Rulers: Italy

States before 1861


Genoa

       1580                Most Serene Republic of Genoa
 1 Jan 1798                Ligurian Republic
 6 Jun 1800                Most Serene Republic of Genoa
24 Jun 1800                Ligurian Republic
 4 Jun 1805                annexed by France
26 Apr 1814                Most Serene Republic of Genoa
26 Dec 1814                British troops take over the administration on behalf
                           of Sardinia
 3 Jan 1815                annexation to Sardinia proclaimed; the king adds the words
                           "duke of Genoa" to the royal style 15 Jun 1815

Doges (official style Serenissimo Duce e governatore)
 3 Jun 1699 -  3 Jun 1701  Gerolamo De Mari                   (b. 1644 - d. 1702)
 7 Jun 1701 -  7 Jun 1703  Federico De Franchi Toso           (b. 1642 - d. 1734)
 1 Aug 1703 -  1 Aug 1705  Antonio Grimaldi Cebà              (b. 1640 - d. 1717)
22 Aug 1705 - 13 Aug 1707  Stefano Onorato Ferretti           (b. 1641 - d. 1720)
 9 Sep 1707 -  9 Sep 1709  Domenico Maria De Mari             (b. 1653 - d. 1725)
14 Sep 1709 - 14 Sep 1711  Vincenzo Durazzo                   (b. 1635 - d. 1712)
22 Sep 1711 - 22 Sep 1713  Francesco Maria Imperiale          (b. 1654 - d. 1736)
22 Sep 1713 - 22 Sep 1715  Giovanni Antonio Giustiniani       (b. 1660 - d. 1735)
26 Sep 1715 - 26 Sep 1717  Lorenzo Centurione Becchignoni     (b. 1645 - d. 1735)
30 Sep 1717 - 30 Sep 1719  Benedetto Viale                    (b. 1660 - d. 1749)
 4 Oct 1719 -  4 Oct 1721  Ambrogio Imperiale Lomellini       (b. 1649 - d. 1729)
 8 Oct 1721 -  8 Oct 1723  Cesare De Franchi Toso             (b. 1666 - d. 1739)
13 Oct 1723 - 13 Oct 1725  Domenico Negrone                   (b. 1672 - d. 1736)
18 Jan 1726 - 18 Jan 1728  Gerolamo Veneroso                  (b. 1660 - d. 1732)
22 Jan 1728 - 22 Jan 1730  Luca Grimaldi                      (b. 1675 - d. 1750)
26 Jan 1730 - 26 Jan 1732  Francesco Maria Balbi              (b. 1671 - d. 1747)
29 Jan 1732 - 29 Jan 1734  Domenico Maria Spinola             (b. 1666 - d. 1743)
 3 Feb 1734 -  3 Feb 1736  Giovanni Stefano Durazzo           (b. 1668 - d. 1744)
 7 Feb 1736 -  7 Feb 1738  Niccolò Cattaneo Della Volta       (b. 1679 - d. 1751)
11 Feb 1738 - 11 May 1739  Costantino Balbi                   (b. 1676 - d. 1741)
16 Feb 1740 - 16 Feb 1742  Niccolò Spinola                    (b. 1678 - d. 1743)
20 Feb 1742 - 20 Feb 1744  Domenico Maria Canevaro            (b. 1683 - d. 1745)
 1 Mar 1744 -  1 Mar 1746  Lorenzo De Mari                    (b. 1685 - d. 1772)
 4 Mar 1746 -  4 Mar 1748  Giovanni Francesco Saverio
                           Brignole Sale                      (b. 1695 - d. 1760)
 6 Mar 1748 -  6 Mar 1750  Cesare Cattaneo Della Volta        (b. 1680 - d. 1756)
10 Mar 1750 - 10 Mar 1752  Agostino Viale                     (b. 1692 - d. 1777)
28 Mar 1752 -  3 Jun 1752  Stefano Lomellini                  (b. 1683 - d. 1753)
 7 Jun 1752 -  7 Jun 1754  Giovanni Battista Grimaldi         (b. 1678 - d. 1757)
23 Jun 1754 - 16 May 1756  Giovanni Giacomo Stefano Veneroso  (b. 1701 - d. 1758)
22 Jun 1756 - 22 Jun 1758  Giovanni Giacomo Grimaldi          (b. 1705 - d. 1777)
22 Sep 1758 - 22 Aug 1760  Matteo Franzoni                    (b. 1682 - d. 1767)
10 Sep 1760 - 10 Sep 1762  Agostino Lomellini                 (b. 1709 - d. 1791)
25 Nov 1762 - 25 Nov 1764  Rodolfo Emilio Maria Brignole Sale (b. 1708 - d. 1774)
29 Jan 1765 - 29 Jan 1767  Francesco Maria Gaetano Della
                           Rovere                             (b. 1695 - d. 1768)
 3 Feb 1767 -  3 Feb 1769  Marcello Giuseppe Durazzo          (b. 1710 - d. 1791)
16 Feb 1769 - 26 Jan 1771  Giovanni Battista Negrone          (b. 1695 - d. 1771)
16 Apr 1771 - 23 Dec 1772  Giovanni Battista Cambiaso         (b. 1711 - d. 1772)
 7 Jan 1773 - 19 Jan 1773  Ferdinando Spinola                 (b. 1694 - d. 1778)
26 Jan 1773 - 26 Jan 1775  Alessandro Piero Francesco
                           Grimaldi                           (b. 1715 - d. 1791)
31 Jan 1775 - 31 Jan 1777  Brizio Giustiniani                 (b. 1713 - d. 1778)
 4 Feb 1777 -  4 Feb 1779  Giuseppe Lomellini                 (b. 1723 - d. 1803)
 4 Mar 1779 -  4 Mar 1781  Giacomo Maria Brignole (1st time)  (b. 1724 - d. 1801)
 8 Mar 1781 -  8 Mar 1783  Marco Antonio Gentile              (b. 1723 - d. 1798)
 6 May 1783 -  6 May 1785  Giovanni Battista Airoli           (b. 1731 - d. 1808)
 6 Jun 1785 -  6 Jun 1787  Giovanni Carlo Pallavicini         (b. 1722 - d. 1794)
 4 Jul 1787 -  4 Jul 1789  Raffaele De Ferrari Rodino         (b. 1732 - d. 1801)
30 Jul 1789 - 30 Jul 1791  Alerame Maria Pallavicini          (b. 1730 - d. 1805)
 3 Sep 1791 -  3 Sep 1793  Michelangelo Agostino Cambiaso     (b. 1738 - d. 1813)
30 Sep 1793 - 30 Sep 1795  Giuseppe Maria Doria, duca di
                           Massanova                          (b. 1730 - d. 1816)
17 Nov 1795 - 14 Jun 1797  Giacomo Maria Brignole (2nd time)  (s.a.)
Doge (presiding Provisional Government)
14 Jun 1797 - 26 Jun 1797  Giacomo Maria Brignole             (s.a.)
President of the Provisional Government
26 Jun 1797 - 17 Jan 1798  Giacomo Maria Brignole             (s.a.)
17 Jan 1798 -    Jul 1799  Executive Directory
                           - Luigi Emanuele Corvetto          (b. 1756 - d. 1821)
                             (to Jan 1799)
                           - Pietro Ferreri (from Jan 1799)   (b. 1758 - d. 18...)
                           - Giorgio Ambrogio Molfino
                           - Agostino Maglione                (b. 1744 - d. 18...)
                           - Niccolò Littardi                 (b. 1748 - d. 18...)
                           - Paolo Costa
   Jul 1799 -    Oct 1799  Executive Directory
                           - Pietro Ferreri (1st time)        (s.a.)
                           - Luigi Lupi (1st time)
                           - Giovanni Battista Rossi
                           - Francesco Masuccone
                           - Paolo Costa
   Oct 1799 -  7 Dec 1799  Executive Directory
                           - Pietro Ferreri (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           - Luigi Lupi (2nd time)
                           - Francesco Montaldo
                           - Domenico Assereto
                           - Giuseppe Morchio
 8 Dec 1799 - 31 Mar 1800  Commission of Government
                           - Francesco Maria Boselli          (b. 1768 - d. 1826)
                             (to Dec 1799)
                           - Emanuele Montebruno (to Dec 1799)
                           - Giuseppe Assereto (to Jan 1800)
                           - Domenico Mongiardini (to Jan 1800)
                           - Giuseppe Cambiaso (to 10 Feb 1800)
                           - Giovanni Battista Tanlongo
                             (to 10 Feb 1800)
                           - Michelangelo Agostino Cambiaso
                             (1st time) (to 10 Feb 1800)
                           - Girolamo Luigi Francesco Durazzo
                             (1st time) (to 10 Feb 1800)      (b. 1739 - d. 1809)
                           - Luigi Emanuele Corvetto
                             (1st time) (to 10 Feb 1800)      (s.a.)
                           - Emanuele Balbi (to 10 Feb 1800)
                           - Schiaffino (to 10 Feb 1800)
                           - Luigi Marchello (to 10 Feb 1800)
                           - Domenico Straforello
                             (to 10 Feb 1800)
                           - Francesco Maria Ruzza (1st time)
                           - Giuseppe Bollo (1st time)
                           - Domenico Rivarola (1st time)
31 Mar 1800 -  4 Jun 1800  Commission of Government
                           - Michelangelo Agostino Cambiaso
                             (2nd time)
                           - Luigi Emanuele Corvetto
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
                           - Emanuele Guecco (1st time)
                           - Girolamo Luigi Francesco Durazzo
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
                           - Giuseppe Bollo (2nd time)
                           - Francesco Maria Ruzza (2nd time)
                           - Stefano Emanuele Sommariva
                             (1st time)
                           - Antonio Boccardo (1st time)
                           - Domenico Rivarola (2nd time)
                           - Giuliano Arena (1st time)
 6 Jun 1800 - 24 Jun 1800  Provisional Commission of Government,
                           also known as Provisional Regency
                           - Pietro Paolo Celesia
                           - Carlo Cambiaso
                           - Agostino Spinola
                           - Giovanni Bernardo Pallavicini
                           - Francesco Spinola
                           - Luigi Lambruschini
24 Jun 1800 - 2. Jun 1800  Provisional Commission of Government
                           - Antonio Boccardo (2nd time)
                           - Giuseppe Bollo (3rd time)
                           - Andrea Badarò
                           - Domenico Rivarola (3rd time)
2. Jun 1800 -  2 Jul 1800  Commission of Government
                           - Emanuele Guecco (2nd time)
                           - Girolamo Luigi Francesco Durazzo
                             (3rd time)                       (s.a.)
                           - Giuseppe Bollo (4th time)
                           - Stefano Emanuele Sommariva
                             (2nd time)
                           - Antonio Boccardo (3rd time)
                           - Domenico Rivarola (4th time)
                           - Giuliano Arena (2nd time)
 2 Jul 1800 -  3 Jul 1802  Extraordinary Commission of Government
                           - Giovanni Battista Rossi
                           - Agostino Maglione (to 1800)      (s.a.)
                           - Giuseppe Fravega (1800-01)
                           - Tommaso Langlade (from 1801)
                           - Agostino Pareto
                           - Girolamo Serra                   (b. 1761 - d. 1837)
                           - Antonio Mongiardini
                           - Luigi Carbonara                  (b. 1753 - d. 1826)
                           - Luigi Lupi (to 1801)
                           - Giuseppe de Ambrosiis            (b. 1755 - d. 18...)
                             (from 1801)
Doge of the Republic
 3 Jul 1802 -  4 Jun 1805  Girolamo Luigi Francesco Durazzo   (s.a.)
President of the Provisional Government
26 Apr 1814 - 26 Dec 1814  Girolamo Serra                     (s.a.)

Lombardy

 2 May 1395                Duchy of Milan
16 Jan 1556                Spanish rule
11 Apr 1713                Austrian rule
 9 May 1796                French rule
15 Nov 1796                Transpadane Republic
29 Jun 1797                Cisalpine Republic
29 Apr 1799                Duchy of Milan restored
29 Apr 1800                Cisalpine Republic
26 Jan 1802                Italian Republic
18 Mar 1805                Kingdom of Italy
28 Apr 1814                Austrian rule
 7 Apr 1815                component, with Venetia, of Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom
                           under the emperor of Austria
22 Mar 1848                Lombardy (provisional government)
 8 Jun 1848                administered by the Kingdom of Sardinia
 6 Aug 1848                component, with Venetia, of Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom
                           under the emperor of Austria
10 Nov 1859                annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia

Dukes/Duchesses
24 Nov 1700 - 11 Apr 1713  Filippo IV                         (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
11 Apr 1713 - 20 Oct 1740  Carlo III                          (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
20 Oct 1740 - 29 Nov 1780  Maria Theresa (f)                  (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
29 Nov 1780 - 20 Feb 1790  Giuseppe II                        (b. 1741 - d. 1790)
20 Feb 1790 -  1 Mar 1792  Leopoldo I                         (b. 1747 - d. 1792)
 1 Mar 1792 -  9 May 1796  Francesco III (1st time)           (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
15 Nov 1796 - 29 Jun 1797  Executive Committee
29 Jun 1797 - 31 Aug 1798  First Directory
                           - Duca Giovanni Galeazzo
                             Serbelloni (to 13 Nov 1797)      (b. 1744 - d. 1802)
                           - Giovanni Battista Savoldi
                             (from 13 Nov 1797)
                           - Marco Alessandri (1st time)      (b. 1755 - d. 1830)
                           - Pietro Moscati (to 16 Apr 1798)  (b. 1739 - d. 1824)
                           - Jacopo Lamberti (1st time)
                             (from 16 Apr 1798)
                           - Giovanni Paradisi                (b. 1760 - d. 1826)
                             (to 16 Apr 1798)
                           - Carlo Testi (from 16 Apr 1798)
                           - Giovanni Costabili Containi      (b. 1756 - d. 1841)
31 Aug 1798 - 14 Dec 1798  Second Directory
                           - Girolamo Adelasio (1st time)
                             (to 17 Oct 1798)
                           - Antonio Sabbati
                             (from 17 Oct 1798)
                           - Marco Alessandri (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           - Jacopo Lamberti (2nd time)
                           - Giuseppe Luosi (1st time)        (b. 1755 - d. 1830)
                             (to 17 Oct 1798)
                           - Antonio Smancini
                             (from 17 Oct 1798)
                           - Fedele Sopransi (1st time)
                             (to 17 Oct 1798)
                           - Vincenzo Brunetti
                             (from 17 Oct 1798)
14 Dec 1798 - 29 Apr 1799  Third Directory
                           - Girolamo Adelasio (2nd time)
                           - Marco Alessandri (3rd time)      (s.a.)
                             (to Mar 1799)
                           - Ferdinando Marescalchi           (b. 1764 - d. 1816)
                             (from Mar 1799)
                           - Jacopo Lamberti (3rd time)
                             (to Mar 1799)
                           - Fedele Vertemate Franchi
                             (from Mar 1799)
                           - Giuseppe Luosi (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           - Fedele Sopransi (2nd time)
29 Apr 1799 - 29 Apr 1800  Francesco III (2nd time)           (s.a.)
29 Apr 1800 - 21 Jun 1800  Provisional Government Committee
                           - Giovanni Battista Sommariva
                           - Francesco Ajmi Visconti
                           - Sigismondo Ruga
21 Jun 1800 -    Sep 1800  Extraordinary Government Commission
                           - Conte Francesco Melzi d'Eril     (b. 1753 - d. 1816)
                           - Antonio Aldini                   (b. 1756 - d. 1826)
                           - Giovanni Battista Sommariva
                           - Sigismondo Ruga
                           - Francesco Ajmi Visconti
                           - Conte Giovanni Paradisi
                           - Raffaele Arauco
                           - Giulio Cesare Bargnani
                           - Ambrogio Birago
   Sep 1800 - 26 Jan 1802  Executive Committee of the
                           Extraordinary Government Commission
                           - Giovanni Battista Sommariva
                           - Francesco Ajmi Visconti
                           - Sigismondo Ruga
President
26 Jan 1802 - 18 Mar 1805  Napoléon Bonaparte                 (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
King
18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814  Napoléon I                         (s.a.)
21 Apr 1814 - 28 Apr 1814  Provisional Government
                           - Carlo Veri
                           - Domenico Pino
                           - Conte Giacomo Mellerio
                           - Conte Giberto Borromeo
                           - Barone Giovanni Bazzetta
President of the Provisional Government of Milan (from Apr 1848,
president of the Central Provisional Government of Lombardy)
22 Mar 1848 -  8 Jun 1848  Conte Gabrio Casati                (b. 1798 - d. 1873)

Modena

18 May 1452                Duchies of Modena and Reggio
 6 Oct 1796                French occupation
16 Oct 1796                Cispadane Republic
 9 Jul 1797                part of Cisalpine Republic (see under Lombardy)
 9 Feb 1814                Duchies of Modena and Reggio (restored)
 9 Feb 1831                separate provisional governments in Modena and in Reggio
22 Feb 1831                joint provisional government of Modena and Reggio
 9 Mar 1831                Duchies of Modena and Reggio
24 Mar 1848                separate provisional governments in Modena and in Reggio
 2 Apr 1848                joint provisional government of Modena and Reggio
25 May 1848                administered by Kingdom of Sardinia
14 Aug 1849                Duchies of Modena and Reggio
13 Jun 1859                administered by Kingdom of Sardinia
28 Jul 1859                Modena (dictatorship)
21 Aug 1859                administered (from 25 Dec 1859 as Emilian Provinces)
                           by Kingdom of Sardinia
18 Mar 1860                annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia

Dukes
- Este dynasty -
 7 Sep 1694 - 26 Oct 1737  Rinaldo                            (b. 1655 - d. 1737)
26 Oct 1737 - 22 Feb 1780  Francesco III                      (b. 1698 - d. 1780)
22 Feb 1780 -  6 Oct 1796  Ercole III                         (b. 1727 - d. 1803)
16 Oct 1796 -  9 Jul 1797  Directory (5 directors)
- Asburgo-Lorena-Este dynasty -
 9 Feb 1814 -  9 Feb 1831  Francesco IV (1st time)            (b. 1779 - d. 1846)
 9 Feb 1831 - 22 Feb 1831  Biagio Nardi (dictator; in Modena)
 9 Feb 1831 - 22 Feb 1831  Provisional Government (in Reggio)
22 Feb 1831 -  9 Mar 1831  Pellegrino Nobili
                           (president of the Provisional Government)
 9 Mar 1831 - 21 Jan 1846  Francesco IV (2nd time)            (s.a.)
21 Jan 1846 - 24 Mar 1848  Francesco V (1st time)             (b. 1819 - d. 1875)
24 Mar 1848 - 25 May 1848  Giuseppe Malmusi                   (b. 1803 - d. 1865)
                           (president of the Provisional Government;
                           to 2 Apr 1848 only in Modena)
24 Mar 1848 -  2 Apr 1848  Provisional Government (in Reggio)
14 Aug 1849 - 13 Jun 1859  Francesco V (2nd time)             (s.a.)
28 Jul 1859 - 21 Aug 1859  Luigi Carlo Farini (dictator)      (b. 1812 - d. 1866)

Guastalla

 2 Jul 1621                Duchy of Guastalla
16 Aug 1746                occupied by Austria
18 Oct 1748                part of Parma
21 Mar 1801                occupied by France
30 Mar 1806                Principality of Guastalla
24 May 1806                part of Kingdom of Italy (see under Lombardy)
 6 Jun 1814                Duchy of Guastalla restored
16 Jun 1848                administered by Kingdom of Sardinia
10 Aug 1848                Duchy of Guastalla restored
13 Jun 1859                annexed by Modena

Dukes
- Gonzaga dynasty -
       1692 -        1702  Vincenzo (1st time)                (b. 1634 - d. 1714)
       1702 -        1706  Ferdinando Carlo                   (b. 1652 - d. 1708)
       1706 - 28 Apr 1714  Vincenzo (2nd time)                (s.a.)
28 Apr 1714 - 19 Apr 1729  Antonio Fernando                   (b. 1687 - d. 1729)
19 Apr 1729 - 16 Aug 1746  Giuseppe Maria                     (b. 1690 - d. 1746)
Princess
30 Mar 1806 - 24 May 1806  Pauline Bonaparte (f)              (b. 1780 - d. 1825)
Dukes/Duchesses
- Asburgo-Lorena dynasty -
 6 Jun 1814 - 17 Dec 1847  Maria Luigia (f)                   (b. 1791 - d. 1847)
- Borbone dynasty -
17 Dec 1847 -  8 Jan 1848  Carlo II                           (b. 1799 - d. 1883)
- Asburgo-Lorena-Este dynasty -
 8 Jan 1848 - 16 Jun 1848  Francesco V (1st time)             (b. 1819 - d. 1875)
10 Aug 1848 - 13 Jun 1859  Francesco V (2nd time)             (s.a.)

Massa and Carrara

       1663                Duchy of Massa and Principality of Carrara
19 May 1797                part of Cispadane Republic (see Modena)
 9 Jul 1797                part of Cisalpine Republic/Italian Republic/Kingdom of Italy
                           (see Lombardy)
30 Mar 1806                Duchy of Massa and Principality of Carrara restored
13 Jun 1859                annexed by Modena

Dukes and Princes/Duchesses and Princesses
- Cybo-Malaspina dynasty -
29 Jan 1690 -  6 Dec 1710  Carlo II                           (b. 1631 - d. 1710)
 6 Dec 1710 - 30 Nov 1715  Alberico III                       (b. 1674 - d. 1715)
30 Nov 1715 - 18 Aug 1731  Alderano                           (b. 1690 - d. 1731)
18 Aug 1731 - 25 Dec 1790  Maria Teresa (f)                   (b. 1725 - d. 1790)
       1731 -        1741    Ricciarda Gonzaga (f) (regent)   (b. 1698 - d. 1768)
- Este dynasty -
26 Dec 1790 - 19 May 1797  Maria Beatrice Ricciarda (f)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1750 - d. 1829)
- Baciocchi dynasty -
30 Mar 1806 -    Jul 1814  Felice                             (b. 1762 - d. 1841)
- Este dynasty -
   Jul 1814 - 14 Nov 1829  Maria Beatrice Ricciarda (f)
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
- Asburgo-Lorena-Este dynasty -
14 Nov 1829 - 21 Jan 1846  Francesco IV                       (b. 1779 - d. 1846)
21 Jan 1846 - 13 Jun 1859  Francesco V                        (b. 1819 - d. 1875)

Novellara

       1335                Lordship of Novellara
       1501                County of Novellara
       1737                annexed by Modena

Counts/Countesses
- Gonzaga dynasty -
       1678 - 16 Aug 1727  Camillo III                        (b. 1649 - d. 1727)
16 Aug 1727 - 13 Dec 1728  Filippo Alfonso                    (b. 1702 - d. 1728)
13 Dec 1728 -        1737  Ricciarda (f)                      (b. 1698 - d. 1768)

Papal State

        754                Papal State
15 Feb 1798 - 30 Sep 1799  in rebellion: Roman Republic
17 May 1809                annexed to France
24 Mar 1814                Papal State restored
26 Feb 1831 - 26 Mar 1831  in rebellion: United Italian Provinces
 9 Feb 1849 -  4 Jul 1849  in rebellion: Roman Republic
19 Oct 1870                incorporation into Kingdom of Italy

Popes
        754 - 19 Oct 1870  see Roman Catholic Church

United Italian Provinces

President of the Assembly (from 4 Mar 1831, president of the Provisional Government)
26 Feb 1831 - 26 Mar 1831  Giovanni Vicini                    (b. 1771 - d. 1845)

Roman Republic

27 Nov 1798 - 12 Dec 1798  occupied by "Sicily" (Naples)

15 Feb 1798 - 20 Mar 1798  Provisional consuls
                           - Briganti
                           - Carlo Luigi Costantini
                           - Pio Camillo, duca Bonelli-Crescenzi
                           - Gioacchino Pessuti
                           - Antonio Bassi
                           - Maggi
                           - Stampa
                           - Liborio Angelucci
20 Mar 1798 -    Sep 1798  Consuls
                           - Liborio Angelucci
                           - Giacomo De Mattheis
                           - Panazzi
                           - Reppi
                           - Ennio Quirino Visconti
   Sep 1798 - 27 Nov 1798  Consuls
                           - Brigi
                           - Calisti
                           - Francesco Pierelli
                           - Giuseppe Rey
                           - Federico Maria Domenico Michele
                             Zaccaleoni                       (b. 1760 - d. 18...)
12 Dec 1798 - 24 Jul 1799  Consuls
                           [the same as Sep 1798 - 27 Nov 1798]
24 Jul 1799 - 30 Sep 1799  Provisional Committee (5 members)
 9 Feb 1849 - 29 Mar 1849  Executive Committee
                           - Carlo Armellini                  (b. 1777 - d. 1863)
                           - Aurelio Saliceti                 (b. 1804 - d. 1862)
                           - Mattia Montecchi                 (b. 1816 - d. 1871)
29 Mar 1849 -  1 Jul 1849  Triumvirate
                           - Carlo Armellini                  (s.a.)
                           - Giuseppe Mazzini                 (b. 1805 - d. 1872)
                           - Conte Aurelio Saffi              (b. 1819 - d. 1890)
 1 Jul 1849 -  4 Jul 1849  Triumvirate
                           - Aurelio Saliceti                 (s.a.)
                           - Alessandro Calandrelli           (b. 1805 - d. 1888)
                           - Livio Mariani                    (b. 1793 - d. 1855)

Parma and Piacenza

16 Sep 1545                Duchies of Parma and Piacenza created
10 Sep 1547                Parma is annexed by the Papal State, Piacenza by Milan
 9 Nov 1549                Duchy of Parma reestablished
       1556                Duchy of Piacenza reestablished
 1 Nov 1802                under French administration
24 May 1808                annexed by France
   Jul 1808                former second and third consuls of France made nominal dukes
   Apr 1814                Duchies of Parma and Piacenza (restored)
11 Apr 1848                separate provisional governments in Parma and in Piacenza
10 May 1848 (Parma) and
25 May 1848 (Piacenza)     annexation to Kingdom of Sardinia decreed,
                           14 Aug 1848 rescinded
18 Aug 1848                Duchies of Parma and Piacenza (restored)
       1849 - 25 Aug 1849  annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia
17 Jun 1859 - 18 Aug 1859  administered by Kingdom of Sardinia
18 Aug 1859                Parma and Piacenza (dictatorship)
12 Sep 1859                administered (from 25 Dec 1859 as Emilian Provinces)
                           by Kingdom of Sardinia
18 Mar 1860                annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia

Dukes/Duchesses
- Farnese dynasty -
16 Sep 1545 - 10 Sep 1547  Pier Luigi                         (b. 1503 - d. 1547)
 9 Nov 1549 - 15 Sep 1586  Ottavio                            (b. 1524 - d. 1586)
                           (until 1556 duke of Parma only)
15 Sep 1586 -  3 Dec 1592  Alessandro "il Gran Capitano"      (b. 1545 - d. 1592)
 3 Dec 1592 -  5 Mar 1622  Ranuccio I                         (b. 1569 - d. 1622)
 5 Mar 1622 - 11 Sep 1646  Odoardo                            (b. 1612 - d. 1646)
11 Sep 1646 - 11 Dec 1694  Ranuccio II                        (b. 1630 - d. 1694)
11 Dec 1694 - 26 Feb 1727  Francesco Maria                    (b. 1678 - d. 1727)
26 Feb 1727 - 20 Jan 1731  Antonio Francesco                  (b. 1679 - d. 1731)
20 Jan 1731 - 29 Dec 1731  Regency
                           - Enrichetta Maria d'Este (f)      (b. 1702 - d. 1777)
                           - Camillo Marazzani
                           - Conte Federigo Dal Verme
                           - Conte Artaserse Bajardi
                           - Conte Giacomo Sanvitale
                           - Conte Odoardo Anvidi
- Borbone dynasty -
29 Dec 1731 -  3 Oct 1735  Carlo I                            (b. 1716 - d. 1788)
- Asburgo dynasty -
 3 Oct 1735 - 20 Oct 1740  Carlo                              (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                           (= Holy Roman Emperor Karl VI)
20 Oct 1740 - 18 Oct 1748  Maria Teresa (f)                   (b. 1717 - d. 1780)
                           (= Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria)
- Borbone dynasty -
18 Oct 1748 - 18 Jul 1765  Filippo                            (b. 1720 - d. 1765)
18 Jul 1765 -  9 Oct 1802  Ferdinando                         (b. 1751 - d. 1802)
 9 Oct 1802 -  1 Nov 1802  Regency
                           - Maria Amalia, arciduchessa
                             d'Austria (f)                    (b. 1746 - d. 1804)
                           - Marchese Cesare Ventura
                           - Conte Francesco Schizzati
Nominal dukes
   Jul 1808 -    Apr 1814  Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès   (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
                           (Parma)
       1808 -    Apr 1814  Charles-François Lebrun (Piacenza) (b. 1739 - d. 1824)
Dukes/Duchesses
- Asburgo-Lorena dynasty -
   Apr 1814-10/11Apr 1814  Provisional Government
                           - Marchese Cesare Ventura
                           - Conte Filippo Magawly Cerati
                           - Casimiro Meli Lupi, marchese
                             di Soragna
10/11Apr1814- 17 Dec 1847  Maria Luigia (f)                   (b. 1791 - d. 1847)
15 Feb 1831 - 13 Mar 1831    Conte Filippo Linati             (b. 1757 - d. 1837)
                             (president of Provisional Government, in rebellion;
                             in Parma)
- Borbone dynasty -
17 Dec 1847 - 11 Apr 1848  Carlo II (1st time)                (b. 1799 - d. 1883)
11 Apr 1848 - 18 Aug 1848  Gregorio Ferdinando, conte di
                           Castagnola                         (b. 1786 - d. 1858)
                           (president of the Provisional Government; in Parma)
11 Apr 1848 - 18 Aug 1848  Provisional Government
                           (in Piacenza)
                           - Pietro Gioia
                           - Antonio Anguissola
                           - Camillo Piatti
                           - Corrado Marazzani
                           - Antonio Emanueli
18 Aug 1848 - 14 Mar 1849  Carlo II (2nd time)                (s.a.)
14 Mar 1849 -        1849  Provisional Government
                           - Salvatore Riva
                           - Guido Dalla Rosa
                           - Alessandro Cavagnari
25 Aug 1849 - 27 Mar 1854  Carlo III                          (b. 1823 - d. 1854)
27 Mar 1854 -  9 Jun 1859  Roberto I                          (b. 1848 - d. 1907)
27 Mar 1854 -  9 Jun 1859    Duchess Luigia di Borbone (f)    (b. 1819 - d. 1864)
                             (regent)
10 Jun 1859 - 17 Jun 1859  Girolamo Cantelli, conte di
                           Rubbiano                           (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
                           (president of the Provisional Government Commission)
18 Aug 1859 - 12 Sep 1859  Luigi Carlo Farini (dictator)      (b. 1812 - d. 1866)

Sardinia

24 Apr 1326                kingdom founded by Jaime II of Aragón; the kings of Aragón,
                           later as part of the Spanish Monarchy, remain kings of
                           Sardinia
17 Feb 1720                the House of Savoy acquires the island of Sardinia with
                           the (thitherto nominal) style of Kingdom of Sardinia
                           (although the core of the possessions of the House is
                           Piedmont, the royal style of Sardinia leads to the entire
                           monarchy being styled Kingdom of Sardinia; it includes the
                           island, the Principality of Piedmont, the Duchy of Genoa
                           from 20 Dec 1814, and the Counties of Savoy and Nice, the
                           latter two transferred to France 2 Apr 1860)
25 Apr 1814                restoration of the Piedmontese core to the monarchy,
                           following the Napoleonic wars
17 Mar 1861                after having annexed all the Italian states with the
                           exceptions of the Papal State and of Venetia, the monarchy
                           becomes the Kingdom of Italy

Kings
- Savoia dynasty -
17 Feb 1720 -  3 Sep 1730  Vittorio Amedeo II                 (b. 1666 - d. 1732)
 3 Sep 1730 - 20 Feb 1773  Carlo Emanuele III                 (b. 1701 - d. 1773)
20 Feb 1773 - 16 Oct 1796  Vittorio Amedeo III                (b. 1726 - d. 1796)
16 Oct 1796 -  4 Jun 1802  Carlo Emanuele IV                  (b. 1751 - d. 1819)
 4 Jun 1802 - 12 Mar 1821  Vittorio Emanuele I                (b. 1759 - d. 1824)
12 Mar 1821 - 25 Apr 1821  Carlo Alberto (regent)             (b. 1798 - d. 1849)
25 Apr 1821 - 27 Apr 1831  Carlo Felice                       (b. 1765 - d. 1831)
- Savoia-Carignano dynasty -
27 Apr 1831 - 23 Mar 1849  Carlo Alberto                      (s.a.)
23 Mar 1849 - 17 Mar 1861  Vittorio Emanuele II               (b. 1820 - d. 1878)

Prime ministers 11 May 1814 - 1821 Filippo Antonio Asinari, marchese di San Marzano (b. 1767 - d. 1828) 1822 - 21 Mar 1835 Vittorio Sallier della Torre (b. 1774 - d. 1858) 21 Mar 1835 - 16 Mar 1848 Clemente Solaro, conte della Margherita (b. 1792 - d. 1869) 16 Mar 1848 - 27 Jul 1848 Conte Cesare Balbo (b. 1789 - d. 1853) 27 Jul 1848 - 15 Aug 1848 Conte Gabrio Casati (b. 1798 - d. 1873) 15 Aug 1848 - 11 Oct 1848 Cesare Alfieri, marchese di Sostegno (b. 1799 - d. 1869) 11 Oct 1848 - 16 Dec 1848 Ettore Perrone, conte di San Martino (b. 1789 - d. 1849) 16 Dec 1848 - 21 Feb 1849 Vincenzo Gioberti (b. 1801 - d. 1852) 21 Feb 1849 - 27 Mar 1849 Barone Agostino Chiodo (b. 1791 - d. 1861) 27 Mar 1849 - 7 May 1849 Claudio Gabriele Delaunay (b. 1786 - d. 1850) 7 May 1849 - 4 Nov 1852 Massimo Taparelli, marchese d'Azeglio (b. 1798 - d. 1866) 4 Nov 1852 - 19 Jul 1859 Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour (1st time) (b. 1810 - d. 1861) 19 Jul 1859 - 21 Jan 1860 Alfonso Ferrero, marchese di La Marmora (b. 1804 - d. 1878) 21 Jan 1860 - 17 Mar 1861 Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour (2nd time) (s.a.)

Piedmont

        942                County of Turin
       1245                County of Piedmont
       1424                Principality of Piedmont; although this may originally have
                           been intended as a territorial designation, it was
                           generally regarded as a nominal component of the polity of
                           the house of Savoy (usually called Duchy of Savoy; from
                           1720 Kingdom of Sardinia, or, even in official use, Stati
                           Sabaudi); the territory of Piedmont was, with its capital
                           Turin, however, the core of this monarchy; this arrangement
                           is interrupted from 1798 to 1814, as indicated below
23 Dec 1632                the ruler acquires the nominal styles re di Cipro e di
                           Gerusalemme ed Armenia
12 Dec 1798                Piedmontese Republic proclaimed
28 May 1799 - 23 Jun 1800  reincorporated into Savoy monarchy (Kingdom of Sardinia, etc.)
27 Jun 1800                Piedmontese Republic re-proclaimed
19 Apr 1801                occupied by France
11 Sep 1802                incorporated into France
25 Apr 1814                reincorporated into Savoy monarchy (Kingdom of Sardinia, etc.)

Duke of Savoy
12 Jun 1675 - 17 Feb 1720  Vittorio Amedeo II                 (b. 1666 - d. 1732)
12 Dec 1798 -  2 Apr 1799  Provisional Government
                           (chair rotates for 10-day terms)
                           - Innocenzo Maurizio Baudisson
                           - Giovanni Battista Bertolotti
                           - Giovanni Battista Agostino Bono
                             (to 14 Mar 1799)
                           - Giuseppe Carlo Aurelio di
                             Sant'Angelo
                           - Ugo Bottone, conte di
                             Castellamonte                    (b. 1753 - d. 1828)
                           - Francesco Brayda
                           - Giuseppe Cavalli, conte di
                             Olivola
                           - Luigi Colla
                           - Felice Clemente Fasella
                           - Giuseppe Fava
                           - Francesco Favrat, barone di
                             Bellevaux
                           - Pietro Gaetano Galli, conte
                             della Loggia
                           - Stefano Giovanni Rocci           (b. 1770 - d. 18...)
                           - Felice Giovanni San Martino,
                             conte della Motta
                           - Giuseppe Felice Sartoris
                           Members added 19 Dec 1798:
                           - Pietro Avogadro, conte di
                             Valdengo e Formigliana
                           - Giovanni Battista Ugone Balbis
                           - Antonio Bellini
                           - Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta   (b. 1766 - d. 1837)
                           - Filippo Benedetto Bunico
                           - Domenico Capriata di Sardigliano
                           - Guglielmo Michele Cerise
                           - Secondo Enrico Chiabrera
                           - Pietro Geymet
                           - Alessio Antonio Simian
 2 Apr 1799 -  3 May 1799  Joseph-Mathurin Musset             (b. 1749 - d. 1831)
                           (plenipotentiary civil commissioner)
 3 May 1799 - 28 May 1799  Pietro Geymet
                           (president of the General Administration)
27 Jun 1800 - 24 Dec 1800  Commission of Government
                           - Filippo Avogardo, conte di
                             Quarenga (to 4 Oct 1800)
                           - Innocenzo Maurizio Baudisson
                             (to 4 Oct 1800)
                           - Ugo Bottone, conte di
                             Castellamonte                    (s.a.)
                             (to 4 Oct 1800)
                           - Francesco Brayda
                           - Giuseppe Cavalli, conte di
                             Olivola (to 4 Oct 1800)
                           - Pietro Gaetano Galli, conte
                             della Loggia
                           - Stefano Giovanni Rocci           (s.a.)
                             (to 4 Oct 1800)
24 Dec 1800 - 19 Apr 1801  Executive Commission
                           - Giuseppe Carlo Aurelio di
                             Sant'Angelo
                           - Carlo Stefano Giulio             (b. 1757 - d. 1815)
                           - Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo Botta   (s.a.)

Masserano

       1394                Lordship of Masserano given by the pope to the Fieschi family
       1506                elevated to a county by the pope
       1517                Fieschi dynasty ends; county transmitted to Ferrero family
       1547                elevated to marquisate
       1598                elevated to principality
20 Mar 1767                ceded to Kingdom of Sardinia

Princes
- Ferrero-Fieschi dynasty -
 3 Jun 1685 -  8 Jan 1730  Carlo Besso                        (b. 1663 - d. 1730)
 8 Jan 1730 -  1 Oct 1743  Vittorio Amedeo                    (b. 1687 - d. 1743)
 1 Oct 1743 - 20 Mar 1767  Vittorio Filippo                   (b. 1713 - d. 1777)

Trento

       1027                bishops become princes of the Empire
       1801                secularized and annexed to Austria
26 Dec 1805                annexed to Bavaria
       1810                annexed to Kingdom of Italy
       1813                annexed to Austria
 3 Nov 1918                annexed to Italy

Prince-bishops
 7 Mar 1696 - 22 Apr 1725  Johann Michael von Spaur
 9 Sep 1725 - 20 Sep 1725  Giovanni Benedetto Gentilotti
26 Nov 1725 -  5 Apr 1730  Anton Dominik von Wolkenstein      (b. 1662 - d. 1730)
19 Jun 1730 -  7 Sep 1758  Dominik Anton von Thun             (b. 1685 - d. 1758)
       1748 -  7 Sep?1758    Leopold Ernst von Firmian        (b. 1708 - d. 1783)
                             (administrator)
 7 Sep?1758 - 31 Dec 1762  Francesco Felice Alberti di Enno
 2 Jul 1763 -        1776  Cristoforo Francesco Sizzo de
                           Noris                              (b. ... - d. 1776)
29 May 1776 - 17 Jan 1800  Peter Michael Vigil von Thun und
                           Hohenstein                         (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
 2 Apr 1800 -        1801  Emanuel Maria von Thun und
                           Hohenstein                         (b. 1763 - d. 1818)

Tuscany

27 Aug 1569                Grand Duchy of Tuscany
27 Mar 1799                Etruscan Republic
 7 Jul 1799                Grand Duchy of Tuscany restored
 3 Aug 1801                Kingdom of Etruria
10 Dec 1807                annexed to France
 1 Feb 1814                occupied by Naples
27 Apr 1814                Grand Duchy of Tuscany restored
10 May 1859                administered by Kingdom of Sardinia
22 Mar 1860                annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia

Grand dukes
- Medici dynasty -
23 May 1670 - 31 Oct 1723  Cosimo III                         (b. 1642 - d. 1723)
31 Oct 1723 -  9 Jul 1737  Giovanni Gastone                   (b. 1671 - d. 1737)
- Lorena dynasty -
 9 Jul 1737 - 18 Aug 1765  Francesco II                       (b. 1708 - d. 1765)
- Asburgo-Lorena dynasty -
18 Aug 1765 - 22 Jul 1790  Pietro Leopoldo I                  (b. 1747 - d. 1792)
22 Jul 1790 - 27 Mar 1799  Ferdinando III (1st time)          (b. 1769 - d. 1824)
President of the Provisional Government
27 Mar 1799 -  5 Jul 1799  Rivani
 5 Jul 1799 -  7 Jul 1799  Cesare Gori
                           (President of the Senate)
Grand dukes
- Asburgo-Lorena dynasty -
 7 Jul 1799 - 15 Oct 1800  Ferdinando III (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (deposed by international treaty 9 Feb 1801)
15 Oct 1800 - 27 Nov 1800  Grand-Ducal Commission
                           - Giuseppe Francesco Pierallini
                           - Antonio Cercignani
                           - Bernardo Lessi
                           - Giulio Piombanti
27 Nov 1800 - 27 Mar 1801  Provisional Government
                           - Francesco Chiarenti
                           - Enrico Pontelli
                           - Giovanni De Ghores
27 Mar 1801 -  3 Aug 1801  Grand-Ducal Commission
                           [the same as 15 Oct - 27 Nov 1800]
Kings
- Borbone dynasty -
 3 Aug 1801 - 27 May 1803  Ludovico I                         (b. 1773 - d. 1803)
27 May 1803 - 10 Dec 1807  Carlo Ludovico II                  (b. 1799 - d. 1883)
27 May 1803 - 10 Dec 1807    Maria Luisa (f) (queen regent)   (b. 1782 - d. 1824)
Governor-general
 3 Mar 1809 -  1 Feb 1814  Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte (f)      (b. 1777 - d. 1820)
                           (with courtesy style of Grand Duchess of Tuscany)
Grand dukes
- Asburgo-Lorena dynasty -
27 Apr 1814 - 18 Jun 1824  Ferdinando III (3rd time)          (s.a.)
18 Jun 1824 - 21 Feb 1849  Leopoldo II (1st time)             (b. 1797 - d. 1870)
21 Feb 1849 - 27 Mar 1849  Giuseppe Montanelli                (b. 1813 - d. 1862)
                           (president of Provisional Government)
27 Mar 1849 - 12 Apr 1849  Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi       (b. 1804 - d. 1873)
                           (Head of the Executive Power)
12 Apr 1849 - 21 Jul 1859  Leopoldo II (2nd time)             (s.a.)
                           (from 27 Apr 1859, though not formally dispossessed,
                           unrecognized by Provisional Government)
21 Jul 1859 - 16 Aug 1859  Ferdinando IV                      (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
                           (though not formally dispossessed until 16 Aug 1859,
                           unrecognized by Provisional Government and by Sardinian
                           administration)
27 Apr 1859 - 10 May 1859  Ubaldino Peruzzi                   (b. 1822 - d. 1891)
                           (president of Provisional Government)
Administrators
10 May 1859 - 16 Aug 1859  Conte Carlo Boncompagni di
                           Mombello                           (b. 1804 - d. 1880)
                           (extraordinary royal commissioner)
16 Aug 1859 -  3 Dec 1859  Barone Bettino Ricasoli            (b. 1809 - d. 1880)
                           (head of government)
 3 Dec 1859 - 20 Mar 1860  Conte Carlo Boncompagni di
                           Mombello                           (s.a.)
                           (governor-general of the united provinces of
                           central Italy [includes Modena, Parma and
                           Piacenza]), nominally for
                           Eugenio Emanuele di Savoia-
                           Carignano, principe di Carignano   (b. 1816 - d. 1888)

Elba

11 Apr 1814                given to French ex-emperor Napoléon I as sovereign principality
                           (taking possession 4 May 1814)
 9 Jun 1815                restored to Tuscany (taking possession 30 Jul 1815)

Sovereign
 4 May 1814 - 30 Jul 1815  Napoléon                           (b. 1769 - d. 1821)
                           (left 26 Feb 1815)

Governor 4 May 1814 - 30 Jul 1815 Antoine Drouot (b. 1774 - d. 1847) (left 26 Feb 1815)

Lucca

 6 Apr 1369                Commune of Lucca
 4 Feb 1799                Republic of Lucca
17 Jul 1799                Commune of Lucca
 9 Jul 1800                Republic of Lucca
15 Sep 1800                Commune of Lucca
 9 Oct 1800                Republic of Lucca
24 Jun 1805                Principality of Lucca
17 Mar 1814 -  6 Apr 1814  occupied by "Sicily" (Naples)
 7 Apr 1814                State of Lucca
22 Nov 1817                Duchy of Lucca
 5 Oct 1847                annexation by Tuscany

Gonfalonieri di Giustizia
 1 Jan 1799 -  4 Feb 1799  Nicolao Montecatini
 4 Feb 1799 - 17 Jul 1799  Executive Directory (5 members)
                           Initial members:
                           - Giorgio Martinelli
                           - Giovanni Domenico Merli
                           - Giovanni Sebastiano Giusti
                           - Jacopo Pellegrini
                           - Jacopo Antonio Franchi
                           Four of the above replaced at different times by:
                           - Domenico Bertagna
                           - Pietro Martelli Leonardi
                           - Giuseppe Duccini
                           - Francesco Belluomini
17 Jul 1799 - 24 Jul 1799  Balìa or Reggenza Provvisoria
                           - Gregorio Minutoli
                           - Vincenzo Lucchesini
                           - Federico Bernardini
                           - Giovanni Battista Montecatini
                           - Pietro Compagni
                           - Silvestro Michele Arnolfini
                           - Nicolao Santini
                           - Lelio Mansi
                           - Francesco Melchiorre Di Poggio
                           - Giacomo Trebiliani
24 Jul 1799 -  9 Jul 1800  Balìa or Reggenza Provvisoria
                           Initial members:
                           - Nicolao Montecatini
                           - Ferrante Cittadella
                           - Costantino de' Nobili
                           - Gregorio Minutoli
                           - Pietro Compagni
                           - Pierangelo Guinigi
                           - Giovanni Battista Trenta
                           - Carlo Antonio Marchiò
                           - Vincenzo Landucci
                           - Pietro Francesco Giuseppe Massei
                           [36 persons in all served, 10 at a time]
 9 Jul 1800 - 20 Jul 1800  Provisional Government
                           - Giacomo Lucchesini
                           - Carlo Franceschini
                           - Vincenzo Cotenna
                           - Domenico Moscheni
                           - Salvatore Bianchini
                           - Giuseppe Duccini
                           - Giovanni Rossi
                           - Gregorio Minutoli
                           - Pietro Martelli
                           - Stefano Bezzani
20 Jul 1800 -  9 Sep 1800  Provisional Government
                           - Domenico Moscheni
                           - Luigi Matteucci
                           - Carlo Franceschini
                           - Giovanni Battista Giorgetti
                           - Francesco Martelli
                           - Paolo Garzoni
                           - Gregorio Minutoli
 9 Sep 1800 - 15 Sep 1800  Provisional Government
                           - Orazio Saminiati
                           - Giacomo Luccesini
                           - Costantino de' Nobili
                           - Cosimo Bernardini
                           - Francesco Martelli Leonardi
                           - Paolino de' Giudici
                           - Bernardino Bandettini
                           - Luigi Matteucci
                           - Paolo Garzoni
15 Sep 1800 -  9 Oct 1800  Balìa or Reggenza Provvisoria
                           - Sommariva
                           [further membership unavailable]
 9 Oct 1800 -  3 Jan 1802  Provisional Government
                           - Giovanni Battista Montecatini
                             (to 16 Nov 1800)
                           - Domenico Pieri
                             (from 16 Nov 1800)
                           - Ferrante Cittadella
                             (to 15 Oct 1800)
                           - Giovanni Sebastiano Giusti
                             (15 Oct 1800 - 6 Jan 1801)
                           - Gregorio Minutoli
                             (to 23 Feb 1801)
                           - Pierangelo Guinigi
                             (to 20 Mar 1801)
                           - Giovanni Battista Trenta
                           - Alessandro Ottolini
                             (to 15 Oct 1800)
                           - Francesco Belluomini
                             (from 15 Oct 1800)
                           - Lelio Mansi (to 4 Dec 1800)
                           - Giuseppe Duccini
                             (from 4 Dec 1800)
                           - Giuseppe Di Poggio
                             (to 4 Dec 1800)
                           - Rocco Giannini
                             (4 Dec 1800 - 20 Mar 1801)
                           - Ascanio Mansi (to 5 Jan 1801)
                           - Luigi Matteucci
                             (from 14 Oct 1800)
 3 Jan 1802 - 28 Feb 1802  Alessandro Paoli
 1 Mar 1802 - 30 Apr 1802  Domenico Merli (1st time)
 1 May 1802 - 30 Jun 1802  Francesco Belluomini (1st time)
 1 Jul 1802 - 31 Aug 1802  Cesare Lucchesini (1st time)
 1 Sep 1802 - 31 Oct 1802  Domenico Pieri (1st time)
 1 Nov 1802 - 31 Dec 1802  Pierangelo Guinigi
 1 Jan 1803 - 28 Feb 1803  Pietro Pellini (1st time)
 1 Mar 1803 - 30 Apr 1803  Giovanni Rossi (1st time)
 1 May 1803 - 30 Jun 1803  Raffaele Mansi
 1 Jul 1803 - 31 Aug 1803  Giacomo Pellegrini (1st time)
 1 Sep 1803 - 31 Oct 1803  Nicolao Giorgini (1st time)        (b. 1773 - d. 1854)
 1 Nov 1803 - 31 Dec 1803  Giovanni Filippo Santini
                           (1st time)
 1 Jan 1804 - 29 Feb 1804  Domenico Merli (2nd time)
 1 Mar 1804 - 30 Apr 1804  Cesare Lucchesini (2nd time)
 1 May 1804 - 30 Jun 1804  Domenico Pieri (2nd time)
 1 Jul 1804 - 31 Aug 1804  Pietro Pellini (2nd time)
 1 Sep 1804 - 31 Oct 1804  Giovanni Rossi (2nd time)
 1 Nov 1804 - 31 Dec 1804  Giacomo Pellegrini (2nd time)
 1 Jan 1805 - 28 Feb 1805  Giovanni Filippo Santini
                           (2nd time)
 1 Mar 1805 - 30 Apr 1805  Nicolao Giorgini (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 1 May 1805 - 23 Jun 1805  Francesco Belluomini (2nd time)
Prince
24 Jun 1805 - 14 Mar 1814  Felice Baciocchi                   (b. 1762 - d. 1841)
14 Mar 1814 - 17 Mar 1814  Council [membership unavailable]
 7 Apr 1814 - 11 May 1814  Provisional Commission
                           [membership unavailable]
Governors
11 May 1814 -  1 Mar 1815  Anton von Starhemberg              (b. 1776 - d. 1842)
 1 Mar 1815 - 22 Nov 1817  Joseph Werklein                    (b. 1777 - d. 1829)
Dukes/Duchesses
- Borbone dynasty -
22 Nov 1817 - 13 Mar 1824  Maria Luisa (f)                    (b. 1782 - d. 1824)
13 Mar 1824 -  5 Oct 1847  Carlo Ludovico                     (b. 1799 - d. 1883)

Two Sicilies

25 Dec 1130                Kingdom of Sicily, encompassing the island of Sicily and
                           a large region, centred on Naples, on the mainland
31 Mar 1282                split into two kingdoms, sometimes in personal union:
                           (1) Kingdom of Sicily, informally Kingdom of Naples or
                           Kingdom of "Sicily this side of the Lighthouse";
                           (2) Kingdom of Sicily, thus called informally, also
                           Kingdom of "Sicily beyond the Lighthouse"
 8 Dec 1816                the two kingdoms merge as Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
 8 Nov 1860                administered by Kingdom of Sardinia
17 Dec 1860                annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia

Naples (Sicily this side of the Lighthouse)

31 Mar 1282                Kingdom of Sicily
23 Jan 1799                Neapolitan Republic, unofficially styled Partenopean
                           Republic
23 Jun 1799                Kingdom of Sicily restored
 1 Mar 1806                annexed by France
30 Mar 1806                Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (thus named, although its
                           authority does not extend to the island)
 1 Aug 1808                Kingdom of Sicily restored
 8 Dec 1816                merged into Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Kings¹
- Borbone dynasty -
16 Nov 1700 -  7 Jul 1707  Filippo (IV)                       (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
                           (= Felipe V of Spain)
- Asburgo dynasty -
 7 Jul 1707 -  2 Jun 1734  Carlo (VII) Giuseppe Francesco     (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                           (= Karl VI of Holy Roman Empire)
- Borbone dynasty -
 2 Jun 1734 -  6 Oct 1759  Carlo (IV) Sebastiano              (b. 1716 - d. 1788)
 6 Oct 1759 - 23 Jan 1799  Ferdinando IV (1st time)           (b. 1751 - d. 1825)
Presidents of the Provisional Government
23 Jan 1799 - 19 Feb 1799  Carlo Lauberg                      (b. 1752? - d. 1834)
19 Feb 1799 - 23 Mar 1799  Ignazio Ciaja                      (b. 1766 - d. 1799)
President of the Executive Commission²
15 Apr 1799 -  5 Jun 1799  Ercole D'Agnese
President of the Executive Directory³
 5 Jun 1799 - 23 Jun 1799  Ercole D'Agnese
King¹
- Borbone dynasty -
23 Jun 1799 -  1 Mar 1806  Ferdinando IV (2nd time)           (s.a.)
Kings4
- Bonaparte dynasty -
30 Mar 1806 -  8 Jul 1808  Giuseppe Napoleone                 (b. 1768 - d. 1844)
 8 Jul 1808 -  1 Aug 1808  Regency
                           - Antonio Cristoforo Saliceti      (b. 1757 - d. 1809)
                           - Michelangelo Cianciulli
                           - Principe Pignatelli di Cerchiara
- Murat dynasty -
 1 Aug 1808 - 22 May 1815  Gioacchino Napoleone               (b. 1767 - d. 1815)
King¹
- Borbone dynasty -
22 May 1815 -  8 Dec 1816  Ferdinando IV (3rd time)           (s.a.)

Sicily (Sicily beyond the Lighthouse)

31 Mar 1282                Comuni of Palermo and Messina independent
 4 Sep 1282                Kingdom of Sicily restricted to the island, restored
31 Aug 1302                polity renamed Kingdom of Trinacria
       1314                name Kingdom of Sicily restored
       1372                name Kingdom of Trinacria restored
21 May 1392                name Kingdom of Sicily restored
 8 Dec 1816                merged into Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
13 Apr 1848 -  5 May 1849  Kingdom of Sicily (in rebellion)

Kings¹
- Borbone dynasty -
16 Nov 1700 - 22 Sep 1713  Filippo (IV)                       (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
                           (= Felipe V of Spain)
                           (6 Jul 1718 - 17 Feb 1720 in rebellion against
                           Vittorio Amedeo II)
- Savoia dynasty -
22 Sep 1713 - 17 Feb 1720  Vittorio Amedeo II                 (b. 1666 - d. 1732)
- Asburgo dynasty -
17 Feb 1720 -  2 Jun 1734  Carlo (IV)                         (b. 1685 - d. 1740)
                           (= Karl VI of Holy Roman Empire)
- Borbone dynasty -
 2 Jun 1734 -  6 Oct 1759  Carlo (IV) Sebastiano              (b. 1716 - d. 1788)
 6 Oct 1759 -  8 Dec 1816  Ferdinando III                     (s.a.)
                           (= Ferdinando IV of Naples)
President of the Provisional Government
13 Apr 1848 - 22 Apr 1849  Ruggero Settimo                    (b. 1778 - d. 1863)
Mayors of Palermo
22 Apr 1849 - 26 Apr 1849  ...
26 Apr 1849 -  5 May 1849  Barone Pietro Riso

Two Sicilies

Kings
- Borbone dynasty -
 8 Dec 1816 -  4 Jan 1825  Ferdinando I                       (s.a.)
                           (= Ferdinando IV of Naples)
 4 Jan 1825 -  8 Nov 1830  Francesco I                        (b. 1777 - d. 1830)
 8 Nov 1830 - 22 May 1859  Ferdinando II                      (b. 1810 - d. 1859)
22 May 1859 -  7 Sep 1860  Francesco II                       (b. 1836 - d. 1894)
 7 Sep 1860 -  8 Nov 1860  Giuseppe Garibaldi                 (b. 1807 - d. 1882)
                           (dictator; on the island of Sicily from 11 May 1860)
¹Full title Re delle Due Sicilie e di Gerusalemme (King of the Two Sicilies and of Jerusalem).
²The members of the Executive Commission were Giuseppe Abbamonte (or Abbamonti), Giuseppe Leonardo Maria Albanese, Ercole D'Agnese, Ignazio Ciaja, Melchiorre Delfico; the last-named did not take office. The sources are not categorical in identifying D'Agnese as the president during this entire period.
³The 5-member Executive Directory (in Italian also styled Arcontato) was prescribed by the Constitution; however, the consulted sources do not positively claim that the Constitution was put into effect.
4Full title Per grazia di Dio e la Costituzione dello Stato, Re delle Due Sicilie.

Venetia

12 May 1462                Republic of Venice
16 May 1797                republic extinguished; municipality under French authority
18 Jan 1798                to Austria
19 Jan 1806                to the Kingdom of Italy (see Lombardy)
 8 Nov 1813                to Austria (20 Apr 1814 for the city of Venice)
 7 Apr 1815                component, with Lombardy, of Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom
                           under the emperor of Austria
22 Mar 1848                provisional government of Venice
23 Mar 1848                Venetian Republic, informally and poetically styled
                           Republic of Saint Mark
 5 Jul 1848                Venetia
 7 Aug 1848                annexation by Kingdom of Sardinia
11 Aug 1848                State of Venice
24 Aug 1849 - 23 Aug 1866  component, with Lombardy, and, after 10 Nov 1859,
                           sole component, of Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom under
                           the emperor of Austria
23 Aug 1866                administered by France
 3 Oct 1866                annexation by Italy

Doges
25 Feb 1694 -  5 Jul 1700  Silvestro Valier                   (b. 1630 - d. 1700)
16 Jul 1700 -  6 May 1709  Alvise Marco Antonio Mocenigo      (b. 1627 - d. 1709)
22 May 1709 - 12 Aug 1722  Giovanni Corner                    (b. 1647 - d. 1722)
24 Aug 1722 - 21 May 1732  Alvise Sebastiano Mocenigo         (b. 1662 - d. 1732)
 2 Jun 1732 -  5 Jan 1735  Carlo Ruzzini                      (b. 1653 - d. 1735)
17 Jan 1735 - 17 Jun 1741  Andrea Pisani                      (b. 1664 - d. 1741)
30 Jun 1741 -  7 Mar 1752  Pietro Grimani                     (b. 1677 - d. 1752)
18 Mar 1752 - 19 May 1762  Francesco Loredan                  (b. 1685 - d. 1762)
31 May 1762 - 31 Mar 1763  Marco Foscarini                    (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
19 Apr 1763 - 31 Dec 1778  Alvise Giovanni Mocenigo           (b. 1701 - d. 1778)
14 Jan 1779 - 13 Feb 1789  Paolo Renier                       (b. 1710 - d. 1789)
 9 Mar 1789 - 16 May 1797  Ludovico Manin                     (b. 1725 - d. 1802)
Presidents of the Provisional Municipality of Venice (15-day terms, not always exact)
16 May 1797 - 30 May 1797  Nicolò Corner
31 May 1797 - 14 Jun 1797  Natale Talier (1st time)
15 Jun 1797 - 28 Jun 1797  Antonio Callegari
29 Jun 1797 - 14 Jul 1797  Giovanni Bujovich
15 Jul 1797 - 28 Jul 1797  Gaetano Benini
29 Jul 1797 - 12 Aug 1797  Giovanni Widman
13 Aug 1797 - 26 Aug 1797  Tommaso Gallino
27 Aug 1797 - 10 Sep 1797  Andrea Sordina
11 Sep 1797 - 25 Sep 1797  Giuseppe Ferro
26 Sep 1797 - 10 Oct 1797  Antonio Collalto
11 Oct 1797 - 26 Oct 1797  Francesco Mainardi
27 Oct 1797 -  8 Nov 1797  Isach Grego
 9 Nov 1797 - 23 Nov 1797  Girolamo Molin
24 Nov 1797 -        179.  Andrea Fontana
       179. -        179.  Nicolò Martinelli
       179. -        179.  Natale Talier (2nd time)
       179. - 18 Jan 1798  Carlo Boldù
President of the Provisional Government
22 Mar 1848 - 23 Mar 1848  Giovanni Francesco Avesani         (b. 1790 - d. 1861)
Head of the Civic Guard of Venice
23 Mar 1848                Angelo Mengaldo
President
23 Mar 1848 -  5 Jul 1848  Daniele Manin                      (b. 1804 - d. 1857)
President of the Provisional Government
 5 Jul 1848 -  7 Aug 1848  Jacopo Castelli                    (b. 1791 - d. 1849)
Dictator
11 Aug 1848 - 13 Aug 1848  Daniele Manin                      (s.a.)
13 Aug 1848 -  7 Mar 1849  Triumvirate
                           - Daniele Manin                    (s.a.)
                           - Leone Graziani
                           - Giovanni Battista Cavedalis      (b. 1794 - d. 1878)
President of the Executive Power
 7 Mar 1849 - 24 Aug 1849  Daniele Manin                      (s.a.)