da Costa Gomez, Moises F(rumencio) (b. Oct. 27, 1907 - d. Nov. 22, 1966), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1949, 1951-54).
da Costa Gomez
da Costa Gomez-Matheeuws, Lucinda (Elona) (b. April 5, 1929), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1977); widow of Moises F. da Costa Gomez.
da Silva (Sampaio), Benedita (Souza) (b. March 11, 1942, Praia do Pinto, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), governor of Rio de Janeiro (2002-03).
Daalen, Jan Hero Adriaan van (b. Jan. 26, 1842, Curaçao - d. 1899), administrator of Sint Maarten (1889-91).
Daar, Aden Abdullah Osman (Somali Aaden Cabdillahi Cusmaan Daar, Arabic `Adan `Abd Allah `Uthman Dar), also called Aden Adde (b. 1908, Beledweyne, Hiran region, southern Somalia - d. June 8, 2007, Nairobi, Kenya), president of Somalia (1960-67). He joined the Somali Youth Club (later called the Somali Youth League [SYL]) in February 1944, became a member of the party's steering board, and in 1946 was appointed secretary of the Beledweyne section of the party. In 1951 the Regional Council of Mudug designated him for the Territorial Council on which he served until February 1956 as the representative of the SYL. In 1953 he was appointed vice-president of the Territorial Council. In 1954-56 and 1958-60 he was president of the SYL. In 1956, when the Territorial Council was replaced by the Legislative Assembly, he was elected member for Beledweyne district at the general elections, and the Legislative Assembly appointed him its president. He maintained this post when the Legislative Assembly was converted into the Constituent Assembly. In this capacity, he proclaimed the independence of the Somali Republic on July 1, 1960, and the National Assembly chose him as provisional president of the republic for one year, and in 1961 elected him to a 6-year term. In the 1967 presidential elections, he was defeated by Abdirashid Ali Shermarke. According to the constitution, the former president enjoyed life membership of the National Assembly. In 1990, when the country was edging toward anarchy, he was among about 100 politicians who signed a manifesto expressing concern over the destruction, killings, and flight of refugees as a result of the civil war. He was arrested along with more than 50 others by Muhammad Siad Barre's faltering regime. After his release, he lived mostly on his farm in Janale in southern Somalia.
Dabcevic-Kucar, Savka, née Dabcevic (b. Dec. 6, 1923, Korcula, Korcula island, Dalmatia, Croatia - d. Aug. 6, 2009, Zagreb, Croatia), president of the Executive Committee (1967-69) and secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists (1969-71) of Croatia. She became a partisan during the mass uprising in Dalmatia in September 1943 and a member of the Croatian Communist Party in December 1943. She was most recognized for her demand for greater autonomy for Croatia within Yugoslavia. Her policy, propagated through mass rallies, became a movement that became the Croatian Spring in 1971. As a result she was expelled from the Communist Party of Croatia in 1972 and ultimately from public life. She and some of her political colleagues started their own party called the Croatian People's Party (HNS) in October 1990. She was party president in 1991-94 and a member of parliament in 1992-95.
Dablanc, Christian (Paul Louis) (b. Jan. 13, 1931, Saumur, Maine-et-Loire, France - d. June 19, 1989, Toulouse, France), high commissioner of the French Territory of the Afars and Issas (1974-76).
Dabwido, Sprent (Jared Brent Arumogo) (b. Sept. 16, 1972), president (2011- ) and foreign minister (2011-12, 2013) of Nauru.
Daci, Nexhat (b. July 26, 1944, Veliki Trnovac, southern Serbia), acting president of Kosovo (2006). He was parliament speaker in 2001-06.
Dacic, Ivica (b. Jan. 1, 1966, Prizren, Kosovo, Serbia), interior minister (2008- ) and prime minister (2012- ) of Serbia.
Dacko, David (b. March 24, 1930, Bouchia, Lobaye province, Middle Congo, French Equatorial Africa - d. Nov. 20, 2003, Yaoundé, Cameroon), president of the Central African Republic (1960-66, 1979-81). In March 1957 he was elected to the territorial assembly. Barthélemy Boganda appointed him minister of agriculture in the first government council of Oubangui-Chari, and in December 1958 he was named minister of internal and administrative affairs of the Central African Republic, which Oubangui-Chari had become. When Boganda disappeared in a plane crash on March 29, 1959, Dacko, who claimed a family relationship, established himself as his successor. Outmanoeuvring the then vice-president of the government council, Abel Goumba, he had himself elected head of the government. He also took over leadership of the Mouvement d'Évolution Sociale de l'Afrique Noire (MESAN). Less than 30 years old, he now exercised sole power. With independence on Aug. 13, 1960, he became president. He moved against Goumba's opposition party, the Mouvement pour l'Évolution Démocratique de l'Afrique Centrale (MEDAC). In November 1962 he officially abolished the multiparty system, dissolving MEDAC and institutionalizing MESAN as the nation's only party. On the night of Dec. 31, 1965/Jan. 1, 1966, Dacko was deposed by Jean-Bédel Bokassa (then a colonel and chief of staff), put under detention in Bangui, and then allowed to return to his village. In 1976, Bokassa appointed Dacko his personal councillor, a post that Dacko made a springboard for his coup on Sept. 21, 1979. Aided by French paratroops, Dacko proclaimed the fall of Bokassa while the latter was on a visit to Libya. Dacko in turn was removed from office in September 1981, when Gen. André Kolingba seized power. He unsuccessfully ran for president in 1993 and 1999.
Dacon, Dame Monica (Jessie), née Sheen (b. June 4, 1934), deputy governor-general (2001- ) and acting governor-general (2002) of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; knighted 2010.
Dacosta, Claude Antoine (b. 1931, Kouilou region, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. May 1, 2007, Paris, France), prime minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1992-93). Living in exile in France from 1997, he was convicted in absentia for embezzlement and sentenced on Dec. 28, 2001, to 20 years hard labour.
Dada Hirezi, Héctor Miguel Antonio (b. April 12, 1938, San Salvador), foreign minister (1979-80) and junta member (1980) of El Salvador.
Daddah, Moktar (Mohamedoun) Ould, Arabic Mukhtar bin Muhammad walad Daddah (b. Dec. 25, 1924, Boutilimit, Mauritania, French West Africa - d. Oct. 15, 2003, Paris, France), president of Mauritania (1961-78). He returned from his studies in Paris as the first Mauritanian with a university degree. He joined the more moderate of two rival parties, the Progressive Mauritanian Union, and in 1957 was elected to the territorial assembly. He became vice president, and in 1958 president, of the Government Council, and in 1959 prime minister. In 1958 he established a new unity party, the Mauritanian Regrouping Party, which in 1960 incorporated the chief remaining opposition party. Mauritania attained independence in 1960 and he was elected the country's first president in 1961. He was also foreign minister in 1960-62 and 1965. His first aim was national unity, a delicate problem in a country divided between a minority agricultural south and a largely nomadic Moorish centre and north. At first he tried to balance regional notables and impatient young modernizers in a basically parliamentary regime, but in 1964 he shifted to an authoritarian one-party system (Mauritanian People's Party, of which he was secretary-general). He was reelected as president in 1966, 1971, and 1976. In 1971-72 he was chairman of the Organization of African Unity. In July 1978 dissatisfaction with the costly attempt by Mauritania to annex part of former Spanish Sahara resulted in his ouster by a military coup d'état led by Lieut.Col. Mustafa Ould Salek. He was released from prison in August 1979 and went into exile in France, where in May 1980 opposition movements formed the Alliance for a Democratic Mauritania. He returned to Mauritania on July 17, 2001.
Dade, Arta (Agim) (b. March 15, 1953, Tiranë, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (2001-02).
Dadnadji, (Joseph) Djimrangar (b. 1954, Bebo-Pen, Chad), prime minister of Chad (2013- ).
Dafalla, al-Jazuli, Arabic al-Jazuli Daf`allah (b. December 1935, Wad Madani, Sudan), prime minister of The Sudan (1985-86).
Dagain, Charles (Jean Jacques Émile) (b. July 27, 1885, Le Mas-d'Azil, Ariège, France - d. 1969, Narbonne, Aude, France), commandant (1934-38) and acting chef de territoire (1938-39) of Chad and governor of Senegal (1943-45).
Daguilh, Raoul (Fabre) (b. Sept. 15, 1887, Les Cayes, Haiti - d. 19..., Les Cayes), member of the Executive Government Council of Haiti (1957).
Dahabi, Nader, Arabic Nadir adh-Dhahabi (b. Oct. 7, 1946, Amman, Jordan), prime minister of Jordan (2007-09).
Dahal, Pushpa Kamal (name given by his teacher), original name Chhabilal Dahal, byname Prachanda ("fierce one") (b. Dec. 11, 1954, Dhikurpokhari, Kaski district, Nepal), prime minister of Nepal (2008-09).
Dahanayake, Wijayananda (b. Oct. 22, 1902 - d. May 4, 1997, Galle district, southern Sri Lanka), prime minister of Sri Lanka (1959-60). He became prime minister after the assassination of Prime Minister S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) government in September 1959. His six-month tenure ended when the next general election, in March 1960, was won by the United National Party. Dahanayake was a member of the left-wing Lanka Sama Samaja Party before joining the SLFP administration. He also served as minister of education, home affairs, and agriculture.
Dahdah, Lucien (Mounir) (b. Aug. 15, 1929 - d. Nov. 16, 2003), foreign and finance minister of Lebanon (1975).
Dai, Tobias (Joaquim) (b. Nov. 25, 1950, Manica, Mozambique), defense minister of Mozambique (2000-08); brother-in-law of Armando Guebuza.
Dai Kan (b. 1880, Guiding, Guizhou, China - d. July 21, 1917, near Renshou, Sichuan, China), civil governor of Guizhou (1913-15, 1916) and military and civil governor of Sichuan (1917). He was a constitutional monarchist. He held several posts in the southwestern region after the Republic of China was founded in 1912. In 1916, following Sun Yat-sen, he led his Guizhou troops to Sichuan province to fight against the government of Duan Qirui in his southwestern region and soon took the gubernatorial posts of that province. His success in Sichuan threatened the reign of another Sichuan warlord, Gen. Liu Cunhou. He was killed or committed suicide upon the ambush launched by Liu's army in 1917.
Daim (bin) Zainuddin, Tun (Abdul) (b. April 29, 1938, Alor Star, Kedah, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), finance minister of Malaysia (1984-91, 1999-2001) and chairman of the Labuan Development Authority (1992-2000). He was awarded the title Tun on June 5, 1991.
Daku, Ahmed (Mohammed) (b. 1944), governor of Kano (1985-87) and Sokoto (1987-90).
Daladier, Édouard (b. June 18, 1884, Carpentras, Vaucluse, France - d. Oct. 10, 1970, Paris), prime minister of France (1933, 1934, 1938-40). Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1919 as a member of the Radical Party from Vaucluse département, he quickly made his mark in Paris. In June 1924 he joined the Édouard Herriot government as the minister of colonies. In the turbulent years from 1925 to 1933 he served in several different cabinets as minister of war, minister of public instruction, or minister of public works. On Jan. 31, 1933, he formed his own government, but it survived only until October. In January 1934 he formed a second ministry that survived only 10 days. He continued to move in and out of ministerial assignments as he led his Radical Party into the Popular Front coalition with Léon Blum's Socialists and the Communist Party (1935). In 1938 he again became premier. Amid a deteriorating international situation, Daladier, in his effort to avoid war, joined the British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain, in signing the Munich Pact with Adolf Hitler's Germany (Sept. 30, 1938). When France fell to Germany (June 1940), Daladier was one of those who sought to escape to French North Africa to set up a government-in-exile, but in Morocco he was arrested on Vichy orders and brought back to France. At his trial in Riom in February 1942, he and the other defendants accused the Philippe Pétain group of partial responsibility for the failure to prepare for war. He thereafter was handed over to the Germans, whose prisoner he remained until 1945. After the war he returned to the Chamber of Deputies (1946-58), became president of the moribund Radical Party in 1953, and opposed Charles de Gaulle's new constitution of 1958. He then left politics.
Dalai Lama, 14th, personal name rJe-btsun-'Jam-dpal-ngag-dbang-blo-bzang-ye-shes-bstan-'dzin-rgya-mtsho, also spelled Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso (Holy Lord, Gentle Glory, Compassionate, Defender of the Faith, Ocean of Wisdom), original name Lhamo Dhondrub (b. July 6, 1935, Taktser village, Kokonor region, northeastern Tibet), Dalai Lama from 1939. He was recognized at the age of two, in accordance with Tibetan tradition, as the reincarnation of his predecessor the 13th Dalai Lama. He was enthroned on Feb. 22, 1940. On Nov. 17, 1950, he was called upon to assume full political power after some 80,000 People's Liberation Army soldiers invaded Tibet. In 1954, he went to Beijing for peace talks with Mao Zedong and other Chinese leaders, including Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping. His efforts to bring about a peaceful solution to the Sino-Tibetan conflict were unsuccessful. A popular uprising broke out, and on March 10, 1959, Lhasa exploded with the largest demonstration in Tibetan history, calling on China to leave Tibet and reaffirming Tibet's independence. The uprising was crushed by the Chinese army, and the Dalai Lama and 100,000 other refugees fled to India, where they were given political asylum. Since 1960, he has resided in Dharamsala, India, known as "Little Lhasa," the seat of the Tibetan government-in-exile. In 1963, he promulgated a democratic constitution, based on Buddhist principles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a model for a future free Tibet. He publicly declared that once Tibet regains independence he will not hold political office. A series of journeys since 1967 took him to more than 40 nations. In 1989 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his nonviolent campaign to end Chinese domination of Tibet.
Dalberg, Carl Theodor (Anton Maria Cämmerer von Worms,) Reichsfreiherr von (b. Feb. 8, 1744, Herrnsheim [now part of Worms, Rheinland-Pfalz] - d. Feb. 10, 1817, Regensburg, Bavaria), prince-primate of the Confederation of the Rhine (1806-13). A member of an important German noble family, he entered the church, becoming administrator of the bishopric of Erfurt in 1772. An advocate of German unity, he supported the League of Princes (Fürstenbund) formed under Friedrich II of Prussia in 1785 and, through Prussian influence, became coadjutor of Mainz and Worms in 1787 and of Konstanz in 1788. In 1802 he became archbishop elector of Mainz and so archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire; in 1803 he received the principality of Aschaffenburg and Regensburg. Dalberg, in fact, thanks to Prussian influence, was the only ecclesiastical prince to survive the reorganization of the empire effected in 1803, from which he emerged as chancellor of the empire and primate of Germany, with ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Mainz, Cologne, and Trier. He hoped to establish a national German church, but in 1805 the pope restricted him to the secular administration of his dioceses. Through Napoléon's influence, however, Frankfurt and the countships of Löwenstein-Wertheim and Rieneck were added to Dalberg's territories. He had already turned to Napoléon as the only hope for a unified Germany, and in 1806 he was appointed prince-primate of the Confederation of the Rhine. In 1810 Regensburg was ceded to Bavaria, but in compensation Dalberg received the principalities of Fulda and Hanau and the title of grand duke of Frankfurt. After the fall of Napoléon in 1814, the grand duchy was dismembered at the Congress of Vienna; Dalberg retained only the archbishopric of Regensburg.
Dale, David Kenneth Hay (b. Jan. 27, 1927 - d. Nov. 8, 2001, Somerset, England), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1975-76) and governor of Montserrat (1980-84).
D'Alema, Massimo (b. April 20, 1949, Rome), prime minister (1998-2000) and deputy prime minister and foreign minister (2006-08) of Italy. At the age of 13 he joined the Communist youth organization and he became a member of the Italian Communist Party (PCI) at 19. In July 1987 he became a member of the Chamber of Deputies for the district of Lecce-Brindisi-Taranto (Apulia). In 1990 he joined the top party leadership and assisted the general secretary, Achille Occhetto, who embarked on a gradual liberalization of the party towards social democracy. In February 1991 the party was renamed Democratic Party of the Left (PDS). The left wing of the party then broke away and formed the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) led by Armando Cossutta. The PDS joined the Socialist International in mid-1992. D'Alema advanced to the leadership of the PDS faction in the Chamber of Deputies in 1992. Before the general elections of March 1994 the PDS formed the "Progressives" alliance with the Socialists, the Greens, La Rete, the Democratic Alliance, and also with the PRC. This alliance of the left could not meet the high expectations, and Occhetto resigned as PDS secretary in June. His deputy, D'Alema, succeeded him. He was instrumental in creating the centre-left Ulivo (Olive Tree) alliance in February 1995 which was led by Romano Prodi. This alliance won the April 1996 elections, but D'Alema himself did not join the Prodi cabinet. In 1998 the PDS joined with various small left-wing parties to form the Left Democrats (DS). The PDS logo had a drastically scaled down hammer and sickle at the base of an oak tree, but now the old communist emblem was ditched entirely and the DS used the red rose of European Socialism. Prodi's government fell later in 1998, and D'Alema formed a new coalition made up largely of the old Olive Tree.
Daléus, Lennart (b. June 25, 1946, Stockholm), Swedish politician. He has been a leading figure in Sweden's environmental movement for over 25 years. He was a founder member of Swedish Friends of the Earth and a key campaigner to dismantle Sweden's nuclear industry. An active member of the Centre Party since 1980 and a member of parliament since 1991, he chaired the standing committee on agriculture and was chairman of the government's eco-cycle delegation responsible for developing an eco-cycle concept for Sweden. Daléus was elected party chairman in June 1998, replacing Olof Johansson. He resigned in January 2001.
Daley, Richard J(oseph) (b. May 15, 1902, Bridgeport area, Chicago, Ill. - d. Dec. 20, 1976, Chicago), mayor of Chicago (1955-76). By the time he was 21, he was a precinct captain in the local Democratic Party. He served as a state representative (1936-38) and senator (1938-46), state director of revenue (1948-50), and clerk of Cook County (1950-55) before being elected mayor, which at that time was only a confirmation of his status as the city's leading Democrat (in 1953 he had become chairman of the Cook County Democratic Party). He was reelected five times with generally substantial majorities. During his mayoralty he gained the confidence of the business community through large-scale urban renewal and highway construction projects and through a sweeping reform of the police department. Daley's administration was criticized, however, for its reluctance to check racial segregation in housing and in the public schools; for its encouragement of the construction of tall office buildings in the downtown area; and for its measures taken against demonstrators during the Democratic National Convention in 1968. Daley was called "the last of the big-city bosses" because of his tight control of Chicago politics through widespread job patronage. He attained great power in national Democratic Party politics, being a deciding factor at national conventions, and many believe that the Cook County machine's ability to produce badly needed votes from the graveyards was what won Illinois for John F. Kennedy in 1960, who narrowly carried the state and thus defeated Richard Nixon in the nation. Daley's last years were marred by scandals centred on members of his administration, though none of these touched the mayor himself. He died in office.
Daley, Richard M(ichael) (b. April 24, 1942, Bridgeport area, Chicago, Ill.), mayor of Chicago (1989-2011). He was the first of four sons of Richard J. Daley, who groomed him for public office, and the Daley political machine gave him a job in the city attorney's office after he passed the bar exam on the third attempt. Later, Daley won election to the Illinois Senate, filling a vacancy his father had arranged. In 1980 Daley was elected to the first of three terms as Cook County state's attorney, despite the opposition of several prominent Democrats, including Chicago Mayor Jane Byrne. Three years later he ran against Byrne for mayor, a move that split the white vote and ensured the historic election of Harold Washington, who enjoyed monolithic support from the black community. Washington's death from a heart attack in late 1987 cleared the path for another Daley run for mayor. He beat black Acting Mayor Eugene Sawyer in the Democratic primary in February 1989 and black independent Alderman Timothy Evans, by a margin of almost 15 points, in the general election in April. In a race shaped by race, Daley won by garnering the votes of more than 90% of the whites who cast ballots, including many of the affluent, independent-minded lakefront residents who had voted for Washington in 1983 and 1987. Daley's election represented the first time since 1971 that a white had replaced a black as mayor of a major U.S. city. That fact alarmed some Chicago blacks, who feared that Daley would revive the "plantation politics" they felt had characterized his father's 21-year reign (1955-76). But the new mayor vowed to reach out to minorities, a promise he began to fulfill in May 1989 when he appointed blacks and Hispanics to head several of the city's largest departments. He was reelected in 1991, 1995, 1999, 2003, and 2007.
Daley, William M(ichael) (b. Aug. 8, 1948, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. secretary of commerce (1997-2000) and White House chief of staff (2011- ); son of Richard J. Daley; brother of Richard M. Daley.
Dalkin, Robert Nixon (b. Feb. 21, 1914, Whitley Bay, Northumberland, England - d. Nov. 18, 1991, Canberra, Australia), administrator of Norfolk Island (1968-72).
Dallerès Codina, Josep (b. Feb. 14, 1949), general syndic of Andorra (1994-97, 2009-11).
Dalli, John (b. Oct. 5, 1948, Qormi, Malta), finance minister (1992-96, 1998-2004) and foreign minister (2004) of Malta. In 2010 he became Malta's EU commissioner, responsible for health and consumer policy; he resigned in 2012 after an anti-fraud inquiry linked him to an attempt to influence tobacco legislation.
Daltro, Manuel de Cerqueira, Filho (b. Nov. 2, 1882, Cachoeira, Bahia province [now state], Brazil - d. Jan. 19, 1938, Porto Alegre), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1937-38).
Daly, Sir Dominick (b. Aug. 11, 1798, Ardfry, County Galway, Ireland - d. Feb. 19, 1868, Adelaide, South Australia), acting premier of Canada (1843). He took part in the Draper-Ogden (1841-42) and Baldwin-Lafontaine (1842-43) ministries, but contrary to the rest of the cabinet did not resign on Nov. 27, 1843, so he remained as sole minister until a new cabinet was formed on December 12. He was governor of Tobago (1852) and of Prince Edward Island (1854-59). In 1862 he became governor of South Australia, where he died in office. He was knighted in 1856.
Dam, Atli P(æturssonur) (b. Sept. 12, 1932, Tvøroyri, Faeroe Islands - d. Feb. 7, 2005, Tórshavn, Faeroe Islands), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (1970-81, 1985-89, 1991-93); son of Peter Mohr Dam.
Dam, Kenneth W(illard) (b. Aug. 10, 1932, Marysville, Kan.), acting U.S. treasury secretary (2003).
Dam, Peter Mohr (b. Aug. 11, 1898, Skopun, Faeroe Islands - d. Nov. 8, 1968, Tórshavn, Faeroe Islands), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (1959-63, 1967-68).
Damas, Michael J(oseph) (b. Nov. 8, 1912, Charleston, W.Va. - d. April 13, 2003, Toledo, Ohio), mayor of Toledo (1959-61). Born to parents who fled their village in Lebanon to avoid service in the Ottoman military, he grew up in a Toledo neighbourhood called "Little Syria." He was involved in politics for about 50 years. A Democrat, he won election to the Ohio House of Representatives in 1948, serving three two-year terms. Four terms on the Toledo city council followed, and in 1959 he was elected as the first Arab-American mayor of a large U.S. city. In 1961 he was defeated in the primary. Later he was president of the Toledo school board.
Damaskinos, original name Dimitrios (Nikolaou) Papandreou (b. March 3, 1891, Dorvitsa, Greece - d. May 20, 1949, Athens, Greece), regent of Greece (1944-46). He was a private in the army during the Balkan War of 1912 and was ordained priest in 1917. He settled nationalist quarrels of the Greek, Serbian, and Bulgarian monks in the monastery on Mount Athos. In 1922 he became bishop of Corinth, and in 1938 he was elected archbishop of Athens. His election was voided by Premier Ioannis Metaxas because of his opposition to Metaxas' regime, and Bishop Chrysanthos of Trebizond was appointed instead. Damaskinos was exiled to the mountain monastery of Phaneromeni on Salamis but then recalled in July 1941, after Greece had been occupied by the Germans during World War II, to replace Chrysanthos. As archbishop, he opposed the German occupation and urged the concealment of Jews to save them from the Nazis. On visits to German military headquarters, he carried a length of rope with him; when the Nazis became angry, he would say, "If you wish to hang me, here is the rope." On Dec. 31, 1944, during the civil war initiated by the communist-controlled guerrilla forces after the Germans left, Damaskinos was appointed regent with the permission of King Georgios II, then in exile. His integrity and impartiality made him the only person available for this position who was widely acceptable, though he was assailed by both extreme right and extreme left factions. During the subsequent 16 months of political crisis, Damaskinos appointed five premiers, and, in October 1945, himself formed an interim cabinet. He resigned as regent on Sept. 5, 1946, four days after the Greeks voted in a plebiscite in favour of the monarchy; the king returned on September 27. Thereafter, Damaskinos devoted himself to his archiepiscopal duties.
Dambui, Cherubim (Alfred) (b. Feb. 23, 1948, Timbunke [now in East Sepik province], Papua New Guinea - d. June 24, 2010, Manila, Philippines), premier of East Sepik (1976-83).
Damjanac, Branko (b. April 15, 1947), mayor of Brcko (2003-04).
Damjanovski, Risto (b. May 25, 1937, Dolenci, Demir Hisar, Yugoslavia [now in Macedonia]), defense minister of Macedonia (1991).
Damrémont, Charles (Marie) Denys, comte de (b. Feb. 8, 1783, Chaumont, Haute-Marne, France - d. [killed] Oct. 13, 1837, Constantine, Algeria), governor-general of Algeria (1837).
Damseaux, André (Raphael Jean-Marie Maurice Antoine) (b. March 5, 1937, Verviers, Belgium - d. March 29, 2007, Verviers), minister-president of Wallonia (1982). He was also Belgian minister of francophone education (1985-87) and mayor of Verviers (1989-95).
Damyanov, Georgi (Purvanov) (b. Sept. 23, 1892, Lopushna, near Mihailovgrad, Bulgaria - d. Nov. 27, 1958, Sofia, Bulgaria), defense minister (1946-50) and chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1950-58) of Bulgaria.
Danaya, Bob Tawa (b. March 16, 1955), governor of Western province, Papua New Guinea (2002- ).
Danchikova, Galina (Innokentyevna) (b. Aug. 13, 1954), prime minister of Sakha (2010- ).
Dancoisne-Martineau, Michel (Charles Yves) (b. 1965?), conservator of the French possessions on St. Helena (1987- ); adopted son (1986) of Gilbert Martineau.
Danda, Mahamadou (b. July 25, 1951, Tahoua, Niger), prime minister of Niger (2010-11).
Dandavate, Madhu (b. Jan. 21, 1924, Ahmednagar [now in Maharashtra], India - d. Nov. 12, 2005, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India), finance minister of India (1989-90).
Danel, Henri (Eloi) (b. Sept. 23, 1850, Béthune, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. ...), lieutenant governor of Cochinchina (1889-92) and governor of Réunion (1893-95) and French Guiana (1896-98).
Danforth, John (Claggett) (b. Sept. 5, 1936, St. Louis, Mo.), U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (2004-05).
D'Angelo, Giuseppe (b. Nov. 15, 1913, Calascibetta, Sicilia, Italy - d. Dec. 18, 1991), president of Sicilia (1961-64).
Daniel, Bill, byname of William Partlow Daniel (b. Nov. 20, 1915, Dayton, Texas - d. June 20, 2006, Liberty, Texas), governor of Guam (1961-63); brother of Price Daniel.
Daniel, Otunba Gbenga, full name Otunba Justus Olugbenga Daniel (b. April 6, 1956, Ibadan [now in Oyo state], Nigeria), governor of Ogun (2003-11).
Daniel, (Marion) Price (b. Oct. 10, 1910, Dayton, Texas - d. Aug. 25, 1988, Liberty, Texas), governor of Texas (1957-63).
Daniel, Simeon (b. Aug. 22, 1934, Barnes Ghaut village, Nevis - d. May 27, 2012), finance minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis (1980-84) and premier of Nevis (1983-92).
Danielyan, Anushavan (Surenovich) (b. 1956, Askeran region, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), prime minister of Nagorno-Karabakh (1999-2007).
Dañino (Zapata), Roberto (b. March 2, 1951, Lima), prime minister of Peru (2001-02). He was ambassador to the United States in 2002-04.
Danioth, Hans (b. May 25, 1931, Andermatt, Uri, Switzerland), Landammann of Uri (1980-82); son of Ludwig Danioth.
Danioth, Ludwig (b. March 11, 1902, Schattdorf, Uri, Switzerland - d. June 9, 1996, Andermatt, Uri), Landammann of Uri (1952-54, 1956-60, 1966-68) and president of the Council of States of Switzerland (1963-64).
Dankert, Piet(er) (b. Jan. 8, 1934, Stiens, Friesland, Netherlands - d. June 21, 2003, Perpignan, France), president of the European Parliament (1982-84).
Danko, Uladzimir (b. Dec. 14, 1941), interior minister of Belarus (1994).
D'Annunzio, Gabriele, (from March 15, 1924) principe di Montenevoso (b. March 12, 1863, Pescara, Abruzzo, Italy - d. March 1, 1938, Gardone Riviera, on Lake Garda), Italian political leader. He was a famous writer, but when his works failed to finance his extravagant lifestyle, he fled from his creditors to France in 1910. When World War I broke out, he returned to Italy to passionately urge his country's entry into the war. After Italy declared war he plunged into the fighting himself, seeking out dangerous assignments in several branches of the service, finally in the air force, where he lost an eye in combat. He was bitterly disappointed in seeing Italy, as he thought, robbed of her due at the peace conference, and he told the Allied statesmen his opinion of them in no measured terms. In September 1919 D'Annunzio and about 300 supporters, in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles, occupied the Dalmatian port of Fiume (Rijeka in present-day Croatia), which the Italian government and the Allies were proposing to incorporate into the new Yugoslav state but which D'Annunzio believed rightly belonged to Italy. He was given an extraordinary welcome, and ruled Fiume as dictator until December 1920, at which time Italian military forces compelled him to abdicate his rule. Nevertheless, by his bold action he had established Italy's interest in Fiume, and the port became Italian in 1924. D'Annunzio subsequently became an ardent Fascist and was rewarded by Benito Mussolini with a title and a national edition of his works, but he exercised no further influence on Italian politics.
Danson, Barnett Jerome, byname Barney Danson (b. Feb. 8, 1921, Toronto, Ont. - d. Oct. 17, 2011, Toronto), defense minister of Canada (1976-79).
Danton, Georges Jacques (b. Oct. 26, 1759, Arcis-sur-Aube [now in Aube département], France - d. [beheaded] April 5, 1794, Paris, France), president of the French National Convention (1793).
Daouk, Ahmed (Bey), Arabic Ahmad al-Da`uq (b. 1892, Beirut - d. 19...), prime minister of Lebanon (1941-42, 1960). He was also ambassador to France (1944-58).
Darbinyan, Armen (Razmiki) (b. Jan. 23, 1965, Leninakan, Armenian S.S.R. [now Gyumri, Armenia]), prime minister of Armenia (1998-99). He was a deputy chairman of the Central Bank from 1994 to May 1997, when he was appointed to head the finance and economy ministry. He became prime minister when Robert Kocharyan became president in 1998. He was known as a staunch supporter of continuing radical economic reforms and speeding up privatization in the impoverished Caucasus country.
Darham, Sjachriel (b. April 3, 1945, Amuntai, Netherlands East Indies [now in Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia]), governor of Kalimantan Selatan (2000-05).
Dariye, Joshua (Chibi) (b. July 27, 1957, Horop, Mushere [now in Bokkos local government area, Plateau state], Nigeria), governor of Plateau (1999-2006).
Darkin, Sergey (Mikhailovich) (b. Dec. 9, 1963, Bolshoy Kamen, Primorsky kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Primorsky kray (2001-12).
Darling, Sir Charles Henry (b. Feb. 19, 1809, Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia - d. Jan. 25, 1870, Cheltenham, England), governor of Barbados (1841), lieutenant governor of Saint Lucia (1848-52), acting governor of Cape Colony (1854), and governor of Newfoundland (1855-57), Jamaica (1857-62), and Victoria (1863-66); knighted 1862; son of Henry Charles Darling.
Darling, Sir Clifford (b. Feb. 6, 1922, Acklins Island, Bahamas - d. Dec. 27, 2011, Nassau, The Bahamas), governor-general of The Bahamas (1992-95); knighted 1977. He was speaker of the House of Assembly in 1977-91.
Darling, Henry Charles (b. Feb. 28, 1780, Uppingham, Rutland county, England - d. Feb. 11, 1845), governor of Tobago (1833-45); brother of Sir Ralph Darling; son-in-law of Charles Cameron.
Darling, Sir Ralph (b. January or February 1772 [other sources say 1775], Ireland - d. April 2, 1858, Brighton, England), acting governor of Mauritius (1819-20) and governor of New South Wales (1825-31); knighted 1835.
Darricau, Rodolphe Augustin, baron (b. March 17, 1807, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, France - d. July 19, 1877, Paris), governor of Réunion (1858-64).
Darsières, Camille (b. May 19, 1932, Fort-de-France, Martinique - d. Dec. 14, 2006, Fort-de-France), president of the Regional Council of Martinique (1988-92).
Dartiguenave, Philippe Sudre (b. June 4, 1863, Anse-à-Veau, Haiti - d. Aug. 7, 1926, Anse-à-Veau), president of Haiti (1915-22).
Dartout, Pierre (François Gabriel) (b. April 9, 1954, Limoges, France), prefect of French Guiana (1995-97).
Daruvar, Yves de (b. March 31, 1921, Istanbul, Turkey), administrator-superior of the Comoros (1962-63).
Das, Banarsi (b. July 8, 1912, Atrawali village, United Provinces [now in Uttar Pradesh], India - d. Aug. 3, 1983), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1979-80).
Das, Biswanath (b. March 8, 1889, Polasara village, Ganjam district, Orissa, India - d. June 2, 1984), chief minister of Orissa (1937-39, 1971-72) and governor of Uttar Pradesh (1962-67).
Das, B(rajbir) S(aran) (b. 1925), chief administrative officer of Sikkim (1973-74).
Das Neves, Mario (b. April 27, 1951, Avellaneda, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Chubut (2003-11).
Dascalescu, Constantin (b. July 2, 1923 - d. May 15, 2003, Bucharest, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1982-89). He was ousted from office during a popular revolt in 1989 along with Pres. Nicolae Ceausescu. In the dying moments of the regime, he was sent by Ceausescu to Timisoara, the city in western Romania where the revolt began, to try to crush it. Dascalescu at first refused to talk to the demonstrators, declaring, "I won't speak to hooligans," but later changed his mind and met with representatives of the crowd. About 150 people who had been detained by the secret police were released on his orders during the negotiations, but Dascalescu failed in his attempts to stop the revolt. He was arrested after the revolt and tried on genocide charges, along with other Ceausescu aides, for allegedly contributing to hundreds of deaths during the anti-communist revolt. The charges were later lowered to first-degree murder. He was sentenced to life in prison in 1991, but was later released on medical grounds.
Daschle, Tom, byname of Thomas Andrew Daschle (b. Dec. 9, 1947, Aberdeen, S.D.), U.S. politician. He was a congressional aide to U.S. Sen. James Abourezk (1972-77) and in 1978 he won the first of four terms in the House of Representatives. In 1986 he defeated the incumbent to win election to the Senate, and he was reelected overwhelmingly in 1992 and 1998. He became a member of the powerful Finance Committee while still a freshman senator and in 1988 was appointed cochair of the Democratic Policy Committee. Other legislative interests of Daschle included agriculture and veterans' and Indian affairs. He gained a reputation for looking out for the interests of his constituents, and every year he drove himself throughout South Dakota to visit each of its 66 counties and to talk to voters. In 1994 he won the position of Democratic leader by one vote, and he became minority leader in the Senate at the beginning of the 1995 session. A soft-spoken man, he had a reputation for being fair and inclusive, but he was a skillful tactician and could be tough when needed. On June 6, 2001, the Senate passed to Democratic control when Sen. James Jeffords of Vermont left the Republican Party to become an independent, which gave the Democrats a 50-49 majority. As Daschle became majority leader, he declared that parts of Pres. George W. Bush's legislative program, including drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and quick deployment of a missile defense system, would not pass the Senate. A patients' bill of rights cleared the Senate despite the president's threat to veto it, and Daschle took the lead in blaming the Bush tax cut for the disappearance of the budget surplus. The Senate passed to Republican control after the 2002 elections, and he became minority leader again. In 2004 he was defeated for reelection by Republican John Thune. In 2008 he was nominated for secretary of health and human services, but ultimately withdrew, faced with problems over back taxes and potential conflicts of interest.
Dashuk, Leonid (Andreyevich) (b. June 22, 1936), justice minister of Belarus (1990-94).
Daskalov, Stanislav (Penkov) (b. April 4, 1952, Bezhanovo, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (1993-94).
Dassanayake, T(udor) K(arunatilleke) (d. January 2006), governor of Central province, Sri Lanka (2000-01).
Dassonville, Yves (Charles Léo) (b. April 9, 1948, Paris, France), prefect of Martinique (2004-07) and high commissioner of New Caledonia (2007-10).
Dasuki dan Khaliru, Ibrahim (b. Dec. 31, 1923, Dogondaji village, Sokoto state, Nigeria), sultan of Sokoto (1988-96).
Daszynski, Ignacy (Ewaryst) (b. Oct. 26, 1866, Zbaraz, Galicia, Poland, Russian Empire [now Zbarazh, Ukraine] - d. Oct. 31, 1936, Bystra, near Cieszyn, Poland), Polish politician. In October 1892 he was one of the organizers of the Polish Social Democratic Party in Galicia. He was elected to the Austrian Reichsrat in 1897 and was a member of it until 1918. From 1903 he took part in many congresses of the Socialist International, always insisting on the independence and reunification of all Polish lands as an integral part of the Polish socialist program. From 1912 he collaborated to this end with Józef Pilsudski, whom he then admired. Also in 1912 he became editor in chief of the Polish socialist daily newspaper Naprzód ("Forward") in Kraków. During World War I he was one of the founders of the Polish National Committee, and for some days he was the head of the first provisional government of restored Poland, formed at Lublin on Nov. 7, 1918. Elected on Jan. 26, 1919, to the Sejm (Diet), he was reelected in 1922, 1928, and 1930. From July 1920 to January 1921 he was deputy premier in the government of national unity presided over by Wincenty Witos. After the coup of May 1926, Daszynski definitely severed his relations with Pilsudski, and as speaker of the Sejm (1928-30), he refused to allow parliament to open when Pilsudski, with an armed escort, entered the chamber. Daszynski ended his parliamentary life when Pilsudski in 1930 broke up the attempt to form a popular front.
Datt, Krishna (b. Oct. 15, 1944, Mateniwai, Labasa, Fiji), foreign minister of Fiji (1987).
Datta, Shyamal (b. May 10, 1941), governor of Nagaland (2002-07).
Daubigny, Jean (b. May 18, 1948, Troyes, Aube, France), prefect of Réunion (1998-2001) and of Paris (2013- ).
D'Aubuisson (Arrieta), Roberto (b. Aug. 23, 1943, Santa Tecla, El Salvador - d. Feb. 20, 1992, San Salvador), Salvadoran political leader. He served as an intelligence officer with the National Guard and then as deputy director of Ansesal, the presidential security agency. When reformists in the military overthrew Pres. Carlos Humberto Romero in October 1979, he was given backing by the coffee oligarchs, who resisted demands for land redistribution and political reforms, to organize new political parties. D'Aubuisson, who was described by a former U.S. ambassador to El Salvador as a "pathological killer," was implicated in the May 1980 abortive coup to unseat Col. Adolfo Arnoldo Majano Ramos. He wished to reverse all reforms carried out by José Napoleón Duarte's regime and denounced peace talks with leftist rebels. In March 1981, following allegations that he had been involved in the murder of Archbishop Óscar Romero a year earlier, he took refuge in Guatemala, returning in late 1981 to form the extreme right-wing Alianza Republicana Nacionalista (Arena). He failed to fulfill his hopes of becoming president after the March 1982 elections but did secure the powerful position of president of the Constituent Assembly (1982-83). In 1984 he lost the presidential election to Duarte. D'Aubuisson was widely characterized as the brains behind the Union of White Warriors, which allegedly conducted assassinations by "death squad" during the 1979-92 civil war, which claimed some 75,000 lives. In 1989 Arena's candidate, Alfredo Cristiani, became president. D'Aubuisson tried to uphold the party hard line amid Cristiani's attempts to negotiate an end to the civil war. Just five weeks before D'Aubuisson's death, a formal ceasefire was signed.
Daud Khan, Sardar Mohammad (b. July 18, 1909, Kabul - d. April 27, 1978, Kabul), president of Afghanistan (1973-78); son of Sardar Mohammad Aziz Khan; cousin of Mohammad Zahir Shah. King Nadir Shah made him a major general in 1932; he subsequently served as military commander of several provinces and in 1939-47 of the central forces at Kabul. In 1946 Prime Minister Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan (his uncle) named him minister of defense. After a disagreement with Shah Mahmud, he was sent to Paris as ambassador in 1948. He returned a year later to serve as minister of the interior and head of tribal affairs. In the latter position he exacerbated the dispute between Afghanistan and the new state of Pakistan, vigorously promoting demands for self-determination in the Pashtun tribal territories of Pakistan. In 1953 he seized power from his uncle in a bloodless coup. During his tenure as prime minister (known as "Daud's decade") he modernized the Afghan state. He maintained a policy of nonalignment, playing off the United States and the Soviet Union against each other. Daud remained a Pashtun nationalist. In 1963 confrontation with Pakistan, which controlled the principal land route from Afghanistan to the sea, led to an economic crisis that forced him to resign. He was the main target of a 1964 constitutional provision in which members of the royal family were forbidden to stand for election or to serve as ministers. With the help of Soviet-trained army officers, he seized power on July 17, 1973. He proclaimed a republic and himself president. When he turned away from the U.S.S.R. in 1977, the latter increased its support for the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). In 1978, PDPA cells in the army launched a coup, during which Daud was killed.
Dauda, Joseph B(andabla) (b. Dec. 24, 1942, Bambawo, Eastern province, Sierra Leone), finance minister (2002-05), foreign minister (2010-12), and internal affairs minister (2013- ) of Sierra Leone.
Daulenov, Satken Daulenovich (b. Oct. 10, 1907 - d. Feb. 29, 1984), chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh S.S.R. (1938).
Daultana, Mian Mumtaz (Mohammad Khan) (b. 1915? - d. Jan. 30, 1995), chief minister of Punjab (Pakistan) (1951-53).
Daunt, Sir Timothy (Lewis Achilles) (b. Oct. 11, 1935), lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (1995-2000); knighted 1989.
Dauplay, Jean-Jacques (b. April 8, 1878, Saint-Brieuc, Côtes-du-Nord [now Côtes-d'Armor], France - d. 19...), interim resident-superior of Laos (1925-26).
Dauriac, Alexandre François (b. Feb. 22, 1812, Brindisi, Italy - d. 1878), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1868-69).
Dave, Arvind (b. May 1, 1940), governor of Arunachal Pradesh (1999-2003), Assam (2003), and Manipur (2003-04).
David, Adelino (Santiago) Castelo (b. 1955?), finance minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1999-2001, 2004-05). He is a former central bank governor (1992-94) and former president of the bank Caixa Nacional de Poupanças e Crédito. Before his first appointment as finance minister, he was a World Bank consultant, representing the São Tomé government.
David, Eduard (Heinrich Rudolph) (b. June 11, 1863, Ediger an der Mosel, Prussia - d. Dec. 24, 1930, Berlin), president of the German Constituent Assembly (1919).
David, Johnny P. (b. Aug. 21, 1937, Kitti, Ponape [now Pohnpei], Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia]), governor of Pohnpei (1992-96, 2000-08).
David, Peter (Charles) (b. July 26, 1957), foreign minister of Grenada (2008-10).
David, Václav (b. Sept. 23, 1910, Studená, Moravia [now in Czech Republic] - d. Jan. 5, 1996), foreign minister of Czechoslovakia (1953-68).
Davidson, James Alfred (b. March 22, 1922 - d. May 6, 2004), British high commissioner of Brunei (1975-78) and governor of the British Virgin Islands (1978-81). He was a naval commander during World War II and also held diplomatic positions in Trinidad and Tobago, Cambodia, and Bangladesh.
Davidson-Houston, Wilfred Bennett (b. Jan. 3, 1870 - d. Sept. 18, 1960), commissioner of Montserrat (1906-18), administrator of Saint Lucia (1918-27), acting administrator of Dominica (1923-24), and acting governor of Nyasaland (1929).
Davie, Theodore (b. March 22, 1852, Brixton, England - d. March 7, 1898, Victoria, B.C.), premier of British Columbia (1892-95). Brother of Premier Alexander Edmund Batson Davie, Theodore followed his sibling into provincial politics in 1882. After his brother was elected premier in 1887, Davie served as de-facto attorney general, and as his brother grew increasingly ill he effectively ran the province from behind the scenes. When his brother died in office in 1889, Davie was officially appointed attorney general by the new premier, John Robson. When Robson also died in office, Davie was appointed premier and inherited a province plagued with the unfinished business of two incomplete administrations. His attempts to rejuvenate the failing B.C. economy were not helped when the province faced a massive flood in 1894. Though largely unpopular, Davie's term was not without some success. He drew up a dramatic redistribution of British Columbia's political ridings, and continued the B.C. expansion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. His government's most lasting achievement was construction of the present parliament buildings. In 1895 he resigned from politics and was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court of British Columbia, a position he held until his death.
Davier, Irénée (b. Feb. 10, 1903, Saint-Étienne, France - d. March 13, 1971), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1952-55).
Davignon, (Henri François) Julien (Claude), (posthumously) vicomte/burggraaf (b. Dec. 3, 1854, Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, Belgium - d. March 12, 1916, Nice, France), foreign minister of Belgium (1907-16).
Dávila (García), Luis Alfonso (b. Dec. 6, 1943, Mérida, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (2001-02, 2002).
Dávila (Cuéllar), Miguel R(afael) (b. Sept. 29, 1856, Tegucigalpa, Honduras - d. Oct. 12, 1927, Tegucigalpa), president of Honduras (1907-11).
Dávila Espinoza, Carlos (Gregorio) (b. Sept. 15, 1887, Los Ángeles, Chile - d. Oct. 19, 1955, Washington, D.C.), provisional president of Chile (1932) and secretary-general of the Organization of American States (1954-55).
Davinic, Prvoslav (b. July 20, 1938, Belgrade, Yugoslavia), defense minister of Serbia and Montenegro (2004-05). He resigned after being accused of approving purchases of military equipment at overblown prices.
Davis, Adrian (Derek) (b. London, England), governor of Montserrat (2011- ).
Davis, Angela (Yvonne) (b. Jan. 26, 1944, Birmingham, Ala.), U.S. political activist. She became a doctoral candidate at the University of California, San Diego, under the Marxist professor Herbert Marcuse. Because of her political opinions and despite an excellent record as an instructor at the university's Los Angeles campus, the California Board of Regents in 1970 refused to renew her appointment as lecturer in philosophy. Championing the cause of black prisoners, she grew particularly attached to a young revolutionary, George Jackson, one of the so-called Soledad (Prison) Brothers. Jackson's brother Jonathan was among the four persons killed - including the trial judge - in an abortive escape and kidnapping attempt from the Hall of Justice in Marin county, Calif. (Aug. 7, 1970). Suspected of complicity, she was sought for arrest and became one of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's "most wanted criminals." Arrested in New York City in October 1970, she was returned to California to face charges of kidnapping, murder, and conspiracy. Held in solitary confinement for many months, she and her cause became the focus of a worldwide campaign. Sponsored mainly by the Communist Party of the United States, the National United Committee to Free Angela Davis was directed jointly by her sister Fania Davis Jordan and Franklin Alexander, chairman of the all-black Che-Lumumba Club of the Communist Party. "Free Angela" posters blanketed cities all over the world to the accompaniment of emotional protests, petitions, and rallies in her behalf. After a 13-week trial, on June 4, 1972, she was acquitted of all charges by an all-white jury. In 1980 she ran for U.S. vice president on the Communist Party ticket.
Davis, David (b. March 9, 1815, Cecil county, Md. - d. June 26, 1886, Bloomington, Ill.), U.S. politician. He was elected to the Illinois legislature in 1844 on the Whig ticket, was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1847, and the following year began a 14-year career as a circuit judge. He became a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, who practiced as a lawyer in the same circuit. At the Republican convention of 1860 and in the presidential campaign that followed, Davis worked assiduously for Lincoln's nomination and election. In February 1861 he accompanied the president-elect to Washington, D.C., and served as an adviser until Lincoln appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1862. Davis was never a supporter of the more extreme antislavery wing of the Republican Party, and he angered much of the party with his majority opinion in the Ex parte Milligan case of 1866. While still a justice, Davis in 1872 accepted the presidential nomination of the Labor Reform Convention as a stepping-stone to securing the nomination of the Liberal Republican Party. When the party instead nominated Horace Greeley, Davis withdrew as the Labor candidate. He then drifted closer to the Democrats, who expected him to cast the decisive vote for Samuel J. Tilden on the Electoral Commission of 1877. But Davis disqualified himself from the commission when he resigned from the Supreme Court in 1877 to accept election by the Illinois legislature to the U.S. Senate. When Pres. James A. Garfield was assassinated in 1881, and Vice Pres. Chester A. Arthur became president, Davis was elected president pro tem of the Senate, which made him virtually acting vice president of the United States, and he held this position until the expiration of his term in 1883.
Davis, Dwight F(illey) (b. July 5, 1879, St. Louis, Mo. - d. Nov. 28, 1945, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of war (1925-29) and governor-general of the Philippines (1929-32). He was also a noted tennis player (founder of the Davis Cup).
Davis, Gray, byname of Joseph Graham Davis, Jr. (b. Dec. 26, 1942, Bronx, New York City), governor of California (1999-2003). As chair of the California Council on Criminal Justice in the 1970s, he started the statewide Neighborhood Watch program. He was chief of staff to Edmund G. Brown, Jr., from 1975 to 1981, serving as a reality check on the capricious governor. In 1983-87, Davis served in the state assembly from Los Angeles county, then served as state controller for eight years. In his successful campaign for lieutenant governor in 1994, he received more votes than any other Democratic candidate in the country. As lieutenant governor he focused on efforts to keep jobs in California and encourage new and fast-growing industries to locate and expand in the state. He was overwhelmingly elected the 37th governor of California on Nov. 3, 1998, defeating state attorney general Dan Lungren 58%-38%. In the June primary election, Davis shocked political observers by not only handily defeating two better-funded Democratic opponents, but by finishing ahead of the unopposed Republican nominee. When his multimillionaire primary opponents tried to label him a career politician, Davis turned it to his advantage, boasting of "experience money can't buy." Davis made improving public education his administration's no. 1 priority. In 2002 he was reelected by a smaller margin, defeating Republican Bill Simon 47%-42%. In 2003 he faced a recall campaign, funded largely by U.S. Rep. Darrell Issa, a wealthy Republican businessman, accusing Davis of having turned a budget surplus into a huge deficit. The necessary signatures were collected, and in the first gubernatorial recall election in the U.S. in 82 years, Californians voted 55%-45% to remove him.
Davis, Harry L(yman) (b. Jan. 25, 1878, Cleveland, Ohio - d. May 21, 1950, Shaker Heights, Ohio), governor of Ohio (1921-23).
Davis, James H(ouston), byname Jimmie Davis (b. Sept. 11, 1899, Quitman, La. - d. Nov. 5, 2000, Baton Rouge, La.), governor of Louisiana (1944-48, 1960-64). He said it was Gov. Sam Jones and Huey Long's brother Julius who talked him into running for governor in 1943. Backers thought his popularity as a country singer ("You Are My Sunshine") could help him end the crippling 15-year battle between the Long forces and their opponents. He was remembered for pushing through legislation in his first term creating the state's first driver's licenses, and, in his second, for seeing the state through the school desegregation battles of the early 1960s. He called five straight special legislative sessions to resist federal desegregation orders, and created a grant program to aid private school pupils after the courts prevailed. He said later that he was only doing what was best for the times. "Everybody ran on the segregation ticket. You couldn't be elected without it. When desegregation came, we did it without having anybody killed. We didn't even have a fistfight." He set a record for absenteeism during his first term, in part because he spent part time in Hollywood making movies. One of the accomplishments of his second term was the Sunshine Bridge over the Mississippi, which critics called the "bridge to nowhere" but which was later credited with fostering industrial growth in the area between Baton Rouge and New Orleans. And he had a horse named Sunshine who helped him make headlines in 1961. He rode the beast up the Capitol steps to make a point when his purchase of a Cadillac limousine was being criticized. A bid for a third try at the governorship fell short in 1971. Davis had little involvement in politics in his later years, devoting his energy to his music.
Davis, Jefferson (Finis1) (b. June 3, 1808, Christian county, Ky. - d. Dec. 6, 1889, New Orleans, La.), president of the Confederate States of America (1861-65); son-in-law of Zachary Taylor. In 1845 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1846 he resigned his seat in Congress to serve in the war with Mexico. After returning, he entered the Senate and soon became chairman of the Military Affairs Committee. Pres. Franklin Pierce made him secretary of war in 1853. When South Carolina withdrew from the Union in December 1860, Davis still opposed secession, though he believed that the Constitution gave a state the right to withdraw from the original compact of states. On Jan. 21, 1861, twelve days after Mississippi seceded, Davis made a moving farewell speech in the Senate and pleaded eloquently for peace. He was commissioned major general to head Mississippi's armed forces and prepare its defense. But within two weeks the Confederate Convention in Montgomery, Ala., chose him as provisional president of the Confederacy. He was inaugurated on Feb. 18, 1861, and his first act was to send a peace commission to Washington, D.C., to prevent an armed conflict. Lincoln refused to see his emissaries and the next month decided to send armed ships to Charleston, S.C., to resupply the beleaguered Union garrison at Fort Sumter. Davis reluctantly ordered the bombardment of the fort (April 12-13), which marked the beginning of the American Civil War. On May 10, 1865, Davis was captured near Irwinville, Ga., and remained a prisoner for two years. In May 1867 he was released on bail; he was never tried. He remained the chief spokesman and apologist for the defeated South. His citizenship was restored posthumously in 1978.
1 This middle name, which appears in Hudson Strode's biography of Davis and elsewhere, is considered by others as a myth, but it is known that Davis signed his name with a middle initial F. early in his life.
Davis, Sir John (Gilbert) (b. March 24, 1911 - d. Feb. 3, 1989), lieutenant governor of Jersey (1969-74); knighted 1964.
Davis, John W(illiam) (b. April 13, 1873, Clarksburg, W.Va. - d. March 24, 1955, Charleston, S.C.), U.S. presidential candidate (1924). In 1899 he was elected to the West Virginia House of Delegates and in 1910 to the U.S. House of Representatives. From 1913 to 1918 he served as solicitor general of the United States, and he was one of Pres. Woodrow Wilson's advisers at the Paris peace conference following World War I (1919). He also served as ambassador to Great Britain (1918-21). At the Democratic National Convention of 1924, neither the supporters of New York governor Alfred E. Smith nor those of the more traditional William G. McAdoo would yield their votes in order to settle on a presidential candidate. After 102 ballots the party compromised by choosing Davis, who went down to overwhelming defeat that fall before Republican Calvin Coolidge. In 1932 he supported Franklin D. Roosevelt for president but soon after Roosevelt's election Davis found himself in disagreement with the president's New Deal policies. In 1935 Davis and other prominent political figures organized the Liberty League to oppose the New Deal. He supported Republican candidates on several occasions, such as Wendell L. Willkie in 1940 and Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952.
Davis, Leslie Harold Newsom (b. April 6, 1909 - d. June 16, 2003, Heyshott, Sussex, England), British resident in Brunei (1948).
Davis, Terry, byname of Terence Anthony Gordon Davis (b. Jan. 5, 1938, Stourbridge, West Midlands, England), secretary-general of the Council of Europe (2004-09).
Davis, Sir Tom, byname of Sir Thomas Robert Alexander Harries Davis (b. June 11, 1917, Ruatonga, Rarotonga, Cook Islands - d. July 23, 2007, Rarotonga), prime minister of the Cook Islands (1978-83, 1983-87); knighted 1980. In 2004-05 he was high commissioner to New Zealand.
Davis, William (Grenville) (b. July 30, 1929, Brampton, Ontario), premier of Ontario (1971-85). He began his political involvement at an early age. At 13 he was a delegate to a national students political convention, and at 20 he was president of the Peel Riding Progressive Conservative Association. He was first elected to the Ontario legislature to represent Peel riding in 1959 and was reelected in six subsequent elections between 1963 and 1981. He served as Ontario minister of education (1962-71) and Ontario minister of university affairs (1964-71). In the latter position he presided over the reshaping and expansion of the province's educational system. In 1971 Davis replaced John Robarts as leader of the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, and on March 1 he was sworn in as premier of Ontario. While a member of the legislature, Davis served on the select committee studying the executive and administrative problems of the government. As premier, he used his administrative skills and thorough knowledge of government to initiate and carry out a complete reorganization of governmental structures. During 1980 and 1981 Davis was in the forefront of the national debate over the Canadian constitution. Along with Premier Richard Hatfield of New Brunswick, he supported the stand of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau against the opposition of the premier of the other eight provinces. Trudeau wished the Canadian government to gain control over the Canadian constitution, which, as an act of the British Parliament, was still under the control of the U.K. Also along with Trudeau, Davis endorsed a strong role for the federal government to counter Canada's increasingly assertive provinces.
Davutoglu, Ahmet (b. Feb. 26, 1959, Taskent, Konya province, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (2009- ).
Dawalibi, Maaruf al-, Arabic Ma`ruf al-Dawalibi (b. 1907, Aleppo, Ottoman Empire [now in Syria] - d. Jan. 15, 2004, Saudi Arabia), speaker of parliament (1951), prime minister (1951, 1961-62), and foreign minister (1961-62) of Syria. In 1947, one year after Syria achieved full independence, he ran for parliament, becoming a deputy for Aleppo. In 1949 he was named economy minister. A co-founder of the People's Party, which advocated maintaining Syria's democratic system and establishing union with neighbouring Iraq, he established a reputation for his distrust of Damascus politicians. In 1951 he first formed a government, but one day later the army took power in a coup led by Col. Adib al-Shishakli. He served as defense minister under Pres. Hashim al-Atassi in 1954-55 and became prime minister in 1961, when the People's Party was voted back into office, but in 1962 was again removed in a coup. When, on March 8, 1963, the Ba`th party came to power, Dawalibi was arrested along with all "anti-unionist" politicians (i.e. those who had supported Syria's secession from the United Arab Republic in 1961) and incarcerated in the notorious Mezze military prison. A few months later, he was released and exiled to Lebanon. He then moved to Saudi Arabia where he served as private adviser to the successive kings.
Dawkins, John (Sydney) (b. March 2, 1947, Perth), Australian politician. He was a Labor member of the House of Representatives for Tangney (1974-75) and Fremantle (1977-94). Under Prime Minister Bob Hawke he was minister of finance and public service (1983-84), trade and youth affairs (1984-87), and employment, education and training (1987-91). In 1991-93 he was treasurer in Paul Keating's government. His high international prestige was underscored by the seriousness with which the British press received his attack on Tory politics in the U.K. in 1992. Dawkins viewed conditions in London under Prime Minister John Major as a model for life in Australia should the Australian Conservatives win office. In a vivid description to the Australian Parliament, he said, "At about 5 o'clock every evening there is a rush to see who can occupy the doorways of Australia House in London in order to have somewhere to sleep at night." Addressing Australia's Conservatives, he continued, "You can see the results of your policies every day in Britain as people go around looking for a doorway in which to huddle and go into subways to beg for some kind of support that their government will not give them." He kept a tight rein on economic policy, forcing errant ministers to back down when they stepped out of line and criticized party orthodoxy. In November 1992 a Senate inquiry into government borrowing practices was launched at the request of the opposition. It was charged that Dawkins allegedly had concealed a $1.3 billion increase in borrowing by the former Labor government in Victoria to ensure a victory for that party in the November elections. Though Labor was defeated in a landslide, the controversy escalated and contributed to a weakness in the Australian dollar.
Dawson, Ivan (b. March 1, 1914, Ballast Bay, Tortola island, British Virgin Islands - d. April 22, 2001, Ballast Bay), deputy chief minister (1967-71) and speaker of the legislature (1975-83) of the British Virgin Islands.
Day, Stockwell (Burt) (b. Aug. 16, 1950, Barrie, Ontario), Canadian politician. He was elected to Alberta's provincial legislature in 1986 to represent the riding of Red Deer. He served the Progressive Conservative government of Alberta in various posts. As treasurer for three years, he presided over an economic boom in the oil- and gas-rich western province that allowed him to deliver a string of billion-dollar budget surpluses. On July 8, 2000, he was elected leader of the new right-wing Canadian Alliance party. After winning over 70% of the vote in a by-election in the federal constituency of Okanagan-Coquihalla, Day was officially sworn in as a Member of Parliament on Sept. 19, 2000, and became leader of the opposition in the House of Commons. An Alliance proposal to allow referenda if 3% of voters signed petitions prompted the satirical television show This Hour Has 22 Minutes to launch a petition to have Day's first name changed to "Doris"; over one million people signed the petition through the show's website. Infighting within the Alliance led Day in July 2001 to call a new leadership ballot for March 2002. On Dec. 12, 2001, he resigned and was replaced on an interim basis by John Reynolds, but remained in the race to succeed himself, which he ultimately lost to Stephen Harper. When Harper became prime minister, Day became minister of public safety (2006-08), then minister of international trade (2008-10) and president of the Treasury Board (2010- ).
Dayan, Moshe (b. May 20, 1915, Deganya Alef, Palestine [now in Israel] - d. Oct. 16, 1981, Tel Aviv, Israel), Israeli politician. As a youth he trained in the Haganah, a Jewish volunteer defense force. In 1939 he was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for membership in the Haganah (declared illegal by the British mandatory authorities) but in 1941 was released for service in the British forces. While leading a Jewish company against the Vichy French in Syria, he lost his left eye and thereafter wore the black patch that became a distinguishing mark. He remained an intelligence officer with the Haganah until 1948 and commanded the Jerusalem area during Israel's war of independence. In 1953 he was appointed chief of staff of the Israeli Army. He engineered the plan for the invasion of Sinai, which he brilliantly executed in 1956 during the ill-fated Suez adventure. After retiring from military service in 1958 he joined the Mapai (Labour Party) and was elected to the Knesset (parliament) in 1959. In 1965 he joined David Ben-Gurion in leaving Mapai and in forming the Rafi party. On June 1, 1967, he became defense minister. His collaboration with Maj.Gen. Yitzhak Rabin then led to Israel's overwhelming victory in the Six-Day War (June 5-10, 1967). When Egypt and Syria unexpectedly attacked Israel on Oct. 6, 1973 (Yom Kippur), he was pilloried for the country's lack of preparedness. When Rabin became prime minister in June 1974, he dropped Dayan from the cabinet. In 1977 he became foreign minister under Menachem Begin. In 1978 he was one of the chief architects of the Camp David accords. He resigned in October 1979. In 1981 he formed a new party, Telem, which advocated unilateral Israeli disengagement from the territories occupied in 1967.