Smailov, Yerlan (Baykenovich) (b. Jan. 27, 1951), head of Dzhezkazgan oblast (1996-97).
Smallman, David (Leslie) (b. April 29, 1940), governor of St. Helena (1995-99).
Smallwood, Sir Denis (Graham) (b. Aug. 13, 1918 - d. July 26, 1997), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (1969-70); knighted 1969.
Smallwood, Joseph R(oberts), byname Joey Smallwood (b. Dec. 24, 1900, Gambo, Newfoundland [now in Canada] - d. Dec. 17, 1991, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada), premier of Newfoundland (1949-72). In 1920-25 he worked in New York City for leftist newspapers and for the Progressive Party. Returning to Newfoundland, he became a union organizer and unsuccessfully ran for office in the 1932 election. In 1946 he was elected to a convention called by Britain to decide Newfoundland's future, and he led a campaign for the territory to join Canada. "I dragged Newfoundland kicking and screaming into the 20th century," he once said. After pro-confederation forces won the 1948 vote by a 7,000-vote (2%) margin, he was appointed premier of an interim government on April 1, 1949, and won the first provincial election in May. A man of grand ambitions, he said in 1951: "I'd like to go down as the greatest Newfoundlander who ever lived." His Liberal Party won the elections of 1951, 1956, 1959, 1962, and 1966 before being defeated in 1971. His most turbulent year was 1959, when his repression of a strike by 1,250 members of the International Forest Workers of America caused a split within his party. The strike dragged on for months and although the loggers went back to work, his power was never again the same. He resigned as party head in 1972. After losing a 1974 bid to be reelected party leader, the colourful Smallwood formed the Liberal Reform Party. He finally retired from politics in 1977. He was also the author of a six-volume history, The Book of Newfoundland (1937, 1967, 1975), and accumulated heavy personal debt in his last years with a project for a four-volume Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, completed after his death.
Smarth, Rosny (b. Oct. 19, 1940, Cavaillon, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (1996-97).
Smedley, Sir Harold (b. June 19, 1920 - d. Feb. 16, 2004), governor of Pitcairn Island (1976-80); knighted 1978. He was also British high commissioner to Ghana (1964-65, 1966-68), Sri Lanka (1973-75), New Zealand (1976-80), and Western Samoa (1977-80) and ambassador to Laos (1968-70) and Maldives (1973-75).
Smet de Naeyer, Paul (Joseph) (from 1900, comte/graaf) de (b. May 13, 1843, Ghent, Belgium - d. Sept. 9, 1913, Brussels, Belgium), finance minister (1894-99, 1899-1907) and prime minister (1896-99, 1899-1907) of Belgium.
Smetanyuk, Sergey (Ivanovich) (b. June 8, 1962), acting governor of Tyumen oblast (2005).
Smetona, Antanas (b. Aug. 10, 1874, Ukmerge district, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Jan. 9, 1944, Cleveland, Ohio), president of Lithuania (1919-20, 1926-40) and general commissioner of the Memel Territory (1923-24).
Smidt, Hendrik Jan (b. Oct. 11, 1831, Assen, Netherlands - d. March 14, 1917, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1885-88). He was also Dutch justice minister (1877-79, 1891-94).
Smirnov, Anatoly (Vladimirovich) (b. Nov. 17, 1946, Altay kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of Severo-Kazakhstan oblast (2002-03). He was also Kazakh ambassador to Belarus (2008-12).
Smirnov, Gennady (Ivanovich) (b. April 1903 - d. 1938), chairman of the State Planning Commission of the Soviet Union (1937).
Smirnov, Igor (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 23, 1941, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russian S.F.S.R.), leader (1990-2011) of Moldova's breakaway Dniester Republic (Transnistria). He moved to Moldova in 1986 and became mayor of Tiraspol. He was jailed in 1991 on charges of supporting the failed coup against Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, but was released and charges were dropped. Leaders of Transnistria, an eastern region with 700,000 people, had proclaimed independence in 1990 amid fears that Moldova planned to reunite with neighbouring Romania. Transnistria's people are mostly ethnic Slavs while some two-thirds of Moldovans are ethnic Romanians. Smirnov won Transnistria's first presidential election in 1991 and campaigned for recognition as a separate nation. Fighting between separatists and the Moldovan government killed 700 people in 1992. The fighting ended after Russian troops were sent to the region, but relations remained tense. Smirnov said he would insist that the Russian troops, numbering about 7,000, remain in the region. He was reelected president of the area in 1996 and vowed to push for full independence. Moldovan president-elect Petru Lucinschi said that the election had no legal standing. "This part of our territory keeps violating our laws," Lucinschi told reporters. But given the Russian troop presence the Moldovan government was powerless to end Smirnov's separatist regime. He was again reelected in 2001 and 2006 but only came third in 2011.
Smith, Alfred E(manuel), byname Al Smith (b. Dec. 30, 1873, New York City - d. Oct. 4, 1944, New York City), governor of New York (1919-21, 1923-29). He first ran for elective office in 1903, when - supported by Tammany Hall, the New York City Democratic political organization - he was elected to the state assembly; in 1913 he won the powerful office of speaker. He was a member of a commission investigating factory conditions (1911) and a delegate to the state constitutional revision committee (1915). Tammany Hall made him New York county sheriff (1915) and president of the New York City Board of Aldermen (1917). He resigned in 1918 to run for governor against the Republican incumbent and, although few believed he had a chance, he won by a narrow margin. Though he lost the governorship in the nationwide shift to the Republicans in 1920, he was elected to three more terms in 1922, 1924, and 1926. With his brown derby hat, ever-present cigar, and common touch, he was an extraordinary vote-getter. He was the first Roman Catholic to be seriously considered as a candidate for the U.S. presidency. First suggested as a possibility in 1920, he actively sought the nomination in 1924, but his religion worked against him in the convention, as did his opposition to Prohibition, and after a prolonged deadlock with William G. McAdoo, the "dry" candidate, neither candidate was nominated. In 1928, he had no serious opposition and was nominated on the first ballot. In the election, however, he was defeated by the conservative Republican Herbert Hoover, winning only eight states and losing New York. Although giving belated support to Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932, he broke with him later, opposed the New Deal, and in 1936 and 1940 supported Roosevelt's Republican opponents.
Smith, Arnold (Cantwell) (b. Jan. 18, 1915, Toronto, Ont. - d. Feb. 7, 1994, Toronto), secretary-general of the Commonwealth (1965-75). He was an attaché to the British legation at Tallinn (1940) and to the British embassy in Cairo (1940-43), was transferred to the Canadian diplomatic service in 1943, served in Moscow, Brussels, New York City, Phnom Penh, and London, and was ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1958-61) and the Soviet Union (1961-63), then returned to Canada to become assistant undersecretary of state for external affairs. In 1965 he was elected by Commonwealth leaders as the organization's first secretary-general. He had barely taken over the post when the Commonwealth's cohesiveness was threatened by the unilateral declaration of independence from Britain by the white-minority government in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). In 1971, the alliance was again jeopardized when Britain proposed to sell arms to South Africa. Smith pleaded with Prime Minister Edward Heath, and eventually the arms sale was abandoned. During his two five-year terms in office, the Commonwealth weathered a number of other events that threatened to tear it apart: Idi Amin's regime in Uganda, Pakistan's civil war and the emergence of Bangladesh, Singapore's expulsion from the Malaysian federation, and coups in Ghana, Cyprus, Pakistan, and Nigeria. Throughout his tenure, he endeavoured to shift the Commonwealth "from residual but significant Anglo-centricity to full multilateralism" as he later put it. He was a cofounder (1976) and the first chairman of the North-South Institute in Ottawa. He was made a Companion of Honour in 1975 and in 1984 was named an Officer of the Order of Canada.
Smith, Charles Emory (b. Feb. 18, 1842, Mansfield, Conn. - d. Jan. 19, 1908, Philadelphia, Pa.), U.S. postmaster general (1898-1902). He was also minister to Russia (1890-92).
Smith, David (Joseph) (b. Jan. 12, 1951), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1994-96).
Smith, Sir Francis (Villeneuve) (b. Feb. 13, 1819, Lindfield, Sussex, England - d. Jan. 17, 1909, Kent, England), premier of Tasmania (1857-60); knighted 1862. He was chief justice in 1870-85 and as such was acting governor in 1874-75 and 1880.
Smith, George Charles (b. 1948), chief minister of Norfolk Island (1997-2000).
Smith, Godfrey (Phillip) (b. 1969?), foreign minister (2003-06) and defense minister (2004) of Belize.
Smith (of Aliwal), Sir Henry George Wakelyn, (1st) Baronet, byname Sir Harry Smith (b. June 28, 1787, Whittlesea, Isle of Ely, England - d. Oct. 12, 1860, London, England), governor of Cape Colony (1847-52). He was first knighted (K.C.B.) in 1844 and in 1846 was created a baronet and awarded the G.C.B.
Smith, (Michael) Hoke (b. Sept. 2, 1855, Newton, N.C. - d. Nov. 27, 1931, Atlanta, Ga.), U.S. secretary of the interior (1893-96) and governor of Georgia (1907-09, 1911).
Smith, Ian D(ouglas) (b. April 8, 1919, Selukwe, Southern Rhodesia [now Shurugwi, Zimbabwe] - d. Nov. 20, 2007, near Cape Town, South Africa), prime minister of Rhodesia (1964-79). He was elected to the Southern Rhodesian Legislative Assembly in 1948 as a member of the opposition Rhodesia Liberal Party. He changed allegiance to the governing United Federal Party in 1953 when the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was formed. By 1958 he was chief government whip in parliament, but he left the Federalists in 1961 when they approved a new constitution allowing for increased Black African representation. He then established the Rhodesian Front Party, which was initially unpopular but in 1962 won a surprise victory at the elections by promising to attain independence from Britain while preserving white rule. The Federation was dissolved in 1963 and he became prime minister of Southern Rhodesia (later called Rhodesia) in April 1964. In July he rejected the proposal to discuss a new constitution that would ensure eventual black-majority rule. Revealing himself increasingly inflexible in subsequent talks, he finally, on Nov. 11, 1965, unilaterally declared independence. Britain did not recognize this, but took no decisive action to assert its authority. Economic sanctions were applied, but it was the increasing black guerrilla activity and the large military expenditures needed to counter it which compelled Smith finally in 1977 to negotiate with the moderate black leader Abel Muzorewa. A Transitional Executive Council consisting of himself and three black leaders was established in 1978, and in June 1979 he ceded the prime ministership to Muzorewa and served as minister without portfolio in the government of "Zimbabwe Rhodesia" which existed until December. He continued to serve in the parliament of Zimbabwe until 1987.
Smith, Ivor Otterbein (b. Dec. 13, 1907, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. April 2003, Kelowna, B.C., Canada), commissioner of the Cayman Islands (1946-52).
Smith, James Skivring (b. 1825, Charleston, S.C. - d. ...), secretary of state (1856-60), vice president (1870-71), and president (1871-72) of Liberia.
Smith, Dame Jennifer (Meredith) (b. Oct. 14, 1947), premier of Bermuda (1998-2003); knighted 2005. In 2010 she became minister of education.
Smith, John (b. Sept. 13, 1938, Dalmally, Argyll, Scotland - d. May 12, 1994, London, England), British politician. He joined the Labour Party in 1955 and, after unsuccessful efforts in 1963 and 1964, was elected to Parliament in 1970 for Lanarkshire North (from 1983 Monklands East). In 1972 he defied Labour's anti-European policy and voted in favour of the Conservative government's proposal that the U.K. join the European Communities. He first joined the government in 1974 to become undersecretary of state for energy; as minister of state for energy (1975-76) he was responsible for the early stages of the development of North Sea oil. After serving as minister of state in the Privy Council Office (1976-78), Smith, at 39, became the youngest member of Prime Minister James Callaghan's cabinet as trade secretary (1978-79). After Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives ousted Labour from power, Smith used his debating skills in the shadow cabinet as opposition spokesman on trade, prices, and consumer protection (1979-82), energy (1982-83), employment (1983-84), and trade and industry (1984-87). In 1987 opposition leader Neil Kinnock appointed him shadow chancellor of the exchequer. He imposed strict financial discipline on Labour's policy-making in opposition. "We will not spend, nor will we promise to spend, more than Britain can afford," he said repeatedly, and he insisted that none of his shadow cabinet colleagues make commitments that would undermine that pledge. Widely admired for his integrity, he was by the end of 1991 Labour's most popular politician. After Labour's disastrous April 1992 election defeat, Kinnock resigned and on July 18 Smith was elected party leader by a 91% majority. The party seemed well positioned for the next election when Smith suddenly died from a heart attack.
Smith, Joseph, III (b. Nov. 6, 1832, Kirtland, Ohio - d. Dec. 10, 1914, Independence, Mo.), president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1860-1914).
Smith, Mary Louise, née Epperson (b. Oct. 6, 1914, Eddyville, Iowa - d. Aug. 22, 1997, Des Moines, Iowa), U.S. politician. Smith, known for her support of abortion rights, served on the Republican National Committee from 1964 to 1984 and was the first woman to chair it (1974-77). In 1976, she was the first woman to organize and call to order the National Convention of a major American political party. One of the most respected political figures in the state, she was a founding member of the Iowa Women's Political Caucus and was inducted into the Iowa Women's Hall of Fame in 1977. Smith served on the board of directors of Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa in 1986-92. At a National Women's Political Caucus in August 1989, she said the caucus must convey the message that supporting reproductive rights is "a good thing to do."
Smith, (Daniel) Orlando (b. Aug. 28, 1944), chief minister (2003-07) and premier (2011- ) of the British Virgin Islands.
Smith, Peter (John) (b. May 15, 1942), governor of the Cayman Islands (1999-2002). He entered the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1962 and served in Saigon, Paris, New York, Mexico City, Port Louis, Montreal, Toronto, Antananarivo (ambassador to Madagascar 1993-96), and Maseru (high commissioner to Lesotho 1996-99).
Smith, Preston (Earnest) (b. March 8, 1912, Williamson county, Texas - d. Oct. 18, 2003, Lubbock, Texas), governor of Texas (1969-73). He said he decided at the age of 8 that he would one day become governor. A Democrat, he was lieutenant governor in 1963-69 and was elected governor in 1968, relying on personal contacts, face-to-face campaigning, and direct mail. Besides his old-fashioned electioneering, he was also known for his trademark polka-dot ties. As governor he focused on education and criminal justice, pushing for the first comprehensive drug abuse program in Texas. He was also instrumental in passing the state's first minimum wage law. Reelected in 1970, his second term was dominated by fallout from an influence-peddling scandal that resulted in the defeat of many long-term officeholders in the 1972 election.
Smith, Robert (b. Nov. 3, 1757, Carlisle, Pennsylvania - d. Nov. 26, 1842, Baltimore, Md.), U.S. secretary of the navy (1801-09), attorney general (1805), and secretary of state (1809-11).
Smith, Sally, byname of Sarah J. Smith (b. Jan. 23, 1945, Pekin, Ill.), mayor of Juneau (2000-03).
Smith, Samuel (b. May 26, 1788, Huntington, N.Y. - d. 1872), mayor of Brooklyn (1850).
Smith, Sidney Earle (b. March 9, 1897, Port Hood, N.S. - d. March 17, 1959, Ottawa, Ont.), foreign minister of Canada (1957-59). He served with the Canadian army and the Royal Flying Corps in France in World War I. In 1934, at the age of 37, he became the youngest Canadian university president when he was named to head the University of Manitoba. In 1945 he became president of the University of Toronto. At times it appeared he might be named leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada; he was nominated for the leadership in 1942, but withdrew in favour of Premier John Bracken of Manitoba. In September 1957 he abandoned his academic career to become secretary of state for external affairs. He was elected to the House of Commons on Nov. 4, 1957, for the constituency of Hastings-Frontenac, Ont., and was reelected on March 31, 1958. He headed the Canadian delegation to the United Nations General Assembly on the Middle East crisis in August 1958. He died in office.
Smith, Stephen (Francis) (b. Dec. 12, 1955, Narrogin, Western Australia), foreign minister (2007-10) and defense minister (2010-13) of Australia. He was also minister of trade (2010).
Smith, Stephenson Percy (b. June 11, 1840, Beccles, Suffolk, England - d. April 19, 1922, New Plymouth, New Zealand), resident commissioner of Niue (1901-02).
Smith, Thomas R(ichard) (b. June 8, 1904, Blackburn, England - d. Nov. 18, 1979, Wellington, New Zealand), secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1958-63).
Smith, W(illiam) Wallace (b. Nov. 18, 1900, Lamoni, Iowa - d. Aug. 4, 1989, Independence, Mo.), president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1958-78); son of Joseph Smith III.
Smith, Wallace B(unnell) (b. July 29, 1929), president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1978-96).
Smith, Walter Bedell (b. Oct. 5, 1895, Indianapolis, Ind. - d. Aug. 6, 1961, Washington, D.C.), director of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (1950-53). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1946-49).
Walter B. Smith
Smith, Wycliffe S. (b. 1948, Saba), administrator of Saba (1983-89).
Smith-Rewse, Geoffrey Bingham Whistler, surname until 1889 Smith (b. May 16, 1878, Kalabagh, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Aug. 17, 1927, Vila, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu]), administrator of Nauru (1917-21) and British resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1924-27).
Smithers, Sir Peter (Henry Berry Otway) (b. Dec. 9, 1913, Yorkshire, England - d. June 8, 2006, Vico Morcote, Ticino, Switzerland), secretary-general of the Council of Europe (1964-69); knighted 1970. He was Conservative MP for Winchester in 1950-64.
Smole, Janko (b. June 2, 1921, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia] - d. June 11, 2010, Ljubljana), chairman of the Executive Council of Slovenia (1965-67). He was also governor of the National Bank of Yugoslavia (1958-62) and federal secretary of finance (1967-74).
Smuts, Jan (Christian), Christian also spelled Christiaan (b. May 24, 1870, Bovenplaats, near Riebeeck West, Cape Colony [now in South Africa] - d. Sept. 11, 1950, Irene, near Pretoria, South Africa), prime minister (1919-24, 1939-48), defense minister (1910-20, 1939-48), home affairs minister (1910-12), finance minister (1912-15), and justice minister (1933-39) of South Africa. In 1898 he was appointed state attorney of Transvaal. He fought in the South African (Boer) War (1899-1902) and afterwards worked with Louis Botha to achieve an alliance between Boer and British groups in South Africa. Having achieved responsible government for the Transvaal in 1907, they directed their efforts toward the unification of the South African colonies, which came in 1910. Botha became prime minister and Smuts his right-hand man. In World War I they suppressed rebellion in South Africa, conquered South West Africa, and launched a campaign in East Africa. Smuts then went to England for an imperial conference (March 1917), where British prime minister Lloyd George at once recognized his abilities and included him in the war cabinet. He organized the Royal Air Force and was concerned in all major decisions about the war. When Botha died in 1919, Smuts became prime minister. Defeated by a coalition of the Nationalist and Labour parties in 1924, he remained in opposition until 1933, when he and J.B.M. Hertzog joined forces against the more extreme nationalists. In 1939 the two split over whether South Africa should join Britain in World War II. When Smuts's view prevailed in parliament, he replaced Hertzog as prime minister and South Africa declared war on Germany. He represented South Africa at the 1945 San Francisco Conference and played a major role in drafting the Charter of the United Nations. At the 1948 general election his party was defeated by the Nationalists.
Smylie, Robert E(ben) (b. Oct. 31, 1914, Marcus, Iowa - d. July 17, 2004, Boise, Idaho), governor of Idaho (1955-67). In 1947 he became deputy to Idaho Attorney General Robert Ailshie, and he was appointed to replace Ailshie when he died later that year. Smylie was elected to a full four-year term as attorney general in 1950 and was elected governor four years later. His administration saw an increase in the minimum wage, institution of the five-day work week for state employees, an extensive highway construction program, and the establishment of the state park system. He helped moderate Republicans nationally regroup following the defeat of Barry Goldwater in the 1964 presidential election. It was Smylie's decision to embrace the imposition of a sales tax in 1965 that enabled supporters to round up the votes needed for passage. In his autobiography, he wrote that his support for the 3-cent tax was probably a major factor in his upset defeat in the Republican primary a year later to state Sen. Don Samuelson. Still he called it the most important legislative act in the state's first century, creating what policy-makers call Idaho's three-legged stool of income, property, and sales taxes. Before his failed reelection bid in 1966, Smylie had been mentioned as a possible vice presidential nominee in 1968.
Snedden, Sir Billy Mackie (b. Dec. 31, 1926, Perth, Western Australia - d. June 27, 1987, Sydney, N.S.W.), Australian politician. A member of parliament for the Melbourne constituency of Bruce (1955-83), he was attorney general (1963-66) under Sir Robert Menzies and served successive Liberal-Country Party prime ministers as minister for immigration (1966-69), minister for labour and national service (1969-71), treasurer (1971-73), and leader of the House (1966-71). As leader of the Liberal Party in opposition from December 1972, Snedden proved insufficiently combative to counter Labor Party prime minister Gough Whitlam effectively; Snedden was ousted as party leader by the more abrasive Malcolm Fraser in March 1975. Snedden was outstandingly successful as speaker (1976-83) of the House of Representatives. He was knighted in 1978.
Snegur, Mircea (Ion) (b. Jan. 17, 1940, Trifanesti village, Romania [now in Moldova]), president of Moldova (1990-97).
Snell, Lisle Denis (b. 1948?), chief minister of Norfolk Island (2013-15).
Snieckus, Antanas, Russian Antanas (Yuozovich) Snechkus (b. Jan. 7, 1903 [Dec. 25, 1902, O.S.], Bubliai, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Jan. 22, 1974, Druskininkai, Lithuanian S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Lithuanian S.S.R. (1940-74). He was also first secretary of the Communist Party of Lithuania (1936-39).
Snijders, Errol (Glenn) (b. Dec. 1, 1948, Paramaribo, Suriname), foreign minister of Suriname (1997-2000). He was labour minister in 1996-97.
Snopek, Carlos (b. Oct. 2, 1914, La Mendieta, Jujuy, Argentina - d. [car accident] June 9, 1991, near Uquia, Jujuy), governor of Jujuy (1973-76, 1983-87).
Snopek, Guillermo (Eugenio) (b. 1947 - d. [car accident] Feb. 23, 1996, San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy, Argentina), governor of Jujuy (1995-96); nephew of Carlos Snopek.
Snow, Alfred (Ernest) (b. 1898 - d. ...), British military administrator of the Channel Islands (1945).
Snow, John (William) (b. Aug. 2, 1939, Toledo, Ohio), U.S. treasury secretary (2003-06).
Snoy et d'Oppuers, Jean-Charles, in full Jean Baptiste Charles Idesbalde Julien Marie Ghislain, baron (from 1982, comte) Snoy et d'Oppuers (b. July 2, 1907, Ophain-Bois-Seigneur-Isaac, Belgium - d. May 17, 1991), finance minister of Belgium (1968-72).
Snuderl, Boris (b. June 7, 1926, Maribor, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), justice minister of Yugoslavia (1971).
Snyder, John W(esley) (b. June 21, 1895, Jonesboro, Ark. - d. Oct. 8, 1985, Seabrook Island, S.C.), U.S. government official. In 1930 he joined the field service of the comptroller of the currency of the U.S. and served with this office until 1937, when he became head of the St. Louis, Mo., agency of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. During World War II he helped organize the Defense Plant Corporation, an RFC subsidiary, and as its operational vice-president and director administered the agency's commitments of more than $10,000,000,000 to finance war plants. He was vice-president of the First National Bank of St. Louis from January 1943 to April 1945 when he became federal loan administrator. Snyder was made director of the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion July 17, 1945, and was secretary of the treasury (1946-53) in the cabinet of Pres. Harry S. Truman. He presided over the nation's booming postwar economy, celebrating a big tax cut in 1948 but then proclaiming within two years that paying for vital military needs - especially in Korea - meant "tax increases all along the line are inevitable." He was closely involved in U.S. efforts to help rebuild Europe and Japan, and he presided over reorganization of the U.S. tax agency, then known as the Internal Revenue Bureau, in the face of congressional charges of staff loafing and inefficiency.
Soalaoi, Clay Forau (b. Oct. 10, 1976), national security minister (2011-12) and foreign minister (2012-14) of the Solomon Islands. He was also justice (2006) and health (2006-07) minister.
Soames (of Fletching in the County of East Sussex), (Arthur) Christopher (John) Soames, Baron (b. Oct. 12, 1920, Sheffield Park, East Sussex, England - d. Sept. 16, 1987, North Warnborough, Hampshire, England), British politician. Member of Parliament for Bedford (1950-66), he was parliamentary private secretary (1952-55) to his father-in-law, Sir Winston Churchill (Soames had married Mary Churchill in 1947) and perhaps came closest to real power in Britain during the summer of 1953 when, unknown to the public, the prime minister was incapacitated by a stroke. Soames was secretary of state for war (1958-60) and minister of agriculture (1960-64) in Harold Macmillan's cabinet. Harold Wilson's Labour government sent him as ambassador to Paris (1968-72) to work toward Britain's entry into the European Communities (EC). During the period 1973-77 he was a vice-president of the EC Commission. Created a life peer in 1978, he was leader of the House of Lords (1979-81); soon, however, he became one of the first of a long line of traditional Tories who found themselves in conflict with the Thatcherite style of government. He was the last governor of Rhodesia (1979-80), where he ended a bitter civil war and presided over the first elections for an independent Zimbabwe.
Soares, Abilio José Osório (b. June 2, 1947, Laclubar, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste] - d. June 17, 2007), governor of Timor Timur (1992-99). Accused of failing to control civilian militias set up by Indonesia ahead of East Timor's vote for independence in 1999, he was found guilty of crimes against humanity by a special Indonesian court on Aug. 14, 2002, and was sentenced to three years in prison. He was later cleared on appeal and released after serving only four months, a move that angered rights groups.
Soares, Mário (Alberto Nobre Lopes) (b. Dec. 7, 1924, Lisbon, Portugal), president of Portugal (1986-96). Under the right-wing dictatorship he was imprisoned 12 times and twice exiled (São Tomé, 1968; Paris, 1970-74). In 1964 he and others founded the Portuguese Socialist Action, a clandestine society which in 1973 transformed into the Socialist Party (PS) with him as secretary-general. After the 1974 revolution by leftist military officers, he was foreign minister (1974-75) in provisional cabinets appointed by the military and oversaw the negotiations for the independence of Portugal's overseas colonies. He became the first constitutionally elected prime minister since the revolution (1976-78), heading first a minority Socialist government and then a coalition with the Christian Democrats and while in office negotiating Portugal's first agreement with the International Monetary Fund. In 1983 he became premier for a second time after his party's qualified success in the April general election and its establishment of a coalition with the Social Democrats. He successfully negotiated Portugal's entry into the European Communities. In 1985 the PS was decisively defeated in elections and he was succeeded as prime minister by the right-wing Aníbal Cavaco Silva. But just three months later Soares was elected president, winning 51.3% of the votes despite the formidable challenge posed by the popular conservative Diogo Freitas do Amaral. He became the first civilian head of state in 60 years. Within days of being elected he renounced his leadership of the PS and emphasized that he would be a leader of all people, regardless of their political views. He was reelected in 1991 but was constitutionally barred from seeking a third consecutive term in 1996. In 2006 he ran again, but was unsuccessful.
Soares, Rui Alberto de Figueiredo (b. Jan. 20, 1956, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde), foreign minister of Cape Verde (1999-2001).
Sobchak, Anatoly (Aleksandrovich) (b. Aug. 10, 1937, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia] - d. Feb. 20, 2000, Svetlogorsk, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia), mayor of St. Petersburg (1991-96). He did not join the Communist Party until 1988 and left it two years later. He rose to national prominence during the sessions of the U.S.S.R. Congress of People's Deputies and U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet in the spring of 1989. He headed the commission looking into the deaths of 20 demonstrators at Tbilisi, Georgia, in April 1989 and severely censured the Communist Party and the military. Now, next to Boris Yeltsin, he was the most influential Russian politician. He became chairman of the Leningrad city soviet on May 23, 1990, and was elected as the city's first mayor on June 12, 1991, winning 66% of the vote. The Soviet coup of Aug. 19, 1991, found Sobchak in Moscow consulting with Russian President Yeltsin. Helped by elements of the KGB, he flew back to Leningrad, met with the military commander Lieut.Gen. Viktor Samsonov, and dissuaded him from bringing troops into the city. On Nov. 7, 1991, the anniversary of the October Revolution, he organized a countercelebration - the official renaming of Leningrad as St. Petersburg, following a city referendum in September. Vladimir Putin became Sobchak's top aide and deputy mayor; he was seen as firmly entrenched in the reform camp under Sobchak's tutelage. Sobchak lost office in 1996 and was investigated for allegedly arranging to have his apartment upgraded and for accepting another apartment as a gift while he was mayor; a real estate company allegedly received benefits from city authorities in return. He went to France in November 1997 and returned to Russia only in the summer of 1999, when Putin became Russian prime minister.
Sobhuza II, original name Nkhotfotjeni, other names Mona, Mahagoza, Mpandla (b. July 22, 1899, Zombodze, Swaziland - d. Aug. 21, 1982, Lobzilla Palace, near Mbabane, Swaziland), paramount chief (1921-68) and king (1968-82) of Swaziland. His father, Ngwane V, died when Sobhuza was an infant, and his grandmother ruled as queen regent during his minority, while he was being educated at the Swazi National School at Zombodze and at the famous missionary-run Lovedale Institute in Cape province, South Africa. He was installed as paramount chief of the Swazi in 1921. He led his country (which had become a British protectorate in 1902) gently into the 20th century while never forsaking, but rather encouraging, the ancient tribal customs that bound his people tightly together as a cohesive nation. Bit by bit, and with long battles in the British courts, he regained for his people many of the lands that had been handed out to foreigners. Swaziland achieved full independence in September 1968 as a constitutional monarchy. In April 1973, however, Sobhuza repealed the constitution, dissolved the legislature, disbanded all political parties, and assumed supreme power to rule. A new constitution proclaimed in 1978 provided for a merely consultative parliament (Libandla). Opposition to his rule was small. With probably more than 100 wives and hundreds of children, he tied all important families to his own Dlamini clan, constituting about one-quarter of the population. His lifestyle reflected a synthesis of the old and the new African; on formal state occasions he appeared in top hat and full dress, but on most other occasions he wore his traditional regalia of scarlet silk loincloth and feathers. He maintained strong Western ties and refused to allow Swaziland to be used as a base for guerrilla attacks against South Africa.
Sobisch (Velázquez), Jorge (Omar) (b. Jan. 16, 1943, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Neuquén (1991-95, 1999-2007).
Sobolev, Anatoly (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 10, 1940), head of the administration of Kurgan oblast (1995-96).
Sobolev, Arkady (Aleksandrovich) (b. Nov. 25, 1903, Danilkovo, Kostroma province, Russia - d. Dec. 1, 1964, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet diplomat. He was ambassador to Poland (1951-53) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1955-60).
Sobotka, Bohuslav (b. Oct. 23, 1971, Telnice, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), finance minister (2002-06) and prime minister (2014- ) of the Czech Republic.
Sobrinho, Lavoisier Maia (b. Oct. 9, 1928, Catolé da Rocha, Paraíba, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1979-83).
Sobukwe, Robert Mangaliso (b. Dec. 5, 1924, Graaff-Reinet, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. Feb. 27, 1978, Kimberley, Cape [now in Northern Cape]), South African black nationalist. He became secretary of the African National Congress (ANC) youth league and later edited The Africanist. In 1958 he left the ANC and founded the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), a black-consciousness organization which sought to eliminate apartheid in South Africa. On March 21, 1960, when he and other blacks protested the restrictive pass laws that controlled their lives, police opened fire and killed more than 60 demonstrators in what became known as the Sharpeville massacre. Sobukwe was arrested, charged with incitement to riot, and sentenced to three years in prison. When his prison term ended, authorities enacted a special law that permitted his continued detention on Robben Island for six more years. In 1969 he was sent to Kimberley where he remained under renewed banning orders, and he was denied the right to emigrate to the U.S. where he was offered teaching posts.
Sobyanin, Sergey (Semyonovich) (b. June 21, 1958), head of the administration of Tyumen oblast (2001-05) and mayor of Moscow (2010- ). In 2005-08 he was head of the Russian presidential administration and in 2008-10 he was a deputy prime minister and head of the Government Apparatus (chief of staff).
Sócrates (Carvalho Pinto de Sousa), José (b. Sept. 6, 1957, Vilar de Maçada, northeastern Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (2005-11). He was also minister of youth and sports (1997-99) and environment (1999-2002).
Sodano, Angelo Cardinal (b. Nov. 23, 1927, Isola d'Asti village, Piemonte, Italy), Vatican secretary of state (1990-2006). Since 2005 he is the dean of the College of Cardinals.
Söder, Karin (Anne-Marie), née Bergenfur (b. Nov. 30, 1928, Frykerud, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1976-78). As social welfare minister in 1979-82, she acquired a dry, puritanic image because she closed the monopoly government liquor stores on Saturdays. In 1986-87 she was leader of the Centre Party.
Sodré, Roberto Costa de Abreu (b. June 21, 1918, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Sept. 15, 1999, São Paulo), governor of São Paulo (1967-71) and foreign minister of Brazil (1986-90).
Soe Win (b. May 1949, Taunggyi, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. Oct. 12, 2007, Yangon, Myanmar), prime minister of Myanmar (2004-07).
Soedjiman (b. July 1, 1928, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia]), governor of Kalimantan Barat (1977-87).
Soekarwo (b. June 16, 1950, Madiun, Jawa Timur, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Timur (2009- ).
Soeprapto, R. (b. Aug. 12, 1924, Solo, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Sept. 26, 2009, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jakarta (1982-87).
Soeripto (b. Nov. 18, 1934 - d. Jan. 7, 2010, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Riau (1988-98).
Soetens van Roijen, Isaäc Antoni (b. March 28, 1800, Vledder, Drenthe, Batavian Republic [now Netherlands] - d. Jan. 14, 1868, Zwolle, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Groningen (1853-67).
Soewandi (b. Oct. 24, 1926, Lumajang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia]), governor of Kalimantan Timur (1983-88).
Sofiyanski, Stefan (Antonov) (b. Nov. 7, 1951, Sofia, Bulgaria), mayor of Sofia (1995-97, 1997-2005) and interim prime minister of Bulgaria (1997).
Sofwan, Masjchun (b. Sept. 7, 1927, Wlingi, Blitar, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia]), governor of Jambi (1979-89).
Sogavare, Manasseh (Damukana) (b. Jan. 17, 1955, Oro province, Papua New Guinea), finance minister (1997-98) and prime minister (2000-01, 2006-07, 2014- ) of the Solomon Islands. He was also minister of commerce, industries, and employment (2006) and leader of the opposition (2000, 2007-10).
Soglo, Christophe (b. June 28, 1909, Abomey, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. Oct. 7, 1983, Cotonou, Benin), president of Dahomey (1963-64, 1965-67).
Soglo, Nicéphore (Dieudonné) (b. Nov. 29, 1934, Lomé, Togo), prime minister (1990-91) and president (1991-96) of Benin; nephew of Christophe Soglo. He was also minister of finance (1965-66) and economic affairs and planning (1966-67). He became the country's first democratically elected president when he beat long-time Marxist military ruler Mathieu Kérékou in polls in 1991. But he was defeated by Kérékou in 1996 and again in 2001. He was elected mayor of Cotonou, the largest city and economic capital of the country, on Feb. 13, 2003 (taking office March 3).
Soglo, Saturnin (Koaovi), foreign minister of Benin (1992-93); brother of Nicéphore Soglo.
Sogoni, Mbulelo (b. Jan. 16, 1966), premier of Eastern Cape (2008-09).
Sohahong-Kombet, Jean-Pierre (b. March 26, 1935), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1981).
Soheili, Ali (b. Oct. 4, 1896 - d. May 1, 1958, London, England), foreign minister (1938-39, 1941-42) and prime minister (1942, 1943-44) of Iran. He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1950-51, 1954-58).
Soilih (Mtsashiwa), Ali (b. Jan. 7, 1937, Majunga, Madagascar - d. [killed] May 29?, 1978), president of the Comoros (1976-78).
Soini, Timo (Juhani) (b. May 30, 1962, Rauma, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (2015- ).
Sokoine, Edward Moringe (b. 1938, Monduli, Masai district, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania] - d. April 12, 1984, near Morogoro, Tanzania), prime minister of Tanzania (1977-80, 1983-84). He became a member of parliament in 1965. He was appointed minister of state in 1970 and was minister of defense in 1972-77. He then served a term as prime minister, retiring because of ill health in 1980. He was replaced by Cleopa David Msuya, but in 1983 Sokoine was recalled to take over from Msuya, reportedly because the country was on the verge of economic collapse. Sokoine instituted a campaign against black marketeering that led to widespread arrests. He was the heir apparent of Pres. Julius Nyerere, who had indicated that he would retire in 1985, but he died in an automobile accident after attending a parliamentary session in Dodoma.
Sokol, Sergey (Mikhailovich) (b. Dec. 17, 1970, Sevastopol, Ukrainian S.S.R.), acting governor of Irkutsk oblast (2009).
Sokolnikov, Grigory (Yakovlevich), original name Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant (b. Aug. 15 [Aug. 3, O.S.], 1888, Romny, Poltava province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. [killed in prison] May 21, 1939), people's commissar of finance of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1922-23) and the U.S.S.R. (1923-26). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1929-32).
Sokolov, Lazar (b. March 18, 1914, Kumanovo, Serbia [now in Macedonia] - d. 1984, Skopje, Macedonia), president of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia (1945).
Sokolov, Sergey (Leonidovich) (b. July 1, 1911, Yevpatoriya, Crimea, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Aug. 31, 2012, Moscow, Russia), Soviet defense minister (1984-87). He joined the army in 1932. Two years later he became a member of the tank corps in the Far East, and in 1937 he joined the Communist Party. During a 50-year military career he served in the Far East as commander of a special battalion of tank troops and in Europe as chief commander of the tank and mechanized troops of the 32nd Army. He survived Iosif Stalin's purges of the Red Army and steadily rose through the military ranks; his specialized training in tanks and mechanized armour at military academies was regarded as an attractive asset to his career. In 1960 he was named chief of the Moscow military district, and four years later he was made first deputy commander of the Leningrad military district. In 1965 he was made commander of the district, with the rank of colonel. As longtime deputy minister of defense (1967-84) he made at least 23 trips abroad, presumably to sell Soviet arms to the third world, and from 1979 he was believed to have overseen the Soviet offensive in Afghanistan. He was made a marshal of the Soviet Union in 1978. After a flurry of mistaken speculation that Grigory Romanov would succeed Marshal Dmitry Ustinov as defense minister, Sokolov was named to that post on Dec. 22, 1984. He was viewed as a tractable personality who would not disturb the delicate balance within the party leadership. His appointment also restored the tradition of naming a military man to the post, a custom that was broken in 1976 when Ustinov was appointed defense minister. Sokolov was dismissed in 1987 after he failed to prevent Mathias Rust, a 19-year-old West German, from landing in Red Square in his Cessna 172 light aircraft.
Sokolov, Yefrem (Yevseyevich) (b. April 25, 1926, Revyachino, Belorussian S.S.R. [now in Mahilyow voblast, Belarus]), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Belorussian S.S.R. (1987-90). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Brest oblast (1977-87).
Sokolovic, Zoran (b. 1938, Lepena, near Knjazevac, eastern Serbia, Yugoslavia - found dead Feb. 6, 2001, Lepena), interior minister of Serbia (1991-97) and of Yugoslavia (1997-2000). Throughout the 1990s, he was considered one of Slobodan Milosevic's closest associates. When Milosevic's government and power pyramid crumbled in October 2000, Sokolovic fell out of the public's eye. Police said he "most likely committed suicide with a pistol."
Sokomanu, Ati George, original name George Kalkoa (b. Jan. 13, 1937), president of Vanuatu (1980-84, 1984-89). He was secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission in 1993-96.
Soksok (Malsevsani), Vital, foreign minister of Vanuatu (1997-98).
Solá, Felipe (b. July 23, 1950, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Buenos Aires (2002-07).
Sola, René de (b. 1919, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1958-59). He was also justice minister (1958).
Solana Madariaga, Javier (b. July 14, 1942, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. He joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in 1964, when it was an underground operation during the rule of fascist dictator Francisco Franco. He became a member of parliament in 1977, two years after Franco's death. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, he and other Socialist leaders marched against U.S. military bases in Spain and, when Spain joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1982, called for a referendum to reverse that move. Later that year, the Socialists came to power and he was appointed minister for culture. In 1985 he took over the additional post of government spokesman. The Socialists' position on NATO changed completely, and he supported endorsement of Spain's membership in a referendum held in 1986. He became minister for education and science in 1988 and foreign minister in 1992. In 1995, after the resignation of NATO Secretary-General Willy Claes, Solana became a compromise choice for the post. The former vocal opponent of NATO said his early attitudes were influenced by his student years in the U.S. during the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement. He took over at the time that NATO led 60,000 troops into Bosnia to implement the Dayton peace agreement. He saw NATO through its first enlargement since 1982, admitting Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic in March 1999. The same month NATO began a bombing campaign against Serbia, and he was lauded for maintaining a consensus in the North Atlantic Council as to the conduct of the campaign. In October 1999 he began his new job as the European Union's first High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, in addition becoming secretary-general of the Western European Union in November; he held both posts until 2009.
Solana Morales, Fernando (b. Feb. 8, 1931, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1988-93); nephew of Guillermo Morales Blumenkron. He was also minister of commerce (1976-77) and education (1977-82, 1993-94).
Solanki, Kaptan Singh (b. July 1, 1939, Garhpara, Bhind district, Central Provinces and Berar [now Madhya Pradesh], India), governor of Haryana (2014- ) and Punjab (2015- ).
Solanki, Madhavsinh (b. July 29, 1927, Piludra, Bharuch district, Bombay province [now in Gujarat state], India), chief minister of Gujarat (1976-77, 1980-85, 1989-90) and foreign minister of India (1991-92). He was also Indian minister of planning and programme implementation (1988-89).
Solano López, Miguel (d. Dec. 14, 1976), Paraguayan diplomat. He was permanent delegate to the United Nations (1965-72) and ambassador to the United States (1973-76) and Haiti (1974-76).
Solari (de la Fuente), Luis (María Santiago Eduardo) (b. Jan. 28, 1948, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2002-03). He was also minister of health (2001-02).
Solberg, Erna (b. Feb. 24, 1961, Bergen, Norway), prime minister of Norway (2013- ). She was also minister of local government and regional development (2001-05). In 2004 she became leader of the Conservative Party.
Solbes (Mira), Pedro (b. Aug. 31, 1942, Pinoso, Alicante province, Spain), finance minister of Spain (2004-09). He was previously an EU commissioner (1999-2004).
Soler (Jovellanos), Adolfo Rufo (b. 1869 - d. December 1925, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister of Paraguay (1906). He was also minister to Argentina and Uruguay (1911-12).
Soler (Queirolo), Miguel Ángel, foreign minister of Paraguay (1946-47). He was also minister to Argentina (1936-37).
Soler i Cladera, Cristòfol (b. Dec. 26, 1956, Inca, Baleares, Spain), president of the government of Baleares (1995-96).
Solf y Muro, Alfredo (Federico) (b. March 15, 1872, Lambayeque, Peru - d. Aug. 14, 1969, Lima, Peru), prime minister and foreign minister of Peru (1939-44). He was also minister of justice and education (1913) and finance and commerce (1933).
Solh, Riad Bey al-, Arabic Riyyad al-Sulh (b. 1894 - d. [assassinated] July 16, 1951, Amman, Jordan), prime minister of Lebanon (1943-45, 1946-51). He was also minister of the interior and supply (1944-45).
Solh, Takieddin (Mounah) al-, also spelled Takieddine El Solh, Arabic Taqi al-Din (Muna) al-Sulh (b. 1909, Saida, Lebanon - d. Nov. 27, 1988, Paris, France), interior minister (1964-65), prime minister (1973-74, 1980), and finance minister (1973-74) of Lebanon; cousin of Riad al-Solh.
Soliana, George (Albert) (b. 1950, Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles), administrator of Bonaire (1986-92).
Solihin Gautama Purwanegara (b. July 21, 1926, Tasikmalaya, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia]), governor of Jawa Barat (1970-74).
Solís (Rivera), Luis Guillermo (b. April 25, 1958, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (2014- ).
Solís Aguirre, Octaviano (b. March 22, 1890, Puebla, Mexico - d. 19...), governor of Quintana Roo (1918-21).
Solís (y) Folch de Cardona, José (Manuel Becerra Ventura), duque de Montellano (b. Feb. 4, 1716, Madrid, Spain - d. April 27, 1770, Bogotá, New Granada [now in Colombia]), viceroy of New Granada (1753-61).
Solís Palma, Manuel (b. Dec. 3, 1917, Los Santos province, Panama - d. Nov. 6, 2009, Panama City, Panama), acting president of Panama (1988-89). He was also minister of education (1963-64, 1984-88).
Soljic, Vladimir (b. 1943), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1997).
Solomentsev, Mikhail (Sergeyevich) (b. Nov. 7, 1913, Yerilovka [now in Lipetsk oblast], Russia - d. Feb. 15, 2008, Moscow, Russia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1971-83). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Karaganda (1959-62) and Rostov (1964-66) oblasti.
Solomon, Patrick (Vincent Charles Joseph) (b. April 12, 1910, Newtown, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad - d. Aug. 26, 1997, Valsayn, Trinidad), home affairs minister (1959-64), deputy prime minister (1962-66), and foreign minister (1964-66) of Trinidad and Tobago.
Solomon, Petros (b. May 5, 1951), defense minister (1992-94) and foreign minister (1994-97) of Eritrea. He was also minister of marine resources (1997-2001). He was arrested on Sept. 18, 2001, with 10 other officials after having written in May 2001 an open letter criticizing the concentration of powers in the hands of Pres. Isaias Afewerki and calling for reforms. Officially, they were arrested for "conspiring to overthrow the government, colluding with hostile foreign powers with a view to compromising the sovereignty of the state, undermining Eritrean national security, and endangering Eritrean society and the general welfare of the people."
Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I (b. June 18, 1949), king of Bunyoro-Kitara (1994- ).
Solórzano (Constantine), Carlos (b. Feb. 11, 1939, Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador), member of the Council of State of Ecuador (2000).
Solórzano (Gutiérrez), Carlos José (b. Jan. 17, 1860, Managua, Nicaragua - d. April 30, 1936, San José, Costa Rica), president of Nicaragua (1925-26).
Solossa, J(acobus) P(erviddya), byname Jaap Solossa (b. May 8, 1948, Mefkajim village, Ayamaru district, Netherlands East Indies [now in Irian Jaya Barat, Indonesia] - d. Dec. 19, 2005, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia), governor of Papua (2000-05).
Solovyov, Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) (b. June 18, 1950), head of the republic of Udmurtia (2014- ).
Solovyov, Vadim (Pavlovich) (b. March 3, 1947), head of the administration of Chelyabinsk oblast (1991-97).
Sólyom, László (b. Jan. 3, 1942, Pécs, Hungary), president of Hungary (2005-10). He was also president of the Constitutional Court (1990-98).
Somare, Sir Michael (Thomas) (b. April 9, 1936, Rabaul, East New Britain, New Guinea [now in Papua New Guinea]), prime minister (1975-80, 1982-85, 2002-11, and in opposition 2011-12) and foreign minister (1988-92, 1999, 2000, 2006) of Papua New Guinea and governor of East Sepik (1995-99, 2012- ); knighted 1990.
Somavia (Altamirano), Juan (Octavio) (b. April 21, 1941), director-general of the International Labour Organization (1999-2012).
Somchai Wongsawat (b. Aug. 31, 1947), prime minister and defense minister of Thailand (2008).
Somers, Bart(olomeus Jozef Lodewijk Rosalia) (b. May 12, 1964, Mechelen, Belgium), minister-president of Flanders (2003-04).
Sommaruga, Simonetta (b. May 14, 1960, Zug, Switzerland), justice minister (2010- ) and president (2015) of Switzerland.
Somogyi, Ferenc (b. Sept. 1, 1945, Hartkirchen, Austria), foreign minister of Hungary (2004-06). He was also ambassador to the United States (2007-09).
Somoza Debayle, Anastasio (de Jesús), byname Tachito (b. Dec. 5, 1925, León, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 17, 1980, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Nicaragua (1967-72, 1974-79); son of Anastasio Somoza García. He was prepared for power from childhood. Graduating from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1945, he returned home and rose quickly through the ranks in Nicaragua's National Guard, becoming its de facto leader by the time of his father's assassination in 1956. As president from 1967, he ruled aggressively in the manner of his father, and he continued to expand the family's fortune. He relinquished his office in 1972 but when a devastating earthquake rocked Managua in December 1972, he appointed himself president of an emergency committee with absolute power to administer financial and material aid from other countries. In 1974 he returned to the presidency under a new constitution that permitted him to rule until 1981. Violent insurrection against his rule was led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front. He crushed the Sandinistas in the late 1960s, only to see them reappear a few years later. In 1974 the rebels raided the home of a prominent government official and took hostages, including members of the Somoza family. Somoza had to free 14 political prisoners and pay a $1 million ransom for the release of the hostages. In an August 1978 Sandinista raid on Nicaragua's National Palace, 2,000 hostages were taken and released after more prisoners were freed and ransom paid. Thereafter fighting intensified until the entire nation was swept up in the civil war which finally forced Somoza to resign in July 1979. Somoza, who reportedly got $100 million out of the country, fled first to Miami, Fla., then to The Bahamas, and finally to Paraguay, where he was assassinated.
A. Somoza D.
Somoza Debayle, Luis (Anastasio) (b. Nov. 18, 1922, León, Nicaragua - d. April 13, 1967, Managua, Nicaragua), president of Nicaragua (1956-63). After his father, Pres. Anastasio Somoza García, was shot in an assassination attempt on Sept. 21, 1956, Luis, at the time president of the Chamber of Deputies and, by monthly turn, president of the Congress, was elected by the Congress as acting president on September 28 to serve during the president's incapacity. His father died the following day at 5:05; at 11:00 the Congress elected Luis president of the republic, to serve until the end of his father's term on May 1, 1957. He later won election to his own term of office (1957-63), during which he extended the family's business interests and, by most accounts, ruled more gently than had his father. After he refused to run for a second term, the presidency was held by politicians favourable to the Somoza family, and in 1967 his younger brother Anastasio Somoza Debayle became president.
Somoza García, Anastasio, byname Tacho (b. Feb. 1, 1896, San Marcos, Carazo province, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 29, 1956, Ancón, Panama Canal Zone [now in Panama]), president of Nicaragua (1937-47, 1950-56). By marrying Salvadora Debayle, a member of one of Nicaragua's wealthiest families, he ensured himself a secure political career, becoming collector of internal revenue of the department of León, then governor of León, minister of war, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Costa Rica, assistant secretary of foreign affairs, and finally minister of foreign affairs. In 1933 he became head of Nicaragua's army, the National Guard. With this force at his disposal, he deposed the elected president, Juan Bautista Sacasa, in June 1936, then had himself elected in December. In 1947 he permitted an election in which his candidate, Leonardo Argüello, was chosen president; but Argüello seemed to be under misapprehension as to who was in control of Nicaragua and when he tried to act without consulting Somoza, he was overthrown and Somoza installed one of his own aged uncles, Víctor M. Román y Reyes. After the latter's death in 1950, Somoza made his position again official by having himself elected to a new six-year presidential term. His administration made Nicaragua less dependent on banana income, but on the whole he ruled the country like a feudal fief, so that some called it "Somoza's plantation"; he personally owned large areas of land and many businesses and amassed a considerable fortune. Most of his political opponents were exiled. He was nominated for another presidential term on Sept. 21, 1956. That night he was shot in León by 27-year-old Rigoberto López Pérez; he died eight days later. The Somoza family went on to rule Nicaragua until 1979.
A. Somoza G.
Sompong Amornwiwat (b. July 3, 1941, Bangkok, Thailand), foreign minister of Thailand (2008). He was justice minister earlier in 2008.
Somsanith, Prince (b. April 19, 1913, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. 1975), interior minister (1945, 1959-60), finance minister (1949), prime minister (1960), and president of the National Assembly (1961-63) of Laos.
Somveille, Pierre (b. Nov. 12, 1921, Hiersac, Charente, France - d. July 29, 2009), prefect of police of Paris (1976-81). He was also prefect of Bouches-du-Rhône département (1974-76, 1981-86).
Son Sann (b. Oct. 5, 1911, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Dec. 19, 2000, Paris, France), Cambodian politician. He began his public service in 1935 as governor of the northwestern province of Battambang. He founded the Democratic Party in 1947 and was finance minister (1947, 1948, 1958, 1961-62) and foreign minister (1950-51, 1958-60). He created the National Bank of Cambodia in 1955 and was its governor until 1966. He served as prime minister in 1967-68 under Head of State Norodom Sihanouk. When Sihanouk was ousted in a republican coup d'etat in 1970, Son Sann went into exile. He tried unsuccessfully to reconcile Sihanouk with the republican regime as it fought against a takeover by the communist Khmer Rouge. He moved to Paris after the Khmer Rouge government of Pol Pot took power in 1975. He helped found a guerrilla resistance force, the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF), in 1979 at the Thai-Cambodian border. The U.S.-backed KPNLF, together with the Khmer Rouge and Sihanouk's royalists, battled a Vietnamese army of occupation and the Hanoi-backed government in Phnom Penh until a 1991 peace treaty officially ended the Cambodian conflict. He then served in the UN-sponsored Supreme National Council that guided the nation until 1993 elections. His Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP) won 10 seats in those elections and it joined the coalition set up by Norodom Ranariddh and the leader of the former government, Hun Sen. He was chairman of the National Assembly in June-October 1993. He gave up his seat in the Assembly in 1997 and resigned as president of the BLDP in 1998 when he was appointed by King Norodom Sihanouk to sit on the Constitutional Council, the supreme body for ensuring the rule of law and judging constitutional disagreements.
Son Sen (b. June 12, 1930, Tra Vinh province, Cochinchina [now in Vietnam] - d. June 10, 1997, Anlong Veng, Cambodia), Cambodian political figure. He was one of the young Cambodian radicals, including Saloth Sar (later known as Pol Pot), who were students in France in the 1950s and later founded the movement that became known as the Khmer Rouge. Son Sen returned to Cambodia in 1956 and became closely involved in the growing communist movement. As a military commander, he oversaw the capture of Phnom Penh in April 1975. He was one of three members of the central committee. As defense minister during the Khmer Rouge's rule in 1975-79, he had overall responsibility for internal security and oversaw the gruesome purges of "enemies of the state." He was in charge of Tuol Sleng prison, where thousands of people were tormented before being put to death. After Vietnam overthrew the Khmer Rouge in 1979, they returned to the jungle. In 1991, the warring factions signed a peace accord, and Son Sen became part of the Supreme National Council during the United Nations' peacekeeping operations that led to democratic elections in 1993. From July to December 1992, he temporarily lost the title of "defense minister" when his comrades suspected him of disloyalty for opposing the movement's decision to boycott the polls. He appeared to have been rehabilitated, and remained with Pol Pot, Khieu Samphan, and other hardline members following a schism in 1996 in which Ieng Sary, another longtime leader, led some 10,000 guerrillas to defect to the government, militarily crippling the movement. Further factional infighting, however, led to Son Sen's execution (along with his wife Yun Yat, former minister of information and culture) by Pol Pot's loyalists; Pol Pot was himself arrested soon after.
Sonatane Tu'a(kinamolahi) Taumoepeau Tupou, (from 2011) Lord Taumoepeau Tupou of Toula and Kotu (b. March 14, 1943 - d. Aug. 13, 2013, Nuku'alofa, Tonga), foreign minister (2004-09) and acting defense minister (2005-09) of Tonga. From 1983 to 1986 he was Tonga's high commissioner to the United Kingdom and was concurrently accredited as ambassador to Belgium, Denmark, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, the Soviet Union, the United States, the European Commission, and the European Economic Community. In December 1999 he became the kingdom's permanent representative to the United Nations, being also accredited in April 2000 as ambassador to the United States, Mexico, and Chile, and high commissioner to Canada, and in February 2004 also as ambassador to Cuba. After serving as minister, he again became permanent representative to the United Nations in 2009, also accredited to Canada, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, the United States, and Venezuela. He was made a life peer in 2011.
Sondakh, Adolf Jouke (b. June 20, 1939, Suluun village, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia]), governor of Sulawesi Utara (2000-05).
Song Jiaoren (b. April 5, 1882, Taoyuan, Hunan, China - d. March 22, 1913, Shanghai, China), Chinese revolutionary activist. He founded the Chinese Restoration Bloc (an anti-Qing-dynasty political party) in 1904 together with Huang Xing and Chen Tianhua, and then joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance a year later. He helped the revolutionary activists in the southern provinces to establish military juntas after the 1911 Wuchang Uprising. Throughout the year 1912 he devoted himself to writing China's first republican constitution and organizing a democratic parliamentary election. He reorganized the Revolutionary Alliance, renaming it Nationalist Party late in 1912. He was considered the biggest obstacle for Yuan Shikai's attempt to become a dictator and then an emperor. He was shot in the Shanghai railway station on March 20, 1913, and died two days later. It is widely believed that Premier Zhao Bingjun, a loyal supporter of Yuan Shikai, was responsible for the assassination. The direct instigator turned out to be a Shanghai police officer, Ying Kuicheng (Ying Guixin, himself assassinated in 1914).
Song Min Soon, Revised Romanization Song Min-sun (b. July 28, 1948, Jinyang, South Korea), foreign minister of South Korea (2006-08).
Song Min Soon
Song Qingling, also spelled Soong Ch'ing-ling, also known as Madame Sun Yat-sen (b. Jan. 27, 1893, Shanghai, China - d. May 29, 1981, Beijing, China), Chinese political figure. Song, who married Sun Yat-sen in 1915 after he abandoned his wife and three children, was one of three illustrious sisters who made remarkable marriages. Her elder sister, Song Ailing, wed Kong Xiangxi, a director of the Bank of China, while her younger sister, Song Meiling, married Chiang Kai-shek. During her marriage to Sun Yat-sen, she served as his secretary, chief confidant, and inseparable companion until his death in 1925. In 1927 she disrupted family unity by accusing Chiang Kai-shek of betraying her husband's "Three People's Principles," the foundation on which the Republic of China was established. For two years she lived in the Soviet Union. The rift widened when she decided to remain on the mainland when Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces fled to Taiwan in 1949. In that year she was named vice-chairman of the Central People's Government, and from then on she was engaged in state activities. When Liu Shaoqi succeeded Mao Zedong as head of state in 1959, she was named one of two vice-chairmen of the people's republic, a largely ceremonial post. She was admitted to membership in the Communist Party only a few weeks before her death and was honoured with a state funeral.
Song Xiuyan (b. October 1955, Tianjin, China), governor of Qinghai (2004-10). She was only the second female provincial governor in China (after Gu Xiulian).
Song Yo Chan (b. Feb. 13, 1918 - d. 1980), defense minister (1961), prime minister (1961-62), and foreign minister (1961) of South Korea.
Song Zheyuan (b. 1885, Leling, Shandong, China - d. April 5, 1940, Mianyang, Sichuan, China), governor of Rehe (1925-26) and chairman of the government of Shaanxi (1927-28), Chahar (1932-35), and Hebei (1935-36).
Song Ziwen (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Sung Tzu-wen, name for Western use T.V. Soong (b. Dec. 4, 1894, Shanghai, China - d. April 25, 1971, San Francisco, Calif.), finance minister (1925-31), acting premier (1930), foreign minister (1941-45), and premier (1945-47) of China and chairman of the government of Guangdong (1947-49); brother of Song Qingling. After the Nationalist defeat in 1949 he went to the U.S.
Songaila, Ringaudas Bronislovas, Russian Ringaudas-Bronislovas (Ignovich) Songayla (b. April 20, 1929, Klaipeda, Lithuania), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1981-85), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1985-87), and first secretary of the Communist Party (1987-88) of the Lithuanian S.S.R. He was also a deputy premier (1961-62), first deputy premier (1962-63), and minister of production and supply of agricultural produce (1962-63).
Sonnino, Barone Sidney (Costantino)1 (b. March 11, 1847, Pisa, Tuscany [now in Italy] - d. Nov. 24, 1922, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1906, 1909-10). Entering the diplomatic service in 1867, he left it in 1873 to devote himself to political and social studies. Elected deputy in 1880, he served for some months in 1889 as undersecretary of state for the treasury. In 1893, at a time of severe financial crisis, he was entrusted by Francesco Crispi with the portfolio of finance, and his energetic measures averted national bankruptcy; when parliament objected, he did not hesitate to impose taxes by decree. He fell from office with Crispi after the military disaster of Adowa in Ethiopia (1896). He assumed the leadership of the opposition, but after the modification of Luigi Pelloux's cabinet (May 1899) he became leader of the ministerial majority and supported the attempt to introduce a more authoritarian form of government. In 1901 he returned to the opposition. For two brief periods he served as prime minister, but his temperament was too solitary and severe to win him much support in parliament. In November 1914, three months after the outbreak of World War I, he became foreign minister in Antonio Salandra's cabinet. He negotiated first with the Central Powers, hoping for territorial concessions from Austria-Hungary. When this approach failed, he turned to the Allies. He convinced his government that Italy should join the war on their side; in May 1915 war was declared against Austria-Hungary. He remained foreign minister under Paolo Boselli (1916-17) and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (1917-19). He attended the Paris peace conference as second Italian delegate. Disappointed in his attempt to annex Yugoslav territory, he left Paris in a moment of temper. On the fall of the Orlando cabinet he retired to private life.
1 His full name often appears as Giorgio Sidney Sonnino; this is the result of a confusion with his elder brother Giorgio, also a politician.
Sonoda, Sunao (b. Dec. 11, 1913, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan - d. April 2, 1984, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1977-79, 1981). In 1938 he was drafted into the Army, then served in China and in the Pacific area during World War II, gaining distinction as a crack paratrooper and commando leader. But the war, with all its terrible death and destruction, turned Sonoda into a pacifist who never forgot that he would almost certainly have died had the war lasted five more days. He had been scheduled to fly a glider suicide mission against B-29s on Saipan on Aug. 20, 1945. In 1946 he became head of his village and the following year was elected to the House of Representatives, the lower house of the Diet (parliament). Originally a member of the conservative Democratic Party, he became a Liberal-Democrat when his party merged with the Liberals. Appointed parliamentary vice-foreign minister in 1955, he actively helped normalize relations with the U.S.S.R., but in 1960 he left his party to protest ratification of the U.S.-Japan mutual security treaty. After rejoining the party he became vice-speaker of the House (1965-67) and minister of health and welfare (1967-68, again in 1980-81). In 1976 he energetically supported Takeo Fukuda in his successful bid to become prime minister and was rewarded with the post of chief cabinet secretary (1976-77). Since becoming foreign minister on Nov. 28, 1977, he adhered to the belief that Japan should remain only lightly armed. For some 30 years Sonoda had sought reconciliation between Japan and China, so it was a great moment in his political life when in August 1978 he represented Japan in Beijing at the signing of the long-delayed Sino-Japanese treaty of peace and friendship, the final phases of which he negotiated with Deng Xiaoping.
Sonthi Boonyaratkalin, also spelled Sondhi Boonyaratglin, etc. (b. Oct. 2, 1946, Pathumthani, central Thailand), leader of the Democratic Reform Council of Thailand (2006).
Soomro, Mohammadmian (b. Aug. 19, 1950, Shikarpur, Sindh, Pakistan), governor of Sindh (2000-02) and chairman of the Senate (2003-09), prime minister (2007-08), and acting president (2008) of Pakistan.
Soong, James (name for foreign use), Wade-Giles Sung Ch'u-yü, Pinyin Song Chuyu (b. March 16, 1942, Xiangdan county, Hunan province, China), Taiwanese politician. He was governor of Taiwan province in 1993-98, becoming the first elected governor in 1994 and also the last, as the provincial government was downsized in 1998. Having been expelled from the ruling Kuomintang party in 1999, he ran as an independent in the 2000 presidential election and came second with over 36% of the vote. Shortly afterwards he founded the People First Party.
Sopé (Maautamate), Barak (Tame) (b. 1951, Port Vila, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu]), prime minister (1999-2001) and foreign minister (2004) of Vanuatu; nephew of Ati George Sokomanu. He was part of the team of historical leaders within the Vanua'aku Pati (then led by Walter Lini) which led the French-British condominium of the New Hebrides to independence as Vanuatu in 1980. Once Vanuatu's first roving ambassador, Sopé was a member of many Lini-led governments until he was sacked in May 1988, being accused of involvement in a riot in the capital. He then defected from the Vanua'aku Pati (of which he had been secretary-general since 1974) to form the Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP). In December 1988 he was appointed prime minister by President Sokomanu, but was arrested within hours as Lini refused to leave office; the following day the Supreme Court ruled that Sokomanu had acted unconstitutionally. Sopé took part in later coalition governments led by French-speaking Maxime Carlot Korman between 1993 and 1996. He was elected prime minister in 1999 following the resignation of Donald Kalpokas. His new government set a Vanuatu record regarding the number of different parties involved in forming a coalition government (MPP, National United Party, Union of Moderate Parties, Vanuatu Republican Party, and the John Frum cargo cult movement). Two former French-speaking prime ministers and once bitter foes, Maxime Carlot Korman (VRP leader) and Serge Vohor (UMP) were part of the lineup. He was jailed for fraud in July 2002 (relating to bank guarantees he had signed when he was prime minister), but only months after he began serving his three-year sentence, Pres. John Bani pardoned him on Nov. 13, 2002, citing health problems. In 2004-06 he was agriculture minister.
Sophoulis, Themistoklis (Panagioti) (b. 1860 - d. June 24, 1949), prime minister of Greece (1924, 1945-46, 1947-49). He was also general administrator of Macedonia (1914-15), minister of interior (1924), marine (1924), defense (1928-30), and public order (1946), and president of the Vouli (1917-21, 1926-28, 1930-33, 1936).
Sopoaga, Enele (Sosene) (b. Feb. 10, 1956), foreign minister (2010) and prime minister (2013- ) of Tuvalu. He earlier was ambassador to Taiwan, high commissioner to Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Samoa, and (2001-06) permanent representative to the United Nations.
Sopoanga, Saufatu (b. Feb. 22, 1952, Nukufetau atoll, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Tuvalu]), prime minister of Tuvalu (2002-04). He was also minister of communications, transport, works, and energy (2004-06).
Sorain, Dominique (b. July 31, 1955, Cauderan, Gironde, France), prefect of Réunion (2014- ). He was also prefect of the French départements of Vosges (2009-11) and Eure (2011-14).
Soren, Hemant (b. Aug. 10, 1975, Nemra, Hazaribagh district, Bihar [now in Ramgarh district, Jharkhand], India), chief minister of Jharkhand (2013-14); son of Shibu Soren.
Soren, Shibu, byname Guruji (b. Jan. 11, 1944, Nemra village, Hazaribagh district, Bihar, India), Indian politician. A tribal leader, he failed in his first attempt to enter parliament in 1977 but succeeded in 1980. In 1993 the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha party under his leadership voted against a no-confidence motion in parliament to save the Narasimha Rao government, allegedly for a price. In May 1994 his private secretary Shashi Nath Jha, who allegedly knew about the bribes, was abducted and murdered. In 1998, charges in the case were filed against Soren and others. In May 2004 Soren joined the Manmohan Singh government as coal minister. He resigned in July 2004 after an arrest warrant was issued against him for his alleged involvement in a 1975 massacre in his native place; he was arrested in August. Released on bail in September, he was re-inducted into Singh's cabinet as coal minister in November. In March 2005 he was appointed chief minister of Jharkhand, but he failed to command a majority in the assembly and had to resign after 9 days. In January 2006 he again became coal minister. In November 2006 a Delhi court found him guilty of conspiring to kidnap and murder Jha, and he resigned from the cabinet again. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in December. In August 2007 the Delhi high court overturned the conviction. He again became chief minister of Jharkhand in August 2008. After losing a by-election which he had contested to enter the state assembly, he resigned in January 2009. He became chief minister a third time in December 2009 but resigned in May 2010 when the Bharatiya Janata Party withdrew its support.
Sorhaindo, Crispin (Anselm) (b. May 23, 1931, Vieille Case, Dominica - d. Jan. 10, 2010, Roseau, Dominica), president of Dominica (1993-98). He was speaker of the House of Assembly in 1989-93.
Soria, Carlos (Ernesto) (b. March 1, 1949, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. [shooting incident] Jan. 1, 2012, General Roca, Río Negro, Argentina), governor of Río Negro (2011-12).
Soriano y Benítez de Lugo, Alfonso (b. Oct. 2, 1936, San Cristóbal de la Laguna, Tenerife, Spain), president of the Junta of Canarias (1978-79).
Sorin, Constant (Louis Sylvain) (b. July 27, 1901, Landerneau, Finistère, France - d. Jan. 20, 1970, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1940-43).
Soro, Guillaume (Kigbafori) (b. May 8, 1972, Diawala village, northern Ivory Coast), prime minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2007-12). He rose to prominence as the leader of the main students' union, FESCI, in 1995-98. His fierce opposition to the then-ruling Côte d'Ivoire Democratic Party of Pres. Henri Konan Bédié got him thrown into prison several times. When an army general, Robert Guéi, carried out the country's first-ever coup in December 1999, Soro initially emerged as one of his supporters. However he soon became disenchanted with Guéi and his junta, and threw in his lot with Alassane Ouattara, a former prime minister who like him was from the north. In the run-up to elections in 2000 the junta decreed that Ouattara was not in fact Ivorian and therefore prevented him from running. That decision, which only strengthened Soro's support for the northerner, helped fuel frustrations that broke out in the rebellion of September 2002. Soro was one of the main political leaders of the rebellion, which quickly led to Côte d'Ivoire being split in two, with rebels in control of the north and government forces in the south. After taking the leadership of the Côte d'Ivoire Patriotic Movement (MPCI), he played a leading role in negotiating the first of several abortive peace deals in January 2003. He later became part of a national reconciliation government, serving as communications minister in 2004-05. The New Forces, which brought together the main rebel groups, demanded from 2005 that Soro become prime minister; in the cabinet of Prime Minister Charles Konan Banny, he held the post of minister for reconstruction. Soro accepted an offer in January 2007 for "direct dialogue" with his former enemy Pres. Laurent Gbagbo to take the country toward a peace accord and elections. The talks led to a peace agreement in March, and Soro became prime minister. In the dispute between Gbagbo and Ouattara over the presidency following the 2010 elections, he sided with the latter and served as prime minister under him until 2012, when he was elected president of the National Assembly.
Soronics, Franz (b. July 28, 1920, Eisenstadt, Burgenland, Austria - d. May 25, 2009, Eisenstadt), interior minister of Austria (1968-70).
Sorsa, (Taisto) Kalevi (b. Dec. 21, 1930, Keuruu, Finland - d. Jan. 16, 2004, Helsinki, Finland), prime minister (1972-75, 1977-79, 1982-87) and foreign minister (1972, 1975-76, 1987-89) of Finland. He worked for the United Nations as a program specialist in UNESCO from 1959 to 1965. He was a lawmaker from 1970 to 1991, speaker of parliament in 1989-91, headed four coalition governments, and led the Social Democrats, Finland's largest party, for 12 years. After leaving parliament, he moved onto the governing board of the Bank of Finland, from which he retired in 1996.
Soru, Renato (b. Aug. 16, 1957, Sanluri, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (2004-08).
Sosa Rodríguez, Carlos (b. April 30, 1912, Caracas, Venezuela - d. June 30, 1997), president of the UN General Assembly (1963-64). He was Venezuelan ambassador to the United Kingdom (1950-52) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-66).
Sosefo Mautâmakia II (b. 186... - d. Dec. 15, 1928), king of `Uvea (1916-18).
Sotomayor y Luna, Manuel (b. Nov. 4, 1887, Quito, Ecuador - d. Oct. 16, 1949, Guayaquil, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1934). He was also minister to Chile (1932-33), Colombia (1934), Argentina and Bolivia (1935), Brazil (1938-39), and France, the U.K., and Switzerland (1939-42), ambassador to the Vatican (1944-48), and vice president (1948-49).
Soucadaux, (Jean Louis Marie) André (b. 1904 - d. 2001), governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1946-47, 1947-48) and high commissioner of French Cameroons (1950-54) and Madagascar (1954-59).
Souchon, René (b. March 12, 1943, Le Malzieu-Ville, Lozère, France), president of the Regional Council of Auvergne (2006- ).
Soudan, Eugène (Edouard César Gaëtan) (b. Dec. 4, 1880, Ronse, Belgium - d. Nov. 30, 1960, Brussels, Belgium), justice minister (1935-36, 1939-40), finance minister (1938), and foreign minister (1939) of Belgium.
Soueina, Vatma Vall Mint (b. Aug. 25, 1977, Aioun El Atrouss, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2015). She has also been minister of livestock (2015- ).
Souers, Sidney W(illiam) (b. March 30, 1892, Dayton, Ohio - d. Jan. 14, 1973), U.S. director of central intelligence (1946).
Soulbury, Herwald Ramsbotham, (1st) Viscount (b. March 6, 1887 - d. Jan. 30, 1971), governor-general of Ceylon (1949-54). He was British minister of pensions (1936-39), first commissioner of works (1939-40), and president of the Board of Education (1940-41). He was created (1st) Baron Soulbury in 1941 and viscount in 1954.
Soulouque, Faustin (Élie), also called (1849-59) Faustin I (b. Aug. 15, 1782, Petit Goâve, Haiti - d. Aug. 18, 1867, Petit Goâve), president (1847-49) and emperor (1849-59) of Haiti.
Soult, Nicolas Jean de Dieu, duc (duke) de Dalmatie (b. March 29, 1769, Saint-Amans-la-Bastide [now Saint-Amans-Soult, Tarn], France - d. Nov. 26, 1851, Saint-Amans-Soult), French military leader and political figure. He enlisted in the infantry in 1785 and on the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789) was a sergeant at Strasbourg. He was made a general of brigade for his conduct at the Battle of Fleurus (June 1794). In 1799 he was promoted general of division and ordered to proceed to Switzerland; he particularly distinguished himself in André Masséna's campaign, especially at the Battle of Zürich. He received the command of the southern part of the Kingdom of Naples (1800-02) and in 1804 was made one of the first marshals of France. He played a great part in many of the famous battles of the Grande Armée. In 1808 he was created duc de Dalmatie and sent to Spain, and he came to direct all French armies in the Peninsular War. His principal opponent was Britain's Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington), who eventually defeated him at Toulouse (April 1814), four days after Napoléon had abdicated. His political career was less creditable. During the First Restoration (1814-15) he declared himself a royalist and served as minister of war, but during the Hundred Days (1815) he again supported Napoléon, acting as his chief of staff at Waterloo. Exiled at the Second Restoration, he was recalled in 1819 and once more showed himself a royalist. Under King Louis-Philippe he presided over three ministries (1832-34, 1839-40, 1840-47); he also was minister of war (1830-34, 1840-45) and foreign minister (1839-40). He was responsible for the conquest of Algeria. In 1847 he was made marshal general of France. When Louis-Philippe was overthrown in 1848, Soult declared himself a republican.
Soum, Henry (Jules Joseph Pierre) (b. Dec. 29, 1899, Carcassonne, France - d. Aug. 24, 1983, Aix-en-Provence, France), minister of state of Monaco (1953-59). He was also prefect of the French départements of Côte-d'Or (1942-43), Doubs (1943-45), and Alpes-Maritimes (1951-53).
Soumaré, Cheikh Hadjibou (b. 1951, Dakar, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (2007-09).
Soumialot (Ete Tambwe), Gaston (Émile), original form of name Sumayili (b. March 23, 1922, Ngom village, Kasongo territory, Maniema, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Feb. 11, 2007, Kinshasa, Congo), president of the People's Republic of the Congo at Stanleyville (1965).
Soumokil, Chris(topel Robert Stephen) (or Christiaan Robbert Steven Soumokil?) (b. Oct. 13, 1905 - d. [executed] April 12, 1966, Obi island, Pulau Seribu archipelago, Maluku, Indonesia), president of the Republic of South Moluccas (1950-66).
Sounthone Pathammavong (b. 1911, Vientiane, Laos), head of government of Laos (1959-60).
Soupault, Jean-Michel (Marie René) (b. April 16, 1918 - d. Sept. 25, 1993), lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1956-58).
Souphanouvong, Prince (b. July 13, 1909, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. Jan. 9, 1995, Vientiane, Laos), president of Laos (1975-91); half-brother of Souvanna Phouma. He was a son of Prince Boun Khong, viceroy of Luang Prabang. Opposing the reimposition of French rule after World War II, he joined the nationalist provisional government in Vientiane as defense minister and in 1947-48 served as foreign minister of the Lao Issara ("Free Lao") government-in-exile in Bangkok. He was expelled from the Lao Issara in 1949 because of his decision to ally with the Viet Minh, who helped form the Communist-oriented Pathet Lao ("Lao Nation") in 1950. He was elected its president, although Kaysone Phomvihane and Nouhak Phoumsavan were generally believed to have more power. With North Vietnamese aid, Pathet Lao forces launched major activities in Laos in 1953. A political settlement in 1957 created a coalition government under Souvanna Phouma with Souphanouvong as minister of planning. The settlement lasted only until 1958 when a rightist government took power and fighting erupted again. He was clamped under house arrest, but escaped a year later with 15 followers and returned to the jungle. In 1962 he joined another coalition government set up by Souvanna Phouma, but that too collapsed within a year; he escaped to northern provinces administered by the Pathet Lao and its political wing, the Neo Lao Hak Xat, and resumed the military struggle. In 1974 he returned to Vientiane to head the National Political Council. The Pathet Lao soon gained control and, when a republic was proclaimed in late 1975, he became president (ceremonial head of state) and served on the Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. In 1986 Phoumi Vongvichit took over the duties of the presidency from the ailing Souphanouvong, who nevertheless was nominal president until 1991.
Sourdille, Jacques (b. June 19, 1922, Nantes, France - d. July 9, 1996, Paris, France), president of the Regional Council of Champagne-Ardenne (1974-81).
Sourdis (Juliao), Evaristo (b. March 29, 1905, Sabanalarga, Atlántico, Colombia - d. Sept. 22, 1970, Barranquilla, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1950, 1953-56). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1953) and a presidential candidate (1970).
Sourrouille, Juan (Vital) (b. 1940), economy minister of Argentina (1985-89).
Sousa, João Alberto de (b. Oct. 1, 1935), acting governor of Maranhão (1990-91).
Sousa, Jerónimo (Carvalho) de (b. April 13, 1947, Pirescouxe village, Santa Iria de Azóia, Portugal), general secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party (2004- ).
Sousa, Manuel Inocêncio (b. June 22, 1951, São Vicente island, Cape Verde), foreign minister of Cape Verde (2001-02). He was also minister of infrastructure and transport (2002-11).
Sousa, Óscar (Aguiar Sacramento e) (b. Sept. 8, 1951, São Tomé), defense and interior minister (2003-08) and foreign minister (2004, 2006) of São Tomé and Príncipe.
Sousa Franco, António (Luciano Pacheco de) (b. Sept. 21, 1942, Lisbon, Portugal - d. June 9, 2004, Matosinhos, Portugal), finance minister of Portugal (1979-80, 1995-99).
Soustelle, Jacques (Émile) (b. Feb. 3, 1912, Montpellier, France - d. Aug. 7, 1990, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), French politician. After the fall of France in 1940, he joined the Free French forces of Gen. Charles de Gaulle in London and was commissioner of information (1942-43). A member of the Constituent Assembly of 1945-46, he was minister of information (1945) and of colonies (1945-46). He was secretary-general of de Gaulle's Rally of the French People (1947-51) and led the party in the National Assembly after his election in 1951. Appointed governor-general of Algeria in 1955, he was soon regarded as the principal spokesman of the French community there, favouring the economic and political integration of Algeria with France. He was recalled in 1956. As leader of the Gaullists in the National Assembly in 1956-58, he caused the downfall of three governments by his intensive attacks on their Algerian policies. In May 1958 he returned to Algeria and became a leader of the rebel Committee of Public Safety. With the rebels and other sectors of French society, he helped force the resignation of Premier Pierre Pflimlin and his replacement by de Gaulle. He became minister of information in July 1958 and, after de Gaulle's election as president, minister-delegate in charge of Sahara and atomic affairs in 1959. When de Gaulle made clear his intention to grant independence to Algeria, he left the government in 1960 and went into exile in 1961. In 1962 a warrant was placed for his arrest on grounds of plotting against the state in league with a banned terrorist group. He returned to France under a general amnesty in 1968. He served again in the National Assembly (1973-78) and on the city council of Lyon (1971-77). Also a distinguished anthropologist, he was elected to the Académie française in 1983.
Southard, Frank A(llan), Jr. (b. Jan. 17, 1907, Cleveland, Ohio - d. Nov. 25, 1989, Delray Beach, Fla.), deputy managing director (1962-74) and acting managing director (1963) of the International Monetary Fund.
Southard, Samuel L(ewis) (b. June 9, 1787, Basking Ridge, N.J. - d. June 26, 1842, Fredericksburg, Va.), U.S. secretary of the Navy (1823-29) and governor of New Jersey (1832-33).
Southorn, Sir (Wilfred) Thomas (b. Aug. 4, 1879 - d. March 15, 1957), acting governor of Hong Kong (1930, 1935, 1935) and governor of Gambia (1936-42); knighted 1933.
Southwell, (Caleb Azariah) Paul (b. July 18, 1913, Dominica - d. May 18, 1979, Castries, Saint Lucia), chief minister (1960-66) and premier (1978-79) of Saint Kitts and Nevis.
Souto, Paulo Ganem (b. Nov. 11, 1943), governor of Bahia (1995-98, 2003-07).
Souvanna Phouma, Prince (b. Oct. 7, 1901, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. Jan. 10, 1984, Vientiane, Laos), prime minister (1951-54, 1956-58, 1960, 1962-75) and foreign minister (1956-57, 1963-64, 1965-74) of Laos; brother of Prince Phetsarath; nephew of Sisavang Vong. One of 23 children of Viceroy Boun Khong, he helped set up a provisional government at the end of World War II. The return of French troops drove him into a three-year exile (1946-49). During his first term as prime minister he successfully negotiated the country's independence in 1953. In his second term he achieved, if only temporarily, one of his basic goals - formation of a "government of national union." Afterwards he became ambassador to France (1958-59). A moderate conservative and nationalist, he tried to steer a centre course between the various factions within the country and the foreign powers directly or indirectly involved in the affairs of the region. In 1960 he led the government for four months before he had to flee to Cambodia. Bitter over U.S. intervention on behalf of the Laotian rightists, he set up a new capital at Ban Khangkhai on the Plain of Jars and arranged for Soviet and Chinese aid. In 1961 and 1962 a series of meetings between Prince Souphanouvong and Prince Boun Oum led eventually to the Geneva agreement of 1962, which created a coalition government led by Souvanna Phouma. His efforts to maintain neutrality were in vain, and he came to lean more and more on the U.S., while the leftist Pathet Lao stepped up its offensive. Corruption increased in Laos, as did U.S. and Thai influence. As the U.S. withdrew from the region, he led a final coalition in 1974-75. After the Communists took over in Saigon, the Pathet Lao quickly established itself in Vientiane, and Souvanna Phouma was retired with the nominal title of government adviser.
Souvannarath, Prince (b. July 8, 1893, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. June 23, 1960, Vientiane, Laos), prime minister of Laos (1947-48).
Souville, (Alexandre) Joseph (François) Chalvet, baron de (b. bf. 1753, Saint-Marcellin [now in Isère département], France - d. bf. 1810), governor of Île Bourbon (1781-85).
Souza, José Augusto Amaral de (b. Aug. 21, 1929, Palmeira das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. June 13, 2012, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1979-83).
Souza, Paul-Émile de (b. 1930? - d. June 17, 1999), chairman of the Directory of Dahomey (1969-70).
P.-É. de Souza
Sovmen, Khazret (Medzhidovich) (b. May 1, 1937), president of Adygeya (2002-07).
Søvndal, Villy (b. April 4, 1952, Linde, Struer municipality, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (2011-13). He was leader of the Socialist People's Party in 2005-12.
Sow, Abdoulaye Sékou (b. 1931, Bamako, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. May 27, 2013, Bamako), defense minister (1992-93) and prime minister (1993-94) of Mali.
Sow, Sadio Lamine (b. Aug. 9, 1952, Kayes, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (2012).
Sow, Sy Kadiatou (b. March 7, 1955, Nioro du Sahel, western French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (1994). She was also minister of urban development and housing (1994-2000).
Soyer, Ferdi Sabit (b. 1952, Nicosia, Cyprus), prime minister of North Cyprus (2005-09). He was also minister of agriculture, natural resources, and energy (1994-95).
Soysa, Gamini Vijith Vijithamuni, chief minister of Uva (2004-09). He was also Sri Lankan minister of wildlife resources conservation (2013-15).
Spaak, Paul-Henri (Charles) (b. Jan. 25, 1899, Schaerbeek [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium - d. July 31, 1972, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium), Belgian statesman; nephew of Paul Emile Janson. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a Socialist in 1932, he became minister of transport, posts, and telegraphs (1935-36) and then foreign minister (1936-39). He conducted the negotiations to release Belgium from the Pact of Locarno, believing that Belgium could remain neutral in the event of war between Germany and the Western Powers. He became Belgium's first Socialist prime minister (1938-39) and after an interval of some months again served as foreign minister (1939-49). He went into exile with the government in 1940. In London in September 1944 (just before his return to Belgium), he laid the foundation for the Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) customs union, which took effect in 1948. Having helped draft the United Nations Charter in 1945, he served as president of the first UN General Assembly in 1946. He became prime minister a second time (1947-49), heading a Social Christian-Socialist coalition government. In 1948 woman suffrage was introduced and in 1949 he signed the North Atlantic Treaty. In 1950 he took part in the political outcry that led to the abdication of King Léopold III in 1951. He became president of the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe in 1951 and of the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. He served again as foreign minister in 1954-57 and played a leading role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Rome (March 1957), which created the European Economic Community. After serving as NATO secretary-general (1957-61), he returned to Belgian politics as leader of the Socialist Party and became deputy premier and foreign minister (1961-66). He retired from public life in 1966.
Spadafora (Franco), Hugo (b. September 1940, Chitré, Panama - d. Sept. 13, 1985, Chiriquí province, Panama), Panamanian politician. In February 1966 he joined the Portuguese Guinea (Guinea-Bissau) independence movement as a volunteer physician. In 1967 he returned to Panama, and he served as vice minister of health in the government of Omar Torrijos in the 1970s. He joined Edén Pastora Gómez in recruiting more than 300 Panamanians to help overthrow Anastasio Somoza Debayle, the Nicaraguan dictator, in 1979. After joining Pastora again (1982) to fight against the Sandinista government they had helped put in power, Spadafora left to become an adviser to Miskito Indian rebels in Costa Rica. In 1985 he spoke of his hopes of overthrowing Gen. Manuel Noriega and freeing his country of army domination, accusing Noriega of being a narcotics trafficker who had corrupted Panama. On Sept. 13, 1985, he tried to slip into Panama from Costa Rica. His decapitated body was found the next day.
Spadafora (Franco), Winston (b. Dec. 22, 1941, Chitré, Panama), interior minister of Panama (1999-2001); brother of Hugo Spadafora.
Spadolini, Giovanni (b. June 21, 1925, Florence, Italy - d. Aug. 4, 1994, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1981-82). Before entering politics, he was editor of the Corriere della Sera, Italy's leading newspaper. He was elected to the Senate as an independent on the Republican Party list in 1972 and became minister of cultural heritage and environment (1974-76) and of education (March-August 1979) before succeeding Ugo La Malfa as leader of the small but influential Republican Party (1979-87). In June 1981, after a scandal involving a powerful Freemasons lodge known as Propaganda Due (P2) had brought down the previous government, Spadolini put together a five-party coalition and became the first non-Christian Democrat prime minister since World War II. He resigned his first government in the midst of an economic crisis in August 1982, bowing out gracefully after a power play by Socialist leader Bettino Craxi, but after a political stalemate lasting just over two weeks, he was able to cobble together another five-party coalition and remain in office until November. During his stewardship, the Italian police made great inroads in breaking the back of the left-wing Red Brigades terrorist group; police freed the U.S. NATO general James Dozier from kidnappers in early 1982. He served as defense minister in 1983-87 and was elected speaker of the Senate in 1987. Spadolini, who was named a senator-for-life in 1991 and was acting president in 1992, was not implicated in the political scandals that brought down most of the old guard of Italian politics in the early 1990s, and came close to being reelected as speaker in April 1994, losing by one vote to a member of Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia party.
Spalajkovic, Miroslav (J.) (b. April 18 [April 6, O.S.], 1869, Kragujevac, Serbia - d. February 1951, Paris, France), acting foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1920). He was also Serbian/Yugoslav minister to Bulgaria (1911-13), Russia (1913-17), Italy (1920-24), and France (1924-35).
Spano, Salvator Angelo (b. Aug. 21, 1925, Villacidro, Sardegna, Italy - d. Jan. 30, 2004), president of Sardegna (1972).
Spanta, Rangin Dadfar (b. 1954, Karokh district, Herat province, Afghanistan), foreign minister of Afghanistan (2006-10).
Spåre, Knut (Robert Carl) Walfrid (b. March 4, 1831, Helsinki, Finland - d. July 3, 1903, Helsinki), governor of Mikkeli (1891-99).
Spatafora, Marcello (b. July 30, 1941, Innsbruck, Germany [now in Austria]), Italian diplomat. He was ambassador to Malaysia (1980-86), Malta (1986-89), Australia (1993-97), and Albania (1997-99) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-08).
Spedding, Sir David (Rolland) (b. March 7, 1943 - d. June 13, 2001), British spy chief. He was recruited into the Secret Intelligence Service (long known to thriller readers and the general public as MI6) in 1967. His postings took him to Lebanon, Chile, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan. In Chile, which was his only posting outside the Middle East, he was second secretary at the British embassy from 1972 to 1974, a post that was then a prime cover position for spies. There was speculation that he would have been aware of a U.S. plot against the elected socialist government of Salvador Allende. In 1994 he was appointed to head the MI6, whose very existence the Foreign Office did not publicly acknowledge until that year. He was the youngest head of the agency since its founding in 1909. An expert in Middle East terrorism, he was the first MI6 chief not to be a Soviet specialist, reflecting the post-Cold War shift of emphasis in the espionage agency. Spedding, like his predecessors, was known in government circles as "C," for Chief, the inspiration for "M," the creation of James Bond author Ian Fleming. Sir David invited Dame Judi Dench to MI6's Christmas lunch in 1998, after the actress, who has played "M" in recent 007 movies, expressed an interest in learning more about her real-life counterpart. Traditionally, "C" writes memos in green ink, and is the only member of the service who is allowed to do so. "C" is also the only MI6 member whose identity is made public, but Spedding discouraged the taking of his photograph. Spedding, who was knighted in 1996, left office in 1999.
Speekenbrink, Antonius Bernardus (b. 1905, Breda, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. 1978), governor of the Netherlands Antilles (1957-61).
Speer, (Berthold Konrad Hermann) Albert (b. March 19, 1905, Mannheim, Baden [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. Sept. 1, 1981, London, England), German politician. Enthralled by Adolf Hitler after hearing him speak in Berlin in late 1930, he joined the Nazi Party in January 1931 and, after Hitler became chancellor, impressed the latter by his organizational talent and in 1934 became his chief architect. Among his early projects was the design of the parade grounds, searchlights, and banners of the spectacular Nürnberg party congress of 1934 (filmed by Leni Riefenstahl in Triumph of the Will), party headquarters in Munich, and the chancellery in Berlin. Grandiose plans to rebuild the whole of Berlin were cut short by the beginning of the war in 1939. He became a personal friend of Hitler, who mesmerized his young protégé and in 1942 appointed him to succeed Fritz Todt as minister of armaments and munitions (from 1943 minister of armaments and war production). Utilizing conscript and slave labour, he kept war production going despite Allied air raids, even raising production from 1942 to 1944; some experts said his effectiveness might have extended the war by two years. He also showed remarkable foresight by encouraging the production of synthetic substitutes for oil. But Speer was also one of the first to foresee Germany's defeat and opposed Hitler's scorched-earth policies near the end of the war. After the war he was arrested (May 23, 1945) and tried at Nürnberg. Alone among the 23 leading Nazis at the trial, he pleaded guilty. Given a 20-year sentence, he was released from Spandau prison, West Berlin, in 1966. He died while in London for a television interview.
Spegelj, Martin (b. Nov. 11, 1927, Stari Gradac, near Virovitica, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. May 11, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia), defense minister of Croatia (1990-91).
Speight, George, Fijian name Ilikini Naitini (b. 1955?, Fiji), Fijian coup leader. He was the son of an opposition MP, Sam Speight, who was a senior member in the government of 1987 coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka. A "part-European," Sam Speight became a "born-again Fijian" after the 1987 coup and legally changed his name to Savenaca Tokainavo. Rabuka's government lost power in 1999 when ethnic Indian Mahendra Chaudhry won a landslide election victory. George Speight's business interests suffered following the 1999 election. Chaudhry sacked him as chairman of two Fijian firms involved in the country's lucrative timber trade; he had been appointed to both posts by the previous government. Speight was also a key player in an American company which lost a bid to harvest Fiji's mahogany forests. On May 19, 2000, with the aim of instituting supremacy for indigenous Fijians, Speight led a group of armed men in seizing the parliament complex in Suva and kept Prime Minister Chaudhry, most members of his cabinet, and others as hostages. An agreement between his group and the military ended the standoff on July 13. He was arrested July 26. In September 2001, running his campaign from a prison island where he was awaiting trial for treason, he was elected to parliament from Tailevu North, a stronghold of his support during the rebellion. As he was still held in prison, he was unable to attend parliamentary sessions, and in December he was expelled from parliament because of this absence. He was convicted on a charge of treason on Feb. 18, 2002; a sentence of death by hanging was immediately commuted by Pres. Josefa Iloilo to life imprisonment.
Speight, Sir Graham (Davies) (b. July 21, 1921, Auckland, New Zealand - d. July 17, 2008, Auckland), acting queen's representative of the Cook Islands (1984). He was chief justice in 1982-88.
Spellings, Margaret (LaMontagne), née Dudar (b. Nov. 30, 1957, Ann Arbor, Mich.), U.S. education secretary (2005-09).
Spénale, Georges (b. Nov. 29, 1913, Carcassonne, Aude, France - d. Aug. 20, 1983, Paris), commissioner (1957-58) and high commissioner (1958-60) of French Togo and president of the European Parliament (1975-77).
Spence, Floyd (Davidson) (b. April 9, 1928, Columbia, S.C. - d. Aug. 16, 2001, Jackson, Miss.), U.S. politician. He began his political career in 1956 as a Democrat, in the South Carolina House of Representatives, where he served until 1962 when he switched parties to become a Republican. In 1966 he was elected to the state senate and served as minority leader until 1970. That year he was first elected to the U.S. House, where he was chairman of the Armed Services Committee from January 1995 to January 2001 and was also a member of the Veterans' Affairs Committee. A strong advocate for the military throughout his congressional career, he fought against deep cuts in defense spending and base closures and was an early advocate of a U.S. missile defense system.
Spencer, (Winston Denfield) Baldwin (b. Oct. 8, 1948), prime minister (2004-14) and foreign minister (2005-14) of Antigua and Barbuda. He was also minister of national security (2004-09).
Spencer, John C(anfield) (b. Jan. 8, 1788, Hudson, N.Y. - d. May 17, 1855, Albany, N.Y.), U.S. secretary of war (1841-43) and the treasury (1843-44).
Spender, Sir Percy Claude (b. Oct. 5, 1897, Sydney, N.S.W. - d. May 3, 1985, Sydney), Australian diplomat and politician. In 1937 he was elected to the House of Representatives as an independent. He joined the United Australia Party in 1938 and was minister for the army in 1940-41 and a member of the Advisory War Council (AWC). He remained an opposition member of the AWC (1941-45) under the succeeding Labor government. When Sir Robert Menzies returned to power, Spender became minister for external affairs and territories (1949-51). He went to the U.S. as vice-president of the Japanese peace treaty conference in 1951. After conversations in Canberra with John Foster Dulles, who became U.S. secretary of state under Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower, he developed the concept of ANZUS, the security treaty involving Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. He also played a major role in the establishment of the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia, originally known as the Spender Plan. Spender, who was knighted in 1952, served as ambassador (1951-58) to the U.S. and as a member (1958-64) and president (1964-67) of the International Court of Justice at The Hague. He led the Australian delegation to the second Suez Conference in 1966.
Spéville, Jean Daniel (b. Aug. 3, 1971), chief commissioner of Rodrigues (2002-03).
Spidla, Vladimír (b. April 22, 1951, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of the Czech Republic (2002-04). He was minister of labour and social affairs and deputy prime minister in 1998-2002 and chairman of the Czech Social Democratic Party in 2001-04. In 2004-10 he was the Czech EU commissioner, responsible for employment, social affairs, and equal opportunities.
Spiljak, Mika (b. Nov. 28, 1916, Odra, near Sisak, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia] - d. May 18, 2007, Zagreb, Croatia), Yugoslav politician. He was mayor of Zagreb (1949-50), chairman of the Executive Council (1963-67) and secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists (1984-86) of Croatia, and president of the Federal Executive Council (1967-69) and of the Presidency (1983-84) of Yugoslavia.
Spindelegger, Michael (b. Dec. 21, 1959, Mödling, Austria), foreign minister (2008-13), vice chancellor (2011- ), and finance minister (2013- ) of Austria. In 2011-14 he also was chairman of the Austrian People's Party.
Spínola, António (Sebastião Ribeiro) de (b. April 11, 1910, Santo André, Estremoz, Portugal - d. Aug. 13, 1996, Lisbon, Portugal), president of Portugal (1974). Trained under Spanish dictator Gen. Francisco Franco and Hitler's Russian Front generals, he earned a reputation for toughness and valor and became Portugal's most decorated officer. A hero of the wars against independence movements in the African colonies, he became a focus for dissent within the military in February 1974, when he published a critique of the dictatorship's African policy. Months later, a group of young captains staged a coup. Tanks rolled into Lisbon and on the night of April 25, Spínola was called to the barricades to receive the old regime's surrender. With his trademark monocle, leather gloves, and riding crop, Spínola did not look the part of the rebel nor the hero of blue-jeaned revolutionaries shouting for a new Marxist state. But with Portugal threatened with anarchy and possible bloodshed, Spínola's stand for democracy and dominating personality made him the man of the hour. The military junta named him head of state. He immediately promised freedom of the press and democratic elections before the revolution's first anniversary. But in September he resigned in a power struggle and in protest against rushed attempts to dismantle the colonial empire. In March 1975, he fled to Brazil after again being implicated in a military coup, this time against the new left-wing government. After returning to Portugal in August 1976, he lived out his days outside the political spotlight, appearing only on anniversaries of the revolution to accept his cheers as a hero, his monocle still firmly in place.
Spiric, Nikola (b. Sept. 4, 1956, Drvar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister (2007-12) and finance minister (2012-15) of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Spiridonov, Yury (Alekseyevich) (b. Nov. 1, 1938, Poltavka village, Omsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Aug. 12, 2010), chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-94) and head of the republic (1994-2002) of Komi.
Spitz, Éric (b. Dec. 4, 1963, Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, France), acting high commissioner of French Polynesia (2008) and prefect of French Guiana (2013- ).
Spitz, Georges (Aimé) (b. April 7, 1881, Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France - d. 1959), governor of Martinique (1939-40).
Spitzer, Eliot (Laurence) (b. June 10, 1959, New York City), governor of New York (2007-08). As attorney general of New York (1999-2007), he uncovered crooked practices and self-dealing in the stock brokerage and insurance industries and in corporate boardrooms; he went after former New York Stock Exchange chairman Richard Grasso over his $187.5 million compensation package. Spitzer became known as the "Sheriff of Wall Street"; Time magazine named him "Crusader of the Year," and the tabloids proclaimed him "Eliot Ness," after the legendary leader of "The Untouchables," the FBI team that brought down Al Capone. Elected governor with a historic margin of victory, the Democrat vowed to stamp out corruption in New York government in the same way that he took on Wall Street executives while attorney general. He was sometimes mentioned as a potential candidate for president. But he was suddenly disgraced and resigned after he was caught on a federal wiretap arranging to meet a prostitute from a call-girl business. Spitzer, whose cases as attorney general included criminal prosecutions of prostitution rings and tourism involving prostitutes, was married with three children.
Spock, Benjamin (McLane) (b. May 2, 1903, New Haven, Conn. - d. March 15, 1998, La Jolla, Calif.), U.S. political activist. A pediatrician, he wrote the famous book on childcare now titled Dr. Spock's Baby and Child Care. It became one of the best sellers of all time - translated into 42 languages, over 50 million copies have been sold. In addition to becoming famous for his advice on babies, he became known for his political activism after he joined the protests shaking the country in the 1960s. In 1962, he warned of the possible hazards posed to children and nursing mothers by atmospheric nuclear testing. He was elected co-chairman of the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy and joined demonstrations demanding nuclear disarmament. He was also an early opponent of the Vietnam War. He wrote protest letters to the White House and, when this proved futile, joined demonstrators in the streets. In 1967 he was arrested for crossing a police line in an act of civil disobedience at an armed forces induction centre in New York. In 1968, in a highly publicized case, he was arrested and tried for conspiring to aid and abet resistance to the draft. He was convicted and sentenced to two years in prison. But a year later, a federal appeals court overturned the conviction. In 1972 he was the presidential candidate of the People's Party and got more than 75,000 votes with a platform that called for free medical care, the legalization of abortion and marijuana, a guaranteed minimum income for families, and the immediate withdrawal of all U.S. troops from foreign countries. Conservative critics branded him the "father of permissiveness," arguing that his methods of bringing up children had caused a breakdown in discipline and a collapse of conventional morality.
Spotswood, Alexander (b. 1676, Tangier, Morocco - d. June 7, 1740), governor of Virginia (1710-22); half-brother of Roger Elliott.
Sprague, Joseph (b. July 25, 1783, Leicester, Mass. - d. 1854), mayor of Brooklyn (1843-44).
Spring, Dick, byname of Richard Spring, Irish Risteard Mac An Earraigh (b. Aug. 29, 1950, Tralee, County Kerry, Ireland), deputy prime minister (1982-87, 1993-94, 1994-97) and foreign minister (1993-94, 1994-97) of Ireland. He represented the southwest coastal district of North Kerry since 1981, inheriting a seat represented by his father, Dan, since 1943. He was also minister of environment (1982-83) and energy (1983-87). In 1992 he led the Labour Party to its high-water mark, forming a coalition government with Fianna Fáil in 1992-94, then with Fine Gael in 1994-97. He lost his seat in the 2002 election.
Springer, Sir Hugh (Worrell) (b. June 22, 1913 - d. April 14, 1994), governor-general of Barbados (1984-90); knighted 1971.
Sprockel, Gerald C(ornelius) (b. Feb. 18, 1919), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1969).
Spühler, Willy (b. Jan. 31, 1902 - d. May 31, 1990), president (1963, 1968) and foreign minister (1966-70) of Switzerland.
Spychalski, Marian (b. Dec. 6, 1906, Lódz, Poland, Russian Empire - d. June 7, 1980, Warsaw, Poland), Polish politician. He joined the underground Communist Party of Poland in 1931. During World War II he was prominent in the resistance movement against the Germans. In 1945 he was appointed first deputy minister of national defense but in 1949 he was dismissed from the government and from the Central Committee of the Communist Party, and in 1950 he was imprisoned for "Titoist deviations." He was rehabilitated in 1956 and succeeded Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky as minister of defense. In 1959 Spychalski was elected a member of the Politburo. Two years later he graduated from the General Staff Academy and in 1963 Wladyslaw Gomulka made him marshal of Poland. In 1968 he left the Army and was elected chairman of the Council of State. When Gomulka was forced to resign (1970) as first secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party, Spychalski also resigned.
Squires, Sir Richard (Anderson) (b. Jan. 18, 1880, Harbour Grace, Newfoundland - d. March 26, 1940, St. John's, Newfoundland), prime minister of Newfoundland (1919-23, 1928-32). In 1907 he formed the People's Party, which became the major opposition in the 1908 election. He missed winning a seat by only five votes. The general election ended in a tie, and a new election was called for 1909. In that election, Squires was elected and the People's Party won 26 of the 36 seats. He lost his seat in the 1913 general election. In 1914 Prime Minister Sir Edward Patrick Morris appointed him minister of justice and a member of the Legislative Council. The need to encourage more volunteers in World War I called for a united legislative front and resulted, in 1917, in the formation of an all-party National Government, with Morris remaining prime minister and Squires becoming colonial secretary. When Morris resigned on Dec. 31, 1917, a new National administration was formed, with Liberal leader William Lloyd as prime minister. Squires was invited to be a member of the new administration but declined. He became leader of the Liberal Party in 1919 and effected a coalition government with the Fishermen's Protective Union. He was appointed K.C.M.G. in 1921. In 1923 dissensions within the cabinet led to the resignation of four ministers, whereupon Squires himself resigned as prime minister. The 1928 election saw him return to power. On April 5, 1932, during the Great Depression, about 10,000 demonstrators gathered outside the House. After a delegation was denied entrance to the legislature a riot ensued, and a mob forced its way into the building. Squires, in disguise, barely escaped. The House was dissolved and an election set for June 11. The government went down to defeat, and Squires himself lost his seat.
Srinagesh, Satyavant Mallannah (b. May 11, 1903, Kolhapur, India - d. Dec. 27, 1977, New Delhi, India), governor of Assam (1959-60, 1961-62), Andhra Pradesh (1962-64), and Mysore (1964-65). He was also Indian chief of army staff (1955-57).
Srivastava, Chandrika Prasad (b. July 8, 1920, Unnao, India - d. July 22, 2013, Italy), secretary-general of the International Maritime Organization (1974-89).
Srour, Saad Hayel (b. 1947, Mafraq, Transjordan [now Jordan]), interior minister of Jordan (2010-11). He was also minister of irrigation and water resources (1991) and public works and housing (1991-93) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1995-97, 2003, 2013).
Ssemogerere, Paul (Kawanga) (b. Feb. 11, 1932), foreign minister of Uganda (1988-94). He was also interior minister (1985-88) and minister of public service (1994-95). He was a presidential candidate in 1996.
Ssendaula, Emmanuel (Lujumwa), interim Katikkiro of Buganda (2007-08).