Ma Fuxiang (b. Feb. 4, 1876, Linxia, Gansu, China - d. Aug. 19, 1932), governor of Qinghai (1912), Ningxia (1912-20), and Suiyuan (1920-25) and chairman of the government of Anhui (1930). A Muslim, he was named the military governor of Xining, and then of Altay, in Qing times. He held a large number of military posts in the northwestern region after the founding of the republic. Having turned to Chiang Kai-shek in 1928, he was elected a member of the National Government Commission, and then appointed the mayor of Qingdao special municipality. He was also the president of the Mongolian-Tibetan Commission.
Ma Hongbin (b. Sept. 14, 1884, Linxia, Gansu, China - d. Oct. 20, 1960, Lanzhou, Gansu), governor (1921-28) and chairman of the government (1930) of Ningxia and chairman of the Provincial Council of Gansu (1930-31); nephew of Ma Fuxiang. A Muslim, he followed Ma Fuxiang and later Feng Yuxiang in the army. Upon his cooperation with Chiang Kai-shek, he was named commander of the 22nd Division, 24th Army, within the National Revolutionary Army. He became the commander of the 81st Army during World War II. After the war, he became a senior adviser within the Northwestern Army Headquarters. In 1949 when the People's Liberation Army was approaching northwestward, Ma led his 81st Army to cross over to the Communist Party. He was named vice-chairman (later restyled vice-governor) of Gansu province. He was also vice-director of the Commission of Ethnic Affairs as well as a member of the National Defense Commission of the People's Republic of China.
Ma Hongkui (b. March 9, 1892, Linxia, Gansu, China - d. Jan. 14, 1970, Los Angeles, Calif.), chairman of the government of Ningxia (1932-49). A Muslim, he graduated from Lanzhou Military Academy and was nominated commander of the Ningxia Modern Army and commander of the 7th Division (after the founding of the republic). In 1927, he and Feng Yuxiang led their troops to Tongguan, Shaanxi, and countered the Northern Expedition. However, he betrayed Feng and turned to Chiang Kai-shek in 1929, being nominated as commander of the 11th Army and the 15th Route Army. During World War II, he took over the 17th Group Army. He was also the vice-commander of the 8th War Zone. He fled to Taiwan in 1949. However, he was accused of "frustrating the fulfillment of the military plan" by the Taiwanese Supervisory Committee, as he failed to defeat the Communist forces in his defense area. He then moved to the U.S.
Ma Lianjia (b. 1864, Donghai, Jiangsu, China - d. 1924, Nanjing, Jiangsu), military governor (1922-24) and civil governor (1923-24) of Anhui. His military life started in the late Qing dynasty. After the republic was founded, his forces were ordered to garrison in Fuyang, Anhui. He was a pro-Yuan Shikai general as his army went south to fight against the revolutionary army led by Sun Yat-sen (and Bai Wenwei in Anhui). He was named the commander of the 1st composite brigade, and Anhui governor in 1922. In 1924, failing the war against Zhang Zuolin, the Zhili military group lost its control over the Beijing government to Zhang. He stepped down upon the great nationwide reshuffle that followed.
Ma Lin (b. Feb. 20, 1875, Linxia, Gansu, China - d. Jan. 26, 1945), chairman of the government of Qinghai (1931-38); brother of Ma Qi. A Muslim, he mainly succeeded to the posts of his brother, being general of southeastern Gansu province, as well as councillor of the Qinghai provincial government and acting head of the Construction Bureau of Qinghai province.
Ma Qi (b. Sept. 23, 1869, Daohe [now part of Linxia], Gansu, China - d. Aug. 5, 1931, Xian, Shaanxi, China), governor (1915-28) and chairman of the government (1929-31) of Qinghai. A Muslim, he was a senior commander in the Qinghai-Gansu region ever since the late Qing times, and after Chiang Kai-shek gained control nationwide, he became a brigade commander, and then was promoted to commander of the 26th Division of the National Revolutionary Army in the northwestern region. His civil posts also included member of the Gansu Provincial Council and director of the Gansu Bureau of Construction.
Ma Xulun (b. April 27, 1885, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China - d. May 4, 1970, Beijing, China), education minister of China (1924-25). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance when studying in Japan. After his return, he served as the chief editor of the newspaper "Republic Daily" in Shanghai. He was a professor of both Tsinghua and Peking University before being named as director of the Zhejiang Education Bureau. He spared no effort to fight against the Japanese, disagreeing with Chiang Kai-shek's policy. He organized the Chinese Democracy Promotion Commission (CDPC; now one of the "democratic parties within the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party") in Shanghai in 1946. On June 23, 1946, as a member of the "Anti-Civil War Petition Delegation in Shanghai," he went to Nanjing, where he was attacked by a team of Kuomintang secret agents and severely wounded in a demonstration. After the foundation of the People's Republic, he took up the education ministry once again. He was also vice-chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and chairman of the CDPC.
Ma Ying-jeou, Pinyin Ma Yingjiu (b. July 13, 1950, Hong Kong), president of Taiwan (2008- ). He was justice minister (1993-96), mayor of Taipei (1998-2006), and chairman of the Kuomintang (2005-07, 2009- ).
Ma Yubao (b. 1864, Mengcheng, Anhui, China - d. Feb. 8, 1933), military governor of Jiangxi (1911-12). He was a graduate from the Beiyang Military College and a brigade commander in Qing times, stationing himself in Jiujiang city in Jiangxi. He participated in the uprising in 1911 and took office as the military governor of Jiujiang city and then the whole province, but resigned soon. He was then named as a senior adviser of the president's office.
Ma Zhanshan (b. Nov. 30, 1885, Huaide [now Gongzhuling], Jilin, China - d. Nov. 29, 1950, Beijing, China), chairman of the government of Heilongjiang (1931-32, 1940-45). He started his military career in Zhang Zuolin's northeastern army, serving as a brigade commander. He was promoted after Zhang's death in 1928 and nominated commander of the armed forces against the outlaws as well as commander of the cavalry units. In November 1931, he launched and conducted the "Jiangqiao Campaign," which was the first ever battle against Japanese invaders since the latter gained control over the whole northeastern region in September 1931. From then he kept fighting against Japanese forces. He crossed over to the Communist Party in January 1949 together with Gen. Fu Zuoyi and Deng Baoshan in Beijing, so that Beijing could be taken bloodlessly by the Communists.
Maalouf, Nasri, Arabic Nasri Ma`luf (b. 1911, Mashrae, northeast of Beirut, Lebanon - d. April 2, 2005, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates), Lebanese politician. He served as a minister in various governments between 1951 and 1992, holding the portfolios of finance (1956-57), defense (1973-74), justice (1992), foreign affairs (1992), as well as economy, labour, social affairs, and tourism. He was first elected a member of parliament representing Beirut in 1968, again in 1972, and he held the post until 1992 as the legislature repeatedly extended its four-year term because elections could not be held due to the 1975-90 civil war. A Greek Catholic known for his moderate stands in Lebanon's complex sectarian politics, he was one of the Christian legislators who traveled to the Saudi mountain resort of at-Ta´if in 1989 to sign an Arab-brokered peace accord with Muslim lawmakers that ended the civil war. In 1995, he was elected to fill a parliamentary seat vacated by the death of lawmaker Joseph Mukhaizal.
Määttä, Kaarle (Nikolai) (b. 1900 - d. 1985), governor of Oulu (1949-67).
Mabi Mulumba (b. April 22, 1941), finance minister (1986-87) and prime minister (1987-88) of Zaire.
Mabote, Sebastião (Chinguane) Marcos (b. May 18, 1941, Chicumbane, Gaza province, Mozambique - d. Jan. 27, 2001, Bilene, Gaza), Mozambican politician. He joined Frelimo in 1963 and was one of the top commanders of its guerrilla army during the war of independence. In the closing years of the war he was Frelimo's chief of operations. After independence in 1975, he became deputy defense minister, and chief of staff of the Mozambican armed forces. When ranks were introduced into the army, Mabote was promoted to colonel-general. He was arrested in June 1991 and went on trial before the Supreme Court in August 1992, accused of conspiring to overthrow the government. After a three-week trial, the Supreme Court acquitted Mabote, who claimed that "right-wing opportunists" in the armed forces had tried to destroy him. He retired from the armed forces during the 1994 demobilization. In the general elections of that year, he was elected a Frelimo deputy from his home province of Gaza, and was reelected in 1999. Mabote was also head of the Frelimo Defense and Security Department. He drowned in an accident on Bilene lagoon.
Mabrouk, Hédi (b. April 7, 1921 - d. June 16, 2000, Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (1986-87). He was also ambassador to France (1973-86).
Mabus, Ray(mond Edwin, Jr.) (b. Oct. 11, 1948, Ackerman, Miss.), governor of Mississippi (1988-92) and U.S. navy secretary (2009- ). He was ambassador to Saudi Arabia in 1994-96.
Mabuza, Catherine (Manana) (b. Sept. 29, 1945, Pietersburg, Transvaal [now in Limpopo province], South Africa), acting premier of Limpopo (2004).
Mabuza, David (Dabede) (b. Aug. 25, 1960, Brondal [now in Mpumalanga province], South Africa), premier of Mpumalanga (2009- ).
Mac-Mahon, Patrice Maurice de, in full Marie Edme Patrice Maurice, comte de (count of) Mac-Mahon, duc de (duke of) Magenta (b. July 13, 1808, Sully, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. Oct. 17, 1893, Montcresson, Loiret, France), president of France (1873-79). Beginning his army career in Algeria, he distinguished himself in the storming of Constantine (1837) and later in the Crimean War (1853-56) and in the Italian campaign of 1859 with his victory at Magenta, for which he was made marshal of France and given the title duc de Magenta. In 1864-70 he was governor-general of Algeria (where he had already served as commander in 1858-59), but his rule there was not a success. During the Franco-German War (1870-71), he commanded the I Army Corps in Alsace and was wounded and defeated at the Battle of Wörth. After the war he was appointed head of the Versailles army, which defeated the Paris Commune revolt in May 1871. When Adolphe Thiers resigned as president of the republic in May 1873, the National Assembly elected Mac-Mahon as his successor. On Nov. 20, 1873, the Assembly passed the Law of the Septennate, fixing the term of the presidency at seven years. From this time he and the Assembly were constantly working at cross purposes, and he was widely seen, despite his protestations, as the instrument of anti-republican forces who sought to reestablish the empire. On May 16 (le seize mai), 1877, Mac-Mahon posted a letter of reproach to Prime Minister Jules Simon that compelled him to resign, precipitating the crisis of le seize mai. New elections brought a republican victory, and the constitutional crisis was resolved in favour of parliamentary as against presidential control; after Mac-Mahon's resignation in 1879 the office of president in the Third Republic became largely an honorific post.
Macan, Tom, byname of Thomas Townley Macan (b. Nov. 14, 1946, Manchester, England), governor of the British Virgin Islands (2002-06).
Macapagal, Diosdado (Pañgan) (b. Sept. 28, 1910, Lubao, Philippines - d. April 21, 1997, Makati, Philippines), president of the Philippines (1961-65). In 1949 he was elected to a seat in the House of Representatives from his home province of Pampanga (north of Manila), serving until 1956. During this time he was Philippine representative to the United Nations General Assembly three times. A member of the Liberal Party, he was elected vice president in 1957, serving under Nacionalista president Carlos Garcia. In the 1961 elections, he ran for president, forging a coalition of the Liberal and Progressive parties and making a crusade against corruption a principal element of his platform. He defeated Garcia by a wide margin. He worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the economy. He placed the peso on the free currency-exchange market, encouraged exports, and sought to curb income tax evasion, particularly by the wealthiest families. He was also responsible for changing the date of Philippine independence day to June 12, when revolutionaries declared their independence from Spanish rule in 1898, instead of July 4 when the United States declared Philippine independence in 1946. Describing himself as the "president of the poor," he initiated land reforms, but they were largely ineffectual. His reforms were crippled by a House of Representatives and Senate dominated by the Nacionalistas, and he was defeated in the 1965 elections by Ferdinand Marcos. In 1972 he chaired the convention that drafted the 1973 constitution only to question in 1981 the validity of its ratification. In 1979 he organized the National Union for Liberation as an opposition party to the Marcos regime.
Macapagal-Arroyo, (Maria) Gloria (Macaraeg) (b. April 5, 1947, San Juan, near Manila), president of the Philippines (2001-10); daughter of Diosdado Macapagal. Pres. Corazon Aquino appointed her undersecretary of trade and industry in 1986. She won a seat in the Senate in 1992, was reelected in 1995 by a record 16 million votes, and was named several times by the media as the country's outstanding senator. In 1998 she was elected vice president; her 13 million votes (50%) were the largest mandate ever in a Philippines presidential or vice presidential race. Joseph Estrada, who won the presidency with fewer votes, named her secretary of social welfare and development, an unusual second job for a vice president. As scandal began to envelop Estrada, she resigned the cabinet post on Oct. 12, 2000, to rally opposition against him. Demonstrations were sparked by the Senate's halting of Estrada's impeachment trial on corruption charges. Finally, angry protesters drove Estrada from the presidential palace, the armed forces withdrew support from him, the Supreme Court declared the presidency to be vacant, and Arroyo assumed power. Estrada later claimed he had not relinquished the presidency, but the Supreme Court ruled her government legitimate. A member of the wealthy elite, she sought to win over the masses who had supported the charismatic Estrada, adopting a more informal style on visits to poor areas. Unusual for Philippines politics, she had not been known by a nickname, but her publicists encouraged the use of Ate Glo ("Big Sister Gloria"). In 2004 she won reelection with 40% of the vote. In June 2005 she was accused of election fraud by her opponents, but she survived a political turbulence which followed by foiling an impeachment process against her at the Congress and fending off months of protests in the streets. In 2010 she was elected to the House of Representatives. She was arrested in November 2011 on charges of electoral fraud, but released on bail in July 2012. In October 2012 she was arrested on charges of plunder, a non-bailable offense.
MacArthur, Arthur (b. Jan. 26, 1815, Glasgow, Scotland - d. Aug. 26, 1896, Atlantic City, N.J.), governor of Wisconsin (1856).
MacArthur, Arthur (b. June 2, 1845, Chicopee Falls [now part of Chicopee], Mass. - d. Sept. 5, 1912, Milwaukee, Wis.), governor of the Philippines (1900-01); son of Arthur MacArthur (1815-96).
MacArthur, Douglas (b. Jan. 26, 1880, Little Rock, Ark. - d. April 5, 1964, Washington, D.C.), U.S. general; son of Arthur MacArthur (1845-1912). Graduating from West Point in 1903, he advanced in rank to brigadier general in 1918 and to major general in 1925. He was promoted to general when he was selected as army chief of staff in 1930. He was widely criticized in mid-1932 when he sent regular troops to oust the Bonus Army of veterans from Washington. He retired from the U.S. Army in December 1937. Recalled to active duty in July 1941, he conducted a valiant delaying action against the Japanese in the Philippines after war erupted in December. He was ordered to Australia on March 17, 1942, to command Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific Theater. He was promoted to General of the Army in December 1944 and was appointed commander of all U.S. army forces in the Pacific four months later. He was in charge of the surrender ceremony in Tokyo Bay on Sept. 2, 1945. As Allied commander of the Japanese occupation in 1945-51, he effectively if autocratically directed the demobilization of Japanese military forces, the expurgation of militarists, the restoration of the economy, and the drafting of a liberal constitution. When the Korean War began in 1950, he was soon selected to command United Nations forces there. On April 11, 1951, Pres. Harry S. Truman relieved MacArthur of his commands because of the general's insubordination and unwillingness to conduct a limited war. Returning to the United States, he at first received widespread popular support; the excitement waned after a publicized Senate investigation of his dismissal. In 1944, 1948, and 1952, conservative Republican groups tried in vain to obtain MacArthur's nomination for the presidency.
MacAulay, John (Alexander) (b. 1895, Morden, Manitoba, Canada - d. 1978), chairman of the League of Red Cross Societies (1959-65).
MacBride, Seán, Irish Seán Mac Giolla Bhríghde (b. Jan. 26, 1904, Paris, France - d. Jan. 15, 1988, Dublin, Ireland), Irish politician. When his father was executed by the British for his part in the 1916 Easter Rising, MacBride and his mother returned to Ireland, where he joined the Irish Republican Army (IRA). While working as a journalist for a conservative London newspaper, he secretly fought in the Irish rebellion, becoming IRA chief of staff in 1936. Although he continued to oppose the partition of Ireland, he accepted the constitution of 1937 (which loosened Ireland's ties with the Commonwealth) and quit the IRA. He was elected to the Dáil (lower house of Parliament) in 1947 as a member of the Clann na Poblachta (Republican Party), which he had founded the previous year. He was foreign minister (1948-51) in the coalition government that severed Ireland's last links with the Commonwealth and declared the country a republic in 1949. He served as president (1950) of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the Council of Europe and vice-president (1948-51) of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation. After losing his seat in the Dáil in 1957, he was cofounder (1961) and chairman (1961-75) of Amnesty International, secretary-general (1963-70) of the International Commission of Jurists, and chairman (1972-85) of the International Peace Bureau. He was named assistant secretary-general of the UN and UN commissioner for Namibia in 1973. In 1977 he was appointed chairman of a UNESCO commission studying world communications problems, and from 1982 to 1984 he chaired an international committee studying Israeli actions in Lebanon. He was the only person ever to win the Nobel Peace Prize (1974), the Lenin Peace Prize (1977), and the American Medal of Justice (1978).
Maccioni, Pierre-Henry (b. May 4, 1948, Saint-Denis, Réunion), prefect of Réunion (2006-10).
MacDonald, (Herbert) Bruce, administrator of Norfolk Island (1989-92).
Macdonald, Donald (Stovel) (b. March 1, 1932, Ottawa), defense minister (1970-72) and finance minister (1975-77) of Canada.
MacDonald, Flora Isabel (b. June 3, 1926, North Sydney, Nova Scotia), foreign minister of Canada (1979-80). Hired as a secretary at the Progressive Conservative national headquarters, she soon became executive director and "the operational centre of the party." In 1965 she worked for the ouster of John Diefenbaker as party leader, and in retaliation Diefenbaker had her fired in 1966. In 1972 she was first elected to the House of Commons for the federal riding of Kingston and the Islands. Foreign affairs had also always fascinated her, and in 1972 she became the first woman to graduate from the National Defence College. She tried for the party leadership herself at the 1976 convention, running a populist campaign in which she asked supporters to contribute a dollar each. Defeated after the second ballot, she threw her support behind Joe Clark, the eventual winner. When Clark became prime minister in May 1979, she was rewarded with the cabinet post of secretary of state for external affairs. The first Canadian woman to hold a cabinet seat of such importance, MacDonald was proving equal to the task. At the international meeting on the Vietnamese refugee problem held in Geneva in July 1979, she was commended by other delegates for her tough stance toward the Vietnamese government.
MacDonald, Forbes Ross (d. 1799, Madras, India), superintendent of Penang (1795-99).
Macdonald, Sir Hugh John (b. March 13, 1850, Kingston, Canada West [now Ontario] - d. March 29, 1929, Winnipeg, Manitoba), interior minister of Canada (1896) and premier of Manitoba (1900); son of Sir John A. Macdonald; knighted 1913.
Macdonald, Sir John A(lexander) (b. Jan. 11, 1815, Glasgow, Scotland - d. June 6, 1891, Ottawa, Canada), prime minister of Canada (1867-73, 1878-91). He emigrated from Scotland to Kingston, in what is now Ontario, in 1820. After Upper and Lower Canada were amalgamated in 1841, he was elected to the assembly of the Province of Canada as a Conservative for Kingston in 1844 and entered the cabinet as receiver-general in 1847. In 1848-54, while his party was in opposition, he worked at promoting the British America League, designed to unify Canada and strengthen its ties to Great Britain. In 1854 he helped bring about a new political alliance with George Étienne Cartier, leader of Canada East (now Quebec), out of which developed the Liberal-Conservative Party, with Macdonald its leader. He was joint premier of the Province of Canada in 1856-58, 1858-62, and 1864-67. In June 1864 Macdonald reluctantly agreed to join with Cartier and George Brown to further the scheme of confederation of British North America. He played a central role in the Charlottetown and Quebec conferences in 1864 and chaired the meetings at the London conference in 1866-67. The British North America Act, passed in 1867, created the Dominion of Canada, and Macdonald became its first prime minister. That year he was also created Knight Commander of the Bath. Under his leadership, the dominion quickly expanded to include the provinces of Manitoba (1870), British Columbia (1871), and Prince Edward Island (1873). The Pacific Scandal, in which the government was accused of taking bribes in regard to the Pacific railway contract, forced him to resign in 1873, but he returned as prime minister five years later and served until his death. He was also minister of justice (1867-73), interior (1878-83), and railways and canals (1889-91).
Macdonald, John Sandfield (b. Dec. 12, 1812, St. Raphael West, Upper Canada [now Ontario] - d. June 1, 1872, Cornwall, Ontario, Canada), Canadian politician. In 1841 he was elected to the Canadian parliament, representing Glengarry until 1857 and thereafter Cornwall until 1871. He was the only politician to sit in all eight parliaments of the Province of Canada (1841-67). He supported constitutional government and served as solicitor general (1849-51), speaker of the house (1852-54), and attorney general for Canada West (in the short-lived ministry of August 1858). He was called by Governor-General Lord Monck to form a ministry in 1862 and held office as joint premier (and attorney general for Canada West) for two years. He opposed Canadian confederation, but came to accept it. After the Dominion of Canada was created in 1867, he became the first premier of Ontario and helped settle the relationship of provincial to federal government. When his government was defeated in 1871, he resigned.
MacDonald, Malcolm John (b. Aug. 17, 1901, Lossiemouth, Moray, Scotland - d. Jan. 11, 1981, Raspit Hill, near Sevenoaks, Kent, England), British politician; son of Ramsay MacDonald. He was elected to Parliament in 1929 as Labour member for Bassetlaw and served as secretary of state for the colonies (1935, 1938-40) and for dominion affairs (1935-38, 1938-39). In 1941 he went to Canada as high commissioner, remaining in that post until his appointment in 1946 as governor-general of the Malayan Union and Singapore. There he presided over the difficult years of Communist terrorist activity and helped make the transition to Malayan independence a smooth one. During 1948-55 he was commissioner-general for the U.K. in Southeast Asia. After five years (1955-60) as high commissioner in India, he headed the British delegation at the Geneva conference on Laos. In 1963 he was sent to Kenya as governor and was responsible for reinstating into parliament Jomo Kenyatta, who had been imprisoned by previous British administrators. By bringing Kenyatta to leadership, MacDonald helped to ensure the country's progress to a stable independence. He remained in Kenya as governor-general (1963-64) and high commissioner (1964-65) until Prime Minister Harold Wilson appointed him Britain's roving envoy in Africa. He was awarded the Order of Merit in 1969 and retired in 1970.
MacDonald, (James) Ramsay (b. Oct. 12, 1866, Lossiemouth, Moray, Scotland - d. Nov. 9, 1937, at sea en route to South America), British prime minister (1924, 1929-35). From 1885 he joined various labour and socialist groups. In 1895 he was defeated as a candidate of the Independent Labour Party for the House of Commons. In 1900 he became secretary of the newly-founded Labour Representation Committee (LRC), and in 1906 he was elected to Parliament from Leicester as one of 29 members of the LRC, which thereupon transformed itself into the Labour Party. In 1911 he succeeded Keir Hardie as leader of the parliamentary party. On the outbreak of World War I he was forced to resign in favour of Arthur Henderson because of his anti-war stance. He temporarily lost much of his popularity and was defeated for reelection in 1918. He returned to Parliament in 1922, however, and became leader of the opposition. In 1924, with Liberal support, he became prime minister and also foreign secretary of Britain's first Labour government, which among other things granted diplomatic recognition to the Soviet Union. But the Conservatives regained a majority within the same year. He was returned as prime minister at the 1929 election, when Labour for the first time achieved the largest number of seats. The worldwide economic depression caused rising unemployment. In 1931, when he proposed to cut unemployment benefits, his cabinet resigned in protest, and he formed a coalition with Conservatives and Liberals (the National Government). Declining health diminished his ability to lead the government, and the lord president of the council, Conservative Stanley Baldwin, became effective leader. Finally, in 1935, MacDonald exchanged offices with Baldwin. He resigned the lord presidency in May 1937.
MacDonald, Rodney (Joseph) (b. Jan. 2, 1972, Inverness, N.S.), premier of Nova Scotia (2006-09).
MacEachen, Allan (Joseph) (b. July 6, 1921, Inverness, Cape Breton Island, N.S., Canada), foreign minister (1974-76, 1982-84) and finance minister (1980-82) of Canada.
Macedo, Bernardo António da Costa de Sousa de (b. Sept. 16, 1863, Lisbon, Portugal - d. June 16, 1947, Lisbon), governor of Cape Verde (1907-09).
MacEntee, Sean, Irish Seán Mac an tSaoi (b. Aug. 22, 1889, Belfast, Ireland [now in Northern Ireland] - d. Jan. 9, 1984, Dublin, Ireland), Irish politician. He served in the Irish Republican Army (1916-21) and was a member of the national executive committee of the Irish Volunteers (1917-21). Elected to the Dáil for Sinn Féin in 1918, he was among those of his party who opposed the 1921 Anglo-Irish treaty. A founder member of the Fianna Fáil party in 1927, he served in all of Eamon de Valera's governments, as minister for finance (1932-39, 1951-54), for industry and commerce (1939-41), and for local government (1941-48). He was also minister for health (1957-65) and for social welfare (1957-61). In 1959-65 he was tánaiste (deputy prime minister) under Sean Lemass. By that time he was the last survivor of the Irish politicians who had taken part in the Easter Rising of 1916. Although of impeccable republican and revolutionary background, he argued that the unification of Ireland could be achieved only through winning the confidence of Ulster unionists.
MacEwan, J(ohn) W(alter) Grant (b. Aug. 12, 1902, near Brandon, Manitoba - d. June 15, 2000, Calgary, Alberta), mayor of Calgary (1963-65) and lieutenant governor of Alberta (1966-74).
MacGregor (of MacGregor), Sir Evan John Murray, (2nd) Baronet (b. January 1785 - d. June 14, 1841), governor of Barbados and the Windward Islands (1836-41). He succeeded his father as baronet in 1822.
MacGregor (of MacGregor), Sir John Atholl (Bannatyne), (3rd) Baronet (b. Jan. 20, 1810 - d. May 11, 1851), president of the British Virgin Islands (1850-51); son of Sir Evan John Murray MacGregor.
MacGuigan, Mark (Rudolph) (b. Feb. 17, 1931, Charlottetown, P.E.I., Canada - d. Jan. 12, 1998, Oklahoma City, Okla., U.S.), foreign minister of Canada (1980-82).
Machado (Correia da Silva), Joaquim (Germano) Pinto (b. June 15, 1930, Porto, Portugal - d. March 14, 2011, Porto), governor of Macau (1986-87).
Machado, Londres (b. Feb. 3, 1942, Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso [now in Mato Grosso do Sul], Brazil), acting governor of Mato Grosso do Sul (1979, 1980).
Machado Guimarães, Bernardino Luís (b. March 28, 1851, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. April 29, 1944, Porto, Portugal), prime minister (1914, 1921) and president (1915-17, 1925-26) of Portugal. He was elected twice (1890, 1894) to the chamber of peers as representative of Coimbra University, Lisbon. He was also minister of public works (1893) and created the first labour court in Portugal. As early as 1897 he openly declared himself a republican, and in 1902 he was elected president of the governing board of the Republican Party. His election in 1906 as a Republican deputy to Lisbon led to the downfall of the monarchist government of that day, and for the part he played before and during the revolution of 1910, he can be counted among the founders of the republic. He served as minister of foreign affairs (1910-11), deputy to the constituent assembly and senator (1911), and minister (later ambassador) to Brazil (1912). Though he was defeated in an early bid for the presidency, his political advancement was not long checked, and he became prime minister and interior minister in 1914. He committed Portugal to the British side in World War I. Elected president on Aug. 6, 1915, he was overthrown by the rightist revolution of Dec. 8, 1917, and sent to exile in Spain. He returned to play a venerable part in the last years of the liberal republic. He led a coalition ministry in 1921, but was deposed in a military coup after two months. He became president again on Dec. 11, 1925, but was once more deposed (May 28, 1926) when the real revolution occurred. Banished from the country in February 1927, he spent his exile in France, whence he carried on a violent literary campaign against the "New State." In 1940 he was allowed to return home.
Machado y Morales, Gerardo (b. Sept. 29, 1871, Camajuaní, Santa Clara province, Cuba - d. March 29, 1939, Miami Beach, Fla.), president of Cuba (1925-33). A hero in the Cuban War of Independence (1895-98), he left the army after the war as a brigadier general. He turned to business but remained active in politics, being elected mayor of Santa Clara and later narrowly defeated as candidate for governor of Santa Clara province. Under Pres. José Miguel Gómez he was chief of the army and secretary of the interior. In 1920 he succeeded Gómez as leader of the Liberal Party. His election to the presidency in 1924 was welcomed by most Cubans, especially the middle class, who thought a sensible businessman would restore order to a disrupted society. To counteract economic depression caused by declining sugar prices, he instituted a massive program of public works and promoted manufacturing to reduce Cuba's dependence on the United States. But he was accused of enriching himself at public expense. In 1927 he seized control of the other political parties. In 1928 he forced through a constitutional amendment extending the presidential term from four to six years and went back on an earlier promise not to run for a second term. He secured his reelection despite heated opposition from students and professional men and began to rule even more dictatorially. This, coupled with the hardships of the economic depression of the 1930s, caused widespread disorder. After the failure of an open revolt in 1931, the secret ABC organization engaged in an underground war against his regime. In 1933 U.S. Ambassador Sumner Welles, under instructions from Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, tried to mediate, but a general strike was called, and the army executed a bloodless coup on August 11. The next day he went into an exile from which he never returned.
Machar (Teny Dhurgon), Riek (b. 1952, Ler [now in Western Upper Nile state], Sudan), chairman of the Southern Sudan Coordination Council (1997-2000). On Aug. 19, 2005, he was named vice president of the Government of Southern Sudan, and on July 9, 2011, he became vice president of independent South Sudan.
Machel, Samora (Moisés) (b. Sept. 29, 1933, Chilembene, Gaza province, Mozambique - d. Oct. 19, 1986, Mbuzini, Natal, South Africa), president of Mozambique (1975-86). He went to Tanzania in 1962 to join the clandestine Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) and was sent for military training to Algeria. He took over responsibility for a sector of Frelimo's guerrilla operations in 1964, quickly won prominence both as a commander and as a military organizer, and became Frelimo's commander in chief in 1968. Eduardo Mondlane, Frelimo's founder and leader, was assassinated in 1969, and Machel succeeded him as leader in May 1970 and led his country to independence in June 1975. Although an orthodox Marxist, once in office he proved himself to be a pragmatist. He accepted the necessity of maintaining formal but not close relations with South Africa, on which Mozambique was heavily dependent because of traditional economic and communications links. At the same time, he gave his support to the African National Congress in its liberation struggle against South Africa. He surprised the world in March 1984 by entering into a security and economic treaty with South Africa known as the Nkomati accords. This reversal of position was forced on him by the growing threat from the rebel Mozambique National Resistance, the periodic military attacks by South Africa, and severe economic troubles compounded by a savage drought. Not wishing to appear in the role of a defeated leader, he demonstratively appeared in full field marshal's uniform to sign the treaty with South Africa's Pres. P.W. Botha. He was killed in a plane crash while returning to Maputo from Lusaka, Zambia. Many of his political adherents believed the South African government was responsible for the crash; Pretoria strongly denied the accusation. His second wife Graça, née Simbine, whom he married on Sept. 7, 1975, served as education and culture minister in 1975-89; after her husband's death, she married Nelson Mandela on July 17, 1998.
Machimura, Nobutaka (b. Oct. 17, 1944, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (2004-05, 2007).
Machungo, Mário (Fernandes) da Graça (b. Dec. 1, 1940, Maxixe, Inhambane province, Mozambique), prime minister of Mozambique (1986-94).
Macías Nguema, Francisco, from 1972 Francisco Macías Nguema Biyogo; from 1975 Macías Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong; from 1976 Masie Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong (b. 1922, Nsegayong, Río Muni [now in Equatorial Guinea] - d. Sept. 29, 1979, Malabo, Equatorial Guinea), president (1968-79) and foreign minister (1969-71) of Equatorial Guinea. He assumed the presidency when the former Spanish colony became an independent republic in October 1968. A member of the Fang group of the Bantu tribe, Macías ruled his country as a savage dictator. Most of the 7,000 European residents fled when the Spanish garrison was evicted in 1969. He had a pathological hatred of intellectuals and killed 10 of the 12 ministers in his first government. The man who entitled himself "the Great Maestro of Popular Education, Science and Traditional Culture" as well as "the only miracle," made it a crime to be unhappy, help missionaries, or fail to attend manifestations of praise and joy. He proclaimed himself president for life on July 14, 1972. In 1973 a UN mission was expelled and in 1976 Nigeria evacuated the last of its 45,000 cocoa estate workers after they had been mistreated and deprived of their wages. Macías was ultimately responsible for the systematic murder or exile of the small educated class, which came mostly from the rival Bubi tribe. Macías was overthrown on Aug. 3, 1979, by a military coup led by his relative, Deputy Defense Minister Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo. Macías withdrew to his home village, taking with him the contents of the state treasury in bags he stored around his hut. Much of the money simply rotted away. Accused of treason, embezzlement, and genocide, Macías was sentenced to death by a court-martial and shot.
Maciel, Marco (Antônio de Oliveira) (b. July 21, 1940, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (1979-82) and vice president of Brazil (1995-2003). He was president of the Chamber of Deputies in 1977-79.
Mackau, Ange René Armand, baron de (b. Feb. 19, 1788, Paris - d. May 13, 1855, Paris), governor of Martinique (1836-38) and French minister of marine and colonies (1843-47).
MacKay, Buddy, byname of Kenneth Hood MacKay, Jr. (b. March 22, 1933, Ocala, Fla.), governor of Florida (1998-99).
MacKay, John George (B.) (b. Nov. 6, 1893, Albany, P.E.I. - d. Oct. 21, 1974), lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island (1969-74).
MacKay, Peter (Gordon) (b. Sept. 27, 1965, New Glasgow, N.S.), foreign minister (2006-07) and defense minister (2007- ) of Canada.
Mackenzie, Alexander (b. Jan. 28, 1822, Logierait, Perth, Scotland - d. April 17, 1892, Toronto, Ontario), prime minister of Canada (1873-78). He emigrated in 1842 from Scotland to Canada West (now Ontario). He attached himself to the Reform Party and was editor (1852-54) of the Lambton Shield, a local Reform newspaper. He became friendly with George Brown, editor of The Globe (Toronto) and leader of the Reform Party. When Brown broke from the Reformers and later led the radical "Clear Grit" faction, Mackenzie also joined the new group. He was elected to parliament in 1861, and because Brown was defeated in the election, Mackenzie became de facto leader of the Clear Grits in the House of Commons. He supported the confederation movement, and after the Dominion of Canada was created in 1867, he was elected from Lambton to the new federal parliament. Brown was again defeated, and Mackenzie gathered the Reform members from all provinces into a new Liberal Party and became leader of the opposition. In 1871 he was also elected to the Ontario legislature and became treasurer in a Liberal government, but he had to give up the post when dual representation was abolished in 1872. He became Canada's first Liberal prime minister after the fall of Sir John Macdonald's Conservative government in 1873. In the 1874 election he won a large majority over the Conservatives. But economic depression ultimately brought about the defeat of his government in 1878, as voters preferred Macdonald's protectionist policy to Mackenzie's aim of renewed reciprocity with the United States. Mackenzie also had to delay the completion of the Pacific railway. He resigned the party leadership in 1880 but retained his seat in Parliament until his death.
Mackenzie, William Lyon (b. March 12, 1795, Springfield, near Dundee, Scotland - d. Aug. 28, 1861, Toronto, Canada West [now Ontario]), mayor of Toronto (1834-35).
Mackenzie-Kennedy, Sir (Henry Charles) Donald (Cleveland) (b. 1889 - d. Aug. 2, 1965), governor of Nyasaland (1939-42) and Mauritius (1942-48); knighted 1939.
Mackilligin, David (Patrick Robert) (b. June 29, 1939), governor of the British Virgin Islands (1995-98).
MacLean Abaroa, (Henrry) Ronald (b. March 11, 1949, La Paz, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1992-93).
MacLehose of Beoch, (Crawford) Murray MacLehose, Baron (b. Oct. 16, 1917, Glasgow, Scotland - d. May 27, 2000, Ayrshire, Scotland), governor of Hong Kong (1971-82). He oversaw the colony's development from a small trading post into one of the most important industrial and commercial centres in Asia. He also took a pragmatic approach to relations with China, particularly as Britain's 99-year lease on the colony was quickly approaching its end. In July 1997, Hong Kong - a British colony for 156 years - was formally handed back to China. It became a Special Administrative Region in China, with guaranteed autonomy under a so-called "one country, two systems" arrangement. During his tenure, MacLehose tried to improve relations with Beijing. He was the first governor to celebrate China Day and he made a successful visit to the Chinese capital in 1979. When MacLehose returned from the meetings, he reportedly assured Hong Kong business leaders that they could "put their hearts at ease." While he was widely credited with helping Hong Kong prosper economically, some accused him of being too trusting of the Chinese and failing to introduce Western-style democracy to the colony. He summed up his opposition to full elections, saying: "If the communists won, that would be the end of Hong Kong. If the nationalists won, that would bring in the communists." In an interview with the London Daily Telegraph, he later admitted that his opposition to introducing full democracy was "the sort of thing one looks back at and wonders whether one should have done it." But he added: "I still think I was right." After his retirement, he returned to Britain, but he was in attendance in 1997 when Hong Kong was formally handed back to Beijing. He was knighted in 1971 and created a life peer in 1982.
MacLellan, Russell (b. Jan. 16, 1940, Halifax, N.S.), premier of Nova Scotia (1997-99). He was first elected to the House of Commons from Cape Breton-The Sydneys in 1979, and reelected in 1980, 1984, 1988, and 1993. Recognized nationally as an exceptional legislative facilitator, he served as parliamentary secretary to the ministries of mines, health and welfare, regional economic expansion, and justice; and as his party's critic for consumer and corporate affairs, energy, and justice. He chaired the Atlantic Canada Liberal Caucus, served on numerous parliamentary committees, and spoke for Canada in forums ranging from the United Nations to the World Health Organization. He won the leadership of Nova Scotia's governing Liberal Party on July 12, 1997, and was sworn in as Nova Scotia's 24th premier on July 18. He was elected as member of the Legislative Assembly for Cape Breton North in a November 1997 by-election and reelected in the March 1998 general election, which however reduced the Liberals to 19 seats, the same number as the New Democratic Party. A tacit agreement with the third-placed Progressive Conservatives allowed his government to hang on until it was defeated in the legislature in 1999 when it tabled a deficit budget. The Conservatives then swept to power in the ensuing elections. MacLellan was fluent in both official languages and provided a strong voice, in Nova Scotia and across the country, for national unity. He resigned the party leadership and his seat in the legislature in 2000.
Maclennan of Rogart, Robert (Adam Ross) Maclennan, Baron (b. June 26, 1936, Glasgow, Scotland), British politician. In 1966 he became Labour Party MP for the constituency of Caithness and Sutherland in the Scottish Highlands. He consistently took positions to the right of the Labour Party. Following Labour's defeat in 1970, he was appointed opposition spokesman, first on Scotland and then on defense, but he resigned in April 1972 over Labour's opposition to Britain's membership in the European Communities. This did not, however, prevent him from being appointed a junior minister in the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection (1974-79) when Labour returned to office. He was one of the original group of Labour MPs to leave the party in 1981 to form the Social Democratic Party (SDP). In the June 1987 general elections, only 22 candidates of the Alliance (of the Liberal Party and the SDP) won seats in Parliament, and just 5 of these belonged to the SDP. Liberal leader David Steel called for the two parties to merge. SDP leader David Owen opposed the idea, and when SDP members voted by a margin of 57-43% in favour of the principle of merger, he immediately resigned; he indicated that he would create a new, antimerger party and carried two SDP MPs with him. Since the party constitution required that the party leader be an MP, this left only two possible candidates for the succession: Charles Kennedy, an enthusiastic supporter of merger, and Maclennan, who had maintained a relatively neutral stance on the issue. But Kennedy was only 27, so the little-known Maclennan was the only candidate eligible for the post; on Aug. 29, 1987, he became the third leader of the SDP. The merger took place in 1988, and Maclennan was briefly co-leader (with Steel) of the Social and Liberal Democrats.
Macmillan, (Maurice) Harold, (1st) Earl of Stockton, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden (b. Feb. 10, 1894, London - d. Dec. 29, 1986, Birch Grove, Sussex, England), British prime minister (1957-63). He was aide-de-camp (1919-20) to the governor-general of Canada, the Duke of Devonshire, whose daughter he married in 1920. He sat in the House of Commons in 1924-29 and 1931-64. In Winston Churchill's World War II coalition government formed in 1940, he was parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Supply and then served as colonial undersecretary (February-December 1942), before he was sent to northwest Africa as British minister resident at Allied Forces Headquarters, Mediterranean Command. At the end of the war in Europe, he was secretary of state for air in Churchill's "caretaker" government (May-July 1945). Losing his Stockton-on-Tees seat in the Labour landslide of 1945, he became MP for Bromley, Kent. After the Conservatives regained power in 1951, he was successively minister of housing and local government (1951-54), minister of defense (1954-55), foreign secretary (1955), and chancellor of the exchequer (1955-57). He was appointed prime minister in 1957, following the illness and resignation of Sir Anthony Eden in the wake of the Suez crisis, and was elected leader of the Conservative Party, which he led to a resounding victory in the 1959 election under the slogan "You've never had it so good." His popularity ratings long remained high, and the nickname "Supermac," ironically employed by the cartoonist Vicky, stuck and came to be used with admiration. He resigned in 1963 in the midst of economic difficulties and after a scandal involving the secretary of state for war, John Profumo. He retired from the House of Commons in September 1964. He received the Order of Merit in 1976 and was created an earl in 1984.
Macoonco (d. [killed] May 9, 1905, Bujumbura, Burundi), Burundian rebel chief (18...-1905).
MacPherson, Pieter Daniël Eugenius (b. April 4, 1792, Dunkerque, France - d. Jan. 19, 1846, Maastricht), governor of Limburg (1845-46).
Mactavish, William (b. March 29, 1815, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. July 23, 1870, Liverpool, England), governor of Assiniboia (1858-69) and Rupert's Land (1864-70).
Madaki, John (Jahaya), governor of Katsina (1989-92).
Madaki, Joshua (b. July 6, 1947, Manchok [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria - d. [car accident] May 7, 2003, Enugu state), governor of Bauchi (1987-90) and Plateau (1990-92).
Madaki, Yohanna (Anteyan) (b. Dec. 31, 1944, Zuturum [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria - d. May 20, 2006, London, England), governor of Gongola (1985-86) and Benue (1986).
Madar, Muhammad Hawadle, Somali Maxamed Xawaadle Madar, prime minister of Somalia (1990-91).
Maddox, Lester (Garfield) (b. Sept. 30, 1915, Atlanta, Ga. - d. June 25, 2003, Atlanta), governor of Georgia (1967-71). Through his fried chicken restaurant, the Pickrick, he became nationally known in the 1960s for his outspoken opposition to integration. He ultimately closed and then sold the restaurant rather than serve blacks. He ran twice for mayor of Atlanta and once for lieutenant governor before capturing the state's highest office through a quirk in state law. He won the Democratic nomination for governor in 1966 but trailed Republican Howard H. "Bo" Callaway in the general election. Write-in votes for other candidates prevented Callaway from receiving a majority, and the question was thrown to the Democrat-dominated legislature, which picked Maddox. Fears of racial strife during his governorship proved unfounded when he pursued a policy of relative moderation on race. He was known for quaint sayings ("It's great to be alive; a lot of folks aren't, you know") and outrageous gestures like riding a bicycle backward. As his term drew to a close, he challenged a constitutional provision barring governors from succeeding themselves. He failed, but managed to be elected lieutenant governor with Jimmy Carter as governor. It was a classic mismatch. Said Maddox: "It's all right for a fellow to grow peanuts ... but people ought not to think like them. I don't know whether the man is sick, or just a plain fool." In 1974, Maddox once again was eligible to run for governor, but lost. He flirted with national politics in 1976 when his old nemesis Carter ran successfully for president. As the presidential nominee of the American Independent Party, Maddox got only a handful of votes. He tried a final comeback in Georgia in 1990, but came only fifth with just 3% of the vote.
Madero (González), Francisco I(gnacio)1 (b. Oct. 30, 1873, Parras, Coahuila, Mexico - d. Feb. 22, 1913, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Mexico (1911-13). He helped organize the Benito Juárez Democratic Club and made an unsuccessful attempt to become governor of Coahuila (1905). After dictator Porfirio Díaz removed restrictions on political activity in 1908, Madero wrote the book La sucesión presidencial en 1910, which added to the public awakening that precipitated the coming revolution. He helped organize the Antireelectionist Party and in April 1910 became its presidential candidate. On the eve of the election of June 1910 (which Díaz won), Madero was arrested on charges of fomenting a rebellion and insulting the authorities. Released on bond, he escaped to San Antonio, Texas, where in October 1910 he published the Plan of San Luis Potosí, declaring himself the legitimate president of Mexico and calling for an armed insurrection to begin on November 20. In February 1911 he joined the revolutionary forces in Chihuahua. In May they took Ciudad Juárez, and soon after Díaz resigned and an interim government was established. The presidential election in October 1911 was a sweeping triumph for Madero, who was hailed as the "apostle of democracy." As president, however, he was attacked both by the entrenched supporters of the old regime and by popular leaders like Pascual Orozco and Emiliano Zapata who accused Madero of betraying the revolution. Several rebellions were quelled, but when a military revolt broke out in the capital in February 1913, Madero was arrested and forced to sign his resignation, and while being transferred to prison he was assassinated by the escort.
1 Instead of Ignacio, as it appears on his birth and baptismal certificates (there actually spelled Ygnacio), his second name is often given as Indalecio. He was always referred to as Francisco I. Madero, and the false assumption may have arisen because his father was Francisco Indalecio; there is no evidence for the theory that he changed his name at some point.
Madge, Edward (Henry), commissioner of Seychelles (1815-22).
Madi (Boléro), Hamada (b. Oct. 23, 1965, Boingoma, Mohéli), prime minister (2000-02), interim president (2002), and defense minister (2002-04) of the Comoros. He was a presidential candidate in 2010.
Madigan, Edward (Rell) (b. Jan. 13, 1936, Lincoln, Ill. - d. Dec. 7, 1994, Springfield, Ill.), U.S. secretary of agriculture (1991-93).
Madikizela-Mandela, Winnie, during marriage called Winnie Mandela, original name Nomzamo Nobandla Winifred Zanyiwe Madikizela (b. Sept. 26, 1934 or 1936, Bizana, Pondoland district, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa), South African politician. She met Nelson Mandela in 1956 and married him in 1958. After the start of her husband's long imprisonment (1962-90), she was banned and frequently harassed by the authorities; she spent 17 months in jail in 1969-70 and 4 months in 1976 and lived in internal exile in 1977-85 (in the small town of Brandfort, Orange Free State); when the house where she lived was burned down by vigilantes in 1985, she moved to Soweto and resisted eviction attempts. Subsequently she was left undisturbed by the police, although she ignored the banning order that forbade her to speak at public meetings. Whenever she appeared at such meetings, she attracted crowds of up to 40,000 people. She supported violent resistance to the white regime, was in favour of the imposition of sanctions, and urged strike action by black workers. However, her reputation as an anti-apartheid heroine was marred in 1988-89, when she was linked with the beating and kidnapping of four black youths, one of whom was killed by her chief bodyguard. Nevertheless, she was elected to the presidency of the African National Congress (ANC) Women's League in 1993, and in 1994 was elected to parliament and appointed deputy minister of arts, culture, science, and technology in South Africa's first multiracial government, which was headed by her husband. As she continued to provoke controversy with attacks on the government and strident appeals to radical young black followers, Nelson Mandela expelled her from his cabinet in 1995. They had separated in 1992 and were divorced in 1996. She resigned from parliament and from her posts within the ANC in 2003 after a conviction for fraud and theft (the theft conviction was overturned in 2004).
Madison, James (b. March 16 [March 5, Old Style], 1751, Port Conway, Virginia - d. June 28, 1836, Montpelier, Va., U.S.), president of the United States (1809-17). He was elected to Virginia's 1776 revolutionary convention, where he drafted the state's guarantee of religious freedom. In the convention-turned-legislature he helped Thomas Jefferson disestablish the church but lost reelection by refusing to furnish the electors with free whiskey. In 1777 he was elected to the governor's council, in March 1780 he was sent to the Continental Congress, and in 1784 he reentered the Virginia legislature. He persuaded the states-rights advocate John Tyler to sponsor the calling of the Annapolis Convention of 1786, which, aided by Madison's influence, produced the Constitutional Convention of 1787. There, he influenced the planning and ratification of the U.S. Constitution and collaborated with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in the publication of The Federalist Papers, which became the standard commentary on the constitution. As a member of the new House of Representatives (1789-97), he sponsored the first 10 amendments to the constitution (the Bill of Rights). He was secretary of state (1801-09) under Pres. Thomas Jefferson. He won the presidency easily in 1808 by publishing his vigorous diplomatic dispatches and was reelected in 1812 despite strong opposition. Believing that England was bent on permanent suppression of American commerce, he proclaimed nonintercourse with England on Nov. 2, 1810. War was declared in June 1812. At first defeat followed defeat, and in 1814 the British marched into Washington, D.C., and burned most of the public buildings; Madison had to flee into the countryside for three days. But victories followed, and the war ended in 1815 with what was generally regarded as a U.S. triumph.
Mádl, Ferenc (b. Jan. 29, 1931, Bánd, Hungary - d. May 29, 2011), president of Hungary (2000-05).
Madoka, Marsden (Herman) (b. March 15, 1943, Mwatate, Coast province, Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (2001-03).
Madoux, André (b. Jan. 28, 1909 - d. Oct. 30, 1986), president of the Regional Council of Lorraine (1979-82).
Madoz (e Ibáñez), Pascual (b. May 17, 1806, Pamplona, Spain - d. Dec. 13, 1870, Genoa, Italy), president of the Interim Revolutionary Junta of Spain (1868).
Madre, Charles Albert (b. Nov. 13, 1844, Metz, Moselle, France - d. 19...), governor of Réunion (1900-01).
Madrid (Hurtado), Miguel de la (b. Dec. 12, 1934, Colima, Colima, Mexico - d. April 1, 2012, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Mexico (1982-88). He began his career in government service in 1960 as an adviser to the Bank of Mexico. In 1963 he joined Mexico's ruling party, Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI). In 1965-70 he was subdirector of credit in the Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit. From 1970 to April 1972 he operated as subdirector of finance at Petróleos Mexicanos, the nationalized oil company, but in May he rejoined the Secretariat of Finance as director general of credit. He was appointed undersecretary of finance in October 1975 and from May 1979 occupied the post of secretary for planning and budget in Pres. José López Portillo's administration (1976-82). He was the principal author of an economic-development plan that was inspired by the revenues from vast new discoveries of Mexican petroleum and based on tighter government controls. Selected by the PRI in September 1981 to be its presidential candidate, he was elected president on July 4, 1982, with 74% of the vote, and assumed power on December 1. A political conservative and friend of the business community, he pursued growth-oriented economic reforms and in a "moral renovation" sought to combat corruption in government, in government-run industries, and in labour unions. His foreign policies continued to reflect the prevailing spirit of a more independent, worldly Mexico. The austerity measures he took to halt the erosion of the economy were not popular and contributed to the relatively poor showing of the PRI in the 1988 election, when his successor Carlos Salinas de Gortari won with just over 50% of the vote and even that result was widely seen as fraudulent.
M. de la Madrid
Madrid Romandía, Roberto de la (b. Feb. 3, 1922, Calexico, Calif. - d. March 19, 2010, Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico), governor of Baja California (1977-83).
Madrigal Nieto, Rodrigo (b. March 14, 1924, San José, Costa Rica - d. Oct. 11, 2006, San José), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1986-90).
Madriz (Rodríguez), José (b. July 21, 1867, León, Nicaragua - d. May 14, 1911, Mexico City, Mexico), acting president of Nicaragua (1909-10).
Madueke, Allison (Amaechina) (b. 1944), governor of Anambra (1984-85) and Imo (1985-86).
Maduekwe, Ojo (b. May 6, 1945, Ohafia [now in Abia state], Nigeria), foreign minister of Nigeria (2007-10).
Maduro (Moros), Nicolás (b. Nov. 23, 1962, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister (2006-13), executive vice president (2012-13), and president (2013- ) of Venezuela. He was also president of the National Assembly (2005-06).
Maduro (Joest), Ricardo (Rodolfo) (b. April 20, 1946, Panamá province, Panama), president of Honduras (2002-06). He entered politics in the 1980s as a founding member of the "Change and Unity" movement whose objective was the renovation of the National Party. The movement gained control of the party in 1989 and carried Rafael Leonardo Callejas to the presidency. Maduro was campaign director in 1985 and 1989. During the Callejas administration (1990-94), he held the position of president of the Central Bank. He then retired to private life until coming back as the National Party presidential candidate in 2001. He became the country's second Jewish president (after Juan Lindo in 1847-52).
Mäe, Hjalmar (b. Oct. 24, 1901, Estonia - d. April 10, 1978, Graz, Austria), Erster Landesdirektor of German-occupied Estonia (1941-44).
Maecha, Mtara (b. Feb. 28, 1940, Mitsamiouli, Grande Comore, Comoros), foreign minister of the Comoros (1990-91).
Maehara, Seiji (b. April 30, 1962, Kyoto, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (2010-11).
Maga, (Coutoucou) Hubert (b. Aug. 10, 1916, Parakou, central Dahomey [now Benin] - d. May 8, 2000, Cotonou, Benin), president (1960-63, 1970-72) and foreign minister (1963) of Dahomey. He was elected to the French parliament in 1951 and served as junior minister of labour in the French cabinet (1957-58). Prime minister of Dahomey from May to July 1960, he was elected president in December 1960. Maga, whose aide-de-camp was then the young Lt. Mathieu Kérékou, was toppled in 1963 by a military coup following a workers' strike and street demonstrations. The government had just decided to reduce public service workers salaries by 10% to enable it cope with the first financial crisis it had to deal with. It was later understood that Maga's political rivals, eager to capture power, had manipulated the trade unions to usurp power. The tussle for power which toppled the first democratically elected president of Dahomey (later renamed Benin) plunged the country into a cycle of political instability characterized by other coups in 1965, 1967, 1969, and 1972. Maga had another tenure in 1970 with the establishment of a Presidential Council made up of the three former civilian heads of state, each of them piloting the affairs of state over a two-year period. Maga concluded his term in office and made room for Pres. Justin Ahomadegbé in May 1972. Five months later, the council was overthrown by a group of young military officers led by Major Kérékou. After the putsch, members of the Presidential Council were placed under house arrest until 1981. As soon as they were released they went into exile. Maga came back to the political arena with the National Conference of 1990, which granted amnesty to all political exiles. He was a member of the High Council of the Republic (transition parliament) and later of the Constitutional Court.
Magabe, Jean-Charles (d. July 5, 1999, Brussels, Belgium), governor of Sud-Kivu (1997-98).
Magalhães, Antônio Carlos (Peixoto de) (b. Sept. 4, 1927, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. July 20, 2007, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Bahia (1971-75, 1979-83, 1991-94).
Magalhães, Juracy Montenegro (b. Aug. 4, 1905, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil - d. May 15, 2001, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil), governor of Bahia (1931-37, 1959-63) and justice minister (1965-66) and foreign minister (1966-67) of Brazil.
Magaña Borja, Álvaro Alfredo (b. Oct. 8, 1925, Ahuachapán - d. July 10, 2001, San Salvador), president of El Salvador (1982-84). After the success of right-wing factions in the March 1982 general elections, it appeared that their leader, Roberto D'Aubuisson, would be elected president by the Constituent Assembly, the national parliament. Strong opposition to him developed, however, chiefly from the moderate Christian Democrats and from the military. During El Salvador's recent turbulent years Magaña had established himself as a respected public figure without becoming attached to any political faction. This, as well as his acknowledged good relations with the military, convinced the Constituent Assembly to break its three-week deadlock over the nomination of the provisional president. Magaña described himself as a reluctant candidate, which was hardly surprising, given the near-impossible task he was expected to fulfill. The U.S.-sponsored elections failed to create any focus of political authority independent of the armed forces, and the military remained the effective rulers of the country, continuing their war against insurgent guerrilla forces. Despite the fragility of his coalition and the temporary nature of his appointment, Magaña showed surprising strength in his first year in office. In January 1983 he stripped D'Aubuisson of most of his powers as president of the Constituent Assembly. But his numerous attempts at securing a working relationship between D'Aubuisson's group and the Christian Democrats (the largest single party in the Assembly) were unsuccessful. By November 1983, the Assembly had failed three times to meet its self-imposed deadline to approve El Salvador's new constitution; as a result, general elections scheduled for the end of 1983 had to be postponed.
Magande, Ng'andu (Peter) (b. July 5, 1947, Namaila, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), secretary-general of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (1996-2000) and finance minister of Zambia (2003-08).
Magashule, Ace, byname of Sekgobelo Magashule (b. 1959, Parys, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa), premier of the Free State (2009- ).
Maggi, Blairo Borges (b. May 29, 1956, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), governor of Mato Grosso (2003-10).
Magli, Giovanni (b. June 27, 1884, Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto, Sicilia, Italy - d. Jan. 28, 1969, Bari, Italy), governor of Sardegna (1943-44).
Maglione, Agostino (b. June 21, 1744 - d. 18...), member of the Executive Directory (1798-99) and of the Extraordinary Commission of Government (1800) of the Ligurian Republic.
Maglione, Luigi Cardinal (b. March 2, 1877, Casoria, Campania, Italy - d. Aug. 22, 1944, Casoria), Vatican secretary of state (1939-44).
Magliotto, Armando (b. 1927, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Alpes-Maritimes, France - d. Nov. 4, 2005), president of Liguria (1979-80).
Magloire, Paul Eugène (b. July 19, 1907, Quartier Morin, Haiti - d. July 12, 2001, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), president of Haiti (1950-56). While serving as an army general, he ousted Pres. Dumarsais Estimé in 1950. The early years of his rule were what many consider Haiti's golden age - when tourism was at its peak and when Haitian coffee exports drew high prices. But a 1954 hurricane inflicted heavy damage on the economy and he was ousted by the military two years later. He took exile in New York, only returning to Haiti after the 29-year father-and-son dynasty of the Duvaliers ended in 1986. He served as adviser to Lt.Gen. Henri Namphy, who ruled Haiti briefly in 1988. After that he kept a low profile - never making public comments and appearing seldom in public.
Magnago, Silvius (b. Feb. 5, 1914, Meran, Tirol, Austria [now in Bozen-Südtirol, Italy] - d. May 25, 2010, Bozen, Bozen-Südtirol), Landeshauptmann of Bozen-Südtirol (1960-89). He was chairman of the Südtirol People's Party from 1957 to 1992.
Magnani, Rinaldo (b. May 23, 1930, Genoa, Italy - d. Feb. 1, 2006, Genoa), president of Liguria (1983-90).
Magnette, Charles (b. Feb. 3, 1863, Virton, Belgium - d. Oct. 18, 1937, Liège, Belgium), chairman of the Senate of Belgium (1928-32).
Magnin, Édouard (Victor), interim resident of Wallis and Futuna (1914-16).
Magno, Adaljiza (Albertina Xavier Reis) (b. Jan. 7, 1975, Baguia, Portuguese Timor [now East Timor]), acting foreign minister of East Timor (2007).
Magnuson, Warren G(rant) (b. April 12, 1905, Moorhead, Minn. - d. May 20, 1989, Seattle, Wash.), U.S. politician. "Maggie," as he was known to his constituents and friends, served in the Washington state legislature (1933-34) and was a special prosecuting attorney in Seattle for King county (1934-36). He served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1937-45) before his election to the Senate, where he served six terms (1945-81), wielding considerable power as chairman of the Appropriations Committee. He was also a ranking member on the powerful Commerce Committee. He was a champion of legislation on health policy and safety standards and was instrumental in securing funds for water and public power projects. From 1979 to 1981 he was president pro tem of the Senate. He lost his bid for reelection in 1980.
Magnússon, Magnús H(elgi) (b. Sept. 30, 1922, Vestmannaeyjum, Iceland), Icelandic politician. He was minister of health, welfare, and social security in 1978-80 and of transport in 1979-80.
Magomadov, Lecha (Dobachevich) (b. Sept. 3, 1938 - d. Jan. 25, 2005, Mecca, Saudi Arabia), chairman of the Supreme Provisional Council of the Chechen-Ingush Republic (1991). He was later one of the founders of the Chechen branch of the pro-Kremlin United Russia party.
Magomedov, Magomedali (Magomedovich) (b. June 15, 1930, Levashi, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1983-87), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1987-90), chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-94), and chairman of the State Council (1994-2006) of Dagestan.
Magomedov, Magomedsalam (Magomedaliyevich) (b. June 1, 1964, Levashi, Dagestan A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), president of Dagestan (2010-13); son of Magomedali Magomedov.
Magras, Bruno (b. Sept. 9, 1951, Flamands, Saint-Barthélemy), mayor (1995-2007) and president of the Territorial Council (2007- ) of Saint-Barthélemy.
Magsaysay (y del Fierro), Ramon (b. Aug. 31, 1907, Iba, Philippines - d. March 17, 1957, near Cebu, Philippines), president of the Philippines (1953-57). He was a guerrilla leader on Luzon during the Japanese occupation in World War II and was appointed military governor of his home province, Zambales, when the U.S. recaptured the Philippines. He served two terms (1946-50) as a Liberal Party congressman for Zambales, dedicating himself to separate the peasantry from its Communist leaders. Pres. Elpidio Quirino appointed him secretary of defense to deal with the Hukbalahap (Huk) rebels, whose leader, Luis Taruc, in February 1950 established a People's Liberation Army and called for the overthrow of the government. He carried out one of the most successful antiguerrilla campaigns in modern history by striving to win the trust of the peasants, offering land and tools to those who came over to the government side, and by insisting that army units treat the people with respect. He reorganized the Philippine army to rid it of corruption. Finally the Huks were no longer a serious threat but his radical measures had made many enemies for him within the government, compelling him to resign on Feb. 28, 1953, when he charged the Quirino administration with corruption and incompetence. Although Magsaysay was a Liberal, the Nacionalista Party backed him for the presidency against Quirino in the 1953 elections, and he won easily. He launched major programs of land reform, social welfare, and public works, but he was frustrated in his efforts by a conservative Congress that represented the interests of the wealthy. In 1954 he hosted the establishment of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. While campaigning for reelection, he was killed in an airplane crash.
Magsi, Nawab Zulfiqar Ali (b. Feb. 14, 1954, Jhal Magsi, Balochistan, Pakistan), chief minister (1993, 1993-96) and governor (2008- ) of Balochistan.
Mahabir, Errol (Edward) (b. Feb. 25, 1931), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1985-86).
Mahajan, Pramod (Venkatesh) (b. Oct. 30, 1949, Mahbubnagar, Madras state [now in Andhra Pradesh], India - d. May 3, 2006, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India), Indian politician. He first came into prominence as the general secretary of the Janata Party (from 1980, Bharatiya Janata Party) in Maharashtra in 1978-83. Thereafter, he made quick strides towards the central unit of the party and represented the BJP in parliament from 1986 onward (mostly in the Rajya Sabha, but in 1996-98 in the Lok Sabha). He was defense minister in the short-lived BJP government of 1996, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee's political advisor in 1998, then was minister of information and broadcasting (1998-99), parliamentary affairs and water resources (1999), information technology and parliamentary affairs (1999-2001), and information technology, communications, and parliamentary affairs (2001-03), and BJP general secretary thereafter. He was also the party's key political strategist for the states of Maharashtra and Rajasthan. On April 22, 2006, he was shot three times at point blank range by his brother Pravin; he died from the injuries 11 days later.
Mahama, John Dramani (b. Nov. 29, 1958, Bole Bamboi, Northern Region, Ghana), vice president (2009-12) and president (2012- ) of Ghana.
Mahanta, Prafulla Kumar (b. 1952), chief minister of Assam (1985-90, 1996-2001).
Mahar, (Sardar) Ali Mohammad (Khan) (b. Jan. 12, 1967, Khangarh, Ghotki district [now in Sindh province], Pakistan), chief minister of Sindh (2002-04).
Maharante, Jean de Dieu (b. 1956), governor of Toliara (2001-02). He went into exile, and in 2003 was sentenced in absentia to five years in prison for proclaiming the independence of his province during the 2002 political crisis.
Mahat, Ram Sharan (b. Jan. 1, 1951), finance minister (1995-96, 2001-02, 2006-08) and foreign minister (1999-2000) of Nepal. He was one of the architects of the kingdom's economic liberalization programme embraced in 1992. He was also a staunch supporter of the privatization of sick state firms.
Mahathir bin Mohamad (Iskandar), Tun (b. Dec. 20, 1925, Alor Star, Kedah [now in Malaysia]), prime minister of Malaysia (1981-2003). He joined the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) in 1946 and was first elected to parliament in 1964. In 1969, after losing his seat in an election in which UMNO's majority dropped, he made an abortive attempt to oust Tunku Abdul Rahman, the party president and prime minister, and was expelled from the party. When Tun Abdul Razak became prime minister, Mahathir resumed membership in UMNO and in 1972 was reelected to its Supreme Council. In 1974 he was appointed minister of education. When Datuk Hussein bin Onn succeeded Tun Abdul Razak, he appointed Mahathir as his deputy in March 1976. In that office Mahathir consolidated his political position and in June 1981, soon after Hussein had announced his retirement, he was elected unopposed as president of UMNO, which ensured his succession as prime minister in July. The first serious challenge to his prime ministership came in 1987, when he narrowly defeated Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah, a former ally. Then in 1988 he announced the formation of UMNO Baru (New UMNO), from which Razaleigh and his supporters were to be excluded. As a vocal critic of the West, Mahathir promoted an Asian and Malaysian agenda with slogans such as "look East" and "buy British last" in an effort to make Malaysia an industrialized nation by the year 2020. Even as he scolded the West, Mahathir welcomed foreign investment on his own terms. As a result, Malays as well as other ethnic groups were enjoying one of their greatest periods of prosperity. Shortly before retiring in 2003 he provoked furious criticism with a statement that "Jews rule the world by proxy." He received the titles Dato' Seri (June 8, 1977), Dato' (March 8, 1978), Datuk Patinggi (July 1, 1980), Datuk (Sept. 10, 1981), Dato' Seri Utama (Aug. 17, 1982), Pehin (July 22, 2003), and upon his retirement (Oct. 31, 2003) was awarded the Seri Maharaja Mangku Negara which carries the title Tun.
Mahavir, Bhai (b. Oct. 30, 1922, Lahore, India [now in Pakistan]), governor of Madhya Pradesh (1998-2003).
Mahdi, Sadiq al-, Arabic in full al-Sadiq al-Siddiq `Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi (b. Dec. 25, 1935, Omdurman, Sudan), Sudanese politician; great-grandson of Muhammad Ahmad (al-Mahdi); grandson of Sayyid Abdel Rahman al-Mahdi. In the early 1960s he helped his father, Siddiq al-Mahdi, organize the National Opposition Front against a military regime. He served for just under a year as prime minister (1966-67) when he was leader of the Umma, the party of the Ansar, the dominant Islamic sect of which he was the titular religious head. Mahdi was a devout Muslim but at the same time bitterly opposed Shari`ah (Islamic law), which was introduced by Pres. Gaafar Nimeiry; he believed that Shari`ah was a corruption of the Qur´an and should not be imposed on the non-Muslim communities of The Sudan. His defiance of Nimeiry caused him to be exiled for two periods in the 1970s. Mahdi was completely modern in his outlook and strongly opposed the fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood, which was led by one of his brothers-in-law. In 1986, he became prime minister for the second time when the country returned to civilian rule after a quarter of a century of military government. While the Umma Party was the largest in the country, it was nevertheless a minority in Mahdi's coalition government. To maintain the uneasy coalition he brought tolerance and a flair for conciliation; his manner was dignified, courteous, and charming. His skills as a politician stood him in good stead in mediating the conflicts within the Ansar sect, where an interfamily quarrel at first prevented his succession as the Mahdi after the death of his father. He believed strongly in Arab unity and, though pro-Western in his orientation, carried a commitment to his country's role as a nonaligned nation. His government was overthrown in 1989, and the military took over again. He was kept under house arrest until his escape to Eritrea in 1996; he returned in November 2000.
Mahdi, Sayyid (Sir) Abdel Rahman al-, Arabic in full Sayyid `Abd al-Rahman Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi (b. June 1885 - d. March 24, 1959, Khartoum), Sudanese leader; posthumous son of Muhammad Ahmad (al-Mahdi). The aftermath of the Dervish wars left the Sudan with a religious rivalry between the Khatmia sect and the reformed or Mahdist Ansar sect. To begin with, the British government leaned rather to the Khatmia, led by Sayyid Ali al-Mirghani, but the Ansar, led by al-Mahdi, began to gain in influence in the 1920s. He had helped the government suppress a pro-German revolt in World War I and was later knighted by King George V. He championed the cause of self-government for the Sudan and supported the ordered advance to this goal fostered by the British. Although he refused to get involved in politics directly, there grew up among his followers a strong political party, the Umma Party, which stood against any political union with Egypt. Although "S.A.R." came to be thought of as the patron of this party, his leadership remained religious and nonpolitical. After independence was achieved in 1956, he joined forces with his rival al-Mirghani.
Mahdzir Khalid, Datuk Seri (b. Dec. 15, 1960, Alor Star, Kedah, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Kedah (2005-08). He received the title Datuk on April 18, 2003, and was awarded the Seri Setia DiRaja Kedah, which carries the title Datuk Seri, on Jan. 22, 2006.
Mahe, (Jean) Alain, foreign minister of Vanuatu (2001-02).
Mahé, Georges (Marie Joseph) (b. April 14, 1860, Caen, France - d. 19...), resident-superior of Laos (1903-06, 1907-12) and Annam (1912-13).
Mahele Lieko Bokungu, (Marc) (b. 1941?, Léopoldville [now Kinshasa] - d. May 16, 1997, Kinshasa), defense minister of Zaire (April-May 1997). The day Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko gave up power, Mahele was killed by Mobutu's presidential guard. Mahele had ordered his troops not to put up resistance to Laurent Kabila's rebels but to keep order in Kinshasa until they arrived.
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Deva (b. June 11, 1920, Kathmandu, Nepal - d. Jan. 31, 1972, Bharatpur, Nepal), king of Nepal (1955-72). He ascended the throne in 1955 upon the death of his father, King Tribhuvana, and was crowned on May 2, 1956. The new king came into conflict with his cabinet, which was dominated by a coalition of the Nepali Congress Party and the Ranas (a line of hereditary prime ministers). In order to assert his control, Mahendra staged a coup in 1960, dissolving the National Assembly, abrogating the constitution, and imprisoning political leaders. He had the army at his disposal, and the middle class was too small and shallow an overlay on the traditional ways of Nepal to present any serious threat to the king. He explained his action by citing the corruption and inefficiency of the government he dismissed, but his own government failed to eradicate those failings. He had a new constitution promulgated in 1962 that in effect instituted direct rule by the Nepalese monarchy. Finding his country overcommitted to India, which had supported the Nepali Congress and his father against the Ranas, Mahendra opened cordial relations with China. The Indian government had strongly disapproved of his coup and for some time connived at attempts by Nepali émigrés in India to overthrow him, but after 1962 supported him again. He travelled widely, not only abroad but also within Nepal, making the monarchy visible in remote parts of the kingdom where it had only been a vague concept.
Maher (El Sayed), Ahmed, Arabic Ahmad Mahir (al-Sayyid) (b. Sept. 14, 1935, Cairo, Egypt - d. Sept. 27, 2010, Cairo), foreign minister of Egypt (2001-04); grandson of Ahmed Maher Pasha. He began his diplomatic career in 1957 and was ambassador to Portugal (1980-82), Belgium (1982-84), the Soviet Union/Russia (1988-92), and the U.S. (1992-99). In 1978, he was a member of Egypt's delegation at the Camp David peace talks.
Maher Pasha, Ahmed, Arabic Ahmad Mahir Basha (b. 1888 - d. [assassinated] Feb. 24, 1945, Cairo, Egypt), prime minister of Egypt (1944-45); brother of Ali Maher.
Maher, Ali, until 1952 Ali Maher Pasha, Arabic `Ali Mahir Basha (b. 1882, Cairo, Egypt - d. Aug. 25, 1960, Geneva, Switzerland), prime minister and foreign minister of Egypt (1936, 1939-40, 1952, 1952). He joined the Wafd party upon its formation under Saad Zaghlul. In 1923 he took a prominent part in drawing up a new Egyptian constitution, which consolidated the political preeminence of the monarch. He was a man whom all non-Wafdist prime ministers were forced to take into consideration. He held office as minister of education in Ahmed Ziwar Pasha's cabinet and as minister of finance in Muhammad Mahmoud Pasha's first administration and also served for a while under Ismail Sedki Pasha. In 1935 King Fuad chose him for the new position of chief of the royal cabinet. When the British government showed a readiness to reopen negotiations for a treaty, and the Egyptian party leaders formed a united front, he was accepted as the most suitable prime minister to hold the general election preliminary to the opening of negotiations. He then again became chief of the royal cabinet (1936-37). He was again prime minister on the outbreak of World War II and took the measures against Germany that were required by the existing Anglo-Egyptian treaty. But when Italy declared war in 1940, he refused to break diplomatic relations and became one of the centres in a movement to use the war to undermine the British position in Egypt. The British had him removed from office, and in April 1942 he was interned, remaining so until the end of the war. He became politically active again in 1952, when he served as prime minister in January-March and again after the revolution of Gamal Abdel Nasser, from July to September. Although their general aims were identical, he clashed with the revolutionaries over land reform policies and went into retirement.
Ali Maher Pasha
Mahgoub, Muhammad Ahmad, Arabic Muhammad Ahmad Mahjub (b. 1908, El Dueim, Sudan - d. June 23, 1976, Khartoum, Sudan), prime minister of The Sudan (1965-66, 1967-69).
Mahlangu, Ndaweni (Johannes) (b. May 26, 1948, Middelburg, Transvaal [now in Mpumalanga], South Africa), premier of Mpumalanga (1999-2004).
Mahlangu, Prince S(enzangakhona) James (b. Feb. 3, 1953, Weltevrede, South Africa - d. August 2005, Pretoria, South Africa), chief minister of KwaNdebele (1990-94).
Mahmud, (Abul Abdullah) (b. July 10, 1757, Bardo palace, near Tunis, Tunisia - d. March 28, 1824, Tunis), bey of Tunisia (1814-24); cousin of `Uthman.
Mahmud, Anisul Islam (b. 1947, Chittagong [now in Bangladesh]), foreign minister of Bangladesh (1988-90).
Mahmud, Syamsuddin (b. April 24, 1935), governor of Aceh (1993-2000).
Mahmud Iskandar ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ismail, (al-Mutawakkil Alallah) Tuanku (b. April 8, 1932, Johor Bahru, Malaya [now in Malaysia] - d. Jan. 22, 2010, Johor Bahru), sultan of Johor (1981-2010) and paramount ruler of Malaysia (1984-89). He was the eldest grandson of the powerful and very wealthy Sultan Ibrahim and the son of Sultan Ismail. While studying in England he met Josephine Trevorrow, a wealthy British textile manufacturer's daughter, whom he married in 1956. The couple returned to live in Johore Bahru, where he worked for the state government and treasury. Upon his grandfather's death in 1959, his father became sultan and Mahmud was made crown prince. In 1961, however, Ismail suddenly stripped Mahmud of his status as heir apparent, conferring it instead upon his younger brother. Court officials in Johore said the sultan had become increasingly unhappy about his eldest son's behaviour. In 1972 Mahmud was charged with causing bodily injury to six people in three unrelated incidents and was fined by the High Court. On Oct. 15, 1976, he shot and killed a suspected smuggler. Six months later he was sentenced to half a year in jail, a fate he escaped only by dint of a royal pardon from his father. The deathbed decision in 1981 by Sultan Ismail to pass his title back to Mahmud sparked yet more controversy. His clashes with the federal government on some issues helped prompt the administration of Prime Minister Dato' Seri Mahathir bin Mohamad to introduce in 1983 constitutional amendments - passed after a bitter struggle - designed to curb the power of the head of state to veto parliament-approved legislation. Mahmud assumed that position (yang di-pertuan agong - "One Who Is Chief Among the Most Prominent") in 1984 when Malaysia's nine hereditary sultans elected him to serve a five-year term.
Mahmud Khan, Sardar Shah (b. 1890, Dehra Dun, India - d. Dec. 27, 1959, northern Afghanistan), prime minister of Afghanistan (1946-53).
Mahmudi, Al-Baghdadi Ali al- (b. 1945?), secretary of the General People's Committee of Libya (2006-11). Arrested in Tunisia in September 2011 after the collapse of the Muammar al-Qaddafi regime, he was extradited to Libya in June 2012.
Mahuad (Witt), (Jorge) Jamil (b. July 29, 1949, Loja, Ecuador), president of Ecuador (1998-2000). During six years as mayor of Quito (1992-98), Mahuad earned a reputation as a clean, effective politician. He had the support of Ecuador's political elite and business community. But inflation, poverty, and unemployment skyrocketed under Mahuad's command and the economy contracted 7.5% in 1999. He was overthrown in an uprising led by junior military officers and indigenous Indians.
Mahyuddin (b. Sept. 14, 1947, Lahat, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia), governor of Sumatera Selatan (2008).
Maia, Álvaro Botelho (b. Feb. 19, 1893, Humaitá municipality, Amazonas, Brazil - d. May 4, 1969, Manaus, Amazonas), governor of Amazonas (1930-33, 1935-45, 1951-55).
Maia, José Agripino (b. May 23, 1945), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1983-86, 1991-94).
Maia, Tarcísio de Vasconcelos (d. April 1998), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1975-79).
Maïdou, Henri (b. Feb. 14, 1936, Bangui, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), prime minister of the Central African Republic (1978-79).
Maïga, Soumeylou Boubèye (b. June 8, 1954, Gao, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (2011-12).
Maiga, Touré Aminatou (Djibrilla), foreign minister of Niger (2010-11). She was ambassador to the United States in 2006-10.
Maïga, Ousmane Issoufi (b. 1946, Bintia village, Ansongo cercle, eastern French Sudan [now Mali]), finance minister (2002) and prime minister (2004-07) of Mali.
Maigari, Bello Bouba (b. 1947, Baschéo, French Cameroons [now in North province, Cameroon]), prime minister of Cameroon (1982-83).
Maij-Weggen, Hanja, byname of Johanna Rika Hermanna Maij-Weggen (b. Dec. 29, 1943, Klazienaveen village, Drenthe, Netherlands), Dutch minister of transportation and water management (1989-94) and queen's commissioner of Noord-Brabant (2003-09).
Maillard, Guy (Pierre Marie) (b. Feb. 16, 1930, Blainville-sur-Orne, Calvados, France), prefect of Guadeloupe (1978-82).
Maillard, Michel (Émile) (b. May 20, 1914 - d. Jan. 10, 2000), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1960-62).
Maillet, Camille (Théodore Raoul), governor of Senegal (1925-26, 1930-31).
Maillet, Raymond (b. Nov. 26, 1934, La Guerche, Cher, France - d. Aug. 5, 1984), president of the Regional Council of Picardie (1980-81).
Maina, Mohammed (Buba), governor of Borno (1989-90).
Maïnassara, Ibrahim Baré (b. May 9, 1949, Maradi, Niger, French West Africa - d. April 9, 1999, Niamey, Niger), president of Niger (1996-99). A professional soldier, he enlisted in 1970 and first came to prominence after a 1974 coup that overthrew Niger's first president, Hamani Diori, becoming aide-de-camp to military leader Seyni Kountché. He rose to become commander of the Presidential Guard in 1976 and head of the parachute division two years later. He was military attaché to the Nigerois embassy in Paris (1986-87) before Gen. Ali Saibou, who replaced Kountché, recalled him to serve as health minister (1987-88). He then served as ambassador to France (1988-90) and Algeria (1990-92) and returned again to Niger to become defense adviser to Amadou Cheiffou, the transitional prime minister, at the height of a Tuareg rebellion. After multiparty elections in 1993, he served as chief of staff to Pres. Mahamane Ousmane. He was named army chief by Prime Minister Hama Amadou in March 1995. At that time Ousmane was preparing to dissolve the opposition-controlled legislature, which threatened to outlaw the president's own political party. On Jan. 27, 1996, Colonel Maïnassara led a successful military coup against Ousmane, which was initially welcomed by many inside the country as a way out of the political impasse. He placed Ousmane under house arrest, banned all political parties, and suspended the constitution. He called for elections in July, which he won with 52.2% of the vote. Opposition parties continued to question his legitimacy and there was violence during local elections in February 1999 that the opposition appeared to be winning. He was assassinated, reportedly by members of the Presidential Guard.
Maiorano, Jorge (Luis) (b. 1947), justice minister of Argentina (1992-94).
Maissin, Louis Eugène (b. Jan. 8, 1811, Paris - d. Jan. 6, 1851, Cayenne, French Guiana), governor of French Guiana (1850-51).
Maistriau, Victor (Eugène Ange Jules) (b. Oct. 5, 1870, Maurage, Belgium - d. Jan. 21, 1961, Mons, Belgium), justice minister of Belgium (1937).
Maitre, Jean-Philippe (Ernest Ignace) (b. June 18, 1949, Geneva, Switzerland - d. Feb. 1, 2006, Collonge-Bellerive, near Geneva), president of the Council of State of Genève (1991-92, 1996-97) and president of the National Council of Switzerland (2004-05).
Maiwandwal, Mohammad Hashim (b. 1919 - d. [killed] Oct. 1, 1973), prime minister of Afghanistan (1965-67).
Majali, Abdul Salam al-, Arabic in full `Abd al-Salam `Ata Allah al-Majali (b. 1925, Karak, Transjordan [now Jordan]), prime minister (1993-95, 1997-98) and foreign minister (1993-95) of Jordan. Appointed prime minister in 1997 with a brief to oversee parliamentary elections and economic reforms, his government came under fire both inside and outside Jordan. The 1997 elections were boycotted by the Islamist-led opposition, who said parliament had become a rubber-stamping assembly. Majali's introduction of a restrictive press law in a country which had enjoyed a relatively open media prompted a U.S. human rights group to label him one of the top 10 enemies of the press in the world.
Majali, Habes al-, Arabic in full Habis ibn Rufayfan al-Majali (b. 1913? - d. April 22, 2001, Amman, Jordan), Jordanian army commander. He joined the armed forces in 1932 and became a confidant of King Abdullah, the founder of Jordan, and later his grandson, King Hussein. In May 1948, al-Majali led the Arab Legion's 4th Regiment in a battle just outside Jerusalem in the town of Latrun. His regiment is said to have fiercely defended the town and prevented the Jewish Hagana defense force from capturing it. Arab historians claim that al-Majali's regiment captured, but later released, more than 200 Hagana fighters, including Ariel Sharon, later prime minister of Israel. In 1949, al-Majali was appointed private escort to King Abdullah, who was assassinated two years later by a Palestinian gunman. In 1957, King Hussein appointed al-Majali chief of staff of the armed forces - a job he held until shortly before the six-day Arab-Israeli war which began June 5, 1967. In October of that year, al-Majali became defense minister. But when Palestinian guerrillas threatened King Hussein's rule in 1970, the monarch appointed him army chief again. Under al-Majali, Jordan crushed a rebellion led by Yasir Arafat's followers. Thousands were killed in what became known as the Black September war. During his last two decades, al-Majali served several terms in the upper house of parliament, which is appointed by the king.
Majali, Hazza` (Barakat) al- (b. 1916, Madaba, Ottoman Empire [now in Jordan] - d. [assassinated] Aug. 29, 1960, Amman, Jordan), prime minister (1955, 1959-60) and foreign minister (1959) of Jordan.
Majavero, Alfons (b. May 15, 1934, Mukwe, South West Africa [now Namibia]), chief minister of Kavangoland (1973-80).
Majdalani, Nassim (Mikail) (b. 1912, Beirut, Lebanon - d. 1991), foreign minister of Lebanon (1969-70).
Majdi, (K.H. Muhammad) Zainul, byname Tuan Guru Bajang (b. May 31, 1972, Pancor, Lombok Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia), governor of Nusa Tenggara Barat (2008- ).
Majeed, Chaudhry Abdul (b. Feb. 14, 1946, Tangdev village, Chakswari, Mirpur district, Azad Kashmir), prime minister of Azad Kashmir (2011- ).
Majekodunmi, M(oses) A(dekoyejo) (b. 1916), administrator of Western Region, Nigeria (1962).
Majic, Petar (b. March 22, 1965, Vitina village, near Ljubuski [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), chairman of the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1998).
Majid (al-Tikriti), Ali Hassan al- (b. 1941 or 1943, al-Awja village, near Tikrit, Iraq - d. Jan. 25, 2010), Iraqi governor of Kuwait (1990) and interior minister (1991) and defense minister (1991-95) of Iraq; cousin of Saddam Hussein. He was viewed as Saddam's main enforcer, a man with a reputation for brutality who was used by the president to crush dissent. In particular, he directed a military campaign ("Anfal") against Kurds in the north in 1988 in which chemical weapons were used, earning him the nickname of "Chemical Ali." He also played a leading role in stamping out a Shi`ite rebellion in the south after the 1991 Gulf War. After the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003, he was believed to have been killed on April 5, but on August 21 he was announced to be in U.S. custody. On June 24, 2007, he was sentenced to death for his role in Anfal; he received three more death sentences in December 2008 (for his role in crushing the 1991 Shi`ite revolt), March 2009 (for the 1999 killings of Shi`ites in the Sadr City district of Baghdad), and January 2010 (specifically for the gas attack on the Kurdish town of Halabja during the Anfal campaign) and was then hanged.
Majko, Pandeli (Sotir) (b. Nov. 15, 1967, Tiranë, Albania), Albanian politician. He took part in 1990 student protests which helped to bring down the country's Stalinist regime. Leader of the Socialist youth forum in 1991-95, he entered parliament in 1992. In 1996 he was put in charge of the Socialist Party's public affairs. In 1997 he replaced Rexhep Meidani as party secretary-general after Meidani became president. As head of the Socialist parliamentary group since elections in June 1997, he worked closely with Prime Minister Fatos Nano and was a key, if low-profile, figure in the country's politics. Nano resigned in 1998 after failing to get the backing of his five-party coalition for a cabinet reshuffle in the wake of an eruption of political violence. He was succeeded by Majko, who at age 30 became Europe's youngest head of government. Like his former boss, Majko regarded the violence, in which Democratic Party supporters enraged by the murder of a party leader stormed government buildings, as a coup attempt by the opposition, but he was careful to strike a conciliatory note and avoid the extreme, inflammatory rhetoric favoured by many Albanian politicians. Like Nano, he called for the deployment of NATO troops along Albania's border with Kosovo and for intervention by the alliance in the troubled Yugoslav province itself. This became reality in 1999. He won respect abroad for his handling of the Kosovo crisis, when Albania took in some half a million refugees, and for reestablishing law and order. He met criticism at home, however, for failing to combat widespread corruption and smuggling. He bowed out in 1999 after losing the leadership of the Socialist Party to Nano. He was prime minister again in February-July 2002 and thereafter was defense minister under Nano (2002-05). In 2005 he was again elected secretary-general of the Socialist Party.
Majluta Azar, Jacobo (b. Oct. 9, 1934 - d. March 2, 1996, Tampa, Fla.), president of the Dominican Republic (1982). He served as vice president from 1976 to 1982 and succeeded to the presidency after the suicide of Pres. Antonio Guzmán Fernández. Thereafter he served as president of the Dominican Congress (1982-86). He was credited with helping stabilize the country's economy and protecting democracy from a military coup during the 1980s. He left the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD) and founded the Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1990.
Major, Sir John (Roy) (b. March 29, 1943, Merton, south London), prime minister of the United Kingdom (1990-97). At age 16 he joined the Conservative Party. He became a borough councillor in 1968 and twice stood unsuccessfully for Parliament in 1974. He gained a seat in the House of Commons during the Conservative landslide of 1979 (representing Huntingdon, 113 km north of London), and his subsequent rise through the party ranks was rapid, as he became a protégé of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. He became undersecretary of state at the Department of Health and Social Security in 1985 and minister for social security in 1986. He joined the cabinet in 1987 as chief secretary to the Treasury, in charge of public spending. In July 1989 Thatcher appointed him to the important cabinet post of foreign secretary. He had hardly been in this post three months when he was switched to chancellor of the exchequer following Nigel Lawson's sudden resignation. As chancellor he was well placed to contend for the leadership of the Conservative Party (and the post of prime minister) in 1990 when Thatcher announced her intention to resign after Michael Heseltine challenged her for the leadership. Major captured the support of 185 Conservative MPs and came within two votes of an overall majority. His two rivals, Heseltine and Douglas Hurd, immediately conceded victory to Major. As prime minister he showed a more moderate approach than Thatcher. The Conservatives won the 1992 general elections, but from then on, they lost every single by-election. By 1996 the Conservatives had lost their parliamentary majority and had to rely on the support of the Ulster Unionists. They were crushed in the 1997 general election, the worst Conservative trouncing since 1832. Major immediately resigned as party leader. He was knighted in 2005.
Majorana della Nicchiara, Benedetto (b. Aug. 18, 1899, Catania, Sicilia, Italy - d. Nov. 21, 1982), president of Sicilia (1960-61).
Makarfi, Ahmed (Mohammed) (b. Aug. 8, 1956, Makarfi [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria), governor of Kaduna (1999-2007).
Makarios III, original name Mikhail Khristodoulou Mouskos (b. Aug. 13, 1913, Pano Panayia, Paphos district, Cyprus - d. Aug. 3, 1977, Nicosia, Cyprus), president of Cyprus (1960-74, 1974-77). He adopted the name Makarios as a monk. Ordained in 1946, he became bishop of Kition (Larnaca) in 1948, and in 1950 was made archbishop, a position entailing political as well as spiritual leadership. He became identified with the movement for enosis (union with Greece) and opposed the British government's proposals for independence. He met with Greek Prime Minister Alexandros Papagos in February 1954 and gained Greek support for enosis. In March 1956 he was arrested for sedition and exiled to the Seychelles. In February 1959 he accepted a compromise that resulted in independence for Cyprus. He was elected president on Dec. 13, 1959, with a Turkish vice president, and took office at independence in August 1960. Widespread fighting between Greeks and Turks broke out in December 1963 and brought the active intervention of Greece and Turkey and in 1964 a UN peacekeeping force arrived. Despite the strife he was reelected in February 1968. Talks between the two communities remained deadlocked over the question of local autonomy. He was returned unopposed for a third term as president in 1973. His relations with Greece had cooled after the establishment of a military regime in Athens in 1967, and in July 1974 the Greek Cypriot National Guard, whose officers were mainland Greeks, attempted a coup to achieve enosis. He fled to Malta and then to London, and Turkey invaded Cyprus and proclaimed a separate state for Turkish Cypriots in the north. He returned to Cyprus in December, after the fall of the mainland Greek military junta.
Makarov, Oleg (Vitalyevich) (b. Aug. 7, 1974, Novocheboksarsk, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Chuvashia (2011).
Makhele, Vincent Montsi (b. Nov. 11, 1940 - d. [assassinated] Nov. 15, 1986), foreign minister of Lesotho (1984-86).
Makhkamov, Kakhar Makhkamovich (b. April 16, 1932, Leninabad, Tadzhik S.S.R. [now Khujand, Tajikistan]), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1982-86), first secretary of the Communist Party (1985-91), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1990), and president (1990-91) of the Tadzhik S.S.R.
Makhno, Nestor (Ivanovich) (b. Oct. 27, 1889, Huliai-Pole, southeastern Ukraine - d. July 27, 1934, Paris, France), Ukrainian anarchist. Spurred by the injustices of the Tsarist regime, he became involved at an early age with a Bolshevik terrorist group and was part of the revolutionary effort of 1905. He was arrested in 1910 and sent to jail for murdering a police officer and while in prison in Moscow, he became a convert to anarchist ideology. Upon his release in 1917, he returned to Huliai-Pole where he organized the disaffected local workers and peasants into a surprisingly strong and effective guerrilla army that expropriated and redistributed the land and wealth of the local nobility and ruling classes. His methods were daring and often brutal, and he quickly gained fame for the success of his unorthodox but invariably effective military tactics. His history has also been coloured by allegations of what today would be considered war crimes, as well as of instigating Jewish pogroms, though in the turbulence and anarchy of the times, it is often difficult to determine who was doing what to whom. At various times he formed alliances with the Bolsheviks and Symon Petlyura's nationalist forces to fight the occupying Germans or Anton Denikin's "White" army, but he always maintained his force's independence. His army grew to about 40,000 and at one time he controlled about a third of the area of present-day Ukraine. Finally he was defeated by the Bolshevik Red Army and fled Ukraine, eventually settling down in Paris where he became one of the leading figures in the international anarchist movement.
Makila Sumanda, José (b. Sept. 20, 1959), governor of Équateur (2007-09).
Makkawi, Abdul-Qawi (Hassan), Arabic `Abd al-Qawi (Hasan) al-Makkawi (b. 1918 - d. Aug. 12, 1998, Cairo, Egypt), Yemeni politician. He was the last chief minister (1965) of the Federation of South Arabia during British rule. He was dismissed by the British governor for his alliance with Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. After the dismissal, he went into exile in Egypt where he set up the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen with Nasser's backing. Two years later, the British government declared Yemen (Aden) an independent state under the Marxist National Liberation Front, Makkawi's bitter enemy. Since then, he lived in exile in Egypt and later turned down appeals by the government of united Yemen to return home. He was the leader of one of the main opposition groups to Pres. Ali Abdullah Saleh's rule.
Makki, Hassan Muhammad (b. Dec. 22, 1933), foreign minister (1964, 1966, 1967-68, 1979-80) and prime minister (1974) of Yemen (Sana).
Makón, Marcos (Pedro) (b. 1943?), Argentine minister of social action (2001).
Makoni, Simba(rashe Herbert Stanley) (b. March 22, 1950, near Umtali [now Mutare], Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), executive secretary of the Southern African Development Community (1984-93) and finance minister of Zimbabwe (2000-02). He was a presidential candidate in 2008.
Makonnen Endalkachew (b. Feb. 16, 1890, Tagulat, Shoa, Ethiopia - d. Feb. 27, 1963, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), interior minister (1941-43) and prime minister (1943-57) of Ethiopia.
Makowski, Stanley M. (b. April 22, 1923, Buffalo, N.Y. - d. Aug. 5, 1981), mayor of Buffalo (1973-78).
Maksagak, Helen (Mamayaok) (b. April 15, 1931, Bernard Harbour, Northwest Territories [now in Nunavut], Canada - d. Jan. 23, 2009), commissioner of the Northwest Territories (1995-99) and of Nunavut (1999-2000).
Maksic, Milivoje (b. Jan. 19, 1928, Belgrade, Yugoslavia - d. March 2, 2003, Belgrade), acting foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1991-92).
Maksyuta, Nikolay (Kirillovich) (b. May 26, 1947), head of the administration of Volgograd oblast (1997-2010).
Maktum, Sheikh Hamdan ibn Muhammad Al (b. November 1982), crown prince of Dubai (2008- ); son of Sheikh Muhammad ibn Rashid Al Maktum.
Maktum, Sheikh Maktum ibn Rashid Al (b. 1943, Shindagha, Dubai [now in United Arab Emirates] - d. Jan. 4, 2006, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia), prime minister of the United Arab Emirates (1971-79, 1990-2006) and ruler of Dubai (1990-2006); son of Sheikh Rashid ibn Said Al Maktum. He also served as deputy prime minister (1983-90) and vice president (1990-2006).
Maktum, Sheikh Muhammad ibn Rashid Al (b. 1949, Shindagha, Dubai [now in United Arab Emirates]), defense minister (1971- ) and vice president and prime minister (2006- ) of the United Arab Emirates and ruler of Dubai (2006- ); son of Sheikh Rashid ibn Said Al Maktum; brother of Sheikh Maktum ibn Rashid Al Maktum; son-in-law of King Hussein of Jordan.
Muh. Al Maktum
Maktum, Sheikh Rashid ibn Said Al (b. c. 1910, in the desert inland from the Persian Gulf - d. Oct. 7, 1990, Dubai, United Arab Emirates), United Arab Emirates politician. The son of Sheikh Said ibn Maktum, Rashid in 1958 became the ruler of Dubai which was then a good-sized trading settlement, located along a creek. After the discovery of oil in 1966, he used the area's new wealth to dredge the creek and create a deep-water port and then an airport for shipping Dubai's oil; he also initiated new industry and services, including improved medical care. He was known as the "merchant prince" for his success in transforming Dubai into one of the most prosperous trading centres in the Middle East. In 1968 the British announced that by the end of 1971 they would leave the area they had entered in the early 19th century and named "Pirate Coast." Rashid and his brother-in-law, Sheikh Zaid ibn Sultan Al Nahayan of neighbouring Abu Dhabi, then came to an agreement about forming a federation, the United Arab Emirates. Rashid's vision embraced mostly his own state, while Zaid was committed to a truly integrated union. Zaid made numerous concessions to Rashid, despite the smaller size of Dubai. Rashid became the federation's vice president in 1971 and prime minister in 1979, holding those posts until his death. He was rarely seen in his last decade because of failing health. In August 1990 he supported the deployment of foreign and Arab forces to counter the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. He had designated his eldest son, Sheikh Maktum, deputy prime minister of the U.A.E., as his successor and proclaimed that his other sons, Sheikhs Hamdan (finance minister), Muhammad (defense minister), and Ahmad, would also continue as leaders.
R. Al Maktum
Makuza, Bernard (b. Sept. 30, 1961), prime minister of Rwanda (2000-11); cousin of Paul Kagame. He was ambassador to Germany in 1996-2000.
Makwetla, Thabang, byname of Sampson Phathakge Makwetla (b. May 19, 1957, Middelburg, Transvaal [now in Mpumalanga], South Africa), premier of Mpumalanga (2004-09).
Malachowski (h. Nalecz), Stanislaw (b. Aug. 24, 1736, Konskie, Poland - d. Dec. 29, 1809, Warsaw, Duchy of Warsaw [now in Poland]), Polish statesman. The son of Jan Malachowski, the royal grand chancellor, he was first elected a deputy to the Coronation Diet of 1764 and was marshal (speaker) of Poland's historic Four Years' Sejm, a constituent Diet that met in 1788-92. Exceeding all his colleagues in liberality, he was a prime force behind the constitution of May 3, 1791, which embodied such modern western European reforms as majority rule in parliament, separation of powers, and enfranchisement of the middle classes. This constitution was abrogated at the Second Partition of Poland in 1792. Disappointed, he left the country, going first to Italy and subsequently to his estates in Galicia, where he was imprisoned for a time on a false suspicion of conspiracy. In 1807 he was made chairman of a Governing Commission appointed at Warsaw after its evacuation by the Prussians, and later in the year when the Duchy of Warsaw, promoted by Napoléon, was created, he became president of the Senate.
Malafeyev, Valentin (Vasilyevich) (b. Aug. 29, 1938, Sengiley, Ulyanovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Ulyanovsk oblast (1991-92).
Malakhov, Ivan (Pavlovich) (b. June 29, 1953), governor of Sakhalin oblast (2003-07).
Malan, Daniel F(rançois) (b. May 22, 1874, near Riebeeck West, Cape Colony [now in Western Cape, South Africa] - d. Feb. 7, 1959, Stellenbosch, Cape [now in Western Cape], South Africa), prime minister of South Africa (1948-54). He began in 1915 to edit Die Burger, a Cape Town newspaper that backed J.B.M. Hertzog's National Party. Elected to parliament in 1918, he joined Hertzog's cabinet as interior minister in 1924 and instituted laws that established a South African nationality and a flag, and he succeeded in having Afrikaans recognized as an official language of the Union. When the National Party entered a coalition with Jan Smuts's South African Party in 1933, Malan left the government. When the two parties merged in 1934, Malan founded the Purified Nationalist Party, which became the official opposition. Because Hertzog regarded World War II as no concern of South Africa, he fell from power in 1939 and soon became reconciled with Malan, and together they formed the reunited National Party. When Hertzog withdrew from the party in December 1940, Malan assumed leadership. The party won 43 seats in the House of Assembly in the 1943 election, and in 1948 he led it to victory by appealing to Afrikaner racial sentiments. In alliance with the smaller Afrikaner Party, he had a narrow majority in the House of Assembly and formed the first exclusively Afrikaner government of South Africa. He began to implement the policy of apartheid (the enforced segregation of nonwhites from whites, a policy his successors continued to develop), outlawed the Communist Party, and loosened ties with Britain. He increased his party's parliamentary majority in the 1953 general election and retired in 1954.
Malan, Henri (Jules Jean Baptiste) (b. Jan. 1, 1869, Paris - d. Jan. 13, 1912, Saigon, Cochinchina [now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam]), governor of Dahomey (1909-11).
Malan, Johannes Nicholas, byname Nico Malan (b. Aug. 8, 1903 - d. April 2, 1981), administrator of Cape province (1960-70).
Malan, Magnus (André de Merindol) (b. Jan. 30, 1930, Pretoria, South Africa - d. July 18, 2011, Durbanville, Cape Town, South Africa), defense minister of South Africa (1980-91).
Malavois, Louis Jean Baptiste Philogène de (b. c. 1757, Ay [now in Marne département], France - d. Jan. 16, 1825, Saint-Denis, Réunion), commandant of the Seychelles (1789-92).
Malbon, Sir Fabian (Michael) (b. Oct. 1, 1946, Southsea, Hampshire, England), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (2005-11); knighted 2001.
Malcolm, David (Kingsley) (b. May 6, 1938, Bunbury, Western Australia), acting governor of Western Australia (2005-06). He has been the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Western Australia since 1988 and the lieutenant governor of the state since 1990.
Malcolm, Sir Neill (b. Oct. 8, 1869 - d. Dec. 21, 1953), president of the British North Borneo Chartered Company (1926-46); knighted 1922.
Maldaner, Casildo (João) (b. April 2, 1942, Carazinho, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (1990-91).
Maldonado Aguirre, Alejandro (b. Jan. 6, 1936, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (1995-96). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-76) and ambassador to Mexico (1991-95).
Maldonado González, José (b. Nov. 12, 1900, Tineo, Asturias, Spain - d. Feb. 11, 1985, Oviedo, Spain), president of the Spanish Republic in exile (1970-77).
Maldonado Pérez, Caritino (b. Oct. 5, 1915, Tlalixtaquilla, Guerrero, Mexico - d. [helicopter crash] April 17, 1971, Guapaleta ravine, Zumpango del Río municipality, Guerrero), governor of Guerrero (1969-71).
Malecela, John (Samuel Cigwiyemisi) (b. April 10, 1934, Bugiri, Dodoma, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), foreign minister (1972-75) and first vice president and prime minister (1990-94) of Tanzania. He also served as Tanzania's permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-68), ambassador to Ethiopia and the Organization of African Unity (1968-69), and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1989-90).
Malek, Redha, Arabic Rida Malik (b. Dec. 21, 1931, Batna, Algeria), member of the High State Committee (1992-94), foreign minister (1993), and prime minister (1993-94) of Algeria.
Malékou, Paul (b. Nov. 17, 1938, Fougamou, Gabon), foreign minister of Gabon (1968).
Malendoma, Timothée (b. 1935, Dekoua, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. Dec. 12, 2010, Bangui, Central African Republic), prime minister of the Central African Republic (1992-93).
Malenkov, Georgy (Maksimilianovich) (b. Jan. 21 [Jan. 8, Old Style], 1902, Orenburg, Russia - d. Jan. 14, 1988, near Moscow), premier of the Soviet Union (1953-55). He volunteered in 1919 for the Red Army during the civil war that followed the 1917 October Revolution. He joined the Communist Party in 1920 and rose swiftly through the ranks; within a year he became a commissar of Bolshevik forces in Turkestan. He became organization chairman of the Moscow party committee (1930-34) and personnel chairman of the Central Committee (1934-39). Named to the Central Committee in 1939 and a candidate member of the Politburo in 1941, he served during World War II on the State Defense Committee, the small group that directed the Soviet war effort. After the war he won full membership on the Politburo (1946) and was appointed second secretary of the Central Committee and deputy prime minister. When Iosif Stalin died in March 1953, he assumed the post of senior party secretary as well as chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister). Within two weeks he was compelled to yield the party post to Nikita Khrushchev, and in February 1955 he was forced to resign as premier. He retained his influential position on the party Presidium (formerly the Politburo) and was named a deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers and minister of electric power stations. But after participating in an unsuccessful effort to depose Khrushchev in June 1957, he and two other close Stalin aides, Vyacheslav Molotov and Lazar Kaganovich, were expelled from the Presidium and Central Committee. In 1964 it was disclosed that he had also been expelled from the Communist Party. He had been named a Hero of Socialist Labour in 1943 and was twice awarded the Order of Lenin.
Maléter, Pál (b. Sept. 4, 1917, Presov [Eperjes], Austria-Hungary [now in Slovakia] - d. June 16, 1958, Budapest, Hungary), Hungarian army officer. In 1942 he graduated from the Budapest Military Academy. In January 1943 he was captured by the Red Army. After his conversion to communism and training in sabotage and subversion he was dropped into Hungary, where he distinguished himself as a courageous and daring guerrilla leader. After World War II he graduated from the Moscow Military Academy and in 1956 was commander of the infantry division stationed in Budapest. When on October 23 the Hungarian revolution started, Maléter identified himself with Hungarian nationalism and his unit was the only one that fought the Soviet troops. Prime Minister Imre Nagy appointed him first deputy defense minister (October 31) and then defense minister (November 3). Invited by the Red Army to negotiate their withdrawal, he was arrested by them on November 4. On June 17, 1958, his trial and execution for attempting to overthrow the Hungarian People's Republic were announced by the Hungarian government.
Maleyev, Valery (Gennadiyevich) (b. March 28, 1964), head of the administration of Ust-Ordynsky Buryat autonomous okrug (1996-2007).
Malfatti, Franco Maria (b. June 13, 1927, Rome, Italy - d. Dec. 10, 1991, Rome), president of the European Commission (1970-72) and finance minister (1978-79) and foreign minister (1979-80) of Italy.
Malfeyt, Justin (Prudent François Marie) (b. 1862 - d. 1924), deputy governor-general of Orientale province (Belgian Congo) (1913-17) and royal commissioner for Belgian-occupied East Africa (1916-19).
Malhotra, Om Prakash (b. Aug. 6, 1922, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India), governor of Punjab (India) (1990-91). He was also ambassador to Indonesia (1981-84).
Malie, Mpho (b. July 4, 1945, Hebron, near Pretoria, South Africa), Lesotho politician. A politician since 1983, he served on international bodies and parliamentary forums. He was elected member of parliament for the Taung constituency in both the 1993 and 1998 general elections. He was appointed minister of information and broadcasting in 1993 and minister of foreign affairs in 1995. He vacated the post of foreign minister later in 1995 following a cabinet reshuffle. In 1998 he was appointed minister of industry, trade, and marketing.
Malielegaoi, Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele, until 2004 Tuilaepa Sailele Malielegaoi, 2004-06 Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi (b. April 14, 1945, Lepa, Western Samoa [now Samoa]), finance minister (1984-2001) and prime minister and foreign minister (1998- ) of (Western) Samoa.
Malik, Adam (b. July 22, 1917, Pematangsiantar, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Utara, Indonesia] - d. Sept. 5, 1984, Bandung, Indonesia), Indonesian statesman. As a pro-independence agitator, he was jailed by the Dutch for the first time at age 17, and again in 1937 when he founded the Antara press service, which later became Indonesia's national news agency. He regained his freedom in 1942 when the Japanese overran the islands, but he objected to the idea of receiving independence as a gift from the Japanese and was involved with an abortive kidnapping of fellow nationalist leaders Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta in 1945 in order to "force" them to declare independence. In 1946 he was involved in a plot to abduct Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir to protest a negotiated settlement with the Dutch; as a result he was imprisoned by the nationalist leadership until late 1948. Under President Sukarno, he served as ambassador to the Soviet Union and Poland (1959-63). In 1962 he was the chief Indonesian delegate to the Washington, D.C., negotiations on West New Guinea, which laid the groundwork for Indonesia eventually securing this territory. He was appointed minister of trade in 1963 but became increasingly disenchanted with Sukarno's autocratic rule and threw in his hand with General Suharto, who came to power in 1966. As foreign minister (1966-77), Malik restored relations with Malaysia, the Philippines, and China. A witty and eloquent diplomat, he was dubbed "Kantjil" (in Indonesian folktale a small and graceful deer which uses its agility and quick wit to escape dangerous situations) by those who recognized his shrewd political manoeuvres. As president of the 26th UN General Assembly (1971-72), he presided over the admission of the People's Republic of China to the UN. Later he served as chairman of the People's Consultative Assembly (1977-78) and vice president (1978-83) of Indonesia.
Malik, Charles (Habib), Arabic Sharl (Habib) Malik (b. 1906, Bitirram, Koura district, nothern Lebanon - d. Dec. 28, 1987, Beirut, Lebanon), Lebanese politician. In 1945 he was appointed Lebanese minister to the U.S., later becoming ambassador (1953-55). He was a signer of the United Nations Charter in 1945 and was a delegate to the UN in 1945-55 and 1957-59. In June 1957 he was elected member of parliament and in November became minister of foreign affairs in the Sami al-Solh cabinet. He was one of the few Arab statesmen who accepted the Eisenhower doctrine of March 1957. In May 1958 he accused the United Arab Republic of "massive interference" in Lebanon but in August, in New York City, at the UN General Assembly, he endorsed a compromise solution of the crisis. On Sept. 16, 1958, he was elected by 45 votes to 33 (with 4 abstentions) president of the 13th UN General Assembly, and gave up his post as foreign minister of his country.
Malik, Yakov (Aleksandrovich) (b. Feb. 11, 1906, Kharkov, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Feb. 11, 1980, Moscow), Soviet diplomat. After graduating from the Soviet Institute of Foreign Affairs, he was appointed assistant chief of the press section at the people's commissariat of foreign affairs in 1937. In 1939 he was sent as counsellor to the Soviet embassy in Tokyo, Japan, where he became ambassador on May 20, 1942. From January 1946 he was political adviser to Gen. Kuzma N. Derevyanko on the Allied Council for Japan, but on Aug. 24, 1946, was appointed deputy minister of foreign affairs in charge of the Far Eastern department. In May 1948 he succeeded Andrey Gromyko as chief Soviet representative to the United Nations. On Aug. 1, 1950, after a seven-month absence from the Security Council in protest at the presence of the Chinese Nationalist delegate, Malik returned to the council and was chairman during that month. He served until 1953 and later again in 1968-76.
Maliki, Nuri (Kamil Muhammad Hassan Abu al-Mahasin) al-, former pseudonym Jawad al-Maliki (b. 1950, Hindiya, Iraq), prime minister (2006- ) and acting interior minister (2006) of Iraq.
Malile, Reis (b. 1924 - d. March 2003, Tiranë, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (1982-91).
Malinov, Aleksandur (Pavlov) (b. 1867 - d. 1938), prime minister of Bulgaria (1908-11).
Mälk, Raul (b. May 14, 1952, Pärnu, Estonian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Estonia (1998-99). He was deputy head of state-run Eesti Radio when the country regained its independence in 1991. He held several roles at the Foreign Ministry before being named as Estonia's ambassador to Britain in 1996, a post he left to become foreign minister but to which he subsequently returned (until 2001).
Malkani, K(ewal) R(atan) (b. Nov. 19, 1921, Hyderabad, Sind, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Oct. 27, 2003, Pondicherry, India), lieutenant governor of Pondicherry (2002-03).
Malla Call, Ramon (Catalan), Castilian Ramón Malla Call (b. Sept. 4, 1922, La Seu d'Urgell, Spain), acting coprince of Andorra (1969-71), in his capacity as apostolic administrator of Urgel during a vacancy of the see. He was bishop of Lérida (Lleida) in 1968-99.
Mallet, Sir (William) George (b. July 24, 1923, Panama - d. Oct. 20, 2010), governor-general of Saint Lucia (1996-97). He was a member of the Castries city council in 1952-64 and served as its chairman (mayor) in 1963-64. He also entered the St. Lucia parliament in a 1958 by-election as the representative of Castries Central and held the seat for 38 years. In 1958-61 he was the only opposition member in the 10-member legislature. In 1964, he and John Compton forged an alliance of two opposition parties that resulted in the creation of the United Workers Party, which has dominated St. Lucian politics. He was a long-serving deputy to Compton, who was chief minister, premier, and then the first prime minister upon independence in 1979. He served as minister of tourism, trade, and industry in 1964-79 and 1982-92 and as minister of foreign affairs, home affairs, trade, and industry in 1992-96 before retiring from parliament. His subsequent appointment as governor-general was criticized by the opposition as compromising the traditional political neutrality of the post, and he resigned in 1997, having been knighted earlier that year.
Mallett, Robert L. (b. 1957), acting U.S. secretary of commerce (2000).
Malloum (N'Gakoutou Bey-Ndi), Félix (b. Sept. 13, 1932, Sarh, Chad - d. June 12, 2009, Neuilly-sur-Seine, near Paris, France), prime minister and head of state (1975-78) and president (1978-79) of Chad. He returned to N'Djamena on May 31, 2002, after 23 years of exile in Nigeria.
Mally, Komlan (b. Dec. 12, 1960), prime minister of Togo (2007-08).
Malmierca Peoli, Isidoro (Octavio) (b. Sept. 29, 1930, Havana, Cuba - d. Aug. 11, 2001, Havana), foreign minister of Cuba (1976-92). He was involved in socialist groups as a young man even before the triumph (1959) of the revolution led by Fidel Castro. After the revolution, Malmierca helped organize the new regime's security structure, along with its Communist Party and daily newspaper Granma. As foreign minister, he directed international policy during the Caribbean island's deployment of troops in Angola and during a major exodus of Cubans who fled to the United States by sea.
Malofeyev, Anatoly Aleksandrovich (b. May 14, 1933, Gomel, Belorussian S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Belorussian S.S.R. (1990-91).
Malossini, Mario (b. April 4, 1947, Riva del Garda, Trento province, Italy), president of Trento (1989-92).
Malouet, Pierre Victor, baron (b. Feb. 11, 1740, Riom, Puy-de-Dôme, France - d. Sept. 7, 1814, Paris), marine minister of France (1814).
Malsagov, Akhmed (Isayevich) (b. Oct. 26, 1960), prime minister (1999-2002) and interim president (2001-02) of Ingushetia.
Malsagov, Ibragim (Solsayevich) (b. March 29, 1961, Altiyevo, Nazranovsky rayon, Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Ingushetia, Russia]), prime minister of Ingushetia (2005-08).
Maluf, Paulo Salim (b. Sept. 3, 1931, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of São Paulo (1979-82).
Malval, Robert (b. July 11, 1943, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (1993-94).
Malvern (of Rhodesia and of Bexley), Godfrey Martin Huggins, (1st) Viscount (b. July 6, 1883, Bexley, Kent, England - d. May 8, 1971, Salisbury, Rhodesia [now Harare, Zimbabwe]), prime minister of Southern Rhodesia (1933-53) and of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (1953-56). He was knighted in 1941 and created a viscount in 1955.
Malviya, Pandit Chatur Narain (b. Oct. 1, 1900 - d. Nov. 30, 1985), prime minister of Bhopal (1948-49).
Malypetr, Jan (b. Dec. 21, 1873, Klobuky, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. Sept. 27, 1947, Slaný, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), interior minister (1922-25) and prime minister (1932-35) of Czechoslovakia. He was also chairman of the National Assembly (1925-32, 1935-39).
Mamadou, Bamba (b. 1952, Touba département, Ivory Coast), foreign minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2003-06).
Mamaloni, Solomon (Sunaone) (b. 1943, West Makira, San Cristobal, Solomon Islands - d. Jan. 11, 2000, Honiara, Solomon Islands), chief minister (1974-76) and prime minister (1981-84, 1989-93, 1994-97) of the Solomon Islands. In 1997, a secret briefing paper by Australian officials described him as a "wily" politician who had bought political support in 1994 with the financial help from Malaysian logging companies. "Prime Minister Mamaloni will remain an obstacle to responsible government for as long as he is in power," said the briefing paper, which became public after being left on a table during a South Pacific Forum meeting. Mamaloni was ousted in 1997 after a controversy in which he tried to buy arms from a Singapore supplier.
Mamberti, Dominique (François Joseph) (b. March 7, 1952, Marrakech, Morocco), Vatican foreign minister (2006- ).
Mamboundou, Pierre (b. Nov. 6, 1946, Mouila, Gabon - d. Oct. 15, 2011, Libreville, Gabon), Gabonese presidential candidate (1998, 2005, 2009).
Mamedov, Yagub, Azeri in full Yaqub Cavad oglu Mämmädov (b. March 3, 1941), acting president of Azerbaijan (1992).
Mammadyarov, Elmar (Maharram oglu), Azeri Elmar Mähärräm oglu Mämmädyarov (b. July 2, 1960, Baku, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), foreign minister of Azerbaijan (2004- ).
Mamo, Sir Anthony (Joseph) (b. Jan. 9, 1909, Birkirkara, Malta - d. May 1, 2008, Mosta, Malta), acting governor (1962), governor-general (1971-74), and president (1974-76) of Malta; knighted 1960.
'MaMohato, Queen, originally Princess Tabita 'Masentle Lerotholi Mojela (b. April 28, 1941, Tebang, Mafeteng district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Sept. 6, 2003, Mantsonyane, Thaba-Tseka district, Lesotho), regent of Lesotho (1970, 1990, 1996). She married Paramount Chief (later King) Moshoeshoe II on Aug. 23, 1962.
Mamsurov, Taimuraz (Dzambekovich) (b. April 13, 1954, Beslan, North Ossetian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now North Ossetia-Alania, Russia]), prime minister (1998-2000) and head of the republic (2005- ) of North Ossetia-Alania.
Mamyneau, Louis Alexandre (b. Aug. 29, 1779, Brest, France - d. 18...), commandant and administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1839-42).