Index Mo

Mo Dehui (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Mo Teh-hui (b. April 26, 1883, Xinjiang province, China - d. April 17, 1968, Taipei, Taiwan), civil governor of Fengtian (1926-27). He was also acting minister of agriculture and commerce (1925) and minister of agriculture and industry (1927-28) of China and president of the Examination Yuan in Taiwan (1954-66).

Moalla, Mansour (b. May 1, 1930, Sfax, Tunisia), finance minister of Tunisia (1980-83). He was also minister of posts, telegraphs, and telephones (1969-70) and planning (1970-74, 1980-83).

Moavero Milanesi, Enzo (b. Aug. 17, 1954, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (2018-19). He was also minister without portfolio (European affairs) (2011-13).

Moawad, René (Anis), Arabic Rini (Anis) Mu`awwad (b. April 17, 1925, Zgharta, Lebanon - d. Nov. 22, 1989, Beirut, Lebanon), president of Lebanon (1989). A member of a powerful Maronite Christian family in the north of Lebanon, he became involved in politics and was a member of parliament from 1957 to 1989. Between 1960 and 1982 he served in a number of posts, including chairman of the Administration of Justice Parliamentary Commission (1959-61), chairman of the Budget and Finance Commission (from 1960), minister of post and telecommunications (1961-64), minister of public works (1969), and minister of education and fine arts (1980-82). In the latter role he cut through sectarian hatred and organized school examinations for Christian and Muslim children whose studies had been interrupted by the civil war that began in 1975. In a special session of parliament, on Nov. 5, 1989, he was elected president - a post Lebanon's 1943 charter specified had to be held by a Maronite - over the objections of Maronite Gen. Michel Aoun, who denounced Moawad as a Syrian puppet. Moawad pledged to implement an Arab League-sponsored plan for peace between Muslims and Christians that included a Syrian role in the process, but he was killed just 17 days later by a car bomb that also took the lives of over 20 others. The bombing took place as Moawad and other officials returned from a ceremony celebrating the 46th year of Lebanese independence from French rule. In 2005-08 his widow Nayla (b. July 3, 1940, Bsharri, Lebanon) was minister of social affairs - Lebanon's first female minister.

Mobando Yogo, Yves (b. Oct. 20, 1955), governor of Équateur (2004-07).

Moberly, Sir John (Campbell) (b. May 27, 1925, Exmouth, Devon, England - d. Sept. 14, 2004, Reading, Berkshire, England), British political agent in Qatar (1959-62); knighted 1984. He was ambassador to Jordan (1975-79) and Iraq (1982-85).

Mobutu Ndimba, Malo (b. April 14, 1982), governor of Nord-Ubangi (2022- ); grandson of Mobutu Sese Seko.

Mobutu Nzanga
Mobutu Nzanga (Ngbangawe), (François Joseph) (b. March 24, 1970, Kinshasa, Congo), Congolese politician; son of Mobutu Sese Seko. He lived in exile in 1997-2002. After his return, he founded the Union of Mobutist Democrats in 2005 and was chosen as its presidential candidate. He finished fourth with 4.8% of the votes in the first round on July 30, 2006. On September 20, he concluded an alliance with Pres. Joseph Kabila who appointed him as minister of state in charge of agriculture on Feb. 5, 2007. In October 2008 he became deputy prime minister in charge of basic social needs. He was fired in March 2011 for spending more than three months in Europe.

Mobutu S.S.
Mobutu Sese Seko (Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga) (loosely, "The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake"), original name (until Jan. 10, 1972) Joseph-Désiré Mobutu (b. Oct. 14, 1930, Lisala, near Coquilhatville [now Mbandaka], Équateur province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Sept. 7, 1997, Rabat, Morocco), president of Congo (Léopoldville/Kinshasa)/Zaire (1965-97); nephew of Litho Moboti Nzoyombo. At the Congo's attainment of independence in July 1960, the coalition government of Pres. Joseph Kasavubu and Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba appointed him secretary of state for defense and then chief of staff. A power struggle developed between Kasavubu and Lumumba, and in September 1960, Mobutu seized control of the government and announced that he was "neutralizing" all politicians. In February 1961, however, Mobutu turned over the government to Kasavubu. In return, the latter made Mobutu commander in chief of the armed forces. In 1965, after another power struggle had developed between Kasavubu and Premier Moise Tshombe, Mobutu removed Kasavubu in a CIA-backed coup and assumed the presidency himself. He moved to Africanize names in the nation; the name of the country was changed in 1971 from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of Zaire. He was reelected to the presidency in one-man contests in 1970, 1977, and 1984. The term kleptocracy was coined to define his despotic regime. He took full advantage of the backing he received from the West, which viewed him during the Cold War as a guardian against Communism. In 1996 rebel forces led by Laurent Kabila were able to seize ever-larger amounts of territory. On May 16, 1997, Mobutu abandoned the country to Kabila and went into exile in Morocco.

Moçâmedes, José de Almeida e Vasconcelos (Soveral de Carvalho da Maia Soares de Albergaria), (1º) barão de (b. 1737, São Pedro do Sul, Portugal - d. ...), governor of Goiás (1772-78) and Angola (1784-90). He became barão de Moçâmedes on Aug. 13, 1779.

Moch, Jules (Salvador) (b. March 15, 1893, Paris, France - d. Aug. 1, 1985, Cabris, Alpes-Maritimes, France), French politician. Elected député in 1928, he became minister for public works in the Popular Front government ten years later. After the fall of France in 1940, he voted against Marshal Philippe Pétain, was interned, was freed in 1941, and joined the Resistance, then Gen. Charles de Gaulle's Free French Forces in England. Returning to the Ministry of Public Works after World War II, he later became minister of the interior (1947-50), where he helped to build up the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité, a special police unit used to combat civil disturbance. He was then minister of defense (1950-51) and delegate to the UN Disarmament Committee (1953-60). His opposition to the European Defense Community Treaty brought conflict within his own party; he turned to the study of disarmament questions and participated actively in the creation of Pugwash, the international movement for world peace. On May 14, 1958, favouring a centre-left government, he returned to the Ministry of the Interior under Premier Pierre Pflimlin to confront an expected invasion by parachutists of the disaffected French Army units in Algeria. He resigned on May 31. He was among the Socialists who voted for the return of de Gaulle and became a member of the bureau of the French Section of the Workers' International (as the Socialist Party was then called). His hostility to Communism finally led him to resign from the Socialist Party in 1974, in protest against its alliance with the French Communist Party - the "union of the left" entered into by Socialist leader François Mitterrand in 1972.

Mochizuki, Keisuke (b. April 1 [Feb. 27, lunar calendar], 1867, in present Hiroshima prefecture, Japan - d. Jan. 1, 1941, Tokyo, Japan), home affairs minister of Japan (1928-29). He was also minister of communications (1927-28, 1935-36).

Mock, Alois (b. June 10, 1934, Euratsfeld, Niederösterreich, Austria - d. June 1, 2017, Vienna, Austria), vice chancellor (1987-89), foreign minister (1987-95), and acting defense minister (1990) of Austria. He was also education minister (1969-70) and chairman of the Austrian People's Party (1979-89).

Mockler, Frank C(arpenter) (b. April 4, 1909, South Omaha, Neb. - d. Nov. 16, 1993, Sarasota, Fla.), lieutenant governor (1970-75) and acting governor (1974-75) of American Samoa.

Mockus (Sivickas), (Aurelijus Rutenis) Antanas (b. March 25, 1952, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian presidential candidate (2006, 2010). He was also rector of the National University of Colombia (1991-93) and mayor of Bogotá (1995-97, 2001-03).


Moco, Marcolino (José Carlos) (b. July 19, 1953, Chitue, Huambo province, Angola), prime minister of Angola (1992-96). He was also governor of Bié (1986-87) and Huambo (1987-89), minister of youth and sports (1989-91), secretary-general of the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (1991-92), and executive secretary of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (1996-2000).

Moctezuma Barragán, Esteban (b. Oct. 21, 1954, Mexico City, Mexico), interior minister of Mexico (1994-95). He has also been secretary-general of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (1994, 1999-2001), minister of social development (1998-99) and public education (2018-21), and ambassador to the United States (2021- ).

Mocumbi, Pascoal (Manuel) (b. April 10, 1941, Lourenço Marques [now Maputo], Mozambique - d. March 25, 2023), foreign minister (1987-94) and prime minister (1994-2004) of Mozambique. He was also minister of health (1980-87).

Moczar, Mieczyslaw, byname Mietek, original name Mikolaj Demko (b. Dec. 25, 1913, Lódz, Poland - d. Nov. 1, 1986, Warsaw, Poland), Polish politician. He joined the Communist Party of Poland in 1937. He took the name Moczar from the Communist guerrilla group - Moczary ("swamps") - which he commanded during World War II. The postwar regime in Poland was dominated by those Communists who had spent the war years in Moscow. Moczar was chairman of the Presidium of the People's Council of Olsztyn (1948-52), Bialystok (1952-54), and Warszawa (1954-56) województwa and minister of state farms (1956). However, after Wladyslaw Gomulka assumed the leadership of the Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP) in 1956, Moczar's political career advanced rapidly. As interior minister (1964-68) he was a key figure in a campaign launched in 1967 against "revisionists" and "Zionists." His own bid to succeed Gomulka was unsuccessful; in December 1970 Edward Gierek became party leader while Moczar became a full member of the Politburo. In June 1971 Moczar was dropped from the PUWP Secretariat and in December from the Politburo, apparently at the insistence of Moscow. He staged a dramatic but brief comeback when the emergence of the Solidarnosc (Solidarity) trade-union movement plunged the PUWP leadership into crisis; he was again a Politburo member in 1980-81. In March 1983 he relinquished his last major posts, those of chairman of the Supreme Chamber of Control, which he held since 1971, and of chairman of the Polish Ex-Servicemen's Association, to which he had been appointed in 1980.

Mód, Péter (b. May 31, 1911, Nagyalásony, Hungary - d. Sept. 21, 1996, Budapest, Hungary), Hungarian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-61) and ambassador to France (1968-74).

Moda'i, Yitzhak, original surname Madzowich (b. Jan. 17, 1926, Tel Aviv, Palestine [now in Israel] - d. May 14, 1998, Haifa, Israel), finance minister of Israel (1984-86, 1990-92). He was also minister of energy and infrastructure (1977-81, 1982-84), communications (1979-80), justice (1986), and economics and planning (1988-90) and minister without portfolio (1981-82, 1986-88).

Modalsli, Jacob (b. April 1, 1911, Strømm, Jarlsberg og Larvik amt [now Vestfold fylke], Norway - d. Jan. 31, 1984), governor of Østfold (1966-81).

Modderman, Anthony Ewoud Jan (b. Sept. 27, 1838, Winschoten, Netherlands - d. Aug. 7, 1885, The Hague, Netherlands), justice minister of the Netherlands (1879-83).

Modée, Carl Wilhelm (b. March 31, 1735, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Oct. 12, 1798, Hasslöv, Halland, Sweden), governor of Stockholm city (1792-95).

Modeste(-Curwen), Clarice (b. 1945), foreign minister of Grenada (2014-16). She has also been minister of health and environment (1998-2003), communication, works, and transport (2003-07), tourism and civil aviation (2007-08, 2016- ), culture and performing arts (2007-08), health and social security (2013-14), culture and cooperatives (2016-18), and climate resilience and the environment (2020- ).

Modi, Narendra (Damodardas) (b. Sept. 17, 1950, Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay state [now in Gujarat], India), chief minister of Gujarat (2001-14) and prime minister of India (2014- ). Of humble origins, he joined the Hindu-nationalist organization Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in 1972 and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in 1987. In 1995 he helped form in Gujarat the first-ever BJP-controlled government in India. In 1998 he became BJP general secretary. In 2001 the BJP chose him to replace party colleague Keshubhai Patel as chief minister of Gujarat. He ran in his first election in February 2002, winning a seat in the Gujarat state assembly. Shortly afterwards the state was engulfed by riots triggered when a group of Muslims set fire to a train in the city of Godhra, killing dozens of Hindu passengers. Modi was accused of condoning the violence in which about 1,000 people, mostly Muslims, were killed. In 2005 the United States declined to issue Modi a diplomatic visa on the grounds that he was responsible for the 2002 riots, and the United Kingdom also criticized his role. Although Modi himself was never indicted on any charges of inciting communal violence, some of his close associates received lengthy jail sentences for their role in the events. Modi's administration was also accused of being involved in extrajudicial killings termed "fake encounters." Despite the controversies, the BJP secured significant victories in elections to the state assembly in 2002, 2007, and 2012. Modi established a reputation as an able administrator and was given credit for the rapid growth of the state's economy. In 2013 he was chosen leader of the BJP. He led the party to a resounding victory in the 2014 general election and was able to form a government without seeking coalition partners. While his supporters claimed he stood for good governance and economic growth, others said he represented sectarian nationalism and favoured the rich. Ultimately the second aspect clearly came to the fore, in line with a worldwide recrudescence of nationalism. Muslims faced mob attacks from Hindu vigilante groups emboldened and in some cases directly supported by BJP politicians. It was this divisive rallying of the majority population, rather than a mixed economic picture, that led to his overwhelming reelection in 2019. In 2024 his coalition won again, but the BJP no longer had a majority on its own.

J. Modise
Modise, Joe, byname of Johannes Modise (b. May 23, 1929, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa - d. Nov. 26, 2001, Centurion, near Pretoria, South Africa), defense minister of South Africa (1994-99). He became an anti-apartheid activist in the 1950s and was one of 156 people charged in the lengthy Treason Trial, which started in 1956. The charges were later dropped. The killing of dozens of unarmed protesters at Sharpeville in 1960 and the subsequent banning of the African National Congress (ANC) led him and many other activists to embrace the concept of armed struggle against the increasingly repressive white-minority regime. He was on the high command of the ANC's military wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe, from its inception in 1961 and was appointed commander in 1965. He established bases in Tanzania, Angola, and Uganda. With backing from the Soviet Union and its Cold War allies, he also oversaw training programs in Cuba and Eastern Europe. After the Cold War ended and the ANC was unbanned, Modise was with the first group of negotiators to open talks with the Pretoria government in 1990. He became the country's first black minister of defense in 1994 when the ANC was swept to power and Nelson Mandela became president. As defense minister, he won praise for skillfully transforming an institution that was a key tool of state repression during the apartheid era, scoring high marks from some of the senior white officers he used to be at war with. But he was sharply criticized for a military debacle in tiny Lesotho in 1998, when South African and Botswanan troops went to the aid of the government there to help quell disorder in the wake of a mutiny. Over 60 soldiers, including several from South Africa, were killed during the operation, which many critics said should never have been launched in the first place. He retired from active politics in June 1999.

T. Modise
Modise, Thandi (b. Dec. 25, 1959, Huhudi township, near Vryburg, Cape province [now in North West province], South Africa), premier of North West (2010-14) and defense minister of South Africa (2021-24). She was also chair of the National Council of Provinces (2014-19) and speaker of the National Assembly (2019-21).

Modogoyev, Andrey (Urupkheyevich) (b. Jan. 15, 1915, Zagatuy ulus, Irkutsk province, Russia - d. Oct. 29, 1989), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1960-62) and first secretary of the Communist Party committee (1962-84) of the Buryat A.S.S.R. He was also deputy premier (1952-54).

Modrow, Hans (b. Jan. 27, 1928, Jasenitz, Germany [now Jasienica, Poland] - d. Feb. 10, 2023, Berlin, Germany), premier of East Germany (1989-90). He was also first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Dresden district (1973-89).

Mody, Sir Hormasji Peroshaw, byname Sir Homi Mody (b. Sept. 23, 1881, Bombay [now Mumbai], India - d. March 9, 1969, Bombay), governor of the United Provinces/Uttar Pradesh (1949-52); knighted 1935.

Modzelewski, Zygmunt (b. April 15, 1900, Sosnowiec, Poland - d. June 18, 1954, Warsaw, Poland), foreign minister of Poland (1947-51). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1945).

Moe, George (Cecil Rawle) (b. March 12, 1932, Barbados - d. Aug. 16, 2004, Bridgetown, Barbados), foreign minister of Barbados (1972-76). He was also attorney general and minister of legal affairs (1971-76) and served as chief justice of Belize (1982-85).

S. Moe
Moe, Scott (b. 1973?, between Shellbrook and Parkside, Sask.), premier of Saskatchewan (2018- ).

Moeaki, Tatafu (Toma) (b. Dec. 8, 1972), finance minister of Tonga (2021-22). He was also minister of trade and economic development (2021).

Moedas, Carlos (Manuel Félix) (b. Aug. 10, 1970, Beja, Portugal), Portuguese politician. He has been EU commissioner for research, science, and innovation (2014-19) and mayor of Lisbon (2021- ).


Moeller Freile, Heinz (Rudolf) (b. Nov. 18, 1937, Guayaquil, Ecuador), interior minister (1988) and foreign minister (2000-03) of Ecuador.

Moeur, Benjamin B(aker) (b. Dec. 22, 1869, Decherd, Tenn. - d. March 16, 1937, Tempe, Ariz.), governor of Arizona (1933-37).

Moffat, Howard Unwin (b. Jan. 13, 1869 - d. Jan. 19, 1951), premier of Southern Rhodesia (1927-33). He was also minister of mines and public works (1923-27) and native affairs (1927-33).

Moffat, Jay Pierrepont (b. July 18, 1896, Rye, N.Y. - d. Jan. 24, 1943, Ottawa, Ont.), U.S. diplomat; son-in-law of Joseph C. Grew; great-grandnephew of Seth Low. He was minister to Canada (1940-43) and Luxembourg (1941-43).

Mofford, Rose (Perica) (b. June 10, 1922, Globe, Ariz. - d. Sept. 15, 2016, Phoenix, Ariz.), governor of Arizona (1988-91).

Moga, Nicolae (b. Oct. 25, 1952, Constanta, Romania), interior minister of Romania (2019).


Mogae, Festus (Gontebanye) (b. Aug. 21, 1939, Serowe, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), finance minister (1989-98), vice president (1992-98), and president (1998-2008) of Botswana. He was also governor of the Bank of Botswana (1980-81).

Mogami, Thebe David (b. June 16, 1942, Lerala, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), Botswanan politician. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1973-77) and minister of labour and home affairs (1999-2000, 2002-04) and presidential affairs and public administration (2000-02).

Mogård, Britt (Emma Tora), née Östlund (b. Nov. 9, 1922, Hedesunda, Gävleborg, Sweden - d. July 17, 2012), governor of Kronoberg (1983-88). She was also Swedish minister of schools (1976-78, 1979-81).

Mogherini, Federica (b. June 16, 1973, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (2014) and European high representative for foreign affairs and security policy (2014-19).

Moghioros, Alexandru (b. Oct. 23, 1911, Szalonta, Hungary [now Salonta, Bihor county, Romania] - d. Oct. 1, 1969, Bucharest, Romania), a deputy premier (1954, 1957-65) and a first deputy premier (1954-55) of Romania.

Mogro Moreno, Manuel (María) (b. Sept. 13, 1880, Tarija, Bolivia - d. September 1956, Tarija), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1925-26).

Mogultay, Mehmet (b. 1945, Tunceli, Turkey - d. July 5, 2017, U.S.), justice minister of Turkey (1994-95). He was also minister of labour and social security (1991-94).

Mogushkov, Timur (Akhmetovich) (b. 1962), prime minister of Ingushetia (2003-05).

Mogwe, Archibald (Mooketsa) (b. Aug. 29, 1921, Kanye, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. Feb. 25, 2021), foreign minister of Botswana (1974-84). He was also minister of mineral resources and water affairs (1985-94) and ambassador to the United States (1996-99).

Mohadi, Kembo (Dugish Campbell) (b. Nov. 15, 1949, Beitbridge, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), minister of home affairs (2002-15), state security (2015-17), defense, security, and war veterans (2017), and national peace and reconciliation (2017-21) and a vice president (2017-21, 2023- ) of Zimbabwe.

Mohale, Albert Steerforth (b. April 26, 1928, Mohale's Hoek, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), Lesotho politician. He was permanent representative to the United Nations, ambassador to the United States, and high commissioner to Canada (1966-69), high commissioner to Kenya (1969), and minister of transport and communications (1975-76), agriculture (1976-77), and education, youth, sports, and culture (1977-80).

Mohamad, Abdalmahmood Abdalhaleem, Sudanese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-10).

Mohamad Ariff (bin) Md Yusof, Tan Sri (b. 1949, Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), Malaysian politician. He was speaker of the Dewan Rakyat (2018-20). He was awarded the titles Dato' (2012) and Tan Sri (2019).

Mohamad Hasan
Mohamad (bin) Hasan, Datuk Seri (Haji) (b. May 2, 1956, Kampong Kundor Hilir, Negeri Sembilan, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Negeri Sembilan (2004-18) and defense minister (2022-23) and foreign minister (2023- ) of Malaysia. He received the title Dato' in March 1999, Datuk on June 7, 1999, and Datuk Seri on July 19, 2004.

Mohamad Hasrin (bin) Tengku Hussin, Syed (b. Sept. 11, 1970, Kelantan, Malaysia), Malaysian diplomat. He has been ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (2017-19) and Indonesia (2023- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2019-23).

Mohamad Khir (bin) Johari, Tan Sri (b. Jan. 29, 1923, Alor Star, Kedah [now in Malaysia] - d. Nov. 19, 2006, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Malaysian politician. He was minister of education (1957-59, 1965-69), commerce and industry (1959-62, 1969-73), and agriculture and cooperatives (1962-65), ambassador to the United States (1973-76), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-76). He was awarded the title Tan Sri in 1986.

Mohamad Khir (bin) Toyo, Datuk Seri (b. Aug. 6, 1965, Sungai Burung, Selangor, Malaysia), chief minister of Selangor (2000-08). He received the titles Datuk (Sept. 14, 2000) and Datuk Seri (March 10, 2001).

Mohamad (bin) Sabu, byname Mat Sabu (b. Oct. 14, 1954, Tasek Gelugor, Penang, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), defense minister of Malaysia (2018-20). He has also been minister of agriculture and food security (2022- ).

Mohamed, Abdallah (b. 19... - d. Feb. 3, 2000, Mutsamudu, Anjouan, Comoros), prime minister of the Comoros (1976-78); nephew of Mohamed Ahmed.

Mohamed (Anjouan)
Mohamed, Abdallah, administrator of Anjouan (2018- ).

A.K. Mohamed

Mohamed, Abdoulkader Kamil (b. 1951, Souali, Obock district, French Somaliland [now Djibouti]), defense minister (2011-13) and prime minister (2013- ) of Djibouti. He was also minister of agriculture (2005-11).

Mohamed, Abdoulkarim (b. Feb. 3, 1975, Mdjankagnoi, Comoros), foreign minister of the Comoros (2015-16). He was also minister of national education, research, culture, arts, youth, and sports (2013-15).

Mohamed, Abdul Ghafoor (b. Nov. 20, 1959, Male, Maldives), Maldivian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-12) and ambassador to the United States (2010-12, 2023- ).

Mohamed, al-Harith Idriss al-Harith, Sudanese diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Mohamed, Ali Naseer (b. Nov. 2, 1969), Maldivian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-19, 2024- ), ambassador to the United States (2017-19), and chairman of the Alliance of Small Island States (2017-18).

Amina Mohamed

M.A. Mohamed
Mohamed (Hossain), Amina (Chawahir) (b. Oct. 5, 1961, Kakamega, Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (2013-18). She has also been education minister (2018- ).

Mohamed, Hussein Awad Ali (b. Jan. 1, 1958), acting foreign minister of The Sudan (2024- ). He was also ambassador to Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi (2009-12) and Zambia and Malawi (2016-20).

Mohamed, Madobe Nunow, Somali Madoobe Nuunow Maxamed (b. 1948, Dinsor, Somalia - d. [insurgent attack on hotel] Oct. 28, 2017, Mogadishu, Somalia), president of Southwestern Somalia (2014).

Mohamed, Mohamed Abdullahi, byname Farmajo, Somali Maxamed Cabdulaahi Maxamed "Farmaajo" (b. April 1962, Mogadishu, Somalia), prime minister (2010-11) and president (2017-22) of Somalia.

Mohamed, Mohamed Ali (b. April 29, 1952, Djibouti, French Somaliland [now Djibouti]), Djiboutian politician. He was minister of commerce and economy (1993-95), finance and economy (1995-97), labour and vocational training (1997-99), and energy and natural resources (1999-2008).

Mohamed, Mohamed Haniffa (b. June 15, 1921, Maligawatta, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. April 26, 2016, Colombo), Sri Lankan politician. He was mayor of Colombo (1960-63), minister of labour, employment, and housing (1965-70), transport (1977-89), Western Region development (2001-04), and parliamentary affairs (2007-10), and speaker of parliament (1989-94).

Mohamed, Omer Dahab Fadl, Sudanese diplomat. He was ambassador to Russia (2012-15) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2015-19).

Mohamed, Said Ali (b. 1946), prime minister of the Comoros (1993). He was also minister of education (1978-80) and health (1980-82).

Z.O.S. Mohamed
Mohamed, Zahabi Ould Sidi (b. Oct. 1, 1957, Goundam, Mali), foreign minister of Mali (2013-14). He was also minister of national reconciliation (2014-16).

Mohamed Hamid Ibrahim (b. Aug. 21, 1931, Asebe Teferi, Ethiopia), Ethiopian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-84).

Mohamed Isa (bin) Abdul Samad, Dato' Seri Utama (b. Nov. 14, 1949), chief minister of Negeri Sembilan (1982-2004). He was also Malaysian minister of the federal territories (2004-05). He received the title Dato' on June 14, 1982, Tan Sri on June 5, 1991, and Dato' Seri Utama on July 19, 1991.

Mohamed Ismail bin Mohamed Yusof, Dato' (b. 1922? - d. Nov. 3, 1969, New York City), Malaysian diplomat. He was ambassador to South Korea (1964-68) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-69).

Mohamed Khaled (bin) Nordin, Datuk Seri (b. Nov. 30, 1958, Muar, Johor, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Johor (2013-18) and defense minister of Malaysia (2023- ). He was also minister of entrepreneurial and cooperative development (2004-08) and higher education (2008-13, 2022-23). He received the titles Datuk in 2002 and Datuk Seri in 2006.

Mohamed Mahmoud, Mohamedou Ould, Arabic Muhammadu walad Muhammad Mahmud (b. 1944, Atar, Mauritania), Mauritanian diplomat. He was minister of youth, sports, craft industry, and tourism (1979), ambassador to Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, and Gabon (1980), Algeria (1980-84), Spain (1984-88), Canada and Cuba (1989-94), and Germany and Austria (1994-95), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-94).

Mohamed Noah (bin) Omar, Tan Sri (b. Aug. 13, 1897, Muar, Johor [now in Malaysia] - d. Sept. 4, 1991, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Malaysian politician. He was president of the Dewan Rakyat (1959-64) and the Dewan Negara (1969-70). He was awarded the title Tan Sri in 1963.

Mohamed (bin) Yaacob, Tan Sri (Haji) (b. Jan. 3, 1926, Palekbang, Jajahan Tumpat, Kelantan [now in Malaysia] - d. Sept. 8, 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), chief minister of Kelantan (1978-90). He was also president of the Dewan Negara of Malaysia (1996-2000). He received the titles Datuk (1975), Dato' (1976), Datuk Amar (1982), and Tan Sri (1988).

Mohamed Zahir (bin) Ismail, Tun (b. March 19, 1924, Alor Star, Kedah [now in Malaysia] - d. Oct. 14, 2004, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Malaysian politician. He was speaker of the Dewan Rakyat (1982-2004). He was awarded the titles Tan Sri (1984), Tun (1998), and Dato' Seri (2002).

Mohamedou, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould, Arabic Muhammad Mahmud walad Muhammadu (b. April 3, 1968, Atar, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2008-09); son of Mohamedou Ould Mohamed Mahmoud.

Mohammad, Din (b. 1953, Surkhrod district, Nangarhar province, Afghanistan), Afghan politician. He was governor of Nangarhar (2002-05) and Kabul (2005-09) and acting minister of border and tribal affairs (2012-13).

Mohammad, Faiz (b. 1940, Waziristan, India [now in Pakistan] - d. [killed by rebels] Sept. 11, 1980, Paktia province, Afghanistan), interior minister of Afghanistan (1973-75). He was also minister of border affairs (1975-77, 1980) and ambassador to Indonesia (1977-78) and Iraq (1978-80).

Mohammad, Ghulam (b. Aug. 29, 1895, Lahore, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Aug. 29, 1956, Karachi, Pakistan), finance minister (1947-51) and governor-general (1951-55) of Pakistan. He entered the Indian Audit Department in 1920. His thoroughness led to rapid promotions, and he served as commissioner of development of Bhopal state in 1932-34. He subsequently served as a financial consultant to the Indian government in New Delhi and in 1942-45 was finance minister of Hyderabad. He left government service after the war to enter private industry. He was knighted in 1946 but retained the title Sir only until 1947, the year he returned to government on the establishment of an independent Pakistan. As finance minister in the cabinet of Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, he was successful in providing economic stability. He was appointed to succeed Khwaja Nazimuddin as governor-general when Nazimuddin replaced the assassinated Khan as prime minister in 1951. In 1953 Mohammad dismissed Nazimuddin's government on dubious constitutional grounds, saying it had proved inadequate to deal with a food crisis and other difficulties facing the country. He also claimed emergency powers and dismissed the Constituent Assembly in 1954 when it sought to limit the power of the governor-general. Suffering from poor health, he relinquished most of his duties to Iskander Mirza in August 1955 and resigned in October.

Mohammad Ali, Chaudhry (b. July 1905, Jullundur [now Jalandhar], India - d. Dec. 1, 1980, Karachi, Pakistan), Pakistani politician. He worked in the accounts department of the (British) government of India, was appointed private secretary to the minister of finance, and during World War II was a leading member of the Supply Department. In 1947, after independence for India and the creation of the separate state of Pakistan, he became secretary-general to the government of Pakistan and was finance minister (1951-55) before his appointment as prime minister and defense minister (1955-56). He oversaw the ratification of the new constitution which made Pakistan a republic. During the military dictatorship of Mohammad Ayub Khan, Mohammad Ali led his Muslim League party in opposition to the regime.

Mohammad (bin Haji) Daud, Pehin Haji (b. May 1, 1943, Brunei), Bruneian official. He was commander of the armed forces (1986-90), ambassador to Egypt and Morocco (1993-95), permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-97), and minister of youth, culture, and sports (2005-08) and energy (2008-10).

Mohammad Reza
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Aryamehr) (b. Oct. 26, 1919, Tehran, Iran - d. July 27, 1980, Cairo, Egypt), shah of Iran (1941-79). He was the eldest son of Reza Pahlavi, the pro-German shah who was forced to abdicate in 1941 when the Soviet Union and Great Britain occupied Iran. Replacing his father on the throne, he played a leading role in suppressing the Soviet-sponsored "autonomous" states in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan in 1946. A struggle for control of the government developed with Mohammad Mossadegh, a zealous nationalist who in 1951 secured passage of a bill in the Majles (parliament) to nationalize the vast British petroleum interests in Iran. Mohammad Reza was forced to appoint the popular Mossadegh as premier shortly thereafter. In 1953 the shah tried to dismiss Mossadegh but was himself forced to leave the country by Mossadegh's supporters. Several days later, however, Mossadegh's opponents, with the covert support and assistance of the United States, restored Mohammad Reza to power, who reversed Mossadegh's nationalization. Having already divorced two wives unable to produce a son (Princess Fawzia of Egypt in 1948 and Soraya Esfandiari in 1958), in December 1959 he married Farah Diba; a crown prince, Reza, was born in Tehran on Oct. 31, 1960. On Sept. 15, 1965, the shah was given the title Aryamehr. On Oct. 26, 1967, he crowned himself and his wife at a lavish ceremony in the Golestan Palace, Tehran. Widespread dissatisfaction led in 1978 to the growth of support for Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a Shi`ite religious leader living in exile in Paris. Amid rioting and turmoil, the shah left the country on Jan. 16, 1979 (though he did not abdicate), and Khomeini assumed control. A referendum resulted in the declaration on April 1, 1979, of an Islamic republic in Iran. The shah was in exile successively in Egypt, Morocco, The Bahamas, Mexico, the U.S., Panama, and again Egypt.

Mohammadullah, Mohammad (b. Nov. 21, 1921, Noakhali, Bengal, India [now in Bangladesh] - d. Nov. 11, 1999, Dhaka, Bangladesh), president of Bangladesh (1973-75). He joined the East Pakistan Awami League in 1950. He actively took part in the historic Six-Point Movement for which he was imprisoned for a long time. He was elected member of the National Assembly on the Awami League ticket in 1970. He was a political advisor to Syed Nazrul Islam, acting president of Bangladesh during the independence war in 1971. He was elected deputy speaker of the first Constituent Assembly of independent Bangladesh and later became speaker after the death of its first speaker, Shah Abdul Hamid.

Mohammed, Abdulaziz, finance minister of Ethiopia (2015-16). In 2018 he was appointed ambassador to Djibouti.

Mohammed, Bala (b. Oct. 5, 1958, Bauchi, Nigeria), Nigerian minister of the Federal Capital Territory (2010-15) and governor of Bauchi (2019- ).

Mohammed (Deba), Dahiru (b. Sept. 24, 1942, Deba [now in Gombe state], Nigeria - d. ...), governor of Bauchi (1992-93).

Mohammed, Garba (b. April 15, 1944, Lere [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria - d. April 10, 2021, Kaduna, Nigeria), governor of Sokoto (1985-87). He was also emir of Lere (2011-21).

Mohammed, Garba Ali (b. April 13, 1949, Zaria [now in Kaduna state], Nigeria), governor of Niger state, Nigeria (1986-87). He was also Nigerian minister of works and housing (1997-99).

Mohammed, Isah (b. May 15, 1949, Lafia [now in Nasarawa state], Nigeria), governor of Gongola (1987-89).

Mohammed, Kamaluddin, byname Kamal Mohammed (b. April 19, 1927, El Socorro, Trinidad - d. Dec. 1, 2015), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1971-73). He was also minister of agriculture, lands, and fisheries (1956-61), public utilities (1961-67), West Indian affairs (1967-71), health and local government (1973-81), health and environment (1981-82), and agriculture, lands, and food production (1982-86).

M. Mohammed
Mohammed, Murtala (Ramat) (b. Nov. 8, 1938, Kano, Nigeria - d. Feb. 13, 1976, Ikoyi Island, Lagos, Nigeria), president of Nigeria (1975-76). A Muslim Hausa from the north, he first came to prominence during the July 1966 coup that established Gen. Yakubu Gowon, and he fought in the civil war (1967-70) against the secessionist Eastern Region (Biafra). In 1974-75 he was minister of communications. He became head of state after the peaceful coup that removed Gowon from power. He vigorously combated corruption but could not stem wage inflation. He was shot while in his limousine at the outset of an abortive military coup staged by a small group of self-styled "young revolutionaries."

Mohammed, Musa (b. 1953?), administrator of Yobe (1998-99). He was also Nigerian minister of sports and social development (2003-05) and intergovernmental affairs, youth development, and special duties (2005-06).

Mohammed, Umaru (d. [in the crash of an air force plane en route to São Tomé and Príncipe] May 26, 1980, off Forcados, Nigeria), governor of North-Western state (1975-76) and Sokoto (1976-78).

Mohamoud (Raagsale), Essa Kayd, Somali Ciise Kayd Maxamuud (Raagsaale), foreign minister of Somaliland (2021- ).

A.I. Mohamud

H.S. Mohamud

M.A. Mohamud
Mohamud, Abdullahi Issa (Somali Cabdullaahi Ciise Maxamuud, Arabic `Abd Allah `Isa Mahmud), byname Bidaar (b. 1922, Afgoi, northwest of Mogadishu, Somalia - d. March 1988, Rome, Italy), prime minister (1956-60) and foreign minister (1960-64) of Somalia. He was also minister of justice (1956-59), interior (1959-60), health, veterinary affairs, and labour (1964-66), and industry and commerce (1966-67) and ambassador to Sweden (1974-83).

Mohamud, Hassan Sheikh, Somali Xasan Sheekh Maxamuud (b. Nov. 29, 1955, Jalalaqsi, Somalia), president of Somalia (2012-17, 2022- ).

Mohamud (Abubakar), Mohamed Abdirizak, Somali Maxamed Cabdirisaaq Maxamuud (b. Mogadishu, Somalia), foreign minister of Somalia (2020-21).

Mohaqiq, Haji Mohammad (b. 1955), Afghan politician. He was planning minister (2001-04), a vice chairman of the Interim Administration (2001-02), a presidential candidate (2004), and second deputy chief executive (2014-19).

Mohd Adib (bin Haji Mohd) Adam, Datuk Seri (b. July 2, 1941, Kesang Tua, Malacca, Straits Settlements [now in Malaysia] - d. Sept. 21, 2022, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), chief minister of Malacca (1978-82). He was also Malaysian minister of information (1982-84) and land and regional development (1984-86). He received the title Datuk Seri in 1983.

Mohd Ali
Mohd Ali (bin Mohd) Rustam, Tun (b. Aug. 24, 1949, Kampung Bukit Katil, Malacca, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister (1999-2013) and governor (2020- ) of Malacca. He received the titles Datuk (1989), Datuk Wira (Oct. 14, 1995), Datuk Seri (Oct. 13, 2001), Tan Sri (2014), and Tun (June 4, 2020).

Moh(ama)d Asri (bin Haji) Muda, Tan Sri (b. 1923 - d. 1992), chief minister of Kelantan (1964-72). He was also president of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (1970-82) and Malaysian minister of land development and special functions (1973-74), lands, mines, and special functions (1974-76), and land and regional development (1976-77).

Moh(ama)d Hamzah bin Tengku Zainal Abidin, Tengku Sri Maharaja Tengku (b. May 30, 1909, Kota Bharu, Kelantan [now in Malaysia] - d. Feb. 25, 1962, Kota Bharu), chief minister of Kelantan (1953-59).

Moh(ama)d Khalil (bin) Yaakob, Tun (b. Dec. 29, 1937, Kuantan, Pahang, Federated Malay States [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Pahang (1986-99) and governor of Malacca (2004-20). He was also Malaysian minister without portfolio in the prime minister's department (1984-86) and minister of information (1999-2004). He received the titles Dato' on Oct. 24, 1978, Dato' Seri on Oct. 24, 1987, Tan Sri on April 24, 1989, Datuk on Sept. 16, 2003, Datuk Seri Utama on June 4, 2004, and Tun on July 28, 2004.

Mohd Nassuruddin
Mohd Nassuruddin (bin) Daud, Dato' (b. Oct. 4, 1965), chief minister of Kelantan (2023- ). He was awarded the title Dato' in 2010.

Mohd Radzi (bin) Sheikh Ahmad, Dato' Seri (b. Feb. 24, 1942, Kangar, Perlis [now in Malaysia]), home affairs minister of Malaysia (2006-08); son of Tan Sri Sheikh Ahmad bin Mohamed Hashim. He was also a minister in the prime minister's department (2004-06). He was awarded the titles Dato' (1985), Dato' Seri (2005), and Dato' Sri (2006).

Mohd Shukri

Mohd Tajol
Mohd Shukri (bin) Ramli (b. Feb. 6, 1961, Kangar, Perlis, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Perlis (2022- ).

Moh(ama)d Tajol Rosli (bin Tan Sri Mohd) Ghazali, Datuk Seri (b. Nov. 6, 1944, Lenggong, Perak, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Perak (1999-2008). He received the titles Dato' (April 19, 1986), Dato' Seri (April 19, 1999), Dato' Seri DiRaja (April 19, 2000), and Datuk Seri (Oct. 11, 2003).

Mohd Yusof Hitam, Dato' (b. Jan. 1, 1936, Mentakab, Pahang, Federated Malay States [now in Malaysia] - d. Jan. 6, 2022, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Malaysian diplomat. He was ambassador to Vietnam (1976-78), high commissioner to New Zealand (1978-80), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-88).

Mohd Zin (bin) Abdul Ghani, Datuk Seri (b. Oct. 12, 1941, Melekek Luar, near Alor Gajah, Malacca, Straits Settlements [now in Malaysia] - d. May 14, 1997, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), chief minister of Malacca (1994-97). He received the titles Datuk (Aug. 15, 1990) and Datuk Seri (Oct. 14, 1995).

Moheno Tabares, Querido (b. Dec. 3, 1873, Ixtacomitán, Chiapas, Mexico - d. April 12, 1933, Mexico City, Mexico), foreign minister of Mexico (1913-14). He was also minister of industry and commerce (1914).

Mohieddin, Ahmed Fuad, Arabic Ahmad Fu´ad Muhyi al-Din (b. Feb. 16, 1926, Kafr al-Shaykh, Egypt - d. June 5, 1984, Cairo, Egypt), Egyptian politician. He was elected to the National Assembly in 1957. A moderate social democrat, he served loyally under three successive presidents. From 1968 to 1973 he was a governor of three provinces (al-Sharqiya, Alexandria, Giza) before taking ministerial office under Pres. Anwar as-Sadat as minister of state for local government and people's organizations (1973-74) and Al-Azhar affairs (1980-81), minister of health (1974-76) and People's Assembly affairs (1976-79), and a deputy prime minister (1980-82). He was appointed prime minister by Pres. Hosni Mubarak in January 1982 and also became secretary-general of the ruling National Democratic Party, which was returned to power in the 1984 general election shortly before his death. The election, while it brought an overwhelming victory for Mohieddin's party, which won 87% of the seats, was overshadowed by opposition claims of irregularities in the conduct of the poll.

Mohieddin, Zakaria, Arabic in full Zakariyya´ `Abd al-Majid Muhyi al-Din (b. May 7, 1918, Kafr Shokr, Egypt - d. May 15, 2012), interior minister (1953-61, 1961-62, 1965-66) and prime minister (1965-66) of Egypt. He was also a deputy prime minister (1967-68).

Mohiuddin, A.H.G. (b. July 11, 1940), Bangladeshi diplomat; brother-in-law of Hossain Mohammad Ershad; son-in-law of Mashiur Rahman. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-91).

Mohmad Shaid Mohd Taufek, Datuk (b. March 11, 1947, Kluang, Johor [now in Malaysia]), mayor of Kuala Lumpur (2001-04).

Mohsin, Mohammad (b. Feb. 1, 1933), Bangladeshi diplomat. He was ambassador to the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain (1978-81), Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Yemen, Oman, Somalia, and Niger (1981-85), and the Benelux countries (1985-88), high commissioner to Canada (1990-95), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1991).

Mohyi ad-Din Abu´l Mozaffar Mohammad Awrangzib Bahadur `Alamgir Padshah-e Ghazi, commonly known as Aurangzeb (b. Nov. 3, 1618, Dhod, Malwa [now in Rajasthan, India] - d. March 2, 1707, Ahmednagar [now in Maharashtra, India]), emperor of India (1658-1707). He was the third son of the emperor Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal (for whom the Taj Mahal was built). His abilities and a taste for power brought him into rivalry with his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, who was designated by their father as successor to the throne. A struggle for power broke out in 1657 and Aurangzeb decisively defeated Dara at Samugarh in May 1658. He confined his father in his own palace at Agra. In consolidating his power, Aurangzeb killed his three brothers, a son, and a nephew. At first Aurangzeb was a capable Muslim monarch of a mixed Hindu-Muslim empire. He was much occupied with safeguarding the northwest from Persians and Central Asian Turks and less so with the Maratha chief Shivaji, who twice plundered the great port of Surat (1664, 1670). Later, the pious ruler of an Islamic state replaced the seasoned statesman of a mixed kingdom; Hindus became subordinates, and the Marathas, like the southern Muslim kingdoms, were marked for annexation. The first overt sign of change was the reimposition of the jizya, or poll tax, on non-Muslims in 1679, which was followed by a Rajput revolt in 1680-81, supported by Aurangzeb's third son, Akbar. The Deccan kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda were conquered in 1686-87, and the Maratha kingdom was broken up. The Marathas, however, adopted guerrilla tactics, spreading all over southern India amid a sympathetic population. Aurangzeb's warfare in the south prevented him from maintaining his former firm hold on the north. When the Sikh guru (spiritual leader) Tegh Bahadur refused to embrace Islam, he was executed (1675); the succeeding guru was in open rebellion for the rest of Aurangzeb's reign. Aurangzeb is considered the last great ruler of the Mughal Empire, which under him reached its greatest extent.

Mohyliov, Anatoliy (Volodymyrovych) (b. April 6, 1955, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister of Ukraine (2010-11) and prime minister of Crimea (2011-14).

Moi, Daniel (Toroitich) arap (b. Sept. 2, 1924, Sacho, Baringo district, Rift Valley province, Kenya - d. Feb. 4, 2020, Nairobi, Kenya), president of Kenya (1978-2002). In 1950 he entered politics and five years later was nominated to the Kenya Legislative Council. He campaigned successfully in 1957 in the first elections for African members of the Legislative Council and became minister of education (1961-62) and local government (1962-64). In 1960 he led a breakaway movement from Jomo Kenyatta's Kenya African National Union (KANU), which was dominated by the two most influential tribes, the Kikuyu and the Luo. His own Kenya African Democratic Union was essentially an alliance of the smaller tribes that worked closely with a party of local white settlers. After independence (December 1963), his party merged with Kenyatta's in November 1964, and when Kenyatta became president in December 1964, Moi was made minister of home affairs. In January 1967 he became vice president of Kenya. He remained closely loyal to Kenyatta, and as the grand old man of Kenya became less active as a result of age, Moi was given increasing responsibility. Upon Kenyatta's death on Aug. 22, 1978, he became acting president; he was subsequently nominated for the presidency by KANU, and was elected (October 1978) with no opposition. He was reelected in 1979, 1983, 1988, 1992 (the first multiparty election), and 1997. Charges of fraud and corruption were leveled against him during several campaigns, but Moi ignored the critics. He was chairman of the Organization of African Unity in 1981-83. Although Moi was widely respected, he lacked the charisma of Kenyatta and had no strong independent political base of his own. He continued Kenyatta's pro-Western policies, which ensured significant sums of development aid during the Cold War.

Moily, M(arpadi) Veerappa (b. Jan. 12, 1940, Marpadi village, Mudbidri, Madras province [now in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state], India), chief minister of Karnataka (1992-94). He was also Indian minister of law and justice (2009-11), corporate affairs (2011-12), power (2012), petroleum and natural gas (2012-14), and environment and forests (2013-14).

Moine, Mario (Armando) (b. 1951?), governor of Entre Ríos (1991-95). He was also mayor of Paraná (1987-91).

Moine, Virgile (b. March 4, 1900 - d. Dec. 31, 1987), president of the government of Bern (1951-52, 1963-64).

Møinichen, Erik Røring (b. Dec. 15, 1797, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway - d. Feb. 7, 1875, Dresden, Germany), governor of Aggershuus (1842-55). He was also Norwegian minister of auditing (1855, 1868-69), finance (1856-57, 1858-59, 1861-62, 1865-66, 1869-70), justice and police (1857-58, 1866-67), posts (1860-61), and navy (1863-64).

Moir, Alexander Wilson (b. March 28, 1823, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. April 6, 1897, Jersey), presiding magistrate of the Bay Islands (1856-59) and president of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1862-69), the British Virgin Islands (1869-72), Dominica (1872-73), and Saint Christopher (1873-83).

Mõis, Jüri (b. Oct. 25, 1956, Pärnu, Estonian S.S.R.), interior minister of Estonia (1999). He was also mayor of Tallinn (1999-2001).


Moïse, Jovenel (b. June 26, 1968, Trou du Nord, Haiti - d. [assassinated] July 7, 2021, Pétionville, Haiti), president of Haiti (2017-21).

Moisescu, Anton (b. Feb. 12, 1913, Umbraresti, Galati county, Romania - d. 2002, Bucharest, Romania), joint acting chairman of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly of Romania (1958). He was president of the State Bank (1952-53) and minister to the United States (1954-56) and Argentina (1956-57).

Moisey, secular name Matvey (Mikhailovich) Bogdanov-Platonov-Antipov (b. 1783 - d. July 25 [July 13, O.S.], 1834), exarch of Georgia (1832-34). He was also bishop of Staraya Russa (1824-27), Vologda (1827-28), and Saratov (1828-32).

Moiseyenko, Konstantin (Aleksandrovich) (b. 1890 - d. 19...), president of the Pamir Bureau of the Communist Party (1928-29?).

Moiseyev, Nikolay (Andreyevich) (b. 1918, Balandikha, Nizhny Novgorod province, Russia - d. [car accident] July 18, 1970), chairman of the rural executive committee of Crimea oblast (1963-64).

Moisiu, Alfred (Spiro) (b. Dec. 1, 1929, Shkodër, Albania), president of Albania (2002-07). A World War II veteran, he was defense minister in 1991-92 in a transition government formed after the fall of Communism. He also served as deputy defense minister from 1994 to 1997.

Moisset, Jean (René) (b. March 10, 1905 - d. March 4, 1981), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1947-49).

Mojadedi, Sibghatullah (b. 1925, Afghanistan - d. Feb. 11, 2019, Kabul, Afghanistan), interim president of Afghanistan (1992). He was head of a rebel government in 1989-91. He was elected chairman of the Council of Elders (upper house of parliament) on Dec. 20, 2005, but resigned this post on Oct. 12, 2006.

Mojsov, Lazar (b. Dec. 19, 1920, Negotino, Yugoslavia [now in North Macedonia] - d. Aug. 25, 2011, Belgrade, Serbia), president of the UN General Assembly (1977-78) and president of the Presidium of the League of Communists (1980-81), foreign minister (1982-84), and president of the Presidency (1987-88) of Yugoslavia. He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union and Mongolia (1958-61) and Austria (1967-69) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-74).

Mokaddem, Sadok, Arabic Saduq Muqaddam (b. April 24, 1914, Tunis, Tunisia - d. 1993), foreign minister of Tunisia (1957-62). He was also minister of justice (1954-55) and health (1955-56), ambassador to Egypt (1956-57) and France (1962-64), and president of the National Assembly (1964-81).

Mokanu, Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. Oct. 22, 1934, Chisinau, Romania [now in Moldova]), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian S.S.R. (1985-89). He was also minister of housing and municipal services (1985).

Mokayev, Azret (Gonayevich) (b. 1899, Terek oblast [in present Kabardino-Balkariya republic], Russia - d. ...), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Kabardino-Balkar A.S.S.R. (1939-41).

Mokgoro, (Tebogo) Job (b. May 5, 1948, Kimberley, Cape province [now in Northern Cape], South Africa), joint administrator of Bophuthatswana (1994) and premier of North West (2018-21).

Mokgosi, Lazarus (Kagiso) (b. June 14, 1970), premier of North West (2024- ).

Mokhawa, Gladys (b. June 9, 1977, Moshupa, Botswana), Botswanan diplomat. She has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2023- ).

Mokhber, Mohammad (b. Sept. 1, 1955, Dezful, Iran), first vice president (2021-24) and acting president (2024- ) of Iran.

Mokhehle, (Clement) Ntsu (Sejabanana) (b. Dec. 26, 1918, Mokhehle's Village, near Teyateyaneng, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Jan. 6, 1999, Bloemfontein, South Africa), Lesotho politician. In 1952 he founded the Basutoland African Congress, later renamed Basutoland Congress Party (BCP). Like the Basotho National Party (BNP) and other groups, it opposed British rule, including the system of administration by tribal chiefs. The BNP gained control in 1966 of the newly independent nation's government, and in opposition Mokhehle led the BCP, which served as a voice of Pan-Africanism in the fledgling nation. He apparently won the country's first post-independence election in 1970, but was prevented from taking office when Leabua Jonathan seized power with the assistance of the army. In 1974 Mokhehle's party led a failed revolt, and he was forced into exile. From South Africa he continued to push for an end to unconstitutional rule while the paramilitary wing of the BCP, the Lesotho Liberation Army, carried out numerous attacks within Lesotho; in this connection he was willing to become party to the South African apartheid regime's destabilization policies in Lesotho. He returned to Lesotho in 1989. In 1993 the first democratic elections since 1970 were held. The BCP won all 65 legislative seats, and he became prime minister. In August 1994, King Letsie III and key military leaders staged a coup and dissolved the government and parliament, but intensive international pressure was brought to bear, and in September the elected government was restored. After opponents within the party tried to remove him as leader, he formed a new party in June 1997, the Lesotho Congress for Democracy, taking a majority of MPs with him. He retired from politics in 1998, handing the reins of his party to Pakalitha Mosisili.

Mokhtar (bin) Ahmad, Tan Sri (Haji) Wan (b. March 21, 1932, Kampung Nesan Empat, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu [now in Malaysia] - d. Sept. 21, 2020, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), chief minister of Terengganu (1974-99). He was also Malaysian ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2000-05). He received the title Datuk Amar on July 7, 1982, Datuk on April 8, 1983, and Tan Sri on Nov. 26, 1988.

Mokodopo, Jean-Paul (b. Jan. 15, 1935, Boboua, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. 1984, Paris, France), foreign minister of the Central African Empire (1976-77, 1978-79). He was also the Central African Republic's ambassador to Cameroon (1968-70), Yugoslavia (1970-73), and Nigeria (1979-84) and minister of planning and international cooperation (1973-76), statistics (1974-76), territorial administration (1976), and public health (1976).

Mokolo wa Mpombo, (Édouard) (b. May 31, 1944, Coquilhatville, Belgian Congo [now Mbandaka, Congo (Kinshasa)]), foreign minister of Zaire (1985-86). He was also ambassador to Ivory Coast (1976-77) and France (1980-84) and minister of national guidance (1977-80), culture and arts (1979-80), higher and university education and scientific research (1986), public works and regional development (1986-89), and transport and communications (1989-90).

Mokonyane, Nomvula (Paula) (b. June 28, 1963, Kagiso, Transvaal [now in Gauteng], South Africa), premier of Gauteng (2009-14). She was also South African minister of water and sanitation (2014-18), communications (2018), and environmental affairs (2018-19).

'Mokose, (Lincoln) Ralechate (b. Feb. 24, 1949, Kolonyama, Leribe district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Sept. 13, 2020, Ottawa, Ont.), Lesotho politician. He was high commissioner to South Africa (1994-99, 2017-19) and Canada (2019-20), ambassador to Denmark, other Nordic countries, Russia, and Poland (1999-2001), and minister of forestry and land reclamation (2003-10), agriculture and food security (2010-12), and water affairs (2015-17).

Moktar, M'Bareck Ould Bouna (b. May 13, 1935, Boutilimit, Mauritania), defense minister of Mauritania (1977-78). He was also army chief of staff (1964-65, 1967-68, 1977-78) and ambassador to Tunisia (early 1970s), Zaire (mid-1970s), and West Germany (1978-80).

Moktar, Moulay El Hassen Ould (b. Aug. 5, 1936, Nouakchott, Mauritania), Mauritanian diplomat. He was ambassador to Ivory Coast and Mali (1968-71) and the United States (1972-73) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-80).

Molano (Aponte), Diego (Andrés) (b. June 29, 1970, Bogotá, Colombia), defense minister of Colombia (2021-22).

Molapo, Charles Dube (b. Dec. 25, 1918, Leribe district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. July 1991), foreign minister of Lesotho (1975-81, 1982-83). He was also minister of development, commerce, and industry (1965-67), health, education, and social welfare (1971-74), justice (1974-75), and information and broadcasting (1981-83) and high commissioner to Kenya (1968-69).

Molapo, Patrick (Jonathan) (b. Oct. 22, 1924, Maoanamasooana, Leribe district, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), minister of interior, chieftaincy affairs, and rural development of Lesotho (1990).

Molapo, Pius Tanki (b. July 18, 1961), foreign minister of Lesotho (1991-92). He was also minister of employment, social security, and pensions (1990-91).

Molapo, Mooki Vitus (b. June 2, 1937, Leribe district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. June 6, 2009), foreign minister of Lesotho (1981-82). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-74, 1976-78), ambassador to Iran (1974-76), and minister of commerce and industry (1978-81).

Molas López, Felipe (Benigno) (b. July 10, 1901, Asunción, Paraguay - d. March 2, 1954, Asunción), president of Paraguay (1949). He was minister of education under Pres. Juan Natalicio González but was a chief instigator in his ouster in January 1949, having already helped to overthrow Pres. Higinio Morínigo in 1948. In February 1949, he became provisional president, unseating Raimundo Rolón. He formed a cabinet that for the first time in the 20th century included no military men. He reduced police and army forces, permitted the people to criticize his government, and extended an amnesty to political exiles, several thousand of whom returned to the country. As the only candidate, he was elected president in April and inaugurated in May. He was expected to finish González' term, ending in 1953. But another upheaval in the ruling Colorado Party led to his resignation in September and his replacement by Federico Chaves.

Moldaseyitov, Kayrat (Kuseinovich) (b. Jan. 18, 1967, Karakemer, Zhambyl oblast, Kazakh S.S.R.), Kazakh politician. He was mayor of Turkestan (2009-12) and Shymkent (2012-13).

Moldashev, Madalbek (b. 1948, Don village, Osh oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), interior minister of Kyrgyzstan (1995-96).

Moldenhauer, Paul (b. Dec. 2, 1876, Cologne, Germany - d. Feb. 1, 1947, Cologne), finance minister of Germany (1929-30). He was also economy minister (1929).

Moldiz (Mercado), (José) Hugo, interior minister of Bolivia (2015).

Moldoisaeva, Mirgul (Rodbekovna) (b. July 8, 1979, Issyk-Kul rayon, Issyk-Kul oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), Kyrgyz diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (2016-21).

Moldovan, Roman (b. Dec. 14, 1911, Apold, Hungary [now in Mures county, Romania] - d. Nov. 17, 1996, Bucharest, Romania), a deputy premier of Romania (1965-67). He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee (1965), the National Council of Scientific Research (1965-67), the State Committee for Prices (1967-69), and the National Council of Demography (1971-74).

Molé, Mathieu Louis, comte (b. Jan. 24, 1781, Paris, France - d. Nov. 23, 1855, Champlâtreux, Seine-et-Oise [now in Val-d'Oise], France), foreign minister (1830, 1836-39) and prime minister (1836-39, 1848) of France. He was also prefect of Côte-d'Or département (1807-09) and minister of justice (1813-14) and marine and colonies (1817-18). He was made a count in 1809.

Molefe, Popo (Simon) (b. April 26, 1952, Sophiatown, Johannesburg, South Africa), premier of North West province (1994-2004).

Molefhe, Topo James (b. Feb. 3, 1927, Mafeking [now Mahikeng], South Africa - d. Nov. 30, 2010), Botswanan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-72).

Moleka Nzulama, Timothée (b. 1955?, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 30, 2017, South Africa), governor of Kinshasa (1990) and Bas-Zaïre (1990-91). He was also minister of youth and sports (2001-03) and a minor presidential candidate (2006) in Congo (Kinshasa).

Moleko, Lebohang Kenneth (b. Oct. 12, 1950, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), Lesotho diplomat. He was ambassador to China, Indonesia, South Korea, and Thailand (1994-99) and the United States and Mexico (1999-2001), high commissioner to New Zealand, Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, and India (1995-99), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-05).

Moleleki, Monyane (b. Jan. 5, 1951, Mohlaka-oa-Tuka, Maseru district, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), foreign minister of Lesotho (2004-07). He was also minister of natural resources (1993-94, 1998-2004, 2007-12), information (1996-98), and police (2015-17).

Molero (Bellavia), Diego (Alfredo) (b. Jan. 12, 1960, Coro, Falcón, Venezuela), defense minister of Venezuela (2012-13). He has also been ambassador to Brazil (2013-14) and Peru (2014-17).

Molero Lobo, Nicolás (b. Dec. 6, 1870, Alcalá de Henares, Spain - d. Nov. 11, 1947, Barcelona, Spain), war minister of Spain (1935-36).

Molestina (Zavala), Oswaldo (b. Nov. 3, 1946, Guayaquil, Ecuador), interior minister of Ecuador (2005). He was also comptroller-general (1988-90), governor of Guayas (1990-92), and minister of foreign trade (2005).

Molewa, (Bomo) Edna (Edith) (b. March 23, 1957 - d. Sept. 22, 2018), premier of North West province, South Africa (2004-09). She was also South African minister of social development (2009-10), water and environmental affairs (2010-14), and environmental affairs (2014-18).

H. Moli

Moli(sale), Havo (b. June 9, 1962 - d. Feb. 23, 2016, Espiritu Santo island, Vanuatu), foreign minister of Vanuatu (2015-16). He was also minister of agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and quarantine (2008-09).

Moli, Josias (b. Aug. 19, 1954), acting president of Vanuatu (2004). He was speaker of parliament from July to December 2004.

Moli, Kalvau, foreign minister of Vanuatu (2015). He was also agriculture minister (2012-13).

Moliga, Lolo (Letalu) Matalasi (b. 1949, Ta'u, Manu'a, American Samoa), governor of American Samoa (2013-21).

Molin, Björn (Anders) (b. April 8, 1932, Göteborg, Sweden), governor of Halland (1986-97). He was also Swedish minister of commerce (1981-82).

Molin, (Sven) Peter (b. Jan. 5, 1957, Sundbyberg, Stockholm county, Sweden), acting governor of Gotland (2019).

Molina, Alcides, finance minister of Bolivia (1947).

A.A. Molina
Molina (Barraza), Arturo Armando (b. Aug. 6, 1927, San Salvador, El Salvador - d. July 19, 2021, San Francisco, Calif.), president of El Salvador (1972-77).

Molina (Ramírez), Gerardo (b. Aug. 6, 1906, Gómez Plata, Antioquia, Colombia - d. March 29, 1991, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian presidential candidate (1982). He was also rector of the National University of Colombia (1944-48).

Molina, Pedro Antonio (b. Jan. 31, 1851, El Cerrito, New Granada [now in Valle del Cauca, Colombia] - d. Oct. 20, 1924), war minister (1896-98, 1898), finance minister (1898, 1900-01, 1904, 1904-06), foreign minister (1917-18, 1918-19), and interior minister (1918) of Colombia. He was also governor of Cauca (1894-95, 1904-05) and Valle del Cauca (1924) and president of the Senate (1912-13, 1914-16, 1916-17).

Molina (Diez), Víctor M(anuel) (b. Dec. 25, 1861, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Oct. 15, 1933, Buenos Aires), governor of Río Negro (1920-24) and finance minister of Argentina (1923-28).

Molina Araújo, Hernando (b. Aug. 28, 1961, Valledupar, Colombia), Colombian politician; cousin of María Consuelo Araújo. He was governor of César department (2004-07). In 2010 he was sentenced to 7 years in prison because of his links to paramilitaries.

Molina Morillo, Rafael (b. March 31, 1930, La Vega, Dominican Republic - d. April 2, 2017, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), Dominican Republic diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-81) and ambassador to the United States and Canada (1981-82).

Molina Orantes, Adolfo (b. 1915 - d. Jan. 31, 1980, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (1957-58, 1974-78). He was killed in the assault of the Spanish embassy in Guatemala City. 29 men, including 23 peasants from El Quiché department, the rest being leaders of popular organizations of Guatemala City, had occupied the embassy to protest against army repression in El Quiché department. Pres. Fernando Romeo Lucas García subsequently gave an order to set fire to the building and not allow anybody to come out. The assault killed 37 people, among them former vice president Eduardo Cáceres Lehnhoff and Vicente Menchú, father of future Nobel Peace Prize winner Rigoberta Menchú.

Molina Pallochia, Óscar (b. Sept. 27, 1921, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 20, 1990), prime minister and war minister of Peru (1978-79).

Molina Pizarro, Emilio (b. Sept. 28, 1916, Potosí, Bolivia - d. Sept. 1, 1982, La Paz, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1970-71). He was also ambassador to Paraguay (1969-70).

Molina Quesada, José Luis (b. July 23, 1926, San José, Costa Rica), Costa Rican politician. He was president of the Legislative Assembly (1969-70) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-74).

Molina Silva, Sergio (b. Dec. 6, 1928, Santiago, Chile), finance minister of Chile (1964-68); grandson of Matías Silva Sepúlveda. He was also president of the Central Bank (1964-67) and minister of planning and cooperation (1990-94) and education (1994-96).

Molina Ureña, José Rafael (b. Jan. 31, 1921, San Francisco de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. May 22, 2000), provisional president of the Dominican Republic (1965). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-68) and ambassador to France (1968-71).

Molinaro, James P. (b. March 11, 1931, Manhattan, New York City), borough president of Staten Island (2002-13).

Moline de Saint-Yon, Alexandre Pierre, chevalier (b. June 29, 1786, Lyon, France - d. Nov. 17, 1870, Bordeaux, France), war minister of France (1845-47). He was created chevalier in 1810.

Molíns, Mariano Roca de Togores y Carrasco, marqués de (b. Aug. 17, 1812, Albacete, Spain - d. Sept. 4, 1889, Lequeitio, Vizcaya, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1879). He was also minister of commerce, education, and public works (1847) and navy (1847-49, 1849-51, 1853-54, 1874-75) and ambassador to France (1875-81). He was created marquess in 1848.

Molio'o, Mulipola Anarosa (Ale) (b. 1968?), finance minister of Samoa (2021- ).

Molisa, Sela (b. Dec. 15, 1950, Espiritu Santo island, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu] - d. Aug. 21, 2022, Port Vila, Vanuatu), foreign minister of Vanuatu (1983-87). He was also minister of home affairs (1983), finance (1987-91, 1991, 1998-99, 2002-04, 2008-10, 2011), trade (1996, 2011), and lands and mineral resources (2001-02) and ambassador to China (2014-15).

Moll, (Alexandre Marie Frédéric) Henry (b. March 16, 1871, Saulx-de-Vesoul, Haute-Saône, France - d. [killed during fighting] Nov. 9, 1910, Dorote, eastern Chad), commandant of Chad (1909-10).

Mollayev, Supyan (Kagirovich), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Chechen-Ingush A.S.S.R. (1938-44).

Möllemann, Jürgen W(ilhelm) (b. July 15, 1945, Augsburg, Germany - d. June 5, 2003, Marl, Germany), German politician. He was first elected to the German parliament for the Free Democratic Party in 1972 and became education and science minister (1987-91), economy minister (1991-93), and vice chancellor (1992-93). He was forced to resign in 1993 over disclosures that he misused his office to promote a product manufactured by a relative. He provoked outrage during the 2002 election campaign when he accused Jewish leader and talk-show host Michel Friedman of fomenting anti-Semitism through his "intolerant, spiteful style." He was also criticized for supporting a Syrian-born politician in Nordrhein-Westfalen who had accused Israel of using "Nazi methods" against Palestinians. He drew more fire when he issued a leaflet shortly before the elections criticizing Friedman and Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon. Jewish leaders accused Möllemann of exploiting anti-Semitic stereotypes to fish for far-right votes. Möllemann, the head of a German-Arab organization who also had business links to the Arab world, denied the allegation. He stepped down as deputy party leader after colleagues blamed him for the Free Democrats' poor showing in the elections. He quit the party in March 2003 after months of efforts by its leaders to expel him over the anti-Semitism allegations. Möllemann, who was known as an experienced skydiver, died in a parachute jump in an apparent suicide. He jumped the same day his parliamentary immunity was lifted and investigators raided homes and offices linked to him in Germany and other European countries as part of an investigation into alleged tax evasion and fraud. He was suspected of having illegally funded the disputed leaflet which was sent to 8 million homes.

Møller, Aksel (b. Jan. 1, 1906, Asminderød, Denmark - d. March 20, 1958, Frederiksberg, Denmark), interior (and housing) minister of Denmark (1950-53). He was also mayor of Frederiksberg (1948-50, 1954-58).

Möller, Alex(ander Johann Heinrich Friedrich) (b. April 26, 1903, Dortmund, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. Oct. 2, 1985, Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, West Germany), finance minister of West Germany (1969-71).

Moller, Anton (Vasilyevich), German Berend Otto von Möller (b. Feb. 16 [Feb. 5, O.S.], 1764, Mustel, Riga province, Russia [now Mustjala, Estonia] - d. Oct. 17 [Oct. 5, O.S.], 1848, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian navy minister (1828-36).

Möller, Jakob (Ragnar Valdimar) (b. July 11/12, 1880, Stóra-Bergi, Iceland - d. Nov. 5, 1955), finance minister (1939-42), member of the Regency (1940-41), and justice minister (1942) of Iceland.

Møller, Orla (Reinhardt) (b. May 7, 1916, Feldballe, Denmark - d. Feb. 14, 1979, Øster Kippinge, Falster island, Denmark), defense minister of Denmark (1973, 1975-77). He was also minister of ecclesiastical affairs (1966-68) and justice (1975-77).

P.S. Møller
Møller, Per Stig (b. Aug. 27, 1942, Frederiksberg, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (2001-10); son of Poul Møller. He was also minister of environment (1990-93), culture (2010-11), and ecclesiastical affairs (2011) and leader of the Conservative People's Party (1997-98).

Møller, Poul (b. Oct. 13, 1919, Frederiksberg, Denmark - d. Aug. 5, 1997, Frederiksberg), finance minister of Denmark (1968-71).

Møller, Søren Hald (b. Jan. 25, 1960, Copenhagen, Denmark), high commissioner of Greenland (2005-11).

Moller Bordeu, (Miguel) Fernando (b. April 14, 1892, Concepción, Chile - d. June 18, 1983, Santiago, Chile), justice minister of Chile (1946). He was also minister of agriculture (1936-37, 1942-43).

Moller Bordeu, Víctor (b. Dec. 15, 1898, Concepción, Chile - d. ...), Chilean politician; brother of Fernando Moller Bordeu. He was minister of agriculture (1940).

Möllerhjelm, Axel Johan Adam, original surname Möller (b. Jan. 10, 1787, Västerhanninge socken, Stockholm county, Sweden - d. Sept. 27, 1846, Stockholm, Sweden), acting governor of Stockholm city (1838-42). He was ennobled under the name Möllerhjelm in 1809.

Mollerus, Johan Hendrik baron (b. Oct. 30, 1750, The Hague, Netherlands - d. June 22, 1834, Utrecht, Netherlands), interior minister (1806-08, 1809) and acting foreign minister (1809-10) of Holland and war minister of the Netherlands (1814). He was also minister of worship (1808-09). He was made baron in 1820.

Mollerus van Westkerke, Johan Hendrik Mello baron (b. Feb. 21, 1840, Arnhem, Netherlands - d. Jan. 5, 1909, Utrecht, Netherlands), king's/queen's commissioner of Gelderland (1880-1909); grandson of Johan Hendrik baron Mollerus.

Molleston, Henry (b. Jan. 1, 1762, north of Milford, Delaware - d. Nov. 11, 1819, near Dover, Del.), U.S. politician. He was elected governor of Delaware in October 1819 but died before he could take office.

Mollet, (Alcide) Guy (b. Jan. 2, 1906 [officially Dec. 31, 1905], Flers, Orne, France - d. Oct. 3, 1975, Paris, France), French politician. He joined the Socialist Party in 1921. During World War II, he served in the army and was captured by the Germans in 1940. Released in 1942, he joined the Résistance. After the war, in 1945, he was elected mayor of Arras and member of the Chamber of Deputies representing Pas-de-Calais. He was active in drafting the constitution of November 1946 and from December 1946 to January 1947 was minister of state in Léon Blum's Socialist cabinet. As general secretary of the Socialist Party from 1946 to 1969, he strengthened the authority of the party machine over the parliamentary group. At first opposed to the party's participation in coalitions without the Communists, by 1950 he was outspokenly anti-Communist. In 1950-51, he was minister of state, dealing with the Council of Europe. With Pierre Mendès-France he led the left-centre Republican Front in the 1956 election and became premier. His principal task was to secure peace in Algeria, but his policy of negotiation with the rebels failed. Believing that Egypt was supplying aid to the rebels, he joined Britain in a futile occupation of Port Said and closing of the Suez Canal in November 1956. During his 16-month premiership - the longest of the Fourth Republic - the decision was made to build a French nuclear striking force. His government was overthrown in 1957 because of rightist criticism of his push for social reform on a budget badly depleted by the Suez invasion. On May 13, 1958, he became minister of state under Pierre Pflimlin. He retained that post in Charles de Gaulle's cabinet from June 1958 to January 1959 and then assumed a position of constructive opposition to de Gaulle's domestic policy.

Mollien, Nicolas François, comte (b. Feb. 28, 1758, Rouen, France - d. April 20, 1850, Paris, France), treasury minister of France (1806-14, 1815). He was made comte (count) in 1808.

Mollinedo Imaña, Alfredo (b. Sept. 20, 1896, Achacachi, La Paz department, Bolivia - d. Feb. 20, 1973, La Paz, Bolivia), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1947-50).

Mollov, Vladimir (Dimitrov) (b. July 4, 1873, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. April 29, 1935, Sofia, Bulgaria), finance minister of Bulgaria (1926-31). He was also minister of education (1910-11) and railways, posts, and telegraphs (1918).

Molloy, Robert, byname Bobby Molloy (b. July 6, 1936, Galway, Ireland - d. Oct. 2, 2016, Galway), defence minister of Ireland (1977-79). He was also minister of local government (1970-73) and energy (1989-92).

W.T. Molloy
Molloy, W(illiam) Thomas, byname Tom Molloy (b. July 27, 1940, Saskatoon, Sask. - d. July 2, 2019), lieutenant governor of Saskatchewan (2018-19).

Molnár, Erik (b. Dec. 16, 1894, Újvidék, Hungary [now Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Serbia] - d. Aug. 8, 1966, Budapest, Hungary), foreign minister of Hungary (1947-48, 1952-53). He was also minister of welfare (1944-47) and justice (1950-52, 1954-56), ambassador to the Soviet Union (1948-49), and president of the Supreme Court (1953-54).

Molnár, László (b. 1958, Ózd, Hungary), Hungarian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2002-05).

Molom, Tsendiyn (b. 1932, Davst district, Uvs province, Mongolia - d. Nov. 10, 2020), finance minister (1969-79) and a deputy premier (1979-83) of Mongolia. He was also chairman of the People's Control Committee (1979-83).

Molomjamts, Demchigiyn (b. Nov. 24, 1920 - d. 2006), finance minister (1948-57) and a deputy premier (1957-65) of Mongolia. He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee (1959-60) and the State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations (1963-65).

Molomjamts, Demchigjavyn (b. Sept. 17, 1951, Zavkhan province, Mongolia), finance minister of Mongolia (1984-90). He was also president of the Bank of Mongolia (1992-96).

Moloney, Sir (Cornelius) Alfred (b. May? 1848, Gibraltar - d. Aug. 13, 1913, Fiesole, Italy), acting lieutenant governor of Lagos (1878-80, 1882-83), administrator of Gambia (1884-85) and Lagos (1886-87), and governor of Lagos (1887-91), British Honduras (1891-97), the Windward Islands (1897-1900), and Trinidad and Tobago (1900-04); knighted 1890.

Moloto, (Phaswana Cleopus) Sello (b. Aug. 27, 1964, Claremont village, Transvaal [now in Limpopo province], South Africa), premier of Limpopo (2004-09). He has also been South African high commissioner to Mozambique (2011) and Lesotho (2016- ) and ambassador to Finland (2012-16).

Molotov, Vyacheslav (Mikhailovich), original surname Skryabin (b. March 9 [Feb. 25, O.S.], 1890, Kukarka, Vyatka province [now Sovetsk, Kirov oblast], Russia - d. Nov. 8, 1986, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet statesman. He joined the Bolsheviks in 1906 and was twice arrested and sent to internal exile (1909-11, 1915-16) for his revolutionary activities. After the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, he held several posts in provincial party organizations. In 1921 he became a secretary of the Central Committee as well as a candidate member of the Politburo, and in 1926 a full member. He assumed control of the Moscow party committee (1928-30) and in 1930 was made chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (prime minister) of the Soviet Union. He was picked by Iosif Stalin to become commissar of foreign affairs in May 1939 and in this capacity negotiated the German-Soviet nonaggression pact (Molotov-Ribbentrop pact; August 1939). In May 1941, Stalin himself took over as premier, and Molotov became first deputy premier. After the German invasion, he arranged the Soviet alliances with Britain and the United States. He attended the Allied conferences at Tehran (1943), Yalta (1945), and Potsdam (1945), and the San Francisco Conference (1945), which organized the United Nations. (He was not the inventor of "Molotov cocktails," the bottles of inflammable liquid that the Finns had used against the Soviets in 1939 and mockingly named after him; however, the Soviet Union later itself used them against German tanks.) He gave up the post of foreign minister in 1949, but resumed it after Stalin's death (1953), until his disagreements with Nikita Khrushchev resulted in his dismissal (1956). He was made minister of state control, but when he joined the "antiparty group" that tried to depose Khrushchev in 1957, he lost all his high positions. He then became ambassador to Mongolia (1957-60) and Soviet delegate to the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna (1960-61). In 1962 he was expelled from the Communist Party; he was readmitted in 1984.

Moloua, Félix (b. 1957?), prime minister of the Central African Republic (2022- ). He has also been minister of economy, planning, and cooperation (2016- ).

Molteno, Sir James Tennant (b. Jan. 5, 1865, Claremont [now part of Cape Town], Cape Colony [now in South Africa] - d. Sept. 16, 1936), South African politician; knighted 1911; son of Sir John Charles Molteno. He was speaker of the House of Assembly (1910-15).

Molteno, Sir John Charles (b. June 5, 1814, London, England - d. Sept. 1, 1886, Cape Town, Cape Colony [now in Western Cape, South Africa]), prime minister of Cape Colony (1872-78); knighted 1882.

Molterer, Wilhelm (b. May 14, 1955, Steyr, Austria), vice chancellor and finance minister of Austria (2007-08). He was also minister of agriculture (1994-2003), youth and family (acting, 2000), environment and water (2000-03), and interior (acting, 2008) and chairman of the Austrian People's Party (2007-08).

Moltesen, Laust (Jevsen) (b. Nov. 18, 1865, Råhede, Denmark - d. Oct. 25, 1950, Ordrup, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (1926-29).

Moltke, Adam Wilhelm (lensgreve) (b. Aug. 25, 1785, Einsidelsborg, Fyn island, Denmark - d. Feb. 15, 1864, Copenhagen, Denmark), prime minister (1848-52), finance minister (1848), and foreign minister (1848-50) of Denmark. He was also minister of the navy (1848).

Moltke, Carl (Poul Oscar greve) (b. Jan. 2, 1869, Görz, Austria [now Gorizia, Italy] - d. Sept. 5, 1935, Christiansholm, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (1924-26). He was also chargé d'affaires in Italy (1903-08) and minister to the United States (1908-12) and Germany (1912-24).

Moltke, Friedrich Ludwig Elisa von (b. May 1, 1852, Rantzau, Holstein [now in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany] - d. Dec. 10, 1927, Klein-Bresa, Prussia, Germany [now Brzezica, Poland]), Oberpräsident of Ostpreussen (1903-07) and Schleswig-Holstein (1914-18).

Moltke, Hans-Adolf (Helmuth Erdmann Ludwig Waldemar) von (b. Nov. 29, 1884, Oppeln, Prussia, Germany [now Opole, Poland] - d. March 22, 1943, Madrid, Spain), German diplomat; son of Friedrich Ludwig Elisa von Moltke. He was minister (1931-34) and ambassador (1934-39) to Poland and ambassador to Spain (1943).

Moltke, Otto Joachim greve (b. June 11, 1770, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Feb. 1, 1853, Espe manor, Sjælland, Denmark), minister of state of Denmark (1824-42).



Molyviatis, Petros (Georgiou) (b. June 12, 1928, Chios island, Greece), foreign minister of Greece (2004-06, 2012, 2015).

Mombelli, Ernesto (b. July 12, 1867, Turin, Italy - d. 1932), governor of Cyrenaica (1924-26).

Momen, Abulkalam Abdul (b. Aug. 23, 1947, Sylhet, Pakistan [now in Bangladesh]), foreign minister of Bangladesh (2019-24); brother of Abul Maal Abdul Muhith. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-15).

Momis, John (Lawrence) (b. 1942, Salamaua, New Guinea [now in Papua New Guinea]), governor (1999-2005) and president (2010-20) of Bougainville. He was also Papua New Guinean minister of decentralization (1977-83), public service (1985), provincial affairs (1988-92), and communications (1994-95), deputy prime minister (1985), and ambassador to China (2007-10).

Momo Bokara, Expedito Rafael (b. 1926? - d. June 1974), justice minister of Equatorial Guinea (1969-73). Following an alleged coup attempt, he officially committed suicide.

Momoedonu, Ratu Tevita (b. Jan. 13, 1946, Lautoka, Fiji - d. Nov. 26, 2020, Lautoka), prime minister of Fiji (2001); nephew of Ratu Josefa Iloilo. He was minister of labour and industrial relations (1999-2001) and ambassador to Japan and South Korea (2002-06).

Momoh, Joseph Saidu (b. Jan. 26, 1937, Binkolo, Bombali district, Northern province, Sierra Leone - d. Aug. 2, 2003, Guinea), president of Sierra Leone (1985-92). In 1958 he left the civil service to join the Royal West African Frontier Force, attending courses in Nigeria and England. He became captain in 1965 and major in 1966. In 1968, following the coup that restored constitutional government, he was arrested and spent seven months in detention. On his release he returned to the army. He advanced to colonel in 1970 and in 1971 was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. He was promoted to brigadier in 1973, and in 1974 Pres. Siaka Stevens nominated him a member of parliament and made him a minister of state in the cabinet. In 1983 he was promoted to major general. When Stevens stood down in 1985, he was succeeded by Momoh after a carefully arranged single-candidate election in which Momoh received 99.85% of the vote. Initially, his integrity endeared him to the people, but his popularity soon faded when his government failed to eliminate corruption or improve the economy. He also appeared unwilling to remove associates of Stevens from key positions. He was ousted in 1992 and went into exile in neighbouring Guinea, but returned home in February 1997 at the urging of Pres. Ahmad Tejan Kabbah. After Kabbah was deposed in a May 1997 coup, Momoh led a delegation to Guinea to plead with Pres. Lansana Conté to recognize the military junta of Johnny Paul Koroma. Conté refused to break ranks with other leaders of the 16-nation Economic Community of West African States who condemned the coup and slapped an embargo on Sierra Leone. After West African forces restored Kabbah to power, Momoh was arrested (February 1998) when he tried to slip through a checkpoint in the capital disguised as a woman. In November 1998 he was found guilty of conspiracy but escaped a treason charge which could carry the death penalty. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison. Junta loyalists freed him from jail in January 1999 when they infiltrated Freetown and came close to capturing the city.

Momotaro, Daisy A(lik) (b. June 1960), internal affairs minister of the Marshall Islands (2016); wife of Dennis Momotaro.

Momotaro, Dennis (b. Oct. 26, 1954, Majuro, Marshall Islands), finance minister of the Marshall Islands (2012-14). He was also minister of transportation and communications (2008-09) and natural resources and commerce (2016-20).

Momper, Walter (Lutz) (b. Feb. 21, 1945, Sulingen, Prussia [now in Niedersachsen], Germany), governing mayor of (West) Berlin (1989-91).

Mon Menéndez, Alejandro (b. Feb. 26, 1801, Oviedo, Spain - d. Nov. 1, 1882, Oviedo), prime minister of Spain (1864). He was also finance minister (1837-38, 1844-46, 1846-47, 1848-49, 1857-58), president of the Congress of Deputies (1847-48, 1862), and ambassador to the Papal State (1857) and France (1858-62, 1864-65, 1866-68).

Mona, Louis (b. 1941), defense minister of Papua New Guinea (1977-78). He was also minister of administrative services (1978-80).

Monagas (Burgos), José Gregorio (b. May 4, 1795, Maturín, New Granada [now in Monagas state, Venezuela] - d. July 15, 1858, Maracaibo, Venezuela), president of Venezuela (1851-55); brother of José Tadeo Monagas.

Monagas (Oriach), José Ruperto (Saturnino) (b. June 4, 1831, Aragua de Barcelona, Venezuela - d. June 12, 1880, Aragua de Barcelona), acting president of Venezuela (1869-70); son of José Tadeo Monagas.

Monagas (Burgos), José Tadeo, originally Judas Tadeo Monagas Burgos (b. Oct. 28, 1784, near Maturín, New Granada [now in Monagas state, Venezuela] - d. Nov. 18, 1868, Caracas, Venezuela), president of Venezuela (1847-51, 1855-58).

Monagas Lesseur, Norman (Mariano Tirso) (b. Jan. 28, 1955), Venezuelan diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1998).

Monastyrsky, Denys (Anatoliyovych) (b. June 12, 1980, Khmelnitsky [Khmelnytskyi], Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. [helicopter crash] Jan. 18, 2023, Brovary, Kyiv oblast, Ukraine), interior minister of Ukraine (2021-23).

D. Moncada

S. Moncada
Moncada (Colindres), Denis (Ronaldo) (b. Nov. 28, 1948, Murra, Nueva Segovia, Nicaragua), foreign minister of Nicaragua (2017- ).

Moncada, Francisco Xavier Cabral de Oliveira (b. Sept. 4, 1859, Constância, Portugal - d. Jan. 4, 1908, Lisbon, Portugal), governor-general of Angola (1900-03).

Moncada (Acosta), Samuel (Reinaldo) (b. June 13, 1959, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (2017). He has also been minister of higher education (2004-07), ambassador to the United Kingdom (2007-13), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-15, 2017- ).

Moncada Colindres, Ely Wilfredo, Nicaraguan diplomat; brother of Denis Moncada. He was appointed ambassador to Algeria in 2023.

Moncada Colindres, Ramón (Alberto), Nicaraguan diplomat; brother of Denis Moncada. He was appointed ambassador to Iran and Syria in 2023.

Moncada Reyes, Óscar (b. 1936? - d. Nov. 9, 2014, Masatepe, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan politician; son of José María Moncada Tapia. He was president of the National Assembly (2000-02).

J.M. Moncada
Moncada Tapia, José María (b. Dec. 8, 1870, San Rafael del Sur, Managua, Nicaragua - d. Feb. 23, 1945, Managua), interior minister (1910-11) and president (1929-33) of Nicaragua.

Monção, Jacintho José Gomes, barão de (b. Maranhão captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. May 4, 1894, Monção, Maranhão), acting president of Maranhão (1876). He was made baron in 1873.

Moncayo (García), Jaime (b. Jan. 9, 1940, Quito, Ecuador), finance minister of Ecuador (1974-75). He was also ambassador to the United States (1988-92) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2005).

Moncayo (Gallegos), Paco (Rosendo) (b. Oct. 8, 1940, Quito, Ecuador), Ecuadorian politician. The general was commander-in-chief of ground forces (1995-96) and of the armed forces (1996-98), acting defense minister (1997), mayor of Quito (2000-09), and a presidential candidate (2017).

Moncayo y Esparza, Pedro (b. June 29, 1807, Ibarra, New Granada [now in Ecuador] - d. Feb. 3, 1888, Valparaíso, Chile), Ecuadorian diplomat. He was minister to Peru (1852-54) and chargé d'affaires in France (1855-58).

Monck (of Ballytrammon), Charles Stanley Monck, (4th) Viscount, (4th and 1st) Baron Monck (of Ballytrammon) (b. Oct. 10, 1819, Templemore, County Tipperary, Ireland - d. Nov. 29, 1894, Enniskerry, County Wicklow, Ireland), governor (1861-67) and governor-general (1867-68) of Canada. On the death of his father he succeeded to the peerage of Ireland (as 4th Viscount and 4th Baron Monck) in 1849. After a defeat as a candidate in Wicklow in 1848, he was elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal member from Portsmouth in 1852 and was a lord of the treasury in 1855-58. Defeated in the general election of 1859, he decided to leave active politics. In 1861 he was named governor of the province of Canada (present Ontario and Quebec). He was noted for the deftness of his efforts to avoid British or Canadian involvement in the American Civil War (1861-65) and for his role in preparing for Canadian federation. Queen Victoria elevated him to the peerage of the United Kingdom (as 1st Baron Monck) in 1866 and extended his term so that he might be the first governor-general of the new Dominion of Canada, created in 1867. Returning to Ireland in 1868, he was knighted (Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George) and appointed to the Privy Council in 1869. He was lord lieutenant of County Dublin in 1874-92.

Monckton of Brenchley, Walter (Turner) Monckton, (1st) Viscount (b. Jan. 17, 1891, Plaxtol, Kent, England - d. Jan. 9, 1965, Folkington, Sussex, England), British defence minister (1955-56). He was also minister of labour and national service (1951-55) and paymaster-general (1956-57). He was knighted in 1937 and created viscount in 1957.

Mondale, Walter F(rederick), byname Fritz Mondale (b. Jan. 5, 1928, Ceylon, Minn. - d. April 19, 2021, Minneapolis, Minn.), vice president of the United States (1977-81). In 1947 he organized student volunteers who assisted Hubert Humphrey, Orville Freeman, and Karl Rolvaag in excluding leftists from the newly created Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party in Minnesota. In 1958 Freeman, now the governor, appointed Mondale special assistant to the state attorney general and two years later named him to fill the unexpired term of the attorney general. When Humphrey resigned from his Senate seat after being elected vice president in 1964, Mondale again was the beneficiary of an unexpired term, this time in the U.S. Senate. He won election to the Senate seat in 1966 and reelection in 1972. He sought the 1974 Democratic presidential nomination but dropped out of the race, acknowledging that he did not have a taste for the kind of nonstop campaigning necessary to capture the presidency. In 1976 he aggressively sought the second spot on the ticket with Jimmy Carter. The Carter-Mondale ticket was defeated in its attempt at reelection in 1980, and Mondale immediately began his quest for the 1984 presidential nomination. A lifelong crusader for equal opportunity, he selected Geraldine Ferraro as his running mate. However, except for a brief period after the first TV debate, during which Pres. Ronald Reagan appeared tired and confused, polls showed the Mondale-Ferraro ticket slipping further and further behind. He won only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia, for a total of 13 electoral votes. In 1993-96 he was ambassador to Japan. When Paul Wellstone, the Democratic senator from Minnesota, was killed in a plane crash while campaigning to retain his seat in 2002, Mondale took his place on the ballot but was defeated by Republican Norm Coleman.

Mondelli, Emilio (b. Nov. 21, 1914, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. May 13, 1993, Buenos Aires), economy minister of Argentina (1976). He was also president of the Central Bank (1975-76).

Mondino, Diana (Elena) (b. Aug. 8, 1958, Córdoba, Argentina), foreign minister of Argentina (2023- ).

Mondjo, Charles Richard (b. Jan. 28, 1954, Brazzaville, Congo), defense minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (2012- ); son of Nicolas Mondjo. He was also chief of staff of the armed forces (2002-12).

Mondjo, Nicolas (b. June 24, 1933, Owando, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Jan. 20, 1996, Paris, France), foreign minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1968-69). He was also ambassador to France (1964-68) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-85).

Mondlane, Eduardo (Chivambo) (b. June 20, 1920, near Manjacaze, Gaza, Mozambique - d. Feb. 3, 1969, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania), Mozambican nationalist leader. Educated in South Africa, Portugal, and the United States, he only returned for a longer stay to Mozambique in 1961, at which time he was still pro-Portugal. The underdevelopment of Mozambique made him commit to independence, but he still hoped to achieve it in friendly cooperation with Portugal. In 1962 the Mozambique African National Union and the National Democratic Union of Mozambique merged as the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frelimo), of which he became president, based in Tanganyika (later Tanzania). But new breakaway organizations emerged and he was attacked as being pro-Western. He accepted Chinese aid and was pushed to start a guerrilla war in 1964. Although in 1968 the second Frelimo congress was held inside Mozambique, the war had not been very successful, as the Portuguese exploited ethnic rivalries and managed to contain Frelimo territorial control to economically unimportant northern areas. In 1969 he was killed by a parcel bomb; the responsibility for this assassination has never been clearly established. After independence was achieved in 1975, the country's premier university was named after him.

Money, Sir Arthur Wigram (b. Oct. 23, 1866 - d. Oct. 25, 1951), chief administrator of Palestine (1918-19); knighted 1917.

Money, Brian W(alter) (b. Jan. 4, 1941), acting administrator of Tristan da Cunha (1997-98).

Money, Rowland (b. March 30, 1812 - d. May 2, 1869), acting lieutenant governor of the North-Western Provinces (1863).

Monfraix, Jean (b. May 10, 1918, Cherbourg, Manche, France - d. Jan. 10, 2008), prefect of French Guiana (1970-72). He was also prefect of the départements of Haute-Marne (1972-74) and Pyrénées-Atlantiques (1974-78).

Mongbe, René (Valéry) (b. Nov. 12, 1939, Agbangnizoun, Dahomey [now Benin]), Beninese diplomat. He was ambassador to Zaire (1975-81), Congo (1978-81), and Angola (1980-81) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-96).

Monge (Ortega), César (Santiago) (b. July 22, 1972, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. July 25, 2021), interior minister of Ecuador (2021); son of Xavier Monge Yoder.

Monge, Gaspard (Louis), (from 1808) comte de Péluse (b. May 10, 1746, Beaune [now in Côte-d'Or département], France - d. July 28, 1818, Paris, France), French minister of marine and colonies (1792-93). He was a famous mathematician.

L.A. Monge
Monge Álvarez, Luis Alberto (b. Dec. 29, 1925, Palmares, Alajuela, Costa Rica - d. Nov. 29, 2016, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1982-86). He was also minister of the presidency (1955-56), ambassador to Israel (1963-64), and president of the Legislative Assembly (1973-74). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1978.

Monge Yoder, Xavier (Alfonso), Ecuadorian diplomat. He was ambassador to Argentina (2021-23).

Mongella, Gertrude Ibengwe, née Makanza (b. Sept. 13, 1945, Ukerewe, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), president of the Pan-African Parliament (2004-09). She was also Tanzanian minister of lands, natural resources, and tourism (1985-87), minister without portfolio (1987-90), and high commissioner to India (1992-93).

Mongenast, Mathias (b. July 12, 1843, Diekirch, Luxembourg - d. Jan. 10, 1926, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), finance minister (1882-1915) and acting prime minister and foreign minister (1915) of Luxembourg. He was also president of the Council of State (1916-17).

Mongkut, official name as king (short form) Phra Chom Klao Chaoyuhua, retrospectively also called Rama IV (b. Oct. 18, 1804, Bangkok - d. Oct. 1, 1868, Bangkok), king of Siam (1851-68). He was the model for Margaret Landon's best-selling novel Anna and the King of Siam (1944), which was subsequently adapted for stage and screen as The King and I.

Mongrut Muñoz, (Juan) Octavio (b. Nov. 19, 1923, San Pedro de Lloc, La Libertad, Peru - d. 2007, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1965). He was also minister of education (1967-68).

Monguillot, Maurice Antoine François (b. Aug. 9, 1874, Paris, France - d. June 23, 1945), governor-general of French Indochina (1919-20, 1925, 1928) and resident-superior of Tonkin (1921-25).

Mongulu Mandubola, Serge (b. Jan. 13, 1972, Matadi, Bas-Zaïre, Zaire [now Kongo Central, Congo (Kinshasa)]), acting governor of Mongala (2021-22).

Monguno, Shettima Ali (b. 1926, Monguno [now in Borno state], Nigeria - d. July 8, 2016, Maiduguri, Borno, Nigeria), Nigerian politician. He was minister of the air force (1965), internal affairs (1965-66), trade and industry (1967-71), and mines and power (1971-75).

Monguya Mbenge, Daniel (b. July 21, 1934, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Nov. 15, 2021, Kinshasa), governor of Mai-Ndombe (1965-66), Kasaï Occidental (1970-72), and Shaba (1972).

Moni, Dipu (b. Dec. 8, 1965), foreign minister of Bangladesh (2009-13). She has also been minister of education (2019-24) and social welfare (2024- ).

Monis, Ernest (Antoine Emmanuel) (b. May 23, 1846, Châteauneuf, Charente, France - d. May 25, 1929, Châteauneuf), prime minister of France (1911). He was also minister of justice (1899-1902), interior and worship (1911), and marine (1913-14).

Moniz, Ernest (Jeffrey) (b. Dec. 22, 1944, Fall River, Mass.), U.S. energy secretary (2013-17).

Monjardim, Alpheu Adelpho Monjardim de Andrade e Almeida, barão de (b. April 20, 1836, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. June 6, 1924, Vitória), acting president (1878, 1879, 1882, 1885, 1885, 1889) and president (1891) of Espírito Santo; son of José Francisco de Andrade e Almeida Monjardim. He was made baron in 1889.

Monjardim, Argeu Hortêncio, acting president of Espírito Santo (1904); son of Alpheu Adelpho Monjardim de Andrade e Almeida, barão de Monjardim.

Monjardim, José Francisco de Andrade e Almeida (b. Feb. 9, 1797 - d. Jan. 24, 1884, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil), acting president of Espírito Santo (1830, 1831, 1832-33, 1844, 1846, 1848, 1848-49, 1849, 1851, 1857, 1858-59, 1860).

Monje Gutierréz, Tomás (b. Dec. 21, 1884, Coroico, La Paz department, Bolivia - d. July 1, 1954, La Paz, Bolivia), chairman of the Provisional Government Junta of Bolivia (1946-47). He was also minister of education (1926-27) and attorney general (1930-36).

Monléon, Jérôme Félix (d. Sept. 17, 1856, Menton, Alpes-Maritimes, France), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1854-56).

Monnerville, Gaston (Charles François) (b. Jan. 2, 1897, Cayenne, French Guiana - d. Nov. 7, 1991, Paris, France), French politician. He was mayor of Cayenne (1935-40, 1943-45) and president of the Council of the Republic (1947-58) and the Senate (1958-68).

Monnet, Jean (Omer Marie Gabriel) (b. Nov. 9, 1888, Cognac, Charente, France - d. March 16, 1979, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, Yvelines, France), president of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (1952-55). He entered the French Ministry of Commerce in 1914. In 1920-23 he was assistant secretary-general of the League of Nations. During World War II he helped organize the U.S. Lend-Lease program and was Free French commissioner of armaments, supply, and reconstruction (1943) and commissioner on a mission (1943-44). A distinguished economist and expert in financial affairs, he drafted the Plan de modernisation et d'équipement de la France (Monnet Plan) in 1947 and directed its operation until 1952. With Robert Schuman, the French foreign minister, Monnet fashioned the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which pooled the coal and steel resources of six nations - France, West Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Italy - under a supranational authority, of which he became the first head. In 1956-75 he was president of the Action Committee for the United States of Europe, which was made up of representatives of political parties and trade unions in Western Europe with the exception of the Communists; at one time or another its membership included 21 former heads of government. Under his inspiration the idea of the ECSC was enlarged in the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC), or Common Market, by the Treaty of Rome in 1957. In the late 1960s, in opposition to Pres. Charles de Gaulle, Monnet fought for Britain's admission to the Common Market.

Monnou, Edgar Yves (b. Feb. 9, 1953, Abomey, Dahomey [now Benin]), foreign minister of Benin (1995-96). He was also ambassador to France, the U.K., Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Turkey (2003-08).

Monory, René (Claude Aristide) (b. June 6, 1923, Loudun, Vienne, France - d. April 11, 2009, Loudun), French minister of industry, commerce, and craft industry (1977-78), economy (1978-81), and national education (1986-88), president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (1985-86), and president of the Senate (1992-98).

Monrad, Ditlev Gothard (b. Nov. 24, 1811, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. March 28, 1887, Copenhagen), interior minister (1860-61), prime minister and finance minister (1863-64), and foreign minister (1863-64, 1864) of Denmark. He was also minister of education and ecclesiastical affairs (1848, 1859, 1860-63).

Monreal Ávila, David (b. March 22, 1966, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico), governor of Zacatecas (2021- ); brother of Ricardo Monreal Ávila. He was also mayor of Fresnillo (2007-10), a position also held by his brothers Rodolfo Monreal Ávila (2004-07) and Saúl Monreal Ávila (2018- ).

Monreal Ávila, Ricardo (b. Sept. 19, 1960, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico), governor of Zacatecas (1998-2004).

Monreal Luque, Alberto (b. Nov. 18, 1926, Madrid, Spain - d. Aug. 4, 2014, Madrid), finance minister of Spain (1969-73).

Monro, Sir Charles Carmichael, (1st) Baronet (b. June 15, 1860, at sea on the Maid of Judah - d. Dec. 7, 1929, London, England), governor of Gibraltar (1923-28). He was knighted in 1915 and made baronet in 1921.

Monro, Sir David (b. March 27, 1813, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Feb. 15, 1877, Nelson, N.Z.), New Zealand politician; knighted 1866. He was speaker of the House of Representatives (1861-70).

J. Monroe
Monroe, James (b. April 28, 1758, Westmoreland county, Virginia - d. July 4, 1831, New York City), president of the United States (1817-25). He was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1782. In 1783-86 he served in the Congress under the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the new nation. He returned to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1787 and in 1788 was a member of the state convention at which Virginia ratified the new federal Constitution. In 1790 he was elected to the U.S. Senate. He was minister to France in 1794-96. In 1799 he was chosen governor of Virginia and was twice reelected, serving until 1802. He was minister to Great Britain in 1803-07 and was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in the spring of 1810. In the following winter he was again chosen governor, serving from January to November 1811, then resigning to become secretary of state under James Madison, a position he held until 1817. The direction of foreign affairs during the War of 1812, with Great Britain, thus fell upon him. On Sept. 27, 1814, after the capture of Washington, D.C., by the British, he was appointed secretary of war and discharged the duties of this office, in addition to those of the State Department, until March 1815. He was elected president in 1816, defeating Rufus King 183-34, and reelected in 1820, receiving all the electoral votes but one. His calm and prosperous administration was called the Era of Good Feelings. The principles he set out in a presidential message of Dec. 2, 1823 (considering the New World closed to further European colonization and declaring that any intervention of Europe in the governments of the American hemisphere would be regarded as an unfriendly act), later came to be called the Monroe Doctrine and profoundly influenced U.S. foreign policy.

Monroe, Walter Stanley (b. May 14, 1871, Dublin, Ireland - d. Oct. 6, 1952, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada), prime minister of Newfoundland (1924-28). In 1923 he entered politics and ran unsuccessfully against William Coaker in Bonavista as a candidate for the Liberal-Labour-Progressive Party. Although he lost, he did better than anticipated. When Prime Minister Richard Squires resigned following a cabinet revolt, his successor William Warren appointed Monroe minister without portfolio in his second administration, formed in 1924. With party lines confused, several St. John's businesspeople began looking for a leader for a new party, and their choice was Monroe. His Liberal-Conservative Party won the 1924 election with the backing not only of the merchants but also of the working class. The next four years proved to be difficult ones for the Monroe government, as it tried to cope with a spiralling deficit and a sluggish economy. The desperate financial plight of the government was worsened when Monroe repealed the income tax and reduced the tax on banks in 1925. These moves fed suspicions that the administration was primarily interested in protecting wealthy merchants. Increased relief payments to the growing numbers of unemployed workers and tax concessions to major investors placed an additional strain on the government's precarious financial position. Among the achievements of the Monroe government were the decision to extend voting rights to women in 1925 and the repeal of prohibition. In 1928 Monroe handed over the leadership to his cousin, Frederick C. Alderdice, and after losing his seat in the general election that year he retired from politics. He was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1933 and remained there until the Commission of Government was instituted the following year.

Mons, Jean (François) (b. Feb. 25, 1906, Argentat, Corrèze, France - d. May 8, 1989), French resident-general of Tunisia (1947-50).

Monsalve Casado, Ezequiel (b. March 27, 1918, Carúpano, Sucre, Venezuela - d. Sept. 11, 1999), justice minister of Venezuela (1963-64). He was also president of the Supreme Court of Justice (1981-84).

Monsen, (Christian) Fredrik (b. April 27, 1878, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. Jan. 31, 1954, Oslo), defense minister of Norway (1928, 1935-39). He was also president of the Storting (1945-49).

Monsonís Domingo, Enrique (b. June 28, 1931, Burriana, Castellón province, Valencia, Spain - d. Oct. 7, 2011, Burriana), president of the Council of the Valencian Country (1979-82).

Monsuy Mba, Policarpo, Equatorial Guinean politician. He was military commissioner for justice (1979-81), minister of industry and energy (1981-82), water, forestry, and reafforestation (1982-83), and health (1983-86), and ambassador to Cameroon (1986-90) and the Soviet Union/Russia (1990-95?).

Mont-Serrat, Joaquim José Pinheiro de Vasconcellos, barão e visconde de (b. Sept. 4, 1788, Ilha de Santo Antonio, Bahia [now Ilha de Vitória, part of Vitória, Espírito Santo], Brazil - d. Aug. 29, 1884, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Pernambuco (1830-31) and Bahia (1832-34, 1841-44, 1848). He was made baron in 1861 and viscount in 1878.

Montagne Markholz, Ernesto (b. May 3, 1885, Lima, Peru - d. Aug. 27, 1954, Lima), foreign minister (1930-31) and prime minister (1936-39) of Peru. He was also minister of justice, education, and worship (1935) and education (1935-39) and president of the Senate (1939-41).

Montagne Sánchez, Ernesto (b. Aug. 18, 1916, Lima, Peru - d. April 13, 1993), prime minister and war minister of Peru (1968-73); son of Ernesto Montagne Markholz. He was also education minister (1964-65).

Montagné, (Michel) Lucien (b. Jan. 16, 1886, Lézignan-Corbières, Aude, France - d. May 14, 1942), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1933-35) and commissioner of Togo (1936-41).

Montagniès de la Roque, Jean-Baptiste (b. Nov. 7, 1793, Lorient, Morbihan, France - d. March 31, 1862, Lorient), governor of Senegal (1841-42) and commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1845-48).

Montague, Andrew J(ackson) (b. Oct. 3, 1862, near Lynchburg, Va. - d. Jan. 24, 1937, Urbanna, Middlesex county, Va.), governor of Virginia (1902-06).

Montalivet, Jean-Pierre Bachasson, comte de (b. July 5, 1766, Neunkirchen [now Neunkirch, part of Sarreguemines, Moselle], France - d. Jan. 22, 1823, Saint-Bouize, Cher, France), interior minister of France (1809-14). He was also prefect of the départements of Manche (1801-04) and Seine-et-Oise (1804-06).

Montalivet, Marthe Camille Bachasson, comte de (b. April 24, 1801, Valence, Drôme, France - d. Jan. 4, 1880, Saint-Bouize, Cher, France), interior minister of France (1830-31, 1832, 1836, 1837-39); son of Jean-Pierre Bachasson, comte de Montalivet. He was also minister of public instruction and worship (1831-32).

Montalván, Venancio, interior minister (1918-20) and finance minister (1921-23) of Nicaragua.

Montalvo (Berbeo), José Antonio (b. Feb. 22, 1892, Bogotá, Colombia - d. June 5, 1970, Bogotá), foreign minister of Colombia (1962-63). He was also minister of industries (1927-29), justice (1947-48, 1948), and interior (1948) and ambassador to the Vatican (1952-55).

M. Montalvo
Montalvo (Samaniego), (Manuel) Mauricio (b. June 26, 1961, Ambato, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (2021-22). He was also ambassador to Australia (2019-21).

Montaña, Francisco (b. 18... - d. March 5, 1924, Bogotá, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1920). He was also president of the Senate (1916, 1918).

Montanaro, Domingo (b. 1894, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Feb. 8, 1962, Asunción), foreign minister of Paraguay (1948). He was also ambassador to Mexico (1951-53) and minister of industry and commerce (1960-62).

Montanaro (Ciarletti), Sabino Augusto (b. July 30, 1922, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Sept. 10, 2011, Asunción), interior minister of Paraguay (1967-89).

Montandon, Eduardo Augusto (b. Dec. 2, 1835, Araxá, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. 1926, Araxá), president of Goiás (1889).

Montané-Capdebosq, Bernard Laurent (b. Aug. 20, 1862, Pau, France - d. 19...), commissioner of Mauritania (1905-07).

Montaño (y Martínez), Jorge (Mario) (b. Aug. 16, 1945, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-93, 2013-16) and ambassador to the United States (1993-95).

Montbazon, Louis Armand Constantin de Rohan, prince de (b. April 6, 1732, Paris, France - d. [executed] July 24, 1794, Paris), governor-general of Saint-Domingue (1766-69).

Montbel, Guillaume Isidore Baron, comte de (b. July 4, 1787, Toulouse, France - d. Feb. 3, 1861, Frohsdorf [now part of Lanzenkirchen, Niederösterreich], Austria), interior minister (1829-30) and finance minister (1830) of France. He was also mayor of Toulouse (1826-29) and minister of ecclesiastical affairs and public instruction (1829).

Montchamp, (Marie) Henri (Ferdinand Auguste) (b. 1888 - d. 1963), governor of New Caledonia (1942-43).

Monte, Antonio Sabino do (b. July 11, 1846, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil - d. Oct. 19, 1925, Fortaleza, Ceará), president of Paraíba (1884-85).

Monte Alegre, José da Costa Carvalho, barão, visconde e marquês de (b. Feb. 7, 1796, Nossa Senhora da Penha, Bahia, Brazil - d. Sept. 18, 1860, São Paulo province [now state], Brazil), member of the Regency (1831-35) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1849-52) of Brazil. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1828, 1830, 1830-31) and the Senate (1842-43), president of São Paulo (1842), and interior minister (1848-52). He was made baron in 1841, viscount in 1843, and marquess in 1854.

Monte Santo, Luiz José de Oliveira Mendes, barão de (b. June 21, 1779, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. March 21, 1851, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Senate (1847-51). He was made baron in 1846.

Monteagle of Brandon, Thomas Spring Rice, (1st) Baron (b. Feb. 8, 1790, Limerick, Ireland - d. Feb. 7, 1866, Mount Trenchard, County Limerick, Ireland), British secretary of state for war and colonies (1834) and chancellor of the exchequer (1835-39). He was created baron in 1839.

Monteagudo, Bernardo (b. Aug. 20?, 1789, Tucumán, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata [now in Argentina] - d. [assassinated] Jan. 28, 1825, Lima, Peru), war and navy minister (1821) and foreign and interior minister (1821-22) of Peru.

E. Montealegre
Montealegre (Rivas), Eduardo (b. May 9, 1955, Managua, Nicaragua), foreign minister (1998-2000) and finance minister (2002-04) of Nicaragua; great-great-grandson of Mariano Montealegre; grandnephew of Isaac Montealegre Gasteazoro. He was a presidential candidate in 2006.

Montealegre (Fernández), José María (b. March 19, 1815, San José, Costa Rica - d. Sept. 26, 1887, Mission San Jose [now part of Fremont], Calif.), president of Costa Rica (1859-63); brother-in-law of Juan Rafael Mora and Miguel Mora; half-nephew of Mariano Montealegre. He was also president of the Senate (1865-68) and first designate (1867-68).

Montealegre (y Romero), Mariano (Ignacio) (b. April 4, 1802, León, Nicaragua - d. April 20, 1884, Chinandega, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan politician. He was president of the Senate (1865-70). In 1869 he was co-signatory of the Montealegre-Jiménez Treaty with Costa Rica on the diversion of water from the Colorado River.

Montealegre Gasteazoro, Isaac (b. Dec. 23, 1885, Chinandega, Nicaragua - d. June 11, 1975, Chinandega), Nicaraguan politician; grandson of Mariano Montealegre; cousin of Angélica Balladares de Argüello. He was minister of development and public works (1934-35) and agriculture and labour (1948-50).

Monteath, Sir James (b. Sept. 7, 1847, Lockerbie, Scotland - d. April 19, 1929), acting governor of Bombay (1903); knighted 1903.

Montebello, Napoléon Auguste Lannes, duc de (b. July 30, 1801, Paris, France - d. July 18, 1874, Mareuil-sur-Ay, Marne, France), foreign minister of France (1839). He was also minister to Denmark (1833) and Prussia (1833-36), ambassador to Switzerland (1836-38), the Two Sicilies (1838-39, 1840-47), and Russia (1858-64), and minister of marine and colonies (1847-48). He succeeded his father as duc de Montebello in 1809.

Montebourg, Arnaud (b. Oct. 30, 1962, Clamecy, Nièvre, France), French politician. He was minister of industrial revival (2012-14) and economy and information technology (2014). He ran for the Socialist presidential nomination in 2011 and 2017 but both times came third.

Monteforte Toledo, Mario (b. Sept. 15, 1911, Guatemala City, Guatemala - d. Sept. 4, 2003, Guatemala City), vice president of Guatemala (1948-49). A noted writer, he was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1946-47).

António Monteiro

A.M. Monteiro
Monteiro, António (Victor Martins) (b. Jan. 22, 1944, Angola), foreign minister of Portugal (2004-05). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1997-2001) and ambassador to France (2001-04, 2006-09).

Monteiro, António (Manuel) Mascarenhas (Gomes) (b. Feb. 16, 1944, Santa Catarina, Santiago island, Cape Verde [now Cabo Verde] - d. Sept. 16, 2016, Praia, Cabo Verde), president of Cape Verde (1991-2001).

Monteiro, Armindo (Rodrigues de Sttau) (b. Dec. 16, 1896, Vila Velha de Ródão, Portugal - d. Oct. 15, 1955, Loures, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1935-36). He was also minister of colonies (1931-35) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1937-43).

Monteiro, Augusto Carlos de Vasconcellos (b. Oct. 12, 1881, Goianinha, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. March 9, 1919, Belém, Pará, Brazil), prefect of Alto Acre (1915-16, 1917-19).

Monteiro, Bento Manuel Ribeiro Carneiro (b. Sept. 20, 1856, Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Aug. 28, 1921, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), prefect of Distrito Federal (1910-14).

Monteiro, Bernardino de Souza (b. Oct. 6, 1865, Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. May 12, 1930, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1916-20).

Monteiro, César (Resende) do Rego (b. April 17, 1863, União, Piauí, Brazil - d. Nov. 28, 1933, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Amazonas (1921-24).

Monteiro, Domingos Jacy (b. March 13, 1831, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. 1896), president of Amazonas (1876-77).

Monteiro, Edgar de Góes (b. June 7, 1901, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil - d. July 26, 1973, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil), federal interventor in Alagoas (1935, 1945); brother of Pedro Aurélio de Góes Monteiro and Silvestre Péricles de Góis Monteiro; son-in-law of Osman Loureiro de Farias.

Monteiro, Francisco das Chagas Pinto (b. Aug. 3, 1873, Paraíba, Paraíba, Brazil - d. January 1915, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), acting prefect of Alto Acre (1906).

Monteiro, Gerson da Silva, governor of Fernando de Noronha (1986-87).

Monteiro, Honório Fernandes (b. June 25, 1894, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Feb. 2, 1968), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1946-47) and minister of labour, industry, and commerce (1948-50) and justice and interior (acting, 1950).

Monteiro, Ismar de Góes (b. Oct. 27, 1906, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Feb. 21, 1990, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Alagoas (1941-45); brother of Pedro Aurélio de Góes Monteiro, Silvestre Péricles de Góis Monteiro, and Edgar de Góes Monteiro.

Monteiro, Jeronimo de Souza (b. June 4, 1870, Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. Oct. 23, 1933, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1908-12); brother of Bernardino de Souza Monteiro.

Monteiro, José Luís Barbosa Leão (b. Dec. 29, 1950, Praia, Cape Verde [now Cabo Verde]), Cape Verdean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-2001).

Monteiro, José Múcio, Filho (b. Sept. 25, 1948, Recife, Brazil), defense minister of Brazil (2023- ).

Monteiro, Leão (Maria Tavares Rosado) do Sacramento (b. Jan. 13, 1920, Nelas, Viseu district, Portugal - d. Feb. 25, 2006, Parede parish, Cascais municipality [part of Lisbon Metropolitan Area], Portugal), governor of Cape Verde (1963-69).

Monteiro, Pedro Aurélio de Góes (b. Dec. 12, 1889, São Luís do Quitunde, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Oct. 26, 1956, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1934-35, 1945-46).

Monteiro, Pitou de (b. March 18, 1897, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Dec. 7, 1965), Cambodian politician. He was minister of justice (1948, 1951) and national education and youth (1950).

Monteiro, Roberto Leal (Ramos), byname Ngongo, interior minister of Angola (2006-10). He was also ambassador to Russia (1999-2006).

R. Monteiro
Monteiro, Ruth, justice minister (2019-20) and foreign minister (2020) of Guinea-Bissau.

Monteiro, Silvestre Péricles de Góis, original spelling Góes (b. March 30, 1896, São Luís do Quitunde, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Nov. 13, 1972, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Alagoas (1947-51); brother of Pedro Aurélio de Góes Monteiro.

Monteiro, Vitoriano Ribeiro Carneiro (b. April 26, 1859, Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. May 30, 1920, on board the ship Itapuca en route to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1892). He was also Brazilian minister to Uruguay (1893-95).

Monteith, William Neve (b. Dec. 31, 1915 - d. Nov. 10, 2004), British consul-general in Muscat and Oman (1958-60).

Montelibano, Alfredo, (Sr.) (b. Dec. 20, 1905, Silay, Negros Occidental, Philippines - d. Aug. 19, 1989), acting defense secretary (1945-46) and acting interior secretary (1945-46) of the Philippines. He was also mayor of Bacolod (1938-40) and military governor of Negros and Siquijor Islands (1942-45).

Montenegro, Augusto (b. June 26, 1867, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. July 31, 1915, Lausanne, Switzerland), governor of Pará (1901-09).

Montenegro, Eduardo G. (b. Aug. 21, 1928, Lemery, Batangas, Philippines), justice secretary of the Philippines (1992).

Montenegro (Cardoso de Morais Esteves), Luís (Filipe) (b. Feb. 16, 1973, Porto, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (2024- ).

Montenegro, Manoel Januario Bezerra (b. July 23, 1839, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Jan. 21, 1916, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil), acting president of Rio Grande do Norte (1878, 1878-79).

Montenegro (Gómez García), Marcelo (Alejandro) (b. La Paz, Bolivia), finance minister of Bolivia (2020- ).

Montenegro, Severino (Peregrino de Albuquerque) (b. Oct. 12, 1889, Alagoa Grande, Paraíba, Brazil - d. Oct. 19, 1965, João Pessoa, Paraíba), federal interventor in Paraíba (1945-46).

Montenegro Medrano, Orlando (b. May 15, 1922 - d. Oct. 29, 1988, Miami, Fla.), acting president of Nicaragua (1966). He was president of Congress (1965-66, 1968-69) and mayor of Managua (1976-79).

Montenegro Onel, Pedro Nicolás (b. 1872, Los Andes, Chile - d. Nov. 6, 1940, Santiago, Chile), finance minister (1908-09, 1911-12), war and navy minister (1917), and interior minister (1920) of Chile.

Montero (Flores), Lizardo (b. May 27, 1832, Ayabaca, Piura, Peru - d. Feb. 5, 1905, Lima, Peru), first vice president (1881) and acting president (1881-83) of Peru (insurrectionary government). He was also mayor of Lima (1879).

Montero (Cuadrado), María Jesús (b. Feb. 4, 1966, Sevilla, Spain), finance minister (2018- ), a deputy prime minister (2023), and first deputy prime minister (2023- ) of Spain.

Montero (Revette), Rafael (Ángel), defense minister of Venezuela (1994-95).

Montero (Rodríguez), Ramón (b. Sept. 18, 1887, Paredones, Chile - d. 19...), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1926-27).

Montero Bernales, Carlos (b. Nov. 30, 1908, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 2, 1979, Lima), finance minister of Peru (1945-46).

Montero Cornejo, Raúl (b. April 11, 1914, Santiago, Chile - d. April 24, 2000, Viña del Mar, Chile), finance minister of Chile (1973). He was also commander-in-chief of the navy (1970-73).

Montero de Vargas, Pacífico, Paraguayan diplomat. He was permanent delegate to the United Nations (1954-62) and ambassador to Ecuador (1966-73).

Montero Marx, Enrique (b. Feb. 28, 1928, Ovalle, Chile), interior minister of Chile (1982-83).

Montero Ríos, Eugenio (b. Nov. 13, 1832, Santiago de Compostela, Spain - d. May 12, 1914, Madrid, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1905). He was also minister of justice (1870-71, 1871, 1872-73, 1892-93) and development (1885-86).

Montero Rodríguez, Juan Esteban (b. Feb. 12, 1879, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 25, 1948, Santiago), interior minister (1931, 1931) and president (1931 [acting], 1931-32) of Chile.

Montero Schmidt, Carlos (b. Sept. 4, 1916, Santa Cruz, Chile - d. Jan. 24, 1980, Santiago, Chile), interior minister of Chile (1955); nephew of Luis Schmidt Quezada.

Montero Schmidt, Mario (Alejandro) (b. Jan. 28, 1918, Santa Cruz, Chile - d. Jan. 6, 1962, Santiago, Chile), Chilean politician; brother of Carlos Montero Schmidt; nephew of Luis Schmidt Quezada. He was minister of lands and colonization (1954-55).

Montes (Sobrino), (José) Abel (b. 1867? - d. June 4, 1950, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1912-13).

Montes (Alanís), Federico (b. Oct. 2, 1884, San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico - d. Dec. 1, 1950, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (1914, 1915-17) and Guanajuato (1919-20).

Montes (Gamboa), Ismael (b. Oct. 5, 1861, La Paz, Bolivia - d. Nov. 18, 1933, La Paz), president of Bolivia (1904-09, 1913-17). He joined the liberal movement and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies. In the liberal revolution of 1898-99 he joined the party of Col. José Manuel Pando; when Pando became president Montes entered his cabinet as minister of war (1899-1901, 1901-03) and served in the Acre campaign against Brazil. He was chosen president in 1904, and in that year a peace treaty with Chile, officially ending the War of the Pacific, was signed. He then launched a program of wide administrative reforms. He went to England as minister in 1911 but returned to become president once more. He furthered the construction of railroads and the development of mining. Named minister to France in 1917, he lived in exile in that country from 1920 to 1928, when he returned to Bolivia to head the Liberal Party. Energetic and intelligent, he is known in Bolivia as "the great president"; among his achievements were the construction of many primary schools and the enactment of laws on civil marriage and religious tolerance.

Montes, Oscar Antonio (b. March 17, 1924, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Sept. 21, 2012), foreign minister of Argentina (1977-78).

Montes de Oca (Rodríguez Palavecino), Manuel Augusto (b. Dec. 15, 1831, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Dec. 2, 1882, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1878-79).

Montes de Oca (Varela), Manuel Augusto (b. June 26, 1867, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Jan. 27, 1934, Buenos Aires), foreign minister (1906) and interior minister (1906-07) of Argentina; nephew of the above.

Montes de Oca (Escalona), Rafael Andrés, byname Pepi Montes de Oca (b. June 18, 1930, Barquisimeto, Lara, Venezuela - d. April 19, 2012, Barquisimeto), governor of Lara (1969-74) and interior minister of Venezuela (1979-82).

Montesinos (Torres), Vladimiro (Lenin) (b. May 20, 1945, Arequipa, Peru), Peruvian secret services chief. In the 1970s, as an army captain, he was imprisoned for allegedly passing documents to the United States about Peru's pro-Soviet military junta. In the mid-1980s, he joined the National Intelligence Service (SIN). He rose rapidly and seized his chance for political power in 1990, when he won Pres. Alberto Fujimori's confidence by helping him fend off unproven allegations of tax dodging. Officially an adviser to Fujimori, Montesinos was seen as untouchable and above the law because of his closeness to the president. He was the most talked-about man in Peru after Fujimori and was consistently rated as the most unpopular. Depicted by his enemies as one of the blackest and most Machiavellian figures in Latin American history, he emerged from the shadows to hold his first news conference only in August 2000, appearing at Fujimori's side. It was this man who had just been shown in a video, broadcast on Peruvian television, engaged in what opposition parties said was vote buying. Until then, Montesinos' critics had failed to make much stick, but the video was a huge embarrassment. The web of corruption began to be revealed in September 2000, when some 700 videos were seized from Montesinos' apartment, showing him taking rolls of cash out of his pocket during meetings at which he apparently bribed judges, politicians, and other prominent Peruvians. The revelations led to Fujimori's downfall; Montesinos fled to Panama on September 24, but after his application for asylum there was suspended he returned to Peru in late October; an arrest warrant was issued on November 6, but he left the country again. He was finally captured in Caracas, Venezuela, on June 23, 2001. He was subsequently sentenced to 9 years in prison for illegally taking control of Peru's intelligence agency (2002), 5 years for corruption (2003), and 20 years for his involvement in an illegal arms sale (2006).

Montesquiou-Fezensac, François Xavier (Marc Antoine), duc de (b. Aug. 13, 1756, Marsan [now in Gers département], France - d. Feb. 5, 1832, Cirey-sur-Blaise, Haute-Marne, France), interior minister of France (1814-15). He was also president of the National Assembly (1790, 1790). He was created comte (count) in 1817 and duc (duke) in 1821.

Montgelas (de Garnerin), Maximilian (Joseph) Graf von (b. Sept. 10, 1759, Munich, Bavaria [Germany] - d. June 14, 1838, Munich), minister of state (1799-1817), finance minister (1803-17), and interior minister (1807-17) of Bavaria.

Montgomery, Gustaf (Adolf) (b. May 24, 1791, Kemi, Finland - d. May 26, 1861, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Jämtland (1841-42) and Västerbotten (1842-56).

Montgomery, Sir Robert (b. Dec. 2, 1809, Moville, County Donegal, Ireland - d. Dec. 28, 1887, London, England), chief commissioner of Oudh (1858-59) and lieutenant governor of Punjab (1859-65); knighted 1859.

Montgomery of A.
Montgomery of Alamein (of Hindhead in the County of Surrey), Bernard Law Montgomery, (1st) Viscount, byname Monty (b. Nov. 17, 1887, London, England - d. March 24, 1976, near Alton, Hampshire, England), British field marshal. He distinguished himself during World War I and commanded a division in Palestine and Transjordan in 1938-39. Early in World War II he led a division in France; after the evacuation of Allied troops at Dunkirk in 1940 he commanded the southeastern section of England in defense against a possible German invasion. In August 1942, he was appointed commander of the British 8th Army in North Africa, which had been driven back to Egypt by Gen. Erwin Rommel. He contained the German offensive and forced Rommel to retreat from Egypt after the Battle of el-Alamein (November 1942), then pursued the German armies across North Africa to their final surrender in Tunisia (May 1943). In November 1942 he was first knighted (K.C.B.) and promoted to full general. Still leading the 8th Army, he shared major responsibility in the successful Allied landing in Sicily (July 1943) and led his troops up the east coast of Italy (September). Under the command of Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, he directed the land operations in the Normandy invasion (June 1944). He was made a field marshal in September 1944. Leading the British and Canadian 21st Army Group through northern France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and northern Germany, he finally received the surrender of the German northern armies on May 4, 1945, on Lüneburg Heath. He was made a knight of the garter and was created a viscount in 1946. He commanded the British Army of the Rhine and served as chief of the Imperial General Staff (1946-48) and became chairman of the permanent defense organization of the Western European Union (1948-51) and deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe for NATO (1951-58).

M. Monti
Monti, Mario (b. March 19, 1943, Varese, Italy), prime minister (2011-13) and economy and finance minister (2011-12) of Italy. He was also EU commissioner for internal market, financial services, customs, and taxation (1995-99) and competition (1999-2004).

Monti Forno, Enrique (b. Feb. 24, 1905, Talca, Chile - d. ...), justice minister of Chile (1953). He was also minister of labour (1953).

Montiel (Argüello), Alejandro (b. March 13, 1917, Granada, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 17, 2012), foreign minister of Nicaragua (1956-61, 1972-77); great-grandson of José Argüello Arce; nephew of Mariano Argüello Vargas; cousin of Alejandro Argüello Montiel. He was also ambassador to Panama (1948-50) and France and the United Kingdom (1961-62) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-79).

Montiel (Bermúdez), Gustavo (b. Jan. 19, 1914, Juigalpa, Nicaragua), finance minister of Nicaragua (1967-77).

S. Montiel

Montilla A.
Montiel, Sergio (Alberto) (b. Oct. 20, 1927, Concepción del Uruguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina - d. Nov. 1, 2011, Paraná, Entre Ríos), governor of Entre Ríos (1983-87, 1999-2003).

Montiel Morales, Luis Eduardo (b. Dec. 31, 1949, Managua, Nicaragua), finance minister of Nicaragua (2004-05); nephew of Alejandro Montiel.

Montilla, Gil (Miranda) (b. Sept. 11, 1876, Hinigaran, Negros Occidental, Philippines - d. July 20, 1946, Bacolod, Negros Occidental), Philippine politician. He was governor of Negros Occidental (1922-25) and speaker of the National Assembly (1935-38).

Montilla (Betancourt), José Abel (b. Feb. 2, 1890, San Cristóbal, Táchira, Venezuela - d. Jan. 4, 1979, Caracas, Venezuela), president of Táchira (1938-41). He was also Venezuelan chargé d'affaires in Belgium (1923-25), minister to Brazil (1925-29), Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Finland (1929-31), Ecuador and Panama (1931-34), Mexico (1934-38), and Peru (1941-43), and ambassador to Chile (1943-45), Mexico (1945-46), and Cuba (1958-59).

Montilla Aguilera, José (b. Jan. 15, 1955, Iznájar, Córdoba province, Andalucía, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (2006-10).

Montinola, Aurelio (B.) (b. April 14, 1894, Iloilo province, Philippines - d. 1985, Iloilo City, Philippines), finance secretary of the Philippines (1952-53).

Montmorency-Laval, Anne Pierre Adrien, duc de (b. Oct. 29, 1768, Paris, France - d. June 8, 1837, Paris), foreign minister of France (1829); cousin of Mathieu Jean Félicité, duc de Montmorency-Laval. He was also ambassador to Spain (1814-21), the Papal State (1821-28), Austria (1828-29), and the United Kingdom (1829-30).

Montmorency-Laval, Mathieu Jean Félicité, duc de (b. July 10, 1767, Paris, France - d. March 24, 1826, Paris), foreign minister of France (1821-22). He was raised from vicomte to duc in 1822.

Montmorin Saint-Hérem, Armand Marc, comte de (b. Oct. 13, 1746, Paris, France - d. [killed] Sept. 2, 1792, Paris), foreign minister of France (1787-89, 1789-91). He was also ambassador to Spain (1778-84) and minister of marine and colonies (1787).

Montolío (Moscoso), Andrés Julio (b. 1821 - d. 1911), member of the Council of Secretaries of State of the Dominican Republic (1905).

Montoro, André Franco (b. July 14, 1916, São Paulo, Brazil - d. July 16, 1999, São Paulo), governor of São Paulo (1983-87). He was also Brazilian minister of labour and social security (1961-62).

Montoro (Romero), Cristóbal (Ricardo) (b. July 28, 1950, Jaén, Spain), finance minister of Spain (2000-04, 2011-18).

Montoya (Pérez), Jorge (Eduardo) (b. Aug. 1, 1961, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (2020).

Montoya (Caballero), Miguel (b. 1850, Cartago, Cauca, New Granada [now in Valle del Cauca, Colombia] - d. Feb. 7, 1907, Buga, Cauca [now in Valle del Cauca], Colombia), civil and military chief of Panamá (1885-86) and war and navy minister of Colombia (1887-88).

Montoya Manfredi, (José) Ulises (b. Nov. 15, 1909, Chincha, Ica, Peru - d. July 6, 1994, Lima, Peru), justice minister of Peru (1958-59).

Montpezat, Jean (b. July 15, 1937, Pierrefitte-Nestalas village, Hautes-Pyrénées, France), high commissioner of New Caledonia (1986-87) and French Polynesia (1987-92).

Montt (Álvarez), Jorge (b. April 26, 1846, Casablanca, Chile - d. Oct. 8, 1922, Santiago, Chile), president of Chile (1891-96). A distant relative of Manuel and Pedro Montt, he was a leader in the ruinous civil war against Pres. José Manuel Balmaceda. He commanded both the sea and land forces of the insurrectionists and, after the cessation of hostilities, headed a provisional junta and then became president. An honest but undistinguished administrator, he was only superficially involved with the program of fiscal and political reforms instituted during his presidency.

M. Montt
Montt (Torres), Manuel (Francisco Antonio Julián) (b. Sept. 8, 1809, Petorca, Chile - d. Sept. 20, 1880, Santiago, Chile), president of Chile (1851-61). He was elected to the Chilean Congress in 1840 and served as minister of the interior and foreign relations (1840-41, 1845-46), justice and public instruction (1841-45), and war and marine (acting, 1840-42). When he won the presidency in 1851, the liberals thought his election was fraudulent and instigated an armed revolt, but it was quickly subdued. He was reelected in 1856. He was ably assisted by his minister of the interior Antonio Varas, and it was from the union of the two statesmen that the ultra-conservative faction, the Montt-Varistas, took their name. While authoritarian and inflexible in his beliefs, he also worked for the economic and social progress of his nation. He asserted the state's right of patronage in Chile's Roman Catholic church and supported the abolition of restrictions on the sale or bequeathing of landed estates. His administration was remembered for its advances in technology, commerce and banking, the codification of Chilean laws, the promotion of public education and immigration, and the colonization of the area south of the Bío-Bío River. When Montt indicated a preference for Varas to be his successor, liberals again staged an armed uprising (1859). Montt again put down the revolt but he shifted his support to José Joaquín Pérez, a moderate. On giving up the presidency in 1861, Montt became president of the Supreme Court of Justice, a post he held at the time of his death. The city of Puerto Montt was named after him.

P. Montt
Montt (Montt), Pedro (Elías Pablo) (b. June 29, 1849, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 16, 1910, Bremen, Germany), president of Chile (1906-10); son of Manuel Montt. He was elected a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 and was its president in 1885-86, 1898-99, and 1899-1900. In the cabinet of Pres. José Manuel Balmaceda, he became minister of justice and public instruction in 1886, of public works in 1887, and of finance in 1889. Later he figured in the parliamentary opposition to Balmaceda and in 1891 took an active part in the revolution that overthrew him. He then went to the United States, first as an agent of the revolutionary junta and (from October 1891) as minister from Chile. On his return he became interior minister (1893-94). In 1901 he was unsuccessful as the Conservative candidate for the presidency, but in 1906 he was elected by a large majority as the candidate of the National Union ticket. His administration supported the construction of a railway running the length of the country, stimulated the production of nitrates and copper, and helped prevent armed conflict between Chile and Argentina. It did little, however, to improve the living conditions of the people; in 1907 he called out the army to suppress large-scale strikes. In September 1909 his policy of currency reform was defeated in parliament. Worn out by his struggle with the obdurate Congress, he wanted to resign, but the Congress indicated it would not accept a resignation. In 1910 Montt left Chile to spend some time in a sanitarium in Bad Nauheim, Germany, but he died on the day of his arrival in that country.

Montt Montt, Benjamín (b. 1855, Santiago, Chile - d. April 2, 1922), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1911-12); son of Manuel Montt; brother of Pedro Montt.

Montt Montt, Lorenzo (b. Dec. 6, 1866, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 6, 1930, Santiago), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1920); grandson of Manuel Montt; nephew of Benjamín Montt Montt.

Monyake, Lengolo B(ureng) (b. April 1, 1930, Thabana Morena, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Oct. 3?, 2018), foreign minister of Lesotho (1986-88). He was also ambassador to Belgium (1979-84) and minister of works (1988-90).

Monyane, Nkopane Raseeng (b. April 18, 1951), Lesotho diplomat. He was ambassador to Switzerland (2013-16) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2019-23).

Monzie, Anatole (Pierre Armand) de (b. Nov. 22, 1876, Bazas, Gironde, France - d. Jan. 11, 1947, Paris, France), finance minister of France (1925, 1926). He was also minister of education (1925, 1932-34), justice (1925), and public works (1925-26, 1938-40).

Monzón, Agapito Feliciano, finance minister of Bolivia (1979).

Monzón (Aguirre), Élfego H(ernán) (b. May 5, 1912, Santa Barbara, Huehuetenango department, Guatemala - d. 1981), interior minister (1950, 1954) and junta chairman (1954) of Guatemala.

Moodie, Thomas H(enry) (b. May 26, 1878, Winona, Minn. - d. March 3, 1948, Spokane, Wash.), governor of North Dakota (1935).

Moody, Dan(iel James, Jr.) (b. June 1, 1893, Taylor, Texas - d. May 22, 1966, Austin, Texas), governor of Texas (1927-31).

Moody, Sydney (b. 1889 - d. June 5, 1979), acting governor of Mauritius (1940, 1942, 1945-46, 1947-48). He was colonial secretary (1939-48).

Moody, William H(enry) (b. Dec. 23, 1853, Newbury, Mass. - d. July 2, 1917, Haverhill, Mass.), U.S. secretary of the navy (1902-04) and attorney general (1904-06).

Moody, Zenas F(erry) (b. May 27, 1832, Granby, Mass. - d. March 14, 1917, Salem, Ore.), governor of Oregon (1882-87).

Mookerjee, Chittatosh (b. Jan. 1, 1929), acting governor of Maharashtra (1987-88). He was chief justice of the Calcutta High Court (1986-87) and the Bombay High Court (1987-91).

Mookerjee, Harendra Coomar (b. Oct. 3, 1877, Calcutta [now Kolkata], India - d. Aug. 7, 1956, Calcutta), governor of West Bengal (1951-56).

Moollan, Sir Cassam (Ismael) (b. Feb. 26, 1927 - d. Nov. 15, 2010), acting governor-general of Mauritius (1985-86); knighted 1982. He was chief justice in 1982-88.

Moon, Sir E(dward) P(enderel) (b. Nov. 13, 1905, London, England - d. June 2, 1987, Wotton Underwood, Buckinghamshire, England), chief commissioner of Himachal Pradesh (1948-51) and Manipur (1951-52); knighted 1962.

Moon Duk Choo (b. Nov. 29, 1920 - d. 1990), South Korean diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium (1966-70) and Italy (1970-74) and permanent observer to the United Nations (1976-79).

Moon Jae In
Moon Jae In (b. Jan. 24, 1953, Koje, South Kyongsang province, South Korea), president of South Korea (2017-22). He was also presidential chief of staff (2007-08) and leader of the New Politics Alliance for Democracy (2015-16). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2012.

Moonesinghe, Susil (Kumar), also spelled Munasinghe (b. Feb. 11, 1930 - d. Nov. 30, 2012, Kandy, Sri Lanka), chief minister of Western province, Sri Lanka (1988-93). He was also ambassador to Iran (2000-02).

Moonlight, Thomas (b. Nov. 10, 1833, near Arbroath, Forfarshire [now Angus], Scotland - d. Feb 7, 1899, Leavenworth, Kan.), governor of Wyoming (1887-89). He was also U.S. minister to Bolivia (1894-98).

Aleksandr Moor
Moor, Aleksandr (Viktorovich) (b. Jan. 6, 1974, Bereznyaki, Tyumen oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Tyumen oblast (2018- ). He was also mayor of Tyumen (2011-18).

Moor, Alexander, Russian Aleksandr (Fyodorovich) Moor (b. Jan. 19 [Jan. 7, O.S.], 1889, Fridenberg, Saratov province, Russia - d. [executed] Oct. 7, 1938, Tashkent, Uzbek S.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of the Volga German Workers' Commune (1921-22). He was also deputy premier (1926-27) and chairman of the State Planning Commission (1934-37) of the Uzbek S.S.R.

Moor, Sir Frederick Robert (b. May 12, 1853, Pietermaritzburg, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa] - d. March 18, 1927, Estcourt, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), prime minister of Natal (1906-10); knighted 1911.

Moor, Sir Ralph Denham Rayment (b. July 31, 1860, Furneux Pelham, near Buntingford, Hertfordshire, England - d. Sept. 13, 1909, Barnes, Middlesex [now part of London], England), commissioner of the Niger Coast Protectorate (1896-1900) and high commissioner of Southern Nigeria (1900-03); knighted 1897.

Moore, A(rthur) Harry (b. July 3, 1879, Jersey City, N.J. - d. Nov. 18, 1952, Branchburg Township, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1926-29, 1932-35, 1938-41).

Moore, Andrew B(arry) (b. March 7, 1807, Spartanburg county, S.C. - d. April 5, 1873, Marion, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1857-61).

Moore, Arch A(lfred), Jr. (b. April 16, 1923, Moundsville, W.V. - d. Jan. 7, 2015, Charleston, W.V.), governor of West Virginia (1969-77, 1985-89).

Moore, Charles C(alvin) (b. Feb. 26, 1866, Holt county, Mo. - d. March 19, 1958, St. Anthony, Idaho), governor of Idaho (1923-27).

Moore, Dan K(illian) (b. April 2, 1906, Asheville, N.C. - d. Sept. 7, 1986, Durham, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1965-69).

Moore, Gabriel (b. 1785, Stokes county, N.C. - d. Aug. 6, 1844, near Port Caddo, Harrison county, Texas), governor of Alabama (1829-31).

Moore, Sir Henry Monck-Mason (b. March 16, 1887, Wimbledon, Surrey [now part of London], England - d. March 26, 1964, Cape Town, South Africa), governor of Kenya (1930-31 [acting], 1940-44) and Sierra Leone (1934-37) and governor (1944-48) and governor-general (1948-49) of Ceylon; knighted 1935.

Moore, James E(lijah) (b. 1847 - d. May 18, 1881), secretary of state of Liberia (1874-76).

Moore, John (Colinton) (b. Nov. 16, 1936, Rockhampton, Qld.), defence minister of Australia (1998-2001). He was also minister of business and consumer affairs (1980-82) and industry, science, and tourism (1996-98).

Moore, Sir John (b. Nov. 13, 1761, Glasgow, Scotland - d. 1809), governor of Saint Lucia (1796-97).

Moore, John I(saac) (b. Feb. 7, 1856, near Oxford, Miss. - d. March 18, 1937, Helena, Ark.), acting governor of Arkansas (1907).

K. Moore
Moore, Kristina (Louise) (b. 1975?), chief minister of Jersey (2022-24).

Moore, Sir Lee (Llewellyn) (b. Feb. 15, 1939, St. Kitts - d. May 6, 2000, New York City), premier of St. Kitts and Nevis (1979-80). In 1967 he became public relations officer to Premier Robert L. Bradshaw. From 1971 to 1984, he was the parliamentary representative for Constituency 4, which was then Old Road to Sandy Point, East. During this period he served as attorney general in the administrations of Premiers Bradshaw and Paul Southwell. When Southwell died in 1979, Lee succeeded him as premier (until 1980). Lee was president of the St. Kitts-Nevis Trades and Labour Union from 1978 to his death and political leader of the St. Kitts-Nevis Labour Party from 1979 to 1989. He was his country's ambassador to the United Nations since 1995. He was knighted (K.C.M.G.) in January 2000.

Moore, Marshall F(rank) (b. Feb. 12, 1829, Binghamton, N.Y. - d. Feb. 26, 1870, Olympia, Wash.), governor of Washington (1867-69).

Moore, Maurice Elijah (b. June 19, 1939, Pinder's Point, Grand Bahama, Bahamas), Bahamian politician. He was minister of labour, human resources, and training (1994-95) and social development (1995-97) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1997-2000).

M. Moore
Moore, Mike, byname of Michael Kenneth Moore (b. Jan. 28, 1949, Whakatane, N.Z. - d. Feb. 2, 2020, Auckland, N.Z.), prime minister of New Zealand (1990). He entered parliament in 1972 as the youngest member ever elected. He lost his Auckland seat (Eden) in 1975, but won the Christchurch seat of Papanui in 1978. From 1984 he held various posts in the Labour government, including minister of overseas trade and marketing, tourism, recreation, and sport (1984-88), minister for the America's Cup (1988-89), and minister of external relations and trade (1988-90). When Prime Minister David Lange resigned in 1989, Moore stood for the leadership but lost to Geoffrey Palmer. From January to October 1990 he was minister of foreign affairs. When Palmer resigned in September 1990, Moore won the post, but his term as head of government lasted only eight weeks, until the general elections of October 27 were won by the National Party. He became leader of the opposition but was replaced by Helen Clark shortly after he failed to return Labour to power in the 1993 election. In 1996-99 he was opposition spokesperson on foreign affairs and overseas trade. In 1999 he left parliament and was awarded the country's highest honour, the Order of New Zealand. He became director-general of the World Trade Organization (1999-2002) and ambassador to the United States (2010-15).

Moore, Miles C(onway) (b. April 17, 1845, Rix Mills, Ohio - d. Dec. 18, 1920, Walla Walla, Wash.), governor of Washington (1889).

Moore, Roderick W(emple) (b. 1965, East Greenwich, R.I.), international supervisor of Brcko (2010-13). He was U.S. ambassador to Montenegro in 2007-10.

Moore, Samuel B. (b. 1789, Davidson county, N.C. [in present Franklin county, Tenn.] - d. Nov. 7, 1846, Carrollton, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1831).

Moore, Thomas O(verton) (b. April 10, 1804, Sampson county, N.C. - d. June 25, 1876, "Enfield" plantation, near Alexandria, La.), governor of Louisiana (1860-64).

Wes Moore
Moore, Wes(tley Watende Omari) (b. Oct. 15, 1978, Takoma Park, Md.), governor of Maryland (2023- ).

Moore, William (b. 1735?, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - d. July 24, 1793), president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania (1781-82).

Moore-Jones, Rob(ert Carey), high commissioner of the Cook Islands (1998-2001). He was also New Zealand ambassador to the Philippines (2004-06), Spain (2008-12), and the Vatican (2009-11).

Moorer, Thomas H(inman) (b. Feb. 9, 1912, Mount Willing, Ala. - d. Feb. 5, 2004, Bethesda, Md.), chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (1970-74). He joined one of the early generations of naval aviators, flying fighters off of the first American carriers. He was stationed at Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack on Dec. 7, 1941. The following February, he was flying a PBY patrol plane over the water north of Darwin, Australia, when he was attacked by Japanese aircraft. He and his co-pilot landed the plane in the water and were rescued by a ship. That ship was attacked and sunk later that day. He received a Silver Star for gallantry throughout the ordeal. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson selected him to be chief of naval operations, the service's top officer, in 1967. He was reappointed by Pres. Richard Nixon in 1969. Nixon also nominated him to be chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff the following year. During the next few years, he supervised the U.S. troop withdrawal from South Vietnam. After he retired in 1974, he appeared frequently in the news media to comment on various issues. In 1998, CNN cited him as confirming the American use of sarin, a nerve agent, in a mission to hunt down U.S. defectors in Laos during the Vietnam War. But he soon said he had simply heard of unconfirmed stories about it and had no independent knowledge. The network later retracted the story and reached a settlement with Moorer. He also accused Israel of deliberately attacking the USS Liberty, an American spy ship monitoring the 1967 Six-Day War. Israel said it was an error.

Moores, Frank D(uff) (b. Feb. 18, 1933, Carbonear, Newfoundland [now Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada] - d. July 10, 2005, Perth, Ont.), premier of Newfoundland (1972-79). He served as a Conservative MP from 1968 until he left to take over the provincial party in 1970. In 1971 he beat Liberal Joey Smallwood, Newfoundland's first premier, in a famous election that ended in a tie in the number of seats, although the Conservatives won the popular vote. Smallwood asked for recounts, but eventually, a court decision gave the Tories the election. As premier, Moores supported initiatives designed to extend control over offshore resources, including fish and oil. After leaving provincial politics, he became a lobbyist and, in 1983, organized Brian Mulroney's victory in the contest to lead the federal Conservatives.

Mooring, Sir (Arthur) George (Rixson) (b. Nov. 23, 1908 - d. Jan. 13, 1969), resident of Zanzibar (1959-63); knighted 1958.


Moos, Ludwig von (b. Jan. 31, 1910 - d. Nov. 26, 1990), Landammann of Obwalden (1953-54, 1955-56, 1957-58, 1959-60) and justice minister (1960-71) and president (1964, 1969) of Switzerland.

Mooshahary, Ranjit Shekhar (b. March 1, 1946, Odlaguri village, Assam, India), governor of Meghalaya (2008-13).

Moqbel Osmani, Zarar Ahmad (b. 1963, Khwaja Sayaran village, Parwan province, Afghanistan), interior minister (2005-08) and foreign minister (2013-14) of Afghanistan. He was also governor of Parwan (2004-05) and minister of counter-narcotics (2010-13).

Mora, António Damas (b. May 2, 1879, Rio de Moinhos, Abrantes, Portugal - d. June 5, 1949, Lisbon, Portugal), acting governor-general of Angola (1928-29).

Mora (Zevallos), Daniel (Emiliano) (b. 1945?), defense minister of Peru (2011). He was also director of the National Intelligence Council (2003-04).

Mora (Porras), Juan Rafael (b. Feb. 8, 1814, San José, Costa Rica - d. [executed] Sept. 30, 1860, Puntarenas, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1849-59).

Mora (Porras), (José) Miguel (b. Sept. 29, 1816, San José, Costa Rica - d. 1887, San José), acting president of Costa Rica (1849); brother of Juan Rafael Mora.

Mora (Rodas), Nelson (Alcides), interior minister of Paraguay (2004-05).

Mora Martínez, Manuel R(afael) (b. June 1, 1917, Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico - d. March 14, 1994), governor of Tabasco (1965-70).

Mora Miranda, Marcial (b. Jan. 12, 1895, Cobquecura, Chillán, Chile - d. May 13, 1972, Santiago, Chile), interior minister (1931-32), foreign minister (1940), and finance minister (1940-41) of Chile. He was also ambassador to the United States (1944-46).

Mora Otero
Mora Otero, José A(ntonio) (b. Nov. 22, 1897, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Jan. 26, 1975, Montevideo), secretary-general of the Organization of American States (1956-68) and foreign minister of Uruguay (1971-72). He was Uruguayan minister to Bolivia (1942-44) and minister (1946-51) and ambassador (1951-56) to the United States.

Mora Pineda, (José) Tomás (Segundo) (b. Sept. 29, 1895, Concepción, Chile - d. Nov. 14, 1943, Concepción), justice minister of Chile (1941-42).

Mora Rostrán, José Antonio (b. Feb. 25, 1930), interior minister of Nicaragua (1974-79). He was also education minister (1969-74).

Mora Sotomayor, (Luis) Gaspar (b. June 25, 1892, Parral, Chile - d. April 4, 1954, Montevideo, Uruguay), war and marine minister of Chile (1924). He was also minister of lands and colonization (1932), minister to Colombia (1933-36), El Salvador and Honduras (1936-42), and Guatemala (1938-42), and ambassador to Uruguay (1953-54).

Mora Valverde, Manuel (b. Aug. 27, 1909, San José, Costa Rica - d. Dec. 29, 1994, San José), Costa Rican presidential candidate (1940, 1974). He was a founder of the Costa Rican Communist Party in 1931, which in 1943 he renamed Popular Vanguard Party; he was its general secretary from 1934 to 1984, when he and his followers broke away to found the Costa Rican People's Party, which he led until 1988.

Moracchini, Delphino, or Dauphin Moracchini (b. Jan. 9, 1846, San-Lorenzo, Corse, France - d. Dec. 10, 1903, San-Lorenzo), acting governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1885-86) and governor of New Caledonia (1888), Martinique (1890-95), and Guadeloupe (1895-1901).

Moraczewski, Jedrzej (Edward) (b. Jan. 13, 1870, Trzemeszno [Tremessen], Germany [now in Poland] - d. [accidentally killed] Aug. 5, 1944, Sulejówek, Poland), prime minister of Poland (1918-19). He was also minister of communications (1918) and public works (1925-26, 1926-29).

Moraes, Alexandre de (b. Dec. 13, 1968, São Paulo, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (2016-17).

Moraes, Domingos Corrêa de (b. May 12, 1851, Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Dec. 15, 1917, São Paulo, Brazil), president of São Paulo (1902); grandnephew of Joaquim José de Moraes e Abreu.

Moraes, João Maria de (d. Feb. 5, 1874), acting president of Pará (1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1850, 1855, 1864).

Moraes, João Pedro Carvalho de (b. May 28, 1831, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Nov. 14, 1878, Rio de Janeiro), president of Rio Grande do Sul (1872-75) and Pernambuco (1875-76).

Moraes, Joaquim de Almeida Leite (b. May 10, 1834, Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Aug. 1, 1895, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Goiás (1881).

Moraes, José (b. July 1927, Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. March 9, 1994, Vitória, Espírito Santo), acting governor of Espírito Santo (1986-87).

Moraes, José Manuel de (d. April 1848, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1831, 1831).

Moraes, José Pereira da Silva (b. 1818?, Bahia province [now state], Brazil - d. May 2, 1883), president of Sergipe (1866-67).

Moraes, Luiz Mendes de (b. July 13, 1850, Itu, São Paulo, Brazil - d. June 20, 1914, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1890-91) and war minister of Brazil (1908-09; acting for Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca to 1909).

Moraes, Miguel Lino de (b. 1781, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 25, 1835, Porto Alegre, Brazil), president of Goiás (1827-31).

Moraes (Jardim), Theodoro Rodrigues de (b. Nov. 9, 1816, Jaraguá, Goiás, Brazil - d. June 12, 1897, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Goiás (1878, 1879, 1880-81, 1881-82, 1882-83).

Moraes, Vicente de Magalhães (b. July 19, 1926, Paraíba [now João Pessoa], Paraíba, Brazil - d. June 10, 2002), governor of Roraima (1983).

Moragas Sánchez, Jorge (b. June 21, 1965, Barcelona, Spain), Spanish diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-18) and ambassador to the Philippines (2018-22) and Tanzania (2022- ).

Morain, (Benoît) Alfred (b. Dec. 3, 1864, Charolles, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. Dec. 24, 1938, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1924-27). He was also prefect of the départements of Indre (1907-10), Haute-Vienne (1910-13), Seine-Inférieure (1915-18), Somme (1918-22), and Nord (1922-24).

Morais, Alfredo Lopes de (b. Nov. 23, 1880, Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil - d. June 16, 1954, Morrinhos), president of Goiás (1929-30).

Morais, Ângelo Mendes de (b. Dec. 17, 1894, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Jan. 17, 1990, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Fernando de Noronha (1943) and prefect of Distrito Federal (1947-51); grandnephew of Prudente José de Moraes Barros; brother-in-law of Filipe Moreira Lima.

Morais, Efraim de Araújo (b. Sept. 4, 1952, Santa Luzia, Paraíba, Brazil), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (2002-03).

Morais, Jaime Alberto de Castro (b. July 13, 1882, Chacim, Bragança, Portugal - d. Dec. 20, 1973, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor-general of Angola (1917-18) and Portuguese India (1919-25).

Morais, José Pedro de (b. Dec. 20, 1955, Kuito, Angola), finance minister of Angola (2002-08). He was also minister of planning and economic coordination (1994-96) and governor of the central bank (2015-16).

Morais, Júlio César Freire de (b. April 5, 1959), Cabo Verdean diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Russia (1994-97), ambassador to China (2005-15) and Japan (2012-15), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2021-23). He was appointed ambassador to Angola in 2023.

Moraitinis, Aristidis (b. 1806, Smyrna, Ottoman Empire [now Izmir, Turkey] - d. 1875, Athens, Greece), acting president of the Provisional Government (1863) and prime minister (1868) of Greece. He was also minister of justice (1868) and foreign affairs (provisional, 1868) and president of the Vouli (1863, 1863).

Morales (Hernández), (Pedro) Agustín (b. May 11, 1808, La Paz, Viceroyalty of La Plata [now in Bolivia] - d. [assassinated] Nov. 27, 1872, La Paz), president of Bolivia (1871-72).

Morales (Mazún), Ana Isabel (b. Feb. 20, 1956, Managua, Nicaragua), interior minister of Nicaragua (2007-17); niece of Jaime Morales. A former Sandinista guerrilla known as Comandante Lucía, she is recognized as the only survivor of the Massacre of Veracruz that took place in the city of León on April 16, 1979.

Morales (Fernández), Carlos (b. Dec. 24, 1887, Zaraza, Guárico, Venezuela - d. March 11, 1971), foreign minister of Venezuela (1945-47).

Morales (Languasco), Carlos Felipe (b. Aug. 23, 1867, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic - d. March 1, 1914, Paris, France), president of the Dominican Republic (1903-06). He was also governor of Puerto Plata (1902-03).

C.R. Morales
Morales (Moscoso), Carlos Raúl (b. Oct. 7, 1970, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (2014-17).

Morales, Eusebio A., Panamanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1952-54) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1964-69).

Evo Morales
Morales (Ayma), (Juan) Evo (b. Oct. 26, 1959, Isallavi, Oruro department, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (2006-19). Born in poverty, his political career began in 1981 when he was appointed secretary of sports in the coca-grower union of San Francisco in the Chapare region. From there he rose through the union ranks and, in 1992, was elected to the presidency of the six coca union federations of the Chapare. The government was suppressing coca production with assistance from the United States. Having founded a political party, the Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), he was voted as a deputy to the Bolivian Congress in 1997 and became a constant thorn in the side of successive governments more prepared to pander to the U.S. than he was. In 2002, he was thrown out of Congress amid allegations that he had participated in the murders of three police officers during civil strife over coca production. A popular uprising prevented him from being imprisoned and the charges are widely considered to have been trumped up with the collusion of the U.S. As the MAS presidential candidate in 2002, he narrowly lost to Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada. Street protests over the control of energy reserves forced Sánchez to resign in 2003, as well as his successor Carlos Mesa in 2005. In the 2005 election, Morales won easily, becoming the first presidential candidate since 1982 to win a majority of the popular vote. An Aymara Indian, he became the country's first indigenous president. In May 2006 he delighted his supporters but sent shockwaves through the energy world when he put the energy industry under state control. In June 2006, he claimed victory in elections for a new assembly which was to rewrite the constitution. With the new charter, approved by the assembly in December 2007, he sought to dismantle large landholdings and strengthen indigenous rights, alarming the wealthier eastern provinces. The new constitution, which also allowed him to seek reelection, was approved in a referendum in January 2009 and enacted in February. He was easily reelected in December 2009 and again in October 2014. The October 2019 election was marred by irregularities, leading to protests; in November he had to resign under military pressure and was granted asylum by Mexico. He moved to Argentina in December. In November 2020 he returned to Bolivia after elections returned MAS to power under Pres. Luis Arce.

Morales (Carazo), Jaime (René) (b. Sept. 10, 1936, Granada, Nicaragua), vice president of Nicaragua (2007-12).

Jimmy Morales
Morales, Jimmy, name legally changed in 2011 from James Ernesto Morales Cabrera (b. March 18, 1969, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (2016-20); brother of Samuel Morales. He was a comic actor with no prior political experience when he became the presidential candidate of the conservative National Convergence Front.

Morales (y Ugalde), (Tomás) José (de) (b. 1765 - d. Jan. 4, 1841), acting foreign and interior minister (1825) and finance minister (1827) of Peru. He was also minister to Mexico (1823-24).

Morales, Manuel (b. c. 1810 - d. ...), foreign minister of Peru (1859). He was also minister of interior, police, and public works (1858-59, 1860-62, 1872) and justice, worship, and education (1877-78).

Morales (Villaseñor), Manuel Inocente (b. Dec. 28, 1845, San Salvador, El Salvador - d. 1919), foreign minister of El Salvador (1892-93, 1903-04).

Morales (Arias), Raymundo (b. 1857? - d. 1920), interim prime minister of Peru (1887). He was also minister of justice, education, and worship (1887).

Morales (Cabrera), Samuel (Everardo) (b. May 19, 1967, Guatemala City, Guatemala), Guatemalan politician. He was a minor presidential candidate (2023).

Morales Ballesteros, Norberto (b. 1935 - d. Sept. 29, 2020), Colombian politician. He was ambassador to South Korea (1982-83) and president of the Chamber of Representatives (1989-90).

Morales Beltramí, Raúl (Ernesto) (b. Dec. 8, 1906, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 12, 1946, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), interior minister of Chile (1942-43). He was also ambassador to Brazil (1944-46).

F. Morales
Morales Bermúdez (Cerruti), Francisco (Remigio) (b. Oct. 4, 1921, Lima, Peru - d. July 14, 2022, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), president of Peru (1975-80); grandson of Remigio Morales Bermúdez. He was regarded as a moderate among the military leaders of Peru's 1968 revolution. He served as minister of finance and commerce (1968) and economy and finance (1969-74) and as chief of the army general staff (1974-75). On Feb. 1, 1975, he was named prime minister and minister of war by Pres. Juan Velasco Alvarado, whom Morales overthrew in a bloodless internal coup on August 29. In a cabinet shuffle on July 16, 1976, Morales excluded most of the early protagonists of the 1968 revolution, underscoring his intention to revitalize the country's economy and to liberalize its political life. The new government implemented several measures which were interpreted as a move to the right, including the denationalization of the fishing industry, the reversal of the socialization of the press, and the prohibition of strikes. On Oct. 9, 1977, Morales presented the definitive text of the four-year "Tupac Amaru Plan," designed to return the country to civilian rule and to steer a middle economic course between socialism and capitalism. Morales held elections on May 18, 1980, and stepped aside for the winner, Fernando Belaúnde Terry, thus ending 12 years of military rule in Peru. Morales was a minor presidential candidate in 1985.

R. Morales
Morales Bermúdez, Remigio (b. Sept. 30, 1836, Pica, Tarapacá region, Peru [now in Chile] - d. April 1, 1894, Lima, Peru), president of Peru (1890-94). He was also first vice president (1886-90).

Morales Bermúdez (Pedraglio), Remigio (Humberto Jesús Bernardo) (b. May 20, 1947, Lima, Peru), Peruvian politician; son of Francisco Morales Bermúdez. He was agriculture minister (1986-88).

Morales Blumenkron, (José) Guillermo (Adolfo) (b. April 27, 1908, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico - d. Aug. 27, 1979), governor of Puebla (1973-75).

Morales Crespo, Eddie (b. May 7, 1925, Carora, Lara, Venezuela - d. April 23, 1980, Bern, Switzerland), finance minister of Venezuela (1965-67). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (1961-62, 19...-80) and Belgium (1967-68).

Morales Ehrlich, José Antonio (b. July 3, 1935, Santa Ana, El Salvador - d. June 26, 2021), member of the Revolutionary Junta of El Salvador (1980-82). He was also mayor of San Salvador (1974-76, 1985-87) and minister of foreign trade (1984-85) and agriculture and livestock (1987-88).

Morales Flores, Melquíades (b. June 22, 1942, Santa Catarina Los Reyes, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1999-2005). In 2017-19 he was ambassador to Costa Rica.

Morales Gómez, Luis (b. July 4, 1917, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister of Colombia (1956-57).

Morales Guillén, Carlos (b. 1915, Cochabamba, Bolivia - d. June 1994), defense minister (1957-58), interior minister (1959-60), and foreign minister (1960) of Bolivia. He was also economy minister (1956-57) and justice minister (1993-94).

Morales López, Araceli, Colombian politician. She was culture minister (2001-02) and ambassador to Cuba (2017-19).

Morales Macchiavello, Carlos (b. 1907, Trujillo, Peru - d. 2004), finance minister of Peru (1964-65). He was also known as an architect and was minister of development and public works (1964, 1968).

Morales Ojeda, Roberto (Tomás) (b. June 15, 1967), a vice premier of Cuba (2018- ). He was also minister of public health (2010-18).

Morales Olaya, Agustín (b. Jan. 28, 1875, Turmequé, Boyacá, Colombia - d. Dec. 6, 1941, Girardot, Cundinamarca, Colombia), war minister (1930-31) and interior minister (1931-33) of Colombia.

Morales Paúl, Isidro (b. March 1, 1932, Caracas, Venezuela - d. June 18, 2005, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1984-85). He was also ambassador to France (1990-91).

Morales Quijano, Ramón Alberto (b. 1933, Panama), Panamanian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Egypt (1964-67), ambassador to El Salvador (1967-68), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2004).

Morales Sánchez, Gregorio (b. May 26, 1885, Salinas Victoria, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. 1962), governor of Nuevo León (1935-36).

C. Morales
Morales Troncoso, Carlos (b. Sept. 29, 1940, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - d. Oct. 25, 2014, Houston, Texas), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1994-96, 2004-14); grandson of Manuel de Jesús Troncoso de la Concha. He was also vice president (1986-94) and ambassador to the United States (1989-91).

Morales Urresti, José (Raymundo Antonio) (b. Jan. 29, 1917, Lima, Peru), justice minister of Peru (1967-68).

Morán (Soto), Carlos (b. May 22, 1960, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (2018-20).

Morán (Acurero), Manuel (b. Feb. 3, 1893, Maracaibo, Venezuela - d. Dec. 29, 1965, Lima, Peru), war and navy minister of Venezuela (1943-45).

Moran, Michael, Irish Micheál Ó Móráin (b. Dec. 25, 1912, Castlebar, County Mayo, Ireland - d. May 6, 1983), justice minister of Ireland (1968-70). He was also minister of Gaeltacht (1957-59, 1961-68) and lands (1959-68).

Morán López, Fernando (b. March 25, 1926, Avilés, Asturias, Spain - d. Feb. 19, 2020, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1982-85). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-87).

Morançais, Christelle (b. Jan. 28, 1975, Le Mans, Sarthe, France), president of the Regional Council of Pays de la Loire (2017- ).

Moraru, Victor (b. Dec. 1, 1961, Terebna, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Moldova]), Moldovan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-97 [acting], 2017-21) and ambassador to Switzerland (2012-16).

Moratinos (Cuyaubé), Miguel Ángel (b. June 8, 1951, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (2004-10). He has also been chargé d'affaires in Yugoslavia (1980-84), ambassador to Israel (1996), EU special envoy to the Middle East (1996-2003), and UN high representative for the Alliance of Civilizations (2019- ).

Morato, Mathias Antonio da Fonseca (b. Nov. 30, 1825, Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil - d. March 26, 1896, São Luís, Maranhão), acting president of Rio Grande do Norte (1879, 1881).

Morau, Marie Nicolas François Auguste (b. Jan. 15, 1832, Dominica - d. 1897), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1883-85).

Morauta, Sir Mekere (b. 1946, Kukipi village, Malalaua district, Gulf province, Papua [now in Papua New Guinea] - d. Dec. 19, 2020, Brisbane, Qld.), prime minister of Papua New Guinea (1999-2002). From 1973 to 1982 he served as secretary in the Department of Finance of Papua New Guinea, and from 1983 to 1992 as managing director of the Papua New Guinea Banking Corporation. In 1993-94 he was governor of the Bank of Papua New Guinea (central bank). He entered the national parliament as the member for Port Moresby North-West in July 1997. He served as minister for planning and implementation from December 1997 to April 1998, and as minister for fisheries from April 1998 to June 1999, then assumed leadership of the People's Democratic Movement and, following Bill Skate's resignation, became prime minister, serving concurrently as minister of health (1999), finance (1999-2000), and home affairs (1999-2000). He was leader of the opposition in 2002-04 and 2007-11, chairman of the National Capital District Commission in 2004-06, and minister of public enterprise in 2011. He was knighted in 1990.


M. Morawiecki
Moravcík, Jozef (b. March 19, 1945, Ocova, Slovakia), foreign minister of Czechoslovakia (1992) and Slovakia (1993-94) and prime minister of Slovakia (1994). He was also mayor of Bratislava (1998-2002).

Morawiecki, Kornel (Andrzej) (b. May 3, 1941, Warsaw, Poland - d. Sept. 30, 2019, Warsaw), Polish politician. He was leader of the clandestine group Fighting Solidarity (1982-87, 1988-90), chairman of the Freedom Party (1990-92) and Free and Solidary (2016-19), and a minor presidential candidate (2010).

Morawiecki, Mateusz (Jakub) (b. June 20, 1968, Wroclaw, Poland), a deputy prime minister (2015-17), finance minister (2016-18 [also acting 2019, 2022]), and prime minister (2017-23) of Poland; son of Kornel Morawiecki. He was also minister of sports (2019).

Morawski, Aleksander Adam (b. Feb. 27, 1877, Stasiowa Wola, Austria [now part of Burshtyn, Ukraine] - d. Dec. 13, 1930, Zamosc, Poland), governor of Stanislawowskie województwo (1927-28).

Morawski, Jan (b. Sept. 4, 1878, Odrzechowa, Austria [now in Poland] - d. Feb. 1, 1940, Lvov, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Lviv, Ukraine]), acting justice minister of Poland (1920).

Morazán (Quezada), (José) Francisco (b. Oct. 3, 1792, Tegucigalpa, Honduras - d. Sept. 15, 1842, San José, Costa Rica), president of the United Provinces of Central America (1830-34, 1835-39). He began his political career in his native Honduras, becoming its chief of state (1827-29, 1829-30). He led the Liberal Party's forces in a revolt that overthrew Manuel José Arce, first president of the United Provinces, and the Conservatives in 1829. In 1830 Morazán was elected president. He introduced many anticlerical measures, social reforms, and plans to promote economic development, a modernization program that aroused the anger of Conservatives. Although he was reelected to a second term, he had to devote most of his energy to putting down revolts. The federal government lacked the powers to overcome state rivalries, and by 1838 a popular rebellion led by José Rafael Carrera, coinciding with the panic of a cholera epidemic, had torn the federation apart. After the end of his term in 1839 he became supreme chief of state of El Salvador (a post he had also held provisionally in 1832), but he continued to fight for the federation. Carrera's Conservative-backed rebel army defeated Morazán at Guatemala City in March 1840, and in April he resigned and went into exile. Returning in 1842, he attacked and defeated the forces of the Costa Rican dictator Braulio Carrillo and became supreme chief of Costa Rica, but his attempt to follow up this triumph and reunite Central America led to a military revolt; he was betrayed, captured, and executed by a firing squad.

Mørch, Oscar (b. June 24, 1845, Christiansand [now Kristiansand], Lister og Mandal amt [now in Agder fylke], Norway - d. Sept. 4, 1897, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway), governor of Hedemarkens amt (1890-97).

Mörcke, (Bror Birger) Emil (b. June 12, 1861, Öglunda, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Oct. 12, 1951, Varberg, Halland, Sweden), war minister of Sweden (1914-17).

Mordaunt, Penny, byname of Penelope Mary Mordaunt (b. March 4, 1973, Torquay, Devon, England), British defence secretary (2019). She was also secretary of state for international development (2017-19), minister for women and equalities (2018-19), paymaster general (2020-21), and lord president of the council (2022-24).

Mordechai, Yitzhak (b. Nov. 22, 1944, Iraqi Kurdistan), Israeli politician. He was brought to Israel in 1949. Considered a moderate, Mordechai, a former general who joined Likud after 33 years of army service, rode his security credentials to a high spot on the Likud list and became defense minister under Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in 1996. Mordechai said he entered politics to help prevent Israeli territorial concessions that would put the Jewish state at risk. But he was accused by Jewish settlers of using his authority to block settlement expansion. He was sacked in January 1999 for preparing to challenge Netanyahu in that year's election. He quit Likud and joined the new Centre Party. His declared aims were to oust Netanyahu, make progress on the peacemaking front, and unite a divided Israeli public. He said he was the only contender with the ability to knock Netanyahu out of the race. Opinion polls gave him only around 8% of votes. He was the first Sephardi - a Jew with roots in the Middle East or North Africa - to run for prime minister in a country long dominated by Ashkenazi Jews of European origin. He withdrew the day before the election when opinion polls showed him as the main barrier to Ehud Barak's ousting Netanyahu. When Barak became prime minister, Mordechai was named transport minister. He resigned in June 2000 after being accused of sexual harassment, was convicted in March 2001 of indecent assault against two women, and was given an 18-month suspended sentence in April.

Mordvinov, Aleksandr (Mikhailovich) (b. Jan. 10, 1983, Kuybyshev, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Samara, Russia]), chairman of the government of Vologda oblast (2023- ).

Mordvinov, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. June 5, 1792 - d. Jan. 31, 1869), governor of Vyatka (1840-42); cousin of Aleksandr Muravyov, Nikolay Muravyov-Karsky, and Graf Mikhail Muravyov-Vilensky.

Mordvinov, Graf Nikolay (Semyonovich) (b. April 28 [April 17, O.S.], 1754, Pokrovskoye, Belozersky uyezd, Novgorod province, Russia - d. April 11 [March 30, O.S.], 1845, St. Petersburg, Russia), Russian minister of sea forces (1802-03). He was also commander of the Black Sea Fleet (1785-89, 1792-99) and president of the Free Economic Society (1823-41). He became Graf (count) in 1834.

More, James Carmichael (b. 1883, Northamptonshire, England - d. Dec. 17, 1959), British political agent in Kuwait (1920-29).

More-Molyneux, George Hand (b. May 6, 1851, Littleton, near Guildford, Surrey, England - d. Nov. 21, 1903, Sussex, England), political resident of Aden (1901).

Moreau (d'Andoy), Alphonse (Marie Joseph Ghislain), baron de (b. March 8, 1840, Andoy, Belgium - d. Aug. 3, 1911, Ottignies [now part of Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve], Belgium), foreign minister of Belgium (1884). He was also minister of agriculture, industry, and public works (1884-88). He was created baron in 1893.

Moreau de Melen, (Louis Eugène Ernest Marie) Henri, baron (b. Aug. 20, 1902, Liége [now Liège], Belgium - d. May 31, 1992), justice minister (1948-49) and defense minister (1950) of Belgium. He was created baron in 1968.

Morehead, Charles S(laughter) (b. July 7, 1802, near Bardstown, Nelson county, Ky. - d. Dec. 21, 1868, near Greenville, Miss.), governor of Kentucky (1855-59); cousin of James T. Morehead.

Morehead, James T(urner) (b. May 24, 1797, near Shepherdsville, Ky. - d. Dec. 28, 1854, Covington, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1834-36); cousin of John M. Morehead (1796-1866).

Morehead, John Henry (b. Dec. 3, 1861, Columbia, Iowa - d. May 30, 1942, St. Joseph, Mo.), governor of Nebraska (1913-17).

Morehead, John M(otley) (b. July 4, 1796, Pittsylvania county, Va. - d. Aug. 27, 1866, Rockbridge Alum Springs, Va.), governor of North Carolina (1841-45).

Morehead, John M(otley) (b. Nov. 3, 1870, Spray [now part of Eden], N.C. - d. Jan. 7, 1965, Rye, N.Y.), U.S. diplomat; grandson of the above. He was minister to Sweden (1930-33).

Morehead, William Ambrose (b. Oct. 17, 1805, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Dec. 1, 1863, Edinburgh), acting governor of Madras (1860, 1860-61).

Morehouse, Albert P(ickett) (b. July 11, 1835, Ashley, Ohio - d. [suicide] Sept. 23, 1891, Marysville, Mo.), acting governor of Missouri (1887-89).

Morei, Ion (b. Sept. 13, 1955, Polovinnoye, Kurgan oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), justice minister of Moldova (2001-03).

Moreira, Artur Quadros Colares (b. Dec. 1, 1866, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil - d. April 25, 1954, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Maranhão (1908-09).

Moreira, Eduardo Pinho (b. July 11, 1949, Laguna, Santa Catarina, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (2006-07, 2018-19). He was also mayor of Criciúma (1993-96).

Moreira, Guilherme José, (from July 5, 1889) barão de Juruá (b. June 25, 1835, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. Sept. 23, 1899, Salvador), governor of Amazonas (1891 and [acting] 1891).

Moreira (Fernández), Irene (Renée) (b. Aug. 11, 1964, Montevideo, Uruguay), Uruguayan politician; wife of Guido Manini Ríos. She was minister of housing and territorial planning (2020-23) and environment (2020).

Moreira, José Fernandes (b. Dec. 21, 1829, São João del Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Dec. 26, 1906, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Piauí (1862-63). He was also acting president of the Bank of Brazil (1874-75).

Moreira, José Marcelo (b. Jan. 16, 1900, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. Oct. 24, 1972, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Mato Grosso (1946-47).

Moreira, Marcílio Marques (b. Nov. 25, 1931, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), economy, finance, and planning minister of Brazil (1991-92). He was also ambassador to the United States (1987-91).

Moreira, Nicolau Joaquim (b. Jan. 10, 1824, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Sept. 12, 1894), president of the Municipal Intendancy of Rio de Janeiro (1891-92).

Moreira, Pedro Ribeiro (b. Sept. 3, 1848, Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Jan. 30, 1914, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil), president of Alagoas (1889).

Moreira, Traiaú Rodrigues (b. Nov. 30, 1893, Santa Quitéria, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Oct. 3, 1971, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting governor of Maranhão (1951).

Moreira Valdés, Humberto (b. July 28, 1966, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico), governor of Coahuila (2005-11). He was also mayor of Saltillo (2003-05) and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (2011).

Moreira Valdez, Rubén (Ignacio) (b. April 18, 1963, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico), governor of Coahuila (2011-17); brother of Humberto Moreira Valdés (the metronym is spelled differently due to an error in the birth certificate).

Morejón Pazmiño, Diego (Fernando) (b. Sept. 2, 1960), Ecuadorian diplomat. He has been chargé d'affaires (2015-16) and permanent representative (2017-18) to the United Nations and ambassador to Germany (2016-17, 2023- ).

Morel, Claude (Sylvestre Anthony) (b. Sept. 25, 1956, Victoria, Seychelles), Seychellois diplomat. He has been chargé d'affaires in France (1988-90) and at the United Nations and in the United States and Canada (1996-97), ambassador to the Germany and the Benelux countries (1997-98), the United States (1998-2005), and France (2007-12), permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2005), and high commissioner to South Africa (2012-17, 2021- ).

Morel, Louis Jules (b. Oct. 2, 1853, Orléans, France - d. 19...), resident-superior of Cambodia (1904-05) and Tonkin (1907-09).

Morelos y (Pérez) Pavón, José María (Teclo) (b. Sept. 30, 1765, Valladolid, New Spain [now Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico] - d. Dec. 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, New Spain [now in México state, Mexico]), leader of the Mexican independence movement. He joined Miguel Hidalgo's rebellion in early 1811 and, after Hidalgo's execution (July 30), took command of the movement in southern Mexico. He won a series of victories and held at one time or another Acapulco, Oaxaca, Tehuacán, and Cuautla. Consolidating control over all the region after his victories was beyond his resources, however, and he turned increasingly to guerrilla tactics. He convened the Congress of Anáhuac at Chilpancingo in 1813 to form a government and draft a constitution. The congress named him generalissimo and declared Mexico's independence (November 6). In December, however, his forces were routed at Valladolid by Agustín de Iturbide, and he fought a defensive war for the next two years. The congress, which in October 1814, at Apatzingán, promulgated an egalitarian constitution, was safe only so long as it moved from place to place under the protection of Morelos' nomadic army. Finally, in November 1815, royalist forces caught up with the insurgents. Morelos fought a rearguard action allowing most of the revolutionary government to escape, but he himself was captured, condemned for treason, and shot. The state of Morelos and the city of Morelia are named after him.

Morenés (y Álvarez de Eulate), Pedro (de) (b. Sept. 17, 1948, Guecho, Vizcaya province, Spain), defense minister of Spain (2011-16). He was also ambassador to the United States (2017-18).

Moreno (Martínez), Alfonso (b. Dec. 8, 1922, San Francisco de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. 1997), Dominican Republic presidential candidate (1962, 1970). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-78).

Alfredo Moreno
Moreno (Charme), Alfredo (Germán) (b. Aug. 4, 1956, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (2010-14). He was also minister of social development (2018-19) and public works (2019-22).

Moreno, Fulgencio Ricardo (b. Nov. 9, 1872, Asunción, Paraguay - d. Oct. 17, 1933, Asunción), foreign minister of Paraguay (1912). He was also minister to Chile and Peru (1913-15, 1918-21), Bolivia (1918-21), and Brazil (1928-33).

Moreno (Córdova), Hugo (b. Jan. 26, 1913, Tarija, Bolivia - d. ...), finance minister of Bolivia (1956-58, 1959-60).

L. Moreno
Moreno (Garcés), Lenín (Boltaire) (b. March 19, 1953, Nuevo Rocafuerte, Orellana province, Ecuador), vice president (2007-13) and president (2017-21) of Ecuador. He was appointed UN special envoy on disability and accessibility in 2013.

Moreno (Mejía), Luis Alberto (b. May 3, 1953, Philadelphia, Pa.), president of the Inter-American Development Bank (2005- ). He was also Colombian minister of economic development (1992-94) and ambassador to the United States (1998-2005).

Moreno, Luiz Romulo Perez de (b. Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. April 24, 1874, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil), president of Alagoas (1872-74).

Moreno (Uriegas), María de los Ángeles (b. Jan. 15, 1945, Mexico City, Mexico - d. April 27, 2019), Mexican politician. She was minister of fisheries (1988-91) and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (1994-95).

Moreno (Villalaz), Miguel J(osé) (b. April 3, 1914, Panama City, Panama - d. May 16, 2011), foreign minister of Panama (1958-60). He was also ambassador to the United States (1964).

J.M. Moreno
Moreno Bonilla, Juan Manuel (b. May 1, 1970, Barcelona, Spain), president of the Junta of Andalucía (2019- ).

Moreno Cárdenas, (Rafael) Alejandro (b. April 25, 1975, Campeche, Campeche, Mexico), governor of Campeche (2015-19). He became president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 2019.

Moreno Fernández, Abelardo, Cuban diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2009).

Moreno González, José Antonio (b. March 10, 1907, Asunción, Paraguay - d. 1973), foreign minister of Paraguay (1953-54). He was ambassador to Chile (1949), Brazil (1949-50), Argentina (1950-51), Bolivia (1957-58), and Uruguay (1958-62).

Moreno López, Manuel (b. Feb. 3, 1815, Sevilla, Spain - d. Nov. 22, 1868, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1863). He was also minister of development (1863).

Moreno Peña, Fernando (b. June 30, 1953, Colima, Colima, Mexico), governor of Colima (1997-2003).

Moreno R.
Moreno Ruffinelli, José Antonio (b. March 10, 1939, Asunción, Paraguay), foreign minister of Paraguay (2001-03); son of José Antonio Moreno González. He was ambassador to Brazil in 1977-81.

Moreno-Salcedo, Luis (b. Sept. 5, 1918, Sara, Iloilo, Philippines - d. March 1988), Philippine diplomat. He was ambassador to Argentina (1962-64), Chile (1963-64), South Vietnam (1965-68), France (1969-77), Romania (1972-75), Yugoslavia (1972-77), Hungary (1975-77), and the Soviet Union and Finland (1977-82) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-86).

Moreno Valle, Rafael (b. Aug. 13, 1917, Atlixco, Puebla, Mexico - d. Feb. 13, 2016, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1969-72). He was also Mexican minister of health and welfare (1964-68).

Moreno Valle (Rosas), Rafael (b. June 30, 1968, Puebla, Puebla, Mexico - d. [helicopter crash] Dec. 24, 2018, Santa María Coronango, Puebla), governor of Puebla (2011-17); grandson of Rafael Moreno Valle (1917-2016).

Moreno y Zuleta (de Reales), Francisco (de Asís), conde de los Andes, marqués de Mortara (b. Aug. 4, 1880, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Spain - d. July 3, 1963, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1930). He was also minister of national economy (1928-30).

Moret y Prendergast, Segismundo (b. June 2, 1838, Cádiz, Spain - d. Jan. 28, 1913, Madrid, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1905-06, 1906, 1909-10). He was also minister of overseas (1870, 1897-98), finance (1870-71), interior (1883-84, 1888, 1901, 1902, 1909-10), foreign affairs (1885-88, 1893-94), and development (1892-94) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1871-75).

Moreyra y Paz Soldán, Carlos (Gregorio José) (b. Nov. 17, 1898, Lima, Peru - d. Nov. 16, 1981, Lima), prime minister of Peru (1961-62); son of Francisco Moreyra y Riglos. He was also minister of development and public works (1939-44) and agriculture (1961-62) and second vice president (1956-62).

Moreyra y Riglos, Francisco (de Paula) (b. April 9, 1855, Lima, Peru - d. July 28, 1942, Lima), justice and education minister of Peru (1912-13).

Morgan, Sir Arthur (b. Sept. 19, 1856, Warwick, Queensland - d. Dec. 20, 1916, Paddington [now part of Brisbane], Qld.), premier (1903-06) and acting governor (1909, 1914-15) of Queensland; knighted 1907.

Morgan, David Loftus (b. Nov. 21, 1904 - d. July 8, 1976), resident commissioner of Swaziland (1951-56).

Morgan, E(lliott) S(tetson) N(eal) (b. Jan. 19, 1832, Pittsburgh, Pa. - d. April 20, 1894, Cheyenne, Wyo.), acting governor of Wyoming (1885, 1886-87).

Morgan, Edwin D(enison) (b. Feb. 8, 1811, Washington, Mass. - d. Feb. 14, 1883, New York City), governor of New York (1859-63).

E.F. Morgan

J.P. Morgan

J. Morgan

L. Morgan
Morgan, Ephraim F(ranklin) (b. Jan. 16, 1869, near Forksburg, Marion county, W.Va. - d. Jan. 15, 1950, Bethesda, Md.), governor of West Virginia (1921-25).

Morgan, James Pitia, foreign minister of South Sudan (2023-24). He was also ambassador to Ethiopia (2016-23).

Morgan, Joel (b. Aug. 15, 1961), home affairs minister (2010-15) and foreign minister (2015-16) of Seychelles. He was also minister of land use and habitat (2006-07), environment (2007-15), transport (2007-16), and education and human resources development (2016-18).

Morgan, Laurie, byname of Laurence Charles Morgan (b. 1930?, London, England - d. Jan. 18, 2018), chief minister of Guernsey (2004-07).

R. Morgan
Morgan, (Hywel) Rhodri (b. Sept. 29, 1939, Roath district, Cardiff, Wales - d. May 17, 2017), first minister of Wales (2000-09). He was elected Labour MP for Cardiff West in 1987. He was opposition front-bench spokesman on energy (1988-92) and Welsh affairs (1992-97) and chairman of the House of Commons Select Committee on Public Administration (1997-99). In 1999 he was elected to the Welsh Assembly from Cardiff West. In 2000 he became first secretary of Wales; later in the year the government changed its members' titles from secretaries to ministers. He did not stand again for the House of Commons in the 2001 election.

Morgan, Sir William Duthie (b. Dec. 6, 1891, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. May 13, 1977, London, England), head of the Allied Military Government in Italy (1945-47); knighted 1945.

F.S. Morganti
Morganti, Fausta Simona (b. Aug. 20, 1944 - d. Feb. 2, 2021), captain-regent of San Marino (2005).

Morganti, Giuseppe Maria (b. March 12, 1955, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2002-03).

Morgenthau, Henry (b. April 26, 1856, Mannheim, Baden [now in Baden-Württemberg, Germany] - d. Nov. 25, 1946, New York City), U.S. diplomat. He was ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1913-16).

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. (b. May 11, 1891, New York City - d. Feb. 6, 1967, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.), U.S. treasury secretary (1933-45); son of Henry Morgenthau.

Morgonsköld, (Britt) Helena (Margareta), née Aho (b. Oct. 7, 1964, Stockholm, Sweden), acting governor of Blekinge (2021).

Mori, Eisuke (b. Aug. 31, 1948, Chiba prefecture, Japan), justice minister of Japan (2008-09).

Mori, Giancarlo (b. Nov. 4, 1938, Genoa, Liguria, Italy - d. April 17, 2019, Genoa), president of Liguria (1994-2000).

Manny Mori
Mori, Manny, byname of Emanuel Mori (b. Dec. 25, 1948, Fefan island, Truk [now Chuuk], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), president of the Federated States of Micronesia (2007-15).

Mori, Masako (b. Aug. 22, 1964, Fukushima prefecture, Japan), justice minister of Japan (2019-20). She was also minister of state for consumer affairs and food safety, measures for declining birthrate, and gender equality (2012-14).

Y. Mori
Mori, Yoshiro (b. July 14, 1937, Neagari, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan), prime minister of Japan (2000-01). He was elected to the Diet in 1969 as an independent but afterwards joined the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP). He was minister of education (1983-84), of international trade and industry (1992-93), and of construction (1995-96). He became secretary-general of the LDP (1993-95, 1998-2000) and in 1998 inherited the leadership of the third-largest faction in the multi-group LDP. Swept into office as prime minister in April 2000 after his predecessor, Keizo Obuchi, suffered a fatal stroke, he won an unconvincing victory in a June lower house election in which the LDP lost its simple majority. His habit of making insensitive statements made him one of the most unpopular leaders in decades and became such a problem that party leaders in the autumn issued a public call for him to zip his lips. He made no secret of his desire to bring traditional Japanese values back to schools and families, the LDP's election manifesto even containing a highly unusual lament for the decline of respect for ancient tradition and culture. He stirred up a storm by saying (May 2000) Japan was a "divine nation with the emperor at its core." Five days before the June elections, Mori commented about undecided voters: "Those people who aren't interested should just stay in bed." In October, critics said he endangered delicate diplomatic talks with North Korea by letting slip secret strategies in a meeting with Britain's Tony Blair. His unpopularity, along with stalling on economic reforms, provided his reformist rival Koichi Kato with a chance to challenge from within the LDP. Kato backed down at the 11th hour from a threat to support an opposition-sponsored no-confidence motion in the lower house in November 2000, but Mori resigned in April 2001.

Moriba, Moussa Djibril (b. 1934, Parakou, Dahomey [now Benin]), justice minister of Benin (1976-82). He was also minister of public health and social affairs (1972-74), rural development (1974-75), and civil service (1975-76).

Morice, André (Émile Simon) (b. Oct. 11, 1900, Nantes, France - d. Jan. 17, 1990, Paris, France), French defense and armed forces minister (1957). He was also minister of education (1950), merchant marine (1951-52), public works, transports, and tourism (1952-53), and commerce and industry (1955-56) and mayor of Nantes (1965-77).

Morilleau, Lucien (Désiré Constant) (b. 1835, Mormaison, Vendée, France - d. 1907), conservator of the French possessions on Saint Helena (1880-1907).

Morimoto, Satoshi (b. March 15, 1941, Tokyo, Japan), defense minister of Japan (2012).

Morin, Augustin Norbert (b. Oct. 12, 1803, Saint-Michel, Lower Canada [now Que.] - d. July 27, 1865, Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada East [now Que.]), joint premier of Canada (1851-55).

D. Morin
Morin, Don (b. 1954, Hay River, Northwest Territories, Canada), premier of the Northwest Territories (1995-98). He represented the Dene Nation on the Great Slave Lake Advisory Committee and was a member of the Deninoo Community Council in Fort Resolution. He was first elected to the Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly in the general election of October 1987. He resigned as premier in 1998 after the conflict-of-interest commissioner found that he had used his position for personal gain.

El. Morin
Morin, Elisabeth (b. Oct. 10, 1947, Ceaux-en-Couhé, Vienne, France), president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (2002-04).

Morin, Enrico (Costantino) (b. May 15, 1841, Genoa [now in Italy] - d. Sept. 13, 1910, Forte dei Marmi, Lucca province, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (1903). He was also minister of navy (1893-96, 1900-03, 1903) and war (1902).

Morin, Hervé (Jacques Louis) (b. Aug. 17, 1961, Pont-Audemer, Eure, France), French defense minister (2007-10) and president of the Regional Council of Normandie (2016- ).

Morin, Jean (b. June 23, 1916, Melun, Seine-et-Marne, France - d. Sept. 6, 2008), delegate-general of Algeria (1960-62). He was also prefect of the French départements of Manche (1946), Maine-et-Loire (1949-58), and Haute-Garonne (1958-60).

Morin, Michel (b. July 29, 1945, Paris, France), prefect of Martinique (1991-95). He was also prefect of the French départements of Cantal (1987-90), Aube (1990-91), Haute-Savoie (1995-96), Finistère (1996-98), Loire (2002-06), and Isère (2006-08).

Morínigo (Martínez), Higinio (b. Jan. 11, 1897, Paraguarí, Paraguay - d. Jan. 27, 1983, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1940-48). He entered the army and fought in the Chaco War, became Pres. Rafael Franco's chief of staff, and was interior minister (1939) and minister of war and navy (1940) under Pres. José Félix Estigarribia. When Estigarribia was killed in an airplane crash in September 1940, the cabinet designated General Morínigo provisional president. The constitution decreed that any successor to the president had to be chosen by Congress, but there had been no Congress since Estigarribia had dissolved it. In October Morínigo announced that the presidential election would be postponed until Feb. 15, 1943. In one of his first proclamations he informed the country that the principles of his rule would be "discipline, hierarchy, order" and that anyone spreading ideas of a subversive nature would be "subject to confinement." In February 1941 a conspiracy by a garrison at Concepción had to be suppressed, and in July the garrison at Pilar attempted a revolt. There were other signs of disorder, but Morínigo was able to keep control. The impression that his government, because of its military and non-democratic character, was disposed to favour the Axis cause was dispelled after the U.S. entry into World War II; in January 1942 he severed relations with the Axis powers. The 1943 election was duly held, but since no political activity was permitted and no other candidate was named, he emerged with an almost unanimous vote. In June 1943 he became the first Paraguayan president to visit the U.S. and addressed Congress. In 1947 he survived an extended rebellion by the Febrerista Party and parts of the army. In February 1948 he supported the election of Juan Natalicio González as president, to succeed him in August, but as González was apparently fearful that Morínigo would not turn over the presidency, his supporters staged a coup forcing Morínigo to resign in June. He went into exile in Argentina.

Moriones y Murillo, Domingo, marqués de Oroquieta (b. 1823, Leache, Navarra, Spain - d. 1881, Madrid, Spain), governor-general of the Philippines (1877-80).

Morison, Sir William Thomson (b. Sept. 23, 1860 - d. Aug. 13, 1931), acting commissioner of Sind (1905); knighted 1912.

Morita, Kensaku, stage name of Eiji Suzuki (b. Dec. 16, 1949), governor of Chiba (2009-21).

Morita, Shigeru (b. Sept. 19 [Aug. 17, lunar calendar], 1872, Saoka, Kochi prefecture, Japan - d. Nov. 30, 1932), Japanese politician. He was speaker of the House of Representatives (1927-28) and mayor of Kyoto (1931-32).

Moriyama, Mayumi (b. Nov. 7, 1927, Tokyo, Japan - d. Oct. 14, 2021, Tokyo), justice minister of Japan (2001-03). She was also director-general of the Environmental Agency (1989), chief cabinet secretary (1989-90), and minister of education (1992-93).

Morjane, Kamel, Arabic Kamal Murjan (b. May 9, 1948, Hammam Sousse, Tunisia), defense minister (2005-10) and foreign minister (2010-11) of Tunisia. He was also a minor presidential candidate (2014) and minister of public service (2018-20).

Morkel, Gerald (Norman) (b. Feb. 3, 1941, Hatfield, Cape Town, South Africa - d. Jan. 9, 2018, Tokai, Cape Town), premier of Western Cape (1998-2001). He was also mayor of Cape Town (2001-02).

Morla Vicuña, Carlos (b. 1846, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 20, 1901, Buffalo, N.Y.), foreign minister of Chile (1896-97). He was also minister to Brazil (1882-83), Paraguay (1895-96), Argentina (1896), and the United States (1898-1901).

Morley, Clarence J(oseph) (b. Feb. 9, 1869, Dyersville, Iowa - d. Nov. 15, 1948, Oklahoma City, Okla.), governor of Colorado (1925-27).

Morley, David (John) (b. Oct. 23, 1954), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (2007-10). He was also British high commissioner/ambassador to The Gambia (2011-14).

Morley of Blackburn, John Morley, (1st) Viscount (b. Dec. 24, 1838, Blackburn, England - d. Sept. 23, 1923, Wimbledon, Surrey [now part of London], England), British politician. He was secretary of state for India (1905-10 and [acting] 1911) and lord president of the council (1910-14). He was created viscount in 1908.

Morlière, François Louis Magallon, comte de la (b. Oct. 26, 1754, L'Isle-Adam [now in Val-d'Oise département], France - d. Dec. 31, 1825), governor-general of Île de France (1800-03) and governor of Réunion (1803-05).

Morlino, Tommaso (b. Aug. 26, 1925, Irsina, Basilicata, Italy - d. May 6, 1983, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1979-80). He was also minister without portfolio (regional affairs 1974-76, public administration and regions 1976), minister of budget and economic planning (1976-79), and president of the Senate (1982-83).

Morna, Álvaro de Freitas (b. May 14, 1885, Coimbra, Portugal - d. 1961), governor-general of Angola (1942-43).

Morneau, Bill, byname of William Francis Morneau (b. Oct. 7, 1962, Toronto, Ont.), finance minister of Canada (2015-20).

Mörner af Morlanda, Adolf greve (b. Jan. 1, 1705, Grönlund, Östergötland, Sweden - d. Aug. 31, 1766, Esplunda, Örebro, Sweden), governor of Stockholm (1750-51), Älvsborg (1751-56), and Närke och Värmland (1756-66).

Mörner af Morlanda, Adolf Göran greve (b. July 27, 1773, Ringkarleby socken, Örebro, Sweden - d. Jan. 30, 1838), acting prime minister for foreign affairs of Sweden (1837-38); grandson of Adolf greve Mörner af Morlanda.

Mörner af Morlanda, (Karl) Axel (Göran) greve (b. Oct. 27, 1868, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Nov. 17, 1954, Stockholm), governor of Halland (1920-35); great-great-grandson of Adolf greve Mörner af Morlanda.

Mörner af Morlanda, Axel Otto greve (b. July 11, 1774 - d. Oct. 20, 1852, Eksjö, Jönköping, Sweden), war minister of Sweden (1840-43); brother of Carl Stellan greve Mörner af Morlanda.

Mörner af Morlanda, Carl greve (b. Dec. 18, 1792, Hösterum, Östergötland, Sweden - d. May 2, 1870, Växjö, Kronoberg, Sweden), governor of Kronoberg (1827-63); son of Carl Stellan greve Mörner af Morlanda.

Mörner af Morlanda, Carl Claes friherre (b. Nov. 7, 1730, Länna, Uppsala, Sweden - d. April 30, 1786, Uppsala, Uppsala), governor of Uppsala (1784-86).

Mörner af Morlanda, Carl Gustaf greve (b. 1658, Malmö, Sweden - d. Oct. 27, 1721, Jönköping, Sweden), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1712-19); son of Hans Georg friherre Mörner af Morlanda. He was raised from friherre (baron) to greve (count) in 1716.

Mörner af Morlanda, Carl Stellan greve (b. March 9, 1761, Gemmatorp, Kronoberg, Sweden - d. July 24, 1834, Växjö, Kronoberg), governor of Kronoberg (1793-1827); grandnephew of Adolf greve Mörner af Morlanda.

Mörner af Morlanda, Hampus (Vilhelm) friherre (b. June 22, 1775, Uppsala, Sweden - d. Dec. 11, 1855, Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden), governor of Västernorrland (1820-41); son of Carl Claes friherre Mörner af Morlanda.

Mörner af Morlanda, Hans Georg friherre (b. June 24, 1623 - d. Aug. 11, 1685, Jönköping, Sweden), governor of Jönköping (1672-85), Kalmar (1679-80), and Kronoberg (1679-85). He was made friherre (baron) in 1674.

Mörner af Tuna, Berndt Didrik friherre (b. Sept. 26, 1639, Bjurbäck socken, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. May 5, 1710, Bjurbäck socken), governor of Blekinge (1700-06).

Mörner af Tuna, Carl greve (b. Dec. 1, 1755, Björkö socken, Jönköping, Sweden - d. June 24, 1821, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Stockholm city (1812-18). He was raised from friherre (baron) to greve (count) in 1800.

Mornington, William Wellesley-Pole, (3rd) Earl of, original surname Wesley (b. May 20, 1763, Dangan Castle, County Meath, Ireland - d. Feb. 22, 1845, London, England), British politician; brother of Richard Colley Wellesley, Marquess Wellesley. He was chief secretary for Ireland (1809-12) and postmaster-general (1834-35). He assumed the name Wesley-Pole in 1778 and Wellesley-Pole after 1789 and succeeded as earl in 1842.

Morny, Charles Auguste (Louis Joseph), duc de (b. Sept. 15/16, 1811, Saint-Maurice, Valais, Switzerland - d. March 10, 1865, Paris), interior minister of France (1851-52); half-brother of Napoléon III; illegitimate grandson of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord. He was also president of the Legislative Corps (1854-65) and ambassador to Russia (1856-57).

A. Moro
Moro, Aldo (b. Sept. 23, 1916, Maglie, Puglia, Italy - d. May 9, 1978, near or in Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1963-68, 1974-76). After World War II, he helped organize the Christian Democrats in Puglia and was elected to the Constituent Assembly (1946) and to the Chamber of Deputies (1948). He became undersecretary of foreign affairs (1948-50), minister of justice (1955-57), and minister of public instruction (1957-59). He was appointed secretary of the Christian Democrats in 1959 during a crisis that threatened to split the party. Although he was the leader of the Dorothean (centrist) faction, he favoured forming a coalition with the Socialists. He helped bring about the resignation of the conservative Christian Democrat prime minister Fernando Tambroni in 1960 and brought the party round to accepting the Socialist alliance in 1962. The government he formed in 1963 was the first in 16 years in which Socialists took part. Many of the reforms he had envisaged failed to materialize, but his manoeuvring skill allowed him to remain in office, forming new governments in 1964 and 1966. He had a knack for getting things done by compromise draped in intentionally ambiguous semantics. Having been foreign minister in 1969-72 and 1973-74, he became premier again in 1974 at the head of a coalition with the Republicans, but this government fell in January 1976 and he then led a short minority government. Taking over the chairmanship of the Christian Democrats in October 1976, he remained a powerful influence in Italian politics; in 1978 he was seen as a front-runner for the presidency. But on March 16, 1978, he was kidnapped in Rome by Red Brigades terrorists, and after the government repeatedly refused to release 13 members of the Red Brigades on trial in Turin, he was murdered by his kidnappers.

Moro, Sérgio (Fernando) (b. Aug. 1, 1972, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (2019-20).

Morones Prieto, Ignacio (b. March 3, 1899, Linares, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Oct. 30, 1974, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Nuevo León (1949-52). He was also Mexican minister of health and welfare (1952-58) and ambassador to France (1960-66).

Morote, Manuel Vicente (b. Dec. 13, 1840, Lima, Peru - d. Feb. 14, 1900, Lima), justice and education minister of Peru (1894-95).

Moroz, Oleksandr (Oleksandrovych) (b. Feb. 29, 1944, Buda village, Tarashchan district, Kiev oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), Ukrainian presidential candidate (1999, 2004, 2010, 2019). Leader of the Socialist Party (1991-2010, 2011-12), he was also chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) in 1994-98 and 2006-07.

Morozov, Ivan (Pavlovich) (b. Sept. 30, 1924, Mezhador, Komi autonomous oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Komi republic, Russia] - d. April 26, 1987, Syktyvkar, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Komi A.S.S.R. (1965-87). He was also mayor of Vorkuta (1953-55).

Morozov, Ivan (Titovich) (b. 1889, Vladimir province, Russia - d. 1957, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1924-25). He was also executive secretary of the party committee of Samara province (1922-24) and people's commissar of workers' and peasants' inspection of the Kazak A.S.S.R. (1925-27).

Morozov, Kostyantyn (Petrovych) (b. June 3, 1944, Bryanka, Voroshilovgrad [now Luhansk] oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), defense minister of Ukraine (1991-93). He was also ambassador to Iran (2000-01).

S. (I.) Morozov

S. (P.) Morozov
Morozov, Sergey (Ivanovich) (b. Sept. 6, 1959), governor of Ulyanovsk oblast (2005-21). In 2000-05 he was mayor of the city of Dimitrovgrad, in Ulyanovsk oblast.

Morozov, Sergey (Petrovich) (b. May 9, 1973, Belovo, Kemerovo oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting governor of Astrakhan oblast (2018-19).

Morozov, Yury (Ionovich) (b. 1949, Sterlitamak, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of South Ossetia (2005-08).

Morri, Romeo (b. March 10, 1952, Serravalle, San Marino - d. June 8, 2022), captain-regent (1992-93) and foreign minister (2002) of San Marino. He was also minister of labour and cooperation (1998-2001) and education and culture, university, and youth policy (2008-12).

Morril, David L(awrence) (b. June 10, 1772, Epping, New Hampshire - d. Jan. 28, 1849, Concord, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1824-27). He was also a U.S. senator from New Hampshire (1817-23).

Morrill, Anson P(easlee) (b. June 10, 1803, Belgrade, Mass. [now in Maine] - d. July 4, 1887, Augusta, Maine), governor of Maine (1855-56).

Morrill, Edmund N(eedham) (b. Feb. 12, 1834, Westbrook, Maine - d. March 14, 1909, San Antonio, Texas), governor of Kansas (1895-97).

Morrill, Lot M(yrick) (b. May 3, 1813, Belgrade, Mass. [now in Maine] - d. Jan. 10, 1883, Augusta, Maine), governor of Maine (1858-61) and U.S. secretary of the treasury (1876-77); brother of Anson P. Morrill.

Al. Morris
Morris, Alexander (b. March 17, 1826, Perth, Upper Canada [now Ontario] - d. Oct. 28, 1889, Toronto, Ont.), lieutenant governor of Manitoba (1872-77) and the Northwest Territories (1872-76). A Conservative and strong supporter of Canadian confederation, he was elected to his father's former seat of South Lanark, Upper Canada, in the legislature of the united province of Canada in 1861. He held the seat through Confederation (1867) until 1872. From 1869 to 1872 he served in the dominion cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald as minister of inland revenue. In July 1872 he was appointed as the first chief justice of the Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench. In December that year he was made lieutenant governor of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories. He presided over the introduction of the first form of responsible government to the Territories and facilitated that jurisdiction's development toward autonomy. From 1878 to 1886 he represented East Toronto in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.

Morris, Anthony (b. Aug. 23, 1654, Stepney, London, England - d. Oct. 23, 1721), mayor of Philadelphia (1703-04).

Morris, Anthony (b. March 15, 1682 [1681, O.S.], London, England - d. Sept. 23, 1763, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), mayor of Philadelphia (1738-39); son of the above.

Morris, Basil Moorhouse (b. Dec. 19, 1888, Melbourne, Victoria - d. April 5, 1975, Upper Beaconsfield, Vic.), military administrator of Papua (1942-45).

Morris (of St. John's and Waterford), Edward Patrick Morris, (1st) Baron (b. May 8, 1859, St. John's, Newfoundland [now in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada] - d. Oct. 24, 1935, London, England), prime minister of Newfoundland (1909-17). In 1885 he was elected to the House of Assembly as an independent, topping the polls in the three-member district of St. John's West. He represented the district in the next eight elections. In the election of 1889 he supported William Whiteway and entered the executive council without portfolio. Following the 1893 election, he, with 16 other Whiteway supporters, was unseated on charges of patronage during the election. His disqualification from contending the subsequent by-election resulted in the only interruption in 33 years representing St. John's West. Returning to the executive council in 1895 when Whiteway formed a new administration, he was selected as a delegate to Ottawa to discuss terms under which Newfoundland might confederate with Canada. When Robert Bond became prime minister in 1900, Morris agreed to enter the executive council as minister without portfolio. A split between Bond and Morris occurred in 1907. On March 5, 1908, Morris announced the formation of the People's Party and in elections that year, both the Liberals and the People's Party elected 18 members. After some manoeuvring Bond resigned in 1909, and Morris became prime minister. The House was unable to agree on the choice of a speaker, and a new election was called. The People's Party won 26 seats to the Liberals' 10. Morris also won the 1913 election. He resigned on Dec. 31, 1917, and the next day was created Baron Morris - the only native Newfoundlander to be elevated to the British peerage. He was knighted in 1904, became a Privy Councillor in 1911, and was created K.C.M.G. in 1913.

Morris, Gouverneur (b. Jan. 30, 1752, "Morrisania" manor [now in the Bronx, New York City], New York - d. Nov. 6, 1816, "Morrisania"), U.S. statesman. He was a framer of the constitution (1787) and minister to France (1792-94).

Morris, Guy Norman (b. Sept. 7, 1886, Thurlby Domain, near Arrowtown, Otago, N.Z. - d. May 21, 1949, Wellington, N.Z.), resident commissioner of Niue (1918-20, 1922-26).

Morris, Sir John Demetrius (b. Dec. 24, 1902, Hawthorn, Melbourne, Vic. - d. July 3, 1956, Hobart, Tas.), acting governor of Tasmania (1945, 1951); knighted 1943. He was chief justice (1939-56).

Morris, Sir John Henry (b. April 9, 1828 - d. Sept. 14, 1912), chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1867 [acting], 1868-83); knighted 1883.

Morris, Luzon B(urritt) (b. April 16, 1827, Newtown, Conn. - d. Aug. 22, 1895, New Haven, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1893-95).

Morris, Robert (b. Jan. 20, 1734, Liverpool, England - d. May 8, 1806, Philadelphia, Pa.), U.S. politician. He was a member of the Continental Congress (1775-78), a signer of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the Constitution (1787), superintendent of finance (1781-84), and a U.S. senator from Pennsylvania (1789-95). He declined the office of secretary of the treasury in George Washington's cabinet. Known as the "financier of the American Revolution" and one of the richest men in America, unsuccessful land speculations caused him to be imprisoned for debt (1798-1801).

Morris, W(illiam) D(owler) (b. Aug. 21, 1857, County Leitrim, Ireland - d. April 13, 1931, Bermuda), mayor of Ottawa (1901).

Morrison, Cameron (A.) (b. Oct. 5, 1869, near Rockingham, N.C. - d. Aug. 20, 1953, Québec, Que.), governor of North Carolina (1921-25). He was also a U.S. senator (1930-32) and representative (1943-45) from North Carolina.

Morrison, Frank B(renner) (b. May 20, 1905, Golden, Colo. - d. April 19, 2004, McCook, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (1961-67). He entered politics in 1934, when elected Frontier County's county attorney. He ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. House in 1948 and 1954, and for the Senate in 1958. The fact that a Democrat who was opposed to the Vietnam War and capital punishment could be elected governor in predominantly Republican Nebraska in the 1960s attested to his charisma. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson persuaded him to not seek a fourth two-year term as governor in 1966, and instead run against Carl Curtis for the Senate. He lost the race, then lost another Senate bid in 1970. He was appointed Douglas County defender in 1970, and was involved in representing two black men who were convicted of murdering a white Omaha officer. He remained active through his senior years, speaking out against the war in Iraq and opposing capital punishment as a witness during legislative hearings. In 2000, when he was 95, his dream of a monument celebrating the convergence of the Oregon, Mormon, and California trails in Nebraska came true with the construction of the Great Platte River Road Archway Monument in Kearney. After mulling over the idea for decades, Morrison started work on the $60 million archway and its series of multimedia exhibits in the mid-1990s.

Morrison (of Lambeth), Herbert (Stanley) Morrison, Baron (b. Jan. 3, 1888, London, England - d. March 6, 1965, Sidcup, Kent, England), British home secretary (1940-45), deputy prime minister and lord president of the council (1945-51), and foreign secretary (1951). He was created a life peer in 1959.

Morrison, John T(racy) (b. Dec. 25, 1860, Jefferson county, Pa. - d. Dec. 20, 1915), governor of Idaho (1903-05).

S. Morrison
Morrison, Scott (John) (b. May 13, 1968, Sydney, N.S.W.), treasurer (2015-18) and prime minister (2018-22) of Australia. He was also minister of immigration and border protection (2013-14) and social services (2014-15) and leader of the Liberal Party (2018-22).

Morrison, William (Lawrence), byname Bill Morrison (b. Nov. 3, 1928, Lithgow, N.S.W. - d. Feb. 14, 2013, Bardwell Valley, N.S.W.), defence minister of Australia (1975). He was also minister of science (1972-75), external territories (1972-73), and consumer affairs (1975) and ambassador to Indonesia (1985-89).

Morrissey, Daniel, Irish Domhnall Ó Muirgheasa (b. Nov. 28, 1895, Nenagh, County Tipperary, Ireland - d. 1981), justice minister of Ireland (1951). He was also minister of industry and commerce (1948-51).

Morrow, Edwin P(orch) (b. Nov. 28, 1877, Somerset, Ky. - d. June 15, 1935, Frankfort, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1919-23).

J.J. Morrow
Morrow, Jay J(ohnson) (b. Feb. 20, 1870, Fairview, Va. - d. April 16, 1937, Englewood, N.J.), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1921-24). He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1891, receiving his commission in the Corps of Engineers. He was ordered to the Philippines in 1898, where he served as military governor of the province of Zamboanga in 1901-02. His first tour of duty in the Panama Canal Zone was as maintenance engineer in 1916 and 1917, during which time he often officiated as acting governor. On June 26, 1916, he was promoted from colonel to brigadier general and in December of that year was ordered back to the U.S. to take command at Camp A.A. Humphreys in Virginia. In June 1919, he returned to the Panama Canal as a maintenance engineer, serving in that capacity until 1921, when he was appointed governor by Pres. Warren G. Harding. He found himself confronted with a task of reorganization, a job which involved the difficult and disagreeable work of reducing the canal force from its wartime high. He was interested in obtaining a large reserve supply of water for Gatun Lake, the artificial body of water supplying the canal, and made several surveys of the Chagres River to build an additional reservoir. He supervised many improvements in the canal. Morrow also supervised the construction of a special basin, brought the dredging system of the waterway to a high degree of efficiency, and widened the most perilous part of the passage, the bend around Gaillard Cut. Both the Pedro Miguel and Miraflores locks were improved while he was governor. From 1925 to 1929 he was chairman of a special commission arbitrating the boundary dispute between Chile and Bolivia.

Morrow, Jeremiah (b. Oct. 6, 1771, near Gettysburg, Pa. - d. March 22, 1852, Twenty Mile Stand, near Lebanon, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1822-26).

Morse, Chuck, byname of Charles W. Morse (b. Oct. 11, 1960, Salem, N.H.), acting governor of New Hampshire (2017).

M. Morsy
Morsy (Isa al-Ayat), Mohamed, also spelled Morsi, Arabic in full Muhammad Muhammad Mursi `Isa al-`Ayyat (b. Aug. 8, 1951, al-Sharqiya governorate, Egypt - d. June 17, 2019, Cairo, Egypt), president of Egypt (2012-13). An engineer who worked in the 1980s for the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, he became a member of parliament in 2000-05. In 2006 he was arrested and imprisoned for seven months after participating in protests calling for the establishment of an independent judiciary. He was a member of the Guidance Bureau of the Muslim Brotherhood until the foundation in 2011 of the Freedom and Justice Party, of which he became president. After the revolution that overthrew Pres. Hosni Mubarak in 2011, Egypt's first free presidential elections were held in 2012. Morsy defeated Ahmed Shafiq by a relatively narrow margin in a runoff. Shortly before he took office in July, the outgoing military government issued a "constitutional declaration" stripping the presidency of much of its authority, but in August he apparently took the upper hand and revoked the declaration. In 2013 opposition to his government was fuelled by a deteriorating economy and a perception that he was pursuing policies dictated by the Muslim Brotherhood, and there were clashes between his opponents and supporters. He was then overthrown in a military coup, after only a year in office, and was held in detention since. In September 2013 he was charged with incitement to conduct murder and "thuggery" relating to clashes near the presidential palace in December 2012. In April 2015 he was sentenced to 20 years in prison. In May he was sentenced to death together with more than 100 other defendants for involvement in mass jail breaks during the 2011 uprising against Mubarak. In June 2016 he was given a 40-year sentence for passing state secrets to Qatar. The death sentence was overturned in November 2016 and a retrial ordered. He died after collapsing during a court hearing in 2019.

Morsy, Seymour (b. Feb. 5, 1963, Rabat, Morocco), prefect of Mayotte (2014-16). He was also prefect of the départements of Indre (2016-18) and Haute-Vienne (2018-21).

Mortara, Lodovico (b. April 16, 1855, Mantua, Austria [now in Lombardia, Italy] - d. Jan. 1, 1937, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1919-20).

Mortemart, Casimir Louis Victurnien de Rochechouart, duc de (b. March 20, 1787, Paris, France - d. Jan. 1, 1875, Neauphle-le-Vieux, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France), prime minister and foreign minister of France (1830). He was also ambassador to Russia (1828-30, 1833).

Mortensen, Kjeld (Vilhelm) (b. Jan. 31, 1925), Danish diplomat. He was ambassador to Egypt, Libya, Sudan, and Ethiopia (1971-76), China, Vietnam, North Korea, and Kampuchea (1976-80), and Finland (1980-84) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-91).

Morton, Azie Taylor, née Taylor (b. Feb. 1, 1936, Dale, Texas - d. Dec. 7, 2003, Austin, Texas), treasurer of the United States (1977-81).

Morton, J(ulius) Sterling (b. April 22, 1832, Adams, N.Y. - d. April 27, 1902, Lake Forest, Ill.), acting governor of Nebraska (1858-59, 1861) and U.S. secretary of agriculture (1893-97). He was the founder of Arbor Day in the U.S.

Morton, Levi P(arsons) (b. May 16, 1824, Shoreham, Vt. - d. May 16, 1920, Rhinebeck, N.Y.), U.S. vice president (1889-93) and governor of New York (1895-97). He was also minister to France (1881-85).

Morton, Marcus (b. Dec. 19, 1784, Freetown, Mass. - d. Feb. 6, 1864, Taunton, Mass.), governor of Massachusetts (1825 [acting], 1840-41, 1843-44).

Morton, Oliver (Hazard) P(erry Throck) (b. Aug. 4, 1823, Salisbury, Ind. - d. Nov. 1, 1877, Indianapolis, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1861-67).

Morton, Paul (b. May 22, 1857, Detroit, Mich. - d. Jan. 19, 1911, New York City), U.S. secretary of the navy (1904-05); son of J. Sterling Morton.

Morton, Rogers C(lark) B(allard) (b. Sept. 19, 1914, Louisville, Ky. - d. April 19, 1979, Easton, Md.), U.S. politician; brother of Thruston B. Morton. He first took an active role in politics after World War II when he ran congressional campaigns in Kentucky for his brother. In 1962 he was elected from Maryland to the first of five consecutive terms (1963-71) in the House of Representatives. In 1969 he was named national chairman of the Republican Party. In 1971 he was appointed secretary of the interior by Pres. Richard M. Nixon and in 1975 secretary of commerce by Pres. Gerald R. Ford, serving until 1976.

Morton, Thruston B(allard) (b. Aug. 19, 1907, Louisville, Ky. - d. Aug. 14, 1982, Louisville), U.S. politician; brother of Rogers C.B. Morton. He was a seventh-generation Kentuckian who became a towering figure in state politics while representing Louisville in the House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 and serving as U.S. senator from 1957 to 1969. He was also assistant secretary of state (1953-56) under Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower and was national chairman (1959-61) of the Republican Party during the 1960 presidential campaign. Morton was opposed to the war in Vietnam and called for bold U.S. leadership in world affairs. At the peak of his career in 1968, Morton surprised his constituents by deciding to not seek reelection.

Mortun, Vasile G(eorge) (b. Nov. 30, 1860, Roman, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. July 30, 1919, Brosteni, Romania), interior minister of Romania (1914-16). He was also minister of public works (1907-10) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1916-18).

Moruzi, Alexandru Constantin (b. c. 1750 - d. 1816, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), prince of Moldavia (1792-93, 1802-06, 1806-07) and Walachia (1793-96, 1799-1801); son of Constantin Dimitrie Moruzi. He was also grand dragoman of the Porte (1790-92).

Moruzi, Constantin Dimitrie (b. 1730 - d. 1787), prince of Moldavia (1777-82). He was also grand dragoman of the Porte (1774-77).

Morville, Charles Jean-Baptiste Fleuriau (d'Armenonville), comte de (b. Oct. 30, 1686, Paris, France - d. Feb. 2, 1732, Paris), foreign minister of France (1723-27); son of Joseph Jean-Baptiste Fleuriau d'Armenonville. He was also ambassador to the Netherlands (1718-22) and minister of marine and colonies (1722-23).

Mosanu, Alexandru (Constantin) (b. July 19, 1932, Braniste, Romania [now in Moldova] - d. Dec. 7, 2017), Moldovan politician. He was chairman of parliament (1990-93).

Mosar, Nicolas (b. Nov. 25, 1927, Luxembourg, Luxembourg - d. Jan. 6, 2004), Luxembourg politician. He was chairman of the Christian Social People's Party (1972-74), European commissioner for energy (1985-89), and ambassador to Italy (1989-92).

Mosbacher, Robert A(dam) (b. March 11, 1927, Mount Vernon, N.Y. - d. Jan. 24, 2010, Houston, Texas), U.S. commerce secretary (1989-92).

Mosbakk, Kurt (b. Nov. 21, 1934, Orkdal, Sør-Trøndelag [now in Trøndelag], Norway), acting governor of Finnmark (1990). He was also Norwegian minister of trade and shipping (1986-88).

Mosca (Colombo), Enrique (de las Mercedes) (b. July 15, 1880, Santa Fe, Argentina - d. July 22, 1950, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Santa Fe (1920-24) and federal interventor in Mendoza (1924-26).

Moscicki, Ignacy (b. Dec. 1, 1867, Mierzanów, Poland, Russian Empire [now in Poland] - d. Oct. 2, 1946, Versoix, Switzerland), president of Poland (1926-39). In the early 1890s he was involved in nationalist activism. To avoid arrest by the Russian police, he fled to London in July 1892, where he met Józef Pilsudski. He lived in Switzerland from 1897 but returned to Poland in January 1913, becoming a noted chemist. After Pilsudski's coup d'état in May 1926, Moscicki, on Pilsudski's recommendation, was elected as president of the republic by the Sejm and Senate sitting together. He served Pilsudski faithfully and was reelected to another seven-year term in 1933. After Pilsudski's death (1935), Moscicki's influence increased. His part in accepting the German challenge in 1939 was decisive. After the German invasion, he left the country with the government (September 17) for allied Romania, but the Romanians interned him at Bicaz. He resigned on September 30, having appointed Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz as his successor. In December he was allowed to leave Romania for Switzerland, whose government made him an honorary citizen. He resided there until his death.

Moscoso, Henrique de Athayde Lobo (b. Pernambuco province [now state], Brazil - d. June 8, 1889, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1888-89).

Moscoso (Flores), Jorge (Ricardo Francisco) (b. May 17, 1958, Arequipa, Peru), defense minister of Peru (2019). He was also chief of the Joint Command of the Armed Forces (2014-16).

M. Moscoso
Moscoso (Rodríguez viuda de Arias), Mireya (Elisa) (b. July 1, 1946, Panama City, Panama), president of Panama (1999-2004). In the early 1960s she met Arnulfo Arias Madrid. She worked in his political campaigns and when Arias was deposed by Omar Torrijos in 1968 and went into exile in Miami, Fla., Moscoso joined him. She and Arias married on Dec. 27, 1973, when she was 27 and he was 72; he died in 1988. In the early 1990s she held minor posts in the Panamanian government. She was involved in the creation of the Arnulfista Party, named after her late husband, in 1990 and became president of the party in 1991. From 1989 to 1998 she appeared as Mireya Moscoso de Gruber, during her second marriage, which ended in divorce. A dark horse in Panama's 1994 presidential elections, she came in a close second to Ernesto Pérez Balladares, winning 28% of the vote compared to his 34%, after nearly doubling her support in her campaign's final two weeks. Since then, Moscoso struck a chord with Panama's increasingly outspoken poor and middle classes. In March 1998 she finished ahead of banker Alberto Vallarino in the Arnulfista Party primary, winning about 60% of the vote. In her populist-leaning campaign she vowed not to continue with certain reforms enacted by the Pérez Balladares government, such as the privatization of state-owned businesses. She also said she would review and possibly change Pérez Balladares's nominees to the Supreme Court and the board of directors of the Panama Canal, as well as the 1998 banking regulatory law. She won the 1999 elections with 45% of the votes to 38% for Martín Torrijos, son of Omar Torrijos. She became Panama's first female president. In December 1999 she oversaw the U.S. handover of the Panama Canal.

Moscoso Gutiérrez, Óscar (b. Dec. 6, 1899, Sucre, Bolivia - d. Jan. 24, 1989), foreign minister (1936) and defense minister (1936-37) of Bolivia.

Moscovici, Pierre (b. Sept. 16, 1957, Paris, France), economy and finance minister of France (2012-14). He has also been minister-delegate for European affairs (1997-2002), minister of external commerce (2012), EU commissioner for economic and financial affairs, taxation, and customs (2014-19), and first president of the Court of Accounts (2020- ).

Moseley, Harley (Sutherland Lewis) (b. Feb. 2, 1919), Barbadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-86) and ambassador to Cuba (1983-86).

Moseley, William D(unn) (b. Feb. 1, 1795, "Moseley Hall," Lenoir county, N.C. - d. Jan. 4, 1863, Palatka, Fla.), governor of Florida (1845-49).

Moseley Braun, Carol (Elizabeth), née Moseley (b. Aug. 16, 1947, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. politician. She was a senator from Illinois (1993-99), ambassador to New Zealand (1999-2001) and Samoa (2000-01), and a candidate for the 2004 Democratic presidential nomination.

D. Moses
Moses, Dennis (D.), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (2015-20). He has also been high commissioner to Canada (2021- ).

Moses, Franklin J., Jr., originally Franklin Israel Moses, Jr. (b. March 17, 1838, Sumter district [now county], S.C. - d. Dec. 11, 1906, Winthrop, Mass.), governor of South Carolina (1872-74).

Moses, George H(iggins) (b. Feb. 9, 1869, Lubec, Maine - d. Dec. 20, 1944, Concord, N.H.), president pro tempore of the United States Senate (1925-33). He was also minister to Greece and Montenegro (1909-12).

Moses, John (b. June 12, 1885, Strand, Stavanger amt [now Rogaland fylke], Norway - d. March 3, 1945, Rochester, Minn.), governor of North Dakota (1939-45). He was also a U.S. senator from North Dakota (1945).

Moses, Marlene (Inemwin) (b. 1961, Nauru), Nauruan diplomat. She has been consul in Tokyo (1988-90), consul-general in Auckland (1991-95), permanent representative to the United Nations (2005-20), chairperson of the Alliance of Small Island States (2012-14), and high commissioner to India (2022- ).

Moses, Pedro (b. Jan. 11, 1937, U, Ponape [now Pohnpei], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. Dec. 9, 2020), Nahnmwarki of U (2013-20).

R.S. Moses

T.O. Moses
Moses, Resio S(amuel) (b. Aug. 31, 1944, U, Ponape [now Pohnpei], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. June 22, 2009, Nett, Pohnpei), governor of Ponape/Pohnpei (1983-92) and foreign minister of the Federated States of Micronesia (1992-96). He was also Ponape district administrator (1976-77) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-97).

Moses, Tallis Obed (b. Oct. 24, 1954, Port Vato, Ambrym island, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu]), president of Vanuatu (2017-22).

Moshanov, Stoicho (Stefanov) (b. May 25, 1892, Dryanovo, Bulgaria - d. Jan. 10, 1975, Sofia, Bulgaria), finance minister of Bulgaria (1935); nephew of Nikola Mushanov (he adopted an alternative spelling of his name to distinguish himself from his uncle). He was also economy minister (1935) and president of the National Assembly (1938-39).

Moshoeshoe II, personal name Constantine Bereng Seeiso (b. May 2, 1938, Thabang, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Jan. 15, 1996, near Ha Noha village, in the Maluti mountains, Lesotho), king of Lesotho (1965-70, 1970-90, 1995-96). He succeeded his father, Simon Seeiso Griffith, as paramount chief of the country in 1960. The U.K. granted autonomy in 1965 and he was declared king; full independence followed in 1966. Concerned with Moshoeshoe's involvement in politics, Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan placed him under house arrest, first in 1966 and again in January 1970; he was then deposed and in April 1970 forced into exile in the Netherlands. He was restored to the throne in December on the condition that he abstain from political activities. In 1986 Jonathan was toppled in a military coup by Maj.Gen. Justin Lekhanya, who in 1990 suspended Moshoeshoe's executive powers (February) and forced him into exile in London (March). From his exile the king attempted to initiate democratic elections and, as a result, was deposed (November 1990) and replaced by his eldest son, who reluctantly became King Letsie III. Moshoeshoe remained popular with the people of Lesotho, however, and, after the government was seized (1991) by another military figure, Maj.Gen. Elias Ramaema, Moshoeshoe was allowed to return from London in 1992. Lesotho held free elections in 1993; in 1994 Letsie staged a royal coup, ousting the government and announcing his intention to restore his father. International pressure forced Letsie to restore the government, but not before he had won promises that his father would also be reinstated. Accordingly, Moshoeshoe took up the throne again in 1995, but a year later he died in an automobile accident.

Mosisili, (Bethuel) Pakalitha (b. March 14, 1945, Waterfall, Qacha's Nek district, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), prime minister of Lesotho (1998-2012, 2015-17). He was minister of education (1993-95) and home affairs (1995-98) and deputy prime minister (1995-98). In 1998 he took over the leadership of the ruling Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD) and led it to an overwhelming election victory. However, the crushing victory led to opposition protests over vote-rigging and eventually violence erupted in Lesotho, prompting military intervention by South Africa and the death of more than 60 people. A compromise with the opposition led to an agreement for fresh elections in 18 months. In the end, the elections were only held in 2002, but under a new electoral system, whereby 40 proportional representation seats were added to the existing 80 constituency seats. The LCD still won a majority. In 2007 he won a third term in office despite his government being dogged by allegations of corruption. In 2012 he left the LCD; 44 members of parliament joined him in crossing the floor to form a new party, the Democratic Congress, which thus became the largest party in parliament, though without an overall majority. In the subsequent elections his party came first but remained short of a majority, and the opposition parties teamed up to replace him. After elections in 2015, though his party's lead was narrowed to just one seat, he was able to return to power after the LCD changed allegiance. In 2017 he lost a no-confidence vote and the ensuing elections.

Moskalewski, Stanislaw (Witalis) (b. April 28, 1876, Sieprawki, near Lublin, Poland - d. Sept. 6, 1936, Poznan, Poland), governor of Lubelskie województwo (1919-26).

Moskovsky, Vasily (Petrovich) (b. 1904, Bocheyno, Novgorod province, Russia - d. June 1984, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He was a deputy premier of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1960-62) and Soviet ambassador to North Korea (1962-65), also chief editor of the newspapers Krasnaya Zvezda (1954-55) and Sovetskaya Rossiya (1965-71).

Moskvichev, Ivan (Romanovich) (b. Sept. 16, 1913, Maly Kugunur, Vyatka province [now in Mari El republic], Russia - d. Aug. 18, 1978, Yoshkar-Ola, Mari A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Mari A.S.S.R. (1959-68). He was also chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1956-59).

Mosley, Sir Oswald (Ernald), (6th) Baronet (b. Nov. 16, 1896, London, England - d. Dec. 3, 1980, Orsay, Essonne, France), British politician; son-in-law of George Nathaniel Curzon, Marquess Curzon of Kedleston. He served in the House of Commons as a Conservative (1918-22), an independent (1922-24), and then a Labour Party member (1924, 1926-31) and served in a Labour government as chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1929-30). He succeeded his father as baronet in 1928. Having formed the socialist New Party, he was defeated for reelection to Parliament in 1931 despite his powerful orations. After a trip to Fascist Italy, Mosley founded the British Union of Fascists (BUF) in 1932, becoming a British imitator of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. The group distributed anti-Semitic propaganda, staged hostile demonstrations in Jewish sections of London's East End, and wore uniforms emblazoned with Nazi insignia. But, unlike the continental Fascist leaders, Mosley, with his open advocacy of totalitarianism, failed to win much popular support in his native land, although he was supported by the newspaper publisher Viscount Rothermere. His pro-German agitations constituted a danger to national security with the start of World War II, and in 1940 he was interned without a trial. He was released in 1943 because of poor health. After the war, he reorganized the BUF as the Union Movement in 1948. In 1959 he ran again for Parliament but lost his deposit. In one of his last major appearances, in London's Trafalgar Square in 1962, he was knocked down and kicked by opponents. He made another unsuccessful run for Parliament in 1966. He had given up permanent residence in Britain in 1951, moving first to Ireland and then to France.

Mosolov, Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. Feb. 19, 1854 - d. Oct. 1, 1939, Sofia, Bulgaria), Russian diplomat. He was minister to Romania (1916-17).

Mosquera (y Dalla Costa), Bernardino (b. Feb. 6, 1855, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Oct. 1, 1923, Paris, France), foreign minister of Venezuela (1917-19). He was also minister of education (1899).

Mosquera (y Arboleda), Joaquín (Mariano) de (b. Dec. 14, 1787, Popayán, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. April 4, 1878, Popayán), president of Colombia (1830). He was also minister to Chile, Peru, and Argentina (1822-23) and vice president (1833-35).

Mosquera (y Arboleda), Tomás Cipriano (Ignacio María) de (b. Sept. 26, 1798, Popayán, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. Oct. 7, 1878, Coconuco hacienda, Puracé, Colombia), president of New Granada/Colombia (1845-49, 1861-63, 1863-64, 1866-67); brother of Joaquín de Mosquera. Born into a prominent colonial family, he served under Simón Bolívar at the age of 15 and was a brigadier general at 30. He was minister to Peru (1829-30), the United States (1830-33), and Chile, Peru, and Bolivia (1842-45), war minister (1838-40), foreign minister (1839), and governor (1858-63) and president (1871-73) of Cauca. He was instrumental in repressing a revolt led by religious interests against constitutionalist measures (1839-42). By the time of his first presidency, he had begun to move to the Conservative camp, favouring centralist rule, supported by his brother Manuel José Mosquera, the archbishop of Bogotá, and the army. He introduced notable educational and economic reforms. Benefitting from increasing prosperity and international trade, he took the side of the Liberals when the country was torn by civil war between Liberals and Conservatives in the late 1850s. While governor of Cauca, he provoked a revolution and, with the army under his command, he took Bogotá (July 1861) and declared himself president. He ruled as a dictator under a new federalist regime that changed the name of the country to Colombia. His power was checked by a revolt led by Gen. Leonardo Canal, with whom he came to terms. Under the liberal, anti-clerical constitution adopted in 1863, which provided for a two-year presidential term, he was elected president. Not fully trusting Mosquera, the Liberals limited his first term to one year. He was reelected in 1865, however, and soon imposed a dictatorship. He was toppled in 1867 and exiled for three years. He retired from public life in 1876.

Mosquera Chaux, Víctor (b. Oct. 1, 1919, Popayán, Colombia - d. Nov. 10, 1997, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1972). He was also governor of Cauca (1959-60), justice minister (1960), and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1967-70) and the United States (1987-91).

Mosquera Garcés, Manuel (b. June 22, 1907, Quibdó, Chocó, Colombia - d. Jan. 31, 1972, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was minister of education (1949-50, 1953-54) and labour (1952-53) and president of the Senate (1952, 1966-67).

Moss, Sir David (Joseph) (b. Nov. 6, 1938), governor of Pitcairn Island (1990-94); knighted 1998. He was also British high commissioner to New Zealand and Western Samoa (1990-94) and Malaysia (1994-98).

Moss, Frederick Joseph (b. 1827, Longwood, St. Helena - d. July 8, 1904, Auckland, N.Z.), resident of the Cook Islands (1891-98).

Mossadegh, Mohammad, Mossadegh also spelled Mosaddeq (b. May 19, 1882, Tehran, Iran - d. March 5, 1967, Tehran), prime minister of Iran (1951-52, 1952-53). He served as governor-general of Fars province (1920-21), finance minister (1921-22), governor-general of Azerbaijan province (1922-23), and then briefly as foreign minister (1923). He was elected to the Majles (parliament) in 1923. When Reza Khan was elected shah in 1925, Mossadegh opposed the move and was compelled to retire from politics. He resumed his public career in 1944, following Reza's forced abdication in 1941, and was elected again to the Majles. He built considerable political strength on his call for the nationalization of Iran's oil industry, specifically the concessions and installations of the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. In March 1951 the Majles passed his nationalization act, and his power was such that the shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was more or less forced to appoint him premier. A political crisis in 1952 resulted in his resignation but street riots followed and he was back in office within days. His odd personal behaviour - such as appearing in public wearing pajamas, receiving visitors and holding cabinet meetings while propped up in bed, and bouts of public weeping - was attributed by some to ill health and by others to an appeal for sympathy. A struggle for control of the government developed between Mossadegh and the shah, who attempted to dismiss the premier in 1953. Mobs of Mossadegh followers again took to the streets and the shah left the country. Soon, however, a royalist uprising - directed by the U.S. CIA - restored the shah to power. Mossadegh was sentenced to three years' imprisonment for treason; after his release in 1956 he was kept under house arrest for the rest of his life.

Mossberg, (Hugo Karl) Eije (b. Jan. 21, 1908, Vaxholm, Stockholm county, Sweden - d. July 28, 1997, Switzerland), interior minister of Sweden (1947-51) and governor of Kopparberg (1951-57).

Mossion, Jacques (b. Dec. 25, 1927 - d. Feb. 3, 1996), president of the Regional Council of Picardie (1979-80).

Mostovoy, Pavel (Ivanovich) (b. April 26, 1931, Semenovka, Kharkov oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Semenivka, Kharkiv oblast, Ukraine] - d. May 2, 2000), Soviet politician. He was mayor (1965-70) and first secretary of the party committee (1970-71) of Kramatorsk, chairman of the State Committee for Material and Technical Supply of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1978-89), and a deputy premier and chairman of the State Committee for Material and Technical Supply of the U.S.S.R. (1989-91).

Mostyn, Sam(antha Joy) (b. Sept. 13, 1965, Canberra, A.C.T.), governor-general of Australia (2024- ).

Moszynski, Kazimierz (b. March 3, 1881, Narodichi, Russia [now Narodychi, Ukraine] - d. Nov. 9, 1966, Warsaw, Poland), governor of Tarnopolskie województwo (1928-33).

Mota, Lourival Seroa da, original spelling Motta (b. April 13, 1901, Bahia state, Brazil - d. Oct. 24, 1958), federal interventor in Maranhão (1931-33).

Mota, Luiz de Gonzaga Fonseca (b. Dec. 9, 1942, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil), governor of Ceará (1983-87).

Mota Pinto
Mota Pinto, Carlos (Alberto de) (b. July 25, 1936, Pombal, near Coimbra, Portugal - d. May 7, 1985, Coimbra), prime minister of Portugal (1978-79). In 1974 he helped to found the Social Democratic Party (PSD). Following the April 1974 revolution, he was elected in April 1975 as a deputy to the Legislative Assembly for the PSD and participated in the drafting of the new constitution. He became the party's parliamentary leader, but left in December 1975 after a clash of personalities and a disagreement with the party head, Francisco Sá Carneiro, over the party's organization and its drift to the right. In the first constitutional government, July 1976-December 1977, led by Mário Soares, he served as minister of commerce and tourism. After the defeat of Alfredo Nobre da Costa's government, he emerged as the most acceptable candidate for premier. He was chosen on Oct. 25, 1978, with the approval of the Socialists and Centre Democrats. In order to maintain his insecure government, he favoured closer cooperation with Social Democrats and like-minded elements in the Socialist Party. He set out to tackle Portugal's economic problems, but his administration was eventually defeated by a combination of Communist and Socialist deputies. He remained active in politics, returned to lead the PSD in 1983, and became deputy prime minister and minister of defense in a coalition of his party with the Socialists (1983). Following disagreements within the PSD he resigned his seat in the Assembly (February 1985), but he was planning to reenter politics when he died.

Motanyane, Mafiroane Edmond, Lesotho diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2012-13).

Motayev, Sapargeldy, Turkmen Sapargeldi Motaýew (b. Feb. 13, 1947, Oktyabr kolkhoz, Tashauz oblast, Turkmen S.S.R. [now in Kunyaurgench etrap, Dashoguz velayat, Turkmenistan] - d. 2019, Dashoguz, Turkmenistan), a deputy prime minister of Turkmenistan (1992-96). He was also head of Dashoguz velayat (1992-96) and mayor of Dashoguz city (1996-97).

Motaze, Louis Paul (b. Jan. 31, 1959, Meyomessi, Cameroon), finance minister of Cameroon (2018- ). He was also minister of economy and planning (2007-11, 2015-18).

Motegi, Toshimitsu (b. Oct. 7, 1955, Tochigi prefecture, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (2019-21). He has also been minister of economy, trade, and industry (2012-14), minister of human resources development and minister in charge of economic revitalization (2017-19), and secretary-general of the Liberal-Democratic Party (2021- ).

Motejl, Otakar (b. Sept. 10, 1932, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. May 9, 2010, Brno, Czech Republic), justice minister of the Czech Republic (1998-2000). He was also chief justice of the Supreme Court (1993-98) and ombudsman (2000-10).

Motlanthe, Kgalema (Petrus), byname Mkhuluwa (b. July 19, 1949, Johannesburg, South Africa), president (2008-09) and deputy president (2009-14) of South Africa.

Motley, Constance Baker, née Baker (b. Sept. 14, 1921, New Haven, Conn. - d. Sept. 28, 2005, New York City), borough president of Manhattan (1965-66). She was the first African-American woman to serve as a federal judge (1966).

Moto (Nsa), Severo (Matías) (b. Nov. 6, 1943, Acóck-Esaguong, Sevilla de Niefang district, Spanish Guinea [now Equatorial Guinea]), Equatorial Guinean opposition leader. He lives in exile in Spain. On Dec. 24, 2004, he was sentenced in absentia to 63 years in jail over an alleged plot to oust Pres. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo. In 2008 he was arrested in Spain after weapons had been found in his car.

Motoc, Mihnea (Ioan) (b. Nov. 11, 1966, Bucharest, Romania), defense minister of Romania (2015-17). He was also ambassador to the Netherlands (1999-2001) and the United Kingdom (2015) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-08) and to the European Union (2008-15). In 2014 he was named foreign minister, but could not be recalled from Brussels in time and the nomination was withdrawn.

Motoda, Hajime (b. Feb. 28 [Jan. 15, lunar calendar], 1858, Kitsuki domain, Bungo province [now in Oita prefecture], Japan - d. Oct. 1, 1938, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He was minister of communications (1913-14) and railways (1920-22) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1928-29).

Motono, Ichiro, in full (from 1916) Shishaku (Viscount) Ichiro Motono (b. February 1862, Saga prefecture, Japan - d. Sept. 17, 1918, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1916-18). He was also minister to Belgium (1898-1901) and France (1901-06) and minister (1906-08) and ambassador (1908-16) to Russia.

Motorin, Ivan (Borisovich) (b. Jan. 10, 1973, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Kazakh S.S.R.), prime minister of Chuvashia (2011-20).

Motpan, Dumitru (b. May 3, 1940, Seliste, Romania [now in Moldova] - d. June 23, 2018), Moldovan politician. He was chairman of parliament (1997-98).

Motshekga, Angie, byname of Matsie Angelina Motshekga (b. June 19, 1955, Soweto, Transvaal [now in Gauteng], South Africa), defense minister of South Africa (2024- ). She was also minister of basic education (2009-24).

Motskobili, Osman (Khulusovich) (b. 1898, Kobuleti, Kutaisi province, Russia [now in Ajaria, Georgia] - d. [executed] Nov. 15, 1937, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Adzharistan (1922-25). He was also people's commissar of health (1925-26).

Motsoaledi, (Pakishe) Aaron (b. Aug. 7, 1958, Phokwane village, Transvaal [now in Limpopo], South Africa), home affairs minister of South Africa (2019-24). He has also been minister of health (2009-19, 2024- ).

Motsumi, Lesego (Ethel) (b. 1964? - d. Jan. 9, 2023, Ramotswa, Botswana), acting defense, justice, and security minister of Botswana (2010-11). She was also minister of health (2003-04, 2008-09), works and transport (2004-08), and presidential affairs and public administration (2009-10) and high commissioner to India (2011-19) and Bangladesh (2015-19).

Motta, Antonio Frederico de Carvalho (b. March 23, 1856, Granja, Ceará, Brazil - d. [hit by a car] Feb. 2, 1927, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Ceará (1912).

Motta, Apulchro (b. Oct. 7, 1857, São Cristovão, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Feb. 25, 1924, Aracaju, Sergipe), acting president of Sergipe (1898-99).

Motta, Giuseppe (b. Dec. 29, 1871, Airolo, Ticino, Switzerland - d. Jan. 23, 1940, Bern, Switzerland), finance minister (1912-19), president (1915, 1920, 1927, 1932, 1937), and foreign minister (1920-40) of Switzerland.

Motta, Joaquim Camillo Teixeira da (b. July 15, 1815, Bom Jesus do Amparo, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Jan. 29, 1873, Caeté, Minas Gerais), acting president of Minas Gerais (1862).

Motta, Vicente Pires da (b. Sept. 1, 1799, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Oct. 30, 1882, São Paulo), president of São Paulo (1834 [acting], 1842 [acting], 1848-51, 1862-64, 1869 [acting], 1870 [acting], 1871 [acting]), Pernambuco (1848), Ceará (1854-55), Paraná (1856), Minas Gerais (1860-61), and Santa Catarina (1861-62).


Mottaki, Manouchehr (b. 1953, Bandar Gaz, Golestan, Iran), foreign minister of Iran (2005-10). He was ambassador to Turkey (1985-89) and Japan (1995-99).

Mottistone, John (Edward Bernard) Seely, (1st) Baron (b. May 31, 1868, Brookhill Hall, between Derby and Nottingham, England - d. Nov. 7, 1947, Westminster, London, England), British secretary of state for war (1912-14). He was created baron in 1933.

Mottley, Mia (Amor) (b. Oct. 1, 1965), home affairs minister (2001-06), deputy prime minister (2003-08), and prime minister and finance minister (2018- ) of Barbados. She was also minister of education, youth affairs, and culture (1994-2001). She has led the Barbados Labour Party in 2008-10 and again from 2013.

Motuma Mekassa (Zeru) (b. July 30, 1965), defense minister of Ethiopia (2018- ). He was also minister of water, irrigation, and electricity (2016) and mines, petroleum, and natural gas (2016-18).

Motzfeldt, Carl Fredrik (b. April 3, 1808, Fredskjær, near Moss, Smaalenenes amt [now Østfold fylke], Norway - d. June 24, 1902, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway), governor of Finmarkens amt (1854-57) and Søndre Trondhjems amt (1857-94).

Motzfeldt, Ernst (b. March 1, 1842, Christiania [now Oslo], Norway - d. June 10, 1915), justice minister of Norway (1894-95).



Motzfeldt, Jonathan (Jakob Jørgen Otto) (b. Sept. 25, 1938, Qagssimiut, Greenland - d. Oct. 28, 2010, Nuuk, Greenland), prime minister of Greenland (1979-91, 1997-2002). A member of the left-of-centre Siumut party, he became Greenland's first prime minister with the introduction of home rule in 1979. Forced from office over a financial scandal in 1991 and replaced by Lars Emil Johansen, he later underwent treatment for alcoholism in the United States. With the backing of Johansen, also a reformed alcoholic, Motzfeldt rehabilitated himself after his return through a stint running the government-owned KNI group of companies, which he steered out of administrative and financial crisis. He again became prime minister when Johansen retired in 1997. He was also chairman of Inatsisartut (parliament) (1979-88, 1997, 2002-08).

Motzfeldt, Josef, byname Tuusi (b. Nov. 24, 1941, Igaliko, Greenland), finance minister (1999-2001, 2002-03, 2003-07) and foreign minister (2003-07) of Greenland; cousin of Jonathan Motzfeldt. He was also chairman of Inatsisartut (parliament) (2009-13).

Motzfeldt, Vivian (b. June 10, 1972), foreign minister of Greenland (2018, 2022- ). She has also been minister of education, culture, and church (2018) and industry and trade (2022- ) and chairman of Inatsisartut (parliament) (2018-21).

Mouallimi, Abdallah Y(ahya A.) al- (b. May 5, 1952, Saudi Arabia), Saudi politician. He was mayor of Jeddah (2001-05), ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (2007-11), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-22).

Mouamba, Clément (b. Nov. 13, 1943, Sibiti, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Oct. 29, 2021, Paris, France), finance minister (1992-93) and prime minister (2016-21) of Congo (Brazzaville).

Mouanza, Jonas (b. Nov. 2, 1926, Boko, French Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), Congo (Brazzaville) diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-68) and ambassador to the United States (1965) and France (1968).

Moubarak, Moussa, Arabic Musa Mubarak (b. 1900, Antoura, Lebanon - d. ...), foreign minister of Lebanon (1952-53). He was also minister of finance, public works, and education (1952) and ambassador to France (1958-59) and Italy (1959-65).

Moubarak, Samir (b. March 21, 1943, Beirut, Lebanon), Lebanese diplomat; son of Moussa Mubarak. He was ambassador to Sweden (1982-88) and Spain (1999-2006) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-99).


Moubelet Boubeya, Pacôme (b. March 12, 1963, Bitam, Gabon), interior minister (2015-16) and foreign minister (2016-17, 2020-22) of Gabon. He was also minister of higher education (2014-15), forest, sea, and environment (2017-20), and industry (2022-23).

Mouchel-Blaisot, Rollon (b. June 19, 1959, Carteret, Manche, France), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (2008-10).

Moukambi, Paul (b. March 20, 1938, Moupoupa, Gabon - d. Oct. 5, 1989, Paris, France), finance minister of Gabon (1972-76). He was also personal advisor to the president (1969-72) and minister of budget (1972) and economy (1972-76).

Mouknass, Hamdi Ould, Arabic Hamdi walad al-Muknas (b. 1935, Port-Étienne [now Nouadhibou], Mauritania - d. Sept. 15, 1999, Nouakchott, Mauritania), foreign minister (1968-70, 1971-78) and defense minister (1970-71) of Mauritania. He was also minister of youth, cultural affairs, and information (1968).

N.M. Mouknass

P. Moukoko
Mouknass, Naha Mint (Hamdi Ould), Arabic Naha mint Hamdi walad al-Muknas (b. March 10, 1969, Nouakchott, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2009-11); daughter of Hamdi Ould Mouknass. She has also been minister of commerce, industry, crafts, and tourism (2014-18, 2020-22), social affairs, childhood, and family (2018), national education and vocational training (2018-19), and water and sanitation (2019-20).

Moukoko Koulla, Édouard (b. April 25, 1927, Bonaléa, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), finance minister of Cameroon (1985-86).

Moukoko Mbonjo, Pierre (b. July 25, 1954, Bonabéri, Douala, French Cameroons [now in Cameroon]), foreign minister of Cameroon (2011-15). He was also minister of communications (2004-06).

Moulana, (Seyed Ahmed Seyed) Alavi (b. Jan. 1, 1932 - d. June 15, 2016, Colombo, Sri Lanka), governor of Western province, Sri Lanka (2002-15). He was also minister of labour (2000-01).

Moulaye, Mohamed (b. Oct. 1, 1936, Ouagadougou, Upper Volta [now Burkina Faso]), finance minister of Mauritania (1975-77, 1979).

Z. Moulaye
Moulaye, Zeïni (b. 1954, Gao, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (2020-21). He was also minister of transport and tourism (1989-91).

Moulton, Seth (Wilbur) (b. Oct. 24, 1978, Salem, Mass.), U.S. politician. He has been a representative from Massachusetts (2015- ) and a candidate for the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination.

Moultrie, James B(ertram) (b. Dec. 27, 1944, Eleuthera, Bahamas), Bahamian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-94).

Moultrie, William (b. Dec. 4 [Nov. 23, O.S.], 1730, Charles Town [now Charleston], South Carolina - d. Sept. 27, 1805, Charleston), governor of South Carolina (1785-87, 1792-94).

Moumin, Amini Ali (b. Aug. 30, 1944, Mutsamudu, Anjouan, Comoros), Comoran diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States and Canada and permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-97).

Moungar, Fidèle (Abdelkerim) (b. 1948, Doba, Chad), prime minister of Chad (1993). He was also minister of education (1992-93).

Moungounga Nkombo, Nguila (b. April 9, 1940, Mouyondzi, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. April 14, 2010, Paris, France), economy and finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1993-97). He was also minister of commerce, industrial development, and fisheries (1992-93).

Mount, James A(twell) (b. March 24, 1843, Montgomery county, Ind. - d. Jan. 16, 1901, Indianapolis, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1897-1901).

Mountbatten of Burma, Louis Mountbatten, (1st) Earl, Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, Baron Romsey, original name Albert Victor Nicholas Louis Francis, Prince of Battenberg (b. June 25, 1900, Frogmore House, Windsor, England - d. Aug. 27, 1979, Donegal Bay, off Mullaghmore, County Sligo, Ireland), viceroy (1947) and governor-general (1947-48) of India. He was the fourth child of Prince Louis of Battenberg (afterward Marquess of Milford Haven) and his wife, Princess Victoria of Hesse-Darmstadt, granddaughter of Britain's Queen Victoria. He became Mountbatten when his father relinquished his title, assumed his anglicized surname in 1917, and was created Marquess of Milford Haven. Entering the Royal Navy in 1913, he became supreme allied commander for Southeast Asia (1943-46) and successfully conducted the campaign against Japan that led to the recapture of Burma. As the last viceroy of India he administered the transfer of power from Britain to the newly independent nations of India and Pakistan at the partition of the subcontinent that took effect Aug. 15, 1947. As the first governor-general of India he then helped persuade the Indian princes to accede to either India or Pakistan. He was created viscount in 1946 and earl in 1947. He was fourth sea lord in 1950-52, commander in chief of the Mediterranean fleet in 1952-54, and first sea lord in 1955-59, the post his Austrian-born father had had to resign in 1914. He became an admiral of the fleet in 1956, served as chief of the Defence Staff and chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee in 1959-65, and became governor (1965) and then lord lieutenant (1974) of the Isle of Wight. He was assassinated by Provisional Irish Republican Army terrorists who planted a bomb in his fishing boat.

Moura, Aluízio de Andrade (b. April 25, 1905, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. Nov. 13, 1973, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Rio Grande do Norte (1931).

Moura, Álvaro José Costa de Mendonça e (b. March 17, 1951, Porto, Portugal), Portuguese diplomat. He was ambassador to Austria (1995-99), Slovenia (1996-99), Slovakia (1996-99), and Spain (2008-13) and permanent representative to the European Union (2002-08) and the United Nations (2013-17).

Moura, Antonio Joaquim de (b. 1778, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. 1857), president of Alagoas (1835-36).

Moura, Camilo Soares de (b. Oct. 29, 1869, Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Jan. 9, 1945, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Mato Grosso (1917, 1917-18).

Moura, Confúcio Aires (de) (b. May 16, 1948, Dianópolis, Goiás [now in Tocantins], Brazil), governor of Rondônia (2011-18). He was also mayor of Ariquemes (2005-10).

Moura, Constantino Luiz da Silva (b. Feb. 7, 1839 - d. April 2, 1879, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil), acting president of Piauí (1878).

Moura, Estevão José Barbosa de (b. January 1810, Pousa [now in Taipu municipality], Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. Jan. 17, 1891, Macaíba, Rio Grande do Norte), acting president of Rio Grande do Norte (1841, 1842, 1842-43); son of Manoel Teixeira Barbosa.

Moura, Francisco Antonio de (b. Oct. 29, 1839, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Jan. 5, 1911, Rio de Janeiro), war minister of Brazil (1892-94).

Moura, Hastínfilo de (b. Dec. 22, 1865, Itapicuru-Mirim, Maranhão, Brazil - d. June 25, 1956, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in São Paulo (1930).

Moura, Jean (b. April 3, 1827, Moissac, Tarn-et-Garonne, France - d. May 17, 1885, Toulouse, France), French representative in Cambodia (1868-70, 1871-79).

Moura, João Ferreira de (b. March 27, 1830, Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil - d. July 15, 1912, Santo Amaro), acting president of Bahia (1867) and justice minister of Brazil (1882-83). He was also minister of the navy (1878-80) and agriculture, commerce, and public works (1885).

Moura, Raul Soares de (b. Aug. 7, 1877, Ubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Aug. 4, 1924, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais), president of Minas Gerais (1922-24). He was also Brazilian navy minister (1919-20).

Moura, Sinval Odorico de (b. Sept. 3, 1828, Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Dec. 9, 1885, Caxias), president of Amazonas (1863-64), Paraíba (1864-65), Piauí (1880-81), and Ceará (1885).

Moura, Venâncio da Silva (b. Feb. 24, 1940, Sanza Pombo, Angola - d. March 6, 1999, Paris, France), Angolan politician. When the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola took power at the country's 1975 independence, Moura began a diplomatic career during which he served as ambassador to Italy (1976-78) and then deputy foreign minister. He was promoted to foreign minister in 1992, and two years later signed the peace accord designed to end the war between government forces and UNITA rebels. When the deal unraveled in December 1998 with the resumption of fighting, Moura already was seriously ill, and he was replaced as foreign minister in January 1999.

Mouradian, Jacques (b. Dec. 14, 1910 - d. June 14, 1992), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1965-69) and high commissioner of the Comoros (1969-73).

Mouragues, Albert (Jean) (b. June 2, 1908, Perpignan, France - d. March 23, 1976), governor of Upper Volta (1948-52) and French Sudan (1953) and lieutenant governor of Mauritania (1954-55, 1956-58).

Mourão, (Antônio) Hamilton (Martins) (b. Aug. 15, 1953, Porto Alegre, Brazil), vice president of Brazil (2019-23).

Moureaux, Charles (Raymond Joseph) (b. June 4, 1902, Monceau-sur-Sambre, Belgium - d. Aug. 2, 1976, Bois-de-Villers, Belgium), Belgian politician. He was education minister (1958-61).

Moureaux, Philippe (b. April 12, 1939, Etterbeek, Belgium - d. Dec. 15, 2018), interior minister (1980) and justice minister (1980-81) of Belgium and minister-president of the French Community (1981-85, 1988); son of Charles Moureaux. He was also minister for institutional reform (1980-81, 1988-92), the Brussels region (1988-92), restructuring of national education (1989-92), and social affairs (1992-93), a deputy prime minister (1988-92), and mayor of Molenbeek (1992-2012).

Mouret, Charles (Paul Isidore) (b. Jan. 14, 1871, Carpentras, Vaucluse, France - d. [killed in action] Aug. 25, 1914, Einvaux, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France), commissioner of Mauritania (1912-14).

Mourgues, Gaston (b. March 27, 1895 - d. April 19, 1966), acting governor of Upper Volta (1947-48).

Mourikis, Ioannis, Greek diplomat. He was ambassador to Syria (1996-2000), Canada (2004-07), and Switzerland (2009-13) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-09).

Mouriño Terrazo, Juan Camilo (b. Aug. 1, 1971, Madrid, Spain - d. [plane crash] Nov. 4, 2008, Mexico City, Mexico), interior minister of Mexico (2008).

Moushoutas, Konstantinos (b. Dec. 15, 1928, Nicosia, Cyprus), Cypriot diplomat. He was high commissioner to Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji and ambassador to China, Japan, and the Philippines (1976-82) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-89).

Mousouros, Pavlos (Pavlou), Turkish Pavlaki Musurus Bey (b. 1810 - d. April 30, 1876), governor of Samos (1866-73); brother of Kostaki Musurus Pasha.

Mousouros, Stephanos (Konstantinou), Turkish Stefanaki Musurus Pasha (b. Jan. 28, 1841, Athens, Greece - d. Dec. 20, 1907, London, England), governor of Samos (1896-99); son of Kostaki Musurus Pasha; grandson of Stephanos Vogoridis. He was also Ottoman minister to Italy (1881-86) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1903-07).

Moussa, (Muhammad) Abdel-Halim, Arabic (Muhammad) `Abd al-Halim Musa (b. 1930? - d. July 19, 2003), interior minister of Egypt (1990-93). He worked as a director of public security and in 1987 was appointed as governor of the southern province of Asyut, a longtime centre of Islamic militancy. In 1990 he replaced Interior Minister Zaki Badr, who was dismissed because of his sharp tongue and harsh security operations. Badr's rhetoric that killing the Islamic radicals was the only way to curb violence fueled hostilities between militants and the police. Moussa sought a peaceful solution and opened a dialogue with the militants. He was known among associates as "the sheikh of Arabs," a title usually given to a tribal leader who presides over conciliation meetings. But he was fired by Mubarak after opposition newspapers revealed the talks were taking place and accused the government of being weak in confronting terrorism. During his three years as minister, he had to confront not only internal Islamic groups, but also operations plotted by militants from other Arab or Islamic countries. He was a target of an assassination attempt in October 1990, when Islamic extremists killed parliament speaker Rifaat al-Mahgoub in an ambush on his motorcade. In 1994, a year after he left office, he was accused of illegally founding a private security firm while in office and of issuing licenses for automatic weapons that could wind up in the hands of Muslim radicals. He was never charged.

Amr Moussa
Moussa, Amr (Mahmoud), Arabic Amru (Mahmud) Musa (b. Oct. 3, 1936, Cairo, Egypt), foreign minister of Egypt (1991-2001) and secretary-general of the Arab League (2001-11). He was also ambassador to India (1983-86) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-91). He was a presidential candidate in 2012.

Moussa, Pierre (b. July 24, 1941, Brazzaville, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), finance minister (1987-89) and acting prime minister (1990-91) of Congo (Brazzaville). He was also minister of planning (1979-91, 1997-2012).

Moussa Adamo
Moussa Adamo, Michaël (b. Jan. 10, 1961, Makokou, Gabon - d. Jan. 20, 2023, Libreville, Gabon), defense minister (2020-22) and foreign minister (2022-23) of Gabon. He was also ambassador to the United States (2011-20).

Moussavi, Mir Hossein, also spelled Mousavi (b. Sept. 29, 1941, Khameneh, Iran), foreign minister (1981) and prime minister (1981-89) of Iran. He was a critic of the government of the shah and was imprisoned in 1973. He was a founder of the Islamic Republican Party in 1979 and served as editor of its newspaper. He was the last prime minister before the position was abolished in 1989. He overcame the crisis years of the Iran-Iraq War with a strict rationing programme and a coupon system for food and many other goods. He subsequently served as an advisor to presidents Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammad Khatami. After two decades out of the public eye, he was a presidential candidate in 2009, challenging incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. His political comeback came as a surprise to all observers because it was expected he would only be a senior member of the Khatami campaign, but then he suddenly announced his own candidacy. He vowed to improve Iran's image abroad and improve the lot of women in the Islamic republic, but still took a hard line on the nuclear issue. Claiming victory and alleging fraud, he urged his supporters to protest the official results of the election, and serious demonstrations unfolded. Although irregularities were later acknowledged and a partial recount was undertaken, this did not change the outcome and Ahmadinejad took office for a second term.

Moustache, José (b. March 2, 1932, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. Feb. 7, 2013, Pointe-à-Pitre), president of the Regional Council of Guadeloupe (1983-86).

Moustapha, Ali Alifei (b. 1956), Chadian politician. He has been minister of decentralization (2003-04), urban planning and regional development (2004-05), environment and fisheries (2015-16), and communications (2016), permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-20), and ambassador to Gabon (2021- ).

Moustier, (Desle Marie René François) Léonel, marquis de (b. Aug. 23, 1817, Paris, France - d. Feb. 5, 1869, Paris), foreign minister of France (1866-68). He was also minister to Prussia (1853-59) and ambassador to Austria (1859-61) and the Ottoman Empire (1861-66).

Moutari, Ousmane (b. 1952, Tirmini, Niger), Nigerien diplomat. He was ambassador to the Soviet Union/Russia and CIS countries (1990-93) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2005).

Moutinot, Laurent (b. March 2, 1953, Geneva, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Genève (2002-03, 2007-08).

Mouton, Alexander (b. Nov. 19, 1804, Attakapas district, Orleans Territory [now Lafayette parish, La.] - d. Feb. 12, 1885, near Vermillionville [now Lafayette], La.), governor of Louisiana (1843-46); grandson-in-law of Jacques Dupré.

Moutrier, Léon (b. 1872 - d. Oct. 13, 1940, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), interior minister of Luxembourg (1916-17). He was also justice minister (1917-18).

Mouttet, Louis (Guillaume) (b. Oct. 10, 1857, Marseille, France - d. May 8, 1902), acting governor of Senegal (1895) and governor of Ivory Coast (1896-98), French Guiana (1899), and Martinique (1901-02). He died in the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée in which Saint-Pierre, the then capital of Martinique, was completely destroyed.

Mouynes (Brenes), Erika (Alexandra) (b. Nov. 24, 1977, Panama City, Panama), foreign minister of Panama (2020-22).

Mouzard-Sencier, Victor Léon (b. June 14, 1816, Paris, France - d. Sept. 14, 1894), French administrator. He was prefect of the départements of Aveyron (1853-56), Somme (1856-60), Loire (1860-66), Nord (1866-68), and Rhône (1870).

Movsisyan, Vladimir (Migranovich) (b. Nov. 12, 1933, Shenavan village, Spitak region, Armenian S.S.R. - d. Nov. 5, 2014), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Armenian S.S.R. (1990). He was also a deputy premier (1978-84), first deputy premier (1984-90), chairman of the State Agro-Industrial Committee (1986-90), governor of Gegharkunik province (1996), and agriculture minister of Armenia (1996-99).

Mowat, Sir Oliver (b. July 22, 1820, Kingston, Upper Canada [now Ont.] - d. April 19, 1903, Ottawa, Ont.), lieutenant governor of Ontario (1897-1903); knighted 1892.

Mowbray, Martin (Scott) (b. March 26, 1944, Wagga Wagga, N.S.W.), administrator of the Cocos Islands (1995-96).

Mowinckel, Johan Ludwig (b. Oct. 22, 1870, Bergen, Norway - d. Sept. 30, 1943, New York City), prime minister of Norway (1924-26, 1928-31, 1933-35). He was elected to the city council of his native Bergen in 1899 and became president of the council in 1902. In 1906 he was elected to the Storting (parliament) as a member of the Venstre (Liberal) party, and except for two short breaks remained a member until his death. He also served as president of the Storting in 1916-18. In 1911 he was instrumental in founding the Norwegian-America shipping line. He was minister of trade in 1921-22 and foreign minister in 1922-23; afterwards he was three times prime minister and also held the post of foreign minister during these periods. From 1925 to 1936 he was a member of the Nobel Peace Prize Committee. He took the initiative for the Oslo Convention in 1930 to encourage free trade between the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (later also joined by Finland), thus anticipating postwar efforts toward European economic union. He also took an active interest in the League of Nations, serving on the Council and presiding it in September 1933. He condemned the menace of Nazism, and when Germany overran Norway in 1940 he escaped with the government. He took up residence in Stockholm as minister without portfolio, but resigned in 1942 to take up a post with the Norwegian shipping and trade mission in New York City, where he died.

Moxnes, Einar Hole (b. June 11, 1921, Alstahaug, Nordland, Norway - d. Jan. 20, 2006), governor of Sør-Trøndelag (1974-86). He was also Norwegian minister of fisheries (1968-71) and agriculture (1972-73).

Moya Palencia, Mario (b. June 14, 1933, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Oct. 9, 2006, Mexico City), interior minister of Mexico (1970-76). A prominent member of the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party, he was widely seen as the likely candidate to succeed Pres. Luis Echeverría Álvarez, but Echeverría instead had the party nominate José López Portillo. Moya then went on to become permanent representative of Mexico to the United Nations (1985-89) as well as ambassador to Cuba (1990-93) and Italy (1994-2001). As interior minister he was responsible for Mexico's internal security on June 10, 1971, when pro-government agents killed at least a dozen students at a leftist political demonstration in Mexico City. Ignacio Carrillo, a special prosecutor assigned by Pres. Vicente Fox to investigate the country's "dirty war" against leftist activists and suspected guerrillas of the 1960s and '70s, filed genocide charges against both Moya and Echeverría in 2004. A judge refused to issue arrest warrants in 2005, however, saying that the 1971 killings did not meet the legal standards for genocide. The judge ruled that simple homicide occurred, but that the statute of limitations for filing homicide charges ran out in 1985.

Moyano Llerena, Carlos (María) (b. Dec. 1, 1914, Córdoba, Argentina - d. April 24, 2005, Buenos Aires, Argentina), economy and labour minister of Argentina (1970).

Moyer, Ellen O(osterling) (b. Feb. 12, 1936, Camden, N.J.), mayor of Annapolis (2001-09); ex-wife of Roger W. Moyer.

Moyer, Roger W., byname Pip Moyer (b. Aug. 16, 1934, Annapolis, Md. - d. Jan. 10, 2015), mayor of Annapolis (1965-73).

Moyersoen, Ludovic (Marie Odilon) (b. Aug. 1, 1904, Aalst, Belgium - d. Aug. 29, 1992, Aalst), justice minister (1950-52), interior minister (1952-54), and defense minister (1965-66) of Belgium; son of Romain Moyersoen.

Moyersoen, Romain (Jean Marie) (b. Sept. 2, 1870, Aalst, Belgium - d. April 21, 1967, Aalst), Belgian politician. He was minister of industry and labour (1921-24) and economic affairs (1924-25), mayor of Aalst (1925-32), and chairman of the Senate (1936-39).

Moynier, Gustave (b. Sept. 21, 1826, Geneva, Switzerland - d. Aug. 21, 1910, Geneva), president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1864-1910).

Moynihan, Daniel Patrick (b. March 16, 1927, Tulsa, Okla. - d. March 26, 2003, Washington, D.C.), U.S. politician. He was the first person in history to serve in a cabinet or sub-cabinet-level position in four successive administrations, from John F. Kennedy through Gerald Ford. He worked in the Labor Department in the Kennedy administration, and almost immediately found himself at odds with J. Edgar Hoover's FBI. A 1965 report to Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson created a major policy flap when he warned that the rising rate of out-of-wedlock births threatened the stability of black families. As Pres. Richard Nixon's urban affairs adviser, he proposed a policy of "benign neglect" toward minorities that drew heavy criticism. He served as ambassador to India in 1973-75; as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations in 1975-76 he beat the drum of anti-Communism and demanded that other countries temper their anti-U.S. rhetoric if they wanted American help. His unyielding support of Israel made him popular with New York's Jewish population. Hoping to win a Senate seat from New York in 1976, he emerged the winner of a bitter five-way Democratic primary. In the general election he defeated incumbent Republican James Buckley by portraying him as out of touch with New York City's fiscal crisis. He served in the Senate from 1977 to 2001, being known for his intellect and his ability to spot emerging issues and trends. In the Senate he became a champion of many of the liberal programs he had once questioned, defending public jobs programs and fighting to increase federal aid to help offset New York's crushing welfare burden. In 1988 he helped bring together conservatives and liberals to enact the Family Support Act, a major revision of the nation's welfare laws.

Moyo, Sibusiso (Busi) (b. 1960, Mberengwa, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Jan. 20, 2021, Harare, Zimbabwe), foreign minister of Zimbabwe (2017-21).

Moyola (of Castledawson in the County of Londonderry), James (Dawson) Chichester-Clark, Baron (b. Feb. 12, 1923, Castledawson, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland - d. May 17, 2002, London, England), prime minister of Northern Ireland (1969-71). After reaching the rank of major in the army, he was elected a Unionist member of the Northern Ireland parliament at Stormont in a 1960 by-election (constituency of South Londonderry) and was leader of the house (1966-67, 1968-69) and minister of agriculture (1967-69) before becoming prime minister. One of his first acts was to order an amnesty for those convicted of, or charged with, political offenses since October 1968. However, neither the gesture nor an appeal to opposition lawmakers to join in a declaration that Northern Ireland was at peace and would remain so brought any response. Rioting on the streets of Belfast and Londonderry forced his administration to ask the British government to send in troops to help maintain order, but the situation continued to deteriorate. He faced a Protestant backlash when the British government urged reforms to make public housing allocation fairer for Catholics. Throughout 1970, violence continued with the mushrooming of Protestant paramilitaries and increasing gun battles between the British army and the Irish Republican Army. The murders of three British soldiers in Belfast in March 1971 was the signal for a new Protestant campaign demanding that Chichester-Clark resign. He flew to London for talks with Prime Minister Edward Heath calling for a dramatic security response, but was given only an extra 1,300 soldiers. Two days later he resigned. He was made a life peer shortly afterwards, and became an active member of the House of Lords, speaking regularly on Northern Ireland issues and rural affairs.