovakia - Slovenia - Solomon Islands - Somalia - South Africa - South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands - South Sudan

Senegal

       1626                first French settlements
30 Apr 1758 - 11 Feb 1779  British occupation (Gorée restored to France 10 Feb 1763)
13 Jul 1809 -        1816  British occupation
       1854                Gorée detached from Senegal, becoming part of the Colony
                           of Gorée and Dependencies, headed by the Commandant of the
                           Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (see Gabon)
26 Feb 1859                Gorée reincorporated into Senegal
16 Jun 1895                part of French West Africa (Dahomey, French Guinea,
                           French Sudan, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal,
                           Upper Volta)
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory
25 Nov 1958                autonomy (Republic of Senegal)
 4 Apr 1959                part of Mali Federation
20 Jun 1960                independence of Mali Federation
20 Aug 1960                Republic of Senegal withdraws from Mali Federation
 1 Feb 1982 - 30 Sep 1989  confederation with The Gambia (Senegambia)

French West Africa

Governors-general (from 4 Apr 1957, high commissioners)
28 Sep 1895 -  1 Nov 1900  Jean Baptiste Émile Louis
                           Barthélemy Chaudié                 (b. 1853 - d. 19...)
 1 Nov 1900 - 26 Jan 1902  Noël Ballay                        (b. 1847 - d. 1902)
26 Jan 1902 - 15 Mar 1902  Pierre Paul Marie Capest (acting)  (b. 1857 - d. 19...)
15 Mar 1902 - 15 Dec 1907  Ernest Roume                       (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
15 Dec 1907 -  9 Mar 1908  Martial Merlin (1st time) (acting) (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
 9 Mar 1908 - 13 Jun 1915  William Ponty                      (b. 1866 - d. 1915)
   Jan 1912 -    Aug 1912    François Joseph Clozel           (b. 1860 - d. 1918)
                             (acting for Ponty)
14 Jun 1915 -  3 Jun 1917  François Joseph Clozel             (s.a.)
                           (acting to 26 Jun 1915)
 3 Jun 1917 - 22 Jan 1918  Joost van Vollenhoven              (b. 1877 - d. 1918)
22 Jan 1918 - 30 Jul 1919  Gabriel Angoulvant (acting)        (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
30 Jul 1919 - 16 Sep 1919  Auguste Brunet (acting)            (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
16 Sep 1919 - 18 Mar 1923  Martial Merlin (2nd time)          (s.a.)
18 Mar 1923 - 15 Oct 1930  Jules Carde                        (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
15 Oct 1930 - 27 Sep 1936  Jules Brévié                       (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
27 Sep 1936 - 14 Jul 1938  Marcel de Coppet                   (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
14 Jul 1938 - 29 Oct 1938  Léon Geismar (acting)
29 Oct 1938 - 10 Aug 1939  Pierre Boisson (1st time) (acting) (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
10 Aug 1939 - 25 Jun 1940  Léon Cayla                         (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
25 Jun 1940 - 13 Jul 1943  Pierre Boisson (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (also named high commissioner for all "French Africa,"
                           responsible for the territories which did not rally to
                           the Free French)
13 Jul 1943 -  2 Apr 1946  Pierre Charles Cournarie           (b. 1895 - d. 1968)
   May 1946 - 27 Jan 1948  René Victor Marie Barthès
27 Jan 1948 - 24 May 1951  Paul Béchard                       (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
24 May 1951 - 21 Sep 1952  Paul Chauvet (acting)              (b. 1904 - d. 2007)
21 Sep 1952 -  5 Jul 1956  Bernard Cornut-Gentille            (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
 5 Jul 1956 -    Jul 1958  Gaston Cusin                       (b. 1903 - d. 1993)
   Jul 1958 - 22 Dec 1958  Pierre Messmer                     (b. 1916 - d. 2007)

Senegal

Directors of the Compagnie du Sénégal
 4 Jun 1697 -  1 May 1702  André Brué                         (b. 1654 - d. 1738)
       1702 -        1706  Joseph Lemaitre
       1706 -        1709  Michel Jajolet de La Courbé
Directors of the Compagnie de Rouen
       1710 - 15 Aug 1711  Guillaume Joseph Mustellier        (b. ... - d. 1711)
       1712 -  2 May 1713  Pierre de Richebourg
20 Apr 1714 -        1719  André Brué                         (s.a.)
Directors of the Compagnie des Indes
       1719 -    May 1720  André Brué                         (s.a.)
   May 1720 -    Apr 1723  Nicolas Desprès de Saint-Robert
                           (1st time)                         (b. ... - d. 1725/26)
       1723 -        1725  Julien du Bellay
       1725                Nicolas Desprès de Saint-Robert
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1725 -        1726  Arnaud Plumet
       1726 -        1733  Jean Levens de la Rouquette
       1733 -  7 Mar 1733  Lejuge                             (b. ... - d. 1733)
       1733 -        1738  Sebastian Devaulx (acting to 1736)
       1738 -        1746  Pierre Félix Barthélemy David      (b. 1711 - d. 1795)
       1746 -        1758  Jean-Baptiste Estoupan de la Rué
British governors
30 Apr 1758 - 10 Feb 1763  Richard Worge
10 Feb 1763 - 25 May 1765  John Barnes
25 May 1765 -    Nov 1775  Charles O'Hara
   Nov 1775 -  8 Apr 1777  Matthias MacNamara
 8 Apr 1777 - 18 Aug 1778  John Clarke
18 Aug 1778 - 11 Feb 1779  George Fall
Governors (to 11 Feb 1779 of Gorée only)
12 Sep 1763 -    Nov 1764  Pierre Poncet de la Rivière
   Mar 1765 -    Jul 1767  Jean-Georges Le Baillif,
                           chevalier d'Esmenager
   Jul 1767 -    Mar 1768  Claude Le Lardeux de la Gastière   (b. ... - d. 1768)
   Mar 1768 -  4 Oct 1768  Maizière (acting)
 4 Oct 1768 - 10 Dec 1772  Pierre de Rastel de Rocheblaye
10 Dec 1772 -    Nov 1774  Charles Hypolite Boniface
   Nov 1774 -    Dec 1777  Joseph Le Brasseur
   Dec 1777 -    Aug 1778  Alexandre Davis Armeny de Paradis  (b. ... - d. 1778)
   Aug 1778 - 31 Jan 1779  Charles Boucher (acting)
31 Jan 1779 -    Mar 1779  Armand Louis de Gontaut,
                           duc de Lauzun                      (b. 1747 - d. 1793)
   Mar 1779 -  7 Mar 1781  Jacques Joseph Eyries
 7 Mar 1781 -    Jul 1782  J.B. Bertrand (acting)
   Jul 1782 -    Feb 1784  Anne Gaston Dumontet
   Feb 1784 -    Feb 1786  Louis Legardeur, sieur de
                           Repentigny                         (b. 1721 - d. 1786)
   Feb 1786 -    Dec 1787  Stanislas Jean Boufflers,
                           chevalier de Boufflers             (b. 1738 - d. 1815)
   Dec 1787 -    Jan 1801  François Blanchot de Verly
                           (1st time)                         (b. 17... - d. 1807)
   Jan 1801 -  2 Jul 1801  Charbonnes (acting)
 2 Jul 1801 - 27 Oct 1802  Louis Henri Pierre Lasserre
27 Oct 1802 - 12 Sep 1807  François Blanchot de Verly
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Sep 1807 - 13 Jul 1809  Pierre Levasseur
13 Jul 1809 -        1811  Charles William Maxwell            (b. ... - d. 1848)
       1811 -        1814  Charles MacCarthy                  (b. 1764 - d. 1824)
       1814 - 19 Apr 1816  Thomas Brereton
   Jul 1816 -    Dec 1817  Julien Schmaltz (1st time)
   Dec 1817 - 13 Mar 1819  Fleuriau (acting)
13 Mar 1819 - 14 Aug 1820  Julien Schmaltz (2nd time)
14 Aug 1820 -  1 Mar 1821  Louis Lecoupe de Montereau,
                           baron Lecoupe (acting)
 1 Mar 1821 - 18 May 1827  Jacques François, baron Roger      (b. 1787 - d. 18...)
18 May 1827 -  7 Jan 1828  Gerbidon (acting)
 7 Jan 1828 - 11 May 1829  Jean-Guillaume Jubelin             (b. 1787 - d. 18...)
11 May 1829 - 24 May 1831  Pierre de Brou
24 May 1831 - 18 Oct 1833  Renault de Saint-Germain           (b. ... - d. 1833)
   Oct 1833 - 13 Nov 1833  Cadest (acting)
13 Nov 1833 - 10 May 1834  Germain Quernel
10 May 1834 -  1 Jul 1836  Louis Pujol
 1 Jul 1836 -    Dec 1836  Louis Malavoix
   Dec 1836 - 13 Sep 1837  Louis Guillet (acting)
13 Sep 1837 - 12 Apr 1839  Julien Soret
12 Apr 1839 - 19 May 1841  Guillaume Charmasson de Puylaval   (b. 1780 - d. 18...)
19 May 1841 -  7 May 1842  Jean-Baptiste Montagniès de la
                           Roque                              (b. 1793 - d. 1862)
 7 May 1842 -  3 Feb 1843  Édouard Pageot Desnoutières
 3 Feb 1843 - 24 May 1844  Louis Édouard Bouët                (b. 1808 - d. 1871)
24 May 1844 -    Jul 1844  Laborel (acting)
   Jul 1844 - 11 Dec 1845  Pierre Thomas (acting)
11 Dec 1845 - 20 Mar 1846  François Ollivier                  (b. ... - d. 1846)
20 Mar 1846 - 30 Aug 1846  Hoube (acting)
30 Aug 1846 - 24 Aug 1847  Ernest Bourdon de Gramont          (b. 1805 - d. 1847)
24 Aug 1847 -  7 Sep 1847  Caille (acting)                    (b. ... - d. 1847)
 7 Sep 1847 -    Nov 1847  Léandre Bertin du Château (acting) (b. 1804 - d. 1884)
   Nov 1847 -    Aug 1850  Auguste Baudin                     (b. 1800 - d. 1877)
   Aug 1850 - 11 Oct 1850  Aumont (acting)
11 Oct 1850 - 16 Dec 1854  Auguste Léopold Protet             (b. 1808 - d. 1862)
   May 1853 - 30 Jan 1854    Vérand (acting for Protet)
16 Dec 1854 -  1 Jun 1861  Louis Faidherbe (1st time)         (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
 1 Jun 1861 -  1 Dec 1861  Léopold François Stéphan (acting)  (b. 1815 - d. ...)
 1 Dec 1861 - 13 May 1863  Jean-Bernard Jauréguiberry         (b. 1815 - d. 1887)
13 May 1863 - 14 Jul 1863  Émile Pinet-Laprade (1st time)     (b. 1822 - d. 1869)
                           (acting)
14 Jul 1863 -  1 May 1865  Louis Faidherbe (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 May 1865 - 17 Aug 1869  Émile Pinet-Laprade (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting to 12 Jul 1865)
18 Aug 1869 - 17 Oct 1869  Ferdinand Charles Alexandre Tredos (b. 1820 - d. ...)
                           (acting)
17 Oct 1869 - 18 Jun 1876  François-Xavier Valière            (b. 1826 - d. 1882)
18 Jun 1876 -    Apr 1880  Louis Brière de l'Isle             (b. 1827 - d. 1896)
   Apr 1880 -  4 Aug 1881  Louis Ferdinand de Lanneau         (b. 1822 - d. 1881)
 4 Aug 1881 -    Oct 1881  Marie Auguste Deville de Perière   (b. 1825 - d. ...)
                           (acting)
   Oct 1881 - 28 Jun 1882  Henri Philibert Canard             (b. 1824 - d. 1894)
28 Jun 1882 - 16 Nov 1882  Aristide Vallon                    (b. 1826 - d. 1897)
16 Nov 1882 - 28 Jun 1883  René Servatius
28 Jun 1883 - 25 Jul 1883  Adolphe Le Boucher (acting)        (b. 1837 - d. 1896)
25 Jul 1883 - 15 Apr 1884  Henri Bourdiaux (acting)           (b. 1838 - d. 1899)
15 Apr 1884 - 14 Apr 1886  Alphonse Seignac-Lesseps           (b. c.1829 - d. ...)
14 Apr 1886 - 29 Apr 1888  Jules Genouille                    (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
29 Apr 1888 - 22 Sep 1890  Léon Émile Clément-Thomas
22 Sep 1890 - 19 May 1895  Henri de Lamothe                   (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
19 May 1895 - 28 Sep 1895  Louis Mouttet (acting)             (b. 1857 - d. 1902)
28 Sep 1895 -  1 Nov 1900  Jean Baptiste Émile Louis
                           Barthélemy Chaudié                 (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1900 - 26 Jan 1902  Noël Ballay                        (s.a.)
26 Jan 1902 - 15 Mar 1902  Pierre Paul Marie Capest           (s.a.)
15 Mar 1902 - 11 Nov 1902  Ernest Roume                       (s.a.)
11 Nov 1902 - 26 Aug 1907  Camille Guy                        (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
26 Aug 1907 - 15 Dec 1907  Joost van Vollenhoven (acting)     (s.a.)
15 Dec 1907 - 10 Jun 1908  Martial Merlin                     (s.a.)
10 Jun 1908 - 17 Oct 1908  Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1849 - d. 19...)
17 Oct 1908 - 23 Feb 1909  Maurice Gourbeil
23 Feb 1909 -  2 May 1909  Edmond Gaudard (acting)
 2 May 1909 -  5 Feb 1911  Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1911 - 13 May 1914  Henri Cor
13 May 1914 - 14 Feb 1916  Raphaël Antonetti (acting)         (b. 1872 - d. 1938)
20 Mar 1917 - 23 Sep 1920  Fernand Émile Levêque
23 Sep 1920 - 17 Sep 1921  Théophile Antoine Pascal (acting)
17 Sep 1921 -  4 Jul 1925  Pierre Jean Henri Didelot          (b. 1870 - d. 19...)
 4 Jul 1925 - 23 May 1926  Camille Maillet (1st time)
                           (acting)
23 May 1926 - 23 Oct 1926  Joseph Zébédée Olivier Cadier
                           (acting)
23 Oct 1926 - 12 Mar 1929  Léonce Jore                        (b. 1882 - d. 1975)
12 Mar 1929 -  4 Jul 1930  Maurice Beurnier (1st time)        (b. 1878 - d. 19...)
 4 Jul 1930 - 15 Aug 1931  Camille Maillet (2nd time)
15 Aug 1931 - 14 Oct 1931  Benoît Louis Rebonne (acting)
14 Oct 1931 -    Dec 1936  Maurice Beurnier (2nd time)        (s.a.)
   Dec 1936 - 25 Oct 1938  Louis Lefebvre
25 Oct 1938 -        1940  Jean Paul Parisot
 1 Jan 1941 - 22 Dec 1942  Georges Pierre Rey
22 Dec 1942 -  2 Dec 1943  Hubert Deschamps                   (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
 2 Dec 1943 - 30 May 1945  Charles Dagain                     (b. 1885 - d. 1969)
   Jun 1945 -    Apr 1946  Pierre Louis Maestracci
   Apr 1946 - 20 May 1947  Oswald Durand                      (b. 1888 - d. 1982)
20 May 1947 - 19 Oct 1950  Laurent Marcel Wiltord
19 Oct 1950 - 25 Apr 1952  Camille Bailly                     (b. 1907 - d. 1984)
25 Apr 1952 - 19 Feb 1954  Lucien Eugène Geay                 (b. 1900 - d. 1976)
19 Feb 1954 - 31 Oct 1955  Maxime Marie Antoine Jourdain
31 Oct 1955 - 10 Feb 1957  Jean Colombani                     (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
10 Feb 1957 -        1960  Pierre Lami                        (b. 1909 - d. 1994)
                           (high commissioner from 25 Nov 1958)
Presidents
 6 Sep 1960 - 31 Dec 1980  Léopold Sédar Senghor              (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
 1 Jan 1981 -  1 Apr 2000  Abdou Diouf                        (b. 1935)
                           (also president of Senegambia 1 Feb 1982 - 30 Sep 1989)
 1 Apr 2000 -  2 Apr 2012  Abdoulaye Wade                     (b. 1926)
 2 Apr 2012 -              Macky Sall                         (b. 1961)

Prime ministers 18 May 1957 - 18 Dec 1962 Mamadou Dia (b. 1910 - d. 2009) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, president of the Government Council 26 Jul 1958 - 4 Apr 1959) 26 Feb 1970 - 31 Dec 1980 Abdou Diouf (s.a.) 1 Jan 1981 - 3 Apr 1983 Habib Thiam (1st time) (b. 1933) 3 Apr 1983 - 29 Apr 1983 Moustapha Niasse (1st time) (b. 1939) (interim) 8 Apr 1991 - 3 Jul 1998 Habib Thiam (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Jul 1998 - 5 Apr 2000 Mamadou Lamine Loum (b. 1952) 5 Apr 2000 - 3 Mar 2001 Moustapha Niasse (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Mar 2001 - 4 Nov 2002 Mame Madior Boye (f) (b. 1940) 4 Nov 2002 - 21 Apr 2004 Idrissa Seck (b. 1959) 21 Apr 2004 - 19 Jun 2007 Macky Sall (s.a.) 19 Jun 2007 - 30 Apr 2009 Cheikh Hadjibou Soumaré (b. 1951) 30 Apr 2009 - 5 Apr 2012 Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye (b. 1958) 5 Apr 2012 - 3 Sep 2013 Abdoul Mbaye (b. 1953) 3 Sep 2013 - 8 Jul 2014 Aminata Touré (f) (b. 1962) 8 Jul 2014 - Mohamed Dionne (b. 1959)

Serbia

 8 Aug 1217                Kingdom of Serbia
16 Apr 1346                Empire of Serbia
20 Jun 1459                part of Ottoman Empire
14 Feb 1804 -  3 Oct 1813  insurrection against Ottoman rule
21 Nov 1815                Principality of Serbia (official from 6 Nov 1817)
13 Jul 1878                independence recognized
 6 Mar 1882                Kingdom of Serbia
 1 Dec 1918                merged into Yugoslavia
17 Apr 1941 - 20 Oct 1944  separated under German occupation
       1945                People's Republic of Serbia
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Serbia
28 Sep 1990                Republic of Serbia
 5 Jun 2006                independence

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
       1941 -        1948  Blagoje Neskovic                   (b. 1907 - d. 1984)
       1948 -    Mar 1957  Petar Stambolic                    (b. 1912 - d. 2007)
   Mar 1957 -  4 Nov 1966  Jovan Veselinov                    (b. 1906 - d. 1982)
Chairmen of the Central Committee of the League of Communists
 4 Nov 1966 -    Feb 1968  Dobrivoje Radosavljevic            (b. 1915 - d. 1984)
   Feb 1968 -    Nov 1968  Petar Stambolic                    (s.a.)
   Nov 1968 - 26 Oct 1972  Marko Nikezic                      (b. 1921 - d. 1991)
26 Oct 1972 -    May 1982  Tihomir Vlaskalic                  (b. 1923 - d. 1993)
   May 1982 - 17 May 1984  Dusan Ckrebic                      (b. 1927)
   May 1984 -    May 1986  Ivan Stambolic                     (b. 1936 - d. 2000)
   May 1986 - 24 May 1989  Slobodan Milosevic                 (b. 1941 - d. 2006)
24 May 1989 - 16 Jul 1990  Bogdan Trifunovic                  (b. 1933 - d. 2007)

Chief (from 26 Dec 1808, Supreme Chief) 14 Feb 1804 - 3 Oct 1813 Karadjordje (b. 1762 - d. 1817) Princes 21 Nov 1815 - 13 Jun 1839 Milos Obrenovic I (1st time) (b. 1780 - d. 1860) 13 Jun 1839 - 8 Jul 1839 Milan Obrenovic II (b. 1819 - d. 1839) 15 Jun 1839 - 17 Mar 1840 Provisional Regency (for incapacitated Milan to 8 Jul 1839) - Jevrem Obrenovic (b. 1790 - d. 1856) - Toma Vucic Perisic (b. 1787 - d. 1859) - Avram Petronijevic (b. 1791 - d. 1852) 17 Mar 1840 - 14 Sep 1842 Mihailo Obrenovic III (1st time) (b. 1823 - d. 1868) 14 Sep 1842 - 20 Jun 1843 Aleksandar Karadjordjevic (1st time) (b. 1806 - d. 1885) 20 Jun 1843 - 27 Jun 1843 Regency - Stefan Stefanovic Tenka (b. 1797 - d. 1865) - Lazar Teodorovic (b. 1781 - d. 1846) - Milosav Zdravkovic (b. 1788 - d. 1854) 27 Jun 1843 - 23 Dec 1858 Aleksandar Karadjordjevic (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Dec 1858 - 24 Dec 1858 Misa Anastasijevic (b. 1803 - d. 1885) (president of Assembly of St. Andrew) 24 Dec 1858 - 26 Sep 1860 Milos Obrenovic I (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Sep 1860 - 10 Jun 1868 Mihailo Obrenovic III (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Jun 1868 - 2 Jul 1868 Provisional Regency - Jovan Marinovic (b. 1821 - d. 1893) - Rajko Lesjanin (b. 1826 - d. 1872) - Djordje Petrovic 2 Jul 1868 - 6 Mar 1882 Milan Obrenovic IV (b. 1854 - d. 1901) 2 Jul 1868 - 22 Aug 1872 Regency - Milivoje Petrovic Blaznavac (b. 1824 - d. 1873) - Jovan Ristic (b. 1831 - d. 1899) - Jovan Gavrilovic (b. 1796 - d. 1877) Kings - Obrenovic dynasty - 6 Mar 1882 - 6 Mar 1889 Milan I (s.a.) 6 Mar 1889 - 11 Jun 1903 Aleksandar I (b. 1876 - d. 1903) 6 Mar 1889 - 13 Apr 1893 Regency - Jovan Ristic (s.a.) - Jovan Belimarkovic (b. 1827 - d. 1906) - Kosta Protic (to 16 Jun 1892) (b. 1831 - d. 1892) 11 Jun 1903 - 15 Jun 1903 Jovan Avakumovic (regent) (b. 1841 - d. 1928) - Karadjordjevic dynasty - 15 Jun 1903 - 1 Dec 1918 Petar I (b. 1844 - d. 1921) 5 Jul 1914 - 1 Dec 1918 Prince Aleksandar (regent) (b. 1888 - d. 1934) 29 Aug 1941 - 20 Oct 1944 government under German occupation carried on in the name of the absent and non-consenting King Petar II (b. 1923 - d. 1970) German military governors 20 Apr 1941 - 9 Jun 1941 Helmuth Förster (b. 1889 - d. 1965) 9 Jun 1941 - 29 Jul 1941 Ludwig von Schröder (b. 1884 - d. 1941) 29 Jul 1941 - 19 Sep 1941 Heinrich Danckelmann (b. 1887 - d. 1947) 19 Sep 1941 - 4 Dec 1941 Franz Böhme (b. 1894 - d. 1947) 4 Dec 1941 - 26 Aug 1943 Paul Bader (b. 1883 - d. 1971) 26 Aug 1943 - 20 Oct 1944 Hans-Gustav Felber (b. 1889 - d. 1962) President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (until 7 Apr 1945, chairman of the Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation) 12 Nov 1944 - Mar 1953 Sinisa Stankovic (b. 1892 - d. 1974) Presidents of the National Assembly Dec 1953 - Apr 1957 Petar Stambolic (s.a.) Apr 1957 - 26 Jun 1963 Jovan Veselinov (s.a.) 26 Jun 1963 - 6 May 1967 Dusan Petrovic (b. 1914 - d. 1977) 6 May 1967 - 6 May 1969 Milos Minic (b. 1914 - d. 2003) 6 May 1969 - 19 Apr 1974 Dragoslav Markovic (b. 1920 - d. 2005) 19 Apr 1974 - 6 May 1974 Zivan Vasiljevic (b. 1920 - d. 2007) Presidents of the Presidency 6 May 1974 - 5 May 1978 Dragoslav Markovic (s.a.) 5 May 1978 - 5 May 1982 Dobrivoje Vidic (b. 1918 - d. 1991) 5 May 1982 - May 1984 Nikola Ljubicic (b. 1916 - d. 2005) May 1984 - May 1986 Dusan Ckrebic (s.a.) May 1986 - 14 Dec 1987 Ivan Stambolic (s.a.) 14 Dec 1987 - 20 Mar 1989 Petar Gracanin (b. 1923 - d. 2004) 20 Mar 1989 - 8 May 1989 Ljubisa Igic (acting) 8 May 1989 - Jan 1991 Slobodan Milosevic (s.a.) Presidents Jan 1991 - 23 Jul 1997 Slobodan Milosevic (s.a.) 23 Jul 1997 - 29 Dec 1997 Dragan Tomic (acting) (b. 1936) 29 Dec 1997 - 29 Dec 2002 Milan Milutinovic (b. 1942) 30 Dec 2002 - 27 Jan 2004 Natasa Micic (f) (acting) (b. 1965) 4 Feb 2004 - 3 Mar 2004 Dragan Marsicanin (acting) (b. 1950) 3 Mar 2004 - 4 Mar 2004 Vojislav Mihailovic (acting) (b. 1951) 4 Mar 2004 - 11 Jul 2004 Predrag Markovic (acting) (b. 1955) 11 Jul 2004 - 5 Apr 2012 Boris Tadic (b. 1958) 5 Apr 2012 - 31 May 2012 Slavica Djukic Dejanovic (f) (b. 1951) (acting) 31 May 2012 - Tomislav Nikolic (b. 1952)
Presidents of the Administering Council 25 Aug 1805 - Oct 1805 Jovan Protic (acting) (b. 1770 - d. 1827) Oct 1805 - mid-1806 Mateja Nenadovic (b. 1777 - d. 1854) mid-1806 - Jan 1808 Karadjordje (1st time) (s.a.) Jan 1808 - Nov 1809 Mladen Milovanovic (b. 1760 - d. 1823) Nov 1809 - 22 Jan 1811 Jakov Nenadovic (b. 1765 - d. 1836) 22 Jan 1811 - 3 Oct 1813 Karadjordje (2nd time) (s.a.) Prince's representatives 21 Nov 1815 - 16 May 1816 Petar Nikolajevic Moler (b. 1775 - d. 1816) 1818 - 1820 Avram Petronijevic (1st time) (s.a.) 1821 - 1826 Jevrem Obrenovic (b. 1790 - d. 1856) 1826 Avram Petronijevic (2nd time) (s.a.) 1826 Miloje Todorovic (b. 1762 - d. 1832) 1826 - 1835 Dimitrije Davidovic (b. 1789 - d. 1839) 1835 - 1839 Jakov Zivanovic (b. 1808 - d. 1861) Prime ministers 15 Feb 1835 - 1836 Koca Markovic (b. 1795 - d. 1836) 28 Mar 1836 - 26 Feb 1839 Stefan Stefanovic Tenka (s.a.) 26 Feb 1839 - 8 May 1840 Avram Petronijevic (1st time) (s.a.) 8 May 1840 - 15 May 1840 Paun Jankovic (acting) (b. 1808 - d. 1865) 15 May 1840 - 8 Sep 1842 Djordje Protic (b. 1793 - d. 1857) 8 Sep 1842 - 20 Jun 1843 Avram Petronijevic (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Jun 1843 - 29 Nov 1843 Aleksa Jankovic (1st time) (b. 1806 - d. 1869) (acting [for Simic from 6 Oct 1843]) 6 Oct 1843 - 11 Oct 1844 Aleksa Simic (1st time) (b. 1800 - d. 1872) 11 Oct 1844 - 22 Apr 1852 Avram Petronijevic (3rd time) (s.a.) Oct 1851 - 25 Sep 1852 Aleksa Jankovic (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting [for Petronijevic to 22 Apr 1852]) 25 Sep 1852 - 26 Mar 1853 Ilija Garasanin (1st time) (b. 1812 - d. 1874) 26 Mar 1853 - 28 Dec 1855 Aleksa Simic (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Dec 1855 - 10 Jun 1856 Aleksa Jankovic (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Jun 1856 - 28 Sep 1856 Stefan Markovic (1st time) (b. 1804 - d. 1864) (acting) 28 Sep 1856 - 1 Jul 1857 Aleksa Simic (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jul 1857 - 12 Apr 1858 Stefan Markovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Apr 1858 - 18 Apr 1859 Stefan Magazinovic (acting) (b. 1804 - d. 1874) 18 Apr 1859 - 8 Nov 1860 Cvetko Rajovic (b. 1793 - d. 1873) 8 Nov 1860 - 21 Oct 1861 Filip Hristic (b. 1819 - d. 1903) 21 Oct 1861 - 15 Nov 1867 Ilija Garasanin (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Nov 1867 - 3 Dec 1867 Jovan Ristic (1st time) (s.a.) 3 Dec 1867 - 3 Jul 1868 Nikola Hristic (1st time) (b. 1816 - d. 1911) 3 Jul 1868 - 8 Aug 1869 Djordje Cenic (b. 1825 - d. 1903) 8 Aug 1869 - 22 Aug 1872 Radivoje Milojkovic (b. 1832 - d. 1888) 22 Aug 1872 - 5 Apr 1873 Milivoje Petrovic Blaznavac (s.a.) 5 Apr 1873 - 3 Nov 1873 Jovan Ristic (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 14 Apr 1873) 3 Nov 1873 - 7 Dec 1874 Jovan Marinovic (b. 1821 - d. 1893) 7 Dec 1874 - 3 Feb 1875 Acim Cumic (b. 1836 - d. 1901) 3 Feb 1875 - 31 Aug 1875 Danilo Stefanovic (b. 1815 - d. 1886) 31 Aug 1875 - 8 Oct 1875 Stevca Mihailovic (1st time) (b. 1804 - d. 1888) 8 Oct 1875 - 6 May 1876 Ljubomir Kaljevic (b. 1841 - d. 1907) 6 May 1876 - 13 Oct 1878 Stevca Mihailovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Oct 1878 - 2 Nov 1880 Jovan Ristic (3rd time) (s.a.) 2 Nov 1880 - 13 Oct 1883 Milan Pirocanac (b. 1837 - d. 1897) 13 Oct 1883 - 1 Mar 1884 Nikola Hristic (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Mar 1884 - 13 Jun 1887 Milutin Garasanin (b. 1843 - d. 1908) 13 Jun 1887 - 31 Dec 1887 Jovan Ristic (4th time) (s.a.) 31 Dec 1887 - 26 Apr 1888 Sava Grujic (1st time) (b. 1840 - d. 1913) 26 Apr 1888 - 6 Mar 1889 Nikola Hristic (3rd time) (s.a.) 6 Mar 1889 - 7 Mar 1889 Kosta Protic (s.a.) 7 Mar 1889 - 23 Feb 1891 Sava Grujic (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Feb 1891 - 21 Aug 1892 Nikola Pasic (1st time) (b. 1845 - d. 1926) 21 Aug 1892 - 13 Apr 1893 Jovan Avakumovic (1st time) (s.a.) 13 Apr 1893 - 5 Dec 1893 Lazar Dokic (b. 1845 - d. 1893) 5 Dec 1893 - 24 Jan 1894 Sava Grujic (3rd time) (s.a.) 24 Jan 1894 - 2 Apr 1894 Djordje Simic (1st time) (b. 1843 - d. 1921) 2 Apr 1894 - 27 Oct 1894 Svetomir Nikolajevic (b. 1844 - d. 1922) 27 Oct 1894 - 7 Jul 1895 Nikola Hristic (4th time) (s.a.) 7 Jul 1895 - 29 Dec 1896 Stojan Novakovic (1st time) (b. 1842 - d. 1915) 29 Dec 1896 - 23 Oct 1897 Djordje Simic (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Oct 1897 - 24 Jul 1900 Vladan Djordjevic (b. 1844 - d. 1930) 24 Jul 1900 - 2 Apr 1901 Aleksa Jovanovic (b. 1846 - d. 1920) 2 Apr 1901 - 20 Oct 1902 Mihailo Vujic (b. 1853 - d. 1913) 20 Oct 1902 - 19 Nov 1902 Pera Velimirovic (1st time) (b. 1848 - d. 1922) 19 Nov 1902 - 11 Jun 1903 Dimitrije Cincar-Markovic (b. 1849 - d. 1903) 11 Jun 1903 - 4 Oct 1903 Jovan Avakumovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Oct 1903 - 10 Dec 1904 Sava Grujic (4th time) (s.a.) 10 Dec 1904 - 29 May 1905 Nikola Pasic (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 May 1905 - 14 Mar 1906 Ljubomir Stojanovic (b. 1861 - d. 1930) 14 Mar 1906 - 30 Apr 1906 Sava Grujic (5th time) (s.a.) 30 Apr 1906 - 20 Jul 1908 Nikola Pasic (3rd time) (s.a.) 20 Jul 1908 - 24 Feb 1909 Pera Velimirovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Feb 1909 - 24 Oct 1909 Stojan Novakovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Oct 1909 - 7 Jul 1911 Nikola Pasic (4th time) (s.a.) 7 Jul 1911 - 1 Jul 1912 Milovan Milovanovic (b. 1863 - d. 1912) 1 Jul 1912 - 12 Sep 1912 Marko Trifkovic (b. 1864 - d. 1928) 12 Sep 1912 - 1 Dec 1918 Nikola Pasic (5th time) (s.a.) (from Nov 1915 in Corfu exile) 30 Apr 1941 - 29 Aug 1941 Milan Acimovic (b. 1898 - d. 1945) (president of the Council of Commissars) 29 Aug 1941 - 10 Oct 1944 Milan Nedic (b. 1877 - d. 1946) (president of the Ministerial Council of the Serbian Government of National Salvation) 10 Oct 1944 - 20 Oct 1944 Ivan Petkovic (head of Council of State Administration for Serbia) 18 Nov 1944 - 9 Apr 1945 Pavle Savic (b. 1909 - d. 1994) (commissar for restoration to Jan 1945, then head of Economic Council) 9 Apr 1945 - 5 Sep 1948 Blagoje Neskovic (s.a.) 5 Sep 1948 - 5 Feb 1953 Petar Stambolic (s.a.) Presidents of the Executive Council 5 Feb 1953 - 16 Dec 1953 Petar Stambolic (s.a.) 16 Dec 1953 - 6 Apr 1957 Jovan Veselinov (s.a.) 6 Apr 1957 - 9 Jun 1962 Milos Minic (s.a.) 9 Jun 1962 - 6 Nov 1964 Slobodan Penezic Krcun (b. 1918 - d. 1964) 6 Nov 1964 - 17 Nov 1964 Stevan Doronjski (acting) (b. 1919 - d. 1981) 17 Nov 1964 - 6 May 1967 Dragi Stamenkovic (b. 1920 - d. 2004) 6 May 1967 - 6 May 1969 Djurica Jojkic (b. 1914 - d. 1981) 6 May 1969 - 6 May 1974 Milenko Bojanic (b. 1924 - d. 1987) 6 May 1974 - 6 May 1978 Dusan Ckrebic (s.a.) 6 May 1978 - 5 May 1982 Ivan Stambolic (s.a.) 5 May 1982 - 6 May 1986 Branislav Ikonic (b. 1928 - d. 2002) 6 May 1986 - 5 Dec 1989 Desimir Jevtic (b. 1938) 5 Dec 1989 - 11 Feb 1991 Stanko Radmilovic (b. 1936) Prime ministers 11 Feb 1991 - 23 Dec 1991 Dragutin Zelenovic (b. 1928) 23 Dec 1991 - 10 Feb 1993 Radoman Bozovic (b. 1953) 10 Feb 1993 - 18 Mar 1994 Nikola Sainovic (b. 1948) 18 Mar 1994 - 24 Oct 2000 Mirko Marjanovic (b. 1937 - d. 2006) 24 Oct 2000 - 25 Jan 2001 Milomir Minic (b. 1950) 25 Jan 2001 - 12 Mar 2003 Zoran Djindjic (b. 1952 - d. 2003) 12 Mar 2003 - 16 Mar 2003 Nebojsa Covic (acting) (b. 1958) 17 Mar 2003 - 18 Mar 2003 Zarko Korac (acting) (b. 1947) 18 Mar 2003 - 3 Mar 2004 Zoran Zivkovic (b. 1960) 3 Mar 2004 - 7 Jul 2008 Vojislav Kostunica (b. 1944) 7 Jul 2008 - 27 Jul 2012 Mirko Cvetkovic (b. 1950) 27 Jul 2012 - 27 Apr 2014 Ivica Dacic (b. 1966) 27 Apr 2014 - Aleksandar Vucic (b. 1970)

Yugoslavia, and Serbia and Montenegro

 1 Dec 1918                Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (informally called
                           Yugoslavia)
 3 Oct 1929                Kingdom of Yugoslavia
17 Apr 1941                state dissolved under Italian-German occupation
 4 Dec 1943                state reconstituted as Democratic Federative Yugoslavia while
                           negotiations with royal government in exile continued
 5 Mar 1945                accord with royal government
29 Nov 1945                Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia
 7 Apr 1963                Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia
27 Apr 1992                Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established, consisting only
                           of Serbia and Montenegro, following secession of the other
                           four constituent republics
 4 Feb 2003                replaced by a looser federation called Serbia and Montenegro
 3 Jun 2006                Montenegro declares independence; Serbia acknowledges its
                           own independence on 5 Jun 2006, marking final end of union

Secretary-general of the Communist Party (from 7 Nov 1952, League of Communists)
   Aug 1937 -    Oct 1966  Josip Broz Tito                    (b. 1892 - d. 1980)
Presidents of the Presidium of the League of Communists
   Oct 1966 -  4 May 1980  Josip Broz Tito                    (s.a.)
19 Oct 1978 - 23 Oct 1979    Branko Mikulic                   (b. 1928 - d. 1994)
                             (acting for Tito)
23 Oct 1979 - 20 Oct 1980  Stevan Doronjski                   (b. 1919 - d. 1981)
                           (acting for Tito to 4 May 1980)
20 Oct 1980 - 20 Oct 1981  Lazar Mojsov                       (b. 1920 - d. 2011)
20 Oct 1981 - 29 Jun 1982  Dusan Dragosavac                   (b. 1919)
29 Jun 1982 - 30 Jun 1983  Mitja Ribicic                      (b. 1919 - d. 2013)
30 Jun 1983 - 26 Jun 1984  Dragoslav Markovic                 (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
26 Jun 1984 - 25 Jun 1985  Ali Sukrija                        (b. 1919 - d. 2005)
25 Jun 1985 - 28 Jun 1986  Vidoje Zarkovic                    (b. 1927 - d. 2000)
28 Jun 1986 - 30 Jun 1987  Milanko Renovica                   (b. 1928 - d. 2013)
30 Jun 1987 - 30 Jun 1988  Bosko Krunic                       (b. 1929)
30 Jun 1988 - 17 May 1989  Stipe Suvar                        (b. 1936 - d. 2004)
17 May 1989 - 17 May 1990  Milan Pancevski                    (b. 1935)
17 May 1990 - 26 May 1990  Miomir Grbovic (acting)

Kings - Karadjordjevic dynasty - 1 Dec 1918 - 16 Aug 1921 Petar I (s.a.) 1 Dec 1918 - 16 Aug 1921 Prince Aleksandar (regent) (s.a.) 16 Aug 1921 - 9 Oct 1934 Aleksandar I (s.a.) 9 Oct 1934 - 29 Nov 1945 Petar II (s.a.) (in London [Oct 1943 - Mar 1944, Cairo] exile from 13/14 Apr 1941) 9 Oct 1934 - 27 Mar 1941 Regency - Prince Pavle (b. 1893 - d. 1976) - Radenko Stankovic (b. 1880 - d. 1956) - Ivo Perovic (b. 1881 - d. 1958) 2 Mar 1945 - 29 Nov 1945 Regency - Srdjan Budisavljevic (b. 1883 - d. 1968) - Dusan Sernec (b. 1882 - d. 1952) - Ante Mandic (b. 1881 - d. 1959) Chairman of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia 26 Nov 1942 - 4 Dec 1943 Ivan Ribar (b. 1881 - d. 1968) Chairman of the Presidium of the Provisional People's Assembly 4 Dec 1943 - 5 Mar 1945 Ivan Ribar (s.a.) Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly 2 Dec 1945 - 14 Jan 1953 Ivan Ribar (s.a.) President 14 Jan 1953 - 4 May 1980 Josip Broz Tito (s.a.) Presidents of the Collective Presidency 4 May 1980 - 15 May 1980 Lazar Kolisevski (b. 1914 - d. 2000) 15 May 1980 - 15 May 1981 Cvijetin Mijatovic (b. 1913 - d. 1993) 15 May 1981 - 16 May 1982 Sergej Kraigher (b. 1914 - d. 2001) 16 May 1982 - 13 May 1983 Petar Stambolic (b. 1912 - d. 2007) 13 May 1983 - 15 May 1984 Mika Spiljak (b. 1916 - d. 2007) 15 May 1984 - 15 May 1985 Veselin Djuranovic (b. 1925 - d. 1997) 15 May 1985 - 15 May 1986 Radovan Vlajkovic (b. 1922 - d. 2001) 15 May 1986 - 15 May 1987 Sinan Hasani (b. 1922 - d. 2010) 15 May 1987 - 15 May 1988 Lazar Mojsov (s.a.) 15 May 1988 - 15 May 1989 Raif Dizdarevic (b. 1926) 15 May 1989 - 15 May 1990 Janez Drnovsek (b. 1950 - d. 2008) 15 May 1990 - 15 May 1991 Borisav Jovic (b. 1928) 15 May 1991 - 1 Jul 1991 vacant¹ 1 Jul 1991 - 3 Oct 1991 Stipe Mesic (b. 1934) 3 Oct 1991 - 15 Jun 1992 Branko Kostic (acting) (b. 1939) Presidents 15 Jun 1992 - 1 Jun 1993 Dobrica Cosic (b. 1921 - d. 2014) 1 Jun 1993 - 25 Jun 1993 Milos Radulovic (acting) (b. 1929) 25 Jun 1993 - 25 Jun 1997 Zoran Lilic (b. 1953) 25 Jun 1997 - 23 Jul 1997 Srdja Bozovic (acting) (b. 1955) 23 Jul 1997 - 7 Oct 2000 Slobodan Milosevic (b. 1941 - d. 2006) 7 Oct 2000 - 7 Mar 2003 Vojislav Kostunica (b. 1944) 7 Mar 2003 - 4 Jun 2006 Svetozar Marovic (b. 1955)
Prime ministers (15 Apr 1941 - Mar 1945 in exile²) 1 Dec 1918 - 22 Dec 1918 Nikola Pasic (1st time) (s.a.) 22 Dec 1918 - 16 Aug 1919 Stojan Protic (1st time) (b. 1857 - d. 1923) 16 Aug 1919 - 19 Feb 1920 Ljubomir Davidovic (1st time) (b. 1863 - d. 1940) 19 Feb 1920 - 16 May 1920 Stojan Protic (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 May 1920 - 1 Jan 1921 Milenko Vesnic (b. 1862 - d. 1921) 1 Jan 1921 - 28 Jul 1924 Nikola Pasic (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jul 1924 - 6 Nov 1924 Ljubomir Davidovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Nov 1924 - 8 Apr 1926 Nikola Pasic (3rd time) (s.a.) 8 Apr 1926 - 17 Apr 1927 Nikola Uzunovic (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1954) 17 Apr 1927 - 28 Jul 1928 Velimir Vukicevic (b. 1871 - d. 1930) 28 Jul 1928 - 7 Jan 1929 Anton Korosec (b. 1872 - d. 1940) 7 Jan 1929 - 4 Apr 1932 Petar Zivkovic (b. 1879 - d. 1953) 4 Apr 1932 - 6 Jul 1932 Vojislav Marinkovic (b. 1876 - d. 1935) 6 Jul 1932 - 27 Jan 1934 Milan Srskic (b. 1880 - d. 1937) 27 Jan 1934 - 20 Dec 1934 Nikola Uzunovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Dec 1934 - 24 Jun 1935 Bogoljub Jevtic (b. 1886 - d. 1960) 24 Jun 1935 - 5 Feb 1939 Milan Stojadinovic (b. 1888 - d. 1961) 5 Feb 1939 - 27 Mar 1941 Dragisa Cvetkovic (b. 1893 - d. 1969) 27 Mar 1941 - 11 Jan 1942 Dusan T. Simovic (b. 1882 - d. 1962) 11 Jan 1942 - 26 Jun 1943 Slobodan Jovanovic (b. 1869 - d. 1958) 26 Jun 1943 - 10 Aug 1943 Milos Trifunovic (b. 1871 - d. 1957) 10 Aug 1943 - 1 Jun 1944 Bozidar Puric (b. 1891 - d. 1977) Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia: 27 Nov 1942 - 30 Nov 1943 Ivan Ribar (s.a.) 30 Nov 1943 - 7 Mar 1945 Josip Broz Tito (s.a.) 1 Jun 1944 - 7 Mar 1945 Ivan Subasic (b. 1892 - d. 1955) 7 Mar 1945 - 14 Jan 1953 Josip Broz Tito (s.a.) Presidents of the Federal Executive Council (premiers) 14 Jan 1953 - 29 Jun 1963 Josip Broz Tito (s.a.) 29 Jun 1963 - 18 May 1967 Petar Stambolic (s.a.) 18 May 1967 - 17 May 1969 Mika Spiljak (s.a.) 17 May 1969 - 30 Jul 1971 Mitja Ribicic (s.a.) 30 Jul 1971 - 18 Jan 1977 Dzemal Bijedic (b. 1917 - d. 1977) 14 Feb 1977 - 16 May 1982 Veselin Djuranovic (s.a.) 16 May 1982 - 15 May 1986 Milka Planinc (f) (b. 1924 - d. 2010) 15 May 1986 - 16 Mar 1989 Branko Mikulic (s.a.) 16 Mar 1989 - 20 Dec 1991 Ante Markovic (b. 1924 - d. 2011) 20 Dec 1991 - 14 Jul 1992 Aleksandar Mitrovic (acting) (b. 1933 - d. 2012) Prime ministers 14 Jul 1992 - 9 Feb 1993 Milan Panic (b. 1929) 9 Feb 1993 - 19 May 1998 Radoje Kontic (b. 1937) 19 May 1998 - 4 Nov 2000 Momir Bulatovic (b. 1956) 4 Nov 2000 - 24 Jul 2001 Zoran Zizic (b. 1951 - d. 2013) 24 Jul 2001 - 17 Mar 2003 Dragisa Pesic (b. 1954)
¹The members of the Presidency during this interval were Borisav Jovic (s.a.), Stipe Mesic (s.a.), Momir Bulatovic (s.a.) (to 16 May 1991), Branko Kostic (s.a.) (from 16 May 1991), Jugoslav Kostic (b. 1939), Vukasin Jokanovic (b. 1939) (to 16 May 1991), Sejdo Bajramovic (b. 1927 - d. 1993) (from 16 May 1991), Vasil Tupurkovski (b. 1951), Bogic Bogicevic (b. 1953?), and Janez Drnovsek (s.a.). On 17 May 1991 Bajramovic was elected coordinator of the presidency.
²Greece 15-28 Apr 1941, Palestine 28 Apr - Jun 1941, London Jun 1941 - Sep 1943 and Mar 1944 - Mar 1945, Cairo Sep 1943 - Mar 1944.

Vojvodina

24 Nov 1918 - 11 Mar 1919  autonomy
       1945                Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
       1963                Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
28 Sep 1990                Autonomous Province of Vojvodina

Chairmen of the Provincial Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
       1943                Isa Jovanovic                      (b. 1906 - d. 1983)
       1943 -        1946  Jovan Veselinov                    (b. 1907 - d. 1982)
       1946 -    May 1951  Dobrivoje Vidic                    (b. 1918 - d. 1991)
   May 1951 -        1966  Stevan Doronjski                   (b. 1919 - d. 1981)
       1966 -        1969  Mirko Tepavac                      (b. 1922 - d. 2014)
       1969 - 24 Dec 1972  Mirko Canadanovic                  (b. 1936)
24 Dec 1972 - 28 Apr 1981  Dusan Alimpic                      (b. 1921 - d. 2002)
28 Apr 1981 - 28 Apr 1982  Bosko Krunic (1st time)            (b. 1929)
28 Apr 1982 - 28 Apr 1983  Marko Djuricin                     (b. 1925 - d. 2013)
28 Apr 1983 - 28 Apr 1984  Slavko Veselinov                   (b. 1925)
28 Apr 1984 - 24 Apr 1985  Bosko Krunic (2nd time)            (s.a.)
24 Apr 1985 -        1988  Djordje Stojsic                    (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
       1988 -  6 Oct 1988  Milovan Sogorov
14 Nov 1988 - 20 Jan 1989  Bosko Kovacevic                    (b. 1946)
20 Jan 1989 - 16 Jul 1990  Nedeljko Sipovac                   (b. 1942)

President of the Great National Assembly 24 Nov 1918 - 11 Mar 1919 Jovan Lalosevic (b. 1870 - d. 1935) Chairman of the People's Defense Committee Nov 1943 - 1945 Nikola Grulovic (b. 1888 - d. 1959) Presidents of the People's Assembly 1945 - Jul 1947 Jovan Veselinov (s.a.) Jul 1947 - Dec 1953 Luka Mrksic (b. 1899 - d. 1976) Dec 1953 - 18 Jul 1963 Stevan Doronjski (s.a.) 18 Jul 1963 - 20 Apr 1967 Radovan Vlajkovic (b. 1922 - d. 2001) 20 Apr 1967 - 5 Jun 1973 Ilija Rajacic (b. 1923 - d. 2005) 5 Jun 1973 - Nov 1974 Sreta Kovacevic (b. 1920) Presidents of the Presidency Nov 1974 - Nov 1981 Radovan Vlajkovic (s.a.) Nov 1981 - May 1982 Predrag Vladisavljevic (1st time) (b. 1919) May 1982 - May 1983 Danilo Kekic (b. 1918) May 1983 - 4 May 1984 Djordje Radosavljevic (1st time) (b. 1921) 4 May 1984 - 7 May 1985 Nandor Major (1st time) (b. 1931) 7 May 1985 - May 1986 Predrag Vladisavljevic (2nd time) (s.a.) May 1986 - May 1988 Djordje Radosavljevic (2nd time) (s.a.) May 1988 - May 1989 Nandor Major (2nd time) (s.a.) May 1989 - Jan 1991 Jugoslav Kostic (b. 1939) Presidents of the Assembly 1991 Verona Adam Bokros (f) (b. 1948) 1991 - 1992 Damnjan Radenkovic (b. 1939) 1992 - 1993 Svetislav Krstic (b. 1955) 1993 - 9 Jan 1997 Milutin Stojkovic (b. 1942) 9 Jan 1997 - 23 Oct 2000 Zivorad Smiljanic (b. 1942) 23 Oct 2000 - 30 Oct 2004 Nenad Canak (b. 1959) 30 Oct 2004 - 16 Jul 2008 Bojan Kostres (b. 1974) 16 Jul 2008 - 22 Jun 2012 Sandor Egeresi (b. 1964) 22 Jun 2012 - Istvan Pastor (b. 1956)
President of the Great People's Council 24 Nov 1918 - 11 Mar 1919 Slavko Miletic (b. 1869 - d. 1934) Prime ministers 1945 - 1947 Aleksandar Sevic (b. 1897 - d. 1975) 1947 - 20 Mar 1953 Luka Mrksic (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council 20 Mar 1953 - Dec 1953 Stevan Doronjski (s.a.) Dec 1953 - 22 Jul 1962 Geza Tikvicki (b. 1917 - d. 1999) 22 Jul 1962 - 18 Jul 1963 Djurica Jojkic (b. 1914 - d. 1981) 18 Jul 1963 - 20 Apr 1967 Ilija Rajacic (s.a.) 20 Apr 1967 - Oct 1971 Stipan Marusic (b. 1926 - d. 1974) Oct 1971 - 6 May 1974 Franjo Nadj (b. 1923 - d. 1986) 6 May 1974 - 5 May 1982 Nikola Kmezic (b. 1919 - d. 2009) 5 May 1982 - May 1986 Zivan Marelj (b. 1938) May 1986 - 24 Oct 1989 Jon Srbovan (b. 1930) 24 Oct 1989 - 1989 Sredoje Erdeljan (b. 1939 - d. 2011) 1989 - 1991 Jovan Radic (b. 1949) 1991 - 23 Dec 1991 Radoman Bozovic (b. 1953) 1992 - 1993 Koviljko Lovre (b. 1954) 1993 - 13 May 2000 Bosko Perosevic (b. 1956 - d. 2000) 13 May 2000 - 23 Oct 2000 Damnjan Radenkovic (s.a.) (acting to 29 Jun 2000) 23 Oct 2000 - 30 Oct 2004 Djordje Djukic (b. 1948) 30 Oct 2004 - 14 Dec 2009 Bojan Pajtic (b. 1970) Chairman of the Government 14 Dec 2009 - Bojan Pajtic (s.a.)

Seychelles

       1756                annexed by France (settled 1770)
       1810                British rule (confirmed by Treaty of Paris 1814)
   Nov 1903                crown colony
29 Jun 1976                independence (Republic of Seychelles)

Commandants (subordinated to Île de France)
       1770 -        1772  de Launay
       1772 -        1775  Anselme
       1775 -        177.  Le Roux de Kermeseven
       1778 -        1781  Saint-Amant de Romainville
       1781 -        1783  Berthelot de la Coste
       1783 -        1786  François, vicomte de Souillac      (b. 1732 - d. 1803)
       1786 -        1789  Augustin Motais de Narbonne        (b. 1747 - d. 1827)
       1789 -        1792  Louis Jean Baptiste Philogène
                           de Malavois                        (b. c.1757 - d. 1825)
       1792 -        1793  Charles Joseph Esnouf
 9 Sep 1793 -        1810  Jean-Baptiste Quéau de Quinssy     (b. 1748 - d. 1827)
                           (governor)
Commissioners (subordinated to Mauritius)
       1810 -  2 Jun 1811  Jean-Baptiste Quéau de Quinssy     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 2 Jun 1811 -        1812  Bartholomew Sullivan
       1812 -        1815  Bibye Lesage
       1815 -        1822  Edward Madge
       1822 -        1837  George Harrison                    (b. ... - d. 1841)
       1837 -        1839  Arthur Wilson
       1839 -        1850  Charles Augustus Etienne Mylius
       1850 -        1852  Robert William Keate               (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
       1852 -        1862  George Thompson Wade
       1862 -        1868  Swinburne Ward
       1868 -        1874  William Hales Franklyn
       1874 -        1879  Charles Spencer Salmon
       1879 -        1880  Arthur Elibank Havelock            (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
       1880 -        1882  Francis Theophilus Blunt
       1882 -        1888  Arthur Cecil Stuart Barkly         (b. 1843 - d. 1890)
Administrators
       1889 -        1895  Thomas Risely Griffith             (b. 1848 - d. ...)
       1895 -        1899  Henry Cockburn Stewart             (b. 1844 - d. 1899)
       1899 -    Nov 1903  Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott        (b. 1857 - d. 1941)
Governors
   Nov 1903 -        1904  Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott        (s.a.)
       1904 -        1912  Walter Edward Davidson             (b. 1859 - d. 1923)
       1912 -        1918  Charles Richard Mackey O'Brien     (b. 1859 - d. 1935)
       1918 -        1922  Sir Eustace Edward
                           Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes          (b. 1864 - d. 1943)
       1922 -        1927  Sir Joseph Aloysius Byrne          (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
       1927                Sir Malcolm Stevenson              (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
       1928 -        1934  Sir de Symons Montagu George Honey (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
       1934 -        1936  Sir Gordon James Lethem            (b. 1886 - d. 1962)
       1936 -        1942  Arthur Grimble (from 1938,
                           Sir Arthur Grimble)                (b. 1888 - d. 1956)
       1942 -        1947  William Marston Logan (from
                           1944, Sir William Marston Logan)   (b. 1889 - d. 1968)
       1947 -        1951  Sir Percy Selwyn Selwyn-Clarke     (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
       1951 -        1953  Frederick Crawford                 (b. 1906 - d. 1978)
31 May 1953 -    Jan 1958  William Addis (from 1955,
                           Sir William Addis)                 (b. 1901 - d. 1978)
   Jan 1958 - 13 Aug 1961  John Kingsmill Thorp (from Jun
                           1959, Sir John Kingsmill Thorp)    (b. 1912 - d. 1961)
   Jan 1962 -        1967  Julian Edward George Asquith,
                           Earl of Oxford and Asquith         (b. 1916 - d. 2011)
       1967 -        1969  Sir Hugh Selby Norman-Walker       (b. 1916 - d. 1985)
       1969 -        1973  Sir Bruce Greatbatch               (b. 1917 - d. 1989)
       1973 -        1976  Colin Allan                        (b. 1921 - d. 1993)
Presidents
29 Jun 1976 -  5 Jun 1977  Sir James R. Mancham               (b. 1939)
 5 Jun 1977 - 14 Apr 2004  France-Albert René                 (b. 1935)
14 Apr 2004 -              James Michel                       (b. 1944)

Prime ministers 12 Nov 1970 - 28 Jun 1976 James R. Mancham (s.a.) (chief minister to 1 Oct 1975) 29 Jun 1976 - 5 Jun 1977 France-Albert René (s.a.)

Sharjah: see under United Arab Emirates.
Shengping: see under China.
Shewa: see under Ethiopia.
Shilluk: see under South Sudan.
Siam: see Thailand.
Sicily: see under Italian states.

Sierra Leone

       1792                Sierra Leone Company rule
       1808                coastal area becomes British colony
       1896                hinterland becomes British protectorate
27 Apr 1961                independence
19 Apr 1971                Republic of Sierra Leone

Superintendent
   Mar 1792 -    Jul 1792  John Clarkson                      (b. 1763 - d. 1828)
Governors
   Jul 1792 - 31 Dec 1792  John Clarkson                      (s.a.)
31 Dec 1792 -    Mar 1794  William Dawes (1st time)           (b. ... - d. 1836)
   Mar 1794 -  6 May 1795  Zachary Macaulay (1st time)        (b. 1768 - d. 1838)
 6 May 1795 -    Mar 1796  William Dawes (2nd time)           (s.a.)
   Mar 1796 -    Apr 1799  Zachary Macaulay (2nd time)        (s.a.)
   Apr 1799 -    May 1799  John Gray (1st time)
   May 1799 -        1800  Thomas Ludlam (1st time)           (b. 1775 - d. 1810)
       1800 -    Jan 1801  John Gray (2nd time)
   Jan 1801 -    Feb 1803  William Dawes (3rd time)           (s.a.)
   Feb 1803 -        1803  William Day (1st time)             (b. ... - d. 1805)
       1803 -        1805  Thomas Ludlam (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1805 -  4 Nov 1805  William Day (2nd time)             (s.a.)
       1806 - 21 Jul 1808  Thomas Ludlam (3rd time)           (s.a.)
                           (acting to 1 Jan 1808)
21 Jul 1808 - 12 Feb 1810  Thomas Perronet Thompson           (b. 1783 - d. 1869)
12 Feb 1810 -    May 1811  Edward H. Columbine                (b. 17... - d. 1811)
   May 1811 -  1 Jul 1811  Robert Bones (acting)
 1 Jul 1811 -    Jul 1815  Charles William Maxwell            (b. ... - d. 1848)
   Jul 1815 - 21 Jan 1824  Charles MacCarthy (from 1820,
                           Sir Charles MacCarthy)             (b. 1764 - d. 1824)
                           (acting to 1816)
21 Jan 1824 -  5 Feb 1825  Daniel Molloy Hamilton (acting)
 5 Feb 1825 -  8 Mar 1826  Charles Turner                     (b. ... - d. 1826)
   Mar 1826 -    Aug 1826  Kenneth Macaulay
                           + Samuel Smart (1st time)          (b. ... - d. 1828)
                           (acting)
   Aug 1826 -        1827  Sir Neil Campbell                  (b. 1776 - d. 1827)
       1827 -    Jul 1828  Hugh Lumley (acting)               (b. ... - d. 1828)
   Jul 1828 -    Nov 1828  Samuel Smart (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
   Nov 1828 -        1829  Henry John Ricketts (acting)
       1829 -        1830  Augustine Fitzgerald Evans (acting)
       1830                Alexander Maclean Fraser (acting)
       1830 -    Jul 1833  Alexander Findlay
   Jul 1833 -    Dec 1833  Michael Linning Melville (acting)
   Dec 1833 -        1834  Octavius Temple                    (b. ... - d. 1834)
       1834 -    Feb 1835  Thomas Cole (1st time) (acting)
   Feb 1835 -        1837  Henry Dundas Campbell
       1837                Thomas Cole (2nd time) (acting)
       1837 -        1840  Richard Doherty
       1840 - 23 Apr 1841  John Jeremie                       (b. 1795 - d. 1841)
   Apr 1841 -    Sep 1841  J. Carr (acting)
   Sep 1841 -    Jan 1842  William Fergusson (1st time)       (b. 1773 - d. 1846)
                           (acting)
   Jan 1842 -        1844  George Macdonald
       1844 -        1845  William Fergusson (2nd time)       (s.a.)
       1845 -        1852  Norman William Macdonald
       1852 -        1854  Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
       1854                Robert Dougan (acting)
       1854 -        1861  Sir Stephen John Hill              (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
       1861 -        1862  William Hill + Smith (acting)
       1862 -        1868  Samuel Wensley Blackall            (b. 1809 - d. 1871)
       1868 -        1872  Sir Arthur Edward Kennedy
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1872 -    Feb 1872  John Jennings Kendall (acting)
   Feb 1872 -        1873  John Pope Hennessy                 (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
       1873                Robert William Keate               (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
       1873                Alexander Bravo
                           + Robert William Harley (acting)
       1873 -        1874  George Berkeley                    (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
       1874 -        1875  George French (acting)
       1875 -        1877  Cornelius Hendricksen Kortright    (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
       1877                Horatio James Huggins (acting)
       1877 -        1881  Sir Samuel Rowe (1st time)         (b. 1835 - d. 1888)
       1881                Franas Frederick Pinkett
                           (1st time) (acting)
       1881 -        1884  Arthur Elibank Havelock            (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
       1884                Arthur M. Tarleton (acting)        (b. ... - d. 1884)
       1884 -        1885  Franas Frederick Pinkett
                           (2nd time) (acting)
       1885 -        1888  Sir Samuel Rowe (2nd time)         (s.a.)
       1888                J.M. Maltby (acting)
       1888 -        1891  Sir James Shaw Hay                 (b. 1839 - d. 1924)
       1891 -        1892  J.J. Crooks (acting)
       1892                W.H.Q. Jones (1st time) (acting)
       1892 -        1894  Sir Francis Fleming                (b. 1842 - d. 1922)
       1894                W.H.Q. Jones (2nd time) (acting)
       1894 -        1900  Frederic Cardew (from 1897,
                           Sir Frederic Cardew)               (b. 1839 - d. 1921)
       1900 -        1904  Sir Charles Anthony King-Harman    (b. 1851 - d. 1939)
       1904 -        1910  Sir Leslie Probyn                  (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
       1910 -        1915  Sir Edward Marsh Merewether        (b. 1858 - d. 1938)
       1916 -        1922  Sir Richard James Wilkinson        (b. 1867 - d. 1941)
       1922 -        1927  Alexander Ransford Slater
                           (from 1924, Sir Alexander
                           Ransford Slater)                   (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
       1928 -        1930  Sir Joseph Aloysius Byrne          (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
   Dec 1930 -    Jul 1931  Claude Edward Cookson (acting)     (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
       1931 -        1934  Arnold Wienholt Hodson (from 1932,
                           Sir Arnold Wienholt Hodson)        (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
17 Jul 1934 - 21 May 1937  Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore        (b. 1887 - d. 1964)
21 May 1937 -  5 Jul 1941  Sir Douglas James Jardine          (b. 1888 - d. 1946)
 5 Jul 1941 -    Sep 1947  Sir Hubert Craddock Stevenson      (b. 1888 - d. 1971)
       1948                Ragnar Hyne (acting)               (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
       1948 -        1953  Sir George Beresford-Stooke        (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
       1953 -  1 Sep 1956  Sir Robert de Zouche Hall          (b. 1904 - d. 1995)
 1 Sep 1956 - 27 Apr 1961  Maurice Henry Dorman (from 1957,
                           Sir Maurice Henry Dorman)          (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
27 Apr 1961 -  5 May 1962  Sir Maurice Henry Dorman           (s.a.)
 5 May 1962 - 22 Apr 1968  Henry Lightfoot Boston (from 6 Jul
                           1962, Sir Henry Lightfoot Boston)  (b. 1898 - d. 1969)
                           (acting to 11 Jul 1962; suspended from 14 Apr 1967)
22 Apr 1968 - 31 Mar 1971  Banja Tejan-Sie (from 13 Nov 1970,
                           Sir Banja Tejan-Sie)               (b. 1917 - d. 2000)
                           (acting to 29 Sep 1970)
31 Mar 1971 - 19 Apr 1971  Christopher Okoro Cole (interim)   (b. 1921 - d. af.1990)
Presidents
19 Apr 1971 - 21 Apr 1971  Christopher Okoro Cole             (s.a.)
21 Apr 1971 - 28 Nov 1985  Siaka Stevens                      (b. 1905 - d. 1988)
28 Nov 1985 - 29 Apr 1992  Joseph Saidu Momoh                 (b. 1937 - d. 2003)
Chairman of the National Provisional Defense Council
29 Apr 1992                Yayah Kanu                         (b. ... - d. 1992)
Chairmen of the National Provisional Ruling Council (from Jul 1992,
Supreme Council of State) (from 6 May 1992 also Heads of State)
 1 May 1992 - 16 Jan 1996  Valentine Strasser                 (b. 1966)
17 Jan 1996 - 29 Mar 1996  Julius Maada Bio                   (b. 1964)
President
29 Mar 1996 - 25 May 1997  Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (1st time)      (b. 1932 - d. 2014)
Head of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council
25 May 1997 - 12 Feb 1998  Johnny Paul Koroma                 (b. 1960 - d. 2003)
Presidents
10 Mar 1998 - 17 Sep 2007  Ahmad Tejan Kabbah (2nd time)      (s.a.)
17 Sep 2007 -              Ernest Bai Koroma                  (b. 1953)

Prime ministers 9 Jul 1954 - 28 Apr 1964 Milton Margai (from 1 Jan 1959, Sir Milton Margai) (b. 1895 - d. 1964) (chief minister to 14 Aug 1958) 29 Apr 1964 - 21 Mar 1967 Albert Margai (from 9 Jun 1965, Sir Albert Margai) (b. 1910 - d. 1980) 21 Mar 1967 (minutes) Siaka Stevens (1st time) (s.a.) 21 Mar 1967 - 23 Mar 1967 David Lansana (Army chief) (b. 1922 - d. 1975) 23 Mar 1967 - 27 Mar 1967 Ambrose Patrick Genda (b. 1927) (chairman National Reformation Council) 27 Mar 1967 - 18 Apr 1968 Andrew Terence Juxon-Smith (b. 1933 - d. 1996) (chairman National Reformation Council) 18 Apr 1968 - 26 Apr 1968 Patrick Conteh (chairman National Interim Council) 26 Apr 1968 - 21 Apr 1971 Siaka Stevens (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Apr 1971 - 8 Jul 1975 Sorie Ibrahim Koroma (b. 1930 - d. 1994) 8 Jul 1975 - 15 Jun 1978 Christian A. Kamara-Taylor (b. 1917 - d. 1985) Chairmen of the Council of State Secretaries Jul 1992 - Nov 1992 John Benjamin (b. 1952) Nov 1992 - 5 Jul 1993 Solomon Anthony James Musa (b. 19... - d. 1998) 5 Jul 1993 - 31 Mar 1995 Julius Maada Bio (s.a.) 31 Mar 1995 - 29 Mar 1996 Akim A. Gibril (b. 1946)

Sigave: see under Wallis and Futuna.
Sikkim: see under India.

Singapore

 6 Feb 1819                British protectorate
 3 Aug 1824                ceded to Britain by sultan of Johor
       1826                part of Straits Settlements (Malacca, Penang, Singapore)
                           (British East India Company rule to 1858, then subordinated
                           to British India to 1867; from 1 Apr 1867 crown colony)
15 Feb 1942 - 12 Sep 1945    Japanese occupation of Singapore
                             (renamed Syonan 17 Feb 1942)
 1 Apr 1946                separate crown colony
 3 Jun 1959                State of Singapore
16 Sep 1963 -  9 Aug 1965    part of Malaysia
22 Dec 1965                Republic of Singapore

Residents
 6 Feb 1819 - 26 Apr 1823  William Farquhar                   (b. 1770 - d. 1839)
27 May 1823 - 15 Aug 1826  John Crawfurd                      (b. 1783 - d. 1868)
Resident councillors
15 Aug 1826 - 18 Nov 1827  John Prince
29 Nov 1827 -    Dec 1833  Kenneth Murchison                  (b. 1794 - d. 1854)
   Dec 1833 -        1836  Samuel George Bonham               (b. 1803 - d. 1863)
 4 Mar 1837 -        1856  Thomas Church
       1856 -        1859  Henry Somerset MacKenzie
       1860 -        1867  Ronald Macpherson

Straits Settlements

Governors
27 Nov 1826 - 12 Nov 1830  Robert Fullerton                   (b. 1773 - d. 1831)
       1830 -  7 Dec 1833  Robert Ibbetson
 7 Dec 1833 - 18 Nov 1836  Kenneth Murchison                  (s.a.)
18 Nov 1836 -    Jan 1843  Samuel George Bonham               (s.a.)
   Aug 1843 - 21 Mar 1855  William J. Butterworth             (b. 1801 - d. 1856)
21 Mar 1855 -    Aug 1859  Edmund Augustus Blundell           (b. 1804? - d. 1868)
 6 Aug 1859 - 17 Mar 1867  Orfeur Cavenagh                    (b. 1821 - d. 1891)
17 Mar 1867 -  4 Nov 1873  Harry St. George Ord               (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
 4 Nov 1873 -  8 May 1875  Andrew Clarke                      (b. 1825 - d. 1902)
 8 May 1875 -  3 Apr 1877  Sir William Jervois                (b. 1821 - d. 1897)
       1877 -    Aug 1877  Archibald Edward Harbord Anson
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1826 - d. 1925)
   Aug 1877 - 10 Feb 1879  Sir William Cleaver Francis
                           Robinson                           (b. 1834 - d. 1897)
10 Feb 1879 -  6 May 1880  Archibald Edward Harbord Anson
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 6 May 1880 - 17 Oct 1887  Sir Frederic Aloysius Weld         (b. 1823 - d. 1891)
17 Oct 1887 - 30 Aug 1893  Cecil Clementi Smith               (b. 1840 - d. 1916)
       1893 -        1894  William Edward Maxwell (acting)    (b. 1846 - d. 1897)
 1 Feb 1894 -  7 Dec 1899  Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell   (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
   Dec 1899 -  5 Nov 1901  James Alexander Swettenham         (b. 1846 - d. 1933)
                           (acting)
 5 Nov 1901 - 12 Oct 1903  Sir Frank Athelstone Swettenham    (b. 1850 - d. 1946)
15 Apr 1904 -  9 Apr 1911  Sir John Anderson                  (b. 1858 - d. 1918)
 9 Sep 1911 - 24 Aug 1919  Sir Arthur Henderson Young         (b. 1854 - d. 1938)
 3 Feb 1920 -  5 May 1927  Sir Laurence Nunns Guillemard      (b. 1862 - d. 1951)
 3 Jun 1927 - 20 Oct 1929  Sir Hugh Clifford                  (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
 5 Feb 1930 - 16 Feb 1934  Sir Cecil Clementi                 (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
 9 Nov 1934 -  1 Apr 1946  Sir Shenton Thomas                 (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
                           (Japanese prisoner 15 Feb 1942 - 15 Aug 1945)
Japanese mayors of Syonan
   Mar 1942 -    Jun 1943    Shigeo Odate
19 Jul 1943 - 12 Sep 1945    Kanichi Naito

Singapore

Governors
 1 Apr 1946 - 20 Mar 1952  Sir Franklin Charles Gimson        (b. 1890 - d. 1975)
20 Mar 1952 - 21 Apr 1952  Wilfred Lawson Blythe (acting)     (b. 1896 - d. 1975)
21 Apr 1952 -  2 Jun 1955  John Fearns Nicoll (from
                           1953, Sir John Fearns Nicoll)      (b. 1899 - d. 1981)
 2 Jun 1955 - 30 Jun 1955  William Goode (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1907 - d. 1986)
30 Jun 1955 -  9 Dec 1957  Robert Black (from 1955, Sir
                           Robert Black)                      (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
 9 Dec 1957 -  2 Jun 1959  Sir William Goode (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Presidents (until 22 Dec 1965 Heads of State [yang di-pertuan negara])
 3 Jun 1959 -  3 Dec 1959  Sir William Goode                  (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1959 - 23 Nov 1970  Yusof bin Ishak                    (b. 1910 - d. 1970)
23 Nov 1970 -  2 Jan 1971  Yeoh Ghim Seng (1st time) (acting) (b. 1918 - d. 1993)
 2 Jan 1971 - 12 May 1981  Benjamin Henry Sheares             (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
12 May 1981 - 24 Oct 1981  Yeoh Ghim Seng (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
24 Oct 1981 - 27 Mar 1985  C.V. Devan Nair                    (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
27 Mar 1985 - 29 Mar 1985  Wee Chong Jin (acting)             (b. 1917 - d. 2005)
29 Mar 1985 -  3 Sep 1985  Yeoh Ghim Seng (3rd time) (acting) (s.a.)
 3 Sep 1985 -  1 Sep 1993  Wee Kim Wee                        (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
 1 Sep 1993 -  1 Sep 1999  Ong Teng Cheong                    (b. 1936 - d. 2002)
 1 Sep 1999 -  1 Sep 2011  S.R. Nathan                        (b. 1924)
 1 Sep 2011 -              Tony Tan                           (b. 1940)

Chief ministers 6 Apr 1955 - 8 Jun 1956 David Saul Marshall (b. 1908 - d. 1995) 8 Jun 1956 - 5 Jun 1959 Lim Yew Hock (b. 1914 - d. 1984) Prime ministers 5 Jun 1959 - 28 Nov 1990 Lee Kuan Yew (b. 1923) 28 Nov 1990 - 12 Aug 2004 Goh Chok Tong (b. 1941) 12 Aug 2004 - Lee Hsien Loong (b. 1952)

Sint Eustatius

       1636                Dutch colony
       1690 -        1696  British rule
       1781                British rule
25 Nov 1781 -  7 Feb 1784  French rule
       1801 -        1802  British rule
       1810 -        1816  British rule
       1828                united with other Dutch territories
                           (see Netherlands Antilles, under Curaçao)
       1919 -        1983  subordinated to Sint Maarten
10 Oct 2010                Dutch special municipality

Commandants
       1693 -        1700  Johannes Salomonszoon
       1700 -        1701  Jan Simonszoon Doncker (1st time)
       1701 -        1704  Isaac Lamont (1st time)
       1704                Johan Heijliger (1st time)
       1704 -        1709  Jan Simonszoon Doncker (2nd time)
       1709                Isaac Lamont (2nd time)
       1709 -        1717  Jan Simonszoon Doncker (3rd time)
       1717                Gerard de Mepsche
       1717 -        1719  Johan Heijliger (2nd time)
       1719 -        1720  Jacob Stalpert
       1720 -        1721  Johan Heijliger (3rd time)
       1721 -        1722  Jacobus Stevens
       1722 -        1728  Johan Lindesaij
       1728 -        1733  Everard Raecx
       1733 -        1736  Johan Heijliger (4th time)
       1736 -        1737  Johan Markoe
       1737 -        1740  Isaac Faesch
       1740 -        1741  Hendrik Coesveldt
       1741 -        1743  Jasper Ellis
       1743 -        1752  Johannes Heijliger Pzn.
       1752 -        1775  Jan de Windt, Jr.
       1775 -        1776  Abraham Heijliger
       1776 -        1781  Johannes de Graaff
Governors
   Feb 1781 -    May 1781  George Brydges Rodney              (b. 1718 - d. 1792)
   May 1781 -    Jun 1781  David Ogilvy
   Jun 1781 -    Nov 1781  James Cockburne
       1781 -        1784  Charles Chabert
       1784 -        1785  Olivier Oijen
       1785                Abraham Heijliger
       1785 -        1789  Johannes Runnels (1st time)
       1789 -        1792  Pieter Anthony Godin
       1792 -        1795  Johannes Runnels (2nd time)
Captain-commandant
       1795 -        1801  Daniel Roda
Commandants
       1801 -        1802  Richard Blunt
       1802                Sir John Wardlaw
Governors
       1802 -        1809  Albertus van Heyningen, Jr.
       1809 -        1810  William Charles Mussenden
       1810 -        1816  Charles Barrow
       1816 -        1817  Reinier 't Hoen
       1817 -        1822  Abraham de Veer
       1822 -        1823  Diederik Johannes van Romondt
       1823 -        1828  Willem Albert van Spengler
       1828 -        1833  Willem Johan Leendert van Raders
Administrators (gezaghebbers)
       1833 -        1836  Willem Johan Leendert van Raders
       1836 -        1837  Theophilus Georg Groebe (1st time) (b. 18... - d. 1919)
       1837 -        1854  Johannes de Veer
       1854 -        1860  Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
       1860 -        1870  Nicolaas Albertus Rost van
                           Tonningen
       1870 -        1877  Melville Wood Cruger
       1877 -        1885  Theophilus Georg Groebe (2nd time) (s.a.)
       1885 -        1888  Jacques Joseph Jonckheer
       1888 -        1894  Paul Faarup
       1894                Theophilus Georg Groebe (3rd time) (s.a.)
       1894 -        1902  Abraham Jan Cornelis Brouwer       (b. 18... - d. 1919)
       1902                Theophilus Georg Groebe (4th time) (s.a.)
       1902 -        1919  Gerrit Johan van Grol              (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
Deputy administrators (plaatsvervangende gezaghebbers)
       1919 -        1924  B.I. Mussenden
       1924 -        1926  R.F. Baay
       1926 -        1927  E.D. van Exel
       1927 -        1930  E.J.S. Kryuthoff
       1930 -        1933  Xavier Henri Charles Marie Krugers (b. 1896 - d. ...)
       1933 -        1935  A.M. Schütte
       1935 -        1937  A.J. van Werkhoven
Subadministrators (ondergezaghebbers)
       1937 -        1939  A.J. van Werkhoven
       1939          1943  M.M.B.J. Erens
       1943 -        1949  Charles Ernest Wilfred Voges
       1949 -        1951  C.M. Vlaun
Administrators (administrateurs)
       1951 -        1953  C.M. Vlaun
       1953 -        1956  A.J.M. Poppe
       1956                P.A. Vlaun (1st time)
       1956 -        1957  A. Herding
       1957                P.A. Vlaun (2nd time)
       1957 -        1958  C.G. Buncamper (1st time)
       1958 -        1961  Reinier O. van Delden (1st time)   (b. 1928 - d. 2011)
       1961 -        1962  M.J. Boekhoudt
       1962                C.G. Buncamper (2nd time)
       1962 -        1964  J. van Faassen
       1964 -        1966  Laurens Rosema (1st time)
       1966 -        1969  Jan Lens (1st time)
       1969                Gerardus van der Wal
       1969 -        1971  Jan Lens (2nd time)
       1971                Laurens Rosema (2nd time)
       1971                Jan Lens (3rd time)
       1971                Wilfred E. Fortin
       1971 -        1973  Carl D.M.P. Hassell
       1973                Jan Lens (4th time) (acting)
       1973 -        1974  Alberto A. Matthew
       1974 -        1975  Jan Lens (5th time)
       1975 -        1976  Charles A. Woodley (acting)
       1976                Reinier O. van Delden (2nd time)   (s.a.)
       1976 -        1981  Oswald G. Bell
       1981                Cedrick C. Lijfrock (acting)
       1981 -        1983  Vacquelin M.W. Connor
Administrators (gezaghebbers)
 1 Apr 1983 -        1989  George R. Sleeswijk
       1989 -  1 Nov 1995  Irvin E. Temmer
      *1996 -  1 Aug 1997  Etienne R. Locadia                 (b. 1950?)
       1997 -  1 Oct 2003  Eugène Robert Abdul                (b. 1949)
 1 Jan 2004 -  1 Jan 2010  Hyden C.I. Gittens                 (b. 1961)
 1 Jan 2010 -              Gerald Berkel                      (b. 1969)
                           (acting to 1 Apr 2010)

Sint Maarten

       1631                Dutch colony
       1633 -        1648  Spanish colony
23 Mar 1648                separate French and Dutch zones
       1690 -        1699  English occupy entire island
       1699 -        1702  French occupy entire island
       1781                British occupy entire island
       1781 -        1784  French occupy entire island
       1795 -        1801  French occupy entire island
       1801 -        1802  British occupy entire island
       1810 -        1816  British occupy entire island
       1816                French and Dutch zones resumed
       1828                united with other Dutch territories
                           (see Netherlands Antilles, under Curaçao)
10 Oct 2010                autonomous country

Lieutenants
       1699                Jean Dyel du Parquet
       1701 -        1702  Louis Cacqueray de Valmenière
Vice-commanders
       1705?               Olivier Graval
       1708?-        1710  Charles Devezaen
       1710 -        1712  François Lemaire
       1712 -        1713  Jean Buretel
       1713 -        1718  Martinus Meyer (1st time)
       1718 -        1720  Louis Guillaume Durepaire
       1720 -        1721  Jan de Windt, Sr.
       1721 -        1733  Martinus Meyer (2nd time)
       1733 -        1735  Jacobus Barry
       1735 -        1736  John Philips (1st time)
       1736 -        1737  Pieter Hassell
       1737 -        1746  John Philips (2nd time)
       1746 -        1748  Jan de Wever
       1748 -        1781  Abraham Heijliger Pzn.
Governors
       1781 -        1783  Abraham Heijliger Pzn.
       1783 -        1784  Charles Chabert, Jr.
Vice-commanders
       1784 -        1785  Thomas Aertsen
       1785 -        1786  John Salomons Gibbes
Commanders
       1786 -        1790  John Salomons Gibbes
       1790 -        1800  Willem Hendrik Rink (1st time)
       1800 -        1801  Remt Folkerus Muller
       1801                Willem Hendrik Rink (2nd time)
       1801 -        1802  Robert Nicholson (commandant)
       1802 -        1807  Willem Hendrik Rink (3rd time)
       1807 -        1810  Jan Verveer Jzn.
       1810 -        1813  John Skinner                       (b. c.1750 - d. 1827)
       1813 -        1814  James Alexander Farquharson
                           (1st time)
       1814 -        1815  William McCaskill
       1815                James Alexander Farquharson
                           (2nd time)
       1815                Francis Edden
       1815 -        1816  Robert Douglas
Administrators (gezaghebbers)
       1816 -        1820  Paulus Roelof Cantz'laar
       1820 -        1840  Diederik Johannes van Romondt
       1840 -        1849  Johannes Willem van Romondt
       1849 -        1850  Pieter Petersen
       1850 -        1859  Johannes Didericus Crol
       1859 -        1860  Lucas Percival
       1860 -        1865  Willem Hendrik Johan van Idsinga   (b. 1822 - d. 1896)
       1865 -        1866  Philogène Philippe Maillard
       1866 -        1870  Herman François Gerardus Wagner    (b. 1822 - d. 1904)
       1870 -        1871  Robert van Romondt (acting)
       1871 -        1883  Edouard Dénis Ernest van den
                           Bossche                            (b. 1831 - d. 1908)
       1883                Diederik Charles van Romondt
                           (1st time) (acting)
       1883 -        1885  Jan Hendrik Rudeloff Beaujon       (b. 1838 - d. 1930)
       1885 -        1889  Theophilus Georg Groebe            (b. 18... - d. 1919)
       1889 -        1891  Jan Hero Adriaan van Daalen        (b. 1842 - d. 1899)
       1891 -        1893  Frans Johannes Olivier
       1893 -        1894  Diederik Charles van Romondt
                           (2nd time) (acting)
       1894 -        1901  Joseph Möller
       1901 -        1918  Abraham Jan Cornelis Brouwer       (b. 18... - d. 1919)
       1918 -        1919  Frits Koenraad Thielen
       1919 -        1920  G.J. Tijmstra (acting)
       1920                A.W. de Haseth (acting)
       1920 -        1923  J. van der Zee Rz.
       1923 -        1927  Richard Johannes Beaujon, Jr.      (b. 1883 - d. 19...)
       1927                C.F. Boskaljon (acting)
       1927 -        1930  Willem Frederik Meinhardt Lampe    (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
                           (acting)
       1930 -        1943  Johan Diderich Meiners
       1943 -        1947  Pieter Hendrik van Leeuwen         (b. 1893 - d. ...)
       1947 -        1948  M.J. Huith
       1948 -        1957  Johannes Christiaan Paap
       1957                Walter Granville Buncamper
                           (1st time) (acting)
       1957 -        1958  Hendrik Anthonius Hessling (acting)
       1958 -        1959  Walter Granville Buncamper
                           (2nd time) (acting)
       1959 -        1968  Jan Jacob Beaujon
   Aug 1968 -  1 Mar 1975  Reinier O. van Delden              (b. 1928 - d. 2011)
                           (acting to 3 Mar 1969)
 1 Mar 1975 -        1981  Theodore M. Pandt                  (b. 1939)
                           (acting to 1 Sep 1975)
       1981 -        1992  Ralph R.H. Richardson              (b. 1937)
       1992 -        1994  Wilfred Russell Voges              (b. 1943)
       1994 - 12 Sep 2000  Dennis L. Richardson               (b. 1946)
22 Sep 2000 - 31 May 2010  Franklyn E. Richards               (b. 1950)
31 May 2010 - 10 Oct 2010  Reynold Groeneveldt (acting)
Governor
10 Oct 2010 -              Eugene Holiday                     (b. 1962)

Leaders of the government 1997 - 1 Jul 1999 William Marlin (1st time) 1 Jul 1999 - 8 Jun 2009 Sarah Wescot-Williams (f) (b. 1956) 8 Jun 2009 - 10 Oct 2010 William Marlin (2nd time) Prime minister 10 Oct 2010 - Sarah Wescot-Williams (f) (s.a.)

Slovakia

       10..                part of Hungary
28 Oct 1918                part of Czechoslovakia
16 Jun 1919 -  7 Jul 1919  Slovak Soviet Republic (in rebellion at Presov)
 7 Oct 1938                autonomy within Czechoslovakia
14 Mar 1939                independence declared (Slovak Republic)
 3 Apr 1945                part of Czechoslovakia
 1 Jan 1969                Slovak Socialist Republic within Czechoslovakia
29 Mar 1990                Slovak Republic
 1 Jan 1993                independence

Presidents
16 Jun 1919 - 20 Jun 1919  Revolutionary Executive Committee
                           - Ján Vavrica                      (b. 1891 - d. 1938)
                           - Jozef Varecha                    (b. 1885 - d. af.1945)
                           - Antonín Janousek                 (b. 1877 - d. 1941)
                           - Stefan Stehlík
                           - Samuel Capó                      (b. 1883 - d. 1947)
                           - Ludovít Jakab                    (b. 1887 - d. 1957)
                           - Ernest Pór                       (b. 1889 - d. 1943)
                           - Frantisek Fehér
                           - Stefan Mokrán                    (b. 1887 - d. 1971)
                           - Gustáv Fleischer                 (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
                           - Jozef Cápai
20 Jun 1919 -  7 Jul 1919  Antonín Janousek                   (s.a.)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Governing Council,
                           also styled Council of People's Commissioners)
14 Mar 1939 -  3 Apr 1945  Jozef Tiso                         (b. 1887 - d. 1947)
                           (acting to 26 Oct 1939)
 1 Jan 1993 -  2 Mar 1993  Vladimír Meciar (1st time)    HZDS (b. 1942)
                           (acting)
 2 Mar 1993 -  2 Mar 1998  Michal Kovác                  -    (b. 1930)
 2 Mar 1998 - 30 Oct 1998  Vladimír Meciar (2nd time)    HZDS (s.a.)
                           (acting)
30 Oct 1998 - 15 Jun 1999  Mikulás Dzurinda (acting)     KDH  (b. 1955)
15 Jun 1999 - 15 Jun 2004  Rudolf Schuster               SOP  (b. 1934)
15 Jun 2004 - 15 Jun 2014  Ivan Gasparovic               HZD  (b. 1941)
15 Jun 2014 -              Andrej Kiska                  -    (b. 1963)

Prime ministers 7 Oct 1938 - 9 Mar 1939 Jozef Tiso (1st time) (s.a.) 9 Mar 1939 - 11 Mar 1939 Jozef Sivák (b. 1886 - d. 1959) 11 Mar 1939 - 14 Mar 1939 Karol Sidor (b. 1901 - d. 1953) 14 Mar 1939 - 29 Oct 1939 Jozef Tiso (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Oct 1939 - 5 Sep 1944 Vojtech Tuka (b. 1880 - d. 1946) 5 Sep 1944 - 3 Apr 1945 Stefan Tiso (b. 1897 - d. 1959) 2 Jan 1969 - 4 May 1969 Stefan Sádovský KSC (b. 1928 - d. 1984) 4 May 1969 - 12 Oct 1988 Peter Colotka KSC (b. 1925) 12 Oct 1988 - 22 Jun 1989 Ivan Knotek KSC (b. 1936) 22 Jun 1989 - 12 Dec 1989 Pavol Hrivnák KSC (b. 1931 - d. 1995) 12 Dec 1989 - 27 Jun 1990 Milan Cic KSC; 1990: VPN (b. 1932 - d. 2012) 27 Jun 1990 - 23 Apr 1991 Vladimír Meciar (1st time) VPN (s.a.) 23 Apr 1991 - 24 Jun 1992 Ján Carnogurský KDH (b. 1944) 24 Jun 1992 - 16 Mar 1994 Vladimír Meciar (2nd time) HZDS (s.a.) 16 Mar 1994 - 13 Dec 1994 Jozef Moravcík DÚ (b. 1945) 13 Dec 1994 - 30 Oct 1998 Vladimír Meciar (3rd time) HZDS (s.a.) 30 Oct 1998 - 4 Jul 2006 Mikulás Dzurinda KDH; 2000: SDKÚ (s.a.) 4 Jul 2006 - 8 Jul 2010 Robert Fico (1st time) Smer-SD (b. 1964) 8 Jul 2010 - 4 Apr 2012 Iveta Radicová (f) SDKÚ-DS (b. 1956) 4 Apr 2012 - Robert Fico (2nd time) Smer-SD (s.a.)
Party abbreviations: DÚ=Democratic Union, HZD=Movement for Democracy, HZDS=Movement for a Democratic Slovakia, KDH=Christian Democratic Movement, KSC=Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, SDKÚ=Slovak Democratic and Christian Union, SDKÚ-DS=Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party, Smer-SD=Direction-Social Democracy, SOP=Party of Civic Understanding, VPN=Public Against Violence

Slovenia

 1 Dec 1918                part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
                           (later Yugoslavia); autonomous government until 1921
       1945                People's Republic of Slovenia
 7 Jul 1963                Socialist Republic of Slovenia
 8 Mar 1990                Republic of Slovenia
25 Jun 1991                independence declared
 8 Jul 1991 -  8 Oct 1991  independence suspended

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
       1948 -        1966  Miha Marinko                       (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
       1966 -        1968  Albert Jakopic                     (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
   Mar 1969 -    Apr 1982  Franc Popit                        (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
   Apr 1982 -    May 1986  Andrej Marinc                      (b. 1930)
   May 1986 -    Dec 1989  Milan Kucan                        (b. 1941)
   Dec 1989 -    Feb 1990  Ciril Ribicic                      (b. 1947)

President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (until 1945, chairman of the Liberation Front) 3 Oct 1943 - 30 Jan 1953 Josip Vidmar (b. 1895 - d. 1992) Presidents of the People's Assembly 30 Jan 1953 - 16 Dec 1953 Ferdo Kozak (b. 1894 - d. 1957) 16 Dec 1953 - 9 Jun 1962 Miha Marinko (s.a.) 9 Jun 1962 - 25 Jun 1963 Vida Tomsic (f) (b. 1913 - d. 1998) 1963 - 1965 Viktor Avbelj (b. 1914 - d. 1993) 1965 - 1967 Ivan Macek (b. 1908 - d. 1993) 1967 - 1973 Sergej Kraigher (b. 1914 - d. 2001) 1973 - 1974 Tone Kropusek (b. 1928) Presidents of the Presidency 1974 - 1979 Sergej Kraigher (s.a.) 1979 - 7 May 1982 Viktor Avbelj (s.a.) 7 May 1982 - May 1988 Franc Popit (s.a.) May 1988 - 10 May 1990 Janez Stanovnik (b. 1922) Presidents 10 May 1990 - 22 Dec 2002 Milan Kucan (s.a.) (president of the Presidency to 22 Dec 1992) 23 Dec 2002 - 22 Dec 2007 Janez Drnovsek (b. 1950 - d. 2008) 23 Dec 2007 - 22 Dec 2012 Danilo Türk (b. 1952) 23 Dec 2012 - Borut Pahor (b. 1963)
Presidents of the State Government 16 Aug 1918 - 20 Jan 1919 Josip Pogacnik (b. 1866 - d. 1932) (president of the National Council to 31 Oct 1918) 20 Jan 1919 - 1919 Janko Brejc (1st time) (b. 1869 - d. 1934) 1919 - Feb 1920 Gregor Zerjav (b. 1882 - d. 1929) Feb 1920 - Dec 1920 Janko Brejc (2nd time) (s.a.) Dec 1920 - Jul 1921 Vilko Baltic Prime ministers 5 May 1945 - Jun 1946 Boris Kidric (b. 1912 - d. 1953) Jun 1946 - 1953 Miha Marinko (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council 1953 - 15 Dec 1953 Miha Marinko (s.a.) 15 Dec 1953 - 25 Jun 1962 Boris Kraigher (b. 1914 - d. 1967) 25 Jun 1962 - Apr 1965 Viktor Avbelj (s.a.) Apr 1965 - May 1967 Janko Smole (b. 1921 - d. 2010) May 1967 27 Nov 1972 Stane Kavcic (b. 1919 - d. 1987) 27 Nov 1972 - May 1978 Andrej Marinc (s.a.) May 1978 - Jul 1980 Anton Vratusa (b. 1915) Jul 1980 - 23 May 1984 Janez Zemljaric (b. 1928) 23 May 1984 - 16 May 1990 Dusan Sinigoj (b. 1933) Prime ministers 16 May 1990 - 14 May 1992 Lojze Peterle (b. 1948) 14 May 1992 - 7 Jun 2000 Janez Drnovsek (1st time) (s.a.) 7 Jun 2000 - 30 Nov 2000 Andrej Bajuk (b. 1943 - d. 2011) 30 Nov 2000 - 19 Dec 2002 Janez Drnovsek (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Dec 2002 - 3 Dec 2004 Anton Rop (b. 1960) 3 Dec 2004 - 21 Nov 2008 Janez Jansa (1st time) (b. 1958) 21 Nov 2008 - 10 Feb 2012 Borut Pahor (s.a.) 10 Feb 2012 - 20 Mar 2013 Janez Jansa (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Mar 2013 - Alenka Bratusek (f) (b. 1970)

Solomon Islands

       1893                British Solomon Islands Protectorate
22 Jun 1975                renamed Solomon Islands
 7 Jul 1978                independence

Resident commissioners (subordinated to the high commissioner for the
Western Pacific [to 3 Jul 1952 the governor of Fiji])
       1896 -        1915  Charles Morris Woodford            (b. 1852 - d. 1937)
       1915 - 15 Jul 1917  Frederick Joshua Barnett           (b. 1859 - d. 1917)
       1917 -        1921  Charles Rufus Marshall Workman     (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
       1921 -        1929  Richard Rutledge Kane              (b. 1877 - d. 19...)
       1929 -        1939  Francis Noel Ashley                (b. 1884 - d. 1976)
       1939 -        1943  William Sydney Marchant            (b. 1894 - d. 1953)
       1943 -        1950  Owen Cyril Noel                    (b. 1898 - d. ...)
       1950 -  1 Jan 1953  Henry Graham Gregory-Smith         (b. 1899 - d. ...)
High commissioners for the Western Pacific
(exercising direct administration at Honiara, Solomon Islands, from 1 Jan 1953)
 3 Jul 1952 -        1955  Robert Christopher Stafford
                           Stanley                            (b. 1899 - d. 1981)
       1955 -  4 Mar 1961  John Gutch (from 1957,
                           Sir John Gutch)                    (b. 1905 - d. 1988)
 4 Mar 1961 - 16 Jun 1964  David Trench (from Jun 1962,
                           Sir David Trench)                  (b. 1915 - d. 1988)
16 Jun 1964 -        1968  Sir Robert Sidney Foster           (b. 1913 - d. 2005)
 6 Mar 1969 -        1973  Sir Michael David Irving Gass      (b. 1916 - d. 1983)
10 Oct 1973 -        1974  Donald Luddington                  (b. 1920 - d. 2009)
Governors
       1974 -        1976  Donald Luddington                  (s.a.)
       1976 -  7 Jul 1978  Colin Allan (from 1977,
                           Sir Colin Allan)                   (b. 1921 - d. 1993)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 7 Jul 1978 -  7 Jul 1988  Baddeley Devesi (from 22 Feb 1980,
                           Sir Baddeley Devesi)               (b. 1941 - d. 2012)
 7 Jul 1988 -  7 Jul 1994  George Lepping (from 17 Aug 1988,
                           Sir George Lepping)                (b. 1947)
 7 Jul 1994 -  7 Jul 1999  Moses Pitakaka (from 31 Mar 1995,
                           Sir Moses Pitakaka)                (b. 1945 - d. 2011)
 7 Jul 1999 -  7 Jul 2004  John Lapli (from 21 Oct 1999,
                           Sir John Lapli)                    (b. 1955)
 7 Jul 2004 -  7 Jul 2009  Nathaniel Waena (from 31 Dec 2004,
                           Sir Nathaniel Waena)               (b. 1945)
 7 Jul 2009 -              Frank Kabui (from 9 Oct 2009,
                           Sir Frank Kabui)                   (b. 1946)

Chief ministers 28 Aug 1974 - 14 Jul 1976 Solomon Mamaloni (b. 1943 - d. 2000) 14 Jul 1976 - 7 Jul 1978 Peter Kenilorea (b. 1943) Prime ministers 7 Jul 1978 - 31 Aug 1981 Peter Kenilorea (1st time) (s.a.) 31 Aug 1981 - 19 Nov 1984 Solomon Mamaloni (1st time) (s.a.) 19 Nov 1984 - 1 Dec 1986 Sir Peter Kenilorea (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Dec 1986 - 28 Mar 1989 Ezekiel Alebua (b. 1947) 28 Mar 1989 - 18 Jun 1993 Solomon Mamaloni (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Jun 1993 - 7 Nov 1994 Francis Billy Hilly (b. 1947) 7 Nov 1994 - 27 Aug 1997 Solomon Mamaloni (3rd time) (s.a.) 27 Aug 1997 - 30 Jun 2000 Bartholomew Ulufa'alu (b. 1950 - d. 2007) 30 Jun 2000 - 17 Dec 2001 Manasseh Sogavare (1st time) (b. 1955) 17 Dec 2001 - 20 Apr 2006 Sir Allan Kemakeza (b. 1950) 20 Apr 2006 - 4 May 2006 Snyder Rini (b. 1949) 4 May 2006 - 20 Dec 2007 Manasseh Sogavare (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Dec 2007 - 25 Aug 2010 Derek Sikua (b. 1959) 25 Aug 2010 - 16 Nov 2011 Danny Philip (b. 1951) 16 Nov 2011 - Gordon Darcy Lilo (b. 1965)

Somalia

       1884                British Somaliland (in the north) (1887 protectorate)
       1889                Italian Somalia (in the northeast and, from 1905, in
                           the south)
 1 Jun 1936                Italian Somalia becomes part of Italian East Africa
                           (province of Somalia, formed by the merger of the colony
                           and the Ethiopian region of Ogaden)
18 Aug 1940                Italian occupation of British Somaliland
   Feb 1941                British administration of Italian Somalia
 1 Apr 1950                Italian Somalia becomes United Nations trust territory
26 Jun 1960                independence of British Somaliland as State of Somaliland
 1 Jul 1960                unification with Italian Somalia to form Somali Republic
21 Oct 1969                Somali Democratic Republic
21 Jul 1991                Somali Republic
 2 Aug 2012                Federal Republic of Somalia

British Somaliland

Residents
       1884 -        1888  Frederick Mercer Hunter            (b. 1844 - d. 1898)
       1889 -        1893  Edward Vincent Stace
       1893 -        1896  Charles William Henry Sealy
       1896 -        1897  William Butler Ferris
       1897 -        1898  James Hayes Sadler                 (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
Consuls-general
       1898 -        1901  James Hayes Sadler                 (s.a.)
       1902 -        1905  Eric John Eagles Swayne            (b. 1863 - d. 1929)
Commissioners
 8 May 1906 -        1909  Harry Edward Spiller Cordeaux      (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
   Jan 1910 -        1911  Sir William Henry Manning          (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
   Jul 1911 -        1914  Horace Archer Byatt                (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
   May 1914 -    Oct 1919  Geoffrey Francis Archer            (b. 1882 - d. 1964)
Governors
   Oct 1919 - 17 Aug 1922  Geoffrey Francis Archer (from
                           1920, Sir Geoffrey Francis Archer) (s.a.)
17 Aug 1922 - 29 Nov 1925  Gerald Henry Summers               (b. 1885 - d. 1925)
26 Jan 1926 - 18 Jun 1932  Sir Harold Baxter Kittermaster     (b. 1879 - d. 1939)
18 Jun 1932 -  2 Mar 1939  Sir Arthur Salisbury Lawrance      (b. 1880 - d. 1965)
 2 Mar 1939 - 18 Aug 1940  Vincent Goncalves Glenday          (b. 1891 - d. 1970)
29 Mar 1941 -  3 Mar 1943  Arthur Reginald Chater             (b. 1896 - d. 1979)
 3 Mar 1943 - 15 Nov 1948  Gerald Thomas Fisher               (b. 1887 - d. 1965)
       1948 -    Feb 1954  Gerald Reece (from 1950,
                           Sir Gerald Reece)                  (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
   Feb 1954 -        1959  Theodore Ouseley Pike (from
                           1956, Sir Theodore Ouseley Pike)   (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
11 Jul 1959 - 26 Jun 1960  Sir Douglas Hall                   (b. 1909 - d. 2004)
Prime minister (de facto head of state)
26 Jun 1960 -  1 Jul 1960  Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal         (b. 1928 - d. 2002)

Italian Somalia

Commissioners
       1889 -        1896  Vincenzo Filonardi                 (b. 1853 - d. 1916)
       1896 - 26 Nov 1896  Antonio Cecchi                     (b. 1849 - d. 1896)
       1898 -        1899  Giorgio Sorrentino
Governors
25 Dec 1899 -  5 Oct 1903  Emilio Dulio
       1903 -        1905  Alessandro Sapelli (1st time)
       1905 -        1906  Luigi Mercatelli                   (b. 18... - d. 1922)
       1906                Alessandro Sapelli (2nd time)
       1906 -        1907  Giuseppe Salvago Raggi
       1907 -    Jul 1910  Tommaso Carletti
   Jul 1910 -        1916  Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
       1916 -        1919  Giovanni Cherina Ferroni
21 Jun 1920 -  8 Dec 1923  Carlo Ricci
 8 Dec 1923 -  1 Jun 1928  Cesare Maria De Vecchi, (from
                           1925) conte di Val Cismon          (b. 1884 - d. 1959)
 1 Jun 1928 -  1 Jul 1931  Guido Corni                        (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
 1 Jul 1931 -  6 Mar 1935  Maurizio Rava
 6 Mar 1935 - 22 May 1936  Rodolfo Graziani                   (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
22 May 1936 - 24 May 1936  Angelo De Ruben
                           (de facto governor since Jan 1936)
24 May 1936 - 15 Dec 1937  Ruggiero Santini                   (b. 1870 - d. 19...)
15 Dec 1937 - 11 Jun 1940  Francesco Saveno Caroselli
11 Jun 1940 - 31 Dec 1940  Gustavo Pesenti (acting)           (b. 1878 - d. 1960)
31 Dec 1940 -  9 Mar 1941  Carlo De Simone (acting)           (b. 1885 - d. 19...)
Administrators
       1941                Sir Reginald Hugh Dorman-Smith     (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
       1941 -        1943  William Eric Halstead Scupham      (b. 1893 - d. 1958)
       1943 -        1947  Denis Henry Wickham                (b. 1895? - d. 1950)
       1948                Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
       1948 -        1950  Geoffrey Massey Gamble             (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
       1950 -        1953  Giovanni Fornari                   (b. 1903 - d. ...)
       1954 -        1957  Enrico Martino                     (b. 1907)
       1957 - 24 Jul 1958  Enrico Anzilotti                   (b. 1898 - d. 1983)
24 Jul 1958 -  1 Jul 1960  Mario Di Stefano                   (b. 1900? - d. 1963)

Prime minister 1956 - Jul 1960 Abdullahi Issa Mohamud (b. 1922 - d. 1988)

Independent Somalia

Presidents
 1 Jul 1960 - 30 Jun 1967  Aden Abdullah Osman Daar           (b. 1908 - d. 2007)
                           (acting to 6 Jul 1961)
30 Jun 1967 - 15 Oct 1969  Abdirashid Ali Shermarke           (b. 1919 - d. 1969)
15 Oct 1969 - 21 Oct 1969  Sheikh Moktar Muhammad Hussein     (b. 1912 - d. 2012)
                           (acting)
21 Oct 1969 - 27 Jan 1991  Muhammad Siad Barre                (b. 1919? - d. 1995)
                           (chairman Supreme Revolutionary Council to 1 Jul 1976)
29 Jan 1991 -  3 Jan 1997¹ Ali Mahdi Muhammad                 (b. c.1939)
                           (interim to 21 Jul 1991)
 3 Jan 1997 -         ...  Ali Mahdi Muhammad                 (s.a.)
                           + Osman Hassan Ali "Ato"           (b. 1940)
                           + Abdulkadir Muhammad Aden         (b. 1919 - d. 2002)
                           + Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed            (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
                           + Aden Abdullahi Nur
                           (co-chairmen National Salvation Council)
13 Aug 2000 - 22 Aug 2000  Mohamed Abshir Muse (acting)       (b. 1926?)
                           (in Djibouti exile)
22 Aug 2000 - 27 Aug 2000  Abdallah Derow Isaq (acting)       (b. 1950 - d. 2006)
                           (in Djibouti exile)
27 Aug 2000 - 14 Oct 2004  Abdiqasim Salad Hassan             (b. 1941)
                           (in Djibouti exile to 14 Oct 2000; then
                           largely confined to the Mogadishu area)
   Jul 2003 -         ...    Abdinur Ahmed Darman             (b. 1952)
                             (controlling parts of Mogadishu and southern Somalia)
14 Oct 2004 - 29 Dec 2008  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed              (s.a.)
                           (in Nairobi exile to 13 Jun 2005, from 26 Jul 2005 in Jowhar,
                           from 26 Feb 2006 in Baidoa, from 8 Jan 2007 in Mogadishu)
 5 Jun 2006 - 29 Jun 2006    Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed       (b. 1964)
                             (chairman Islamic Courts Union, controlling Mogadishu
                             and parts of southern Somalia)
29 Jun 2006 - 28 Dec 2006    Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys        (b. 1935)
                             (head of Supreme Islamic Council of Somalia,
                             controlling Mogadishu and parts of southern Somalia)
29 Dec 2008 - 31 Jan 2009  Sheikh Aden Madobe (acting)        (b. 1955?)
31 Jan 2009 - 20 Aug 2012  Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed         (s.a.)
20 Aug 2012 - 28 Aug 2012  Muse Hassan Abdulle (acting)       (b. 1940?)
28 Aug 2012 - 16 Sep 2012  Mohamed Osman Jawari (acting)      (b. 1945)
16 Sep 2012 -              Hassan Sheikh Mohamud              (b. 1955)

Prime ministers 13 Jul 1960 - 14 Jun 1964 Abdirashid Ali Shermarke (s.a.) 14 Jun 1964 - 6 Jul 1967 Abdirizak Haji Hussein (b. 1924 - d. 2014) (acting to 27 Sep 1964) 6 Jul 1967 - 21 Oct 1969 Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal (b. 1928 - d. 2002) 1 Feb 1987 - 3 Sep 1990 Muhammad Ali Samatar (b. 1931) 3 Sep 1990 - 24 Jan 1991 Muhammad Hawadle Madar 24 Jan 1991 - 1993¹ Umar Arteh Ghalib (b. 1930) 8 Oct 2000 - 28 Oct 2001 Ali Khalif Galaid (b. 1941) (in Djibouti exile to 14 Oct 2000) 28 Oct 2001 - 12 Nov 2001 Osman Jama Ali (acting) (b. 1941) 12 Nov 2001 - 8 Dec 2003 Hassan Abshir Farah (b. 1945) 8 Dec 2003 - 3 Nov 2004 Muhammad Abdi Yusuf 3 Nov 2004 - 29 Oct 2007 Ali Muhammad Ghedi (b. 1952) (in Nairobi exile to 18 Jun 2005, then in Jowhar, from 26 Feb 2006 in Baidoa, from 29 Dec 2006 in Mogadishu) 29 Jun 2006 - 28 Dec 2006 Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed (s.a.) (chairman of executive committee of Supreme Islamic Council of Somalia) 29 Oct 2007 - 24 Nov 2007 Salim Aliyow Ibrow (acting) 24 Nov 2007 - 14 Feb 2009 Nur Hassan Hussein (b. 1938) 14 Feb 2009 - 24 Sep 2010 Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke (b. 1960) 24 Sep 2010 - 1 Nov 2010 Abdiwahid Elmi Gonjeh (acting) 1 Nov 2010 - 19 Jun 2011 Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed (b. 1962) 19 Jun 2011 - 17 Oct 2012 Abdiweli Mohamed Ali (b. 1965) (acting to 28 Jun 2011) 17 Oct 2012 - 21 Dec 2013 Abdi Farah Shirdon (b. 1958) 21 Dec 2013 - Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed (b. 1959)

Somali Reconciliation and Restoration Council (counter-government, at Baidoa)

Chairmen (rotating monthly)
26 Mar 2001 -        ...²  Hussein Aydid                      (b. 1962)
                           + Hilowle Iman Umar
                           + Aden Abdullahi Nur
                           + Hassan Muhammad Nur "Shatigadud"
                           + Abdullahi Sheikh Ismail

Secretaries-general 26 Mar 2001 - Dec 2001? Mowlid Ma'ane Mohamoud (b. ... - d. 2012) *Aug 2002 - ... Muhammad Umar Dalha
¹Since Nov 1991 there was no effective and/or recognized national government; parts of the country were controlled by different warlords, significant among them Muhammad Farah Aydid (b. 1936 - d. 1996), who claimed to be president from 15 Jun 1995 to his death 1 Aug 1996, followed by his son Hussein Aydid (b. 1962) 4 Aug 1996 - 20 Mar 1998.
²As of 2005, Aydid, Shatigadud, and Ismail were members of Prime Minister Ali Muhammad Ghedi's government.

Republic of Somaliland

18 May 1991                former British Somaliland secedes from Somalia; Republic
                           of Somaliland proclaimed 24 May 1991 (not internationally
                           recognized)

Presidents
28 May 1991 - 16 May 1993  Abdirahman Ahmed Ali "Tuur"        (b. 1931 - d. 2003)
16 May 1993 -  3 May 2002  Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal         (s.a.)
 3 May 2002 - 27 Jul 2010  Dahir Riyale Kahin                 (b. 1952)
27 Jul 2010 -              Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo              (b. 1936)

Jubaland

15 Jul 1924                Jubaland ceded by Great Britain to Italy; separate
                           administration (Oltro Giuba) set up
 1 Jul 1926                annexed to Italian Somalia
 3 Sep 1998                State of Jubaland set up by the Somali Patriotic Movement
                           and the elders of the Digil and Rahanwein clans
11 Jun 1999                leader ousted from regional capital Kismayo by the Allied
                           Somali Forces (later called Juba Valley Alliance)
18 Jun 2001                Juba Valley Alliance installs a new administration
                           supporting the Mogadishu government
24 Sep 2006                Kismayo taken by troops of the Supreme Islamic Council of
                           Somalia
 1 Jan 2007                Kismayo taken by forces of the central government
15 May 2013                autonomous state established
28 Aug 2013                agreement between central government and Jubaland leadership
                           creates Jubba Interim Administration

Governor
16 Jul 1924 - 31 Dec 1926  Corrado Zoli                       (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
Leader
 3 Sep 1998 - 11 Jun 1999  Muhammad Siyad Hersi "Morgan"
                           (briefly recaptures Kismayo 6-7 Aug 2001)
President
15 May 2013 - 28 Aug 2013  Ahmed Mohamed Islam "Madobe"
Leader of the Jubba Interim Administration
28 Aug 2013 -              Ahmed Mohamed Islam "Madobe"

Puntland

23 Jul 1998                part of northeastern Somalia declared autonomous as
                           Puntland State by Darod clans

Presidents
23 Jul 1998 - 30 Jun 2001  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (1st time)   (s.a.)
                           (continues in rebellion)
 1 Jul 2001 - 14 Nov 2001  Yusuf Haji Nur (acting)
14 Nov 2001 -  8 May 2002  Jama Ali Jama
                           (continues in rebellion to 17 May 2003)
 8 May 2002 -    Oct 2004  Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (2nd time)   (s.a.)
   Oct 2004 -  8 Jan 2005  Mohamed Abdi Hashi
 8 Jan 2005 -  8 Jan 2009  Mohamud Muse Hersi "Adde"
 8 Jan 2009 -  8 Jan 2014  Abdirahman Mohamed Farole          (b. 1945)
 8 Jan 2014 -              Abdiweli Mohamed Ali               (b. 1965)

Southwestern Somalia

 1 Apr 2002                state proclaimed by Rahanwein Resistance Army
 3 Mar 2014                new Southwestern State formed

Presidents
 1 Apr 2002 -        200.  Hassan Muhammad Nur "Shatigadud"
                           (loses control of the capital Baidoa 3 Oct 2002¹)
 3 Mar 2014 -              Madobe Nunow Mohamed               (b. 1949?)
¹From 3 Oct 2002 (except 14-16 Dec 2002) Baidoa was controlled by Sheikh Aden Madobe (officially reconciled with Shatigadud since 23 Sep 2003) and Mohamed Ibrahim Habsade. From March 2005 Habsade controlled the city after driving off Shatigadud and Madobe (who were ministers in the central government of Prime Minister Ali Muhammad Ghedi). In August 2006 Habsade himself became a minister in Ghedi's government.

South Africa

Cape Colony

16 Sep 1795                Cape Colony occupied by British forces
 5 Mar 1797                British colony
21 Feb 1803 - 18 Jan 1806  colony of the Batavian Republic (Netherlands)
10 Jan 1806                British colony
31 May 1910                part of the Union of South Africa

Commanders
16 Sep 1795 - 15 Nov 1795  Sir George Keith Elphinstone       (b. 1746 - d. 1823)
                           + Alured Clarke                    (b. 1745 - d. 1832)
                           + James Henry Craig                (b. 1748 - d. 1812)
Commandant
15 Nov 1795 -  5 May 1797  James Henry Craig                  (s.a.)
Governors
 5 May 1797 - 20 Nov 1798  George Macartney, Earl Macartney   (b. 1737 - d. 1806)
20 Nov 1798 -  9 Dec 1799  Francis Dundas (1st time) (acting) (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
10 Dec 1799 - 20 Apr 1801  Sir George Yonge                   (b. 1731 - d. 1812)
21 Apr 1801 - 20 Feb 1803  Francis Dundas (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
21 Feb 1803 - 25 Sep 1804  Jacob Abraham Uitenhage de Mist    (b. 1749 - d. 1823)
 1 Mar 1803 - 18 Jan 1806  Jan Willem Janssens                (b. 1762 - d. 1838)
10 Jan 1806 - 17 Jan 1807  Sir David Baird (acting)           (b. 1757 - d. 1829)
17 Jan 1807 - 21 May 1807  Henry George Grey (1st time)       (b. 1766 - d. 1845)
                           (acting)
22 May 1807 -  4 Jul 1811  Du Pré Alexander, Earl of Caledon  (b. 1777 - d. 1839)
 5 Jul 1811 -  5 Sep 1811  Henry George Grey (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 6 Sep 1811 -  6 Apr 1814  Sir John Francis Cradock           (b. 1762 - d. 1839)
18 Oct 1813 -  7 Jan 1814    Robert Meade                     (b. 1772 - d. 1852)
                             (acting for Cradock)
 6 Apr 1814 -  5 Mar 1826  Lord Charles Henry Somerset        (b. 1767 - d. 1831)
13 Jan 1820 - 30 Nov 1821    Sir Rufane Shawe Donkin          (b. 1772 - d. 1841)
                             (acting for Somerset)
 5 Mar 1826 -  9 Sep 1828  Richard Bourke (acting)            (b. 1777 - d. 1855)
 9 Sep 1828 - 10 Aug 1833  Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole           (b. 1772 - d. 1842)
10 Aug 1833 - 16 Jan 1834  Thomas Francis Wade                (b. c.1784 - d. 1846)
                           (acting [for D'Urban from 10 Jan 1834])
10 Jan 1834 - 20 Jan 1838  Sir Benjamin D'Urban               (b. 1777 - d. 1849)
22 Jan 1838 - 18 Mar 1844  Sir George Thomas Napier           (b. 1784 - d. 1855)
18 Mar 1844 - 27 Jan 1847  Sir Peregrine Maitland             (b. 1777 - d. 1854)
27 Jan 1847 -  1 Dec 1847  Sir Henry Pottinger                (b. 1789 - d. 1856)
 1 Dec 1847 - 31 Mar 1852  Sir Henry George Wakelyn Smith     (b. 1787 - d. 1860)
31 Mar 1852 - 26 May 1854  George Cathcart                    (b. 1794 - d. 1854)
26 May 1854 -  5 Dec 1854  Charles Henry Darling (acting)     (b. 1809 - d. 1870)
 5 Dec 1854 - 15 Aug 1861  Sir George Grey                    (b. 1812 - d. 1898)
20 Aug 1859 -  4 Jul 1860    Robert Henry Wynyard (1st time)  (b. 1802 - d. 1864)
                             (acting for Grey)
15 Aug 1861 - 15 Jan 1862  Robert Henry Wynyard (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
15 Jan 1862 - 20 May 1870  Sir Philip Edmond Wodehouse        (b. 1811 - d. 1887)
20 May 1870 - 31 Dec 1870  Charles Craufurd Hay (acting)      (b. 1809 - d. 1873)
31 Dec 1870 - 31 Mar 1877  Sir Henry Barkly                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
31 Mar 1877 - 15 Sep 1880  Sir Henry Bartle Edward Frere      (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
15 Sep 1880 - 27 Sep 1880  Henry Hugh Clifford (acting)       (b. 1826 - d. 1883)
27 Sep 1880 - 22 Jan 1881  Sir George Cumine Strahan (acting) (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
22 Jan 1881 -  1 May 1889  Sir Hercules Robinson (1st time)   (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
30 Apr 1881 -    Aug 1881    Sir Leicester Smyth (1st time)   (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
                             (acting for Robinson)
25 Apr 1883 - 26 Mar 1884    Sir Leicester Smyth (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (acting for Robinson)
 7 Apr 1886 -  7 Jul 1886    Sir Henry D'Oyley Torrens        (b. 1833 - d. 1889)
                             (acting for Robinson)
 1 May 1889 - 13 Dec 1889  Henry Augustus Smyth (acting)      (b. 1825 - d. 1906)
13 Dec 1889 - 30 May 1895  Sir Henry Brougham Loch            (b. 1827 - d. 1900)
14 Jan 1891 -  1 Dec 1892    Sir William Gordon Cameron
                             (1st time) (acting for Loch)     (b. 1827 - d. 1913)
   May 1894 -    Jul 1894    Sir William Gordon Cameron
                             (2nd time) (acting for Loch)     (s.a.)
30 May 1895 - 21 Apr 1897  Sir Hercules Robinson (from 1896,
                           Hercules Robinson, Baron Rosmead)
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
21 Apr 1897 -  5 May 1897  Sir William Howley Goodenough      (b. 1833 - d. 1898)
                           (acting)
 5 May 1897 -  6 Mar 1901  Sir Alfred Milner                  (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
 2 Nov 1898 - 14 Feb 1899    Sir William Francis Butler       (b. 1838 - d. 1910)
                             (acting for Milner)
 6 Mar 1901 - 31 May 1910  Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson (b. 1849 - d. 1913)
17 Jun 1909 - 21 Sep 1909    Sir Henry Jenner Scobell         (b. 1859 - d. 1912)
                             (acting for Hely-Hutchinson)

Prime ministers 1 Dec 1872 - 5 Feb 1878 John Charles Molteno (b. 1814 - d. 1886) 6 Feb 1878 - 8 May 1881 John Gordon Sprigg (1st time) (b. 1830 - d. 1913) 9 May 1881 - 12 May 1884 Thomas Charles Scanlen (b. 1834 - d. 1912) 13 May 1884 - 24 Nov 1886 Thomas Upington (b. 1844 - d. 1898) 25 Nov 1886 - 16 Jul 1890 Sir John Gordon Sprigg (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Jul 1890 - 12 Jan 1896 Cecil John Rhodes (b. 1853 - d. 1902) 13 Jan 1896 - 13 Oct 1898 Sir John Gordon Sprigg (3rd time) (s.a.) 14 Oct 1898 - 17 Jun 1900 William Philip Schreiner (b. 1857 - d. 1919) 18 Jun 1900 - 21 Feb 1904 Sir John Gordon Sprigg (4th time) (s.a.) 22 Feb 1904 - 2 Feb 1908 Leander Starr Jameson (b. 1853 - d. 1917) 3 Feb 1908 - 31 May 1910 John X. Merriman (b. 1841 - d. 1926)

Goshen

   Dec 1882                Het Land Goosen independent
   Mar 1885                incorporated into Cape Colony (Bechuanaland)

Chairman of the Council of Government
   Dec 1882 -    Aug 1884  Nicolaas Claudius Gey van Pittius  (b. 1837 - d. 1893)
Administrator
   Aug 1884 -    Mar 1885  Nicolaas Claudius Gey van Pittius  (s.a.)

Stellaland

 6 Aug 1883                Republic of Stellaland independent
23 Mar 1885                incorporated into Cape Colony (Bechuanaland)

Administrator
 6 Aug 1883 - 23 Mar 1885  Gerrit Jacobus van Niekerk         (b. 1849 - d. 1896)

British Bechuanaland

 1 Sep 1885                British crown colony
16 Nov 1895                incorporated into Cape Colony

Military Commander
 1 Sep 1885 - 23 Oct 1885  Frederick Carrington               (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
Administrator
23 Oct 1885 - 16 Nov 1895  Sidney Shippard (from Jun 1887,
                           Sir Sidney Shippard)               (b. 1837 - d. 1902)

Natal

 2 Dec 1836                Company of Emigrants (Trekker Maatschappij) constituted
 6 Jun 1837                Free Province of New Holland in South-East Africa
12 Oct 1838                "Natalia"¹
28 Sep 1843                British colony (Natal)
31 May 1910                part of the Union of South Africa

President of the Burghers' Council and Chief Commandant
 2 Dec 1836 -  6 Jun 1837  Gerhardus Marthinus Maritz         (b. 1797 - d. 1838)
Chief Governor
 6 Jun 1837 -  6 Feb 1838  Pieter Maurits Retief              (b. 1780 - d. 1838)
Presidents of the Policy Council
 6 Feb 1838 - 23 Sep 1838  Gerhardus Marthinus Maritz         (s.a.)
23 Sep 1838 - 12 Oct 1838  Karel Pieter Landman               (b. 1796 - d. 1875)
Chairmen of the Raad²
*15Feb 1839 -    Mar 1840  Johannes Stephanus Maritz
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1794 - d. 1857)
*1 Apr 1840 -  9 Jun 1840* Laurens Badenhorst (1st time)      (b. 1800 - d. ...)
*5 Aug 1840 - 13 Aug 1840* Karel Pieter Landman (1st time)    (s.a.)
*1 Sep 1840 -  4 Sep 1840* Laurens Badenhorst (2nd time)      (s.a.)
*28Sep 1840 - 16 Nov 1840* Frans Roos
*14Jan 1841 - 19 Jan 1841* Karel Pieter Landman (2nd time)    (s.a.)
*7 Apr 1841 - 13 Apr 1841* Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo
                           (1st time)
*14Jun 1841 - 18 Jun 1841* Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof (1st time) (b. 1808 - d. 1881)
*2 Aug 1841 - 12 Oct 1841* Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo
                           (2nd time)
*3 Jan 1842 - 10 Jan 1842* Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof (2nd time) (s.a.)
*19Feb 1842 - 26 Feb 1842* Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo
                           (3rd time)
*8 Aug 1842 -  6 Oct 1842* Hermanus Stephanus Lombaard
*19Jan 1843 - 28 Sep 1843  Johannes Stephanus Maritz
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
Chief commandant
23 Nov 1838 -  6 Mar 1840  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus
                           Pretorius                          (b. 1798 - d. 1853)
Commandants-general
 3 Jun 1840 - 10 Jan 1842  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus
                           Pretorius (1st time)               (s.a.)
21 Feb 1842 -  9 Aug 1842  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus
                           Pretorius (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Special commissioner
10 May 1843 -    May 1844  Henry Cloete                       (b. 1792 - d. 1870)
Lieutenant-governors
 4 Dec 1845 -  1 Aug 1849  Martin Thomas West                 (b. 1804? - d. 1849)
19 Apr 1850 -  3 Mar 1855  Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
 5 Nov 1856 - 31 Dec 1864  John Scott                         (b. 1814 - d. 1898)
31 Dec 1864 - 26 Jul 1865  John Maclean                       (b. 1810 - d. 1874)
26 Jul 1865 - 26 Aug 1865  John Wellesley Thomas (acting)     (b. 1822 - d. 1908)
26 Aug 1865 - 24 May 1867  John Jarvis Bisset (acting)        (b. 1819 - d. 1894)
24 May 1867 - 19 Jul 1872  Robert William Keate               (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
19 Jul 1872 - 30 Apr 1873  Anthony Musgrave                   (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
30 Apr 1873 - 22 Jul 1873  Thomas Milles (acting)
22 Jul 1873 -  1 Apr 1875  Sir Benjamin Chilley Campbell Pine
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1875 -  3 Sep 1875  Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley         (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
                           (acting)
 3 Sep 1875 - 20 Apr 1880  Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer   (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
20 Apr 1880 -  5 May 1880  William Bellairs (acting)          (b. 1828 - d. 1913)
 5 May 1880 -  2 Jul 1880  Henry Hugh Clifford (acting)
Governors
 2 Jul 1880 - 27 Feb 1881  Sir George Pomeroy Colley          (b. 1835 - d. 1881)
17 Aug 1880 - 14 Sep 1880    Henry Alexander
                             (acting for Colley)
27 Feb 1881 -  3 Apr 1881  Sir Henry Evelyn Wood (acting)     (b. 1838 - d. 1919)
 3 Apr 1881 -  9 Aug 1881  Redvers Henry Buller (acting)      (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
22 Dec 1881 -  6 Mar 1882  Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1836 - d. 1899)
 6 Mar 1882 - 23 Oct 1885  Sir Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer   (s.a.)
18 Feb 1886 -  5 Jun 1889  Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock        (b. 1844 - d. 1908)
 1 Dec 1889 -    Jul 1893  Sir Charles Bullen Hugh Mitchell
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Jul 1893 - 27 Sep 1893  Francis Seymour Haden (acting)     (b. 1850 - d. 1918)
28 Sep 1893 -  6 May 1901  Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson (s.a.)
13 May 1901 -  7 Jun 1907  Sir Henry Edward McCallum          (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
 2 Sep 1907 - 23 Dec 1909  Sir Matthew Nathan                 (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
17 Jan 1910 - 31 May 1910  Paul Sanford Methuen,
                           Baron Methuen of Corsham           (b. 1845 - d. 1932)

Prime ministers 10 Oct 1893 - 14 Feb 1897 Sir John Robinson (b. 1839 - d. 1903) 15 Feb 1897 - 4 Oct 1897 Harry Escombe (b. 1838 - d. 1899) 5 Oct 1897 - 8 Jun 1899 Sir Henry Binns (b. 1837 - d. 1899) 9 Jun 1899 - 17 Aug 1903 Sir Albert Henry Hime (b. 1842 - d. 1919) 18 Aug 1903 - 16 May 1905 George Morris Sutton (b. 1834 - d. 1913) 16 May 1905 - 28 Nov 1906 Charles John Smythe (b. 1852 - d. 1918) 28 Nov 1906 - 28 Apr 1910 Frederick Robert Moor (b. 1853 - d. 1927)

Zululand

21 Jun 1887                British crown colony
 1 Dec 1897                incorporated into Natal

Governors
       1887 -        1897  the governors of Natal
Resident commissioners and chief magistrates
       1887 -        1893  Sir Melmoth Osborn                 (b. 1834 - d. 1899)
       1893 -        1897  Sir Marshal James Clarke           (b. 1841 - d. 1909)
¹The constitution of 1838 did not specify an official name for the polity. Sources style it Natalia or Republic of Natal. In foreign correspondence the Raad (Council) requested occasionally that the polity be styled Republic of Port Natal and Adjoining Countries; not surprisingly, nobody took them up on this idea.
²According to the constitution, the state was to be headed by a committee called the Politie; the president of the Politie would be the formal head of state. However, this body was never constituted. In this record, the chairman of the Raad is regarded as the head of state. The chairman was officially elected quarterly; the list of chairmen is very incomplete. During much of the time of independence of Natalia the Raad appointed a chief commandant or commandant-general, who functioned informally as a chief executive, and is therefore listed here.

Orange Free State

 8 Mar 1848 - 11 Mar 1854  Orange River Sovereignty
                           (under British rule; annexed to Cape Colony)
23 Feb 1854                Orange Free State
29 Mar 1854 - 31 May 1902  Republic of the Orange Free State
   Jan 1901                Orange River Colony
31 May 1910                part of the Union of South Africa

Residents
 8 Mar 1848 - 23 Jul 1852  Henry Douglas Warden               (b. 1800 - d. 1856)
23 Jul 1852 - 11 Mar 1854  Henry Green
Chairman of the Provisional Government
23 Feb 1854 - 29 Mar 1854  Josias Philippus Hoffman           (b. 1807 - d. 1879)
Chairman of the Volksraad
29 Mar 1854 -    Apr 1854  Josias Philippus Hoffman           (s.a.)
State presidents
   Apr 1854                Jacobus Groenedal (acting)         (b. 1805 - d. 1860)
18 Apr 1854 - 10 Feb 1855  Josias Philippus Hoffman           (s.a.)
                           (acting to 15 Jun 1854)
10 Feb 1855 - 27 Aug 1855  Jacobus Johannes Venter (1st time) (b. 1814 - d. 1889)
                           (chairman Joint Commission for Administering the
                           Government)
27 Aug 1855 -  6 Sep 1859  Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof            (b. 1808 - d. 1881)
 6 Sep 1859 - 15 Dec 1859  Esaias Reynier Snyman (acting)
15 Dec 1859 -  8 Feb 1860  Jacobus Johannes Venter (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 8 Feb 1860 - 20 Jun 1863  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius         (b. 1819 - d. 1901)
20 Jun 1863 -  2 Feb 1864  Jacobus Johannes Venter (3rd time) (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 2 Feb 1864 - 14 Jul 1888  Johannes Henricus Brand            (b. 1823 - d. 1888)
31 Aug 1872 -  4 Oct 1872    Just Friedrich Rudolph Kaufmann
                             Höhne (acting for Brand)         (b. 1831 - d. 1879)
 4 Oct 1872 - 16 Jun 1873    Committee (acting for Brand)
                             - William Collins                (b. 1803 - d. 1876)
                             - Friedrich Pieter Schnehage     (b. 1811 - d. 1888)
                             - Gerhardus Johannes du Toit
14 Jul 1888 - 10 Jan 1889  Pieter Jeremias Blignaut
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1841 - d. 1909)
10 Jan 1889 - 11 Dec 1895  Francis William Reitz              (b. 1844 - d. 1934)
11 Dec 1895 -  4 Mar 1896  Pieter Jeremias Blignaut
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 4 Mar 1896 - 31 May 1902  Marthinus Theunis Steyn            (b. 1857 - d. 1916)
30 May 1902 - 31 May 1902    Christiaan Rudolph de Wet        (b. 1854 - d. 1922)
                             (acting for Steyn)
Lieutenant-governor
   Jan 1901 - 23 Jun 1902  Hamilton John Goold-Adams          (b. 1858 - d. 1920)
Governors
23 Jun 1902 -  1 Apr 1905  Alfred Milner, Viscount Milner     (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
 2 Apr 1905 -  7 Jun 1907  William Waldegrave Palmer,
                           Earl of Selborne                   (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
 7 Jun 1907 - 31 May 1910  Sir Hamilton John Goold-Adams      (s.a.)

Prime minister 27 Nov 1907 - 31 May 1910 Abraham Fischer (b. 1850 - d. 1913)

Transvaal

       1848                United Band established
17 Jan 1852                Holland-African Republic
       1853                South-African Republic
12 Apr 1877                Transvaal a British colony (nominally to Aug 1884)
 8 Aug 1881                Transvaal State (South-African Republic in domestic use)
   Aug 1884 - 31 May 1902  South-African Republic (restored)
25 Oct 1900                Transvaal a British colony
31 May 1910                part of the Union of South Africa

Commandants-General
20 Jun 1848 - 19 Sep 1849  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus
                           Pretorius (1st time)               (b. 1798 - d. 1853)
       1850 -    Jan 1851  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus
                           Pretorius (2nd time) (acting)      (s.a.)

At Lijdenburg:
   Jan 1851 - 17 Dec 1856  Willem François Joubert            (b. 1801 - d. 1891)
At Zoutpansberg:
   Jan 1851 - 16 Dec 1852  Hendrik Potgieter                  (b. 1792 - d. 1852)
16 Dec 1852 -  6 Nov 1854  Pieter Johannes Potgieter          (b. 1822 - d. 1854)
                           (acting to 17 Mar 1853)
   Nov 1854 -    Jan 1858  Stephanus Schoeman                 (b. 1810 - d. 1890)
At Marico:
   Jan 1851 -    Apr 1852  Johan Adam Enslin
At Potchefstroom-Rustenburg:
   Jan 1851 - 23 Jul 1853  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus
                           Pretorius (3rd time)               (s.a.)
 9 Aug 1853 - 15 Nov 1855  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius         (b. 1819 - d. 1901)

Chairmen of the United Volksraad
23 May 1849 -        18..  Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus
                           Pretorius                          (s.a.)
  *May 1851*               Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon
                           (1st? time)                        (b. 1804 - d. 1868)
      *1854*               Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon
                           (2nd? time)                        (s.a.)
   Sep 1855 -        1855  Hercules Albertus Pretorius
State presidents
15 Nov 1855 - 15 Sep 1860  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius
                           (1st time) (acting to 6 Jan 1857)  (s.a.)
15 Sep 1860 -  6 Dec 1860  Johannes Hermanus Grobler (acting) (b. 1813 - d. 1892)
 6 Dec 1860 - 17 Apr 1862  Stephanus Schoeman                 (s.a.)
                           (acting; continues in rebellion to 19 Jan 1863)
18 Apr 1862 - 10 May 1864  Willem Cornelis Janse van
                           Renseburg                          (b. 1818 - d. 1865)
                           (acting to 23 Oct 1863)
10 May 1864 - 20 Nov 1871  Marthinus Wessel Pretorius
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
21 Nov 1871 -  1 Jul 1872  Daniël Jacobus Erasmus
                           "van Straten" (acting)             (b. 1830 - d. 1913)
 1 Jul 1872 - 12 Apr 1877  Thomas François Burgers            (b. 1834 - d. 1881)
Administrators
12 Apr 1877 -  4 Mar 1879  Sir Theophilus Shepstone           (b. 1817 - d. 1893)
 4 Mar 1879 -  8 Aug 1881  William Owen Lanyon (from 1880,
                           Sir William Owen Lanyon)           (b. 1842 - d. 1887)
                           (acting for Wolseley 29 Sep 1879 - 27 Apr 1880)
Governor
29 Sep 1879 - 27 Apr 1880  Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley         (b. 1833 - d. 1913)
 8 Aug 1881 -  9 May 1883  Triumvirate
                           (formed 13 Dec 1880 in rebellion)
                           - Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (b. 1825 - d. 1904)
                           - Marthinus Wessel Pretorius       (s.a.)
                           - Petrus Jacobus Joubert           (b. 1831 - d. 1900)
State presidents
 9 May 1883 - 31 May 1902  Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger   (s.a.)
10 Sep 1900 - 31 May 1902    Schalk Willem Burger             (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
                             (acting for Kruger)
Governors
21 Jun 1902 -  1 Apr 1905  Alfred Milner, Viscount Milner     (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1905 - 31 May 1910  William Waldegrave Palmer,
                           Earl of Selborne                   (s.a.)

Prime minister 4 Feb 1907 - 31 May 1910 Louis Botha (b. 1862 - d. 1919)

Winburg-Potchefstroom/Andries-Ohrigstad/Lijdenburg

 9 Apr 1844                community established at Winburg-Potchefstroom
   Jun 1845                move to Andries-Ohrigstad
       1849                incorporated into Transvaal
17 Dec 1856                Republic of Lijdenburg in South Africa established
 4 Apr 1860                incorporated into South-African Republic

Commandants and Governors
 9 Apr 1844 -  8 Jun 1846  Hendrik Potgieter (1st time)       (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1846 - 22 Sep 1846  Johannes Gerhardus Stephanus
                           Bronkhorst                         (b. 1798 - d. 1848)
                           (chairman Volksraad)
22 Sep 1846 -        1849  Hendrik Potgieter (2nd time)       (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Volksraad
17 Dec 1856 -        18..  Philippus Jeremias Coetser
       18.. -  4 Apr 1860  Cornelis Potgieter

Utrecht

       1854                Republic of Utrecht established
 8 May 1858                incorporated into Republic of Lijdenburg

Landdrost
       1854 -  8 May 1858  Andreas Theodorus Spies            (b. 1800 - d. 1889)

New Republic

16 Aug 1884                New Republic of South Africa established
20 Jul 1888                incorporated into South-African Republic

State president
16 Aug 1884 - 20 Jul 1888  Lucas Johannes Meijer              (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
                           (acting to ... 1884)

Little Free State

10 Mar 1886                Little Free State established
 2 May 1891                incorporated into South-African Republic

Chairman of the Committee
10 Mar 1886 -  2 May 1891  J.J. Bezuidenhout

Griqua

Note: Although the Griqua polities are widely scattered and end up being incorporated into different provinces/polities, their records are assembled here because of the ethnic and clan-led continuity (except for the Klipdrift Republic, a European mining enterprise). The starting point is in what became Griqualand West; Campbell and Philippolis are the result of migration led by the Kok family; this migration ended in what became Griqualand East.

Griqualand West

27 Oct 1871                incorporated into Cape Colony

Chieftains
       1813 -        1819  Barend Barends                     (b. af.1770 - d. 1839)
                           + Adam Kok II                      (b. c.1760 - d. 1835)
20 Dec 1820 - 13 Dec 1852  Andries Waterboer                  (b. c.1790 - d. 1852)
13 Dec 1852 - 27 Oct 1871  Nicolaas Waterboer                 (b. 1819 - d. 1896)

Campbell

       1861                incorporated into Orange Free State

Chieftain
       1816 -        1857  Cornelis Kok II                    (b. ... - d. 1857)

Klipdrift Republic

30 Jul 1870                Republic of Griqualand West, also called Klipdrift Republic
13 Dec 1870                incorporated into Orange Free State

President
30 Jul 1870 - 13 Dec 1870  Stafford Parker                    (b. 1833 - d. 1915)

Philippolis

       1862                incorporated into Orange Free State

Chieftains
25 Aug 1825 -        1827  Adam Kok II (1st time)             (s.a.)
       1827 -        1828  Cornelis Kok III
       1828 - 12 Sep 1835  Adam Kok II (2nd time)             (s.a.)
12 Sep 1835 -        1836  Adam Kok III (1st time)            (b. 1811 - d. 1875)
                           (provisional)
   Feb 1836 -    Jul 1837  Abraham Kok
   Jul 1837 -    Sep 1837  Brend Lucas (provisional)
   Sep 1837 - 26 Dec 1861  Adam Kok III (2nd time)            (s.a.)

Griqualand East

       1879                incorporated into Cape Colony

Chieftains
       1862 - 31 Dec 1875  Adam Kok III                       (s.a.)
31 Dec 1875 -        1876  Adam "Eta" Kok (provisional)
       1876 -        1879  Cornelis van der Westhuis

South Africa

31 May 1910                Cape, Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal united
                           as a dominion (Union of South Africa)
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty to the
                           British dominions
31 May 1961                Republic of South Africa

Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
31 May 1910 -  8 Sep 1914  Herbert John Gladstone,
                           Viscount Gladstone                 (b. 1854 - d. 1930)
 8 Sep 1914 - 20 Nov 1920  Sydney Charles Buxton,
                           Viscount Buxton (from 8 Nov
                           1920, Sydney Charles Buxton,
                           Earl Buxton)                       (b. 1853 - d. 1934)
20 Nov 1920 - 11 Dec 1923  Prince Arthur Frederick Patrick
                           Albert of Connaught                (b. 1883 - d. 1938)
11 Dec 1923 - 21 Jan 1924  Sir James Rose-Innes (acting)      (b. 1855 - d. 1942)
21 Jan 1924 - 26 Jan 1931  Augustus Alexander George
                           Cambridge, Earl of Athlone         (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
26 Jan 1931 - 19 Mar 1937  George Herbert Hyde Villiers,
                           Earl of Clarendon                  (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
19 Mar 1937 -  5 Apr 1937  John Stephen Curlewis (acting)     (b. 1863 - d. 1940)
 5 Apr 1937 - 17 Jul 1943  Sir Patrick Duncan                 (b. 1870 - d. 1943)
19 Jul 1943 -  1 Jan 1946  Nicolaas Jacobus de Wet (acting)   (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
 1 Jan 1946 -  1 Jan 1951  Gideon Brand van Zyl               (b. 1873 - d. 1956)
 1 Jan 1951 - 25 Nov 1959  Ernest George Jansen               (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
26 Nov 1959 - 12 Jan 1960  Lucas Cornelius Steyn (1st time)   (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
                           (acting)
12 Jan 1960 - 30 Apr 1961  Charles Robberts Swart             (b. 1894 - d. 1982)
 1 May 1961 - 31 May 1961  Lucas Cornelius Steyn (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
State presidents
31 May 1961 -  1 Jun 1967  Charles Robberts Swart        NP   (s.a.)
 1 Jun 1967 - 10 Apr 1968  Jozua François Naudé (acting) NP   (b. 1889 - d. 1969)
10 Apr 1968 -  9 Apr 1975  Jacobus Johannes Fouché       NP   (b. 1898 - d. 1980)
 9 Apr 1975 - 19 Apr 1975  Johannes de Klerk (acting)    NP   (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
19 Apr 1975 - 21 Aug 1978  Nicolaas J. Diederichs        NP   (b. 1903 - d. 1978)
21 Aug 1978 - 10 Oct 1978  Marais Viljoen (1st time)     NP   (b. 1915 - d. 2007)
                           (acting)
10 Oct 1978 -  4 Jun 1979  B.J. Vorster                  NP   (b. 1915 - d. 1983)
 4 Jun 1979 -  3 Sep 1984  Marais Viljoen (2nd time)     NP   (s.a.)
                           (acting to 19 Jun 1979)
 3 Sep 1984 - 15 Aug 1989  Pieter Willem Botha           NP   (b. 1916 - d. 2006)
                           (acting to 14 Sep 1984)
19 Jan 1989 - 15 Mar 1989    Chris Heunis                NP   (b. 1927 - d. 2006)
                             (acting for Botha)
15 Aug 1989 - 10 May 1994  Frederik W. de Klerk          NP   (b. 1936)
                           (acting to 20 Sep 1989)
Presidents
10 May 1994 - 16 Jun 1999  Nelson Mandela                ANC  (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
16 Jun 1999 - 24 Sep 2008  Thabo Mbeki                   ANC  (b. 1942)
25 Sep 2008                Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri (f)     ANC  (b. 1937 - d. 2009)
                           (acting)
25 Sep 2008 -  9 May 2009  Kgalema Motlanthe             ANC  (b. 1949)
 9 May 2009 -              Jacob Zuma                    ANC  (b. 1942)

Prime ministers 31 May 1910 - 27 Aug 1919
Louis Botha 1911: SAP (s.a.) 3 Sep 1919 - 30 Jun 1924 Jan Smuts (1st time) SAP (b. 1870 - d. 1950) 30 Jun 1924 - 5 Sep 1939 J.B.M. Hertzog NP; 5 Dec 1934: UP (b. 1866 - d. 1942) 5 Sep 1939 - 4 Jun 1948 Jan Smuts (2nd time) UP (s.a.) 4 Jun 1948 - 30 Nov 1954 Daniel F. Malan NP (b. 1874 - d. 1959) 30 Nov 1954 - 24 Aug 1958 Johannes G. Strijdom NP (b. 1893 - d. 1958) 24 Aug 1958 - 3 Sep 1958 Charles Robberts Swart NP (s.a.) (acting) 3 Sep 1958 - 6 Sep 1966 Hendrik F. Verwoerd NP (b. 1901 - d. 1966) 6 Sep 1966 - 13 Sep 1966 Theophilus Dönges (acting) NP (b. 1898 - d. 1968) 13 Sep 1966 - 28 Sep 1978 B.J. Vorster NP (s.a.) 28 Sep 1978 - 14 Sep 1984 Pieter Willem Botha NP (s.a.)
Party abbreviations: ANC=African National Congress, NP=National Party, SAP=South African Party, UP=United Party

South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands

17 Jan 1775                claimed by Britain
       1908                occupied and made a dependency of the Falkland Islands
 3 Apr 1982 - 25 Apr 1982  occupied by Argentina
 3 Oct 1985                separate British territory

Commissioners
 3 Oct 1985 -              the governors of the Falkland Islands
Magistrates
20 Nov 1909 - 19 Oct 1914  James Innes Wilson
20 Oct 1914 -  1 Apr 1927  Edward Beveridge Binnie            (b. 1884 - d. 1956)
22 Aug 1927 - 24 Nov 1927  Frederick Black Allison
27 Sep 1928 -  2 Sep 1941  William Barlas                     (b. 1888 - d. 1941)
17 Apr 1942 - 15 Mar 1951  Arthur Isadore Fleuret             (b. 1899 - d. 1987)
15 Mar 1951 - 19 Apr 1954  Kenelm Somerset Pierce-Butler      (b. 1917)
20 Apr 1954 -  3 Apr 1957  Robert Edward Spivey               (b. 1921 - d. 1994)
 4 Apr 1957 - 25 Jun 1959  John W. Matthew
26 Jun 1959 - 13 Nov 1969  Dennis Joseph Coleman
       1969 -        1970  Eric James Chinn                   (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
       1970 -        1971  Brian Jones
       1971 -        1972  Jeremy Robin Biscoe Tallowin
       1972 -        1973  Andrew Stuart Ferguson
       1973 -        1974  Michael Raymond Pawley
       1974 -        1975  Michael Raymond Pawley
                           + John Hall
       1975 -        1976  Michael Raymond Pawley
                           + David Michael Burkitt
       1976 -        1977  Michael Raymond Pawley
                           + David John Orchard
       1977 -        1978  Michael Raymond Pawley
                           + Martin John Baker
       1978 -        1979  Michael Raymond Pawley
                           + Mark Peter David Lewis
       1979 -        1980  Michael Raymond Pawley
                           + Derek William Hamilton
       1980 -  3 Apr 1982  Peter Richard Witty (to Feb 1982)
                           + Stephen John Martin
Chief executive officer
16 Jul 2007 -    May 2009  Harriet Hall (f)
Senior executive officer
   May 2009 -              Martin Collins

South Moluccas: see under Indonesia.
South Ossetia: see under Georgia.

South Sudan

 9 Jul 2011                Republic of South Sudan (independence from Sudan)

Chairmen of the High Executive Council
 6 Apr 1972 -    Feb 1978  Abel Alier (1st time)              (b. 1933)
   Feb 1978 -    Feb 1980  Joseph Lagu                        (b. 1931)
   Feb 1980 - 30 May 1980  Peter Gatkuoth (acting)            (b. 1938 - d. 1992)
30 May 1980 -  5 Oct 1981  Abel Alier (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 5 Oct 1981 - 23 Jun 1982  Gismalla Abdalla Rassas (interim)
23 Jun 1982 -  5 Jun 1983  Joseph Tombura                     (b. 1929? - d. ...)
25 May 1985 -    May 1986  James Loro
Chairmen of the Council for the South
31 Jan 1987 -    Jan 1988  Matthew Abor
   Jan 1988 -    Jun 1989  Angelo Beda
Chairmen of the Southern Sudan Coordination Council
 7 Aug 1997 - 31 Jan 2000  Riek Machar                        (b. 1952)
       2000 -        2001  Angelo Beda (acting)
       2001 -  9 Dec 2002  Gatluak Deng                       (b. 1953 - d. 2014)
 9 Dec 2002 -        2005  Riek Gai
Presidents of the Government of Southern Sudan
 9 Jul 2005 - 30 Jul 2005  John Garang                        (b. 1945 - d. 2005)
11 Aug 2005 -  9 Jul 2011  Salva Kiir                         (b. 1951)
President
 9 Jul 2011 -              Salva Kiir                         (s.a.)

Rebel leaders

Chairman of the Southern Sudan Liberation Front (from Aug 1971, Southern Sudan Liberation Movement)
   Oct 1969 - 28 Mar 1972  Joseph Lagu                        (s.a.)
Chairman of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement
   Jun 1983 -  9 Jan 2005  John Garang                        (s.a.)

Governments in exile (based in Kampala, Uganda)

President of the Southern Sudan Provisional Government
   Aug 1967 - 27 Mar 1969  Aggrey Jaden                       (b. 1924 - d. 1985)
President of the Nile Provisional Government
   Mar 1969 - 23 Jul 1970  Gordon Mortat Mayen                (b. 1922 - d. 2008)
President of the Anyidi Revolutionary Government (in opposition to NPG)
15 Jul 1969 -    Apr 1970  Emidio Tafeng                      (b. 1910?)

Shilluk

Reths
        ... -         ...  Nyikang
        ... -         ...  Col wad Nyikang
        ... -         ...  Dak wad Nyikang
        ... -      c.1600  Nyidoro wad Dak
     c.1600 -      c.1635  Odak Ocwolo wad Dak
     c.1635 -      c.1650  Duwat wad Ocwolo
     c.1650 -      c.1660  Bwoc wad Duwat
     c.1660 -      c.1661  Akac
     c.1661 -      c.1667  Abudok nya Bwoc (f)
     c.1667 -      c.1690  Tokot wad Bwoc
     c.1690 -      c.1710  Tugo wad Tokot
     c.1710 -      c.1715  Okon wad Tugo
     c.1715 -      c.1745  Nyadwai wad Tugo
     c.1740 -      c.1745    Ngu Abab (in rebellion)
     c.1745 -      c.1750  Muko wad Nyadwai
     c.1750 -      c.1760  Wak wad Nyadwai
     c.1760 -      c.1770  Tyelgut wad Nyadwai
     c.1770 -      c.1780  Kudit wad Okon
     c.1780 -      c.1820  Yor Nyakwac wad Kudit
     c.1820 -      c.1825  Aney wad Nyakwac
     c.1825 -      c.1835  Akwot wad Nyakwac
     c.1835 -      c.1840  Awin wad Nyakwac
     c.1840 -      c.1845  Akoc wad Akwot
     c.1845 -    Feb 1859  Nyidok wad Nyakwac                 (b. ... - d. 1859)
     c.1859                Acin wad Akwot
     c.1859 -      c.1870  Kwadker wad Akwot
     c.1870 -        1875  Ajang wad Nyidok                   (b. ... - d. 1875)
       1875                Dedunyal wad Ajang
       1875 -        1876  vacant
       1876 -        1881  Kuikon wad Kwadker
       1881 -        1892  Yor wad Akoc
       1892 -        1903  Kur Galdwan wad Nyidok
       1903 -        1917  Fadyet wad Kwadker                 (b. ... - d. 1917)
       1917 -    Sep 1943  Fafiti wad Yor                     (b. ... - d. 1943)
   Mar 1944 -    Nov 1945  Aney wad Kur                       (b. c.1900 - d. 1945)
   Jan 1946 -  8 May 1951  Dak wad Fadyet                     (b. ... - d. 1951)
   Feb 1952 - 24 Jul 1974  Kur wad Fafiti                     (b. 1928 - d. 1974)
       1975 -  1 Jun 1992  Tipo wad Aney = Ayang wad Aney     (b. 1944 - d. 1992)
   Jul 1993 -              Kwongo wad Dak

South West Africa: see Namibia.
Southern Rhodesia: see Zimbabwe.
Soviet Union: see under Russia.