Mo Dehui (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Mo Teh-hui (b. April 26, 1883, Xinjiang province, China - d. April 17, 1968, Taipei, Taiwan), civil governor of Fengtian (1926-27). He was also acting minister of agriculture and commerce (1925) and minister of agriculture and industry (1927-28) of China and president of the Examination Yuan in Taiwan (1954-66).
Moawad, René (Anis), Arabic Rini (Anis) Mu`awwad (b. April 17, 1925, Zgharta, Lebanon - d. Nov. 22, 1989, Beirut, Lebanon), president of Lebanon (1989). A member of a powerful Maronite Christian family in the north of Lebanon, he became involved in politics and was a member of parliament from 1957 to 1989. Between 1960 and 1982 he served in a number of posts, including chairman of the Administration of Justice Parliamentary Commission (1959-61), chairman of the Budget and Finance Commission (from 1960), minister of post and telecommunications (1961-64), minister of public works (1969), and minister of education and fine arts (1980-82). In the latter role he cut through sectarian hatred and organized school examinations for Christian and Muslim children whose studies had been interrupted by the civil war that began in 1975. In a special session of parliament, on Nov. 5, 1989, he was elected president - a post Lebanon's 1943 charter specified had to be held by a Maronite - over the objections of Maronite Gen. Michel Aoun, who denounced Moawad as a Syrian puppet. Moawad pledged to implement an Arab League-sponsored plan for peace between Muslims and Christians that included a Syrian role in the process, but he was killed just 17 days later by a car bomb that also took the lives of over 20 others. The bombing took place as Moawad and other officials returned from a ceremony celebrating the 46th year of Lebanese independence from French rule. In 2005-08 his widow Nayla (b. July 3, 1940, Bsharri, Lebanon) was minister of social affairs - Lebanon's first female minister.
Mobando Yogo, Yves (b. Oct. 20, 1955), governor of Équateur (2004-07).
Moberly, Sir John (Campbell) (b. May 27, 1925, Exmouth, Devon, England - d. Sept. 14, 2004, Reading, Berkshire, England), British political agent in Qatar (1959-62); knighted 1984. He was ambassador to Jordan (1975-79) and Iraq (1982-85).
Mobutu Nzanga (Ngbangawe), (François Joseph) (b. March 24, 1970, Kinshasa, Congo), Congolese politician; son of Mobutu Sese Seko. He lived in exile in 1997-2002. After his return, he founded the Union of Mobutist Democrats in 2005 and was chosen as its presidential candidate. He finished fourth with 4.8% of the votes in the first round on July 30, 2006. On September 20, he concluded an alliance with Pres. Joseph Kabila who appointed him as minister of state in charge of agriculture on Feb. 5, 2007. In October 2008 he became deputy prime minister in charge of basic social needs. He was fired in March 2011 for spending more than three months in Europe.
Mobutu Sese Seko (Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga) (loosely, "The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake"), original name (until Jan. 10, 1972) Joseph-Désiré Mobutu (b. Oct. 14, 1930, Lisala, near Mbandaka, Équateur province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Sept. 7, 1997, Rabat, Morocco), president of Congo (Kinshasa)/Zaire (1965-97). At the Congo's attainment of independence in July 1960, the coalition government of Pres. Joseph Kasavubu and Premier Patrice Lumumba appointed him secretary of state for defense and then chief of staff. A power struggle developed between Kasavubu and Lumumba, and in September 1960, Mobutu seized control of the government and announced that he was "neutralizing" all politicians. In February 1961, however, Mobutu turned over the government to Kasavubu. In return, the latter made Mobutu commander in chief of the armed forces. In 1965, after another power struggle had developed between Kasavubu and Premier Moise Tshombe, Mobutu removed Kasavubu in a CIA-backed coup and assumed the presidency himself. He moved to Africanize names in the nation; the name of the country was changed in 1971 from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of Zaire. He was reelected to the presidency in one-man contests in 1970, 1977, and 1984. The term kleptocracy was coined to define his despotic regime. He took full advantage of the backing he received from the West, which viewed him during the Cold War as a guardian against communism. In 1996 rebel forces led by Laurent Kabila were able to seize ever-larger amounts of territory. On May 16, 1997, Mobutu abandoned the country to Kabila and went into exile in Morocco.
Moch, Jules (Salvador) (b. March 15, 1893, Paris, France - d. Aug. 1, 1985, Cabris, Alpes-Maritimes, France), French politician. Elected député in 1928, he became minister for public works in the Popular Front government ten years later. After the fall of France in 1940, he voted against Marshal Philippe Pétain, was interned, was freed in 1941, and joined the Resistance, then Gen. Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forces in England. Returning to the Ministry of Public Works after World War II, he later became minister of the interior (1947-50), where he helped to build up the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité, a special police unit used to combat civil disturbance. He was then minister of defense (1950-51) and delegate to the UN Disarmament Committee (1953-60). His opposition to the European Defense Community Treaty brought conflict within his own party; he turned to the study of disarmament questions and participated actively in the creation of Pugwash, the international movement for world peace. On May 14, 1958, favouring a centre-left government, he returned to the Ministry of the Interior under Premier Pierre Pflimlin to confront an expected invasion by parachutists of the disaffected French Army units in Algeria. He resigned on May 31. He was among the Socialists who voted for the return of de Gaulle and became a member of the bureau of the French Section of the Workers' International (as the Socialist Party was then called). His hostility to Communism finally led him to resign from the Socialist Party in 1974, in protest against its alliance with the French Communist Party - the "union of the left" entered into by Socialist leader François Mitterrand in 1972.
Mock, Alois (b. June 10, 1934, Euratsfeld, Niederösterreich, Austria), vice-chancellor (1987-89), foreign minister (1987-95), and acting defense minister (1990) of Austria. He was also education minister (1969-70) and chairman of the Austrian People's Party (1979-89).
Mockler, Frank C(arpenter) (b. April 4, 1909, South Omaha, Neb. - d. Nov. 16, 1993, Sarasota, Fla.), lieutenant governor (1970-75) and acting governor (1974-75) of American Samoa.
Moco, Marcolino (José Carlos) (b. July 19, 1953, Chitue, Huambo province, Angola), prime minister of Angola (1992-96). He was also governor of Bié (1986-87) and Huambo (1987-89), minister of youth and sports (1989-92), and executive secretary of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (1996-2000).
Moctezuma Barragán, Esteban (b. Oct. 21, 1954, Mexico City, Mexico), interior minister of Mexico (1994-95). He was also minister of social development (1998-99).
Mocumbi, Pascoal (Manuel) (b. April 10, 1941, Lourenço Marques [now Maputo], Mozambique), foreign minister (1987-94) and prime minister (1994-2004) of Mozambique. He was also minister of health (1980-87).
Moczar, Mieczyslaw, byname Mietek, original name Mikolaj Demko (b. Dec. 25, 1913, Lódz, Poland - d. Nov. 1, 1986, Warsaw, Poland), Polish politician. He joined the Communist Party of Poland in 1937. He took the name Moczar from the Communist guerrilla group - Moczary ("swamps") - which he commanded during World War II. The postwar regime in Poland was dominated by those Communists who had spent the war years in Moscow. After Wladyslaw Gomulka assumed the leadership of the Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP) in 1956, however, Moczar's political career advanced rapidly. As interior minister (1964-68) he was a key figure in a campaign launched in 1967 against "revisionists" and "Zionists." His own bid to succeed Gomulka was unsuccessful; in December 1970 Edward Gierek became party leader while Moczar became a full member of the Politburo. In June 1971 Moczar was dropped from the PUWP Secretariat and in December from the Politburo, apparently at the insistence of Moscow. He staged a dramatic but brief comeback when the emergence of the Solidarnosc (Solidarity) trade-union movement plunged the PUWP leadership into crisis; he was again a Politburo member in 1980-81. In March 1983 he relinquished his last major posts, those of chairman of the Supreme Chamber of Control, which he held since 1971, and of chairman of the Polish Ex-Servicemen's Association, to which he had been appointed in 1980.
Modeste(-Curwen), Clarice, foreign minister of Grenada (2014- ). She was previously minister of health and environment (1998-2003), communication, works, and transport (2003-07), tourism, civil aviation, culture, and performing arts (2007-08), and health and social security (2013-14).
Modi, Narendra (Damodardas) (b. Sept. 17, 1950, Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay state [now in Gujarat], India), chief minister of Gujarat (2001-14) and prime minister of India (2014- ).
Modise, Joe, byname of Johannes Modise (b. May 23, 1929, Doornfontein, South Africa - d. Nov. 26, 2001, Centurion, near Pretoria, South Africa), defense minister of South Africa (1994-99). He became an anti-apartheid activist in the 1950s and was one of 156 people charged in the lengthy Treason Trial, which started in 1956. The charges were later dropped. The killing of dozens of unarmed protesters at Sharpeville in 1960 and the subsequent banning of the African National Congress (ANC) led him and many other activists to embrace the concept of armed struggle against the increasingly repressive white-minority regime. He was on the high command of the ANC's military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe, from its inception in 1961 and was appointed commander in 1965. He established bases in Tanzania, Angola, and Uganda. With backing from the Soviet Union and its Cold War allies, he also oversaw training programs in Cuba and Eastern Europe. After the Cold War ended and the ANC was unbanned, Modise was with the first group of negotiators to open talks with the Pretoria government in 1990. He became the country's first black minister of defense in 1994 when the ANC was swept to power and Nelson Mandela became president. As defense minister, he won praise for skillfully transforming an institution that was a key tool of state repression during the apartheid era, scoring high marks from some of the senior white officers he used to be at war with. But he was sharply criticized for a military debacle in tiny Lesotho in 1998, when South African and Botswanan troops went to the aid of the government there to help quell disorder in the wake of a mutiny. Over 60 soldiers, including several from South Africa, were killed during the operation, which many critics said should never have been launched in the first place. He retired from active politics in June 1999.
Modise, Thandi (b. Dec. 25, 1959, Huhudi township, near Vryburg, Cape province [now in North West province], South Africa), premier of North West (2010-14). In 2014 she became chair of the National Council of Provinces.
Modrow, Hans (b. Jan. 27, 1928, Jasenitz, Germany [now Jasienica, Poland]), premier of East Germany (1989-90).
Modzelewski, Zygmunt (b. April 15, 1900, Sosnowiec, Poland - d. June 18, 1954, Warsaw, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (1947-51). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1945).
Moe, George (Cecil Rawle) (b. March 12, 1932, Barbados - d. Aug. 16, 2004, Bridgetown, Barbados), foreign minister of Barbados (1972-76). He was also attorney general and minister of legal affairs (1971-76) and served as chief justice of Belize (1982-85).
Moeller Freile, Heinz (Rudolf) (b. Nov. 18, 1937, Guayaquil, Ecuador), interior minister (1988) and foreign minister (2000-03) of Ecuador.
Mofford, Rose (Perica) (b. June 10, 1922, Globe, Ariz.), governor of Arizona (1988-91).
Mogae, Festus (Gontebanye) (b. Aug. 21, 1939, Serowe, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), vice president and finance minister (1992-98) and president (1998-2008) of Botswana.
Mogherini, Federica (b. June 16, 1973, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (2014) and European high representative for foreign affairs and security policy (2014- ).
Mogushkov, Timur (Akhmetovich) (b. 1962), prime minister of Ingushetia (2003-05).
Mogwe, Archibald (Mooketsa) (b. Aug. 29, 1921, Kanye, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), foreign minister of Botswana (1974-84). He was also minister of mineral resources and water affairs (1985-94) and ambassador to the United States (1996-99).
Mohadi, Kembo (Dugish Campbell) (b. Nov. 15, 1949), home affairs minister of Zimbabwe (2002-15). He became minister of state security in 2015.
Mohamad (bin) Hasan, Datuk Seri (Haji) (b. May 2, 1956, Kampong Kundor Hilir, Negeri Sembilan, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Negeri Sembilan (2004- ). He received the title Dato' in March 1999, Datuk on June 7, 1999, and Datuk Seri on July 19, 2004.
Mohamad Khir (bin) Toyo, Datuk Seri (b. Aug. 6, 1965, Sungai Burung, Selangor, Malaysia), chief minister of Selangor (2000-08). He received the titles Datuk (Sept. 14, 2000) and Datuk Seri (March 10, 2001).
Mohamed, Abdallah (b. 19... - d. Feb. 3, 2000, Mutsamudu, Anjouan, Comoros), prime minister of the Comoros (1976-78); nephew of Mohamed Ahmed.
Mohamed, Abdoulkader Kamil (b. 1951, Souali, Obock district, French Somaliland [now Djibouti]), defense minister (2011-13) and prime minister (2013- ) of Djibouti. He was also minister of agriculture (2005-11).
Mohamed, Abdoulkarim (b. Feb. 3, 1975, Mdjankagnoi, Comoros), foreign minister of the Comoros (2015- ). He was also minister of national education, research, culture, arts, youth, and sports (2013-15).
Mohamed (Hossain), Amina (Chawahir) (b. Oct. 5, 1961, Kakamega, Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (2013- ).
Mohamed, Mohamed Abdullahi, byname Farmajo, Somali Maxamed Cabdulaahi Maxamed "Farmaajo" (b. April 1962, Mogadishu, Somalia), prime minister of Somalia (2010-11).
Mohamed, Said Ali (b. 1946), prime minister of the Comoros (1993). He was also education (1978-80) and health (1980-82) minister.
Mohamed, Zahabi Ould Sidi (b. Oct. 1, 1957, Goundam, Mali), foreign minister of Mali (2013-14). In 2014 he became minister of national reconciliation.
Mohamed Isa (bin) Abdul Samad, Dato' Seri Utama (b. 1949), chief minister of Negeri Sembilan (1982-2004). He received the title Dato' on June 14, 1982, Tan Sri on June 5, 1991, and Dato' Seri Utama on July 19, 1991.
Mohamed (bin) Yaacob, Tan Sri (Haji) (b. Jan. 3, 1926, Palekbang, Jajahan Tumpat, Kelantan [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Kelantan (1978-90). He received the titles Datuk (1975), Dato' (1976), Datuk Amar (1982), and Tan Sri (1988).
Mohamedou, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould, Arabic Muhammad Mahmud walad Muhammadu (b. April 3, 1968, Atar, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2008-09).
Mohammad, Faiz (b. 1940, Waziristan, India [now in Pakistan] - d. [killed by rebels] Sept. 11, 1980, Paktia province, Afghanistan), interior minister of Afghanistan (1973-75). He was also minister of border affairs (1975-77, 1980) and ambassador to Indonesia (1977-78) and Iraq (1978-80).
Mohammad Ali, Chaudhry (b. July 1905, Jullundur [now Jalandhar], India - d. Dec. 1, 1980, Karachi, Pakistan), Pakistani politician. He worked in the accounts department of the (British) government of India, was appointed private secretary to the minister of finance, and during World War II was a leading member of the Supply Department. In 1947, after independence for India and the creation of the separate state of Pakistan, he became secretary-general to the government of Pakistan and was finance minister (1951-55) before his appointment as prime minister (1955-56). He oversaw the ratification of the new constitution which made Pakistan a republic. During the military dictatorship of Mohammad Ayub Khan, Mohammad Ali led his Muslim League party in opposition to the regime.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Aryamehr) (b. Oct. 26, 1919, Tehran, Iran - d. July 27, 1980, Cairo, Egypt), shah of Iran (1941-79). He was the eldest son of Reza Pahlavi, the pro-German shah who was forced to abdicate in 1941 when the Soviet Union and Great Britain occupied Iran. Replacing his father on the throne, he played a leading role in suppressing the Soviet-sponsored "autonomous" states in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan in 1946. A struggle for control of the government developed with Mohammad Mossadegh, a zealous nationalist who in 1951 secured passage of a bill in the Majles (parliament) to nationalize the vast British petroleum interests in Iran. Mohammad Reza was forced to appoint the popular Mossadegh as premier shortly thereafter. In 1953 the shah tried to dismiss Mossadegh but was himself forced to leave the country by Mossadegh's supporters. Several days later, however, Mossadegh's opponents, with the covert support and assistance of the United States, restored Mohammad Reza to power, who reversed Mossadegh's nationalization. Having already divorced two wives unable to produce a son (Princess Fawzia of Egypt in 1948 and Soraya Esfandiari in 1958), in December 1959 he married Farah Diba; a crown prince, Reza, was born in Tehran on Oct. 31, 1960. On Sept. 15, 1965, the shah was given the title Aryamehr. On Oct. 26, 1967, he crowned himself and his wife at a lavish ceremony in the Golestan Palace, Tehran. Widespread dissatisfaction led in 1978 to the growth of support for Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Shi`ite religious leader living in exile in Paris. Amid rioting and turmoil, the shah left the country on Jan. 16, 1979 (though he did not abdicate), and Khomeini assumed control. A referendum resulted in the declaration on April 1, 1979, of an Islamic republic in Iran. The shah was in exile successively in Egypt, Morocco, The Bahamas, Mexico, the U.S., Panama, and again Egypt.
Mohammadullah, Mohammad (b. Nov. 21, 1921, Noakhali, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. Nov. 11, 1999, Dhaka, Bangladesh), president of Bangladesh (1973-75). He joined the East Pakistan Awami League in 1950. He actively took part in the historic Six-Point Movement for which he was imprisoned for a long time. He was elected member of the National Assembly on the Awami League ticket in 1970. He was a political advisor to Syed Nazrul Islam, acting president of Bangladesh during the independence war in 1971. He was elected deputy speaker of the first Constituent Assembly of independent Bangladesh and later became speaker after the death of its first speaker, Shah Abdul Hamid.
Mohammed, Garba Ali (b. April 13, 1949, Zaria [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria), governor of Niger state, Nigeria (1986-87). He was also Nigerian minister of works and housing (1997-99).
Mohammed, Isah (b. May 15, 1949, Lafia [now in Nasarawa state], Nigeria), governor of Gongola (1987-89).
Mohammed, Kamaluddin, byname Kamal Mohammed (b. April 19, 1927, El Socorro, Trinidad), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1971-73).
Mohammed, Murtala (Ramat) (b. Nov. 8, 1938, Kano, Nigeria - d. Feb. 13, 1976, Ikoyi Island, Lagos, Nigeria), president of Nigeria (1975-76). A Muslim Hausa from the north, he first came to prominence during the July 1966 coup that established Gen. Yakubu Gowon, and he fought in the civil war (1967-70) against the secessionist Eastern Region (Biafra). In 1974-75 he was minister of communications. He became head of state after the peaceful coup that removed Gowon from power. He vigorously combated corruption but could not stem wage inflation. He was shot while in his limousine at the outset of an abortive military coup staged by a small group of self-styled "young revolutionaries."
Mohammed, Umaru (d. [in the crash of an air force plane en route to São Tomé and Príncipe] May 26, 1980, off Forcados, Nigeria), governor of North-Western state (1975-76) and Sokoto (1976-78).
Mohamud, Abdullahi Issa (Somali Cabdullaahi Ciise Maxamuud, Arabic `Abd Allah `Isa Mahmud), byname Bidaar (b. 1922, Afgoi, northwest of Mogadishu, Somalia - d. March 1988, Rome, Italy), prime minister (1956-60) and foreign minister (1960-64) of Somalia. He was also ambassador to Sweden (1974-83).
Mohamud, Hassan Sheikh, Somali Xasan Sheekh Maxamuud (b. Nov. 29, 1955, Jalalaqsi, Somalia), president of Somalia (2012- ).
Mohd Adib (bin Haji Mohd) Adam, Datuk Seri (b. July 2, 1941, Kesang Tua, Malacca, Straits Settlements [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Malacca (1978-82). He received the title Datuk Seri in 1983.
Mohd Ali (bin Mohd) Rustam, Datuk Seri (Haji) (b. Aug. 24, 1949), chief minister of Malacca (1999-2013). He received the titles Datuk (1989), Datuk Wira (Oct. 14, 1995), and Datuk Seri (Oct. 13, 2001).
Moh(ama)d Asri (bin Haji) Muda, Tan Sri (b. 1923 - d. 1992), chief minister of Kelantan (1964-72).
Moh(ama)d Khalil Yaakob, Tan Sri (b. Dec. 29, 1937, Kuantan, Pahang, Federated Malay States [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Pahang (1986-99).
Moh(ama)d Tajol Rosli (bin Tan Sri Mohd) Ghazali, Datuk Seri (b. Nov. 6, 1944, Lenggong, Perak, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Perak (1999-2008). He received the titles Dato' (April 19, 1986), Dato' Seri (April 19, 1999), Dato' Seri DiRaja (April 19, 2000), and Datuk Seri (Oct. 11, 2003).
Mohd Zin (bin) Abdul Ghani, Datuk Seri (b. Oct. 12, 1941, Melekek Luar, near Alor Gajah, Malacca, Straits Settlements [now in Malaysia] - d. May 14, 1997, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), chief minister of Malacca (1994-97). He received the titles Datuk (Aug. 15, 1990) and Datuk Seri (Oct. 14, 1995).
Moheno Tabares, Querido (b. Dec. 3, 1873, Ixtacomitán, Chiapas, Mexico - d. April 12, 1933, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1913-14). He was also minister of industry and commerce (1914).
Mohieddin, Ahmed Fuad, Arabic Ahmad Fu´ad Muhyi al-Din (b. 1926 - d. June 5, 1984, Cairo, Egypt), Egyptian politician. He was elected to the National Assembly in 1957. A moderate social democrat, he served loyally under three successive presidents. From 1968 to 1974 he was a governor of three provinces before taking ministerial office and later serving as deputy prime minister under Pres. Anwar as-Sadat. He was prime minister from January 1982 and secretary-general of the ruling National Democratic Party, which was returned to power in the 1984 general election shortly before his death. The election, while it brought an overwhelming victory for Mohieddin's party, which won 87% of the seats, was overshadowed by opposition claims of irregularities in the conduct of the poll.
Mohieddin, Zakaria, Arabic in full Zakariyya´ `Abd al-Majid Muhyi al-Din (b. May 7, 1918, Kafr Shokr, Egypt - d. May 15, 2012), interior minister (1953-61, 1961-62, 1965-66) and prime minister (1965-66) of Egypt.
Mohmad Shaid Mohd Taufek, Datuk (b. March 11, 1947, Kluang, Johor [now in Malaysia]), mayor of Kuala Lumpur (2001-04).
Mohyliov, Anatoliy (Volodymyrovych) (b. April 6, 1955, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister of Ukraine (2010-11) and prime minister of Crimea (2011-14).
Moi, Daniel (Toroitich) arap (b. Sept. 2, 1924, Sacho, Baringo district, Rift Valley province, Kenya), president of Kenya (1978-2002). In 1950 he entered politics and five years later was nominated to the Kenya Legislative Council. He campaigned successfully in 1957 in the first elections for African members of the Legislative Council and became successively minister of education (1961) and of local government. In 1960 he led a breakaway movement from Jomo Kenyatta's Kenya African National Union (KANU), which was dominated by the two most influential tribes, the Kikuyu and the Luo. His own Kenya African Democratic Union was essentially an alliance of the smaller tribes that worked closely with a party of local white settlers. After independence (December 1963), his party merged with Kenyatta's in November 1964, and when Kenyatta became president in December 1964, Moi was made minister of home affairs. In January 1967 he became vice president of Kenya. He remained closely loyal to Kenyatta, and as the grand old man of Kenya became less active as a result of age, Moi was given increasing responsibility. Upon Kenyatta's death on Aug. 22, 1978, he became acting president; he was subsequently nominated for the presidency by KANU, and was elected (October 1978) with no opposition. He was reelected in 1979, 1983, 1988, 1992 (the first multiparty election), and 1997. Charges of fraud and corruption were leveled against him during several campaigns, but Moi ignored the critics. He was chairman of the Organization of African Unity in 1981-83. Although Moi was widely respected, he lacked the charisma of Kenyatta and had no strong independent political base of his own. He continued Kenyatta's pro-Western policies, which ensured significant sums of development aid during the Cold War.
Moine, Mario (Armando) (b. 1951?), governor of Entre Ríos (1991-95).
Moine, Virgile (b. March 4, 1900 - d. Dec. 31, 1987), president of the government of Bern (1951-52, 1963-64).
Moisiu, Alfred (Spiro) (b. Dec. 1, 1929, Shkodër, Albania), president of Albania (2002-07). A World War II veteran, he was defense minister in 1991-92 in a transition government formed after the fall of communism. He also served as deputy defense minister from 1994 to 1997.
Moisset, Jean (René) (b. March 10, 1905 - d. March 4, 1981), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1947-49).
Mojadedi, Sibghatullah (b. 1925), interim president of Afghanistan (1992). He was elected chairman of the Council of Elders (upper house of parliament) on Dec. 20, 2005, but resigned this post on Oct. 12, 2006.
Mojsov, Lazar (b. Dec. 19, 1920, Negotino, Yugoslavia [now in Macedonia] - d. Aug. 25, 2011, Belgrade, Serbia), president of the UN General Assembly (1977-78) and president of the Presidium of the League of Communists (1980-81), foreign minister (1982-84), and president of the Presidency (1987-88) of Yugoslavia. He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union and Mongolia (1958-61) and Austria (1967-69) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-74).
Mokaddem, Sadok, Arabic Saduq Muqaddam (b. April 24, 1914, Tunis, Tunisia - d. 1993), foreign minister of Tunisia (1957-62). He was also minister of justice (1954-55) and health (1955-56), ambassador to Egypt (1956-57) and France (1962-64), and president of the National Assembly (1964-81).
Mokanu, Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. Oct. 22, 1934, Chisinau, Romania [now in Moldova]), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1985-89).
Mokhehle, (Clement) Ntsu (Sejabanana) (b. Dec. 26, 1918, Mokhehle's Village, near Teyateyaneng, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Jan. 6, 1999, Bloemfontein, South Africa), Lesotho politician. In 1952 he founded the Basutoland African Congress, later renamed Basutoland Congress Party (BCP). Like the Basotho National Party (BNP) and other groups, it opposed British rule, including the system of administration by tribal chiefs. The BNP gained control in 1966 of the newly independent nation's government, and in opposition Mokhehle led the BCP, which served as a voice of Pan-Africanism in the fledgling nation. He apparently won the country's first post-independence election in 1970, but was prevented from taking office when Leabua Jonathan seized power with the assistance of the army. In 1974 Mokhehle's party led a failed revolt, and he was forced into exile. From South Africa he continued to push for an end to unconstitutional rule while the paramilitary wing of the BCP, the Lesotho Liberation Army, carried out numerous attacks within Lesotho; in this connection he was willing to become party to the South African apartheid regime's destabilization policies in Lesotho. He returned to Lesotho in 1989. In 1993 the first democratic elections since 1970 were held. The BCP won all 65 legislative seats, and he became prime minister. In August 1994, King Letsie III and key military leaders staged a coup and dissolved the government and parliament, but intensive international pressure was brought to bear, and in September the elected government was restored. After opponents within the party tried to remove him as leader, he formed a new party in June 1997, the Lesotho Congress for Democracy, taking a majority of MPs with him. He retired from politics in 1998, handing the reins of his party to Pakalitha Mosisili.
Mokhtar (bin) Ahmad, Tan Sri (Haji) Wan (b. March 21, 1932, Kampung Nesan Empat, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Terengganu (1974-99). He was also Malaysian ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2000-05). He received the title Datuk Amar on July 7, 1982, Datuk on April 8, 1983, and Tan Sri on Nov. 26, 1988.
Mokodopo, Jean-Paul (b. Jan. 15, 1935, Boboua, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. 1984, Paris, France), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1976-79).
Mokolo Wa Mpombo, (Édouard) (b. May 31, 1944, Coquilhatville, Belgian Congo [now Mbandaka, Congo (Kinshasa)]), foreign minister of Zaire (1985-86). He was also ambassador to Ivory Coast (1976-77) and France (1980-84) and minister of national guidance (1977-80), culture and arts (1979-80), higher and university education and scientific research (1986), public works and regional development (1986-89), and transport and communications (1989-90).
Molapo, Charles Dube (b. Dec. 25, 1918, Leribe district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. July 1991), foreign minister of Lesotho (1975-81, 1982-83).
Molapo, Pius Tanki (b. July 18, 1961), foreign minister of Lesotho (1991-92).
Molapo, Mooki Vitus (b. June 2, 1937, Leribe district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. June 6, 2009), foreign minister of Lesotho (1981-82). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-74, 1976-78), ambassador to Iran (1974-76), and minister of commerce and industry (1978-81).
Molas López, Felipe (Benigno) (b. July 10, 1901, Asunción, Paraguay - d. March 2, 1954, Asunción), president of Paraguay (1949). He was minister of education under Pres. Juan Natalicio González but was a chief instigator in his ouster in January 1949, having already helped to overthrow Pres. Higinio Morínigo in 1948. In February 1949, he became provisional president, unseating Raimundo Rolón. He formed a cabinet that for the first time in the 20th century included no military men. He reduced police and army forces, permitted the people to criticize his government, and extended an amnesty to political exiles, several thousand of whom returned to the country. As the only candidate, he was elected president in April and inaugurated in May. He was expected to finish González' term, ending in 1953. But another upheaval in the ruling Colorado Party led to his resignation in September and his replacement by Federico Chaves.
Moldashev, Madalbek (b. 1948, Don village, Osh oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), interior minister of Kyrgyzstan (1995-96).
Molefe, Popo (Simon) (b. April 26, 1952, Sophiatown, Johannesburg, South Africa), premier of North West province (1994-2004).
Moleleki, Monyane (b. Jan. 5, 1951, Mohlaka-oa-Tuka, Maseru district, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), foreign minister of Lesotho (2004-07). He has also been minister of natural resources (1993-94, 1998-2004, 2007-12), information (1996-98), and police (2015- ).
Molewa, (Bomo) Edna (Edith) (b. March 23, 1957), premier of North West province, South Africa (2004-09). She has also been South African minister of social development (2009-10), water and environmental affairs (2010-14), and environmental affairs (2014- ).
Moli, Josias (b. Aug. 19, 1954), acting president of Vanuatu (2004). He was speaker of parliament from July to December 2004.
Moli, Kalvau, foreign minister of Vanuatu (2015). He was also agriculture minister (2012-13).
Moliga, Lolo (Letalu) Matalasi (b. 1949, Ta'u, Manu'a, American Samoa), governor of American Samoa (2013- ).
Molina (Barraza), Arturo Armando (b. Aug. 6, 1927, San Salvador, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (1972-77).
Molina Orantes, Adolfo (b. 1915 - d. Jan. 31, 1980, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (1957-58, 1974-78). He was killed in the assault of the Spanish embassy in Guatemala City. 29 men, including 23 peasants from El Quiché department, the rest being leaders of popular organizations of Guatemala City, had occupied the embassy to protest against army repression in El Quiché department. Pres. Fernando Romeo Lucas García subsequently gave an order to set fire to the building and not allow anybody to come out. The assault killed 37 people, among them former vice president Eduardo Cáceres Lehnhoff and Vicente Menchú, father of future Nobel Peace Prize winner Rigoberta Menchú.
Molina Pallochia, Óscar (b. Sept. 27, 1921, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 20, 1990), prime minister and war minister of Peru (1978-79).
Molina Pizarro, Emilio (b. Sept. 28, 1916, Potosí, Bolivia - d. Sept. 1, 1982, La Paz, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1970-71). He was also ambassador to Paraguay (1969-70).
Molina Ureña, José Rafael (b. Jan. 31, 1921, San Francisco de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. May 22, 2000), provisional president of the Dominican Republic (1965). He was also ambassador to France (1968-71).
Molinaro, James P. (b. March 11, 1931, Manhattan, New York City), borough president of Staten Island (2002-13).
Molisa, Sela (b. Dec. 15, 1950), foreign minister of Vanuatu (1983-87). He was also minister of home affairs (1983), finance (1987-91, 1991, 1998-99, 2002-04, 2008-10, 2011), trade (1996, 2011), and lands and mineral resources (2001-02).
Moll, (Alexandre Marie Frédéric) Henry (b. March 16, 1871, Saulx-de-Vesoul, Haute-Saône, France - d. [killed during fighting] Nov. 9, 1910, Dorote, eastern Chad), commandant of Chad (1909-10).
Möllemann, Jürgen W(ilhelm) (b. July 15, 1945, Augsburg, Germany - d. June 5, 2003, Marl, Germany), German politician. He was first elected to the German parliament for the Free Democratic Party in 1972 and became education and science minister (1987-91), economy minister (1991-93), and vice chancellor (1992-93). He was forced to resign in 1993 over disclosures that he misused his office to promote a product manufactured by a relative. He provoked outrage during the 2002 election campaign when he accused Jewish leader and talk show host Michel Friedman of fomenting anti-Semitism through his "intolerant, spiteful style." He was also criticized for supporting a Syrian-born politician in Nordrhein-Westfalen who had accused Israel of using "Nazi methods" against Palestinians. He drew more fire when he issued a leaflet shortly before the elections criticizing Friedman and Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon. Jewish leaders accused Möllemann of exploiting anti-Semitic stereotypes to fish for far-right votes. Möllemann, the head of a German-Arab organization who also had business links to the Arab world, denied the allegation. He stepped down as deputy party leader after colleagues blamed him for the Free Democrats' poor showing in the elections. He quit the party in March 2003 after months of efforts by its leaders to expel him over the anti-Semitism allegations. Möllemann, who was known as an experienced skydiver, died in a parachute jump in an apparent suicide. He jumped the same day his parliamentary immunity was lifted and investigators raided homes and offices linked to him in Germany and other European countries as part of an investigation into alleged tax evasion and fraud. He was suspected of having illegally funded the disputed leaflet which was sent to 8 million homes.
Möller, Jakob (Ragnar Valdimar) (b. July 11/12, 1880, Stóra-Bergi, Iceland - d. Nov. 5, 1955), finance minister (1939-42), member of the Regency (1940-41), and justice minister (1942) of Iceland.
Møller, Per Stig (b. Aug. 27, 1942, Frederiksberg, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (2001-10); son of Poul Møller. He was also minister of environment (1990-93), culture (2010-11), and ecclesiastical affairs (2011) and leader of the Conservative People's Party (1997-98).
Møller, Poul (b. Oct. 13, 1919, Frederiksberg, Denmark - d. Aug. 5, 1997, Frederiksberg), finance minister of Denmark (1968-71).
Møller, Søren Hald (b. Jan. 25, 1960, Copenhagen, Denmark), high commissioner of Greenland (2005-11).
Mollerus van Westkerke, Johan Hendrik Mello baron (b. Feb. 21, 1840, Arnhem, Netherlands - d. Jan. 5, 1909, Utrecht, Netherlands), king's/queen's commissioner of Gelderland (1880-1909).
Mollet, (Alcide) Guy (b. Dec. 31, 1905 [or Jan. 2, 1906?], Flers, Orne, France - d. Oct. 3, 1975, Paris), French politician. He joined the Socialist Party in 1921. During World War II, he served in the army and was captured by the Germans in 1940. Released in 1942, he joined the Résistance. After the war, in 1945, he was elected mayor of Arras and member of the Chamber of Deputies representing Pas-de-Calais. He was active in drafting the constitution of November 1946 and from December 1946 to January 1947 was minister of state in Léon Blum's Socialist cabinet. As general secretary of the Socialist Party from 1946 to 1969, he strengthened the authority of the party machine over the parliamentary group. At first opposed to the party's participation in coalitions without the Communists, by 1950 he was outspokenly anti-Communist. In 1950-51, he was minister of state, dealing with the Council of Europe. With Pierre Mendès-France he led the left-centre Republican Front in the 1956 election and became premier. His principal task was to secure peace in Algeria, but his policy of negotiation with the rebels failed. Believing that Egypt was supplying aid to the rebels, he joined Britain in a futile occupation of Port Said and closing of the Suez Canal in November 1956. During his 16-month premiership - the longest of the Fourth Republic - the decision was made to build a French nuclear striking force. His government was overthrown in 1957 because of rightist criticism of his push for social reform on a budget badly depleted by the Suez invasion. On May 13, 1958, he became minister of state under Pierre Pflimlin. He retained that post in Charles de Gaulle's cabinet from June 1958 to January 1959 and then assumed a position of constructive opposition to de Gaulle's domestic policy.
Moloto, Sello (b. Aug. 27, 1964, Claremont village, Transvaal [now in Limpopo province], South Africa), premier of Limpopo (2004-09).
Molotov, Vyacheslav (Mikhailovich), original surname Skryabin (b. March 9 [Feb. 25, O.S.], 1890, Kukarka, Vyatka province [now Sovetsk, Kirov oblast], Russia - d. Nov. 8, 1986, Moscow), Soviet statesman. He joined the Bolsheviks in 1906 and was twice arrested and sent to internal exile (1909-11, 1915-16) for his revolutionary activities. After the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, he held several posts in provincial party organizations. In 1921 he became a secretary of the Central Committee as well as a candidate member of the Politburo, and in 1926 a full member. He assumed control of the Moscow party committee (1928-30) and in 1930 was made chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (prime minister) of the Soviet Union. He was picked by Iosif Stalin to become commissar of foreign affairs in May 1939 and in this capacity negotiated the German-Soviet nonaggression pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop pact; August 1939). In May 1941, Stalin himself took over as premier, and Molotov became first deputy premier. After the German invasion, he arranged the Soviet alliances with Britain and the United States. He attended the Allied conferences at Tehran (1943), Yalta (1945), and Potsdam (1945), and the San Francisco Conference (1945), which organized the United Nations. (During the war he also ordered the production of the bottles of inflammable liquid that became known as Molotov cocktails.) He gave up the post of foreign minister in 1949, but resumed it after Stalin's death (1953), until his disagreements with Nikita Khrushchev resulted in his dismissal (1956). He was made minister of state control, but when he joined the "antiparty group" that tried to depose Khrushchev in 1957, he lost all his high positions. He then became ambassador to Mongolia (1957-60) and Soviet delegate to the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna (1960-61). In 1962 he was expelled from the Communist Party; he was readmitted in 1984.
Molyviatis, Petros (Georgiou) (b. June 12, 1928, Chios island, Greece), foreign minister of Greece (2004-06, 2012, 2015).
Mombelli, Ernesto (b. July 12, 1867, Turin, Italy - d. 1932), governor of Cyrenaica (1924-26).
Momis, John (Lawrence) (b. 1942, Salamaua, New Guinea [now in Papua New Guinea]), governor (1999-2005) and president (2010- ) of Bougainville. He was also Papua New Guinean minister of decentralization (1977-83), public service (1985-88), provincial affairs (1988-92), and communications (1994-95) and ambassador to China (2007-10).
Momoedonu, Ratu Tevita (b. Jan. 13, 1946, Lautoka, Fiji), prime minister of Fiji (2001); nephew of Ratu Josefa Iloilo. He was minister of labour and industrial relations (1999-2001) and ambassador to Japan and South Korea (2002-06).
Momoh, Joseph Saidu (b. Jan. 26, 1937, Binkolo, Bombali district, Northern province, Sierra Leone - d. Aug. 2, 2003, Guinea), president of Sierra Leone (1985-92). In 1958 he left the civil service to join the Royal West African Frontier Force, attending courses in Nigeria and England. He became captain in 1965 and major in 1966. In 1968, following the coup that restored constitutional government, he was arrested and spent seven months in detention. On his release he returned to the army. He advanced to colonel in 1970 and in 1971 was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. He was promoted to brigadier in 1973, and in 1974 Pres. Siaka Stevens nominated him a member of parliament and made him a minister of state in the cabinet. In 1983 he was promoted to major general. When Stevens stood down in 1985, he was succeeded by Momoh after a carefully arranged single-candidate election in which Momoh received 99.85% of the vote. Initially, his integrity endeared him to the people, but his popularity soon faded when his government failed to eliminate corruption or improve the economy. He also appeared unwilling to remove associates of Stevens from key positions. He was ousted in 1992 and went into exile in neighbouring Guinea, but returned home in February 1997 at the urging of Pres. Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. After Kabbah was deposed in a May 1997 coup, Momoh led a delegation to Guinea to plead with Pres. Lansana Conté to recognize the military junta of Johnny Paul Koroma. Conté refused to break ranks with other leaders of the 16-nation Economic Community of West African States who condemned the coup and slapped an embargo on Sierra Leone. After West African forces restored Kabbah to power, Momoh was arrested (February 1998) when he tried to slip through a checkpoint in the capital disguised as a woman. In November 1998 he was found guilty of conspiracy but escaped a treason charge which could carry the death penalty. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Junta loyalists freed him from jail in January 1999 when they infiltrated Freetown and came close to capturing the city.
Moncada Tapia, José María (b. Dec. 8, 1870, San Rafael del Sur, Managua, Nicaragua - d. Feb. 23, 1945, Managua), president of Nicaragua (1929-33).
Monck (of Ballytrammon), Charles Stanley Monck, (4th) Viscount, (4th and 1st) Baron Monck (of Ballytrammon) (b. Oct. 10, 1819, Templemore, County Tipperary, Ireland - d. Nov. 29, 1894, Enniskerry, County Wicklow, Ireland), governor (1861-67) and governor-general (1867-68) of Canada. On the death of his father he succeeded to the peerage of Ireland (as 4th Viscount and 4th Baron Monck) in 1849. After a defeat as a candidate in Wicklow in 1848, he was elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal member from Portsmouth in 1852 and was a lord of the treasury in 1855-58. Defeated in the general election of 1859, he decided to leave active politics. In 1861 he was named governor of the province of Canada (present Ontario and Quebec). He was noted for the deftness of his efforts to avoid British or Canadian involvement in the American Civil War (1861-65) and for his role in preparing for Canadian federation. Queen Victoria elevated him to the peerage of the United Kingdom (as 1st Baron Monck) in 1866 and extended his term so that he might be the first governor-general of the new Dominion of Canada, created in 1867. Returning to Ireland in 1868, he was knighted (Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George) and appointed to the Privy Council in 1869. He was lord lieutenant of County Dublin in 1874-92.
Mondale, Walter F(rederick), byname Fritz Mondale (b. Jan. 5, 1928, Ceylon, Minn.), vice president of the United States (1977-81). In 1947 he organized student volunteers who assisted Hubert Humphrey, Orville Freeman, and Karl Rolvaag in excluding leftists from the newly created Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party in Minnesota. In 1958 Freeman, now the governor, appointed Mondale special assistant to the state attorney general and two years later named him to fill the unexpired term of the attorney general. When Humphrey resigned from his Senate seat after being elected vice president in 1964, Mondale again was the beneficiary of an unexpired term, this time in the U.S. Senate. He won election to the Senate seat in 1966 and reelection in 1972. He sought the 1974 Democratic presidential nomination but dropped out of the race, acknowledging that he did not have a taste for the kind of nonstop campaigning necessary to capture the presidency. In 1976 he aggressively sought the second spot on the ticket with Jimmy Carter. The Carter-Mondale ticket was defeated in its attempt at reelection in 1980, and Mondale immediately began his quest for the 1984 presidential nomination. A lifelong crusader for equal opportunity, he selected Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate. However, except for a brief period after the first TV debate, during which Pres. Ronald Reagan appeared tired and confused, polls showed the Mondale-Ferraro ticket slipping further and further behind. He won only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia, for a total of 13 electoral votes. In 1993-96 he was ambassador to Japan. When Paul Wellstone, the Democratic senator from Minnesota, was killed in a plane crash while campaigning to retain his seat in 2002, Mondale took his place on the ballot but was defeated by Republican Norm Coleman.
Mondjo, Nicolas (b. June 24, 1933, Owando, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1968-69). He was also ambassador to France (1964-68) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-85).
Monfraix, Jean (b. May 10, 1918, Cherbourg, Manche, France - d. Jan. 10, 2008), prefect of French Guiana (1970-72). He was also prefect of the départements of Haute-Marne (1972-74) and Pyrénées-Atlantiques (1974-78).
Monge, Gaspard (Louis) (b. May 10, 1746, Beaune [now in Côte-d'Or département], France - d. July 28, 1818, Paris), French minister of the marine and colonies (1792-93).
Monge Álvarez, Luis Alberto (b. Dec. 29, 1925, Palmares, Alajuela, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1982-86).
Mongella, Gertrude Ibengwe, née Makanza (b. Sept. 13, 1945, Ukerewe, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), president of the Pan-African Parliament (2004-09). She was also Tanzanian minister of lands, natural resources, and tourism (1985-87), minister without portfolio (1987-90), and high commissioner to India (1992-93).
Mongenast, Mathias (b. July 12, 1843 - d. Jan. 10, 1926), acting prime minister of Luxembourg (1915).
Mongkut, official name as king (short form) Phra Chom Klao Chaoyuhua, retrospectively also called Rama IV (b. Oct. 18, 1804, Bangkok - d. Oct. 1, 1868, Bangkok), king of Siam (1851-68).
Monguillot, Maurice Antoine François (b. Aug. 9, 1874, Paris - d. 19...), governor-general of French Indochina (1919-20, 1925, 1928) and resident-superior of Tonkin (1921-25).
Monguno, Shettima Ali (b. 1926, Monguno [now in Borno state], Nigeria), Nigerian politician. He was minister of the air force (1965), internal affairs (1965-66), trade and industry (1967-71), and mines and power (1971-75).
Moni, Dipu (b. Dec. 8, 1965), foreign minister of Bangladesh (2009-13).
Moniz, Ernest (Jeffrey) (b. Dec. 22, 1944, Fall River, Mass.), U.S. energy secretary (2013- ).
Monléon, Jérôme Félix (d. Sept. 17, 1856, Menton, Alpes-Maritimes, France), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1854-56).
Monnou, Edgar Yves (b. Feb. 9, 1953, Abomey, Dahomey [now Benin]), foreign minister of Benin (1995-96). He was also ambassador to France, the U.K., Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Turkey (2003-08).
Monory, René (Claude Aristide) (b. June 6, 1923, Loudun, Vienne, France - d. April 11, 2009, near Loudun), French minister of industry, commerce, and craft industry (1977-78), economy (1978-81), and national education (1986-88), president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (1985-86), and president of the Senate (1992-98).
Monroe, James (b. April 28, 1758, Westmoreland county, Virginia - d. July 4, 1831, New York City), president of the United States (1817-25). He was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1782. In 1783-86 he served in the Congress under the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the new nation. He returned to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1787 and in 1788 was a member of the state convention at which Virginia ratified the new federal Constitution. In 1790 he was elected to the U.S. Senate. He was minister to France in 1794-96. In 1799 he was chosen governor of Virginia and was twice reelected, serving until 1802. He was minister to Great Britain in 1803-07 and was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in the spring of 1810. In the following winter he was again chosen governor, serving from January to November 1811, then resigning to become secretary of state under James Madison, a position he held until 1817. The direction of foreign affairs during the War of 1812, with Great Britain, thus fell upon him. On Sept. 27, 1814, after the capture of Washington, D.C., by the British, he was appointed secretary of war and discharged the duties of this office, in addition to those of the State Department, until March 1815. He was elected president in 1816, defeating Rufus King 183-34, and reelected in 1820, receiving all the electoral votes but one. His calm and prosperous administration was called the Era of Good Feelings. The principles he set out in a presidential message of Dec. 2, 1823 (considering the New World closed to further European colonization and declaring that any intervention of Europe in the governments of the American hemisphere would be regarded as an unfriendly act), later came to be called the Monroe Doctrine and profoundly influenced U.S. foreign policy.
Monroe, Walter Stanley (b. May 14, 1871, Dublin, Ireland - d. Oct. 6, 1952, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada), prime minister of Newfoundland (1924-28). In 1923 he entered politics and ran unsuccessfully against William Coaker in Bonavista as a candidate for the Liberal-Labour-Progressive Party. Although he lost, he did better than anticipated. When Prime Minister Richard Squires resigned following a cabinet revolt, his successor William Warren appointed Monroe minister without portfolio in his second administration, formed in 1924. With party lines confused, several St. John's businesspeople began looking for a leader for a new party, and their choice was Monroe. His Liberal-Conservative Party won the 1924 election with the backing not only of the merchants but also of the working class. The next four years proved to be difficult ones for the Monroe government, as it tried to cope with a spiralling deficit and a sluggish economy. The desperate financial plight of the government was worsened when Monroe repealed the income tax and reduced the tax on banks in 1925. These moves fed suspicions that the administration was primarily interested in protecting wealthy merchants. Increased relief payments to the growing numbers of unemployed workers and tax concessions to major investors placed an additional strain on the government's precarious financial position. Among the achievements of the Monroe government were the decision to extend voting rights to women in 1925 and the repeal of prohibition. In 1928 Monroe handed over the leadership to his cousin, Frederick C. Alderdice, and after losing his seat in the general election that year he retired from politics. He was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1933 and remained there until the Commission of Government was instituted the following year.
Mons, Jean (François) (b. Feb. 25, 1906, Argentat, Corrèze, France - d. May 8, 1989), French resident-general of Tunisia (1947-50).
Monsonís Domingo, Enrique (b. June 28, 1931, Burriana, Castellón province, Valencia, Spain - d. Oct. 7, 2011, Burriana), president of the Council of the Valencian Country (1979-82).
Montagne Markholz, Ernesto (b. May 3, 1885, Lima, Peru - d. Aug. 27, 1954, Lima), foreign minister (1930-31) and prime minister (1936-39) of Peru. He was also minister of justice, education, and worship (1935) and education (1935-39) and president of the Senate (1939-41).
Montagné, (Michel) Lucien (b. Jan. 16, 1886, Lézignan-Corbières, Aude, France - d. May 14, 1942), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1933-35) and commissioner of Togo (1936-41).
Montagniès de la Roque, Jean-Baptiste (b. Nov. 7, 1793, Lorient, Morbihan, France - d. March 31, 1862, Lorient), governor of Senegal (1841-42) and commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1845-48).
Montalvo (Berbeo), José Antonio (b. Feb. 22, 1892, Bogotá, Colombia - d. June 5, 1970, Bogotá), foreign minister of Colombia (1962-63). He was also minister of industries (1927-29), justice (1947-48, 1948), and interior (1948) and ambassador to the Vatican (1952-55).
Montanaro, Domingo (b. 1894, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Feb. 8, 1962, Asunción), foreign minister of Paraguay (1948). He was also ambassador to Mexico (1951-53) and minister of industry and commerce (1960-62).
Montanaro (Ciarletti), Sabino Augusto (b. July 30, 1922, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Sept. 10, 2011, Asunción), interior minister of Paraguay (1967-89).
Montané-Capdebosq, Bernard Laurent (b. Aug. 20, 1862, Pau, France - d. 19...), commissioner of Mauritania (1905-07).
Montaño (y Martínez), Jorge (Mario) (b. Aug. 16, 1945, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-93, 2013- ) and ambassador to the United States (1993-95).
Montbazon, Louis Armand Constantin de Rohan, prince de (b. April 6, 1732, Paris - d. [executed] July 24, 1794, Paris), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1766-69).
Montchamp, (Marie) Henri (Ferdinand Auguste) (b. 1888 - d. 1963), governor of New Caledonia (1942-43).
Montealegre (Rivas), Eduardo (b. May 9, 1955, Managua, Nicaragua), foreign minister (1998-2000) and finance minister (2002-05) of Nicaragua. He was a presidential candidate in 2006.
Monteforte Toledo, Mario (b. Sept. 15, 1911, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. Sept. 4, 2003, Guatemala City), vice president of Guatemala (1948-49). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1946-47).
Monteiro, António (Victor Martins) (b. Jan. 22, 1944, Angola), foreign minister of Portugal (2004-05). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1997-2001) and ambassador to France (2001-04, 2006-09).
Monteiro, Armindo (Rodrigues de Sttau) (b. Dec. 16, 1896, Vila Velha de Ródão, Portugal - d. Oct. 15, 1955, Loures, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1935-36). He was also minister of colonies (1931-35) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1937-43).
Monteiro, Leão (Maria Tavares Rosado) do Sacramento (b. Jan. 13, 1920, Nelas, Viseu district, Portugal - d. Feb. 25, 2006, Parede parish, Cascais municipality [part of Lisbon Metropolitan Area], Portugal), governor of Cape Verde (1963-69).
Montenegro Medrano, Orlando (b. May 15, 1922 - d. Oct. 29, 1988, Miami, Fla.), acting president of Nicaragua (1966). He was president of Congress (1965-66, 1968-69) and mayor of Managua (1976-79).
Montero de Vargas, Pacífico, Paraguayan diplomat. He was permanent delegate to the United Nations (1954-62) and ambassador to Ecuador (1966-73).
Montero Rodríguez, Juan Esteban (b. Feb. 12, 1879, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 25, 1948, Santiago), interior minister (1931, 1931) and president (1931 [acting], 1931-32) of Chile.
Montes (Alanís), Federico (b. Oct. 2, 1884, San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico - d. Dec. 1, 1950, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (1914, 1915-17) and Guanajuato (1919-20).
Montes, Oscar Antonio (b. March 17, 1924, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Sept. 21, 2012), foreign minister of Argentina (1977-78).
Montes de Oca (Rodríguez Palavecino), Manuel Augusto (b. Dec. 15, 1831, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Dec. 2, 1882, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1878-79).
Montes de Oca (Varela), Manuel Augusto (b. June 26, 1867, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Jan. 27, 1934, Buenos Aires), foreign minister (1906) and interior minister (1906-07) of Argentina; nephew of the above.
Montesinos (Torres), Vladimiro (Lenin) (b. May 20, 1945, Arequipa, Peru), Peruvian secret services chief. In the 1970s, as an army captain, he was imprisoned for allegedly passing documents to the United States about Peru's pro-Soviet military junta. In the mid-1980s, he joined the National Intelligence Service (SIN). He rose rapidly and seized his chance for political power in 1990, when he won Pres. Alberto Fujimori's confidence by helping him fend off unproven allegations of tax dodging. Officially an adviser to Fujimori, Montesinos was seen as untouchable and above the law because of his closeness to the president. He was the most talked-about man in Peru after Fujimori and was consistently rated as the most unpopular. Depicted by his enemies as one of the blackest and most Machiavellian figures in Latin American history, he emerged from the shadows to hold his first news conference only in August 2000, appearing at Fujimori's side. It was this man who had just been shown in a video, broadcast on Peruvian television, engaged in what opposition parties said was vote buying. Until then, Montesinos' critics had failed to make much stick, but the video was a huge embarrassment. The web of corruption began to be revealed in September 2000, when some 700 videos were seized from Montesinos' apartment, showing him taking rolls of cash out of his pocket during meetings at which he apparently bribed judges, politicians, and other prominent Peruvians. The revelations led to Fujimori's downfall; Montesinos fled to Panama on September 24, but after his application for asylum there was suspended he returned to Peru in late October; an arrest warrant was issued on November 6, but he left the country again. He was finally captured in Caracas, Venezuela, on June 23, 2001. He was subsequently sentenced to 9 years in prison for illegally taking control of Peru's intelligence agency (2002), 5 years for corruption (2003), and 20 years for his involvement in an illegal arms sale (2006).
Montgomery of Alamein (of Hindhead in the County of Surrey), Bernard Law Montgomery, (1st) Viscount, byname Monty (b. Nov. 17, 1887, London, England - d. March 24, 1976, near Alton, Hampshire, England), British field marshal. He distinguished himself during World War I and commanded a division in Palestine and Transjordan in 1938-39. Early in World War II he led a division in France; after the evacuation of Allied troops at Dunkirk in 1940 he commanded the southeastern section of England in defense against a possible German invasion. In August 1942, he was appointed commander of the British 8th Army in North Africa, which had been driven back to Egypt by Gen. Erwin Rommel. He contained the German offensive and forced Rommel to retreat from Egypt after the Battle of el-Alamein (November 1942), then pursued the German armies across North Africa to their final surrender in Tunisia (May 1943). In November 1942 he was first knighted (K.C.B.) and promoted to full general. Still leading the 8th Army, he shared major responsibility in the successful Allied landing in Sicily (July 1943) and led his troops up the east coast of Italy (September). Under the command of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, he directed the land operations in the Normandy invasion (June 1944). He was made a field marshal in September 1944. Leading the British and Canadian 21st Army Group through northern France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and northern Germany, he finally received the surrender of the German northern armies on May 4, 1945, on Lüneburg Heath. He was made a knight of the garter and was created a viscount in 1946. He commanded the British Army of the Rhine and served as chief of the Imperial General Staff (1946-48) and became chairman of the permanent defense organization of the Western European Union (1948-51) and deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe for NATO (1951-58).
Monti, Mario (b. March 19, 1943, Varese, Italy), prime minister (2011-13) and economy and finance minister (2011-12) of Italy. He was a European commissioner in 1995-2004.
Montiel (Argüello), Alejandro (b. March 13, 1917, Granada, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 17, 2012), foreign minister of Nicaragua (1957-61, 1972-77). He was also ambassador to Panama (1948-50) and France and the United Kingdom (1961-62) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-79).
Montiel, Sergio (Alberto) (b. Oct. 20, 1927, Concepción del Uruguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina - d. Nov. 1, 2011, Paraná, Entre Ríos), governor of Entre Ríos (1983-87, 1999-2003).
Montilla Aguilera, José (b. Jan. 15, 1955, Iznájar, Córdoba province, Andalucía, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (2006-10).
Montolío (Moscoso), Andrés Julio (b. 1821 - d. 1911), member of the Council of Secretaries of State of the Dominican Republic (1905).
Montoro, André Franco (b. July 14, 1916, São Paulo, Brazil - d. July 16, 1999, São Paulo), governor of São Paulo (1983-87). He was also Brazilian minister of labour and social security (1961-62).
Montpezat, Jean (b. July 15, 1937, Pierrefitte-Nestalas village, Hautes-Pyrénées, France), high commissioner of New Caledonia (1986-87) and French Polynesia (1987-92).
Montt (Álvarez), Jorge (b. April 26, 1846, Casablanca, Chile - d. Oct. 8, 1922, Santiago, Chile), president of Chile (1891-96). A distant relative of Manuel and Pedro Montt, he was a leader in the ruinous civil war against Pres. José Manuel Balmaceda. He commanded both the sea and land forces of the insurrectionists and, after the cessation of hostilities, headed a provisional junta and then became president. An honest but undistinguished administrator, he was only superficially involved with the program of fiscal and political reforms instituted during his presidency.
Montt (Torres), Manuel (Francisco Antonio Julián) (b. Sept. 8, 1809, Petorca, Chile - d. Sept. 20, 1880, Santiago, Chile), president of Chile (1851-61). He was elected to the Chilean Congress in 1840 and served as minister of the interior and foreign relations (1840-41, 1845-46) and of justice and public instruction (1841-45). When he won the presidency in 1851, the liberals thought his election was fraudulent and instigated an armed revolt, but it was quickly subdued. He was reelected in 1856. He was ably assisted by his minister of the interior Antonio Varas, and it was from the union of the two statesmen that the ultra-conservative faction, the Montt-Varistas, took their name. While authoritarian and inflexible in his beliefs, he also worked for the economic and social progress of his nation. He asserted the state's right of patronage in Chile's Roman Catholic church and supported the abolition of restrictions on the sale or bequeathing of landed estates. His administration was remembered for its advances in technology, commerce and banking, the codification of Chilean laws, the promotion of public education and immigration, and the colonization of the area south of the Bío-Bío River. When Montt indicated a preference for Varas to be his successor, liberals again staged an armed uprising (1859). Montt again put down the revolt but he shifted his support to José Joaquín Pérez, a moderate. On giving up the presidency in 1861, Montt became president of the Supreme Court of Justice, a post he held at the time of his death. The city of Puerto Montt was named after him.
Montt (Montt), Pedro (Elías Pablo) (b. June 29, 1849, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 16, 1910, Bremen, Germany), president of Chile (1906-10); son of Manuel Montt. He was elected a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 and was its president in 1885-86. In the cabinet of Pres. José Manuel Balmaceda, he became minister of justice and public instruction in 1886, of public works in 1887, and of finance in 1889. Later he figured in the parliamentary opposition to Balmaceda and in 1891 took an active part in the revolution that overthrew him. He then went to the United States, first as an agent of the revolutionary junta and (from October 1891) as minister from Chile. On his return he became interior minister (1891-93). In 1901 he was unsuccessful as the Conservative candidate for the presidency, but in 1906 he was elected by a large majority as the candidate of the National Union ticket. His administration supported the construction of a railway running the length of the country, stimulated the production of nitrates and copper, and helped prevent armed conflict between Chile and Argentina. It did little, however, to improve the living conditions of the people; in 1907 he called out the army to suppress large-scale strikes. In September 1909 his policy of currency reform was defeated in parliament. Worn out by his struggle with the obdurate Congress, he wanted to resign, but the Congress indicated it would not accept a resignation. In 1910 Montt left Chile to spend some time in a sanitarium in Bad Nauheim, Germany, but he died on the day of his arrival in that country.
Monyake, Lengolo B(ureng) (b. April 1, 1930, Thabana Morena, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), foreign minister of Lesotho (1986-88). He was also ambassador to Belgium (1979-84) and minister of works (1988-90).
Monzón (Aguirre), Élfego H(ernán) (b. May 5, 1912, Santa Barbara, Huehuetenango department, Guatemala - d. 1981), Guatemalan junta chairman (1954).
Moody, William H(enry) (b. Dec. 23, 1853, Newbury, Mass. - d. July 2, 1917, Haverhill, Mass.), U.S. secretary of the navy (1902-04) and attorney general (1904-06).
Mookerjee, Chittatosh (b. Jan. 1, 1929), governor of Maharashtra (1987-88).
Moollan, Sir Cassam (Ismael) (b. Feb. 26, 1927 - d. Nov. 15, 2010), acting governor-general of Mauritius (1985-86); knighted 1982. He was chief justice in 1982-88.
Moonesinghe, Susil (Kumar), also spelled Munasinghe (b. Feb. 11, 1930 - d. Nov. 30, 2012, Kandy, Sri Lanka), chief minister of Western province, Sri Lanka (1988-93). He was also ambassador to Iran (2000-02).
Moonlight, Thomas (b. Nov. 10, 1833, near Arbroath, Forfarshire [now Angus], Scotland - d. Feb 7, 1899, Leavenworth, Kan.), governor of Wyoming (1887-89). He was also U.S. minister to Bolivia (1894-98).
Moore, Arch A(lfred), Jr. (b. April 16, 1923, Moundsville, W.V. - d. Jan. 7, 2015, Charleston, W.V.), governor of West Virginia (1969-77, 1985-89).
Moore, John (Colinton) (b. Nov. 16, 1936, Rockhampton, Qld.), defence minister of Australia (1998-2001). He was also minister of business and consumer affairs (1980-82) and industry, science, and tourism (1996-98).
Moore, Sir John (b. Nov. 13, 1761, Glasgow, Scotland - d. 1809), governor of Saint Lucia (1796-97).
Moore, Sir Lee (Llewellyn) (b. Feb. 15, 1939, St. Kitts - d. May 6, 2000, New York City), premier of St. Kitts and Nevis (1979-80). In 1967 he became public relations officer to Premier Robert L. Bradshaw. From 1971 to 1984, he was the parliamentary representative for Constituency 4, which was then Old Road to Sandy Point, East. During this period he served as attorney general in the administrations of Premiers Bradshaw and Paul Southwell. When Southwell died in 1979, Lee succeeded him as premier (until 1980). Lee was president of the St. Kitts-Nevis Trades and Labour Union from 1978 to his death and political leader of the St. Kitts-Nevis Labour Party from 1979 to 1989. He was his country's ambassador to the United Nations since 1995. He was knighted (K.C.M.G.) in January 2000.
Moore, Mike, byname of Michael Kenneth Moore (b. Jan. 28, 1949, Whakatane, New Zealand), prime minister of New Zealand (1990). He entered parliament in 1972 as the youngest member ever elected. He lost his Auckland seat (Eden) in 1975, but won the Christchurch seat of Papanui in 1978. From 1984 he held various posts in the Labour government, including minister of overseas trade and marketing, tourism, recreation, and sport (1984-88), minister for the America's Cup (1988-89), and minister of external relations and trade (1988-90). When Prime Minister David Lange resigned in 1989, Moore stood for the leadership but lost to Geoffrey Palmer. From January to October 1990 he was minister of foreign affairs. When Palmer resigned in September 1990, Moore won the post, but his term as head of government lasted only eight weeks, until the general elections of October 27 were won by the National Party. He became leader of the opposition but was replaced by Helen Clark shortly after he failed to return Labour to power in the 1993 election. In 1996-99 he was opposition spokesperson on foreign affairs and overseas trade. In 1999 he left parliament and was awarded the country's highest honour, the Order of New Zealand. He became director-general of the World Trade Organization (1999-2002) and ambassador to the United States (2010- ).
Moore, Roderick W(emple) (b. 1965, East Greenwich, R.I.), international supervisor of Brcko (2010-13). He was U.S. ambassador to Montenegro in 2007-10.
Moore-Jones, Rob, high commissioner of the Cook Islands (1998-2001). He was also New Zealand ambassador to the Philippines (2004-06) and Spain (2008-12).
Moorer, Thomas H(inman) (b. Feb. 9, 1912, Mount Willing, Ala. - d. Feb. 5, 2004, Bethesda, Md.), chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (1970-74). He joined one of the early generations of naval aviators, flying fighters off of the first American carriers. He was stationed at Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack on Dec. 7, 1941. The following February, he was flying a PBY patrol plane over the water north of Darwin, Australia, when he was attacked by Japanese aircraft. He and his co-pilot landed the plane in the water and were rescued by a ship. That ship was attacked and sunk later that day. He received a Silver Star for gallantry throughout the ordeal. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson selected him to be chief of naval operations, the service's top officer, in 1967. He was reappointed by Pres. Richard Nixon in 1969. Nixon also nominated him to be chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff the following year. During the next few years, he supervised the U.S. troop withdrawal from South Vietnam. After he retired in 1974, he appeared frequently in the news media to comment on various issues. In 1998, CNN cited him as confirming the American use of sarin, a nerve agent, in a mission to hunt down U.S. defectors in Laos during the Vietnam War. But he soon said he had simply heard of unconfirmed stories about it and had no independent knowledge. The network later retracted the story and reached a settlement with Moorer. He also accused Israel of deliberately attacking the USS Liberty, an American spy ship monitoring the 1967 Six-Day War. Israel said it was an error.
Moores, Frank D(uff) (b. Feb. 18, 1933, Carbonear, Newfoundland [now in Canada] - d. July 10, 2005, Perth, Ontario, Canada), premier of Newfoundland (1972-79). He served as a Conservative MP from 1968 until he left to take over the provincial party in 1970. In 1971 he beat Liberal Joey Smallwood, Newfoundland's first premier, in a famous election that ended in a tie in the number of seats, although the Conservatives won the popular vote. Smallwood asked for recounts, but eventually, a court decision gave the Tories the election. As premier, Moores supported initiatives designed to extend control over offshore resources, including fish and oil. After leaving provincial politics, he became a lobbyist and, in 1983, organized Brian Mulroney's victory in the contest to lead the federal Conservatives.
Moos, Ludwig von (b. Jan. 31, 1910 - d. Nov. 26, 1990), Landammann of Obwalden (1953-54, 1955-56, 1957-58, 1959-60) and justice minister (1960-71) and president (1964, 1969) of Switzerland.
Mooshahary, Ranjit Shekhar (b. March 1, 1946, Odlaguri village, Assam, India), governor of Meghalaya (2008-13).
Moqbel Osmani, Zarar Ahmad (b. 1963, Khwaja Sayaran village, Parwan province, Afghanistan), interior minister (2005-08) and foreign minister (2013-14) of Afghanistan. He was also minister of counter-narcotics (2010-13).
Mora (Rodas), Nelson (Alcides), interior minister of Paraguay (2004-05).
Mora Martínez, Manuel R(afael) (b. June 1, 1917, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico - d. March 14, 1994), governor of Tabasco (1965-70).
Mora Miranda, Marcial (b. Jan. 12, 1895, Cobquecura, Chillán, Chile - d. May 13, 1972, Santiago, Chile), interior minister (1931-32), foreign minister (1940), and finance minister (1940-41) of Chile. He was also ambassador to the United States (1944-46).
Mora Otero, José A(ntonio) (b. Nov. 22, 1897, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Jan. 26, 1975, Montevideo), secretary-general of the Organization of American States (1956-68) and foreign minister of Uruguay (1971-72). He was Uruguayan minister to Bolivia (1942-44) and minister (1946-51) and ambassador (1951-56) to the United States.
Moracchini, Delphino (b. Jan. 9, 1846, San-Lorenzo, Corse [now in Haute-Corse], France - d. 1903), governor of New Caledonia (1888), Martinique (1892-95), and Guadeloupe (1895-1901).
Morain, (Benoît) Alfred (b. Dec. 3, 1864, Charolles, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. Dec. 24, 1938, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1924-27). He was also prefect of the départements of Indre (1907-10), Haute-Vienne (1910-13), Seine-Inférieure (1915-18), Somme (1918-22), and Nord (1922-24).
Morais e Silva, José Lourenço de (b. 1857, Castelo do Piauí, Piauí, Brazil - d. 19...), acting governor of Piauí (1908).
Morales, Carlos (b. Dec. 24, 1887, Zaraza, Guárico state, Venezuela - d. 19...), foreign minister of Venezuela (1945-47).
Morales (Languasco), Carlos Felipe (b. Aug. 23, 1867, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic - d. March 1, 1914, Paris, France), president of the Dominican Republic (1903-06). He was also governor of Puerto Plata (1902-03).
Morales (Moscoso), Carlos Raúl (b. Oct. 7, 1970, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (2014- ).
Morales (Ayma), (Juan) Evo (b. Oct. 26, 1959, Isallavi, Oruro department, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (2006- ). Born in poverty, his political career began in 1981 when he was appointed secretary of sports in the coca-grower union of San Francisco in the Chapare region. From there he rose through the union ranks and, in 1992, was elected to the presidency of the six coca union federations of the Chapare. The government was suppressing coca production with assistance from the United States. Having founded a political party, the Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), he was voted as a deputy to the Bolivian Congress in 1997 and became a constant thorn in the side of successive governments more prepared to pander to the U.S. than he was. In 2002, he was thrown out of Congress amid allegations that he had participated in the murders of three police officers during civil strife over coca production. A popular uprising prevented him from being imprisoned and the charges are widely considered to have been trumped up with the collusion of the U.S. As the MAS presidential candidate in 2002, he narrowly lost to Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada. Street protests over the control of energy reserves forced Sánchez to resign in 2003, as well as his successor Carlos Mesa in 2005. In the 2005 election, Morales won easily, becoming the first presidential candidate since 1982 to win a majority of the popular vote. An Aymara Indian, he became the country's first indigenous president. In May 2006 he delighted his supporters but sent shockwaves through the energy world when he put the energy industry under state control. In June 2006, he claimed victory in elections for a new assembly which was to rewrite the constitution. With the new charter, approved by the assembly in December 2007, he sought to dismantle large landholdings and strengthen indigenous rights, alarming the wealthier eastern provinces. The new constitution, which also allowed him to seek reelection, was approved in a referendum in January 2009 and enacted in February. He was easily reelected in December 2009 and again in October 2014.
Morales Bermúdez (Cerruti), Francisco (b. Oct. 4, 1921, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (1975-80); grandson of Remigio Morales Bermúdez. He was regarded as a moderate among the military leaders of Peru's 1968 revolution. He served as minister of economy and finance from 1968 to 1974 and as chief of the army general staff in 1974-75. On Feb. 1, 1975, he was named prime minister and minister of war by Pres. Juan Velasco Alvarado, whom Morales overthrew in a bloodless coup on August 29. In a cabinet shuffle on July 16, 1976, Morales excluded most of the early protagonists of the 1968 revolution, underscoring his intention to revitalize the country's economy and to liberalize its political life. On Oct. 9, 1977, Morales presented the definitive text of the four-year "Tupac Amaru Plan," designed to return the country to civilian rule and to steer a middle economic course between socialism and capitalism. Morales held elections on May 18, 1980, and stepped aside for the winner, Fernando Belaúnde Terry, thus ending 12 years of military rule in Peru.
Morales Bermúdez, Remigio (b. Sept. 30, 1836, Pica, Tarapacá region, Peru [now in Chile] - d. April 1, 1894, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (1890-94). He was also first vice president (1886-90).
Morales Blumenkron, (José) Guillermo (Adolfo) (b. April 27, 1908, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico - d. Aug. 27, 1979), governor of Puebla (1973-75).
Morales Paúl, Isidro (b. March 1, 1932, Caracas, Venezuela - d. June 18, 2005, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1984-85).
Morales Sánchez, Gregorio (b. May 26, 1885, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. 1962), governor of Nuevo León (1935-36).
Morales Troncoso, Carlos (b. Sept. 29, 1940, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - d. Oct. 25, 2014, Houston, Texas), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1994-96, 2004-14); grandson of Manuel de Jesús Troncoso de la Concha. He was also vice president (1986-94) and ambassador to the United States (1989-91).
Morán López, Fernando (b. March 25, 1926, Avilés, Asturias, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1982-85). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-87).
Moratinos (Cuyaubé), Miguel Ángel (b. June 8, 1951, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (2004-10). He was also chargé d'affaires in Yugoslavia (1980-84), ambassador to Israel (1996), and EU special envoy to the Middle East (1996-2003).
Morau, Marie Nicolas François Auguste (b. Jan. 15, 1832, Dominica - d. ...), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1883-85).
Morauta, Sir Mekere (b. 1946, Kukipi village, Malalaua district, Gulf province, Papua [now in Papua New Guinea]), prime minister of Papua New Guinea (1999-2002). From 1973 to 1982 he served as secretary in the Department of Finance of Papua New Guinea, and from 1983 to 1992 as managing director of the Papua New Guinea Banking Corporation. In 1993-94 he was governor of the Bank of Papua New Guinea (central bank). He entered the national parliament as the member for Port Moresby North-West in July 1997. He served as minister for planning and implementation from December 1997 to April 1998, and as minister for fisheries from April 1998 to June 1999, then assumed leadership of the People's Democratic Movement and, following Bill Skate's resignation, became prime minister. He was leader of the opposition in 2002-04 and chairman of the National Capital District Commission in 2004-06. He was knighted in 1990.
Moravcík, Jozef (b. March 19, 1945, Ocova, Slovakia), foreign minister of Czechoslovakia (1992) and prime minister of Slovakia (1994). He was also mayor of Bratislava (1998-2002).
Morazán (Quezada), (José) Francisco (b. Oct. 3, 1792, Tegucigalpa, Honduras - d. Sept. 15, 1842, San José, Costa Rica), president of the United Provinces of Central America (1830-34, 1835-39). He began his political career in his native Honduras, becoming its chief of state (1827-29, 1829-30). He led the Liberal Party's forces in a revolt that overthrew Manuel José Arce, first president of the United Provinces, and the Conservatives in 1829. In 1830 Morazán was elected president. He introduced many anticlerical measures, social reforms, and plans to promote economic development, a modernization program that aroused the anger of Conservatives. Although he was reelected to a second term, he had to devote most of his energy to putting down revolts. The federal government lacked the powers to overcome state rivalries, and by 1838 a popular rebellion led by José Rafael Carrera, coinciding with the panic of a cholera epidemic, had torn the federation apart. After the end of his term in 1839 he became supreme chief of state of El Salvador (a post he had also held provisionally in 1832), but he continued to fight for the federation. Carrera's Conservative-backed rebel army defeated Morazán at Guatemala City in March 1840, and in April he resigned and went into exile. Returning in 1842, he attacked and defeated the forces of the Costa Rican dictator Braulio Carrillo and became supreme chief of Costa Rica, but his attempt to follow up this triumph and reunite Central America led to a military revolt; he was betrayed, captured, and executed by a firing squad.
Mordechai, Yitzhak (b. Nov. 22, 1944, Iraqi Kurdistan), Israeli politician. He was brought to Israel in 1949. Considered a moderate, Mordechai, a former general who joined Likud after 33 years of army service, rode his security credentials to a high spot on the Likud list and became defense minister under Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in 1996. Mordechai said he entered politics to help prevent Israeli territorial concessions that would put the Jewish state at risk. But he was accused by Jewish settlers of using his authority to block settlement expansion. He was sacked in January 1999 for preparing to challenge Netanyahu in that year's election. He quit Likud and joined the new Centre Party. His declared aims were to oust Netanyahu, make progress on the peacemaking front, and unite a divided Israeli public. He said he was the only contender with the ability to knock Netanyahu out of the race. Opinion polls gave him only around 8% of votes. He was the first Sephardi - a Jew with roots in the Middle East or North Africa - to run for prime minister in a country long dominated by Ashkenazi Jews of European origin. He withdrew the day before the election when opinion polls showed him as the main barrier to Ehud Barak's ousting Netanyahu. When Barak became prime minister, Mordechai was named transport minister. He resigned in June 2000 after being accused of sexual harassment, was convicted in March 2001 of indecent assault against two women, and was given an 18-month suspended sentence in April.
Moreira, Guilherme José, (from July 5, 1889) barão de Juruá (b. June 25, 1835, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. Sept. 23, 1899, Salvador), governor of Amazonas (1891, 1891).
Moreira Valdés, Humberto (b. July 28, 1966, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico), governor of Coahuila (2005-11). He was also mayor of Saltillo (2003-05) and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (2011).
Moreira Valdez, Rubén (Ignacio) (b. April 18, 1963, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico), governor of Coahuila (2011- ); brother of Humberto Moreira Valdés (the metronym is spelled differently due to an error in the birth certificate).
Morel, Louis Jules (b. Oct. 2, 1853, Orléans, France - d. 19...), resident-superior of Cambodia (1904-05) and Tonkin (1907-09).
Morelos y (Pérez) Pavón, José María (Teclo) (b. Sept. 30, 1765, Valladolid, New Spain [now Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico] - d. Dec. 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, New Spain [now in México state, Mexico]), leader of the Mexican independence movement. He joined Miguel Hidalgo's rebellion in early 1811 and, after Hidalgo's execution (July 30), took command of the movement in southern Mexico. He won a series of victories and held at one time or another Acapulco, Oaxaca, Tehuacán, and Cuautla. Consolidating control over all the region after his victories was beyond his resources, however, and he turned increasingly to guerrilla tactics. He convened the Congress of Anáhuac at Chilpancingo in 1813 to form a government and draft a constitution. The congress named him generalissimo and declared Mexico's independence (November 6). In December, however, his forces were routed at Valladolid by Agustín de Iturbide, and he fought a defensive war for the next two years. The congress, which in October 1814, at Apatzingán, promulgated an egalitarian constitution, was safe only so long as it moved from place to place under the protection of Morelos' nomadic army. Finally, in November 1815, royalist forces caught up with the insurgents. Morelos fought a rearguard action allowing most of the revolutionary government to escape, but he himself was captured, condemned for treason, and shot. The state of Morelos and the city of Morelia are named after him.
Moreno (Charme), Alfredo (Germán) (b. Aug. 4, 1956, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (2010-14).
Moreno, Fulgencio Ricardo (b. Nov. 9, 1872, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Oct. 17, 1933, Asunción), foreign minister of Paraguay (1912). He was also minister to Chile and Peru (1913-15, 1918-21), Bolivia (1918-21), and Brazil (1928-33).
Moreno (Garcés), Lenín (Voltaire) (b. March 19, 1953, Nuevo Rocafuerte, Orellana province, Ecuador), vice president of Ecuador (2007-13). He was appointed UN special envoy on disability and accessibility in 2013.
Moreno (Mejía), Luis Alberto (b. May 3, 1953, Philadelphia, Pa.), president of the Inter-American Development Bank (2005- ). He was also Colombian minister of economic development (1992-94) and ambassador to the United States (1998-2005).
Moreno Cárdenas, (Rafael) Alejandro (b. April 25, 1975, Campeche, Campeche, Mexico), governor of Campeche (2015- ).
Moreno González, José Antonio (b. March 10, 1907, Asunción, Paraguay - d. 1973), foreign minister of Paraguay (1953-54). He was ambassador to Chile (1949), Brazil (1949-50), Argentina (1950-51), Bolivia (1957-58), and Uruguay (1958-62).
Moreno Peña, Fernando (b. June 30, 1953, Colima, Colima, Mexico), governor of Colima (1997-2003).
Moreno Ruffinelli, José Antonio (b. March 10, 1939, Asunción, Paraguay), foreign minister of Paraguay (2001-03); son of José Antonio Moreno González. He was ambassador to Brazil in 1977-81.
Moreno Valle, Rafael (b. Aug. 13, 1917, Atlixco, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1969-72). He was also Mexican minister of health and welfare (1964-68).
Moreno Valle (Rosas), Rafael (b. June 30, 1968, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (2011- ); grandson of Rafael Moreno Valle (b. 1917).
Morgan, Ephraim F(ranklin) (b. Jan. 16, 1869, near Forksburg, Marion county, W.Va. - d. Jan. 15, 1950, Bethesda, Md.), governor of West Virginia (1921-25).
Morgan, Laurie, byname of Laurence Charles Morgan, chief minister of Guernsey (2004-07).
Morgan, (Hywel) Rhodri (b. Sept. 29, 1939, Roath district, Cardiff, Wales), first minister of Wales (2000-09). He was elected Labour MP for Cardiff West in 1987. He was opposition front bench spokesman on energy (1988-92) and Welsh affairs (1992-97) and chairman of the House of Commons Select Committee on Public Administration (1997-99). In 1999 he was elected to the Welsh Assembly from Cardiff West. In 2000 he became first secretary of Wales; later in the year the government changed its members' titles from secretaries to ministers. He did not stand again for the House of Commons in the 2001 election.
Morganti, Fausta Simona (b. Aug. 20, 1944), captain-regent of San Marino (2005).
Morganti, Giuseppe Maria (b. March 12, 1955, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2002-03).
Mori, Giancarlo (b. Nov. 4, 1938, Genoa, Liguria, Italy), president of Liguria (1994-2000).
Mori, Manny, byname of Emanuel Mori (b. Dec. 25, 1948, Fefan island, Truk [now Chuuk], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), president of the Federated States of Micronesia (2007-15).
Mori, Yoshiro (b. July 14, 1937, Neagari, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan), prime minister of Japan (2000-01). He was elected to the Diet in 1969 as an independent but afterwards joined the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP). He was minister of education (1983-84), of international trade and industry (1992-93), and of construction (1995-96). He became secretary-general of the LDP (1993-95, 1998-2000) and in 1998 inherited the leadership of the third-largest faction in the multi-group LDP. Swept into office as prime minister in April 2000 after his predecessor, Keizo Obuchi, suffered a fatal stroke, he won an unconvincing victory in a June lower house election in which the LDP lost its simple majority. His habit of making insensitive statements made him one of the most unpopular leaders in decades and became such a problem that party leaders in the autumn issued a public call for him to zip his lips. He made no secret of his desire to bring traditional Japanese values back to schools and families, the LDP's election manifesto even containing a highly unusual lament for the decline of respect for ancient tradition and culture. He stirred up a storm by saying (May 2000) Japan was a "divine nation with the emperor at its core." Five days before the June elections, Mori commented about undecided voters: "Those people who aren't interested should just stay in bed." In October, critics said he endangered delicate diplomatic talks with North Korea by letting slip secret strategies in a meeting with Britain's Tony Blair. His unpopularity, along with stalling on economic reforms, provided his reformist rival Koichi Kato with a chance to challenge from within the LDP. Kato backed down at the 11th hour from a threat to support an opposition-sponsored no-confidence motion in the lower house in November 2000, but Mori resigned in April 2001.
Morilleau, Lucien (Désiré Constant) (b. 1835, Mormaison, Vendée, France - d. 1907), conservator of the French possessions on Saint Helena (1880-1907).
Morin, Don (b. 1954, Hay River, Northwest Territories, Canada), premier of the Northwest Territories (1995-98). He represented the Dene Nation on the Great Slave Lake Advisory Committee and was a member of the Deninoo Community Council in Fort Resolution. He was first elected to the Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly in the general election of October 1987. He resigned as premier in 1998 after the conflict-of-interest commissioner found that he had used his position for personal gain.
Morin, Elisabeth (b. Oct. 10, 1947, Ceaux-en-Couhé, Vienne, France), president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (2002-04).
Morin, Jean (b. June 23, 1916, Melun, Seine-et-Marne, France - d. Sept. 6, 2008), delegate-general of Algeria (1960-62). He was also prefect of the French départements of Manche (1946), Maine-et-Loire (1949-58), and Haute-Garonne (1958-60).
Morin, Michel (b. July 29, 1945, Paris, France), prefect of Martinique (1991-95). He was also prefect of the French départements of Cantal (1987-90), Aube (1990-91), Haute-Savoie (1995-96), Finistère (1996-98), Loire (2002-06), and Isère (2006-08).
Morínigo (Martínez), Higinio (b. Jan. 11, 1897, Paraguarí, Paraguay - d. Jan. 27, 1983, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1940-48). He was also interior minister (1939) and minister of war and navy (1940).
Moriones y Murillo, Domingo, marqués de Oroquieta (b. 1823, Leache, Navarra, Spain - d. 1881, Madrid, Spain), governor-general of the Philippines (1877-80).
Morita, Kensaku, stage name of Eiji Suzuki (b. Dec. 16, 1949), governor of Chiba (2009- ).
Morjane, Kamel, Arabic Kamal Murjan (b. May 9, 1948, Hammam Sousse, Tunisia), defense minister (2005-10) and foreign minister (2010-11) of Tunisia.
Morkel, Gerald (Norman) (b. Feb. 3, 1941, Hatfield, Cape Town, South Africa), premier of Western Cape (1998-2001). He was also mayor of Cape Town (2001-02).
Morlière, François Louis Magallon, comte de la (b. Oct. 26, 1754, L'Isle-Adam, Val-d'Oise, France - d. Dec. 31, 1825), governor-general of Île de France (1800-03) and governor of Réunion (1803-05).
Mörner af Morlanda, Adolf greve (b. Jan. 1, 1705, Grönlund, Östergötland, Sweden - d. Aug. 31, 1766, Esplunda, Örebro, Sweden), governor of Stockholm (1750-51), Älvsborg (1751-56), and Närke och Värmland (1756-66).
Mörner af Morlanda, (Karl) Axel (Göran) greve (b. Oct. 27, 1868, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Nov. 17, 1954, Stockholm), governor of Halland (1920-35).
Moro, Aldo (b. Sept. 23, 1916, Maglie, Puglia, Italy - d. May 9, 1978, near or in Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1963-68, 1974-76). After World War II, he helped organize the Christian Democrats in Puglia and was elected to the Constituent Assembly (1946) and to the Chamber of Deputies (1948). He became undersecretary of foreign affairs (1947-48), minister of justice (1955-57), and minister of public instruction (1957-59). He was appointed secretary of the Christian Democrats in 1959 during a crisis that threatened to split the party. Although he was the leader of the Dorothean (centrist) faction, he favoured forming a coalition with the Socialists. He helped bring about the resignation of the conservative Christian Democrat prime minister Fernando Tambroni in 1960 and brought the party round to accepting the Socialist alliance in 1962. The government he formed in 1963 was the first in 16 years in which Socialists took part. Many of the reforms he had envisaged failed to materialize, but his manoeuvring skill allowed him to remain in office, forming new governments in 1964 and 1966. He had a knack for getting things done by compromise draped in intentionally ambiguous semantics. Having been foreign minister in 1969-72 and 1973-74, he became premier again in 1974 at the head of a coalition with the Republicans, but this government fell in January 1976 and he then led a short minority government. Taking over the chairmanship of the Christian Democrats in October 1976, he remained a powerful influence in Italian politics; in 1978 he was seen as a front-runner for the presidency. But on March 16, 1978, he was kidnapped in Rome by Red Brigades terrorists, and after the government repeatedly refused to release 13 members of the Red Brigades on trial in Turin, he was murdered by his kidnappers.
Morones Prieto, Ignacio (b. March 3, 1899, Linares, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Oct. 30, 1974, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1949-52). He was also Mexican minister of health and welfare (1952-58) and ambassador to France (1960-66).
Moroz, Oleksandr (Oleksandrovych) (b. Feb. 29, 1944, Buda village, Tarashan district, Kiev oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), Ukrainian presidential candidate (1999, 2004, 2010). He was chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) in 1994-98 and 2006-07.
Morozov, Sergey (Ivanovich) (b. Sept. 6, 1959), governor of Ulyanovsk oblast (2005- ). In 2000-05 he was mayor of the city of Dimitrovgrad, in Ulyanovsk oblast.
Morozov, Yury (Ionovich) (b. 1949, Sterlitamak, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of South Ossetia (2005-08).
Morri, Romeo (b. March 10, 1952, Serravalle, San Marino), captain-regent (1992-93) and foreign minister (2002) of San Marino. He was also minister of labour and cooperation (1998-2001) and education and culture, university, and youth policy (2008-12).
Morrill, Lot M(yrick) (b. May 3, 1813, Belgrade, Maine - d. Jan. 10, 1883, Augusta, Maine), governor of Maine (1858-61) and U.S. secretary of the treasury (1876-77).
Morris, Alexander (b. March 17, 1826, Perth, Upper Canada [now Ontario] - d. Oct. 28, 1889, Toronto, Ont.), lieutenant governor of Manitoba (1872-77) and the Northwest Territories (1872-76). A Conservative and strong supporter of Canadian confederation, he was elected to his father's former seat of South Lanark, Upper Canada, in the legislature of the united province of Canada in 1861. He held the seat through Confederation (1867) until 1872. From 1869 to 1872 he served in the dominion cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald as minister of inland revenue. In July 1872 he was appointed as the first chief justice of the Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench. In December that year he was made lieutenant governor of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. He presided over the introduction of the first form of responsible government to the Territories and facilitated that jurisdiction's development toward autonomy. From 1878 to 1886 he represented East Toronto in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
Morris (of St. John's and Waterford), Edward Patrick Morris, (1st) Baron (b. May 8, 1859, St. John's, Newfoundland [now in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada] - d. Oct. 24, 1935, London, England), prime minister of Newfoundland (1909-17). In 1885 he was elected to the House of Assembly as an independent, topping the polls in the three-member district of St. John's West. He represented the district in the next eight elections. In the election of 1889 he supported William Whiteway and entered the executive council without portfolio. Following the 1893 election, he, with 16 other Whiteway supporters, was unseated on charges of patronage during the election. His disqualification from contending the subsequent by-election resulted in the only interruption in 33 years representing St. John's West. Returning to the executive council in 1895 when Whiteway formed a new administration, he was selected as a delegate to Ottawa to discuss terms under which Newfoundland might confederate with Canada. When Robert Bond became prime minister in 1900, Morris agreed to enter the executive council as minister without portfolio. A split between Bond and Morris occurred in 1907. On March 5, 1908, Morris announced the formation of the People's Party and in elections that year, both the Liberals and the People's Party elected 18 members. After some manoeuvring Bond resigned in 1909, and Morris became prime minister. The House was unable to agree on the choice of a speaker, and a new election was called. The People's Party won 26 seats to the Liberals' 10. Morris also won the 1913 election. He resigned on Dec. 31, 1917, and the next day was created Baron Morris - the only native Newfoundlander to be elevated to the British peerage. He was knighted in 1904, became a Privy Councillor in 1911, and was created K.C.M.G. in 1913.
Morrison, Frank B(renner) (b. May 20, 1905, Golden, Colo. - d. April 19, 2004, McCook, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1961-67). He entered politics in 1934, when elected Frontier County's county attorney. He ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. House in 1948 and 1954, and for the Senate in 1958. The fact that a Democrat who was opposed to the Vietnam War and capital punishment could be elected governor in predominantly Republican Nebraska in the 1960s attested to his charisma. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson persuaded him to not seek a fourth two-year term as governor in 1966, and instead run against Carl Curtis for the Senate. He lost the race, then lost another Senate bid in 1970. He was appointed Douglas County defender in 1970, and was involved in representing two black men who were convicted of murdering a white Omaha officer. He remained active through his senior years, speaking out against the war in Iraq and opposing capital punishment as a witness during legislative hearings. In 2000, when he was 95, his dream of a monument celebrating the convergence of the Oregon, Mormon, and California trails in Nebraska came true with the construction of the Great Platte River Road Archway Monument in Kearney. After mulling over the idea for decades, Morrison started work on the $60 million archway and its series of multimedia exhibits in the mid-1990s.
Morrison (of Lambeth), Herbert (Stanley) Morrison, Baron (b. Jan. 3, 1888, London, England - d. March 6, 1965, Sidcup, Kent, England), British home secretary (1940-45), deputy prime minister and lord president of the council (1945-51), and foreign secretary (1951). He was created a life peer in 1959.
Morrison, William (Lawrence), byname Bill Morrison (b. Nov. 3, 1928, Lithgow, N.S.W. - d. Feb. 14, 2013, Bardwell Valley, N.S.W.), defence minister of Australia (1975). He was also minister of science (1972-75), external territories (1972-73), and consumer affairs (1975) and ambassador to Indonesia (1985-89).
Morrow, Jay J(ohnson) (b. Feb. 20, 1870, Fairview, Va. - d. April 16, 1937, Englewood, N.J.), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1921-24). He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1891, receiving his commission in the Corps of Engineers. He was ordered to the Philippines in 1898, where he served as military governor of the province of Zamboanga in 1901-02. His first tour of duty in the Panama Canal Zone was as maintenance engineer in 1916 and 1917, during which time he often officiated as acting governor. On June 26, 1916, he was promoted from colonel to brigadier general and in December of that year was ordered back to the U.S. to take command at Camp A.A. Humphreys in Virginia. In June 1919, he returned to the Panama Canal as a maintenance engineer, serving in that capacity until 1921, when he was appointed governor by Pres. Warren G. Harding. He found himself confronted with a task of reorganization, a job which involved the difficult and disagreeable work of reducing the canal force from its wartime high. He was interested in obtaining a large reserve supply of water for Gatun Lake, the artificial body of water supplying the canal, and made several surveys of the Chagres River to build an additional reservoir. He supervised many improvements in the canal. Morrow also supervised the construction of a special basin, brought the dredging system of the waterway to a high degree of efficiency, and widened the most perilous part of the passage, the bend around Gaillard Cut. Both the Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks were improved while he was governor. From 1925 to 1929 he was chairman of a special commission arbitrating the boundary dispute between Chile and Bolivia.
Morsy (Isa al-Ayat), Mohamed, also spelled Morsi, Arabic in full Muhammad Muhammad Mursi `Isa al-`Ayyat (b. August 1951, al-Sharqiya governorate, Egypt), president of Egypt (2012-13). Egypt's first freely elected president, he was overthrown in a military coup after only a year in office and has been held in detention since. In September 2013 he was charged with incitement to conduct murder and "thuggery" relating to clashes near the presidential palace in December 2012. In April 2015 he was sentenced to 20 years in prison. In May he was sentenced to death together with more than 100 other defendants for involvement in mass jail breaks during the 2011 uprising against Pres. Hosni Mubarak.
Morton, Azie Taylor, née Taylor (b. Feb. 1, 1936, Dale, Texas - d. Dec. 7, 2003, Austin, Texas), treasurer of the United States (1977-81).
Morton, J(ulius) Sterling (b. April 22, 1832, Adams, N.Y. - d. April 27, 1902, Lake Forest, Ill.), acting governor of Nebraska (1858-59, 1861) and U.S. secretary of agriculture (1893-97).
Morton, Levi P(arsons) (b. May 16, 1824, Shoreham, Vt. - d. May 16, 1920, Rhinebeck, N.Y.), U.S. vice president (1889-93) and governor of New York (1895-97). He was also minister to France (1881-85).
Morton, Rogers C(lark) B(allard) (b. Sept. 19, 1914, Louisville, Ky. - d. April 19, 1979, Easton, Md.), U.S. politician; brother of Thruston B. Morton. He first took an active role in politics after World War II when he ran congressional campaigns in Kentucky for his brother. In 1962 he was elected from Maryland to the first of five consecutive terms (1963-71) in the House of Representatives. In 1969 he was named national chairman of the Republican Party. In 1971 he was appointed secretary of the interior by Pres. Richard M. Nixon and in 1975 secretary of commerce by Pres. Gerald R. Ford, serving until 1976.
Morton, Thruston B(allard) (b. Aug. 19, 1907, Louisville, Ky. - d. Aug. 14, 1982, Louisville), U.S. politician; brother of Rogers C.B. Morton. He was a seventh-generation Kentuckian who became a towering figure in state politics while representing Louisville in the House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 and serving as U.S. senator from 1957 to 1969. He was also assistant secretary of state (1953-56) under Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower and was national chairman (1959-61) of the Republican Party during the 1960 presidential campaign. Morton was opposed to the war in Vietnam and called for bold U.S. leadership in world affairs. At the peak of his career in 1968, Morton surprised his constituents by deciding to not seek reelection.
Mosbacher, Robert A(dam) (b. March 11, 1927, Mount Vernon, N.Y. - d. Jan. 24, 2010, Houston, Texas), U.S. commerce secretary (1989-92).
Moscicki, Ignacy (b. Dec. 1, 1867, Mierzanów, Poland, Russian Empire [now in Poland] - d. Oct. 2, 1946, Versoix, Switzerland), president of Poland (1926-39). In the early 1890s he was involved in nationalist activism. To avoid arrest by the Russian police, he fled to London in July 1892, where he met Józef Pilsudski. He lived in Switzerland from 1897 but returned to Poland in January 1913. After Pilsudski's coup d'état in May 1926, Moscicki, on Pilsudski's recommendation, was elected as president of the republic by the Sejm and Senate sitting together. He served Pilsudski faithfully and was reelected to another seven-year term in 1933. After Pilsudski's death (1935), Moscicki's influence increased. His part in accepting the German challenge in 1939 was decisive. After the German invasion, he left the country with the government (September 17) for allied Romania, but the Romanians interned him at Bicaz. He resigned on September 30, having appointed Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz as his successor. In December he was allowed to leave Romania for Switzerland, whose government made him an honorary citizen. He resided there until his death.
Moscoso (Rodríguez viuda de Arias), Mireya (Elisa) (b. July 1, 1946, Panama City, Panama), president of Panama (1999-2004). In the early 1960s she met Arnulfo Arias Madrid. She worked in his political campaigns and when Arias was deposed by Omar Torrijos in 1968 and went into exile in Miami, Fla., Moscoso joined him. She and Arias married on Dec. 27, 1973, when she was 27 and he was 72; he died in 1988. In the early 1990s she held minor posts in the Panamanian government. She was involved in the creation of the Arnulfista Party, named after her late husband, in 1990 and became president of the party in 1991. From 1991 to 1997 she appeared as Mireya Moscoso de Gruber, during her second marriage, which ended in divorce. A dark horse in Panama's 1994 presidential elections, she came in a close second to Ernesto Pérez Balladares, winning 28% of the vote compared to his 34%, after nearly doubling her support in her campaign's final two weeks. Since then, Moscoso struck a chord with Panama's increasingly outspoken poor and middle classes. In March 1998 she finished ahead of banker Alberto Vallarino in the Arnulfista Party primary, winning about 60% of the vote. In her populist-leaning campaign she vowed not to continue with certain reforms enacted by the Pérez Balladares government, such as the privatization of state-owned businesses. She also said she would review and possibly change Pérez Balladares's nominees to the Supreme Court and the board of directors of the Panama Canal, as well as the 1998 banking regulatory law. She won the 1999 elections with 45% of the votes to 38% for Martín Torrijos, son of Omar Torrijos. She became Panama's first female president. In December 1999 she oversaw the U.S. handover of the Panama Canal.
Moses, George H(iggins) (b. Feb. 9, 1869, Lubec, Maine - d. Dec. 20, 1944, Concord, N.H.), president pro tempore of the United States Senate (1925-33). He was also minister to Greece and Montenegro (1909-12).
Moses, Resio S. (b. Aug. 31, 1944, U, Ponape [now Pohnpei], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. June 22, 2009, Nett, Pohnpei), governor of Pohnpei (1983-92) and foreign minister of the Federated States of Micronesia (1992-96). In 1996-97 he was permanent representative to the United Nations.
Moshoeshoe II, personal name Constantine Bereng Seeiso (b. May 2, 1938, Thabang, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Jan. 15, 1996, near Ha Noha village, in the Maluti mountains, Lesotho), king of Lesotho (1965-70, 1970-90, 1995-96). He succeeded his father, Seeiso Griffith, as paramount chief of the country in 1960. The U.K. granted autonomy in 1965 and he was declared king; full independence followed in 1966. Concerned with Moshoeshoe's involvement in politics, Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan placed him under house arrest, first in 1966 and again in January 1970; he was then deposed and in April 1970 forced into exile in the Netherlands. He was restored to the throne in December on the condition that he abstain from political activities. In 1986 Jonathan was toppled in a military coup by Maj.Gen. Justin Lekhanya, who in 1990 suspended Moshoeshoe's executive powers (February) and forced him into exile in London (March). From his exile the king attempted to initiate democratic elections and, as a result, was deposed (November 1990) and replaced by his eldest son, who reluctantly became King Letsie III. Moshoeshoe remained popular with the people of Lesotho, however, and, after the government was seized (1991) by another military figure, Maj.Gen. Elias Ramaema, Moshoeshoe was allowed to return from London in 1992. Lesotho held free elections in 1993; in 1994 Letsie staged a royal coup, ousting the government and announcing his intention to restore his father. International pressure forced Letsie to restore the government, but not before he had won promises that his father would also be reinstated. Accordingly, Moshoeshoe took up the throne again in 1995, but a year later he died in an automobile accident.
Mosisili, (Bethuel) Pakalitha (b. March 14, 1945, Waterfall, Qacha's Nek district, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), prime minister of Lesotho (1998-2012, 2015- ). He was minister of education (1993-95) and home affairs (1995-98) and deputy prime minister (1995-98). In 1998 he took over the leadership of the ruling Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD) and led it to an overwhelming election victory. However, the crushing victory led to opposition protests over vote-rigging and eventually violence erupted in Lesotho, prompting military intervention by South Africa and the death of more than 60 people. A compromise with the opposition led to an agreement for fresh elections in 18 months. In the end, the elections were only held in 2002, but under a new electoral system, whereby 40 proportional representation seats were added to the existing 80 constituency seats. The LCD still won a majority. In 2007 he won a third term in office despite his government being dogged by allegations of corruption. In 2012 he left the LCD; 44 members of parliament joined him in crossing the floor to form a new party, the Democratic Congress, which thus became the largest party in parliament, though without an overall majority. In the subsequent elections his party came first but remained short of a majority, and the opposition parties teamed up to replace him. After elections in 2015, though his party's lead was narrowed to just one seat, he was able to return to power after the LCD changed allegiance.
Moskovsky, Vasily (Petrovich) (b. 1904, Bocheyno, Novgorod province, Russia - d. June 1984, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He was a deputy premier of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1960-62) and Soviet ambassador to North Korea (1962-65), also chief editor of the newspapers Krasnaya Zvezda (1954-55) and Sovetskaya Rossiya (1965-71).
Mosley, Sir Oswald (Ernald), (6th) Baronet (b. Nov. 16, 1896, London, England - d. Dec. 3, 1980, Orsay, Essonne, France), British politician; son-in-law of George Nathaniel Curzon, Marquess Curzon. He served in the House of Commons as a Conservative (1918-22), an independent (1922-24), and then a Labour Party member (1924, 1926-31) and served in a Labour government as chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1929-30). He succeeded his father as baronet in 1928. Having formed the socialist New Party, he was defeated for reelection to Parliament in 1931 despite his powerful orations. After a trip to Fascist Italy, Mosley founded the British Union of Fascists (BUF) in 1932, becoming a British imitator of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. The group distributed anti-Semitic propaganda, staged hostile demonstrations in Jewish sections of London's East End, and wore uniforms emblazoned with Nazi insignia. But, unlike the continental Fascist leaders, Mosley, with his open advocacy of totalitarianism, failed to win much popular support in his native land, although he was supported by the newspaper publisher Viscount Rothermere. His pro-German agitations constituted a danger to national security with the start of World War II, and in 1940 he was interned without a trial. He was released in 1943 because of poor health. After the war, he reorganized the BUF as the Union Movement in 1948. In 1959 he ran again for Parliament but lost his deposit. In one of his last major appearances, in London's Trafalgar Square in 1962, he was knocked down and kicked by opponents. He made another unsuccessful run for Parliament in 1966. He had given up permanent residence in Britain in 1951, moving first to Ireland and then to France.
Mosquera (y Dalla Costa), Bernardino (b. Feb. 6, 1855, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Oct. 1, 1923, Paris, France), foreign minister of Venezuela (1917-19).
Mosquera Chaux, Víctor (b. Oct. 1, 1919, Popayán, Colombia - d. Nov. 10, 1997, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1972). He was also governor of Cauca (1959-60), justice minister (1960), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1967-70) and the United States (1987-91).
Moss, Sir David (Joseph) (b. Nov. 6, 1938), governor of Pitcairn Island (1990-94); knighted 1998. He was also British high commissioner to New Zealand and Western Samoa (1990-94) and Malaysia (1994-98).
Mossadegh, Mohammad, Mossadegh also spelled Mosaddeq (b. May 19, 1882, Tehran, Iran - d. March 5, 1967, Tehran), prime minister of Iran (1951-52, 1952-53). He served as governor-general of Fars province (1920-21), finance minister (1921-22), governor-general of Azerbaijan province (1922-23), and then briefly as foreign minister (1923). He was elected to the Majles (parliament) in 1923. When Reza Khan was elected shah in 1925, Mossadegh opposed the move and was compelled to retire from politics. He resumed his public career in 1944, following Reza's forced abdication in 1941, and was elected again to the Majles. He built considerable political strength on his call for the nationalization of Iran's oil industry, specifically the concessions and installations of the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. In March 1951 the Majles passed his nationalization act, and his power was such that the shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was more or less forced to appoint him premier. A political crisis in 1952 resulted in his resignation but street riots followed and he was back in office within days. His odd personal behaviour - such as appearing in public wearing pajamas, receiving visitors and holding cabinet meetings while propped up in bed, and bouts of public weeping - was attributed by some to ill health and by others to an appeal for sympathy. A struggle for control of the government developed between Mossadegh and the shah, who attempted to dismiss the premier in 1953. Mobs of Mossadegh followers again took to the streets and the shah left the country. Soon, however, a royalist uprising - directed by the U.S. CIA - restored the shah to power. Mossadegh was sentenced to three years' imprisonment for treason; after his release in 1956 he was kept under house arrest for the rest of his life.
Mossion, Jacques (b. Dec. 25, 1927 - d. Feb. 3, 1996), president of the Regional Council of Picardie (1979-80).
Mota Pinto, Carlos (Alberto de) (b. July 25, 1936, Pombal, near Coimbra, Portugal - d. May 7, 1985, Coimbra), prime minister of Portugal (1978-79). In 1974 he helped to found the Social Democratic Party (PSD). Following the April 1974 revolution, he was elected in April 1975 as a deputy to the Legislative Assembly for the PSD and participated in the drafting of the new constitution. He became the party's parliamentary leader, but left in December 1975 after a clash of personalities and a disagreement with the party head, Francisco Sá Carneiro, over the party's organization and its drift to the right. In the first constitutional government, July 1976-December 1977, led by Mário Soares, he served as minister of commerce and tourism. After the defeat of Alfredo Nobre da Costa's government, he emerged as the most acceptable candidate for premier. He was chosen on Oct. 25, 1978, with the approval of the Socialists and Centre Democrats. In order to maintain his insecure government, he favoured closer cooperation with Social Democrats and like-minded elements in the Socialist Party. He set out to tackle Portugal's economic problems, but his administration was eventually defeated by a combination of Communist and Socialist deputies. He remained active in politics, returned to lead the PSD in 1983, and became deputy prime minister and minister of defense in a coalition of his party with the Socialists (1983). Following disagreements within the PSD he resigned his seat in the Assembly (February 1985), but he was planning to reenter politics when he died.
Motlanthe, Kgalema (Petrus), byname Mkhuluwa (b. July 19, 1949, Johannesburg, South Africa), president (2008-09) and deputy president (2009-14) of South Africa.
Moto (Nsa), Severo (Matías) (b. Nov. 6, 1943, Acóck-Esaguong, Sevilla de Niefang district, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), Equatorial Guinean opposition leader. He lives in exile in Spain. On Dec. 24, 2004, he was sentenced in absentia to 63 years in jail over an alleged plot to oust Pres. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo. In 2008 he was arrested in Spain after weapons had been found in his car.
Motoc, Mihnea (Ioan) (b. Nov. 11, 1966, Bucharest, Romania), Romanian diplomat. He was ambassador to the Netherlands (1999-2001) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-08), then became permanent representative to the European Union in 2008. In 2014 he was named foreign minister, but could not be recalled from Brussels in time and the nomination was withdrawn.
Motorin, Ivan (Borisovich) (b. Jan. 10, 1973, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakh S.S.R.), prime minister of Chuvashia (2011- ).
Motta, Giuseppe (b. Dec. 29, 1871, Airolo, Ticino, Switzerland - d. Jan. 23, 1940, Bern, Switzerland), finance minister (1912-19), president (1915, 1920, 1927, 1932, 1937), and foreign minister (1920-40) of Switzerland.
Mottaki, Manouchehr (b. 1953, Bandar Gaz, Golestan, Iran), foreign minister of Iran (2005-10). He was ambassador to Turkey (1985-89) and Japan (1995-99).
Mottley, Mia (Amor) (b. Oct. 1, 1965), home affairs minister (2001-06) and deputy prime minister (2003-08) of Barbados. She has led the Barbados Labour Party in 2008-10 and again from 2013.
Motzfeldt, Jonathan (b. Sept. 25, 1938, Qagssimiut, Greenland - d. Oct. 28, 2010, Nuuk, Greenland), prime minister of Greenland (1979-91, 1997-2002). A member of the left-of-centre Siumut party, Motzfeldt became Greenland's first prime minister with the introduction of home rule in 1979. Forced from office over a financial scandal in 1991 and replaced by Lars Emil Johansen, he later underwent treatment for alcoholism in the United States. With the backing of Johansen, also a reformed alcoholic, Motzfeldt rehabilitated himself after his return through a stint running the government-owned KNI group of companies, which he steered out of administrative and financial crisis. He again became prime minister when Johansen retired in 1997.
Motzfeldt, Josef (b. Nov. 24, 1941, Igaliko, Greenland), finance minister (1999-2001, 2002-03, 2003-07) and foreign minister (2003-07) of Greenland; cousin of Jonathan Motzfeldt.
Moubarak, Moussa, Arabic Musa Mubarak (b. 1900, Antoura, Lebanon - d. ...), foreign minister of Lebanon (1952-53). He was also minister of finance, public works, and education (1952) and ambassador to France (1958-59) and Italy (1959-65).
Mouchel-Blaisot, Rollon (b. June 19, 1959, Carteret, Manche, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (2008-10).
Mouknass, Hamdi Ould, Arabic Hamdi walad al-Muknas (b. 1935, Port-Étienne [now Nouadhibou], Mauritania - d. Sept. 15, 1999, Nouakchott, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (1968-70, 1971-78). He was also minister of youth, cultural affairs, and information (1968).
Mouknass, Naha Mint (Hamdi Ould), Arabic Naha mint Hamdi walad al-Muknas (b. March 10, 1969, Nouakchott, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2009-11); daughter of Hamdi Ould Mouknass. She has also been minister of commerce, industry, and tourism (2014- ).
Moukoko Mbonjo, Pierre (b. July 25, 1954, Bonabéri, Douala, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), foreign minister of Cameroon (2011-15). He was also minister of communications (2004-06).
Moulana, (Seyed Ahmed Seyed) Alavi (b. Jan. 1, 1932), governor of Western province, Sri Lanka (2002-15). He was also minister of labour (2000-01).
Moungar, Fidèle (Abdelkerim) (b. 1948, Doba, Chad), prime minister of Chad (1993). He was also minister of education (1992-93).
Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, (1st) Earl, Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, Baron Romsey of Romsey, original name Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas, Prince of Battenberg (b. June 25, 1900, Frogmore House, Windsor, England - d. Aug. 27, 1979, Donegal Bay, off Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland), viceroy (1947) and governor-general (1947-48) of India. He was the fourth child of Prince Louis of Battenberg (afterward Marquess of Milford Haven) and his wife, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt, granddaughter of Britain's Queen Victoria. He became Mountbatten when his father relinquished his title, assumed his anglicized surname in 1917, and was created Marquess of Milford Haven. Entering the Royal Navy in 1913, he became supreme allied commander for Southeast Asia (1943-46) and successfully conducted the campaign against Japan that led to the recapture of Burma. As the last viceroy of India he administered the transfer of power from Britain to the newly independent nations of India and Pakistan at the partition of the subcontinent that took effect Aug. 15, 1947. As the first governor-general of India he then helped persuade the Indian princes to accede to either India or Pakistan. He was created viscount in 1946 and earl in 1947. He was fourth sea lord in 1950-52, commander in chief of the Mediterranean fleet in 1952-54, and first sea lord in 1955-59, the post his Austrian-born father had had to resign in 1914. He became an admiral of the fleet in 1956, served as chief of the Defence Staff and chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee in 1959-65, and became governor (1965) and then lord lieutenant (1974) of the Isle of Wight. He was assassinated by Provisional Irish Republican Army terrorists who planted a bomb in his fishing boat.
Moura, Jean (b. April 3, 1827, Moissac, Tarn-et-Garonne, France - d. May 17, 1885, Toulouse, France), French representative in Cambodia (1868-70, 1871-79).
Moura, Venâncio da Silva (b. Feb. 24, 1940, Sanza Pombo, Angola - d. March 6, 1999, Paris, France), Angolan politician. When the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola took power at the country's 1975 independence, Moura began a diplomatic career during which he served as ambassador to Italy (1976-78) and then deputy foreign minister. He was promoted to foreign minister in 1992, and two years later signed the peace accord designed to end the war between government forces and UNITA rebels. When the deal unraveled in December 1998 with the resumption of fighting, Moura already was seriously ill, and he was replaced as foreign minister in January 1999.
Mouradian, Jacques (b. Dec. 14, 1910 - d. June 14, 1992), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1965-69) and high commissioner of the Comoros (1969-73).
Mouragues, Albert (Jean) (b. June 2, 1908, Perpignan, France - d. March 23, 1976), governor of Upper Volta (1948-52) and French Sudan (1953) and lieutenant governor of Mauritania (1954-55, 1956-58).
Mouret, Charles (Paul Isidore) (b. Jan. 14, 1871, Carpentras, Vaucluse, France - d. [killed in action] Aug. 25, 1914, Einvaux, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France), commissioner of Mauritania (1912-14).
Mourgues, Gaston (b. March 27, 1895 - d. April 19, 1966), acting governor of Upper Volta (1947-48).
Moussa, (Muhammad) Abdel-Halim, Arabic (Muhammad) `Abd al-Halim Musa (b. 1930? - d. July 19, 2003), interior minister of Egypt (1990-93). He worked as a director of public security and in 1987 was appointed as governor of the southern province of Asyut, a longtime centre of Islamic militancy. In 1990 he replaced Interior Minister Zaki Badr, who was dismissed because of his sharp tongue and harsh security operations. Badr's rhetoric that killing the Islamic radicals was the only way to curb violence fueled hostilities between militants and the police. Moussa sought a peaceful solution and opened a dialogue with the militants. He was known among associates as "the sheikh of Arabs," a title usually given to a tribal leader who presides over conciliation meetings. But he was fired by Mubarak after opposition newspapers revealed the talks were taking place and accused the government of being weak in confronting terrorism. During his three years as minister, he had to confront not only internal Islamic groups, but also operations plotted by militants from other Arab or Islamic countries. He was a target of an assassination attempt in October 1990, when Islamic extremists killed Parliament Speaker Rifaat al-Mahgoub in an ambush on his motorcade. In 1994, a year after he left office, he was accused of illegally founding a private security firm while in office and of issuing licenses for automatic weapons that could wind up in the hands of Muslim radicals. He was never charged.
Moussa, Amr (Mahmoud), Arabic Amru (Mahmud) Musa (b. Oct. 3, 1936, Cairo, Egypt), foreign minister of Egypt (1991-2001) and secretary-general of the Arab League (2001-11). He was also ambassador to India (1983-86) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-91). He was a presidential candidate in 2012.
Moussa, Pierre (b. July 24, 1941, Brazzaville, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), finance minister (1987-89) and acting prime minister (1990-91) of Congo (Brazzaville). He was also minister of planning (1979-91, 1997-2012).
Moussavi, Mir Hossein (b. Sept. 29, 1941, Khameneh, Iran), foreign minister (1981) and prime minister (1981-89) of Iran. He was a presidential candidate in 2009.
Moustache, José (b. March 2, 1932, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. Feb. 7, 2013, Pointe-à-Pitre), president of the Regional Council of Guadeloupe (1983-86).
Moustier, (Desle Marie René François) Léonel, marquis de (b. Aug. 23, 1817, Paris, France - d. Feb. 5, 1869, Paris), foreign minister of France (1866-68). He was also minister to Prussia (1853-59) and ambassador to Austria (1859-61) and the Ottoman Empire (1861-66).
Moutinot, Laurent (b. March 2, 1953, Geneva, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Genève (2002-03, 2007-08).
Mouttet, Louis (Guillaume) (b. Oct. 10, 1857, Marseille, France - d. May 8, 1902), acting governor of Senegal (1895) and governor of Ivory Coast (1896-98), French Guiana (1899), and Martinique (1901-02). He died in the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée in which Saint-Pierre, the then capital of Martinique, was completely destroyed.
Mouzaoir, Abdallah (b. 1941, Moroni, Comoros), president of the Chamber of Deputies (1974-75) and foreign minister (1976-78, 1995-96) of the Comoros.
Movsisyan, Vladimir (Migranovich) (b. Nov. 12, 1933, Shenavan village, Spitak region, Armenian S.S.R. - d. Nov. 5, 2014), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Armenian S.S.R. (1990). He was also a deputy premier (1978-84), first deputy premier (1984-90), chairman of the State Agro-Industrial Committee (1986-90), governor of Gegharkunik province (1996), and agriculture minister of Armenia (1996-99).
Mowinckel, Johan Ludwig (b. Oct. 22, 1870, Bergen, Norway - d. Sept. 30, 1943, New York City), prime minister of Norway (1924-26, 1928-31, 1933-35). He was elected to the city council of his native Bergen in 1899 and became president of the council in 1902. In 1906 he was elected to the Storting (parliament) as a member of the Venstre (Liberal) party, and except for two short breaks remained a member until his death. He also served as president of the Storting in 1916-18. In 1911 he was instrumental in founding the Norwegian-America shipping line. He was minister of trade in 1921-22 and foreign minister in 1922-23; afterwards he was three times prime minister and also held the post of foreign minister during these periods. From 1925 to 1936 he was a member of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee. He took the initiative for the Oslo Convention in 1930 to encourage free trade between the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (later also joined by Finland), thus anticipating postwar efforts toward European economic union. He also took an active interest in the League of Nations, serving on the Council and presiding it in September 1933. He condemned the menace of Nazism, and when Germany overran Norway in 1940 he escaped with the government. He took up residence in Stockholm as minister without portfolio, but resigned in 1942 to take up a post with the Norwegian shipping and trade mission in New York City, where he died.
Moya Palencia, Mario (b. June 14, 1933, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Oct. 9, 2006, Mexico City), interior minister of Mexico (1970-76). A prominent member of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party, he was widely seen as the likely candidate to succeed Pres. Luis Echeverría Álvarez, but Echeverría instead had the party nominate José López Portillo. Moya then went on to become permanent representative of Mexico to the United Nations (1985-89) as well as ambassador to Cuba (1990-93) and Italy (1994-2001). As interior minister he was responsible for Mexico's internal security on June 10, 1971, when pro-government agents killed at least a dozen students at a leftist political demonstration in Mexico City. Ignacio Carrillo, a special prosecutor assigned by Pres. Vicente Fox to investigate the country's "dirty war" against leftist activists and suspected guerrillas of the 1960s and '70s, filed genocide charges against both Moya and Echeverría in 2004. A judge refused to issue arrest warrants in 2005, however, saying that the 1971 killings did not meet the legal standards for genocide. The judge ruled that simple homicide occurred, but that the statute of limitations for filing homicide charges ran out in 1985.
Moyer, Ellen O(osterling) (b. Feb. 12, 1936, Camden, N.J.), mayor of Annapolis (2001-09); ex-wife of Roger W. Moyer.
Moyer, Roger W., byname Pip Moyer, mayor of Annapolis (1965-73).
Moyersoen, Romain (Jean Marie) (b. Sept. 2, 1870, Aalst, Belgium - d. April 21, 1967, Aalst), chairman of the Senate of Belgium (1936-39).
Moynier, Gustave (b. Sept. 21, 1826, Geneva, Switzerland - d. Aug. 21, 1910, Geneva), president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1864-1910).
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick (b. March 16, 1927, Tulsa, Okla. - d. March 26, 2003, Washington, D.C.), U.S. politician. He was the first person in history to serve in a cabinet or sub-cabinet-level position in four successive administrations, from John F. Kennedy through Gerald Ford. He worked in the Labor Department in the Kennedy administration, and almost immediately found himself at odds with J. Edgar Hoover's FBI. A 1965 report to Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson created a major policy flap when he warned that the rising rate of out-of-wedlock births threatened the stability of black families. As Pres. Richard Nixon's urban affairs adviser, he proposed a policy of "benign neglect" toward minorities that drew heavy criticism. He served as ambassador to India in 1973-75; as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations in 1975-76 he beat the drum of anticommunism and demanded that other countries temper their anti-U.S. rhetoric if they wanted American help. His unyielding support of Israel made him popular with New York's Jewish population. Hoping to win a Senate seat from New York in 1976, he emerged the winner of a bitter five-way Democratic primary. In the general election he defeated incumbent Republican James Buckley by portraying him as out of touch with New York City's fiscal crisis. He served in the Senate from 1977 to 2001, being known for his intellect and his ability to spot emerging issues and trends. In the Senate he became a champion of many of the liberal programs he had once questioned, defending public jobs programs and fighting to increase federal aid to help offset New York's crushing welfare burden. In 1988 he helped bring together conservatives and liberals to enact the Family Support Act, a major revision of the nation's welfare laws.
Moyola (of Castledawson in the County of Londonderry), James (Dawson) Chichester-Clark, Baron (b. Feb. 12, 1923, Castledawson, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland - d. May 17, 2002, London, England), prime minister of Northern Ireland (1969-71). After reaching the rank of major in the army, he was elected a Unionist member of the Northern Ireland parliament at Stormont in a 1960 by-election (constituency of South Londonderry) and was leader of the house (1966-67, 1968-69) and minister of agriculture (1967-69) before becoming prime minister. One of his first acts was to order an amnesty for those convicted of, or charged with, political offenses since October 1968. However, neither the gesture nor an appeal to opposition lawmakers to join in a declaration that Northern Ireland was at peace and would remain so brought any response. Rioting on the streets of Belfast and Londonderry forced his administration to ask the British government to send in troops to help maintain order, but the situation continued to deteriorate. He faced a Protestant backlash when the British government urged reforms to make public housing allocation fairer for Catholics. Throughout 1970, violence continued with the mushrooming of Protestant paramilitaries and increasing gun battles between the British army and the Irish Republican Army. The murders of three British soldiers in Belfast in March 1971 was the signal for a new Protestant campaign demanding that Chichester-Clark resign. He flew to London for talks with Prime Minister Edward Heath calling for a dramatic security response, but was given only an extra 1,300 soldiers. Two days later he resigned. He was made a life peer shortly afterwards, and became an active member of the House of Lords, speaking regularly on Northern Ireland issues and rural affairs.