Rulers

Countries E

Contents of this page:
Ecuador - Egypt - El Salvador - Equatorial Guinea - Eritrea - Estonia - Ethiopia

East Timor: see Timor-Leste.
Easter Island: see under Chile.
Eastern Rumelia: see under Bulgaria.

Ecuador

Guayaquil

 9 Oct 1820                independence (Province of Guayaquil)
31 Jul 1822                incorporation into Great Colombia (see Colombia)

Political Chief
 9 Oct 1820 - 14 Oct 1820  José Joaquín de Olmedo             (b. 1780 - d. 1847)
Presidents of the Governing Junta
14 Oct 1820 -  8 Nov 1820  Gregorio Escobedo (provisional)
 8 Nov 1820 - 13 Jul 1822  José Joaquín de Olmedo             (s.a.)
13 Jul 1822 - 31 Jul 1822  Simón Bolívar                      (b. 1783 - d. 1830)

Cuenca

 5 Nov 1820                independence (Free Province of Cuenca)
11 Apr 1822                incorporation into Great Colombia (see Colombia)

Political Chief
 5 Nov 1820 - 15 Nov 1820  José María Vásquez de Noboa
President of the Supreme Governing Junta
15 Nov 1820 - 11 Apr 1822  José María Vásquez de Noboa

Ecuador

13 May 1830                State of the South of Colombia
22 Sep 1830                State of Ecuador (literally "State of the Equator")
 8 Aug 1835                Republic of Ecuador

Chief of State
13 May 1830 - 22 Sep 1830  Juan José Flores                   (b. 1800 - d. 1864)
                           (Head of Administration to 14 Aug 1830)
Presidents
22 Sep 1830 - 10 Sep 1834  Juan José Flores (1st time)        (s.a.)
10 Sep 1834 - 31 Jan 1839  Vicente Rocafuerte                 (b. 1783 - d. 1847)
                           (Supreme Chief of the Department of the Guayas; as such,
                           in rebellion 20 Oct 1833 - Jul 1834)
13 Jul 1834 - 18 Jan 1835    José Félix Valdivieso            (b. 1780 - d. 1856)
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
31 Jan 1839 - 18 Jun 1845  Juan José Flores (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (interim 18 Jan - 1 Apr 1843)
18 Jun 1845 -  8 Dec 1845  José Joaquín de Olmedo             (s.a.)
                           (President of the Provisional Government;
                           in rebellion from 6 Mar 1845)
 8 Dec 1845 - 15 Oct 1849  Vicente Ramón Roca                 (b. 1792 - d. 1858)
15 Oct 1849 - 10 Jun 1850  Manuel de Ascásubi (1st time)      (b. 1804 - d. 1876)
                           (acting)
   Mar 1850 -        1850    Antonio de Elizalde              (b. 1795 - d. 1862)
                             (Supreme Chief, in rebellion)
10 Jun 1850 - 17 Jul 1851  Diego Noboa y Arteta               (b. 1789 - d. 1870)
                           (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 20 Feb 1850] to 8 Dec
                           1850; interim 8 Dec 1850 - 26 Feb 1851)
17 Jul 1851 - 16 Oct 1856  José María Urvina                  (b. 1808 - d. 1891)
                           (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 13 Jul 1851] to 17 Jul
                           1852; interim 17 Jul - 6 Sep 1852)
16 Oct 1856 - 17 Sep 1859  Francisco Robles                   (b. 1811 - d. 1893)
 1 May 1859 -  4 Jun 1859    Provisional Government
                             (in rebellion)
                             - Gabriel García Moreno          (b. 1821 - d. 1875)
                               (from 25 May 1859)
                             - Manuel Gómez de la Torre       (b. 1814 - d. 1887)
                               (to 25 May 1859)
                             - José María Avilés (acting)     (b. 1816 - d. 1874)
                             - Pacífico Chiriboga             (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
 6 Jun 1859 -        1859    Jerónimo Carrión                 (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
                             (acting; in rebellion)
17 Sep 1859 - 31 Aug 1865  Gabriel García Moreno (1st time)   (s.a.)
                           (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 4 Jun 1859] to 17 Jan
                           1861; interim 17 Jan 1861 - 2 Apr 1865)
17 Sep 1859 - 24 Sep 1860    Guillermo Franco                 (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
                             (Supreme Chief of Guayas and Azuay, in rebellion)
31 Aug 1865 -  7 Sep 1865  Rafael Carvajal (acting)           (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
 7 Sep 1865 -  6 Nov 1867  Jerónimo Carrión                   (s.a.)
 6 Nov 1867 - 20 Jan 1868  Pedro José de Arteta (acting)      (b. 1797 - d. 1873)
20 Jan 1868 - 19 Jan 1869  Francisco Javier Espinosa          (b. 1815 - d. 1875)
19 Jan 1869 - 16 May 1869  Gabriel García Moreno (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (interim)
16 May 1869 - 10 Aug 1869  Manuel de Ascásubi (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting)
10 Aug 1869 -  6 Aug 1875  Gabriel García Moreno (3rd time)   (s.a.)
 6 Aug 1875 -  6 Oct 1875  Francisco Javier León (acting)     (b. 1832 - d. 1880)
 6 Oct 1875 -        1875  José Javier Eguiguren (acting)     (b. 1816 - d. 1884)
       1875 -  9 Dec 1875  Rafael Pólit                       (b. 1823 - d. 1897)
 9 Dec 1875 - 18 Dec 1876  Antonio Borrero y Cortázar         (b. 1827 - d. 1911)
19 Dec 1876 -  9 Jul 1883  Ignacio de Veintemilla             (b. 1828 - d. 1908)
                           (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 8 Sep 1876] to 26 Jan
                           1878; interim to 31 Mar 1878; then again Supreme Chief
                           from 26 Mar 1882)
   Feb 1883 - 11 Oct 1883    Eloy Alfaro (1st time)           (b. 1842 - d. 1912)
                             (Supreme Chief of Manabí and Esmeraldas, in rebellion)
 9 Jul 1883 - 11 Oct 1883  Provisional Government
                           (in rebellion from 14 Jan 1883)
                           - José María Sarasti
                           - Pedro Ignacio Lizarzaburu        (b. 1834 - d. 1902)
                           - Agustín Guerrero                 (b. 1817 - d. 1902)
                           - Luis Cordero Crespo              (b. 1833 - d. 1912)
                             (from 14 Feb 1883)
                           - Pablo Herrera                    (b. 1820 - d. 1896)
                             (to 14 Feb 1883)
                           - Rafael Pérez Pareja              (b. ... - d. 1897)
17 Sep 1883 - 11 Oct 1883    Pedro Carbo                      (b. 1813 - d. 1895)
                             (Supreme Chief of Guayas, in rebellion)
11 Oct 1883 - 15 Oct 1883  Ramón Borrero y Cortázar           (b. 1824 - d. 1894)
                           (Vice President of the National Convention)
15 Oct 1883 - 23 Nov 1883  Rafael Pérez Pareja (acting)       (s.a.)
23 Nov 1883 -  1 Jul 1888  José María Plácido Caamaño         (b. 1837 - d. 1907)
                           (interim to 10 Feb 1884)
 1 Jul 1888 - 17 Aug 1888  Pedro José Cevallos                (b. 1830 - d. 1892)
17 Aug 1888 -  1 Jul 1892  Antonio Flores                     (b. 1833 - d. 1915)
 1 Jul 1892 - 16 Apr 1895  Luis Cordero Crespo                (s.a.)
16 Apr 1895 - 23 Aug 1895  Vicente Lucio Salazar (acting)     (b. 1832 - d. 1896)
23 Aug 1895 -  1 Sep 1901  Eloy Alfaro (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                           (Supreme Chief [in rebellion from 19 Jun 1895] to 16 Apr
                           1896; interim 16 Apr 1896 - 13 Jan 1897)
 1 Sep 1901 -  1 Sep 1905  Leonidas Plaza Gutiérrez
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1865 - d. 1932)
 1 Sep 1905 - 16 Jan 1906  Lizardo García                     (b. 1842 - d. 1927)
16 Jan 1906 - 12 Aug 1911  Eloy Alfaro (3rd time)             (s.a.)
                           (Supreme Head to 9 Oct 1906; interim president
                           9 Oct 1906 - 1 Jan 1907)
12 Aug 1911 -  1 Sep 1911  Carlos Freile Zaldumbide
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1851 - d. 1926)
 1 Sep 1911 - 22 Dec 1911  Emilio Estrada                     (b. 1855 - d. 1911)
22 Dec 1911 -  6 Mar 1912  Carlos Freile Zaldumbide
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
22 Dec 1911 -    Jan 1912    Flavio E. Alfaro Santana         (b. 1866 - d. 1912)
                             (in rebellion)
30 Dec 1911 -    Jan 1912    Pedro J. Montero Maridueña       (b. 1862 - d. 1912)
                             (in rebellion)
 6 Mar 1912 - 10 Aug 1912  Francisco Andrade Marín (acting)   (b. 1841 - d. 1935)
10 Aug 1912 -  1 Sep 1912  Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1859 - d. 1951)
 1 Sep 1912 -  1 Sep 1916  Leonidas Plaza Gutiérrez
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1916 -  1 Sep 1920  Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1920 -  1 Sep 1924  José Luis Tamayo                   (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
 1 Sep 1924 -  9 Jul 1925  Gonzalo S. Córdova                 (b. 1863 - d. 1928)
 9 Jul 1925 - 10 Jul 1925  Luis Telmo Paz y Miño              (b. 1884 - d. 19...)
                           (chairman Supreme Military Junta)
10 Jul 1925 - 10 Jan 1926  Provisional Government Junta
                           - Luis Napoleón Dillon             (b. 1875 - d. 1929)
                           - Pedro Pablo Garaicoa             (b. 1874 - d. 19...)
                           - Moisés Oliva                     (b. ... - d. 1926)
                             (to 14 Jul 1925)
                           - Francisco Gómez de la Torre      (b. 1885 - d. 19...)
                             (to 24 Oct 1925)
                           - José Rafael Bustamante           (b. 1881 - d. 1961)
                             (to 22 Dec 1925)
                           - José Modesto Larrea              (b. 1890 - d. 1957)
                             (from 13 Jul 1925)
                           - Francisco J. Boloña              (b. 1882 - d. 19...)
                             (from 13 Jul 1925)
                           - Francisco Arízaga Luque          (b. 1900 - d. 1964)
                             (from 14 Jul 1925)
                           (chair rotating weekly)
10 Jan 1926 - 10 Mar 1926  Humberto Albornoz Sánchez          (b. 1894 - d. 1959)
                           (chairman Provisional Government Junta)
10 Mar 1926 -  1 Apr 1926  Julio Enrique Moreno (1st time)    (b. 1879 - d. 1952)
                           (chairman Provisional Government Junta)
 1 Apr 1926 - 24 Aug 1931  Isidro Ayora                       (b. 1879 - d. 1978)
                           (provisional to 10 Oct 1928; interim 10 Oct 1928 -
                           17 Apr 1929)
24 Aug 1931 - 15 Oct 1931  Luis A. Larrea Alba (acting)       (b. 1895 - d. 1980)
15 Oct 1931 - 27 Aug 1932  Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno
                           (3rd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
27 Aug 1932 -  2 Sep 1932  Carlos Freile Larrea (acting)      (b. 1876 - d. 1942)
 2 Sep 1932 -  5 Dec 1932  Alberto Guerrero Martínez (acting) (b. 1878 - d. 1941)
 5 Dec 1932 - 20 Oct 1933  Juan de Dios Martínez Mera         (b. 1875 - d. 1955)
20 Oct 1933 -  1 Sep 1934  Abelardo Montalvo (acting)         (b. 1876 - d. 1950)
 1 Sep 1934 - 21 Aug 1935  José María Velasco Ibarra
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1893 - d. 1979)
21 Aug 1935 - 26 Sep 1935  Antonio Pons Campuzano (acting)    (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
26 Sep 1935     (hours)    Benigno Andrade Flores
                           (chairman military junta)
26 Sep 1935 - 23 Oct 1937  Federico Páez Chiriboga            (b. 1876 - d. 1974)
                           (acting head of state to 10 Aug 1937, then interim
                           president)
23 Oct 1937 - 10 Aug 1938  Gil Alberto Enríquez Gallo         (b. 1893 - d. 1962)
                           (Supreme Head of State)
10 Aug 1938 -  2 Dec 1938  Manuel María Borrero González      (b. 1883 - d. 1975)
                           (interim)
 2 Dec 1938 - 17 Nov 1939  Aurelio Mosquera Narváez           (b. 1883 - d. 1939)
17 Nov 1939 - 11 Dec 1939  Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1893 - d. 1969)
11 Dec 1939 - 10 Aug 1940  Andrés F. Córdova Nieto (acting)   (b. 1892 - d. 1983)
10 Aug 1940 -  1 Sep 1940  Julio Enrique Moreno (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 1 Sep 1940 - 29 May 1944  Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Río
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
29 May 1944 - 31 May 1944  Julio Teodoro Salem                (b. 1909 - d. 1962)
                           (rotating chairman of the Political Bureau of Alianza
                           Democrática Ecuatoriana, in charge of the executive power)
31 May 1944 - 23 Aug 1947  José María Velasco Ibarra
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Aug 1947 -  2 Sep 1947  Carlos Mancheno Cajas (acting)     (b. 1902 - d. 1996)
 2 Sep 1947 - 16 Sep 1947  Mariano Suárez Veintimilla         (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
16 Sep 1947 - 31 Aug 1948  Carlos Julio Arosemena Tola        (b. 1888 - d. 1952)
 1 Sep 1948 - 31 Aug 1952  Galo Plaza Lasso                   (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
 1 Sep 1952 - 31 Aug 1956  José María Velasco Ibarra
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1956 - 31 Aug 1960  Camilo Ponce Enríquez              (b. 1912 - d. 1976)
 1 Sep 1960 -  7 Nov 1961  José María Velasco Ibarra
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 7 Nov 1961 - 11 Jul 1963  Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy      (b. 1919 - d. 2004)
 8 Nov 1961                  Camilo Gallegos Toledo           (b. 1895 - d. 1986)
                             (in rebellion)
11 Jul 1963 - 29 Mar 1966  Ramón Castro Jijón                 (b. 1915 - d. 1984)
                           (chairman military junta)
29 Mar 1966 - 30 Mar 1966  Telmo Vargas                       (b. 1912)
                           (Chief of Staff of Armed Forces)
30 Mar 1966 - 16 Nov 1966  Clemente Yerovi Indaburu (interim) (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
16 Nov 1966 -  1 Sep 1968  Otto Arosemena Gómez (interim)     (b. 1925 - d. 1984)
 1 Sep 1968 - 15 Feb 1972  José María Velasco Ibarra
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
15 Feb 1972 - 11 Jan 1976  Guillermo Rodríguez Lara           (b. 1923)
11 Jan 1976 - 10 Aug 1979  Alfredo Poveda Burbano             (b. 1926 - d. 1990)
                           (chairman Supreme Council)
10 Aug 1979 - 24 May 1981  Jaime Roldós Aguilera              (b. 1940 - d. 1981)
24 May 1981 - 10 Aug 1984  Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea             (b. 1939)
10 Aug 1984 - 10 Aug 1988  León Febres Cordero                (b. 1931 - d. 2008)
10 Aug 1988 - 10 Aug 1992  Rodrigo Borja Cevallos             (b. 1935)
10 Aug 1992 - 10 Aug 1996  Sixto Durán Ballén                 (b. 1921)
10 Aug 1996 -  6 Feb 1997  Abdalá Bucaram Ortiz               (b. 1952)
 6 Feb 1997 -  9 Feb 1997  Fabián Alarcón (1st time)          (b. 1947)
                           (interim)
 9 Feb 1997 - 11 Feb 1997  Rosalía Arteaga Serrano (f)        (b. 1956)
                           (acting)
11 Feb 1997 - 10 Aug 1998  Fabián Alarcón (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (interim)
10 Aug 1998 - 21 Jan 2000  Jamil Mahuad                       (b. 1949)
21 Jan 2000                Lucio Gutiérrez (1st time)         (b. 1957)
21 Jan 2000 - 22 Jan 2000  Council of State
                           - Carlos Mendoza
                           - Antonio Vargas                   (b. 1958)
                           - Carlos Solórzano                 (b. 1939)
22 Jan 2000 - 15 Jan 2003  Gustavo Noboa                      (b. 1937)
15 Jan 2003 - 20 Apr 2005  Lucio Gutiérrez (2nd time)         (s.a.)
20 Apr 2005 - 15 Jan 2007  Alfredo Palacio                    (b. 1939)
15 Jan 2007 -              Rafael Correa                      (b. 1963)

Egypt

       1517                part of Ottoman Empire
25 Jul 1798                French occupation
27 Jun 1801                British occupation
 9 Jul 1805                Muhammad `Ali dynasty informally inaugurated
 8 Jun 1867                Khediviate of Egypt (under Ottoman suzerainty)
14 Sep 1882                British occupation
18 Dec 1914                British protectorate declared
19 Dec 1914                Egyptian Sultanate
16 Mar 1922                Egyptian Kingdom
22 Dec 1936                full independence
18 Jun 1953                Republic of Egypt
22 Feb 1958                United Arab Republic (united with Syria to 28 Sep 1961)
11 Sep 1971                Arab Republic of Egypt

Walis (governors)
 9 Jul 1805 -  1 Sep 1848  Muhammad Ali Pasha (1st time)      (b. 1769 - d. 1849)
 1 Sep 1848 - 10 Nov 1848  Ibrahim Pasha                      (b. 1789 - d. 1848)
10 Nov 1848 -  2 Aug 1849  Muhammad Ali Pasha (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 2 Aug 1849 - 13 Jul 1854  Abbas Hilmi Pasha                  (b. 1813 - d. 1854)
13 Jul 1854 - 18 Jan 1863  Muhammad Said Pasha                (b. 1822 - d. 1863)
18 Jan 1863 -  8 Jun 1867  Ismail Pasha                       (b. 1830 - d. 1895)
Khedives
 8 Jun 1867 - 26 Jun 1879  Ismail Pasha                       (s.a.)
26 Jun 1879 -  7 Jan 1892  Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha              (b. 1852 - d. 1892)
 8 Jan 1892 - 19 Dec 1914  Abbas Hilmi Pasha                  (b. 1874 - d. 1944)
Sultans
19 Dec 1914 -  9 Oct 1917  Hussein Kamil                      (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
 9 Oct 1917 - 16 Mar 1922  Ahmad Fuad                         (b. 1868 - d. 1936)
Kings (title Malik Misr)
16 Mar 1922 - 28 Apr 1936  Fuad I                             (s.a.)
28 Apr 1936 - 26 Jul 1952  Faruq I                            (b. 1920 - d. 1965)
28 Apr 1936 - 29 Jul 1937    Prince Muhammad Ali              (b. 1875 - d. 1955)
                             (chairman Council of Regency)
26 Jul 1952 - 18 Jun 1953  Fuad II                            (b. 1952)
 5 Aug 1952 - 18 Jun 1953    Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim     (b. 1899 - d. 1979)
                             (chairman Council of Regency;
                             from 14 Oct 1952 sole regent)
Presidents
18 Jun 1953 - 25 Feb 1954  Muhammad Naguib (1st time)         (b. 1901 - d. 1984)
25 Feb 1954 - 27 Feb 1954  Gamal Abdel Nasser (1st time)      (b. 1918 - d. 1970)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Command Council)
27 Feb 1954 - 14 Nov 1954  Muhammad Naguib (2nd time)         (s.a.)
14 Nov 1954 - 28 Sep 1970  Gamal Abdel Nasser (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Command Council to 25 Jun 1956)
28 Sep 1970 -  6 Oct 1981  Anwar as-Sadat                     (b. 1918 - d. 1981)
                           (acting to 17 Oct 1970)
 6 Oct 1981 - 14 Oct 1981  Sufi Abu Taleb (acting)            (b. 1925 - d. 2008)
14 Oct 1981 - 11 Feb 2011  Hosni Mubarak                      (b. 1928)
11 Feb 2011 - 30 Jun 2012  Mohamed Hussein Tantawi            (b. 1935)
                           (head of Armed Forces Supreme Council)
30 Jun 2012 -  3 Jul 2013  Mohamed Morsy                      (b. 1951)
 4 Jul 2013 -              Adli Mansour (interim)             (b. 1945)

Prime ministers 28 Aug 1878 - 23 Feb 1879 Nubar Pasha (1st time) (b. 1824 - d. 1899) 10 Mar 1879 - 7 Apr 1879 Prince Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha (s.a.) 7 Apr 1879 - 18 Aug 1879 Muhammad Sharif Pasha (1st time) (b. 1826 - d. 1887) 21 Sep 1879 - 10 Sep 1881 Riyad Pasha (1st time) (b. 1836 - d. 1911) 14 Sep 1881 - 4 Feb 1882 Muhammad Sharif Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Feb 1882 - 26 May 1882 Mahmoud Sami al-Baroudi (b. 1838 - d. 1904) 18 Jun 1882 - 21 Aug 1882 Raghib Pasha Jul 1882 - 13 Sep 1882 Arabi Pasha (in rebellion) (b. 1841 - d. 1911) 21 Aug 1882 - 7 Jan 1884 Muhammad Sharif Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Jan 1884 - 9 Jun 1888 Nubar Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Jun 1888 - 12 May 1891 Riyad Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 May 1891 - 15 Jan 1893 Mustafa Fahmy Pasha (1st time) (b. 1840 - d. 1914) 15 Jan 1893 - 18 Jan 1893 Hussein Fakhri Pasha (b. 1843 - d. 1910) 18 Jan 1893 - 16 Apr 1894 Riyad Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 16 Apr 1894 - 12 Nov 1895 Nubar Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Nov 1895 - 12 Nov 1908 Mustafa Fahmy Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Nov 1908 - 21 Feb 1910 Boutros Ghali Pasha (b. 1847 - d. 1910) 23 Feb 1910 - 5 Apr 1914 Muhammad Said Pasha (1st time) (b. 1863 - d. 1928) 5 Apr 1914 - 12 Apr 1919 Hussein Rushdi Pasha (b. 1863 - d. 1928) 21 May 1919 - 19 Nov 1919 Muhammad Said Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Nov 1919 - 20 May 1920 Yusuf Wahba Pasha (b. 1865 - d. 1934) 20 May 1920 - 16 Mar 1921 Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha (1st time) (b. 1875 - d. 1938) 16 Mar 1921 - 1 Mar 1922 Adli Yegen Pasha (1st time) (b. 1864 - d. 1933) 1 Mar 1922 - 30 Nov 1922 Abdel Khalek Sarwat Pasha (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1928) 30 Nov 1922 - 15 Mar 1923 Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Mar 1923 - 26 Jan 1924 Abdel Fattah Yahya Ibrahim Pasha (1st time) (b. 1876 - d. 1951) 26 Jan 1924 - 24 Nov 1924 Saad Zaghlul Pasha (b. 1857 - d. 1927) 24 Nov 1924 - 7 Jun 1926 Ahmed Ziwar Pasha (b. 1864 - d. 1945) 7 Jun 1926 - 26 Apr 1927 Adli Yegen Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Apr 1927 - 16 Mar 1928 Abdel Khalek Sarwat Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Mar 1928 - 27 Jun 1928 Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1965) 27 Jun 1928 - 4 Oct 1929 Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha (1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1941) 4 Oct 1929 - 1 Jan 1930 Adli Yegen Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1930 - 20 Jun 1930 Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Jun 1930 - 22 Sep 1933 Ismail Sedki Pasha (1st time) (b. 1875 - d. 1950) 22 Sep 1933 - 15 Nov 1934 Abdel Fattah Yahya Ibrahim Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Nov 1934 - 30 Jan 1936 Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 30 Jan 1936 - 9 May 1936 Ali Maher Pasha (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1960) 9 May 1936 - 29 Dec 1937 Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 29 Dec 1937 - 18 Aug 1939 Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Aug 1939 - 28 Jun 1940 Ali Maher Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jun 1940 - 14 Nov 1940 Hassan Sabry Pasha (b. 1879 - d. 1940) 15 Nov 1940 - 5 Feb 1942 Hussein Sirri Pasha (1st time) (b. 1894 - d. 1960) 5 Feb 1942 - 10 Oct 1944 Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (4th time) (s.a.) 10 Oct 1944 - 24 Feb 1945 Ahmed Maher Pasha (b. 1888 - d. 1945) 26 Feb 1945 - 17 Feb 1946 Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha (1st time) (b. 1888 - d. 1948) 17 Feb 1946 - 9 Dec 1946 Ismail Sedki Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Dec 1946 - 28 Dec 1948 Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Dec 1948 - 26 Jul 1949 Ibrahim Abdel Hadi Pasha (b. 1896 - d. 1981) 26 Jul 1949 - 12 Jan 1950 Hussein Sirri Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Jan 1950 - 27 Jan 1952 Mustafa an-Nahhas Pasha (5th time) (s.a.) 27 Jan 1952 - 2 Mar 1952 Ali Maher Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 2 Mar 1952 - 2 Jul 1952 Ahmad Naguib Hilali Pasha (1st time) (b. 1891 - d. 1958) 2 Jul 1952 - 22 Jul 1952 Hussein Sirri Pasha (3rd time) (s.a.) 22 Jul 1952 - 23 Jul 1952 Ahmad Naguib Hilali Pasha (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Jul 1952 - 7 Sep 1952 Ali Maher Pasha (from 30 Jul 1952, Ali Maher) (4th time) (s.a.) 7 Sep 1952 - 25 Feb 1954 Muhammad Naguib (1st time) (s.a.) 25 Feb 1954 - 8 Mar 1954 Gamal Abdel Nasser (1st time) (s.a.) 8 Mar 1954 - 18 Apr 1954 Muhammad Naguib (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Apr 1954 - 5 Mar 1958 Gamal Abdel Nasser (2nd time) (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Egyptian Region 7 Oct 1958 - 20 Sep 1960 Nureddin Tarraf (b. 1910) 20 Sep 1960 - 16 Aug 1961 Kamaleddin Hussein (b. 1921 - d. 1999) Prime ministers 29 Sep 1962 - 2 Oct 1965 Ali Sabri (b. 1920 - d. 1991) 2 Oct 1965 - 10 Sep 1966 Zakaria Mohieddin (b. 1918 - d. 2012) 10 Sep 1966 - 19 Jun 1967 Muhammad Sedki Suleiman (b. 1919 - d. 1996) 19 Jun 1967 - 28 Sep 1970 Gamal Abdel Nasser (3rd time) (s.a.) 21 Oct 1970 - 18 Jan 1972 Mahmoud Fawzi (b. 1900 - d. 1981) 18 Jan 1972 - 26 Mar 1973 Aziz Sedki (b. 1920 - d. 2008) 26 Mar 1973 - 25 Sep 1974 Anwar as-Sadat (1st time) (s.a.) 25 Sep 1974 - 16 Apr 1975 Abdel Aziz Hegazi (b. 1923) 16 Apr 1975 - 2 Oct 1978 Mamdouh Salem (b. 1918 - d. 1988) 2 Oct 1978 - 15 May 1980 Mustafa Khalil (b. 1920 - d. 2008) 15 May 1980 - 6 Oct 1981 Anwar as-Sadat (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Oct 1981 - 2 Jan 1982 Hosni Mubarak (s.a.) 2 Jan 1982 - 5 Jun 1984 Ahmed Fuad Mohieddin (b. 1926 - d. 1984) 17 Jul 1984 - 4 Sep 1985 Kamal Hassan Ali (b. 1921 - d. 1993) 4 Sep 1985 - 10 Nov 1986 Ali Lutfi (b. 1935) 10 Nov 1986 - 4 Jan 1996 Atef Sedki (b. 1930 - d. 2005) 4 Jan 1996 - 5 Oct 1999 Kamal Ganzouri (1st time) (b. 1933) 5 Oct 1999 - 14 Jul 2004 Atef Ebeid (b. 1932) 14 Jul 2004 - 31 Jan 2011 Ahmed Nazif (b. 1952) 31 Jan 2011 - 7 Mar 2011 Ahmed Shafiq (b. 1941) 7 Mar 2011 - 7 Dec 2011 Essam Sharaf (b. 1952) 7 Dec 2011 - 2 Aug 2012 Kamal Ganzouri (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Aug 2012 - 3 Jul 2013 Hisham Qandil (b. 1962) 16 Jul 2013 - 1 Mar 2014 Hazem al-Beblawi (b. 1936) 1 Mar 2014 - Ibrahim Mahlab (b. 1949) British consuls-general 11 Sep 1883 - 6 May 1907 Sir Evelyn Baring (from 1892, Evelyn Baring, Baron Cromer; from 1899, Evelyn Baring, Viscount Cromer; from 1901, Evelyn Baring, Earl of Cromer) (b. 1841 - d. 1917) 16 May 1907 - 12 Jul 1911 Sir Eldon Gorst (b. 1861 - d. 1911) 29 Nov 1911 - 19 Dec 1914 Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Viscount Kitchener (b. 1850 - d. 1916) High commissioners 19 Dec 1914 - 9 Jan 1915 Sir Milne Cheetham (acting) (b. 1869 - d. 1938) 9 Jan 1915 - 1 Jan 1917 Sir Henry McMahon (b. 1862 - d. 1949) 1 Jan 1917 - 7 Oct 1919 Sir Reginald Wingate (b. 1861 - d. 1953) 7 Oct 1919 - 15 Jun 1925 Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, Viscount Allenby (b. 1861 - d. 1936) 20 Oct 1925 - 8 Aug 1929 Sir George Ambrose Lloyd (from 16 Nov 1925, George Ambrose Lloyd, Baron Lloyd of Dolobran) (b. 1879 - d. 1941) 8 Aug 1929 - 16 Dec 1933 Sir Percy Lyham Loraine (b. 1880 - d. 1961) 8 Jan 1934 - 22 Dec 1936 Sir Miles Wedderburn Lampson (b. 1880 - d. 1964)

El Salvador

21 Sep 1821                independence declared (Province of San Salvador, constituent
                           of the Kingdom of Guatemala which declared its independence
                           15 Sep 1821)
11 Jan 1822                the province repudiates the decision by the Guatemala junta
                           to incorporate the Kingdom of Guatemala into Mexico, and
                           declares its secession
10 Feb 1823                incorporation into Mexico
 1 Jul 1823                Central America (the former Kingdom of Guatemala) proclaims
                           its independence from Spain and Mexico; Province of San
                           Salvador is part of the newly established republic
                           (see under Guatemala)
22 Apr 1824                constituent state of the Central American Republic
                           (State of Salvador)
   Apr 1840                federal authorities cease to exist
 2 Feb 1841                formal secession decreed (El Salvador)
25 Jan 1859                Republic of El Salvador (in sporadic official use until at
                           least 1914 also Republic of Salvador)
13 Jun 1921 -  4 Feb 1922    State of El Salvador during a later aborted attempt at
                             recreating a Central American Federation

Intendant and Superior Political Chief
21 Sep 1821 - 28 Nov 1821  Pedro Barriere                     (b. ... - d. 1827)
Intendant and Governor (from 11 Jan 1822, President of the Junta of Government)
28 Nov 1821 -  9 Feb 1823  José Matías Delgado                (b. 1767 - d. 1832)
Supreme Political Chief
 1 Jul 1823 - 22 Apr 1824  Mariano Prado
Chief of State
22 Apr 1824 -  1 Oct 1824  Juan Manuel Rodríguez              (b. 1771 - d. 1847)
Supreme Chiefs of State
 1 Oct 1824 - 13 Dec 1824  Mariano Prado (1st time) (acting)
13 Dec 1824 -  1 Nov 1826  Juan Vicente Villacorta            (b. 1764 - d. 1828)
 1 Nov 1826 - 30 Jan 1829  Mariano Prado (2nd time) (acting)
30 Jan 1829 - 29 Mar 1832  José María Cornejo                 (b. 1788 - d. 1864)
29 Mar 1832 - 13 May 1832  Francisco Morazán (1st time)       (b. 1792 - d. 1842)
                           (provisional)
13 May 1832 - 25 Jul 1832  Joaquín de San Martín (1st time)   (b. 1770 - d. 1854)
                           (acting)
25 Jul 1832 -  1 Jul 1833  Mariano Prado (3rd time)
 1 Jul 1833 - 23 Jun 1834  Joaquín de San Martín (2nd time)   (s.a.)
23 Jun 1834 - 13 Jul 1834  Carlos Salazar                     (b. 1800 - d. 1867)
                           (provisional; in rebellion from 12 Jun 1834)
13 Jul 1834 - 30 Sep 1834  direct rule by federal government
30 Sep 1834 - 14 Oct 1834  Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera
                           (acting)
14 Oct 1834 - 10 Apr 1835  José María Silva (1st time)        (b. 1804? - d. 1876)
                           (acting)
10 Apr 1835 - 15 Nov 1835  Nicolás Espinoza                   (b. 1795 - d. 1845)
15 Nov 1835 -  7 Mar 1836  Francisco Gómez Elizondo (acting)  (b. 1796 - d. 1838)
 7 Mar 1836 -    May 1838  Diego Vigil                        (b. 1799 - d. 1845)
   May 1838 -  1 May 1839  Timoteo Menéndez (acting)
 1 May 1839 - 13 Jul 1839  Antonio José Cañas (1st time)      (b. 1785 - d. 1844)
                           (acting)
13 Jul 1839 -  4 Apr 1840  Francisco Morazán (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1840 - 15 Apr 1840  José María Silva (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting; leaves the country 5 Apr 1840; the Municipal
                           Council of San Salvador then assumes the government)
15 Apr 1840 -  7 Jan 1841  Antonio José Cañas (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting to 1840, then provisional)
 7 Jan 1841 - 22 Feb 1841  Juan Lindo (provisional)           (b. 1790 - d. 1857)
Presidents
22 Feb 1841 -  1 Feb 1842  Juan Lindo (provisional)           (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1842 - 14 Apr 1842  José Escolástico Marín (acting)    (b. ... - d. 1846)
14 Apr 1842 -  1 Feb 1844  Juan José Guzmán
                           (provisional to 20 Sep 1842)
 1 Feb 1844 -  7 Feb 1844  Fermín Palacios (1st time) (acting)
 7 Feb 1844 - 15 Feb 1845  Francisco Malespín                 (b. ... - d. 1846)
15 Feb 1845 -  1 Feb 1846  Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán (1st time) (b. 1801 - d. c.1875)
                           (in rebellion from 2 Feb 1845)
 1 Feb 1846 - 21 Feb 1846  Fermín Palacios (2nd time) (acting)
21 Feb 1846 -  1 Feb 1848  Eugenio Aguilar                    (b. 1804 - d. 1879)
 1 Feb 1848 -  3 Feb 1848  Tomás Medina (acting)              (b. 1803 - d. 1884)
 3 Feb 1848 -  7 Feb 1848  José Félix Quirós (1st time)       (b. ... - d. 1883)
                           (acting)
 7 Feb 1848 -  1 Feb 1850  Doroteo Vasconcelos (1st time)     (b. 1803 - d. 1883)
 1 Feb 1850 -  4 Feb 1850  Ramón Rodríguez (acting)
 4 Feb 1850 -  1 Mar 1851  Doroteo Vasconcelos (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1851 -  3 May 1851  José Félix Quirós (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
13 May 1851 - 30 Jan 1852  Francisco Dueñas (1st time)        (b. 1810 - d. 1884)
                           (acting)
30 Jan 1852 -  1 Feb 1852  José María San Martín (1st time)   (b. 1811 - d. 1857)
                           (acting)
 1 Feb 1852 -  1 Feb 1854  Francisco Dueñas (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1854 - 15 Feb 1854  Vicente Gómez (acting)
15 Feb 1854 -  1 Feb 1856  José María San Martín (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1856 - 12 Feb 1856  Francisco Dueñas (3rd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
12 Feb 1856 -  1 Feb 1858  Rafael Campo                       (b. 1813 - d. 1890)
 1 Feb 1858 -  7 Feb 1858  Lorenzo Zepeda (acting)
 7 Feb 1858 -  1 Feb 1860  Miguel Santín del Castillo
                           (deposed de facto 19 Jan 1859)
24 Jan 1859 - 15 Feb 1859    Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán
                             (2nd time) (acting)              (s.a.)
15 Feb 1859 - 12 Mar 1859    José María Peralta (acting)      (b. 1807 - d. 1883)
12 Mar 1859 - 26 Oct 1863  Gerardo Barrios                    (b. 1813 - d. 1865)
                           (acting to 1 Feb 1860)
26 Oct 1863 - 15 Apr 1871  Francisco Dueñas (4th time)        (s.a.)
                           (provisional [in rebellion from 10 Jul 1863] to 1 Feb
                           1865)
15 Apr 1871 -  1 Feb 1876  Santiago González                  (b. 1818 - d. 1887)
                           (provisional to 1 Feb 1872)
 1 Feb 1876 -  1 May 1876  Andrés del Valle                   (b. 1833 - d. 1888)
 1 May 1876 - 21 Jun 1885  Rafael Zaldívar                    (b. 1834 - d. 1903)
                           (provisional to 15 Jul 1876 and 1-19 Feb 1880)
21 Jun 1885 - 22 Jun 1890  Francisco Menéndez                 (b. 1830 - d. 1890)
                           (provisional [in rebellion from 15 May 1885] to 1 Mar
                           1887)
22 Jun 1890 -  9 Jun 1894  Carlos Ezeta                       (b. 1852 - d. 1903)
                           (provisional to 1 Mar 1891)
10 Jun 1894 - 13 Nov 1898  Rafael Antonio Gutiérrez           (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
                           (provisional to 1 Mar 1895)
14 Nov 1898 -  1 Mar 1903  Tomás Regalado                     (b. 1861 - d. 1906)
                           (provisional to 1 Mar 1899)
 1 Mar 1903 -  1 Mar 1907  Pedro José Escalón                 (b. 1847 - d. 1923)
 1 Mar 1907 -  1 Mar 1911  Fernando Figueroa                  (b. 1849 - d. 1919)
 1 Mar 1911 -  8 Feb 1913  Manuel Enrique Araujo              (b. 1865 - d. 1913)
 9 Feb 1913 - 29 Aug 1914  Carlos Meléndez (1st time)         (b. 1861 - d. 1919)
                           (provisional)
29 Aug 1914 -  1 Mar 1915  Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
                           (1st time) (provisional)           (b. 1874 - d. 1950)
 1 Mar 1915 - 21 Dec 1918  Carlos Meléndez (2nd time)         (s.a.)
21 Dec 1918 -  1 Mar 1919  Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1919 -  1 Mar 1923  Jorge Meléndez                     (b. 1871 - d. 1953)
                           (13 Jun 1921 - 4 Feb 1922 Head of State)
 1 Mar 1923 -  1 Mar 1927  Alfonso Quiñónez Molina
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1927 -  1 Mar 1931  Pío Romero Bosque                  (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
 1 Mar 1931 -3/4 Dec 1931  Arturo Araujo                      (b. 1878 - d. 1967)
 4 Dec 1931 - 28 Aug 1934  Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1882 - d. 1966)
29 Aug 1934 -  1 Mar 1935  Andrés Ignacio Menéndez (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1962)
                           (provisional)
 1 Mar 1935 -  9 May 1944  Maximiliano Hernández Martínez
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 9 May 1944 - 20 Oct 1944  Andrés Ignacio Menéndez (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (provisional)
21 Oct 1944 -  1 Mar 1945  Osmín Aguirre y Salinas            (b. 1889 - d. 1977)
                           (provisional)
 4 Nov 1944 -  1 Mar 1945    Miguel Tomás Molina              (b. 1862? - d. 19...)
                             (in rebellion, in Guatemala exile)
 1 Mar 1945 - 14 Dec 1948  Salvador Castaneda Castro          (b. 1888 - d. 1965)
15 Dec 1948 - 14 Sep 1950  Revolutionary Council of Government
                           - Manuel de Jesús Córdova          (b. 1911)
                             (to 5 Jan 1949)
                           - Óscar Osorio                     (b. 1910 - d. 1969)
                             (to 22 Oct 1949)
                           - Reynaldo Galindo Pohl            (b. 1918 - d. 2012)
                             (to 22 Oct 1949)
                           - Óscar A. Bolaños                 (b. 1912)
                           - Humberto Costa                   (b. 1906)
14 Sep 1950 - 14 Sep 1956  Óscar Osorio                       (s.a.)
14 Sep 1956 - 26 Oct 1960  José María Lemus                   (b. 1911 - d. 1993)
26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961  Junta of Government
                           - Miguel Ángel Castillo            (b. 1915 - d. 19...)
                           - Fabio Castillo Figueroa          (b. 1921 - d. 2012)
                           - Ricardo Falla Cáceres            (b. 1921)
                           - René Fortín Magaña               (b. 1931)
                           - Rubén Alonso Rosales             (b. 1925)
                           - César Yanes Urías                (b. 1931)
25 Jan 1961 - 25 Jan 1962  Civic-Military Directory
                           - Aníbal Portillo                  (b. 1914 - d. 2010)
                           - Feliciano Avelar                 (b. 1919)
                           - José Antonio Rodríguez Porth     (b. 1915 - d. 1989)
                             (to 6 Apr 1961)
                           - José Francisco Valiente          (b. 1911)
                             (to 6 Apr 1961)
                           - Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo  (b. 1921 - d. 1973)
                             (to 11 Sep 1961)
                           - Mariano Castro Morán             (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
                             (from 11 Sep 1961)
25 Jan 1962 -  1 Jul 1962  Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea         (b. 1899 - d. 1966)
                           (provisional)
 1 Jul 1962 -  1 Jul 1967  Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo    (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1967 -  1 Jul 1972  Fidel Sánchez Hernández            (b. 1917 - d. 2003)
 1 Jul 1972 -  1 Jul 1977  Arturo Armando Molina              (b. 1927)
 1 Jul 1977 - 15 Oct 1979  Carlos Humberto Romero             (b. 1924)
15 Oct 1979 -  2 May 1982  Revolutionary Junta
                           - Adolfo Arnoldo Majano Ramos      (b. 1938)
                             (to 7 Dec 1980)
                           - Jaime Abdul Gutiérrez Avendaño   (b. 1936 - d. 2012)
                           - Román Mayorga Quirós
                             (17 Oct 1979 - 5 Jan 1980)
                           - Guillermo Ungo                   (b. 1931 - d. 1991)
                             (17 Oct 1979 - 5 Jan 1980)
                           - Mario Antonio Andino             (b. 1936?)
                             (17 Oct 1979 - 5 Jan 1980)
                           - José Antonio Morales Ehrlich     (b. 1935)
                             (from 9 Jan 1980)
                           - José Ramón Ávalos Navarrete
                             (from 9 Jan 1980)
                           - Héctor Miguel Antonio Dada
                             Hirezi (9 Jan - 3 Mar 1980)      (b. 1938)
                           - José Napoleón Duarte             (b. 1925 - d. 1990)
                             (from 10 Mar 1980; president from 22 Dec 1980)
 2 May 1982 -  1 Jun 1984  Álvaro Alfredo Magaña Borja        (b. 1925 - d. 2001)
 1 Jun 1984 -  1 Jun 1989  José Napoleón Duarte               (s.a.)
 1 Jun 1989 -  1 Jun 1994  Alfredo Cristiani                  (b. 1947)
 1 Jun 1994 -  1 Jun 1999  Armando Calderón Sol               (b. 1948)
 1 Jun 1999 -  1 Jun 2004  Francisco Flores                   (b. 1959)
 1 Jun 2004 -  1 Jun 2009  Antonio Saca                       (b. 1965)
 1 Jun 2009 -              Mauricio Funes                     (b. 1959)

Equatorial Guinea

 1 Jan 1474                Fernando Póo and Annobón islands Portuguese colonies
11 Mar 1778                ceded to Spain by Treaty of El Pardo
30 Oct 1780 -        1844  no Spanish settlement
27 Oct 1827 -        1855  British-leased administration of Fernando Póo
 9 Jan 1885                Río Muni a Spanish protectorate (administered from
                           Fernando Póo)
27 Jun 1900                Río Muni a Spanish colony (administered from
                           Fernando Póo)
       1926                Río Muni, Fernando Póo, and Annobón united as Spanish Guinea
30 Jun 1959                Spanish overseas provinces of Fernando Póo and Río Muni
15 Dec 1963                Equatorial Guinea
12 Oct 1968                independence (Republic of Equatorial Guinea)

Governors (from 15 Dec 1963, high commissioners)
 1 Jun 1778 - 14 Nov 1778  Felipe de Santos Toro              (b. ... - d. 1778)
14 Nov 1778 - 30 Oct 1780  Primo de Rivera
27 Oct 1827 -        1829  William Owens
       1829 -        1830  Edward Nicolls (1st time)
       1830 -        1832  John Beecroft (1st time) (acting)  (b. ... - d. 1854)
       1832 -        1833  Edward Nicolls (2nd time)
       1833 - 10 Jun 1854  John Beecroft (2nd time)           (s.a.)
10 Jun 1854 -        1855  James Lynslager
       1855 - 28 Aug 1858  Domingo Mustrich
28 Aug 1858 -  1 Sep 1859  Carlos de Chacón y Michelena
 1 Sep 1859 - 30 Jun 1862  José de la Gándara y Navarro       (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
30 Jun 1862 -  1 Aug 1865  Pantaleón López Ayllón
 1 Aug 1865 - 31 Aug 1865  Francisco Osorio (acting)
31 Aug 1865 - 18 Sep 1865  Félix Recio (1st time) (acting)
18 Sep 1865 -  1 Apr 1868  José Gómez Barreda
 1 Apr 1868 -  9 Aug 1868  Félix Recio (2nd time) (acting)
 9 Aug 1868 - 18 Jul 1869  Joaquín Souza Gallardo
21 Aug 1869 - 11 Sep 1869  Clemente Ramos (acting)
11 Sep 1869 - 21 Jan 1870  Manuel Vial (1st time) (acting)
21 Jan 1870 - 11 Jun 1870  Zoilo Sánchez Ocaña
11 Jun 1870 - 16 Aug 1870  Manuel Vial (2nd time) (acting)
16 Aug 1870 - 14 Feb 1871  Felipe C. Argüelles (1st time)
                           (acting)
14 Feb 1871 - 28 Apr 1871  Federico Anrich
28 Apr 1871 -  1 Oct 1871  Felipe C. Argüelles (2nd time)
                           (acting)
 1 Oct 1871 - 23 Jun 1872  Antonio Vivar (acting)
23 Jun 1872 -  5 Dec 1872  Pedro Osa (acting)
 5 Dec 1872 - 22 Nov 1874  Ignacio García Tudela
22 Nov 1874 - 22 Jan 1875  Jacobo Varela (acting)
22 Jan 1875 - 13 Feb 1877  Diego Santisteban Chamorro
13 Feb 1877 -  1 Feb 1879  Alejandro Arias Salgado
 1 Feb 1879 - 21 Apr 1879  Luis de la Pila (acting)
21 Apr 1879 - 20 Jun 1879  Juan Aguilar (acting)
20 Jun 1879 - 24 Jul 1879  José Montes de Oca (1st time)
                           (acting)
24 Jul 1879 -  3 Sep 1880  Enrique Santaló
 3 Sep 1880 - 24 Jan 1883  José Montes de Oca (2nd time)
24 Jan 1883 - 25 Jan 1883  Francisco Romera (acting)
25 Jan 1883 - 28 Dec 1884  Antonio Cano
28 Dec 1884 - 28 Jan 1885  Waldo Pérez Cossio (acting)
28 Jan 1885 -  1 Oct 1887  José Montes de Oca (3rd time)
 1 Oct 1887 -  8 Nov 1887  Juan de la Rocha (acting)
 8 Nov 1887 -  4 Feb 1888  Luis Navarro
 4 Feb 1888 - 20 Apr 1888  José de Ibarra (1st time) (acting)
20 Apr 1888 - 21 Apr 1890  Antonio Morena Guerra
21 Apr 1890 -  4 Nov 1890  José de Ibarra (2nd time)
 4 Nov 1890 - 22 Dec 1890  José Gómez Barreda
22 Dec 1890 - 24 Dec 1891  José de Barrasa
24 Dec 1891 - 10 Apr 1892  Antonio Martínez
10 Apr 1892 - 12 May 1893  Eulogio Merchán
12 May 1893 - 17 May 1893  Dionisio Shelly (1st time) (acting)
17 May 1893 -  1 Jun 1893  Pio Porcell (acting)
 1 Jun 1893 - 29 Jul 1893  Dionisio Shelly (2nd time) (acting)
29 Jul 1893 - 16 Feb 1895  José de la Puente Basseve
16 Feb 1895 - 21 Jul 1895  Agustín Cuesta (acting)
21 Jul 1895 - 19 May 1897  Adolfo de España y Gómez de Humarán
19 May 1897 - 19 Jun 1897  Armando Pontes (acting)
19 Jun 1897 - 21 Jul 1897  Mateo Mezquida (acting)
21 Jul 1897 - 19 Oct 1897  Manuel Rico
19 Oct 1897 -  7 Nov 1899  José Rodríguez Vera
 7 Nov 1899 - 30 Nov 1899  Francisco Guarro (acting)
30 Nov 1899 - 12 Dec 1899  Guillermo Lacave (acting)
14 Dec 1899 -  3 Mar 1901  Francisco Dueñas
 3 Mar 1901 - 25 Feb 1905  José de Ibarra Autrán
25 Feb 1905 - 26 Mar 1906  José Gómez de la Serna
26 Mar 1906 - 20 Sep 1906  Diego Saavedra y Magdalena
                           (1st time)
20 Sep 1906 - 18 Feb 1907  Ángel Barrera y Luyando (1st time)
18 Feb 1907 - 17 Aug 1908  Luis Ramos Izquierdo y Vivar
17 Aug 1908 - 30 Sep 1908  Luis Dabán (acting)
30 Sep 1908 - 19 Oct 1908  Diego Saavedra y Magdalena
                           (2nd time) (acting)
19 Oct 1908 - 10 Sep 1910  José Centeño Anchorena
10 Sep 1910 -  8 Feb 1924  Ángel Barrera y Luyando (2nd time)
 8 Feb 1924 -        1926  Carlos Tovar de Revilla
       1926 -        1931  Miguel Núñez de Prado
       1931 - 15 Nov 1932  Gustavo de Sostoa y Sthamer        (b. 1872? - d. 1932)
       1933 -        1934  Estanislao Lluesma García
       1934 -        1935  Ángel Manzaneque Feltrer
       1935 -        1936  Luis Sánchez Guerra Sáez
       1936 -        1937  Manuel de Mendívil y Elfo
       1937 -        1941  Juan Fontán y Lobé                 (b. 1899 - d. 1944)
       1942 -        1943  Mariano Alonso Alonso              (b. 1899 - d. 1974)
       1943 -        1949  Juan María Bonelli Rubio           (b. 1904 - d. 1982)
       1949 -        1962  Faustino Ruíz González
       1962 -        1964  Francisco Núñez Rodríguez          (b. 1902 - d. 1972)
15 Dec 1964 -        1966  Pedro Latorre Alcubierre           (b. 1900 - d. 1995)
       1966 - 12 Oct 1968  Víctor Suances Díaz del Río
Presidents
12 Oct 1968 -  3 Aug 1979  Francisco Macías Nguema (from
                           14 Jul 1972, Francisco Macías
                           Nguema Biyogo; from 26 Sep 1975,
                           Macías Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong;
                           from 1976, Masie Nguema Biyogo
                           Ñegue Ndong)                       (b. 1922 - d. 1979)
 3 Aug 1979 -              Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo      (b. 1942)
                           (chairman Revolutionary Military Council to 25 Aug 1979,
                           chairman Supreme Military Council 25 Aug 1979 -
                           12 Oct 1982)

Prime ministers 15 Dec 1963 - 12 Oct 1968 Bonifacio Ondó Edu (b. 19... - d. 1969) Oct 1982 - 4 Mar 1992 Cristino Seriche Bioko (b. 1940?) 4 Mar 1992 - 1 Apr 1996 Silvestre Siale Bileka (b. 1939?) 1 Apr 1996 - 4 Mar 2001 Ángel Serafín Seriche Dougan (b. 1946) 4 Mar 2001 - 14 Jun 2004 Cándido Muatetema Rivas (b. 1960) 14 Jun 2004 - 14 Aug 2006 Miguel Abia Biteo Boricó (b. 1961 - d. 2012) 14 Aug 2006 - 8 Jul 2008 Ricardo Mangue Obama Nfubea (b. 1961?) 8 Jul 2008 - 21 May 2012 Ignacio Milam Tang (b. 1940) 21 May 2012 - Vicente Ehate Tomi (b. 1968)

Eritrea

       1557/58             Ottoman rule
       1865                Egyptian rule
       1882                port of Assab is taken over by the Italian government
 6 Feb 1885                port of Massawa is taken over by Italy;
                           expansion in the hinterland follows
 1 Jan 1890                Italian colony (Eritrea)
 1 Jun 1936                part of Italian East Africa (province of Eritrea, formed by
                           the merger of the colony and the Ethiopian region of Tigre)
       1941                British administration
15 Sep 1952                federated with Ethiopia, under the sovereignty of the
                           Ethiopian crown
14 Nov 1962                integral part of Ethiopia
29 May 1991                provisional government established
24 May 1993                independence (State of Eritrea)

Commandant of Assab
       1882 -        1885  Giulio Pestalozza                  (b. 1850 - d. 1930)
Commandants of Massawa
 5 Feb 1885 - 15 Dec 1885  Tancredi Saletta (1st time)        (b. 1843 - d. 1909)
15 Dec 1885 - 18 Mar 1887  Carlo Gené                         (b. 1836 - d. 1890)
18 Mar 1887 -    Oct 1887  Tancredi Saletta (2nd time)        (s.a.)
   Nov 1887 -        1888  Alessandro Asinardi di San Mariano
       1888 - 20 Dec 1889  Antonio Baldissera                 (b. 1838 - d. 1917)
20 Dec 1889 - 30 Jun 1890  Baldassare Orero                   (b. 1832 - d. 1914)
Governors
30 Jun 1890 - 28 Feb 1892  Giacomo Gandolfi
28 Feb 1892 - 22 Feb 1896  Oreste Baratieri                   (b. 1841 - d. 1901)
22 Feb 1896 - 16 Dec 1897  Antonio Baldissera                 (s.a.)
16 Dec 1897 - 25 Mar 1907  Ferdinando Martini                 (b. 1841 - d. 1928)
25 Mar 1907 - 17 Aug 1915  Giuseppe Salvago Raggi
17 Aug 1915 - 16 Sep 1916  Giovanni Cherina Ferroni
                           (1st time) (acting)
16 Sep 1916 - 20 Jul 1919  Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
20 Jul 1919 - 20 Nov 1920  Camillo De Camillis
20 Nov 1920 - 14 Apr 1921  Ludovico Pollera
14 Apr 1921 -  1 Jun 1923  Giovanni Cherina Ferroni
                           (2nd time)
 1 Jun 1923 -  1 Jun 1928  Jacopo Gasparini                   (b. 1879 - d. 19...)
   Sep 1928 - 11 Jul 1930  Corrado Zoli                       (b. 1877 - d. 1951)
11 Jul 1930 - 15 Jan 1935  Riccardo Astuto dei Duchi
                           di Lucchesi
18 Jan 1935 - 22 Nov 1935  Emilio De Bono                     (b. 1866 - d. 1944)
22 Nov 1935 - 22 May 1936  Pietro Badoglio                    (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
 1 Jun 1936 -  1 Apr 1937  Alfredo Guzzoni                    (b. 1877 - d. 1965)
 1 Apr 1937 - 15 Dec 1937  Vincenzo De Feo                    (b. 1876 - d. 19...)
15 Dec 1937 -  2 Jun 1940  Giuseppe Daodice
 2 Jun 1940 - 19 May 1941  Luigi Frusci (acting)              (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
Administrators
 5 Feb 1941 -  4 May 1942  Sir William Platt                  (b. 1885 - d. 1975)
 4 May 1942 -  9 Nov 1944  Stephen Hemsley Longrigg           (b. 1893 - d. 1979)
 9 Nov 1944 - 14 Aug 1945  C.D. McCarthy
14 Aug 1945 -  1 Nov 1946  John Meredith Benoy                (b. 1896 - d. 1977)
 1 Nov 1946 - 19 Feb 1951  Francis Greville Drew              (b. 1892 - d. 1962)
UN high commissioner
19 Feb 1951 - 15 Sep 1952  Eduardo Anze Matienzo (Bolivia)    (b. 1902 - d. 1979)
Chief administrator
19 Feb 1951 - 15 Sep 1952  Duncan Cameron Cumming             (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
Emperor's representatives
15 Sep 1952 -    Dec 1959  Bitwoded Andargachew Messai
   Dec 1959 - 14 Nov 1962  Abiye Abebe                        (b. 1918 - d. 1974)
Chief executives
15 Sep 1952 - 29 Jul 1955  Tedla Bairu                        (b. 1914 - d. 1981)
 8 Aug 1955 - 14 Nov 1962  Asfaha Woldemikael                 (b. 1914 - d. ...)
                           (from 20 May 1960 chief administrator)
Secretary-general of the Provisional Government
29 May 1991 - 24 May 1993  Isaias Afewerki                    (b. 1946)
President
24 May 1993 -              Isaias Afewerki                    (s.a.)

Estonia

24 Feb 1918                independence declared (Republic of Estonia),
                           followed by German occupation (until 11 Nov 1918)
                           (for Baltic State of Apr-Nov 1918 see Latvia)
29 Nov 1918 - 24 May 1919    Estonian Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic
                             (in Russian-occupied territory)
17 Jun 1940                Soviet occupation
21 Jul 1940                Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
 6 Aug 1940                incorporation into the Soviet Union (see Soviet republics)
 8 May 1990                Republic of Estonia
20 Aug 1991                independence declared
 6 Sep 1991                independence recognized by U.S.S.R.

State elders
24 Feb 1918 - 24 Apr 1919  Estonian Liberation Committee
                           - Konstantin Päts                  (b. 1874 - d. 1956)
                           - Konstantin Konik                 (b. 1873 - d. 1936)
                           - Jüri Vilms (to 13 Apr 1918)      (b. 1889 - d. 1918)
29 Nov 1918 - 24 May 1919    Jaan Anvelt                      (b. 1884 - d. 1937)
                             (chairman Council of Estonian Workers' Commune)
24 Apr 1919 - 21 Dec 1920  August Rei (1st time)              (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
                           (chairman Constituent Assembly)
21 Dec 1920 - 25 Jan 1921  Ants Piip                          (b. 1884 - d. 1942)
25 Jan 1921 - 21 Nov 1922  Konstantin Päts (1st time)         (s.a.)
21 Nov 1922 -  2 Aug 1923  Juhan Kukk                         (b. 1885 - d. 1945)
 2 Aug 1923 - 26 Mar 1924  Konstantin Päts (2nd time)         (s.a.)
26 Mar 1924 - 16 Dec 1924  Friedrich Akel                     (b. 1871 - d. 1941)
16 Dec 1924 - 15 Dec 1925  Jüri Jaakson                       (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
15 Dec 1925 -  9 Dec 1927  Jaan Teemant (1st time)            (b. 1872 - d. 1941)
 9 Dec 1927 -  4 Dec 1928  Jaan Tõnisson (1st time)           (b. 1868 - d. af.1941)
 4 Dec 1928 -  9 Jul 1929  August Rei (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1929 - 12 Feb 1931  Otto Strandman                     (b. 1875 - d. 1941)
12 Feb 1931 - 19 Feb 1932  Konstantin Päts (3rd time)         (s.a.)
19 Feb 1932 - 19 Jul 1932  Jaan Teemant (2nd time)            (s.a.)
19 Jul 1932 -  1 Nov 1932  Karl August Einbund                (b. 1888 - d. 1942)
 1 Nov 1932 - 18 May 1933  Konstantin Päts (4th time)         (s.a.)
18 May 1933 - 21 Oct 1933  Jaan Tõnisson (2nd time)           (s.a.)
21 Oct 1933 - 23 Jul 1940  Konstantin Päts (5th time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting 24 Jan 1934 - 3 Sep 1937; state protector
                           [riigihoidja] 3 Sep 1937 - 24 Apr 1938;
                           president from 24 Apr 1938)
23 Jul 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Johannes Vares "Barbarus"          (b. 1890 - d. 1946)
                           (acting president)
Chairman of the Supreme Council
29 Mar 1990 -  6 Oct 1992  Arnold Rüütel                      (b. 1928)
Presidents
 6 Oct 1992 -  8 Oct 2001  Lennart Meri                       (b. 1929 - d. 2006)
 8 Oct 2001 -  9 Oct 2006  Arnold Rüütel                      (s.a.)
 9 Oct 2006 -              Toomas Hendrik Ilves               (b. 1953)

Prime ministers 24 Feb 1918 - 9 May 1919 Konstantin Päts (1st time) (s.a.) (chairman Council of Ministers to 12 Nov 1918) 9 May 1919 - 18 Nov 1919 Otto Strandman (s.a.) 18 Nov 1919 - 28 Jul 1920 Jaan Tõnisson (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Jul 1920 - 30 Jul 1920 Ado Birk (b. 1883 - d. 1942) 30 Jul 1920 - 26 Oct 1920 Jaan Tõnisson (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Oct 1920 - 21 Dec 1920 Ants Piip (s.a.) 24 Jan 1934 - 3 Sep 1937 Konstantin Päts (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 May 1938 - 12 Oct 1939 Kaarel Eenpalu (= Einbund) (s.a.) 12 Oct 1939 - 21 Jun 1940 Jüri Uluots (b. 1890 - d. 1945) 21 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940 Johannes Vares "Barbarus" (s.a.) 3 Apr 1990 - 30 Jan 1992 Edgar Savisaar (b. 1950) 30 Jan 1992 - 21 Oct 1992 Tiit Vähi (1st time) (b. 1947) 21 Oct 1992 - 8 Nov 1994 Mart Laar (1st time) (b. 1960) 8 Nov 1994 - 17 Apr 1995 Andres Tarand (b. 1940) 17 Apr 1995 - 17 Mar 1997 Tiit Vähi (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Mar 1997 - 25 Mar 1999 Mart Siimann (b. 1946) 25 Mar 1999 - 28 Jan 2002 Mart Laar (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jan 2002 - 10 Apr 2003 Siim Kallas (b. 1948) 10 Apr 2003 - 13 Apr 2005 Juhan Parts (b. 1966) 13 Apr 2005 - 26 Mar 2014 Andrus Ansip (b. 1956) 26 Mar 2014 - Taavi Rõivas (b. 1979)

Republic of Estonia in exile

Prime ministers acting as presidents
21 Jun 1940 -  9 Jan 1945  Jüri Uluots                        (s.a.)
                           (from 22 Sep 1944 in Stockholm, Sweden)
 9 Jan 1945 - 29 Mar 1963  August Rei                         (s.a.)
                           (in Stockholm, Sweden; from 12 Jan 1953 in Oslo, Norway;
                           then in Lund, Sweden; from 1 Jan 1962 in Stockholm)
29 Mar 1963 - 23 Dec 1970  Aleksander Warma                   (b. 1890 - d. 1970)
23 Dec 1970 -  1 Mar 1990  Tõnis Kint                         (b. 1896 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1990 -  8 Oct 1992  Heinrich Mark                      (b. 1911 - d. 2004)
15 Sep 1992¹- 28 Nov 2003  Mihkel Mathiesen                   (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
28 Nov 2003 -              Kalev Ots                          (b. 1949)

Acting prime ministers 21 Jun 1940 - 15 Jun 1942 August Jürima (b. 1887 - d. 1942) 21 Apr 1944 - 18 Sep 1944 Alfred Maurer (b. 1888 - d. 1954) 18 Sep 1944 - 12 Jan 1953 Otto Tief (b. 1889 - d. 1976) (Soviet captive from Oct 1944) 12 Jan 1953 - 22 Aug 1960 Johannes Sikkar (b. 1897 - d. 1960) 1 Jan 1962 - 29 Mar 1963 Aleksander Warma (s.a.) 1 Mar 1964 - 23 Dec 1970 Tõnis Kint (s.a.) 8 May 1971 - 1 Mar 1990 Heinrich Mark (s.a.) 20 Jun 1990 - 7 Oct 1992 Enno Penno (b. 1930) 15 Sep 1992¹- 28 Nov 2003 Kalev Ots (s.a.) 7 Dec 2003 - Ahti Mänd (b. 1958)
¹The government set up on 15 Sep 1992 declared its intent to "continue to preserve constitutional continuity until the actual end of the occupation," referring to the large number of Russians living in Estonia. The previous exile government gave its mandates to the government in Tallinn.

Ethiopia

        ...                Empire of Ethiopia
 3 Oct 1935                Italian invasion
 9 May 1936                annexed by Italy
 1 Jun 1936                Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia are united into Italian East
                           Africa and reorganized as a federation of six provinces:
                           Eritrea (formed by the merger of the former colony of Eritrea
                           and the Ethiopian region of Tigre), Somalia (formed by the
                           merger of the former colony of Somalia and the Ethiopian
                           region of Ogaden), Addis Ababa (capital region of Ethiopia),
                           Amhara, Harar, and Galla-Sidama (parts of Ethiopia)
 1 Jan 1939                Addis Ababa and parts of the provinces of Amhara and
                           Galla-Sidama are united into the new province of Showa
 5 May 1941                Addis Ababa liberated by Allies
27 Nov 1941                last Italian administrators surrender
12 Sep 1974                Ethiopia (semi-officially Socialist Ethiopia)
21 Mar 1975                monarchy abolished
10 Sep 1987                People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
27 May 1991                Ethiopia
22 Aug 1995                Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Emperors/Empresses¹
- Solomonic dynasty -
19 Jul 1682 - 13 Oct 1706  Iyasu I Yohannes                   (b. 1662 - d. 1706)
       1685                  Yeshaq Iyasu? (in opposition)
13 Oct 1706 - 30 Jun 1708  Tekle Haymanot I Iyasu             (b. 16... - d. 1708)
                           (in opposition from 27 Mar 1706)
   Sep 1707                  Amda Seyon (in opposition)
30 Jun 1708 -  1 Jul 1708  Na'od II Tekle Haymanot            (b. 1704 - d. 1722)
 1 Jul 1708 - 14 Oct 1711  Tewoflos Yohannes                  (b. 16... - d. 1711)
       1709 -    Jul 1710    Nebahne Yohannes (in opposition)
14 Oct 1711 - 19 Feb 1716  Yostos Delba Iyasus                (b. 16... - d. 1716)
                           [from a different lineage]
19 Feb 1716 - 18 May 1721  Dawit III Iyasu                    (b. 1695 - d. 1721)
                           (in opposition from 8 Feb 1716)
18 May 1721 - 21 May 1721  Walda Giyorgis Iyasu
21 May 1721 - 19 Sep 1730  Asma Giyorgis Iyasu                (b. 1694 - d. 1730)
19 Sep 1730 - 26 Jun 1755  Iyasu II Asma Giyorgis             (b. 1723 - d. 1755)
       1736 -        1737    Hezqeyas (in opposition)
26 Jun 1755 -  7 May 1769  Iyoas I Iyasu                      (b. 174... - d. 1769)
 7 May 1769 - 18 Oct 1769  Yohannes II Iyasu                  (b. 1699 - d. 1769)
18 Oct 1769 -    Jun 1770  Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1754 - d. 1777)
   Jun 1770 -    Dec 1770  Susenyos II Iyasu?
   Dec 1770 - 13 Apr 1777  Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
13 Apr 1777 - 20 Jul 1779  Salomon II Adigo
20 Jul 1779 -  8 Feb 1784  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1755 - d. 1817)
16 Feb 1784 - 24 Apr 1788  Iyasu III Azequ                    (b. ... - d. 1788)
       1787 -        1788    Iyasu (in opposition)
       1787 -        1788    Be'ede Mariam (in opposition)
   Feb 1788 -        1789    Tekle Haymanot (in opposition)
24 Apr 1788 - 26 Jul 1789  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
26 Jul 1789 -    Jan 1794  Hezqeyas Iyasu                     (b. 17... - d. 1816)
   Jan 1794 - 15 Apr 1795  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
15 Apr 1795 -    Dec 1795  Be'ede Mariam III Salomon
   Dec 1795 - 20 May 1796  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
20 May 1796 - 15 Jul 1797  Salomon III Tekle Haymanot
                           (1st time)
18 Aug 1797 -  4 Jan 1798  Yonas Letezum                      (b. 1766 - d. 1832)
 4 Jan 1798 - 20 May 1799  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
20 May 1799 -        1799  Salomon III Tekle Haymanot
                           (2nd time)
       1799 - 24 Mar 1800  Demetros Arqedewos (1st time)      (b. 17... - d. 1803)
24 Mar 1800 -    Jun 1800  Tekle Giyorgis I Yohannes
                           (6th time)                         (s.a.)
   Jun 1800 -    Jun 1801  Demetros Arqedewos (2nd time)      (s.a.)
   Jun 1801 -  3 Jun 1818  Egwale Seyon Hezqeyas              (b. ... - d. 1818)
19 Jun 1818 -  3 Jun 1821  Iyoas II Hezqeyas                  (b. ... - d. 1821)
       1821 -    Apr 1826  Gigar Iyasu (1st time)             (b. 1745 - d. 1831)
   Apr 1826                Be'ede Mariam IV
   Apr 1826 - 18 Jun 1830  Gigar Iyasu (2nd time)             (s.a.)
18 Jun 1830 - 18 Mar 1832  Iyasu IV Salomon
18 Mar 1832 -        1832  Gebre Krestos Gebre Mesay
                           (1st time)                         (b. ... - d. 1832)
       1832                Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                           (1st time)                         (b. c.1778 - d. 18...)
       1832 -  8 Jun 1832  Gebre Krestos Gebre Mesay
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Oct 1832 - 29 Aug 1840  Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1832                  Egwale Anbesa (in rebellion)
30 Aug 1840 -    Oct 1841  Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1797 - d. af.1868)
   Oct 1841 -        1845  Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
       1845                Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1845 -        1850  Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
       1850 -        1851  Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
       1851 -    Feb 1855  Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
       1851 - 29 Jun 1853    Ali Alula (usurper)              (b. c.1819 - d. 1853)
   Jul 1853 -  9 Feb 1855    Webe Haile Mariam (usurper)
- Tewodros dynasty -
 9 Feb 1855 - 13 Apr 1868  Tewodros II                        (b. c.1818 - d. 1868)
- Zagwe dynasty -
11 Jun 1868 - 11 Jul 1871  Tekle Giyorgis II                  (b. c.1836 - d. 1872)
       1868 - 15 Nov 1868    Menelik II (in rebellion)        (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
- Tigray dynasty -
11 Jul 1871 -  9 Mar 1889  Yohannes IV                        (b. 1837 - d. 1889)
- Solomonic dynasty -
 9 Mar 1889 - 12 Dec 1913  Menelik II                         (s.a.)
       1910                  Etege T'aytu Bet'ul (f) (regent) (b. 1853 - d. 1918)
       1910 - 11 Apr 1911    Ras Tesemma (regent)             (b. ... - d. 1911)
       1912 -        1913    Lij Iyasu (regent)               (b. 1898 - d. 1935)
12 Dec 1913 - 27 Sep 1916  Iyasu V                            (s.a.)
27 Sep 1916 -  2 Apr 1930  Zauditu (f)                        (b. 1876 - d. 1930)
27 Sep 1916 -  2 Apr 1930    Ras Tafari Makonnen (regent)     (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
 3 Apr 1930 - 12 Sep 1974  Haile Selassie
                           (= Ras Tafari Makonnen)            (s.a.)
                           (2 May 1936 - 5 May 1941 in exile)
 1 May 1936 - 17 Dec 1936    Ras Imru (regent)                (b. 1892 - d. 1980)
12 Sep 1974 - 21 Mar 1975  Asfa Wossen                        (b. 1916 - d. 1997)
                           (designated emperor, does not take office)
Chairmen of the Provisional Military Administrative Council
12 Sep 1974 - 17 Nov 1974  Aman Mikael Andom                  (b. 1924 - d. 1974)
17 Nov 1974 - 28 Nov 1974  Mengistu Haile Mariam (1st time)   (b. 1937)
28 Nov 1974 -  3 Feb 1977  Teferi Benti                       (b. 1921 - d. 1977)
11 Feb 1977 - 10 Sep 1987  Mengistu Haile Mariam (2nd time)   (s.a.)
Presidents
10 Sep 1987 - 21 May 1991  Mengistu Haile Mariam              (s.a.)
21 May 1991 - 28 May 1991  Tesfaye Gebre Kidan (acting)       (b. 1935 - d. 2004)
28 May 1991 - 22 Aug 1995  Meles Zenawi (interim)             (b. 1955 - d. 2012)
22 Aug 1995 -  8 Oct 2001  Negasso Gidada                     (b. 1943)
 8 Oct 2001 -  7 Oct 2013  Girma Wolde-Giorgis                (b. 1924)
 7 Oct 2013 -              Mulatu Teshome Wirtu               (b. 1956?)

Prime ministers 29 Jan 1943 - 1 Nov 1957 Makonnen Endalkachew (b. 1890 - d. 1963) 27 Nov 1957 - 15 Dec 1960 Abebe Aragai (b. 1903 - d. 1960) 17 Apr 1961 - 28 Feb 1974 Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold (b. 1912 - d. 1974) 28 Feb 1974 - 22 Jul 1974 Endalkachew Makonnen (b. 1927 - d. 1974) 22 Jul 1974 - 12 Sep 1974 Mikael Imru (b. 1929 - d. 2008) 10 Sep 1987 - 8 Nov 1989 Fikre Selassie Wogderess (b. c.1941) 8 Nov 1989 - 26 Apr 1991 Hailu Yimenu (acting) (b. 19... - d. 1991) 26 Apr 1991 - 6 Jun 1991 Tesfaye Dinka (acting) 6 Jun 1991 - 22 Aug 1995 Tamrat Layne (b. 1955) (acting to 29 Jul 1991) 23 Aug 1995 - 20 Aug 2012 Meles Zenawi (s.a.) 20 Aug 2012 - Hailemariam Desalegn (b. 1965) (acting to 21 Sep 2012)
¹Official style: Moa Anbesa ze Emnegede Yehuda, N.N., Seyume Egziebher, Neguse/Negeste Negest za Ityopya ("Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, N.N., Elect of God, King/Queen of Kings of Ethiopia").

Shewa

       1839                Kingdom of Shewa
       1856 -        1859  annexed by Ethiopia
       1860 -        1864  annexed by Ethiopia
       1889                incorporated into Ethiopia

Ruling princes
- Solomonic dynasty -
       1682 -        1703  Negasi Krestos Lebsa Qal           (b. ... - d. 1703)
       1703 -  6 Mar 1719  Sebestyanos Negasi Krestos         (b. ... - d. 1719)
 6 Mar 1719 - 23 Feb 1744  Qedami Qal Sebestyanos             (b. ... - d. 1744)
23 Feb 1744 -  6 Feb 1775  Amha Iyasus Qedami Qal             (b. ... - d. 1775)
 6 Feb 1775 - 30 Jul 1807  Tewodros Amha Iyasus               (b. ... - d. 1807)
Kings (styled Ras to 1839)
30 Jul 1807 -  7 Jun 1813  Welde Giyorgis Tewodros            (b. ... - d. 1813)
 7 Jun 1813 - 12 Oct 1847  Sahle Selassie                     (b. c.1795 - d. 1847)
12 Oct 1847 -  9 Nov 1855  Haile Melekot                      (b. 1825 - d. 1855)
 9 Nov 1855 -        1856  Sahle Mariam (1st time)            (s.a.)
                           (= Menelik II of Ethiopia)
Ruling princes
       1856 -        1859  Haile Mikael Sahle Selassie        (b. c.1827 - d. 1884)
       1859                Bezabeh (1st time) (usurper)
       1859 -        1860  Seyfu Sahle Selassie               (b. 1828 - d. 1860)
       1860 -        1865  Bezabeh (2nd time) (usurper)
King
   Aug 1865 -        1889  Sahle Mariam (2nd time)            (s.a.)

Italian East Africa

Viceroys and governors-general (representing Italian king Vittorio Emanuele III
who holds the title of Emperor of Ethiopia 9 May 1936 - 3 Sep 1943)
 9 May 1936 - 11 Jun 1936  Pietro Badoglio, duca di
                           Addis Ababa                        (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
11 Jun 1936 - 21 Dec 1937  Rodolfo Graziani, marchese di
                           Neghelli                           (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
21 Dec 1937 - 19 May 1941  Prince Amedeo di Savoia, duca
                           d'Aosta                            (b. 1898 - d. 1942)
23 May 1941 -  6 Jul 1941  Pietro Gazzera (acting)            (b. 1879 - d. 1953)
 6 Jul 1941 - 27 Nov 1941  Guglielmo Nasi (acting)            (b. 1879 - d. 1971)

Addis Ababa

Governors
 5 May 1936 - 27 May 1936  Giuseppe Bottai                    (b. 1895 - d. 1959)
 1 Jun 1936 - 23 Sep 1938  Alfredo Siniscalchi
23 Sep 1938 -  1 Jan 1939  Francesco Camero Medici

Amhara

Governors
 1 Jun 1936 - 15 Dec 1937  Alessandro Pirzio Biroli           (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
15 Dec 1937 -  1 Jan 1939  Ottorino Mezzetti                  (b. 1877 - d. 19...)
 1 Jan 1939 - 19 May 1941  Luigi Frusci (acting)              (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
19 May 1941 - 27 Nov 1941  Guglielmo Nasi (acting)            (s.a.)

Galla-Sidama

Governors
 1 Jun 1936 -  9 Jul 1938  Carlo Geloso                       (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
10 Jul 1938 - 12 Aug 1938  Armando Felsani
12 Aug 1938 -  6 Jul 1941  Pietro Gazzera                     (s.a.)

Harar

Governors
 1 Jun 1936 -  5 May 1939  Guglielmo Nasi (1st time)          (s.a.)
 5 May 1939 - 11 Jun 1940  Enrico Cerulli                     (b. 1898 - d. 1988)
11 Jun 1940 -  4 Feb 1941  Guglielmo Nasi (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
 4 Feb 1941 -  9 Mar 1941  Pompeo Gorini (acting)
10 Mar 1941 - 24 Apr 1941  Carlo De Simone (acting)           (b. 1885 - d. 19...)

Showa

Governors
 1 Jan 1939 -  5 May 1939  Enrico Cerulli                     (s.a.)
 5 May 1939 -  2 Jun 1940  Guglielmo Nasi                     (s.a.)
 2 Jun 1940 -  3 Apr 1941  Giuseppe Daodice
 3 Apr 1941 -  6 Apr 1941  Agenore Frangipani (acting)

Etruria: see Tuscany under Italian states.