He Chengjun (b. June 20, 1882, Sui county, Hubei, China - d. May 7, 1961, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Hubei (1929-32, 1937-38). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in Japan in 1905 and returned in 1909. He participated in revolutionary actions at various times. In 1927, he was named director-general of the National Revolutionary Army headquarters, and helped in the April 12 Incident against the Communist Party members. Soon after that, he was appointed chief of staff of the 1st Army Group. He was head of the execution bureau during World War II, and was elected speaker of the Hubei Provincial Council upon the end of the war. He went to Hong Kong in the spring of 1949 and then to Taiwan in 1950, being nominated as a "policy adviser."
He Fenglin (b. 1873, Pingyin, Shandong, China - d. 1939, Beijing, China), Chinese minister of military affairs (1927-28). A graduate of Tianjin Military College, his military posts were mainly in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, the top of which was commander of the 1st Army of the Zhejiang-Shanghai United Forces. He turned to Zhang Zuolin in 1927 as his defense area was occupied by the southern army, and was involved in the execution of Li Dazhao, one of the founders of the Chinese Communist Party, in Beijing. He was named the chief councillor of the Bureau of Commanders for the Northeastern Army. In 1938 he became the minister of military affairs of the Japanese-controlled North China Political Committee.
He Peirong (b. 1880, Jianshi, Hubei, China - d. June 6, 1942), civil governor of Hubei (1919-20). Having graduated from the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he returned to China, serving in the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai as the chief of staff of the 2nd Division. During his term as governor, he also took over the financial post. He "quit politics" in 1921, moving to Qingdao and then to Hankou (now a district of Wuhan city). In 1939, he became the speaker of the Japanese-backed "Senate of Wuhan Special Municipality," a municipal legislative organization subordinated to Wang Jingwei's "National Government" in Nanjing, and later was designated governor of Hubei by the Japanese. He was poisoned to death by his concubine in 1942.
He Xiangning (b. Aug. 14, 1879, Nanhai, Guangdong, China - d. Sept. 1, 1972, Beijing, China), Chinese politician. She was married to Liao Zhongkai in 1897. In 1902, she went abroad to Japan, where she made acquaintance with Sun Yat-sen. She joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 and joined all the major revolutionary activities together with Sun Yat-sen. Like Liao Zhongkai, she was always a Kuomintang leftist. After her husband was assassinated, she turned against Chiang Kai-shek. She was one of the founders of the China Association for the Promotion of Democracy as well as the Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee (KMT-RC). After the establishment of the People's Republic, she was elected vice-chairwoman of the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and president of the All Women's Federation. She was also vice-chairwoman of the KMT-RC.
He Yaozu (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Ho Yao-tsu (b. May 13, 1889, Ningxiang, Hunan, China - d. July 16, 1961, Beijing, China), chairman of the Provincial Council of Gansu (1937). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance when studying at the Japanese College of Army Commanders. Having returned to China, he served in the forces of Zhao Hengti in Hunan, who later became Hunan governor. He joined the National Revolutionary Army during the Northern Expedition, becoming an army commander. He also had experience of being an ambassador, posted to Turkey (1934-36) and the U.S.S.R. (1938-40). He acted as Gansu chairman and also (1942-45) as mayor of Chongqing, which became the capital after the fall of Nanjing during World War II. After the war, he was named a "strategic adviser" of Chiang Kai-shek. However, he disagreed with Chiang's policy of waging a civil war against the Communist Party. In August 1949, he declared his revolt with Huang Shaohong in Hong Kong and later went to Beijing to attend the 1st Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in September 1949. In the People's Republic, he was elected a member of the Military Commission of Central and Southern China, concurrently serving as minister of transportation. He was also a member of the Standing Committee of the Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee.
He Yingqin (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Ho Ying-ch'in (b. April 2, 1889, Xingyi, Guizhou, China - d. Oct. 21, 1987, Taipei, Taiwan), Chinese politician. He became commander of the 1st Brigade of the Nationalist Army in Guangdong and helped repress anti-government insurrections in southern China by deposed, yet still-powerful, warlords. In 1927-28 he was chairman of the government of Zhejiang. In 1929 he became a member of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) and chief of staff of the Nationalist Army. In 1944 He was made commander in chief of the Chinese Army, and as such accepted (Sept. 9, 1945) the unconditional surrender of one million Japanese troops in Nanjing (Nanking) at the end of World War II. In 1949 he briefly served as prime minister of China before fleeing to Taiwan with the Nationalists when the Communists took control. In Taiwan he was defense minister from 1949 to 1958.
He Zonglian (b. 1864, Pingyang, Shandong, China - d. Aug. 26, 1931, Licheng [now part of Jinan], Shandong), governor of Chahar (1912, 1913-15). He was the commander of the 1st Division of the Beiyang army (the army of the central government during 1912-16), stationed in Chahar. He was recalled to Beijing in 1914 and nominated as the aide of the president's office.
Healey, Denis (Winston) Healey, Baron (b. Aug. 30, 1917, Mottingham, Kent, England - d. Oct. 3, 2015, Alfriston, Sussex, England), British politician. After World War II he went into the Labour Party secretariat and was head of its international department for seven years before becoming a member of Parliament in 1952. He won a reputation in Parliament as a tough-minded man who was always prepared to say what he thought and give as good as he got. This did not endear him to his critics, but he once said, "I am not in politics to be loved." One of the best known and most experienced of European politicians, in the 1970s Healey seemed the most likely successor to James Callaghan as leader of the party, but in 1980 he was beaten by Michael Foot in the first of a series of confrontations between left and right. Healey had antagonized the left by rejection of unilateral disarmament and by what were held to be right-wing economic measures when he was chancellor of the exchequer in the Labour government of 1974-79. His commitment to a defense policy based on nuclear deterrence was rooted in his experience as defense minister for six years (1964-70). Healey instead became deputy party leader in 1980. Challenged from the left by Tony Benn, he held on to the post by only a small margin in the September 1981 party conference. He quit the post in October 1983. In 1992 he was made a life peer.
Healy, Jerramiah (T.) (b. December 1950), mayor of Jersey City (2004-13).
Healy, T(imothy) M(ichael), byname Tim Healy, Irish Tadhg Ó hEaluithe (b. May 17, 1855, Bantry, County Cork, Ireland - d. March 26, 1931, Chapelizod, County Dublin), governor-general of Ireland (1922-28). He became secretary of the Newcastle branch of the Home Rule Association of Great Britain, an organization established in Manchester in the early 1870s by Isaac Butt. In 1878 he came to London to write a weekly letter for the Nation, describing the doings of the Irish nationalists, under Charles Stewart Parnell, in the House of Commons. After being arrested for intimidation in connection with the Land League, he was promptly returned as member of Parliament for Wexford (1880). He made a reputation for his eloquence and also for his grasp of the most complicated bills in committee. He became an authority on the Irish land question, and the "Healy Clause" of the Land Act of 1881, which protected tenant farmers' agrarian improvements from rent increases imposed by landlords, not only made him popular in southern Ireland but also won him seats in Protestant Ulster. He broke with Parnell in 1886 and generally remained at odds with the Irish Nationalist Party, though he was a strong supporter of proposals for Irish Home Rule. Dissatisfied with both the Liberals and the Irish Nationalists after the Easter Rising in 1916, Healy supported the Sinn Féin party after 1917. His parliamentary career came to an end in 1918; he did not stand at that election, preferring to yield his seat to a Sinn Féin member. Because he was regarded as an elder statesman by the British and Irish ministries, he was proposed by both sides in 1922 as governor-general of the new Irish Free State, a post he held until his resignation and retirement in 1928.
Hearnes, Warren E(astman) (b. July 24, 1923, Moline, Ill. - d. Aug. 16, 2009, Charleston, Mo.), governor of Missouri (1965-73).
Heath, Sir Edward (Richard George) (b. July 9, 1916, Broadstairs, Kent, England - d. July 17, 2005, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England), British prime minister (1970-74). He was elected to Parliament as a Conservative in February 1950. In February 1951 he became an assistant whip. After a succession of posts in the whip's office he was made parliamentary secretary to the Treasury and chief government whip under Prime Minister Anthony Eden in December 1955. He served as minister of labour under Prime Minister Harold Macmillan from October 1959 to July 1960, when he became lord privy seal with Foreign Office responsibilities. In this capacity he represented Britain in negotiations for entry into the European Economic Community (EEC). In October 1963 he became secretary of state for industry, trade, and regional development and president of the Board of Trade. After the Conservative defeat in October 1964, Heath became a major opposition figure. Upon Sir Alec Douglas-Home's resignation he was elected leader of the opposition in July 1965. His party suffered a decisive defeat in the March 1966 election but won in that of June 1970, defeating Prime Minister Harold Wilson's Labour Party. As prime minister, Heath had to face the violent conflict in Northern Ireland, over which he imposed direct rule in 1972. He scored a major triumph by winning French acceptance of British entry into the EEC in 1972-73. He proved unable to cope with mounting economic problems. He called for a general election on Feb. 28, 1974. The Conservatives lost seats to Labour and Heath failed to form a coalition government. The Conservatives were defeated in another general election in October, and he was replaced as party leader by Margaret Thatcher in 1975. He remained a backbench member of Parliament until he retired in 2001. He was knighted in 1992.
Heco, Vahid (b. Jan. 18, 1954, Sarajevo), premier of Zenica-Doboj (2001-03).
Hector, Séraphin (b. Sept. 5, 1846, La Sone, Isère, France - d. ...), resident-superior of Annam (1888-89, 1889-91).
Hederstierna, Carl Fredrik Vilhelm (b. Dec. 1, 1861, Höreda, Jönköping, Sweden - d. Nov. 17, 1928, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Halland (1916-20) and foreign minister of Sweden (1923).
Hedgecock, Roger (Allan) (b. May 2, 1946, Compton, Calif.), mayor of San Diego (1983-85).
Hedtoft(-Hansen), Hans (Christian), original surname Hansen (b. April 21, 1903, Aarhus, Denmark - d. Jan. 29, 1955, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister of Denmark (1947-50, 1953-55). He quickly made a career for himself in the Danish Social Democratic Party. He was elected chairman of the party at the early age of 36 in 1939, but he was forced to resign in 1941 on account of his outspoken opposition to the German occupiers. He was already a figure in the resistance movement, but his open clash with the Nazis gave him an even greater reputation among all Danes who refused to compromise with the invaders. Among his activities on behalf of the resistance was his conduct of an underground newspaper. Two years after the end of the war he became prime minister. Ousted by a conservative-agrarian coalition in 1950, he was returned three years later as head of a minority government. A sincere democrat - "better a democracy without socialism than socialism without democracy," he once said - he was the principal exponent of the Nordic Council, formed in 1952 by Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland. His feeling for international organization had an even wider scope, and it was by his unremitting efforts that Denmark became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Heeckeren van Kell, Willem Hendrik Alexander Carel baron van (b. Aug. 12, 1774, The Hague - d. July 24, 1847, Ruurlo, Gelderland, Netherlands), governor of Gelderland (1825-46).
Heemstra, Aarnoud Jan Anne Aleid baron van (b. July 22, 1871, Vreeland, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Dec. 30, 1957, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1921-24, 1925-28). He was also mayor of Arnhem (1910-20).
Heemstra, Schelto baron van (b. Nov. 14, 1807, Groningen - d. Dec. 20, 1864, Maartensdijk, Utrecht, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Utrecht (1850-58) and Zeeland (1858-60) and interior minister of the Netherlands (1860-62).
Heemstra, Schelto baron van (b. Dec. 5, 1879, Hillegom, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands - d. March 26, 1960, Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Gelderland (1925-45, 1945-46); great-nephew of Schelto baron van Heemstra (1807-64).
Heenen, Gaston (René) (b. Feb. 20, 1880, Hasselt, Belgium - d. 1963), governor and deputy governor-general of Katanga (1928-31, 1932-33).
Heerdt tot Eversberg, Johannes Herbert August Willem baron van (b. Feb. 22, 1829, Zwolle, Overijssel, Netherlands - d. Jan. 10, 1893, The Hague, Netherlands), governor of Curaçao (1880-82) and governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1882-85); son-in-law of Reinhart Frans van Lansberge; brother-in-law of Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge.
Heerma, Enneüs (b. Dec. 23, 1944, Rijperkerk, Friesland, Netherlands - d. March 1, 1999, Amsterdam), Dutch politician. He steered the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) in the wake of its first general election defeat in 1994, a loss which ended a run of popularity that saw the party or one of its predecessors included in every ruling Dutch coalition in the 20th century. Heerma was forced to leave the post in 1997 by a party disappointed by its low profile in parliament. He was replaced by Jaap de Hoop Scheffer.
Hegazi, Abdel Aziz (Mohamed), also spelled Hegazy (b. Jan. 3, 1923 - d. Dec. 22, 2014), prime minister of Egypt (1974-75). He was also minister of the treasury (1968-73) and of finance, economy, and commerce (1973-74).
Hegde, Ramakrishna (b. Aug. 29, 1926, Siddapur [now in Karnataka], India - d. Jan. 12, 2004, Bangalore, Karnataka), chief minister of Karnataka (1983-88). He participated in the Indian struggle for independence and was jailed during the Quit India Movement (1942). A member of the Congress party, he served in the ministries of S. Nijalingappa and Veerendra Patil in Mysore (later Karnataka). When the party split in 1969, he followed his mentor Nijalingappa into the Congress (O). He was first elected to the state legislative assembly in 1957 and was appointed a deputy minister. He later became minister and held the portfolios of youth, welfare and sports, cooperation, industries, planning, Panchayati Raj, development, information and publicity, and excise and finance in 1962-71. He presented 13 budgets in the assembly. He won five more elections to the assembly (1962, 1967, 1983, 1985, 1989) and in between he was elected to the state's legislative council, serving as the leader of the opposition (1972-78), and was a member of the Rajya Sabha (1978-83). He was among those who worked to unite the opposition parties under the banner of the Janata Party in 1977 (later Janata Dal). In 1983, he became the first non-Congress chief minister of Karnataka. He is best remembered for his contribution to the development of the panchayati raj system in Karnataka but resigned in 1988 following a telephone tapping scandal. He served as deputy chairman of the National Planning Commission in 1989-90. In 1996 he was considered a prime ministerial candidate but lost to H.D. Deve Gowda. He then split from the Janata Dal and founded the Lok Shakti party in 1997, joining hands with the Bharatiya Janata Party and serving as commerce minister under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Hegedüs, András (b. Oct. 31, 1922, Szilsárkány, Hungary - d. Oct. 23, 1999, Budapest, Hungary), prime minister of Hungary (1955-56). He joined the Communist movement while still in his teens. After World War II, he was an official in the communist youth movement and later served in agricultural posts. He was made minister of agriculture in 1953 and two years later became Hungary's youngest-ever premier. In 1955, he joined other Soviet Bloc heads of government in signing the treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact, the Communist alliance organized after West Germany was admitted to NATO. A year later, amid popular demonstrations against Soviet domination, Hegedüs signed a formal request for Soviet intervention to prevent Hungary from overthrowing communist rule. The Soviets launched a massive attack on Budapest, using tens of thousands of troops and more than 2,000 tanks. About 200,000 Hungarians fled the country, and thousands of others were arrested. Later, Hegedüs fled to Moscow, where he continued academic studies. He returned to Hungary in 1958, but stayed out of politics. In 1968, he spoke out against the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia, in which troops from the Soviet Union and its allies crushed a reform communist movement. While remaining a committed socialist, Hegedüs became increasingly vocal in his criticism of the Hungarian government. In 1973, he was expelled from the Hungarian Communist Party. He became one of Hungary's best-known dissidents.
Hegelan, Sheikh Faisal (Abdul Aziz) al- (b. Oct. 7, 1929, Jeddah, Hejaz [now in Saudi Arabia]), Saudi diplomat/politician. He was ambassador to Spain (1961-68), Venezuela and Argentina (1968-75), Denmark (1975-76), the United Kingdom (1976-79), the United States (1979-83), and France (1996-2003) and health minister (1984-96).
Héguerty, (Pierre) André d', or André O'Heguerty (b. 1700, Dinan [now in Côtes-d'Armor département], France - d. 1763, Plombières-les-Bains [now in Vosges département]), commandant of Île Bourbon (1739-43).
Heiden Reinestein, Louis graaf van (b. July 11, 1809, Zuidlaren, Drenthe - d. Nov. 2, 1882, Zuidlaren), king's commissioner of Groningen (1867-82).
Heidweiller, Henk, byname of Henricus Augustinus Franciscus Heidweiller (b. Feb. 10, 1929, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Aug. 26, 1989), foreign minister of Suriname (1987-88). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-81) and ambassador to the United States (1981-84) and the Netherlands (1984-85).
Heim, Raymond (Raoul Émile) (b. Feb. 15, 1920, Tarbes, France - d. July 20, 2010), prefect of Martinique (1978-79). He was also prefect of Hautes-Alpes département (1975-78).
Heim van Duivendijke, Johan Adriaan ridder van der (b. Jan. 15, 1791, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Oct. 14, 1870, The Hague, Netherlands), finance minister (1843) and interior minister (1846 [acting], 1848) of the Netherlands and king's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (1844-46, 1853-62).
Heinbecker, Paul (b. 1941, Kitchener, Ont.), Canadian diplomat. He was ambassador to Germany (1992-96) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-04).
Heine, Hilda C(athy) (b. April 6, 1951, Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands), president of the Marshall Islands (2016- ). She was also education minister (2012-16). She was the first Marshall Islander to get a doctorate (2004) and became the first female leader of a Micronesian country.
Heineman, Dave, byname of David Eugene Heineman (b. May 12, 1948, Falls City, Neb.), governor of Nebraska (2005-15).
Heinemann, Gustav (Walter) (b. July 23, 1899, Schwelm [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. July 7, 1976, Essen, West Germany), president of West Germany (1969-74). During the years of the Third Reich he was a prominent figure in the anti-Nazi Confessional Church, and he and his wife printed illegal pamphlets in their basement. In 1946 he was elected as lord mayor of Essen, after the British had earlier installed him as mayor. In 1949, as a Christian Democrat, he became the first interior minister of the Federal Republic of Germany, but he resigned in 1950 over the issue of German rearmament, which he opposed. In 1952 he formed the All-German People's Party but it did not prosper and was dissolved in 1957. He then joined the Social Democratic Party and reentered the Bundestag. As minister of justice in the grand coalition led by Kurt Georg Kiesinger (1966-69), he played a vital part in getting the law changed under which Nazi criminals would be absolved by the then existing statute of limitations from accounting for their crimes. He was elected president of the Federal Republic on March 5, 1969, by the slenderest of majorities. While still president-elect he gave an interview in which he suggested West Germany might leave NATO and disband the armed forces as a prelude to German reunification. This was a controversial first demonstration of the new president's view of his office - that it was his duty to state his opinion conscientiously and in a nonpartisan manner. Throughout his term he never feared to issue solemn warnings against the shortcomings in West German society he identified. This won him high respect and there was genuine regret when he refused a second five-year term in 1974 on grounds of age.
Heintz, Bernard (François Joseph), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1955-56).
Heisbourg, Georges (b. April 19, 1918, Hesperange, Luxembourg - d. April 28, 2008), secretary-general of the Western European Union (1971-74). He was also Luxembourgian ambassador to the United States (1958-64), Mexico (1960-64), the Netherlands (1964-67), France (1967-70), the Soviet Union (1974-77), and West Germany (1979-83) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-61).
Heister, Chris, byname of Gun Christina Heister (b. 1950), governor of Västerbotten (2008-12) and Stockholm (2012- ).
Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin (b. 1947, Kunduz province, Afghanistan), prime minister of Afghanistan (1993-94, 1996). Hekmatyar, who was nominally an ally of Burhanuddin Rabbani during the Soviet occupation in the 1980s, laid siege to Kabul after Rabbani was installed as president in 1992. He and Defense Minister Ahmad Shah Masood waged a bloody battle that destroyed about 70% of Kabul. An Iranian-brokered peace accord brought Hekmatyar into the government as prime minister, but the fighting continued as alliances shifted and other factions besieged the capital. The Taliban took advantage of the strife and captured Kabul in 1996. He went into exile in Iran. After the U.S. ousted the Taliban regime, Hekmatyar came to be suspected of plotting against the U.S.-backed government, and the CIA tried to kill him in 2002, firing a Hellfire missile from an unmanned Predator spy plane near Kabul; the missile did not get him but was believed to have killed some of his followers.
Helén, (Nils) Gunnar (b. June 5, 1918, Vingåker, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Dec. 7, 2002, Nacka, near Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish politician. Before turning to politics, he became known as a linguist and as a reporter with Swedish Radio. Between 1952 and 1954 he was chairman of the Liberal Party's youth league and was elected to parliament in 1953. In 1965-70 he was governor of the county of Kronoberg in southern Sweden. He was chairman of the Liberal Party in 1969-75 and tried to improve cooperation between the non-socialist parties. Between 1977 and 1984 he was the county governor of Stockholm.
Helenius, Ilmari (Veikko) (b. Oct. 19, 1879, Kurkijoki, Finland [now Kurkiyoki, Russia] - d. Nov. 22, 1944, Helsinki), governor of Petsamo (1921), Turku ja Pori (1922-32), and Uusimaa (1932-44).
Helfferich, Karl (Theodor) (b. July 22, 1872, Neustadt, Palatinate, Germany - d. April 23, 1924, near Bellinzona, Switzerland), German politician. He became interior minister and vice chancellor under Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg in May 1916 but was relieved of the interior post on Oct. 23, 1917, and as vice chancellor on Nov. 9, 1917. In 1918 he was briefly German envoy to Moscow. In 1919 he joined the German National People's Party (DNVP), becoming a radical opponent of the Weimar Republic. His attacks on Vice Chancellor Matthias Erzberger led to a defamation lawsuit in 1920 which Helfferich lost but also discredited Erzberger so much that he had to resign. Helfferich was elected to the Reichstag in the same year. In 1923 he proposed a new currency to combat inflation. The Rentenmark introduced in November 1923 was based on his concept. His appointment as president of the Reichsbank was vetoed by the government, however. He died in a rail accident.
Hell, Anne Chrétien Louis de (b. Aug. 25, 1783, Verneuil-sur-Seine, Yvelines, France - d. Oct. 4, 1864, Oberkirch castle, near Obernai, Bas-Rhin, France), governor of Île Bourbon (1838-41).
Hellat, Aleksander (b. Aug. 20, 1881, Tartu, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Nov. 28, 1943, Kemerovo oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister (1919-20) and foreign minister (1922-23, 1927) of Estonia. He was also mayor of Tallinn (1918-19) and minister to Latvia (1920-22) and Finland (1923-31). He was arrested in 1940 and died three years later in a Soviet prison camp.
Hellebaut, Albert (b. Dec. 9, 1868, Mechelen, Belgium - d. June 24, 1951, Woluwe-Saint-Lambert, Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1925).
Hellebaut, Joseph (Marie Jacques Théodore Jean-Népomucène) (b. Feb. 21, 1842, Berchem, Belgium - d. March 17, 1924, Henri-Chappelle, Belgium), war minister of Belgium (1907-12).
Heller Rouassant, Claude (b. May 2, 1949, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican diplomat. He was ambassador to Switzerland (1989-91), Austria (1992-95), Cuba (1995-98), France (2001-07), and Japan (2011-14) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-11).
Helleu, Jean (b. June 26, 1885 - d. May 30, 1955), French delegate-general of Syria and Lebanon (1943).
Hellner, Johannes (b. April 22, 1866, Svedala, Skåne, Sweden - d. Feb. 19, 1947, Stockholm, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1917-20).
Helms, Jesse (Alexander) (b. Oct. 18, 1921, Monroe, N.C. - d. July 4, 2008, Raleigh, N.C.), U.S. politician. He was elected to the Raleigh city council in 1957 and never lost an election thereafter. Originally a Democrat, Helms left the Democratic Party in 1970 and two years later won a Senate seat as a Republican. He was subsequently reelected, including a notoriously expensive race in 1984 against Gov. James B. Hunt, Jr. At first he was known, to the extent he was known at all, as a right-wing curmudgeon, but that changed in 1980 when U.S. voters put fellow conservative Ronald Reagan in the White House. With a conservative president, a much more conservative Congress, and such New Right groups as the Moral Majority making their presence felt, Helms - second only to Reagan in the hearts of many right-wingers - was in his element. From his position as chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, he set himself up as a kind of one-man litmus tester of Reagan appointees, managing to delay (if not prevent) several appointments on the grounds that the nominees were too liberal. He played a major role in backing the administration's budget cuts - even as he fought successfully to retain subsidies for his state's tobacco farmers - and led crusades against homosexuality and abortion. His installation as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1994 assured him of a powerful voice in foreign affairs. With Republican Rep. Dan Burton of Indiana, he cosponsored the Helms-Burton Act (1996), which punished certain foreign companies that did business with Cuba. In a well-publicized round of political hardball in 1997, Helms prevented the confirmation of Pres. Bill Clinton's nominee for the ambassadorship to Mexico, William F. Weld, a moderate Republican. He retired in 2003.
Helms, Richard (McGarrah) (b. March 30, 1913, St. Davids, Pa. - d. Oct. 22, 2002, Washington, D.C.), CIA director (1966-73). As a reporter he gained some notice for his exclusive interview with Adolf Hitler in 1936. He began his spying career during World War II when he was assigned to the Office of Strategic Services, which became the CIA in 1947. He rose steadily through the ranks and in 1965 became deputy director. In 1966 Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson made him director. He was the first career spy to head the agency. Helms played a critical role in many of the CIA's most controversial operations, from plotting the assassinations of foreign leaders such as Fidel Castro to overthrowing the Chilean government of Pres. Salvador Allende. Under Pres. Richard Nixon, the CIA's role in domestic spying hovered on the extreme edge of the agency's charter and at times crossed over into illegal activities. When Nixon tried to enlist Helms' help in blocking the FBI's investigation into the Watergate affair and he refused to cooperate, Nixon gave Helms the boot and appointed him ambassador to Iran, where he served from March 1973. Over the next few years, he was repeatedly called back to Washington to testify before congressional committees investigating the CIA's activities. By the mid-1970s it had become clear that he had intentionally misled Senate committees. In December 1976 he quit his ambassadorship. When federal prosecutors announced they would seek to indict him for perjury, he responded aggressively, saying he was prepared to publicly reveal matters the government wanted to remain untold. The Justice Department took his bluff seriously and backed down. In the end, prosecutors offered Helms a plea bargain by which he paid a $2,000 fine and received a suspended two-year prison sentence.
Hélou, Charles (Alexandre), Arabic Sharl Iskandar Hilu (b. Dec. 25, 1912, Beirut, Lebanon - d. Jan. 7, 2001, Zalka, Lebanon), president of Lebanon (1964-70). He served as ambassador to the Vatican in 1947, was elected to parliament in 1951, and held several cabinet posts, including foreign minister (1951-52), minister of justice and public health (1954-55), and of education (1964). Not long after his inauguration as president in 1964, Hélou agreed at an Arab summit meeting to Arab sponsorship of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), but he refused to allow the stationing of PLO bases in Lebanon, an issue that grew increasingly explosive in the course of his term. In 1968-69 a pattern emerged in which the Christian president and the army command opposed the stationing of Palestinian guerrillas in Lebanon, while the Muslim prime minister, Rashid Karami, favoured it. Under great pressure from Arab nations and from Lebanese Muslims, Hélou in 1969 moved to avert a crisis by accepting Karami's proposed policy of coordination between the PLO and the Lebanese Army. The so-called Cairo Agreement of November 1969 was intended to limit the guerrillas' freedom of movement, end their military training in refugee camps, and stop the guerrillas from firing at Israel before they had actually entered Israeli territory. The purpose was to prevent Lebanese villagers and other civilians from getting hurt in Israeli counterattacks. Critics argued that the Cairo Agreement forced the guerrillas into strongholds in southeast Lebanon which, while reducing friction with the Lebanese, led to a rise in attacks on Israel as well as increased Israeli retaliation, which was not confined to the guerrillas' allotted areas. Hélou was also an honorary president of the group of French-speaking nations.
Helou, Esperidião Amin, Filho (b. Dec. 21, 1947, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil), governor of Santa Catarina (1983-87, 1999-2003). He was also mayor of Florianópolis (1975-78, 1989-90).
Hemaiag Bedros XVII (Guediguian) (b. Oct. 2, 1905, Trabzon, Turkey - d. Nov. 28, 1998), patriarch of the Armenian Catholic Church (1976-82).
Hemphill, William A(rnold) (b. May 5, 1842, Athens, Ga. - d. Aug. 17, 1902, Atlanta, Ga.), mayor of Atlanta (1891-92).
Henderson, Arthur (b. Sept. 13, 1863, Glasgow, Scotland - d. Oct. 20, 1935, London, England), British politician. He contested Newcastle in the Liberal interest at the 1895 general election, but his trade union interests soon drew him into the political working-class movement, and in 1903 he entered the House of Commons as a Labour Party member from Barnard Castle Division, Durham, in what was Labour's first electoral victory over candidates from both the Conservative and Liberal parties. He was chief party whip in the Commons in 1914, 1921-23, and 1925-27. In 1908-10 and 1914-17 he was chairman of the Labour Party, and in 1911-34 he was party secretary. In August 1914, with the majority of the Labour MPs, he expressed support for the British effort in World War I. He thereupon took over the party's parliamentary leadership from Ramsay MacDonald, who then headed Labour's pacifist minority. In H.H. Asquith's wartime coalition government of 1915-16, he first was president of the Board of Education and later paymaster general and governmental adviser on labour matters. He became a minister without portfolio in David Lloyd George's five-man war cabinet. He resigned from the cabinet on Aug. 12, 1917. With the Socialist reformer Sidney Webb he largely wrote the party constitution (1918), which made Labour for the first time an avowed Socialist party with effective constituency organizations. When Labour held power for the first time (1924), he served as home secretary under MacDonald. He was foreign secretary (1929-31) in MacDonald's second Labour ministry. He resigned that post when MacDonald formed a national coalition government. In 1932-33 he was president of the World Disarmament Conference, and he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in 1934.
Henderson, Edward (Firth) (b. Dec. 12, 1917 - d. April 13, 1995, Oxford, England), British political officer in Abu Dhabi (1959-61) and Qatar (1969-71). He was ambassador to Qatar in 1971-74.
Henderson, Paul (Raymond) (b. Aug. 15, 1962, Croix Chapeau, France), chief minister of the Northern Territory (2007-12).
Henderson, Vince (b. 1973?), foreign minister of Dominica (2008-10). In 2010 he became permanent representative to the United Nations.
Hendricks, Thomas A(ndrews) (b. Sept. 7, 1819, near Zanesville, Ohio - d. Nov. 25, 1885, Indianapolis, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1873-77) and U.S. vice president (1885). He was elected to the Indiana legislature in 1848 and as a delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1850. He represented the Indianapolis district in the U.S. Congress (1851-55), was commissioner of the U.S. General Land Office (1855-59), and a member of the U.S. Senate (1863-69), of which he was regarded as the Democratic leader. He was loyal to the Union but opposed many aspects of the Republican-dominated military effort in the American Civil War (1861-65) and the Radical Reconstruction program for the South afterward. He favoured leniency toward the white supremacists in the South and opposed all legislation aimed at assisting freedmen, either politically or economically. In the Democratic national convention of 1868 in New York, he was strongly supported for the nomination to the presidency. As candidate for the governorship of Indiana, he was defeated in 1860 and 1868, but was elected in 1872. He was the vice presidential nominee, with Samuel J. Tilden, in the disputed election of 1876, losing by the decision of a special Electoral Commission. Nominated again in 1884, he was finally elected, with Grover Cleveland as president. Hendricks was a strict party man and was not so liberal towards his opponents as Cleveland. He died less than nine months after his inauguration.
Hendrickse, Allan, byname of Helenard Joe Hendrickse (b. Oct. 22, 1927, Uitenhage, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. March 16, 2005, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape), South African politician. In 1969 he became a founder member of the Labour Party (LP), serving as its first national chairman. He was elected to the Coloured Representative Council (CRC) and in 1975 to its executive. In January 1978 he became a member of the interim committee formed to create the South African Black Alliance (Saba), which linked the LP, Inkatha, and the Indian Reform Party. He stated that constitutional arrangements which did not include blacks could not be regarded as final or a guarantee of peace and security. In elections in August 1984, he became MP for Swartkops in the tricameral parliament's House of Representatives (reserved for Coloureds), and his party took 76 of the 80 elected seats; he became chairman of that house's Ministers' Council. In August 1987 he threatened to block constitutional changes, proposed by the ruling National Party (NP), to delay a general election for a further three years, unless the government made a commitment to scrap the Group Areas Act. The LP continued to block constitutional amendments requested by the NP, forcing South Africa to the polls again in 1989. Hendrickse retained his seat, with the LP remaining the majority party in the House of Representatives. He lost control, however, in 1992 when the bulk of his members joined the NP - which had ushered in reforms in 1990 and unbanned the African National Congress (ANC). His rival Jac Rabie became the new leader in the Coloured house. Hendrickse later joined the ANC and, in 1994, became one of the party's senators in the then-upper house of the new democratic parliament. He retired from active politics at the next election.
Hendrickson, Waino (Edward) (b. June 18, 1896, Juneau, Alaska - d. June 19, 1983), U.S. politician. He was encouraged to run for mayor of Juneau in 1946. He won and served until 1953. His most important work as mayor was getting the city power to levy and use sales tax. There was no sales tax prior to this, and in the days before oil money, cities had virtually no way to raise funds. Hendrickson got a sales tax passed to pave the streets, and Juneau thus became the first city in Alaska that was fully paved. Hendrickson also served in the territorial House of Representatives from 1948 to 1953. In 1953, he was named by Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower to be secretary of state under territorial governor Frank Heintzleman, and served in this position until statehood. During this time, he twice served as acting governor. He was appointed first chairman of the Interior Department's Alaska Field Committee, and then director of the Juneau office of the Bureau of Land Management.
Hendrikx, Jan (Andreas Marie) (b. May 27, 1941, Brunssum, Limburg, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Overijssel (1988-2002).
Heng Samrin, Samdech (Akka Moha Ponhea Chakrei) (b. May 25, 1934, Prey Veng province, Cambodia), president of the People's Revolutionary Council (1979-81), chairman of the Council of State (1981-92), and secretary-general of the People's Revolutionary Party (1981-91) of Cambodia (Kampuchea). Under Pol Pot, he was a political commissar and commander of a Khmer Rouge army division. In May 1978, he defected to Vietnam. On Dec. 3, 1978, Hanoi radio announced the formation of the Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation and its military arm, the Kampuchean Revolutionary Armed Forces. This new Vietnamese-backed organization, whose goal was the overthrow of the Chinese-supported Pol Pot regime, moved with great swiftness, and on Jan. 7, 1979, it captured Phnom Penh, and Heng became head of state. The military activity and ensuing chaos in Cambodia swelled the steady flow of refugees into a flood. Thousands of starving people staggered out of Cambodia into Thailand, where they were placed in desperately undersupplied temporary camps. Conditions were reported to be even worse inside Cambodia, where Heng appeared to be systematically starving portions of the country in hopes of destroying the remnants of the Khmer Rouge. Until late 1979 he refused to facilitate humanitarian assistance offered by the West. He faced continued armed resistance from the Khmer Rouge and other forces and failed to gain widespread diplomatic recognition. In 1985 he effectively lost power to Hun Sen, the new prime minister. Later he became honorary chairman of the Cambodian People's Party, the successor of the People's Revolutionary Party of Kampuchea, and was granted the honorary title of Samdech. He became first vice president of the National Assembly in 1998 and was elected its president on March 21, 2006. In 2007 he was granted the title of Samdech Akka Moha.
Hennet, Leopold, until 1919 Leopold Freiherr von Hennet (b. May 10, 1876, Gaaden, Austria - d. March 27, 1950, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Austria (1922). He was also agriculture and forestry minister (1921-22) and minister to Hungary (1932-36).
Hennique, (Privat François) Agathon (b. Sept. 12, 1810, Couvron, Aisne, France - d. April 6, 1870, Cayenne, French Guiana), governor of French Guiana (1865-70).
Henniquiau, Edouard (b. Dec. 24, 1911 - d. 199...), high representative of Urundi (1962). He was also Belgian ambassador to Burundi (1962-69).
Henri (Albert Gabriel Félix Marie Guillaume) (b. April 16, 1955, Betzdorf, Luxembourg), grand duke of Luxembourg (2000- ); son of Jean.
Henriques, Artur Alberto de Campos (b. April 28, 1853, Porto, Portugal - d. Nov. 7, 1922, Lisbon, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1908-09). He was also civil governor of Porto (1891-94) and minister of public works, commerce, and industry (1894-97), justice (1900-04, 1906, 1908), and interior (1908-09).
Henríquez (Sasso), Roberto (Milton Cohen) (b. Dec. 4, 1950, Panama City, Panama), foreign minister of Panama (2011-12). In 2009-11 he was minister of trade and industry.
Henry I, before 1811 known as Henry Christophe (and signing so even as king), original name possibly Christopher Henry (b. Oct. 6, 1767, Grenada - d. [suicide] Oct. 8, 1820, Sans Souci palace, near Milot village, northern Haiti), provisional chief of the government (1806-07), president (1807-11), and king (1811-20) of (northern) Haiti.
Henry, Albert (Royle) (b. June 11, 1907, Aitutaki, Cook Islands - d. Jan. 2, 1981, Rarotonga, Cook Islands), Cook Islands politician. He became premier of the territory in 1965 when it was granted internal self-government. Henry was returned to office in four consecutive elections but in 1978 was dismissed and charged with electoral bribery and corruption. He pleaded guilty in 1979 and was barred from politics for three years, but on appeal the order was rescinded. On April 11, 1980, Henry was stripped of the knighthood conferred on him by Queen Elizabeth II in 1974.
Henry, Eugène (Joseph Marie) (b. 1862 - d. 1930), governor-general of Belgian Congo (1916-21).
Henry, Sir Geoffrey (Arama) (b. Nov. 16, 1940, Aitutaki, Cook Islands - d. May 9, 2012, Rarotonga, Cook Islands), Cook Islands politician; cousin of Albert Henry. He served as prime minister in 1983 and 1989-99, and was finance minister as well most of the time. In 1996, he put in place major financial reforms including a 60% downsizing of government employment, from some 3,500 on the government payroll in a nation of 18,000 persons to 1,440, and reduced the national budget by half. He was deputy prime minister and finance minister in 2002-03 and 2004-05. He retired as leader of the Cook Islands Party in 2006. In February 2011 he became speaker of parliament. He was knighted in 1992.
Henschel, Milton G(eorge) (b. Aug. 9, 1920, Pomona, N.J. - d. March 22, 2003, Brooklyn, N.Y.), president of the Jehovah's Witnesses (1992-2000). He was ordained a Jehovah's Witnesses minister in 1934 and became a member of the staff of the world headquarters in 1939. In 1947 he began serving in an administrative capacity. He became a member of the Governing Body in 1976. He traveled extensively to countries around the globe, inaugurating branch facilities, overseeing the Christian ministry, and engaging in Bible instruction. His travels took him to five continents and to various island nations and territories.
Hentley, Mike, byname of Michael Joseph Hentley (b. July 13, 1946), administrator of Tristan da Cunha (2004-07).
Hepi Te Heuheu Tukino VII (b. Jan. 26, 1919 - d. July 31, 1997, Taupo, New Zealand), paramount chief of Ngati Tuwharetoa (1944-97).
Hepp, Bernard (François) (b. March 20, 1919, Paris - d. July 1986), acting governor of Dahomey (1958).
Herandien, Cecil (Bernard) (b. March 8, 1951, Kakamas, Cape Province [now in Northern Cape], South Africa), acting premier of Western Cape (2001).
Herath, (James Edward) Harold (b. March 10, 1930, Nattandiya, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Aug. 31, 2007), foreign minister of Sri Lanka (1990-93). He was also justice minister (1993-94).
Herbert, Gary (Richard) (b. May 7, 1947, American Fork, Utah), governor of Utah (2009- ).
Herbruger Asturias, Arturo (b. June 3, 1912 - d. Oct. 25, 1999), Guatemalan politician. He served as president of the country's supreme court (1949-53), as attorney general, and as treasury minister. He established the Supreme Electoral Tribunal in 1983, the organization that presided over elections for the National Constitutional Assembly in 1984 and presidential elections in 1985 and 1990. He headed the tribunal until 1993. After the failure of an attempted coup on May 25, 1993, against Pres. Jorge Serrano Elías, the Congress designated Ramiro de León Carpio as president and Herbruger as vice president, to serve until January 1996. At the time of his death, Herbruger was serving as a representative of the Central American Parliament, made up of 120 representatives from Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and the Dominican Republic.
Herceg, Mugdim (b. 1951, Maglaj, Bosnia), governor of Zenica-Doboj (2001-02).
Hercelles García, Oswaldo (b. July 19, 1908, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 24, 1969, Santiago, Chile), prime minister and foreign minister of Peru (1968).
Hercolani Fava Simonetti, Conte Palatino Antonio ("Fava Simonetti" added Aug. 29, 1921) (b. Jan. 22, 1883, Bologna, Italy - d. June 18, 1962, Bologna), acting grand master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (1951-55).
Herdman, (John) Mark (Ambrose) (b. April 26, 1932, Rhu, Scotland - d. Aug. 5, 2015, Guildford, Surrey, England), acting governor of Bermuda (1983) and governor of the British Virgin Islands (1986-91). He was deputy governor of Bermuda in 1983-86.
Herivel, Sydney Peck (b. Feb. 17, 1890, Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England - d. Aug. 27, 1970, Alderney), president of the States of Alderney (1949-70).
Herly, Jean (Lucien Émile) (b. Sept. 15, 1920, Grosbliederstroff, Moselle, France - d. Nov. 17, 1998, Bonn, Germany), minister of state of Monaco (1981-85). He was also French ambassador to the Central African Republic (1966-69), Israel (1973-77), and Morocco (1978-80) and Monaco's ambassador to Switzerland (1985-90) and Germany (1990-98).
Hermannsson, Steingrímur (b. June 22, 1928, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. Feb. 1, 2010, Gardabær, Iceland), prime minister (1983-87, 1988-91) and foreign minister (1987-88) of Iceland; son of Hermann Jónasson. He served as an MP for the West Fjords constituency (1971-87) and for the Reykjanes constituency (1987-94) and was minister of justice, ecclesiastical affairs, and agriculture (1978-79) and of fisheries and communications (1980-83). When Iceland's right-of-centre government coalition of the Independence Party and the Progressive Party came into office on May 27, 1983, the larger Independence Party demanded and got six out of ten ministries in the cabinet. The office of prime minister was accorded to the Progressives in compensation and was filled by Hermannsson, who was the party's chairman in 1979-94. The new prime minister was considered to be a middle-of-the-road politician. This had enabled him and his party to form coalitions both with the leftist anti-U.S. People's Alliance at one time and with the right-of-centre and pro-U.S. Independence Party at other times, with equal ideological ease. The Progressive Party had its main support in rural areas and confined its interests mostly to farmer-related issues, such as agricultural subsidies and farmers' cooperatives. In international affairs Hermannsson and his party had for years been pro-NATO, but they had at times made moves to go along with left-wing parties to press for the withdrawal of the U.S. base in Iceland. In recent years they had abandoned his position and instead sided with the Independence Party as firm supporters of NATO and the U.S. military presence in the country. In 1994-98, Hermannsson was governor of the Central Bank of Iceland.
Hermans, Loek, byname of Louis Marie Lucien Henri Alphonse Hermans (b. April 23, 1951, Heerlen, Limburg, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Friesland (1994-98). He was also mayor of Zwolle (1990-94) and Dutch minister of education, culture, and sciences (1998-2002).
Hermassi, Abdelbaki, Arabic `Abd al-Baqi al-Hirmasi (b. Dec. 26, 1937, Fériana, western Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (2004-05). He previously served as minister of culture (1996-2002) and of culture, youth and leisure (2002-04).
Hernández (Alvarado), Juan Orlando (b. Oct. 28, 1968, Gracias, Lempira department, Honduras), president of Honduras (2014- ). He was also president of the National Congress (2010-13).
Hernández (Abchi), Lizeta (b. Dec. 13, 1967, Tucupita, Delta Amacuro, Venezuela), governor of Delta Amacuro (2012- ).
Hernández Álvarez, Enrique (b. June 24, 1892, Ciudad González, Guanajuato, Mexico - d. Nov. 2, 1938, Guanajuato, Guanajuato), governor of Guanajuato (1931-32). He was also Mexican minister of social welfare (1938).
Hernández Colón, Rafael (b. Oct. 24, 1936, Ponce, Puerto Rico), governor of Puerto Rico (1973-77, 1985-93). He was a protégé of Luis Muñoz Marín and followed the Popular Democratic Party's backing of commonwealth status, asserting that either statehood or independence would result in the island's economic and political ruin. In 1965 he was appointed justice secretary by Gov. Roberto Sánchez Vilella. In 1968 he was elected senator and he became president of the Senate in 1969. In 1972 he was elected governor, defeating the incumbent Luis A. Ferré. In office, he tried to make Puerto Rico less dependent economically on the United States; he sought a greater Puerto Rican role in world trade, immigration control, communications, and transport while favouring the commonwealth's retention of American citizenship, common defense arrangements, and a common economic market. In 1975 he embarked upon a massive housing program, increasing the commonwealth's public works budget by 20% to $600,000,000. He vigorously opposed Cuban intervention in the island's affairs, alleging that there were ties between the Fidel Castro regime and the Puerto Rican Socialist Party. Immediately before the 1977 inauguration of his successor, Carlos Romero Barceló, he reacted strongly to U.S. Pres. Gerald R. Ford's call for the admission of Puerto Rico to the Union as the 51st state. His assertion that statehood contradicted the United States commitment to Puerto Rican self-determination was endorsed by U.S. Pres. Jimmy Carter. In 1980 he again lost the gubernatorial election to Romero, though the margin was very close. In 1984 and 1988 he was reelected. He did not run again in 1992 and retired from politics.
Hernández de la Torre, José María (b. 1940, Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain), acting president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1982).
Hernández Deras, Ismael (Alfredo) (b. Feb. 20, 1964, Mezquital, Durango, Mexico), governor of Durango (2004-10). He was also mayor of Durango (1998-2000).
Hernández Flores, Eugenio (Javier) (b. Oct. 17, 1959, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico), governor of Tamaulipas (2005-10). He was also mayor of Ciudad Victoria (2001-04).
Hernández Martínez, Maximiliano (b. Oct. 29, 1882, San Matías, El Salvador - d. April 11, 1966, Jamastrán, Honduras), president of El Salvador (1931-34, 1935-44). Supported by the coffee oligarchy that controlled El Salvador's economy (the so-called "Fourteen Families"), he became vice president in 1931. In December 1931 a group of officers overthrew Pres. Arturo Araujo's government and installed Hernández as acting president. Economic and political turmoil led to uprisings in January 1932 of primarily Pipil peasants and urban workers led by the Communist Party, armed mostly with machetes and stones. The army easily defeated the revolts and Communist leader Agustín Farabundo Martí was captured and executed. Pipil leader José Feliciano Ama was hung while his children were forced to watch. In retaliation for the uprisings, Hernández ordered his soldiers to kill anyone who dressed, looked, or sounded indigenous. Some 30,000 people were killed in the span of a few weeks in a massacre known as La Matanza ("The Slaughter"). Pipils who survived hid their indigenous heritage, discarded their traditional clothing, and stopped speaking their language. His fiscal responsibility and shrewdness allowed Hernández to reduce the country's debt while building a modern army and infrastructure. He extended his term as president by redrafting or suspending the constitution, but by 1944 the people were tired of his illegal regime. A small police and military coup was launched in April, but was violently put down. On May 5, however, a nationwide strike was organized by university students, bringing business to a halt. When the oligarchy withdrew their support from him, he stepped down on May 9, and one day later fled to Honduras, where he lived until his assassination in 1966.
Hernández Ochoa, Rafael (b. June 4, 1915, Santa Gertrudis, Vega de la Torre municipality, Veracruz, Mexico - d. May 18, 1990), governor of Veracruz (1974-80). He was also Mexican minister of labour and social security (1970-72).
Hernández Piedra, Rafael (b. Nov. 10, 1919, Durango, Durango, Mexico - d. [in earthquake] Sept. 19, 1985, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Durango (1962). He was also mayor of Durango (1956-58).
Hernández Ros, Andrés (b. July 30, 1948, La Garapacha, Fortuna, Murcia, Spain), president of the Regional Council (1979-82) and of the Council of Government (1982-84) of Murcia.
Hernu, Charles (b. July 3, 1923, Quimper, France - d. Jan. 17, 1990, Villeurbanne, near Lyon, France), French politician. He was elected (1956) to the National Assembly, where he was a protégé of Socialist leader Pierre Mendès-France and a founding member (1963) of the Unified Socialist Party. After François Mitterrand became head of the reorganized Socialist Party in 1971, Hernu prospered as the party's undisputed expert on defense matters. As President Mitterrand's defense minister (1981-85) and head of the secret service, Hernu expanded and modernized the armed forces and supervised the development and testing of nuclear weapons. In 1983 he ordered more than 3,000 French troops into Chad to combat Libyan incursions into the former French overseas territory. He also endorsed French military actions in Lebanon as part of the UN peacekeeping force. He resigned amid the scandal surrounding the sinking by French agents of the Rainbow Warrior, an unarmed ship sent by the environmentalist organization Greenpeace to protest French nuclear tests in the South Pacific. Although he assumed full responsibility for the "Greenpeace affair," Hernu consistently denied that he had ordered the sabotage of the ship, in which one person was killed. He later admitted that such orders had been given and that he had participated in the attempted cover-up.
Hérold, Ferdinand (b. Oct. 16, 1828, Paris, France - d. Jan. 1, 1882, Paris), prefect of Seine département (1879-82).
Herrenberg, Henk, byname of Hendrik Frans Herrenberg (b. 1939, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname]), foreign minister of Suriname (1986-87). He was also ambassador to the Netherlands (1982-84) and China (1998-99).
Herrera (Araúz), Balbina (del Carmen) (b. Nov. 24, 1954, Panama City, Panama), Panamanian presidential candidate (2009). She was president of the National Assembly (1994-95) and minister of housing (2004-08).
Herrera (y Díaz del Valle), (José) Dionisio (de la Trinidad de) (b. Oct. 9, 1781, Choluteca [now in Honduras] - d. June 13, 1850, San Vicente, El Salvador), governor of Tegucigalpa (1823-24), supreme chief of state of Honduras (1824-27), and chief of Nicaragua (1830-33).
Herrera, Federico (b. September 1845, Ayacucho, Peru - d. ...), interior minister (1891-92) and prime minister (1891, 1891-92) of Peru.
Herrera (Lane), (Luis) Felipe (b. June 17, 1922, Valparaíso, Chile - d. Sept. 17, 1996, Santiago, Chile), president of the Inter-American Development Bank (1960-71).
Herrera (y Ricardos), José Joaquín (Antonio Florencio) de (b. Feb. 23, 1792, Xalapa, Mexico - d. Feb. 10, 1854, Tacubaya, Mexico), president of Mexico (1844-45, 1848-51).
Herrera, Luis Beder (b. May 26, 1941, Campanas, La Rioja, Argentina), governor of La Rioja (1991, 2007-15).
Herrera Báez, Gilberto (b. March 12, 1919, San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic - d. April 11, 2012), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1966-67); brother of Porfirio Herrera Báez.
Herrera Báez, Porfirio (b. Nov. 8, 1915, San Pedro de Macorís, Dominican Republic), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1956-61). He was also ambassador to the Vatican (1961-62), the United Kingdom (1963-72), Portugal (1972-75), and Italy (1975-c.1984).
Herrera Caldera, Jorge (b. Jan. 8, 1963, Durango, Durango, Mexico), governor of Durango (2010- ). He was also mayor of Durango (2007-10).
Herrera Campins, Luis (Antonio) (b. May 4, 1925, Acariqua, Venezuela - d. Nov. 9, 2007, Caracas, Venezuela), president of Venezuela (1979-84). With Rafael Caldera, he founded the Social Christian Party (Comité Organizado Pro Elecciones Independientes; COPEI) in 1946. In 1952 he was jailed and deported as a result of his activities against the regime of Pres. Marcos Pérez Jiménez. He went into exile to Europe, where he forged ties between his fledgling party and the European Christian Democratic organizations. He returned to Venezuela after the overthrow of Pérez in 1958. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1959 and served many years there as party whip before moving up to the Senate in 1973. Despite his prominence Herrera could not escape being overshadowed by fellow party leader Caldera, who consistently ran as the party's presidential nominee. When Caldera finally won in 1968, he refused to invite Herrera into his administration. Years of frustration were finally rewarded in August 1978 when he received the overwhelming support of the party in his first bid for the Venezuelan presidency. Not an exciting campaigner, he based his appeal on a single word - "Enough!" Perhaps the most interesting aspect of the campaign pitting Herrera against Luis Piñerúa Ordaz of the Democratic Action Party was the importation by both sides of media experts from the United States. The candidates relied heavily on televised messages, Piñerúa promising to continue the policies of Pres. Carlos Andrés Pérez (constitutionally prevented from seeking reelection) and Herrera criticizing the Pérez regime for failing to govern efficiently and honestly and for not utilizing the nation's enormous oil revenues wisely. Herrera won the December 1978 election. He tried to open up the economy and shrink the public deficit, but did not fare well.
Herrera Grau, Gustavo (b. April 12, 1890, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Feb. 1, 1953, Caracas), foreign minister of Venezuela (1945). He was also finance minister (1936), minister to the Netherlands (1936-37) and Germany (1937-38), and minister of education (1941-43) and development (1943-45).
Herrera Linares, Emilio (b. Feb. 13, 1879, Granada, Spain - d. Sept. 13, 1967, Geneva, Switzerland), prime minister of Spain in exile (1960-62).
Herrick, Myron T(imothy) (b. Oct. 9, 1854, near Huntington, Ohio - d. March 31, 1929, Paris, France), governor of Ohio (1904-06). He was also U.S. ambassador to France (1912-14, 1921-29).
Herring, Sir Edmund Francis (b. Sept. 2, 1892, Maryborough, Victoria - d. Jan. 5, 1982, Melbourne, Victoria), acting governor of Victoria (1949). As a soldier he had a distinguished career in both World Wars, receiving a Distinguished Service Order and Military Cross during World War I. During World War II, he served in North Africa and Greece before becoming commander of the New Guinea Force. Many years later he was embroiled in a controversy over his decision that Papuans who had delivered missionaries to the Japanese should be executed. Herring was knighted in 1943. He was chief justice of the Supreme Court of Victoria (1944-64) and lieutenant governor of Victoria (1945-72).
Herriot, Édouard (b. July 5, 1872, Troyes, Aube, France - d. March 26, 1957, Lyon, France), prime minister and foreign minister of France (1924-25, 1926, 1932). He was also minister of supply, public works, and transports (1916-17), minister of public instruction and fine arts (1926-28), minister of state (1934-36), president of the Chamber of Deputies (1925-26, 1936-42) and of the National Assembly (1947-54), president of the Radical Party (1919-26, 1931-36, 1948-57), and mayor of Lyon (1905-40, 1945-57).
Herry, Jacques (Emmanuel Victor) (b. April 24, 1922 - d. Jan. 24, 2010), interim resident (1961) and interim administrator-superior (1962) of Wallis and Futuna and governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1962-65).
Hertling, Georg (Friedrich) Graf von (count of) (b. Aug. 31, 1843, Darmstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt [Germany] - d. Jan. 4, 1919, Ruhpolding, Germany), chancellor of Germany (1917-18). He served in the Reichstag (federal parliament) as a deputy of the Catholic Centre Party (1875-90, 1896-1912) and was its parliamentary leader from 1909 to 1912. In 1912 King Ludwig III of Bavaria named him Bavarian prime minister and foreign minister, a position he was to retain until 1917. In 1914 he was raised from Freiherr (baron) to Graf. On July 13, 1917, Emperor Wilhelm offered the chancellorship to Hertling, but he refused the post, and it was given to an almost unknown Prussian official, Georg Michaelis. However, Michaelis lasted only 3½ months and on Nov. 1, 1917, Hertling replaced him to placate the Reichstag parties that had lost confidence in Michaelis. Hertling exercised little real power, which remained in the hands of the supreme military command headed by Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff. Hertling believed in ultimate German victory and never challenged the military. But he managed the internal situation with adroitness, and obtained a pledge from the Reichstag of good behaviour for the duration of the war, in return for small concessions to "democracy" in the shape of the appointment of a National Liberal, Robert Friedberg, to be vice president of the Prussian ministry, and of the Radical leader Friedrich von Payer to be vice chancellor. But in September 1918, when Germany's collapse became imminent, it was too late for further experiments in sham "democracy" and he stepped down rather than work with a government responsible to the Reichstag.
Hertzog, J(ames) B(arry) M(unnik) (b. April 3, 1866, near Wellington, Cape Colony [now in South Africa] - d. Nov. 21, 1942, Pretoria, South Africa), prime minister of South Africa (1924-39). During the South African War (1899-1902) he rose to assistant chief commandant of the Orange Free State forces and became a resourceful and daring guerrilla leader. He later entered politics by organizing the Orangia-Unie (Orangia Union). When self-government was given to the largely Afrikaner Orange Free State in 1907, he became a member of the cabinet. In 1910 he was taken into the first cabinet of the Union of South Africa under Louis Botha, but his strong nationalist views caused Botha to form a new government without him in 1912. Hertzog formed the National Party (1914), which gained strength by opposing Botha's active support of Britain during World War I. In 1924, with the support of the Labour Party, he became prime minister. He made Afrikaans an official language and protected home industries. In 1934 the National and South African parties joined to form the United Party. With the strong support of Afrikaners, he carried through a racial policy that resulted in greater segregation of whites and blacks, disenfranchisement of the Cape Bantu, and the expansion of the native reserves. In the 1938 election his party won a great triumph, but the outbreak of World War II led to his downfall. His party was divided on South Africa's role in the war. He insisted on neutrality; Jan Smuts and his followers felt that South Africa's place was next to Britain. When Hertzog's motion to remain out of the war was defeated in Parliament (Sept. 4, 1939) by a vote of 80 to 67, he resigned, and Smuts formed a new government. Hertzog became leader of the opposition until at the end of 1940 he retired from politics.
Heryawan, Ahmad (b. June 19, 1966, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Barat (2008- ).
Herzog, Chaim (Hebrew Hayyim Herzog), original name Hyman Herzog (byname Vivian Herzog) (b. Sept. 17, 1918, Belfast, Ireland [now in Northern Ireland] - d. April 17, 1997, Tel Aviv, Israel), president of Israel (1983-93); son of Isaac Halevi Herzog. He grew up in Dublin before immigrating with his family to Palestine in 1935. In 1936 he joined the Haganah, an organization that sought to create a separate Jewish state. With the formation of Israel in 1948, Herzog fought against neighbouring Arab countries in the war of independence and was appointed director of military intelligence, a post he held until 1950 and that later qualified him for the task of defense attaché at Israel's embassy in the U.S. and later in Canada. In 1954 Herzog was posted as military commander of the Jerusalem district. He remained there until 1959 and after holding a variety of other staff appointments was again named director of military intelligence (1959-62). He rose to the rank of major general before retiring from the army in 1962. Herzog's broadcasts as military commentator during the Six-Day War in 1967 achieved world renown, and he was appointed as the first Israeli military governor of the West Bank after the conquest of Jerusalem. Like his brother-in-law, former foreign minister Abba Eban, he became an outstanding and popular ambassador at the UN, where he remained from 1975 until 1978. In 1981, as a member of the Israeli Labour Party, Herzog was elected to the Knesset (parliament). Two years later he was elected president, a largely ceremonial post. Herzog made 45 visits abroad and spoke before 13 foreign parliaments, improving Israel's international image. In 1988 he ran unopposed in his bid for reelection, winning a second term, the maximum allowed under Israeli law.
Herzog, Isaac Halevi (b. November 1888, Lomza, Poland - d. July 25, 1959, Jerusalem), Ashkenazi chief rabbi (1936-59) of Palestine (from 1948 Israel).
Herzog, Roman (b. April 5, 1934, Landshut, Germany), president of Germany (1994-99). He met Helmut Kohl when the latter was the premier of the state of Rheinland-Pfalz. In 1973 he became Kohl's permanent representative in Bonn and then served in a series of government posts, ultimately becoming the minister of the interior of Baden-Württemberg. Kohl appointed him to the Federal Constitutional Court in 1983, and in 1987 he became its president. While Herzog was generally considered to be a conservative, his court had a history of returning some surprisingly liberal decisions. When the time came to choose a candidate for Germany's first postunification presidential election, Chancellor Kohl and his ruling Christian Democratic Union (CDU) sought out an easterner as a gesture to promote harmony within the country. His choice - Steffen Heitmann, the justice minister of the state of Sachsen - had proved a poor one. Heitmann, an inexperienced politician, came under intense criticism in 1993 when he voiced some extreme and unpopular opinions on subjects that included Naziism and immigrants. He then withdrew from the race. Kohl fared better with his replacement nominee, Herzog. When a special 1,324-member electoral college assembled in the Reichstag in Berlin on May 23 to choose a new president, it took three rounds of voting before Herzog received the required majority for the victory.
Heseltine, Michael (Ray Dibdin) Heseltine, Baron (b. March 21, 1933, Swansea, Wales), British politician. He first entered Parliament in 1966 as Conservative MP for Tavistock, and from 1974 he represented Henley. He was a junior minister in Edward Heath's government of 1970-74. In opposition his flamboyant style earned him the nickname "Tarzan." Under Margaret Thatcher he became secretary of state for the environment. His department had responsibility not only for protection and conservation of the environment but also for town and country planning, housing, and general oversight of local government. He found himself on the liberal wing of the Thatcher government, and he chose to make that plain in an emotional speech at the October 1981 Conservative Party conference when he insisted that it was in the Conservative tradition of "one nation" to bring practical help to the deprived communities of the inner cities. In 1983 he was appointed defense secretary. A dispute over the fate of a small, little-known helicopter company, Westland PLC, provoked his resignation in January 1986. The issue was trivial: who should take over the ailing company. Heseltine preferred the European option; Thatcher favoured the Americans. The symbolism of the issue, combined with increasingly sordid infighting within the cabinet, turned a routine dispute into a raging crisis. He walked out of a cabinet meeting and announced his resignation to startled reporters waiting outside the prime minister's residence. On Nov. 14, 1990, he announced his intention to fight for the Tory leadership. He won enough votes (152) to force Thatcher's resignation, but two new candidates emerged in the second round. Heseltine's vote fell to 131, and the following day he returned to the cabinet to run the Environment Department. In 1992-95 he was president of the Board of Trade and in 1995-97 deputy prime minister. He was made a life peer in 2001.
Hesketh, William (b. Nov. 11, 1895, Blackburn, Lancashire, England - d. Dec. 6, 1986, Henniker, Manchester, N.H., U.S.), U.S. city commandant of Berlin (1947). He emigrated to the U.S. in 1899, entered the U.S. Army in 1917, and retired in 1948.
Hesling, Frédéric (Charles Édouard Alexis) (b. Dec. 8, 1869, Mostaganem, Algeria - d. 1934), lieutenant governor of Upper Volta (1919-27).
Hess, (Walter Richard) Rudolf (b. April 26, 1894, Alexandria, Egypt - d. Aug. 17, 1987, West Berlin), German Nazi leader. He joined Adolf Hitler's fledgling National Socialist Party in 1920 and quickly became Hitler's friend and confidant. He took part in Hitler's abortive Munich Putsch (November 1923), escaped to Austria but returned voluntarily to Landsberg prison, where Hitler dictated to him a large portion of Mein Kampf. Promoted to Hitler's private secretary, he was charged with creating a new centralized party organization after the defection of the leftist followers of Gustav Strasser (1932). He became deputy party leader in April 1933 and entered Hitler's cabinet in December. In the late 1930s his influence with Hitler began to decline, and in 1939 he was designated to follow Hermann Göring in the Nazi line of succession. Hess decided in 1941 to bring the continuing military struggle between Germany and Britain to an end by means of a spectacular coup: on May 10 he secretly flew alone from Augsburg and landed by parachute in Scotland with peace proposals, demanding a free hand for Germany in Europe as compensation for Germany's promise to respect the integrity of the British Empire. His proposals met with no response from the British government, which treated him as a prisoner of war and held him in the Tower of London throughout the war. His quixotic action was likewise rejected by Hitler, who accused Hess of suffering from "pacifist delusions." Convicted at Nürnberg in 1946 of preparing and waging aggressive war, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. From 1966 he was the sole inmate in West Berlin's Spandau prison, kept there by Soviet intransigence. His suicide by hanging had allegedly been preceded by two or three attempts.
Hesteren, Antonius Johannes van (b. March 19, 1922, Tiel, Gelderland, Netherlands), administrator of Bonaire (1956-57, 1958-63).
Hetényi, István (b. Aug. 3, 1926, Budapest, Hungary - d. Nov. 11, 2008), finance minister of Hungary (1980-86).
Heunis, Chris, byname of Jan Christian Heunis (b. April 20, 1927, Uniondale, Cape province [now in Western Cape], South Africa - d. Jan. 27, 2006, Somerset West, Western Cape, South Africa), South African politician. In 1959 he was elected to the Provincial Council of the Cape, wherein he served in the late 1960s on the executive committee. He entered parliament in 1970 and became minister of Indian affairs and tourism (1974-75), economy (1975-79), transport (1979-80), and internal affairs (1980-82). In 1979 he was appointed to the government's Commission for Investigation into the Constitution and in 1982 he became minister of constitutional development. He was one of the driving forces behind the introduction of the tricameral system, which created coloured and Indian "houses" in parallel to the whites-only House of Assembly. He played a major role in getting coloured Labour Party leader Allan Hendrickse to participate in the system, which involved a labyrinthine series of "own affairs" arrangements, and firmly preserved white privilege and power. In September 1986 he was unanimously elected leader of the Cape National Party after State Pres. P.W. Botha unexpectedly stepped down from the party post. Leadership of the largest of the four semi-autonomous regions of the NP made Heunis a strong contender to become Botha's eventual successor as president of the country. But the following year, in a general election, he retained the Helderberg seat by only an embarrassing 39 votes in a contest against former NP MP and South African ambassador to London Dennis Worrall. Worrall was a constitutional guru with whom Heunis had disagreed inside the NP in earlier years, and his challenge was seen as a direct attack on Heunis's vision - or lack of it - on the constitutional future of South Africa. In 1989, Heunis briefly served as acting state president after Botha suffered a stroke, but later that year he retired from politics.
Heureaux (Level), Ulises (Hilarión) (metronym also reported as Lebert), byname Lilís (b. Oct. 21, 1845, Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic - d. July 26, 1899, Moca, northern Dominican Republic), president of the Dominican Republic (1882-84, 1887-89, 1889-99). He distinguished himself in the revolt against Spain in the early 1860s and subsequent civil wars. He joined the government in 1879 and became president in 1882. From 1884 to 1887 he ruled through puppets; thereafter he again took the presidency himself and retained it by abolishing the constitutional barrier against reelection. In 1888 he exiled his former mentor Gregorio Luperón. He maintained his oppressive regime by bribing, imprisoning, or executing his opponents. Thus imposing relative peace and order, he made some progress in agriculture (especially sugar, which became the chief export) and other areas. In the process, however, he depleted the treasury and increased foreign debt tenfold. He ceded the rights to collect customs to the San Domingo Improvement Company of New York in return for loans, which would later lead to U.S. interference in Dominican affairs. He was shot to death by political enemies including Ramón Cáceres, who later became president.
Heureux, Ernest Joseph Nicolas d' (b. Jan. 15, 1828, Marseille, France - d. ...), interim commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1864, 1872-73).
Heuss, Theodor (b. Jan. 31, 1884, Brackenheim, Württemberg, Germany - d. Dec. 12, 1963, Stuttgart, West Germany), president of West Germany (1949-59). His early background was strongly Liberal, and after 1918 he was drawn into active politics. A member of the Deutsche Demokratische Partei (German Democratic Party), he served in the Reichstag in 1924-28 and 1930-33. After Adolf Hitler's accession to power, he voted, with the other four members of his party, for the 1933 Enabling Act conferring extraordinary powers upon the Nazi government. This was not rewarded, however; some of his books were burned as "un-German" and he was deprived of his posts. After World War II, the Allies made him the first minister of education for Württemberg and he was elected to the Landtag of Württemberg-Baden. In 1946 he gave up his portfolio and helped found the Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party), becoming its chairman at state level. In 1948 he became its first federal chairman. In 1948-49 he served on the parliamentary council that wrote the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany. On Sept. 12, 1949, he was elected president of the new state. Reelected in 1954, he held the largely ceremonial post until his retirement in 1959. He travelled extensively abroad during his second term, and received heads of state and other visiting statesmen in Bonn. This he accomplished with dignity and humour, helping to reestablish abroad the standing of the German people. In 1958 he visited England, the first German head of state to do so since 1907.
Hewitt, Abram Stevens (b. July 31, 1822, Haverstraw, N.Y. - d. Jan. 18, 1903, Ringwood, N.J.), U.S. politician. In 1871 he joined with Edward Cooper and Samuel J. Tilden in a campaign to oust the Tweed Ring from controlling both the Tammany Hall Democratic organization and the municipal government of New York City. In 1874 he won a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he remained (with the exception of the 1879-81 term) until 1886. He was chairman of the Democratic National Committee in the Samuel J. Tilden-Rutherford B. Hayes presidential campaign of 1876, and he played a prominent role in the crisis resulting from the disputed outcome of the election. The three-way race in 1886 for mayor of New York City pitted Hewitt, the Democratic candidate, against Henry George of the United Labor ticket and Theodore Roosevelt on the Republican ballot. Hewitt's victory was a personal triumph, and he proceeded to rupture relations with Tammany Hall by administering a comprehensive reform program. After one two-year term, he retired from politics.
Hewson, John (Robert) (b. Oct. 28, 1946, Sydney, N.S.W.), Australian politician. He was elected to the House of Representatives as the Liberal MP for Wentworth in 1987, and soon became the party's economic spokesman. After the reelection of Bob Hawke's Labor government, Hewson succeeded Andrew Peacock as Liberal Party leader in April 1990, despite his relative lack of political experience. His strategy of providing an alternative to the usual pattern in Australian politics and avoiding to grandstand in parliament or resort to personal abuse and vilification was approved by public opinion. Although he was a liberal on social issues, in economics he was a convinced Thatcherite, and he put forward a radical programme of tax cuts, deregulation, and labour market reform to reduce the power of trade unions. He deflated Labor Party attempts to discredit him for his flashy lifestyle, including his ownership of a Ferrari, by observing that his family background gave him more in common with the average Australian than many in the Labor cabinet. By the end of his first year as party leader, Hewson had overtaken Prime Minister Hawke in the public opinion polls and clearly rattled the government with his quiet and reasoned attack on its economic policies. However, the new Labor prime minister Paul Keating, who succeeded Hawke in 1991, ran a successful scare campaign against Hewson's proposed goods and services tax (GST) and came from behind to win reelection in 1993. Hewson stayed on as Liberal leader, but in 1994 was deposed and succeeded by Alexander Downer. He then resigned from parliament. After 1996 he became a frequent critic of John Howard's Liberal government.
Heydrich, Reinhard (Tristan Eugen) (b. March 7, 1904, Halle, Germany - d. June 4, 1942, Prague, Bohemia and Moravia [now in Czech Republic]), German Nazi official. At the age of 15 he joined a Free Corps band, in which he became schooled in street-fighting and terrorism. In 1922 he joined the Navy, rising to the rank of first lieutenant, but was discharged in 1931 and then joined the Schutzstaffel (SS), the Nazi paramilitary corps. He was soon entrusted with the organization of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), the intelligence arm of the SS. Soon after Adolf Hitler became chancellor in 1933, Heydrich was appointed chief of the political department of the Bavarian police force. In 1934 he also took charge of the political police of the other states. In 1936 those forces were united in the Gestapo under his leadership, and in 1939 he became head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, encompassing the Gestapo, criminal police, and the SD. From 1940 he also served as president of the International Criminal Police Commission. Ruthless in dealing with "enemies of the state," he was singled out in September 1941 to substitute for Konstantin von Neurath as Reichsprotektor for Bohemia and Moravia. He ordered the execution of 300 Czechs within five weeks of his arrival in Prague. He was so hated and feared by anti-Nazi elements throughout Europe that he was called "the Hangman." He chaired the infamous Wannsee Conference on Jan. 20, 1942, which discussed the "final solution to the Jewish question." He combined his repressive measures with an attempt to mollify the Czech population by improving social and economic conditions. On May 27, 1942, Czech patriots bombed and shot him while he was riding in his car in Prague, ostensibly without an armed escort. He died in hospital on June 4. The SS exacted vengeance for his death by wiping out the villages of Lidice and Lezáky.
Heydt, August Freiherr von der (b. Feb. 15, 1801, Elberfeld [now part of Wuppertal], Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. June 13, 1874, Berlin), finance minister of Prussia (1862, 1866-69).
Heydt, August Freiherr von der (b. July 18, 1825, Elberfeld [now part of Wuppertal], Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany] - d. July 10, 1867, Rehme [now part of Bad Oeynhausen], Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany]), Prussian royal commissioner of Neutral Moresnet (1866-67); son of August Freiherr von der Heydt (1801-74).
Heym, Stefan, original name Helmut Flieg (b. April 10, 1913, Chemnitz, Germany - d. Dec. 16, 2001, Jerusalem), German political figure. When the Nazis seized power in 1933 and he learned that the Gestapo was searching for him, the 20-year-old fled into Czechoslovakia and took the name Stefan Heym. By 1942 he had become a U.S. citizen and published a novel that became a best-seller and was made into a Hollywood film. In 1945, toward the end of World War II, he returned to Germany as a soldier in the U.S. Army. Being a dedicated leftist, however, he opposed the army's policy on Germany's postwar future. After the war the novelist found that he was blacklisted in the U.S. because of his political views. He moved to the German Democratic Republic and took citizenship there in 1953. Although he was genuinely supportive of the Communist "East German experiment," he was also committed to open discussions of controversial subjects, such as the crimes of Stalinism. Heym's notorious frankness prompted the continual surveillance he was given in East Germany. When the Communist regime collapsed, Heym became a prominent spokesman for those who wished to retain some form of "socialism with a human face." On these grounds he opposed the reunification of Germany. In 1994 he was elected from a Berlin district to the Bundestag (parliament), running on the parliamentary slate of the Party of Democratic Socialism - the reformed Communist Party. The 81-year-old maverick became the oldest member of the Bundestag, and as such he held its opening speech. He gave up his seat in 1995 to protest a rise in lawmakers' pay.
Heytesbury, William à Court, (1st) Baron, à Court also spelled A'Court (b. July 11, 1779, Salisbury, England - d. May 31, 1860, Heytesbury House, Wiltshire, England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1844-46). He was also British minister to the Two Sicilies (1814-22) and Spain (1822-24) and ambassador to Portugal (1824-27) and Russia (1828-32). In 1817 he succeeded his father as (2nd) Baronet; in 1828 he was created baron.
Hibbert, Lucien (b. Aug. 18, 1899, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. Feb. 5, 1964, Pétionville, Haiti), finance minister (1932-34, 1953-54) and foreign minister (1934-35) of Haiti.
Hickel, Walter J(oseph) (b. Aug. 18, 1919, near Claflin, Kan. - d. May 7, 2010, Anchorage, Alaska), governor of Alaska (1966-69, 1990-94) and U.S. secretary of the interior (1969-70).
Hickenlooper, John (Wright) (b. Feb. 7, 1952, Narberth, Pa.), mayor of Denver (2003-11) and governor of Colorado (2011- ).
Hickman, Albert (Edgar) (b. Aug. 2, 1875, Grand Bank, Newfoundland - d. Feb. 9, 1943), prime minister of Newfoundland (1924). In the 1913 general election he was elected in the two-member district of Bay de Verde as a Liberal supporter of Sir Robert Bond. In July 1917, he became minister without portfolio, and in May 1919 minister of militia. In 1924, many of the former supporters of William Warren, whose administration fell on May 7, regrouped themselves under the title "Liberal-Progressive Party" and they invited Hickman to become their new leader. He accepted and was given the blessings and support of Sir William Coaker and the Unionists. He was sworn in as prime minister on May 10. The following election campaign was one of massive confusion. The former opposition party in the House of Assembly had found a new leader in Walter S. Monroe, and it entered the election under the name Liberal-Conservative Party. Monroe accused Hickman of being a pawn of Coaker and his union despite the fact that Coaker did not contest the election. Violence marred the campaign and added to the instability of the political system. The result was a solid victory for Monroe with 25 seats to Hickman's 10. On June 9 Hickman resigned as prime minister, having held that office for only one month, the shortest term of office of any of Newfoundland's prime ministers. He continued as a member of the House of Assembly and as opposition leader from 1924 to 1928. In 1928, it appeared that Hickman stood an excellent chance of being prime minister once again. It was not to be, however. In May 1928 nine members of Hickman's caucus left him and announced they were forming a separate party. Hickman, deserted by his colleagues and without a base of party support, announced his retirement from politics.
Hidalgo (Téllez), Cutberto (b. March 20, 1872, Pachuca, Hidalgo - d. 1930, Mexico City), foreign minister of Mexico (1920-21).
Higashikokubaru, Hideo, stage name Sonomanma Higashi (b. Sept. 16, 1957), governor of Miyazaki (2007-11). He was a television entertainer who was elected without the backing of any political party. In 2011 he unsuccessfully ran for governor of Tokyo.
Higashikuni, Naruhiko, also called (until 1947) Shinno (Imperial Prince) Naruhiko Higashikuni (b. Feb. 3, 1887, Kyoto, Japan - d. Jan. 20, 1990, Tokyo), prime minister of Japan (1945). The ninth son of Prince Asahiko Kuninomiya, Higashikuni married a daughter of the Emperor Meiji. He held several military posts and in 1937 he was named chief of military aviation. In 1939 he became a full general. Three days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in World War II, Higashikuni was named general commander of defense. After the Japanese surrender (Aug. 15, 1945), Emperor Hirohito asked Higashikuni to form a cabinet in the hope that his status as a member of the imperial family would help heal the country. He was the only member of the imperial family ever to head a cabinet. Higashikuni presided over the formal signing (Sept. 2, 1945) of the surrender and the dismantling of the armed forces, but then resigned after opposing a directive from the occupation authorities to abolish the Peace Preservation Law of 1925 and the Special Higher Police. Higashikuni became a commoner in 1947.
Higgins, Michael D(aniel), Irish Micheál D. Ó hUiginn (b. April 18, 1941, Limerick, Ireland), president of Ireland (2011- ).
Higgitt, William Leonard (b. Nov. 10, 1917, Anerley, Sask. - d. April 2, 1989, Ottawa, Ont.), commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (1969-73) and president of the International Criminal Police Organization (1972-76).
Hijab, Riyad (Farid) (b. 1966, Deir al-Zour, Syria), prime minister of Syria (2012). He was also governor of Quneitra (2008-11) and Latakia (2011) and minister of agriculture (2011-12).
Hilaire, Jean-Baptiste (b. March 17, 1928, Jacmel, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1986-87).
Hilarion, civil name Igor Kapral (b. Jan. 6, 1948, Spirit River, Alberta, Canada), metropolitan of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (2008- ).
Hilbe, Alfred (J.) (b. July 22, 1928, Gmunden, Austria - d. Oct. 31, 2011), head of government of Liechtenstein (1970-74).
Hilber, Kathrin (b. March 26, 1951, Will, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland), president of the government of Sankt Gallen (2001-02, 2007-08).
Hildreth, Horace A(ugustus) (b. Dec. 2, 1902, Gardiner, Maine - d. June 2, 1988, Portland, Maine), governor of Maine (1945-49). He was also U.S. ambassador to Pakistan (1953-57).
Hilferding, Rudolf (b. Aug. 10, 1877, Vienna - d. Feb. 12, 1941, Paris), German politician. He turned to Socialism and associated with Otto Bauer, Karl Kautsky, and August Bebel. In 1906 he became an instructor in the German Social Democratic Party's training school in Berlin. The first volume of the Marx Studien series (1904-22), Böhm-Bawerks Marx-Kritik (Böhm-Bawerk's Criticism of Marx, 1966), was his original contribution to Marxist thought. In Das Finanzkapital (1910) he maintained that the banks' increasing influence over industry led to monopoly and cartels and through them to economic imperialism and war; this work foreshadowed his role as the party's chief theorist and financial expert. He was political editor (1907-15) of Vorwärts, the main publication of the German Social Democrats. At the outbreak of World War I he opposed war credits. Conscripted into the Austrian Army, he served as a doctor on the Italian front. He acquired German citizenship c. 1920 and became chief editor of Die Freiheit, organ of the Independent Social Democrats. He served as finance minister in 1923 and 1928 in two German Social Democratic governments. He was a Reichstag deputy from 1924 until he fled from Adolf Hitler's Germany in 1933. He drafted the Prague Program (January 1934) for exiled German Socialists. According to a dispatch from Berlin, he was found hanged in a Paris prison cell after his arrest by the French, who turned him over to the Nazis.
Hill, Sir Claude (Hamilton Archer) (b. Sept. 21, 1866 - d. April 21, 1934), lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (1925-32); knighted 1917.
Hill, Sir Dudley St. Leger (b. 1790, County Carlow, Ireland - d. Feb. 21, 1851, Umballa, Punjab [now Ambala, Haryana], India), lieutenant governor of Saint Lucia (1834-37); knighted 1848.
Hill, Joshua (b. April 15, 1773 - d. af. 1844), president of Pitcairn Island (1832-37).
Hill, Michael (Thomas), administrator of Ascension (2005-08). He was British high commissioner to Vanuatu in 2000-05.
Hill, Robert (Murray) (b. Sept. 25, 1946, Adelaide, S.Aus.), defence minister of Australia (2001-06). He was also minister of environment (1996-98) and environment and heritage (1998-2001) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-09).
Hillel, Shlomo (b. April 9, 1923, Baghdad, Iraq), interior minister of Israel (1974, 1977). He was also ambassador to Guinea (1959-61) and Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Dahomey, and Niger (1961-63), minister of police (1969-77), and speaker of the Knesset (1984-88).
Hillenkoetter, Roscoe H(enry) (b. May 8, 1897, St. Louis, Mo. - d. June 18, 1982, New York City), CIA director (1947-50). He passed into the U.S. Naval Academy in 1916 emerging in time to see service as a midshipman in USS Minnesota with the Atlantic Fleet in 1918. He became attaché at the U.S. embassies in Paris and Madrid, as well as at the legation in Lisbon. Intended for the Paris embassy again in 1940 he found himself as naval and air attaché to the Vichy government, after the fall of France. In November 1941 he was appointed executive officer of the battleship USS West Virginia, but this was to be one of his shorter appointments as during the Japanese air attacks on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the West Virginia was one of the four battleships to be sunk and Hillenkoetter was wounded. He transferred however to the USS Maryland, one of the capital ships which survived the raid, and from her, as chief of intelligence on the staff of Adm. Chester Nimitz, he organized an intelligence network for Nimitz's campaign to recover the Pacific from the Japanese. He was appointed as Director of Central Intelligence on April 30, 1947, by Pres. Harry S. Truman and sworn in May 1. The National Security Act of July 26, 1947, established the Central Intelligence Agency, which replaced the Central Intelligence Group on September 18. Reappointed on November 24, Hillenkoetter was confirmed by the Senate on December 8. He served until Oct. 7, 1950. Having asked to be returned to sea service following the outbreak of the Korean War, he commanded a task force for the U.S. landings at Inch'on. He finally retired from the U.S. Navy in 1958.
Hillery, Patrick J(ohn) (Irish Pádraig Seán Ó hIrighile), byname Paddy Hillery (b. May 2, 1923, Spanish Point, Miltown Malbay parish, County Clare, Ireland - d. April 12, 2008, Raheny, Dublin, Ireland), president of Ireland (1976-90). In 1951 he won election to parliament as a member of the Fianna Fáil party. After some years on the back benches, he held four ministerial portfolios: education (1959-65), industry and commerce (1965-66), labour (1966-69), and external affairs (1969-73). When Ireland joined the European Economic Community in 1973, he became Ireland's first representative on the European Commission and achieved the post of vice president of the Commission. He succeeded to the Irish presidency in 1976 upon the abrupt resignation of Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh. When his term of office ended in September 1983, he indicated that he did not intend to seek a second term but changed his mind when all three political parties pleaded with him to reconsider. He was returned for a further seven years without an electoral contest. When he left office in 1990 he was widely applauded for his integrity, as it had been revealed that in January 1982 he stood up to pressure from former cabinet colleagues, who urged him to refuse Prime Minister Garret FitzGerald's request for a dissolution of parliament, so as to force FitzGerald's resignation and allow Charles Haughey to form a government.
Hilly, Francis Billy (b. July 20, 1948), prime minister of the Solomon Islands (1993-94). He was also minister of home affairs (1976-78), deputy prime minister and health minister (1980-81), leader of the opposition (1994-95, 2004-06), and minister of commerce, industry, and employment (2006, 2007-10) and finance and treasury (2010).
Himidi, Salim (Hadji) (b. April 19, 1945, Mbéni, Grande Comore, Comoros), interior minister (1976-77) and foreign minister (1998) of the Comoros.
Himmatsinhji, Kumar Shri (b. Aug. 12, 1897 - d. January 1973), chief commissioner of Bilaspur (1950-52) and lieutenant governor of Himachal Pradesh (1952-55).
Himmler, Heinrich (b. Oct. 7, 1900, Munich - d. May 23, 1945, Lüneburg, Germany), German politician. After World War I he soon joined militant rightist organizations and he participated in Adolf Hitler's abortive Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch in November 1923. He joined the Nazi Party in 1925 and rose steadily in the party hierarchy, but the foundations of his future importance were laid with his appointment (1929) as Reichsführer of the SS, Hitler's elite bodyguard, which was nominally under the control of the Sturmabteilung (SA). After Hitler's accession to power (Jan. 30, 1933), Himmler soon became commander of all German police units outside Prussia. As such he established the first concentration camp, at Dachau. He extended his control over the police forces of the whole Reich, assuming full command of them in 1936. He masterminded the June 30, 1934, purge in which the SS eliminated the SA as a power factor. World War II brought a vast extension of Himmler's empire and the resources at his command. After Hitler decided in 1941 to exterminate European Jewry, it was Himmler who organized the death camps in eastern Europe. By 1943 he had risen to minister of the interior. He expanded the Waffen-SS (Armed SS) until, with 35 divisions, it rivaled the army. In the final months of the war, he was progressively shunted aside by Hitler's entourage. When it became known that he had negotiated with the Swedish count Folke Bernadotte to surrender Germany to the Western Allies and with the West to continue the war against the Soviet Union (April 1945), Hitler promptly stripped him of all offices and ordered his arrest. Disguised as a common soldier, he attempted to escape. Captured by the Western Allies, he committed suicide by taking poison.
Hincks, Sir Francis (b. Dec. 14, 1807, Cork, County Cork, Ireland - d. Aug. 18, 1885, Montreal), joint premier of Canada (1851-54). Hincks immigrated to York, Canada (as of 1834, Toronto), in 1831. In 1838 he founded the Examiner in Toronto, a moderate liberal newspaper in which he campaigned for responsible (i.e., cabinet) government; the Examiner merged with The Globe (Toronto) in 1855. After the union of Upper and Lower Canada as Canada West and Canada East (1840), Hincks entered the first united Parliament in 1841 as a Liberal for Oxford, becoming inspector general of accounts and member of the executive council. He resigned his post in 1843 and took up the editorship of the Montreal Times and also founded the Pilot, a leading opposition journal. In 1848 Hincks resumed the inspector generalship under the joint premiership of Robert Baldwin and Louis Hippolyte Lafontaine; in 1851-54 he was joint premier of Canada with Augustin Norbert Morin. As premier, Hincks encouraged railway development and in 1854 concluded a treaty of reciprocity with the United States. Decimal coinage was introduced during the Hincks-Morin administration. Hincks was made governor of Barbados and the Windward Islands (1856-62) and of British Guiana (1862-69). Back in Canada, he served as minister of finance (1869-73) in Sir John Macdonald's government. Although reelected to Parliament in 1873, Hincks resigned from the cabinet that year and from active politics the following year, feeling out of touch with Canadian affairs. He was knighted in 1869.
Hindenburg, Paul (Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und) von (b. Oct. 2, 1847, Posen, Prussia [now Poznan, Poland] - d. Aug. 2, 1934, Neudeck, Germany [now Ogrodzieniec, Poland]), president of Germany (1925-34). He served in the Austro-Prussian (Seven Weeks') War of 1866 and in the Franco-German War of 1870-71. Retiring in 1911, he was called back into service in August 1914 to be the nominal superior of Maj. Gen. Erich Ludendorff, who was to drive a Russian invasion force from East Prussia. For this achievement, Hindenburg, rather than Ludendorff, received the nation's applause. Soon his standing overshadowed that of Emperor Wilhelm II; he was promoted to the rank of field marshal general, and in 1916 was given command of all German land forces, with Ludendorff his co-responsible chief aide. When they conceded defeat, Hindenburg let Ludendorff take the blame. He retired once more in June 1919. In April 1925 he was elected president. He appointed cabinets resting on his, rather than on the parliament's, confidence. Unrest, sparked above all by the Nazis, kept mounting. When his term expired in April 1932, he ran again for the presidency as the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. He was reelected but mainly by the support of the Centre Party and the Social Democrats, rather than the conservative nationalist circles, to whom he felt closest and who now supported Hitler. Hitler insisted on becoming chancellor in any government in which his party participated, but Hindenburg, who distrusted Hitler's noisy aggressiveness, would not concede him that post until Jan. 30, 1933, when he finally appointed Hitler chancellor of a new cabinet in which only two other Nazis held offices. Hitler quickly secured almost unlimited political power through terror and manipulations.
Hindom, Izaac (b. Sept. 23, 1934, Desa Adora, Fakfak regency, Netherlands East Indies [now in Papua Barat, Indonesia] - d. March 11, 2009, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia), governor of Irian Jaya (1982-88).
Hinds, Sam(uel Archibald Anthony) (b. Dec. 27, 1943, Mahaicony, East Coast Demerara, British Guiana [now Guyana]), prime minister (1992-97, 1997-99, 1999-2015) and president (1997) of Guyana. He entered his country's political life in 1990, joining GUARD (Guyanese Action for Reform and Democracy) early that year. He was elected its chairman and accepted the invitation to work with Cheddi Jagan and the People's Progressive Party (PPP). Hinds became prime minister after Jagan led the PPP/Civic to victory at the elections of October 1992. Prime Minister Hinds also headed the Ministry of Works, Communications, and Regional Development and was the Minister responsible for Mines as well as the Electricity Sector. He became president on the death of President Jagan on March 6, 1997. Later that year he again became prime minister when Jagan's widow, Janet, became president.
Hinnawi, (Muhammad) Sami (Hilmi) al- (b. 1896 - d. [assassinated] Oct. 30, 1950, Beirut, Lebanon), chairman of the Supreme Military Council of Syria (1949).
Hinojosa (de la Garza), Pedro (b. Jan. 31, 1822, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico - d. March 4, 1903, Mexico City, Mexico), Mexican minister of war and marine (1861-62, 1884-96) and governor of Chihuahua (1877).
Hintze, Peter (Paul Wolfgang) (b. April 25, 1950, Bad Honnef, West Germany), German politician; general secretary of the Christian Democratic Union (1992-98).
Hinzpeter (Kirberg), Rodrigo (Javier) (b. 1965, Santiago, Chile), interior minister (2010-12) and defense minister (2012-14) of Chile.
Hirai, Shinji (b. Sept. 17, 1961), governor of Tottori (2007- ).
Hirayama, Ikuo (b. July 21, 1944), governor of Niigata (1992-2004).
Hirchson, Avraham (b. Feb. 11, 1941, Tel Mond, Palestine [now in Israel]), finance minister of Israel (2006-07). He was also minister of tourism (2005-06) and communications (2006).
Hirohito, original name Hirohito Michinomiya, posthumous style Showa-tenno (b. April 29, 1901, Tokyo - d. Jan. 7, 1989, Tokyo), emperor of Japan (1926-89). In 1921 he visited Europe, becoming the first Japanese crown prince to travel abroad. Upon his return he was named prince regent when his father, the emperor Taisho, retired because of mental illness. In 1924 he married the princess Nagako Kuni. Hirohito became emperor of Japan on Dec. 25, 1926, following the death of his father. His reign was designated Showa, or "Enlightened Peace." The Japanese constitution invested him with supreme authority, but in practice he merely ratified the policies that were formulated by his ministers and advisers. When Japan was close to defeat in World War II and opinion among the country's leaders was divided between those favouring surrender and those insisting on a desperate defense against an anticipated invasion by the Allies, Hirohito settled the dispute in favour of those urging peace. He broke the precedent of imperial silence on Aug. 15, 1945, when he made a national radio broadcast to announce Japan's acceptance of the Allies' terms of surrender and bid the Japanese the "endure the unendurable." In a second historic broadcast, made on Jan. 1, 1946, he repudiated the traditional quasi-divine status of Japan's emperors. Under the nation's new constitution, drafted by U.S. occupation authorities, Japan became a constitutional monarchy. Sovereignty resided in the people, not in the emperor, whose powers were severely curtailed. In 1971 Hirohito broke another tradition when he toured Europe and became the first reigning Japanese monarch to visit abroad. In 1975 he made a state visit to the United States. Hirohito was the world's longest-reigning monarch at the time of his death.
Hirose, Katsusada (b. June 25, 1942), governor of Oita (2003- ).
Hirota, Koki (b. Feb. 14, 1878, Fukuoka, Japan - d. [executed] Dec. 23, 1948, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister (1933-36, 1937-38) and prime minister (1936-37) of Japan. He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1930-32).
Hirschy, Pierre (b. Jan. 21, 1947, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Neuchâtel, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Neuchâtel (1994-95, 1999-2000, 2002-03).
Hirtzman, James Édouard (b. Sept. 2, 1862, Lantefontaine, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France - d. 1924), acting commandant of Chad (1912-13).
Hitchcock, Ethan A(llen) (b. Sept. 19, 1835, Mobile, Ala. - d. April 9, 1909, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of the interior (1899-1907). He was also minister (1897-98) and ambassador (1898-99) to Russia.
Hitler, Adolf (b. April 20, 1889, Braunau am Inn, Upper Austria - d. April 30, 1945, Berlin), dictator of Germany (1933-45). When World War I broke out he volunteered for the German army. After the war he determined to take up political work in order to destroy a peace settlement that he denounced as intolerable. He joined the tiny German Workers' Party in September 1919. In 1920 he was put in charge of the party's propaganda and left the army to build up the party, which in that year was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party. In July 1921 he became the party's president with unlimited powers. The climax in the rapid growth of the party in Bavaria came in an unsuccessful attempt to seize power in the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch of November 1923. He drew the lesson that the movement must achieve power by legal means. He was sentenced to prison for five years, but served only nine months, and that in comfort at Landsberg. He used the time to prepare the first volume of Mein Kampf. Unremitting propaganda, set against the failure of the government to achieve any success in internal or external affairs, produced a steadily mounting electoral strength for the Nazis. Hitler opposed Paul von Hindenburg in the presidential election of 1932, capturing 36.8% of the votes on the second ballot. In January 1933 Hindenburg invited him to be chancellor. Once in power, Hitler proceeded to establish an absolute dictatorship. When Hindenburg died in 1934, Hitler made himself head of state as Führer. His invasion of Poland (Sept. 1, 1939) was the beginning of World War II. In German-occupied Europe up to 6,000,000 Jews were killed as the only solution in Hitler's view of the Jewish "problem." When the German defeat was imminent, he committed suicide.
Hitto, Ghassan (b. 1963, Damascus, Syria), prime minister of Syria in rebellion (2013).
Hjelm-Wallén, Lena (Birgitta), née Hjelm (b. Jan. 14, 1943, Sala, Sweden), Swedish politician. She was foreign minister (1994-98) and deputy prime minister (1998-2002). In 2002 she served briefly as Sweden's first female defense minister.
Hla Han (b. Sept. 26, 1918 - d. Oct. 27, 2006), foreign minister of Burma (1970-72). He was also minister of health and education (1962-74).
Hla Phone (b. 1922 - d. May 18, 2004), foreign minister of Burma (1974-78).
Hmeida, Abdallahi Ould Ben, Arabic `Abd Allah walad Bin Humayda (b. 1954, Inchiri, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2008). He was ambassador to Libya in 2006-08.
Hnatyshyn, Ramon (John), byname Ray Hnatyshyn (b. March 16, 1934, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan - d. Dec. 18, 2002, Ottawa), governor-general of Canada (1990-95). Hnatyshyn entered federal politics in 1974 and was elected member of Parliament for the riding of Saskatoon West. His ability to bridge partisan differences by his personal charm and his sense of humour made him one of the most popular members of the House of Commons. When the Progressive Conservative Party came to power in 1979, Hnatyshyn was appointed minister of state for technology and minister of energy, mines, and resources. He promised to make Canada energy self-sufficient by 1990, but the government lasted only a few months. When the Tories once again formed the government in 1984, Hnatyshyn was appointed government House leader. He introduced parliamentary reforms, including election of the speaker by secret ballot. In 1985 he was made president of the Privy Council of Canada. In 1986 he realized his lifelong ambition by becoming minister of justice and attorney general of Canada. He reformed the procedure for appointing judges and introduced legislation allowing judges to order criminals to compensate their victims and allowing police to seize the proceeds of crime before the perpetrator had been convicted. In the 1988 general election he fell victim to sentiment against the free-trade agreement with the U.S. and returned to the practice of law. Sworn in as Canada's 24th governor-general in January 1990, he became the representative of the British sovereign in Canada. He believed the appointment was the greatest honour that could be bestowed on the average Canadian. He believed his mandate was to foster both a sense of national purpose and a spirit of unity and understanding among Canadians.