Rulers

Countries I

Contents of this page:
Iceland - India - Indonesia - Iran - Iraq - Ireland - Isle of Man - Israel - Italy

Iceland

       1380                Danish rule
26 Jun 1809 - 22 Aug 1809    independence proclaimed by Danish adventurer
 1 Dec 1918                independence (kingdom in personal union with Denmark)
10 May 1940 -        1944    Allied occupation
17 Jun 1944                Republic of Iceland

Governors (to 1770 in Copenhagen)
       1682 -  8 Dec 1719  Ulrik Christian Gyldenløve,
                           greve af Samsø                     (b. 1678 - d. 1719)
       1719 - 29 Sep 1727  Peter Raben                        (b. 1661 - d. 1727)
       1728 -        1730  Christian Gyldencrone              (b. 1676 - d. 1746)
       1730 -  9 Sep 1750  Henrik Ocksen                      (b. 1660 - d. 1750)
       1750 -  2 Oct 1768  Otto Manderup, greve Rantzau       (b. 1719 - d. 1768)
       1768 -        1769  Christian Lebrecht, baron von
                           Prøck                              (b. 1718 - d. 1780)
       1770 -        1785  Lauritz Andreas Thodal             (b. 1718? - d. 1808)
       1785 -        1789  Hans Christoph Diederich Victor
                           von Levetzow                       (b. 1754 - d. 1829)
       1790 -        1806  Ólafur Stefánsson                  (b. 1731 - d. 1812)
       1806 -        1810  Fredrik Christopher, greve af
                           Trampe                             (b. 1779 - d. 1832)
26 Jun 1809 - 22 Aug 1809    Jürgen Jürgensen                 (b. 1780 - d. 1841)
                             (de facto ruler; from 12 Jul 1809 styled "Protector")
       1813 -        1819  Johan Carl Thuerecht Castenschiold (b. 1787 - d. 1844)
       1819 -        1823  Ehrenreich Christopher Ludvig,
                           greve Moltke                       (b. 1790 - d. 1864)
       1824 -        1829  Peter Fjeldsted Hoppe              (b. 1794 - d. 1848)
       1829 -        1836  Lorentz Angel Krieger              (b. 1797 - d. 1837)
       1837 -        1841  Carl Emil Bardenfleth              (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
       1841 -        1847  Torkild Abraham Hoppe              (b. 1801 - d. 1871)
       1847 -        1849  Mathias Hans Rosenørn              (b. 1814 - d. 1902)
       1850 -        1860  Jørgen Ditlev, greve Trampe        (b. 1807 - d. 1868)
       1860 -  8 May 1865  Thórdur Jónassen                   (b. 1800 - d. 1880)
 8 May 1865 -        1883  Søren Hilmar Steindor Finsen       (b. 1824 - d. 1886)
       1883 -        1886  Bergur Ólafsson Thorberg           (b. 1829 - d. 1886)
       1886 -  1 Feb 1904  Magnús Stephensen                  (b. 1836 - d. 1917)
Ministers
 1 Feb 1904 - 31 Mar 1909  Hannes Hafstein (1st time)         (b. 1861 - d. 1922)
31 Mar 1909 - 14 Mar 1911  Björn Jónsson                      (b. 1846 - d. 1912)
14 Mar 1911 - 24 Jul 1912  Kristján Jónsson                   (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
25 Jul 1912 - 21 Jul 1914  Hannes Hafstein (2nd time)         (s.a.)
21 Jul 1914 -  4 May 1915  Sigurdur Eggerz                    (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
 4 May 1915 -  4 Jan 1917  Einar Arnórsson                    (b. 1880 - d. 1955)
King
 1 Dec 1918 - 16 Jun 1944  Christian X                        (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
 9 Apr 1940 - 17 Jun 1941    Regency
                             - Hermann Jónasson               (b. 1896 - d. 1976)
                             - Jakob Möller                   (b. 1880 - d. 1955)
                             - Stefán Jóhann Stefánsson       (b. 1894 - d. 1980)
17 Jun 1941 - 16 Jun 1944    Sveinn Björnsson (regent)        (b. 1881 - d. 1952)
Commanders of the Allied occupation forces
10 May 1940 -    Apr 1942    Henry O. Curtis (U.K.)           (b. 1888 - d. 1964)
   Apr 1942 -    Jun 1943    Charles H. Bonesteel (U.S.)      (b. 1885 - d. 1964)
   Jun 1943 -    Dec 1944    William S. Key (U.S.)            (b. 1889 - d. 1959)
Presidents
17 Jun 1944 - 25 Jan 1952  Sveinn Björnsson                   (s.a.)
25 Jan 1952 - 31 Jul 1952  Interim triumvirate
                           - Steingrímur Steinthórsson        (b. 1893 - d. 1966)
                           - Jón Pálmason                     (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
                           - Jón Ásbjörnsson                  (b. 1890 - d. 1966)
 1 Aug 1952 - 31 Jul 1968  Ásgeir Ásgeirsson                  (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
 1 Aug 1968 - 31 Jul 1980  Kristján Eldjárn                   (b. 1916 - d. 1982)
 1 Aug 1980 - 31 Jul 1996  Vigdís Finnbogadóttir (f)          (b. 1930)
 1 Aug 1996 -              Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson             (b. 1943)

Prime ministers 4 Jan 1917 - 7 Mar 1922 Jón Magnússon (1st time) (b. 1859 - d. 1926) 7 Mar 1922 - 22 Mar 1924 Sigurdur Eggerz (s.a.) 22 Mar 1924 - 23 Jun 1926 Jón Magnússon (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Jun 1926 - 8 Jul 1926 Magnús Gudmundsson (b. 1879 - d. 1937) 8 Jul 1926 - 28 Aug 1927 Jón Thorláksson (b. 1877 - d. 1935) 28 Aug 1927 - 3 Jun 1932 Tryggvi Thórhallsson (b. 1889 - d. 1935) 3 Jun 1932 - 29 Jul 1934 Ásgeir Ásgeirsson (s.a.) 29 Jul 1934 - 16 May 1942 Hermann Jónasson (1st time) (s.a.) 16 May 1942 - 16 Dec 1942 Ólafur Thors (1st time) (b. 1892 - d. 1964) 16 Dec 1942 - 21 Oct 1944 Björn Thórdarson (b. 1879 - d. 1963) 21 Oct 1944 - 4 Feb 1947 Ólafur Thors (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Feb 1947 - 6 Dec 1949 Stefán Jóhann Stefánsson (s.a.) 6 Dec 1949 - 14 Mar 1950 Ólafur Thors (3rd time) (s.a.) 14 Mar 1950 - 11 Sep 1953 Steingrímur Steinthórsson (s.a.) 11 Sep 1953 - 24 Jul 1956 Ólafur Thors (4th time) (s.a.) 24 Jul 1956 - 23 Dec 1958 Hermann Jónasson (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Dec 1958 - 20 Nov 1959 Emil Jónsson (b. 1902 - d. 1986) 20 Nov 1959 - 14 Nov 1963 Ólafur Thors (5th time) (s.a.) 14 Sep 1961 - 31 Dec 1961 Bjarni Benediktsson (b. 1908 - d. 1970) (acting for Thors) 14 Nov 1963 - 10 Jul 1970 Bjarni Benediktsson (s.a.) 10 Jul 1970 - 14 Jul 1971 Jóhann Hafstein (b. 1915 - d. 1980) 14 Jul 1971 - 28 Aug 1974 Ólafur Jóhannesson (1st time) (b. 1913 - d. 1984) 28 Aug 1974 - 1 Sep 1978 Geir Hallgrímsson (b. 1925 - d. 1990) 1 Sep 1978 - 15 Oct 1979 Ólafur Jóhannesson (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Oct 1979 - 8 Feb 1980 Benedikt Gröndal (b. 1924 - d. 2010) 8 Feb 1980 - 26 May 1983 Gunnar Thoroddsen (b. 1910 - d. 1983) 26 May 1983 - 8 Jul 1987 Steingrímur Hermannsson (1st time) (b. 1928 - d. 2010) 8 Jul 1987 - 28 Sep 1988 Thorsteinn Pálsson (b. 1947) 28 Sep 1988 - 30 Apr 1991 Steingrímur Hermannsson (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Apr 1991 - 15 Sep 2004 Davíd Oddsson (b. 1948) 15 Sep 2004 - 15 Jun 2006 Halldór Ásgrímsson (b. 1947) 15 Jun 2006 - 1 Feb 2009 Geir H. Haarde (b. 1951) 1 Feb 2009 - 23 May 2013 Jóhanna Sigurdardóttir (f) (b. 1942) 23 May 2013 - Sigmundur Davíd Gunnlaugsson (b. 1975)

Ifni: see under Morocco.
Imeret`i: see under Georgia.

India

27 May 1526                Babur founds the Empire of Hind (usually referred to by
                           historians as the Mughal Empire)
17 May 1540                the Mughal rulers are expelled and superseded by the
                           Afghan Suri dynasty
23 Jul 1555                Empire of Hind under the Mughal rulers restored
29 Mar 1858                the last Mughal ruler is deposed
 2 Aug 1858                U.K. Act of Parliament annexes the Empire, creating
                           British India (effective 1 Nov 1858)
28 Apr 1876                by U.K. proclamation, the Queen takes the style "Empress
                           of India" (proclaimed in India 1 Jan 1877)
15 Aug 1947                British India, together with acceded states, is partitioned
                           into Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan; style
                           "Emperor of India" is abandoned (retroactive proclamation
                           dated 22 Jun 1948)
26 Jan 1950                India becomes a republic, styled "India, that is Bharat"

Emperors (title Padshah, sometimes Padshah-e Hind - emperor of India)
- Mughal dynasty -
31 Jul 1658 -  2 Mar 1707  Mohyi ad-Din Abu´l Mozaffar
                           Mohammad Awrangzib Bahadur
                           `Alamgir Padshah-e Ghazi           (b. 1618 - d. 1707)
14 Mar 1707 - 27 Apr 1707  Qotb ad-Din Abu´l Fayaz Mohammad
                           A`zam Shah Padshah-e Ghazi         (b. 1653 - d. 1707)
                           (continues in rebellion to 18 Jun 1707)
27 Apr 1707 - 27 Feb 1712  Qotb ad-Din Abu´n Nasr Sayyed
                           Mohammad Shah `Alam Bahadur Shah
                           Padshah-e Ghazi                    (b. 1643 - d. 1712)
                           (retroactive to 23 Mar 1707)
27 Apr 1707 - 13 Jan 1709    Mohammad Kam Bakhsh-e Dinpanah
                             ebn Awrangzib `Alamgir Padshah   (b. 1666 - d. 1709)
                             (in rebellion)
29 Feb 1712 - 17 Mar 1712  Mohammad `Azim ash-Shan ebn
                           Bahadur Shah Padshah               (b. 16... - d. 1712)
29 Feb 1712 - 28 Mar 1712    Mohammad Rafi` ash-Shan ebn
                             Bahadur Shah Padshah             (b. 16... - d. 1712)
                             (in rebellion)
29 Feb 1712 - 27 Mar 1712    Jahan Shah ebn Bahadur Shah
                             Padshah "Khojestan Akhtar"       (b. 16... - d. 1712)
                             (in rebellion)
30 Mar 1712 - 11 Jan 1713  Mo`ezz ad-Din Abu´l Fath Mohammad
                           Jahandar Shah Padshah              (b. 1661 - d. 1713)
11 Jan 1713 -  1 Mar 1719  Mo`in ad-Din (or Jalal ad-Din)
                           Abu´l Mozaffar Mohammad
                           Farrokhsiyar Padshah               (b. 1687 - d. 1719)
 1 Mar 1719 -  7 Jun 1719  Shams ad-Din Abu´l Barakat Soltan
                           Mohammad Rafi` ad-Darjat Padshah-e
                           Ghazi                              (b. c.1699 - d. 1719)
30 Mar 1719 - 13 Aug 1719    Mohammad Shah Nikusiyar
                             (in rebellion)
 8 Jun 1719 -  6 Sep 1719  Mohammad Shah Jahan Sani Padshah   (b. c.1700 - d. 1719)
28 Sep 1719 - 26 Apr 1748  Naser ad-Din Abu´l Fath (from 1722
                           Abu´l-Mozaffar) Mohammad Shah
                           Padshah-e Ghazi "Rawshan Akhtar"   (b. 1702 - d. 1748)
12 Oct 1720 - 19 Nov 1720    Zahir ad-Din Abu´l Fath Mohammad
                             Ebrahim Shah Padshah             (b. ... - d. 1720)
                             (in rebellion)
29 Apr 1748 -  3 Jun 1754  Mojahed ad-Din Abu´n Nasr Ahmad
                           Shah Bahadur Padshah-e Ghazi       (b. 1725 - d. 1773)
 3 Jun 1754 - 29 Nov 1759  `Aziz ad-Din Abu´l-`Adl Mohammad
                           `Alamgir Padshah-e Ghazi           (b. 1699 - d. 1759)
11 Dec 1759 - 25 Dec 1759  Mohyi-e Millat (or Mohyi ad-Din)
                           Shah Jahan Sani ebn Mohyi-e Sannat
                           Mohammad
25 Dec 1759 -  1 Aug 1788  Jalal ad-Din Abu´l Mozaffar
                           Mohammad Shah `Alam Padshah
                           "Ham-e Din" (1st time)             (b. 1728 - d. 1806)
 1 Aug 1788 -  9 Oct 1788  Mohammad Bidarbakht ebn Ahmad Shah
16 Oct 1788 - 10 Nov 1806  Jalal ad-Din Abu´l Mozaffar
                           Mohammad Shah `Alam Padshah
                           "Ham-e Din" (2nd time)             (s.a.)
18 Nov 1806 - 28 Sep 1837  Mo`in ad-Din Abu´n Nasr Mohammad
                           Akbar Padshah Saheb Qiran-e Sani   (b. 1759 - d. 1837)
29 Sep 1837 - 29 Mar 1858  Seraj ad-Din Abu´l Mozaffar
                           Mohammad Bahadur Shah Padshah      (b. 1775 - d. 1862)
Governors-general (of the British East India Company)
20 Oct 1774 -  1 Feb 1785  Warren Hastings                    (b. 1732 - d. 1818)
 1 Feb 1785 - 12 Sep 1786  John Macpherson (acting)           (b. 1745 - d. 1821)
12 Sep 1786 - 28 Oct 1793  Chrles Cornwallis, Earl Cornwallis
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1738 - d. 1805)
28 Oct 1793 -    Mar 1798  Sir John Shore                     (b. 1751 - d. 1834)
   Mar 1798 - 18 May 1798  Sir Alured Clarke (acting)         (b. 1745 - d. 1832)
18 May 1798 - 30 Jul 1805  Richard Colley Wellesley, Baron
                           Wellesley (from 1799, Richard
                           Colley Wellesley, Marquess
                           Wellesley)                         (b. 1760 - d. 1842)
30 Jul 1805 -  5 Oct 1805  Charles Cornwallis, Marquess
                           Cornwallis (2nd time)              (s.a.)
10 Oct 1805 - 31 Jul 1807  Sir George Hilario Barlow (acting) (b. 1762 - d. 1846)
31 Jul 1807 -  4 Oct 1813  Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound,
                           Baron Minto                        (b. 1751 - d. 1814)
 4 Oct 1813 -  9 Jan 1823  Francis Rawdon-Hastings, Earl of
                           Moira (from 1817, Francis Rawdon-
                           Hastings, Marquess of Hastings)    (b. 1754 - d. 1826)
 9 Jan 1823 -  1 Aug 1823  John Adam (acting)                 (b. 1779 - d. 1825)
 1 Aug 1823 - 13 Mar 1828  William Pitt Amherst, Baron
                           Amherst (from 1826, William Pitt
                           Amherst, Earl Amherst)             (b. 1773 - d. 1857)
13 Mar 1828 -  4 Jul 1828  William Butterworth Bayley         (b. 1782 - d. 1860)
                           (acting)
 4 Jul 1828 - 20 Mar 1835  William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck,
                           Lord Bentinck                      (b. 1774 - d. 1839)
20 Mar 1835 -  4 Mar 1836  Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe
                           (acting)                           (b. 1785 - d. 1846)
 4 Mar 1836 - 28 Feb 1842  George Eden, Baron Auckland
                           (from 1839, George Eden,
                           Earl of Auckland)                  (b. 1784 - d. 1849)
28 Feb 1842 -    Jun 1844  Edward Law, Baron Ellenborough     (b. 1790 - d. 1871)
   Jun 1844 - 23 Jul 1844  William Wilberforce Bird (acting)
23 Jul 1844 - 12 Jan 1848  Henry Hardinge, (from May 1846)
                           Viscount Hardinge                  (b. 1785 - d. 1856)
12 Jan 1848 - 28 Feb 1856  James Andrew Broun Ramsay, (from
                           1849, Marquess and) Earl of
                           Dalhousie                          (b. 1812 - d. 1860)
28 Feb 1856 -  1 Nov 1858  Charles John Canning, Viscount
                           Canning                            (b. 1812 - d. 1862)
Viceroys and governors-general
 1 Nov 1858 - 21 Mar 1862  Charles John Canning, Viscount
                           Canning (from 1859, Charles John
                           Canning, Earl Canning)             (s.a.)
21 Mar 1862 - 20 Nov 1863  James Bruce, Earl of Elgin         (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
21 Nov 1863 -  2 Dec 1863  Sir Robert Cornelis Napier         (b. 1810 - d. 1890)
                           (acting)
 2 Dec 1863 - 12 Jan 1864  Sir William Thomas Denison         (b. 1804 - d. 1871)
                           (acting)
12 Jan 1864 - 12 Jan 1869  Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence       (b. 1811 - d. 1879)
12 Jan 1869 -  8 Feb 1872  Richard Southwell Bourke,
                           Earl of Mayo                       (b. 1822 - d. 1872)
 9 Feb 1872 - 23 Feb 1872  Sir John Strachey (acting)         (b. 1823 - d. 1907)
24 Feb 1872 -  3 May 1872  Francis Napier, Baron of Ettrick   (b. 1819 - d. 1898)
                           (acting)
 3 May 1872 - 12 Apr 1876  Thomas George Baring, Baron
                           Northbrook                         (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
12 Apr 1876 -  8 Jun 1880  Robert Bulwer-Lytton, Baron Lytton (b. 1831 - d. 1891)
 8 Jun 1880 - 13 Dec 1884  George Frederick Samuel Robinson,
                           Marquess of Ripon                  (b. 1827 - d. 1909)
13 Dec 1884 - 10 Dec 1888  Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-
                           Blackwood, Earl of Dufferin        (b. 1826 - d. 1902)
10 Dec 1888 - 11 Oct 1894  Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice,
                           Marquess of Lansdowne              (b. 1845 - d. 1927)
11 Oct 1894 -  6 Jan 1899  Victor Alexander Bruce, Earl of
                           Elgin                              (b. 1849 - d. 1917)
 6 Jan 1899 - 18 Nov 1905  George Nathaniel Curzon, Baron
                           Curzon                             (b. 1859 - d. 1925)
18 Nov 1905 - 23 Nov 1910  Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-
                           Kynynmound, Earl of Minto          (b. 1845 - d. 1914)
23 Nov 1910 -  4 Apr 1916  Charles Hardinge, Baron Hardinge
                           of Penshurst                       (b. 1858 - d. 1944)
 4 Apr 1916 -  2 Apr 1921  Frederic John Napier Thesiger,
                           Baron Chelmsford                   (b. 1868 - d. 1933)
 2 Apr 1921 -  3 Apr 1926  Rufus Daniel Isaacs, Baron
                           Reading of Erleigh                 (b. 1860 - d. 1935)
10 Apr 1925 -  8 Aug 1925    Victor Alexander George Robert
                             Bulwer-Lytton, Earl of Lytton    (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
                             (viceroy and acting governor-general)
 3 Apr 1926 - 29 Jun 1929  Edward Frederick Lindley Wood,
                           Baron Irwin                        (b. 1881 - d. 1959)
29 Jun 1929 - 18 Apr 1931  George Joachim Goschen, Viscount
                           Goschen of Hawkhurst               (b. 1866 - d. 1952)
18 Apr 1931 - 18 Apr 1936  George Freeman Freeman-Thomas,
                           Earl of Willingdon                 (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
18 Apr 1936 -  1 Oct 1943  Victor Alexander John Hope,
                           Marquess of Linlithgow             (b. 1887 - d. 1952)
 1 Oct 1943 - 23 Mar 1947  Archibald Percival Wavell,
                           Viscount Wavell                    (b. 1883 - d. 1950)
21 Oct 1943 - 18 Aug 1945    Subhas Chandra Bose              (b. 1897 - d. 1945)
                             (Head of State of Provisional Government of Free
                             India proclaimed at Singapore, recognized by Axis
                             powers)
24 Mar 1947 - 15 Aug 1947  Louis Mountbatten, Viscount
                           Mountbatten of Burma               (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
15 Aug 1947 - 21 Jun 1948  Louis Mountbatten, Earl
                           Mountbatten of Burma               (s.a.)
21 Jun 1948 - 26 Jan 1950  Chakravarti Rajagopalachari        (b. 1878 - d. 1972)
Presidents
26 Jan 1950 - 13 May 1962  Rajendra Prasad                    (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
13 May 1962 - 13 May 1967  Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan           (b. 1888 - d. 1975)
13 May 1967 -  3 May 1969  Zakir Husain                       (b. 1897 - d. 1969)
 3 May 1969 - 20 Jul 1969  Varahagiri Venkata Giri
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1894 - d. 1980)
20 Jul 1969 - 24 Aug 1969  Muhammad Hidayatullah (acting)     (b. 1905 - d. 1992)
24 Aug 1969 - 24 Aug 1974  Varahagiri Venkata Giri
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Aug 1974 - 11 Feb 1977  Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed               (b. 1905 - d. 1977)
11 Feb 1977 - 25 Jul 1977  Basappa Danappa Jatti (acting)     (b. 1912 - d. 2002)
25 Jul 1977 - 25 Jul 1982  N. Sanjiva Reddy                   (b. 1913 - d. 1996)
25 Jul 1982 - 25 Jul 1987  Zail Singh                         (b. 1916 - d. 1994)
25 Jul 1987 - 25 Jul 1992  Ramaswamy Venkataraman             (b. 1910 - d. 2009)
25 Jul 1992 - 25 Jul 1997  Shankar Dayal Sharma               (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
25 Jul 1997 - 25 Jul 2002  K.R. Narayanan                     (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
25 Jul 2002 - 25 Jul 2007  A.P.J. Abdul Kalam                 (b. 1931)
25 Jul 2007 - 25 Jul 2012  Pratibha Patil (f)                 (b. 1934)
25 Jul 2012 -              Pranab Mukherjee                   (b. 1935)

Prime ministers 15 Aug 1947 - 27 May 1964 Jawaharlal Nehru (b. 1889 - d. 1964) 27 May 1964 - 9 Jun 1964 Gulzarilal Nanda (1st time) (b. 1898 - d. 1998) 9 Jun 1964 - 11 Jan 1966 Lal Bahadur Shastri (b. 1904 - d. 1966) 11 Jan 1966 - 24 Jan 1966 Gulzarilal Nanda (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Jan 1966 - 24 Mar 1977 Indira Gandhi (f) (1st time) (b. 1917 - d. 1984) 24 Mar 1977 - 28 Jul 1979 Morarji Desai (b. 1896 - d. 1995) 28 Jul 1979 - 14 Jan 1980 Charan Singh (b. 1902 - d. 1987) 14 Jan 1980 - 31 Oct 1984 Indira Gandhi (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Oct 1984 - 2 Dec 1989 Rajiv Gandhi (b. 1944 - d. 1991) 2 Dec 1989 - 10 Nov 1990 Vishwanath Pratap Singh (b. 1931 - d. 2008) 10 Nov 1990 - 21 Jun 1991 Chandra Shekhar (b. 1927 - d. 2007) 21 Jun 1991 - 16 May 1996 P.V. Narasimha Rao (b. 1921 - d. 2004) 16 May 1996 - 1 Jun 1996 Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1st time) (b. 1924) 1 Jun 1996 - 21 Apr 1997 H.D. Deve Gowda (b. 1933) 21 Apr 1997 - 19 Mar 1998 Inder Kumar Gujral (b. 1919 - d. 2012) 19 Mar 1998 - 22 May 2004 Atal Bihari Vajpayee (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 May 2004 - Manmohan Singh (b. 1932)

Jammu and Kashmir

        ...                Kingdom of Kashmir established in remote (legendary)
                           antiquity; State of Jammu established in early Middle Ages
28 Jul 1589                Kashmir incorporated into (Mughal) Empire of Hind
   May 1752                Kashmir conquered by the newly founded Afghan kingdom
       1816                Jammu annexed to the Punjab
 5 Jul 1819                Kashmir annexed to the Punjab
       1820                independence of Jammu restored
15 Mar 1846                U.K. government cedes Kashmir to the ruler of Jammu, thus
                           creating the state of Jammu and Kashmir
27 Oct 1947                the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir declares the accession of
                           the state to India
26 Jan 1957                the incorporation of Jammu and Kashmir into India is
                           declared to be complete
Jammu
Rajas
- Durgar dynasty -
       1686 -        1703  Gujai Dev                          (b. ... - d. 1703)
       1703 -        1725  Dhruv Dev                          (b. ... - d. 1725)
       1725 -  4 Apr 1782  Ranjit Dev                         (b. ... - d. 1782)
 4 Apr 1782 -        1787  Brij Raj Dev                       (b. ... - d. 1787)
       1787 -    Jun 1797  Sampuran Singh                     (b. 1786 - d. 1797)
   Jun 1797 -        1816  Jit Singh
       1820 -        1822  Kishore Singh                      (b. ... - d. 1822)
 4 May 1822 - 15 Mar 1846  Gulab Singh                        (b. 1792 - d. 1857)
Jammu and Kashmir
Raja
- Durgar dynasty -
15 Mar 1846 -  9 Nov 1846  Gulab Singh                        (s.a.)
Maharajas
- Durgar dynasty -
 9 Nov 1846 - 20 Feb 1856  Gulab Singh                        (s.a.)
20 Feb 1856 - 12 Sep 1885  Ranbir Singh                       (b. 1830 - d. 1885)
12 Sep 1885 - 18 Apr 1889  Pratap Singh (1st time)            (b. 1848 - d. 1925)
18 Apr 1889 -        1890  Amar Singh                         (b. 1864 - d. 1909)
                           (chairman regency council)
       1890 -  7 Sep 1925  Pratap Singh (2nd time)            (s.a.)
                           (chairman regency council to Oct 1905)
 7 Sep 1925 - 17 Nov 1952  Hari Singh                         (b. 1895 - d. 1961)
20 Jun 1949 - 17 Nov 1952    Karan Singh (regent)             (b. 1931)
Sadr-e Riyasat (roughly, "head of state")
17 Nov 1952 - 30 Mar 1965  Karan Singh                        (s.a.)
Governors
30 Mar 1965 - 15 May 1967  Karan Singh                        (s.a.)
15 May 1967 -  3 Jul 1973  Bhagwan Sahay                      (b. 1905 - d. 1986)
 3 Jul 1973 - 22 Feb 1981  Lakshmi Kant Jha                   (b. 1913 - d. 1988)
22 Feb 1981 - 26 Apr 1984  Braj Kumar Nehru                   (b. 1909 - d. 2001)
26 Apr 1984 -    Jul 1989  Jagmohan (1st time)                (b. 1927)
   Jul 1989 - 19 Jan 1990  K.V. Krishna Rao (1st time)        (b. 1923)
19 Jan 1990 - 26 May 1990  Jagmohan (2nd time)                (s.a.)
26 May 1990 - 12 Mar 1993  Girish Chandra Saxena (1st time)   (b. 1928)
12 Mar 1993 -  2 May 1998  K.V. Krishna Rao (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 2 May 1998 -  4 Jun 2003  Girish Chandra Saxena (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 4 Jun 2003 - 25 Jun 2008  S.K. Sinha                         (b. 1926)
25 Jun 2008 -              Narinder Nath Vohra                (b. 1936)

Prime ministers 1932 - 1937 Elliot James Dowell Colvin (b. 1885 - d. 1950) 1937 - Jul 1943 N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar (from 1941, Sir N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar) (b. 1882 - d. 1953) Jul 1943 - Feb 1944 Kailas Narain Haksar (b. 1878 - d. 1953) Feb 1944 - 28 Jun 1945 Sir Benegal Narsing Rau (b. 1887 - d. 1953) 28 Jun 1945 - 11 Aug 1947 Ram Chandra Kak (b. 1893 - d. 1983) 11 Aug 1947 - 15 Oct 1947 Janak Singh (acting) 15 Oct 1947 - 5 Mar 1948 Mehr Chand Mahajan (b. 1889 - d. 1967) 5 Mar 1948 - 9 Aug 1953 Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah (b. 1905 - d. 1982) 9 Aug 1953 - 12 Oct 1963 Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad (b. 1907 - d. 1972) 12 Oct 1963 - 29 Feb 1964 Khwaja Shams-ud-Din (b. 1922 - d. 1999) 29 Feb 1964 - 30 Mar 1965 Ghulam Mohammad Sadiq (b. 1912 - d. 1971) Chief ministers 30 Mar 1965 - 12 Dec 1971 Ghulam Mohammad Sadiq (s.a.) 12 Dec 1971 - 25 Feb 1975 Syed Mir Qasim (b. 1921 - d. 2004) 25 Feb 1975 - 26 Mar 1977 Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah (1st time) (s.a.) 9 Jul 1977 - 8 Sep 1982 Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Sep 1982 - 2 Jul 1984 Farooq Abdullah (1st time) (b. 1936) 2 Jul 1984 - 6 Mar 1986 Ghulam Mohammad Shah (b. 1920 - d. 2009) 7 Nov 1986 - 19 Jan 1990 Farooq Abdullah (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Oct 1996 - 18 Oct 2002 Farooq Abdullah (3rd time) (s.a.) 2 Nov 2002 - 2 Nov 2005 Mufti Mohammad Sayeed (b. 1936) 2 Nov 2005 - 10 Jul 2008 Ghulam Nabi Azad (b. 1949) 5 Jan 2009 - Omar Abdullah (b. 1970) British residents 1883 - 1886 Sir Oliver Beauchamp Coventry St. John (b. 1837 - d. 1891) 1886 - 1889 Trevor John Chichele Chichele-Plowden (b. 1846 - d. 1905) 1889 - 1892 Robert Parry Nisbet (b. 1839 - d. 1916) 1892 - 1894 David William Keith Barr (b. 1846 - d. 1916) 1894 - 1896 Hugh Shakespear Barnes (b. 1853 - d. 1940) 1896 - 1900 Sir Adelbert Talbot (b. 1845 - d. 1920) 1900 - 1901 Harold Arthur Deane (b. 1854 - d. 1908) 1901 - 1903 Louis William Dane (b. 1856 - d. 1946) 1903 - 1905 Elliot Graham Colvin (b. 1861 - d. 1940) 1906 - 1909 Sir Francis Edward Younghusband (b. 1863 - d. 1942) 1910 - 1911 John Ramsay (b. 1862 - d. 1942) 1911 - 1914 Stuart Mitford Fraser (b. 1864 - d. 1963) 1914 - 1915 Henry Venn Cobb (b. 1864 - d. 1949) 1916 - 1917 John Manners Smith (b. 1864 - d. 1920) 1917 - 1921 Arthur D'Arcy Gordon Bannerman (b. 1866 - d. 1955) 1921 - 1923 Charles Joseph Windham (b. 1867 - d. 1941) 1923 - 1927 Sir John Barry Wood (b. 1870 - d. 1933) 1927 - 1929 Evelyn Berkeley Howell (b. 1877 - d. 1971) 1929 - 1931 George Drummond Ogilvie (b. 1882 - d. 1966) 1931 - 1932 Courtenay Latimer (b. 1880 - d. 1944) Jul 1932 - 1935 Frederick Marshman Bailey (b. 1882 - d. 1967) 1935 - 1938 Lionel Edward Lang (b. 1885 - d. 1956) 1938 - 1941 Denholm Fraser (b. 1889 - d. 1956) 1941 - 1943 Leslie Eric Barton (b. 1889 - d. 1952) 1943 - 1945 James Glasgow Acheson (b. 1889 - d. 1973) 1945 - 1947 Wilfred Francis Webb (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
Ladakh
      c.900                Mnga'-ris-skor-gsum (Ladakh) established by a
                           West-Tibetan branch of the Yar-lung dynasty
17 Sep 1842                Ladakh incorporated into the Jammu state, succeeded
                           by Jammu and Kashmir (with some nominal autonomy)

Kings (title Chos-rgyal-chen-po
- rNam-rgyal dynasty -
       1694 -        1729  Nyi-ma rNam-rgyal
       1729 - 20 Mar 1739  bDe-skyong rNam-rgyal
       1739 -        1753  Phun-tshogs rNam-rgyal
       1753 -        1782  Tshe-dbang rNam-rgyal II
       1782 -        1802  Mi-jigs-tshe-brtan rNam-rgyal
       1802 -        1837  Tshe-dpal-mi-'gyur-don-grub
                           rNam-rgyal (1st time)
       1837 -        1839  dNgos-grub-bstan-'dzin (regent)
       1839 -        1840  Tshe-dpal-mi-'gyur-don-grub
                           rNam-rgyal (2nd time)
   Jun 1840 -    Jul 1840  'Jigs-med rNam-rgyal (1st time)
       1840 -        1842  Kun-dga' rNam-rgyal
       1842 - 17 Sep 1842  'Jigs-med rNam-rgyal (2nd time)
¹From 1683 every ruler also used the name Aqibat Mahmud Khan.

French India

       1674                French territory
   Jan 1760 -        1765  British occupation
       1778 -        1783  British occupation
       1793 -        1816  British occupation
 2 May 1950                Chandernagor transferred to India
13 Jun 1954                Yanaon taken by Indian military police
15 Jul 1954                Mahé taken by pro-Indian groups
 1 Nov 1954                remaining territories (Pondichéry and Karikal) transferred
                           to India de facto (see under Indian states M-W)
16 Aug 1962                de jure transfer of French India to India

Governors (from 20 Aug 1947, commissioners)
       1699 - 31 Dec 1706  François Martin                    (b. 1634 - d. 1706)
   Jan 1707 -    Jul 1708  Pierre Dulivier (1st time)
       1708 -        1712  Guillaume André d'Hébert
                           (1st time)
       1712 -        1717  Pierre Dulivier (2nd time)
       1717 -        1718  Guillaume André d'Hébert
                           (2nd time)
   Aug 1718 - 11 Oct 1721  Pierre André Prévost de La
                           Prévostière                        (b. ... - d. 1721)
       1721 -        1723  Pierre Christoph Le Noir
                           (1st time) (acting)
       1723 -        1726  Joseph Beauvollier de Courchant
       1726 -        1734  Pierre Christoph Le Noir
                           (2nd time)
18 Sep 1735 -        1741  Pierre Benoît Dumas                (b. 1668 - d. 1745)
14 Jan 1742 - 15 Oct 1754  Joseph François Dupleix            (b. 1697 - d. 1763)
15 Oct 1754 -        1754  Charles Godeheu (acting)
       1754 -        1758  Georges Duval de Leyrit
       1758 -    Jan 1760  Thomas Arthur, comte de
                           Lally-Tollendal                    (b. 1702 - d. 1766)
       1765 -        1766  Jean Law de Lauriston (1st time)   (b. 1719 - d. 1797)
       1766 -        1767  Antoine Boyellau
       1767 -    Jan 1777  Jean Law de Lauriston (2nd time)   (s.a.)
   Jan 1777 -        1782  Guillaume de Bellecombe,
                           seigneur de Teirac                 (b. 1728 - d. 1792)
       1783 -        1785  Charles Joseph Pâtissier,
                           marquis de Bussy-Castelnau         (b. 1718 - d. 1785)
       1785                François, vicomte de Souillac      (b. 1732 - d. 1803)
   Oct 1785 -        1787  David Charpentier de Cossigny      (b. 1740 - d. 1801)
   Oct 1787 -        1789  Thomas, comte de Conway            (b. 1733 - d. c.1800)
   Oct 1789 -        1792  Camille Charles Leclerc,
                           chevalier de Fresne
   Nov 1792 -        1793  Prosper de Chermont                (b. 1741 - d. 1798)
   Sep 1816 -    Oct 1825  André Julien, comte Dupuy          (b. 1753? - d. 18...)
   Oct 1825 - 19 Jun 1826  Joseph Cordier (1st time) (acting) (b. 1773 - d. 18...)
19 Jun 1826 -  2 Aug 1828  Eugène Panon, comte
                           Desbassayns de Richemont           (b. 1800 - d. 1859)
 2 Aug 1828 - 11 Apr 1829  Joseph Cordier (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
11 Apr 1829 -  3 May 1835  Auguste Jacques Nicolas Peureux
                           de Mélay
 3 May 1835 -    Apr 1840  Henri Jean Victor, marquis de
                           Saint-Simon                        (b. 1782 - d. 1865)
   Apr 1840 -        1844  Paul de Nourquer du Camper
       1844 -        1849  Louis Pujol
       1849                Hyacinth Marie de Lalande de Calan (b. ... - d. 1849)
       1851 -        1852  Achille Bédier                     (b. 1791 - d. 1865)
   Aug 1852 -    Apr 1857  Raymond Verninac de Saint-Maur     (b. 1794 - d. 1873)
   Apr 1857 -    Jan 1863  Alexandre Jean Baptiste de
                           Verninac Durand d'Ubraye
   Jan 1863 -    Jun 1871  Louis Bontemps                     (b. 1813 - d. 1872)
   Jun 1871 -    Nov 1871  Michaux
   Nov 1871 -        1875  Pierre Aristide Faron              (b. 1814 - d. 1879)
       1875 -        1878  Adolphe Joseph Antoine Trillard    (b. 1826 - d. ...)
   Feb 1879 -    Apr 1881  Léonce Laugier                     (b. 1829 - d. ...)
       1881 -    Oct 1884  Théodore Drouhet                   (b. 1817 - d. 1904)
   Oct 1884 -        1886  Étienne Richaud                    (b. 1841 - d. 1889)
       1886 -        1888  Édouard Manès
       1888 -        1889  Jules Georges Piquet               (b. 1839 - d. 1923)
       1889 -        1891  Louis Hippolyte Marie Nouet        (b. 1844 - d. 1933)
       1891 -        1896  Léon Émile Clément-Thomas
       1896 -    Feb 1898  Louis Jean Girod
   Feb 1898 - 11 Jan 1902  François Pierre Rodier             (b. 1854 - d. 19...)
11 Jan 1902 -        1902  Pelletan (acting)
       1902 -        1904  Victor Lanrezac                    (b. 1854 - d. 19...)
   Aug 1904 -    Apr 1905  Philema Lemaire                    (b. 1856 - d. 1932)
22 Apr 1905 -  6 Oct 1906  Joseph François                    (b. 1853 - d. 19...)
 6 Oct 1906 -  3 Dec 1907  Gabriel Angoulvant                 (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
 3 Dec 1907 - 13 Jun 1908  Charles Amédée Rognon              (b. 1861 - d. 1911)
13 Jun 1908 -    Feb 1909  Adrien Bonhoure                    (b. 1860 - d. 19...)
       1909 -  9 Jul 1910  Fernand Levecque                   (b. 1852 - d. 19...)
 9 Jul 1910 -    Jul 1911  Alfred Martineau (1st time)        (b. 1859 - d. 1945)
   Jul 1911 -    Nov 1913  Pierre Louis Alfred Duprat
   Nov 1913 - 29 Jun 1918  Alfred Martineau (2nd time)        (s.a.)
21 Feb 1919 - 11 Feb 1926  Louis Gerbinis                     (b. 1871 - d. 1954)
       1926 -        1928  Pierre Jean Henri Didelot          (b. 1870 - d. 19...)
       1928 -        1931  Robert de Guise
       1931 -        1934  Adrien Juvanon                     (b. 1875 - d. 19...)
   Aug 1934 -        1936  Léon Solomiac                      (b. 1884 - d. 1960)
       1936 -        1938  Horace Valentin Crocicchia
26 Sep 1938 -        1945  Louis Bonvin                       (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
       1945 -        1946  Nicolas Ernest Marie Maurice
                           Jeandin                            (b. 1886 - d. 19...)
20 Mar 1946 -        1949  Charles François Henri Baron       (b. 1900 - d. 1980)
   May 1949 -        1950  Jean Chambon                       (b. 1896 - d. 1965)
31 Jul 1950 -    Oct 1954  André Ménard                       (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
   Oct 1954 -  1 Nov 1954  Georges Escargueil (acting)        (b. 1907 - d. 1990)

Portuguese India

       1510                Portuguese colony
   Dec 1946                overseas province
19 Dec 1961                occupied by India
16 Mar 1962                annexed by India (recognized by Portugal in 1974)

Viceroys
20 Sep 1698 -        1701  António Luiz Gonçalves da Camara
                           Coutinho                           (b. 1638 - d. 1702)
       1701 -  2 Oct 1703  Governing Commission
                           - Fray Agostinho da Annuncião
                           - Vasco Luiz Coutinho
 2 Oct 1703 - 28 Oct 1707  Caetano de Mello e Castro          (b. c.1680 - d. 1718)
28 Oct 1707 - 21 Sep 1712  Rodrigo da Costa                   (b. 1657 - d. 1722)
21 Sep 1712 - 13 Jan 1717  Vasco Fernandes César de Menezes   (b. 1673 - d. 1743)
13 Jan 1717 - 16 Oct 1717  Sebastião de Andrade Pessanha      (b. c.1670 - d. 1737)
                           (governor)
16 Oct 1717 - 14 Sep 1720  Luiz de Menezes, conde de Ericeira
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1689 - d. 1742)
14 Sep 1720 - 13 Jul 1723  Francisco José de Sampaio e Castro (b. c.1675 - d. 1723)
13 Jul 1723 -  3 Sep 1723  Cristóvão de Melo                  (b. c.1650 - d. 1737)
 3 Sep 1723 - 28 Oct 1725  Governing Commission
                           - Cristóvão de Melo (1st time)     (s.a.)
                           - Fray Ignacio de Santa Thereza
                             (1st time)
                           - Cristóvão Luiz de Andrade
28 Oct 1725 -        1732  João de Saldanha da Gama           (b. 1674 - d. 1752)
       1732 -  7 Oct 1732  Governing Commission
                           - Cristóvão de Melo (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           - Fray Ignacio de Santa Thereza
                             (2nd time)
 7 Oct 1732 - 18 May 1741  Pedro Mascarenhas, conde de
                           Sandomil                           (b. 1670 - d. 1745)
18 May 1741 - 12 Jun 1742  Luiz de Menezes, conde de Ericeira
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
   Jun 1742 - 24 Sep 1744  Governing Commission
                           - Francisco de Vasconcellos        (b. ... - d. 1743)
                             (to 30 Mar 1743)
                           - Luiz Caetano de Almeida
                           - Lourenço de Noronha
                             (from 18 May 1743)
24 Sep 1744 - 27 Sep 1750  Pedro Miguel de Almeida, conde de
                           Assumar, marquês de Castelo Novo,
                           marquês de Alorna                  (b. 1688 - d. 1756)
27 Sep 1750 - 18 Sep 1754  Francisco de Assis, marquês de
                           Távora                             (b. 1703 - d. 1759)
18 Sep 1754 - 26 Jun 1756  Luiz Mascarenhas, conde de Alva    (b. c.1685 - d. 1756)
   Jun 1756 - 23 Sep 1756  Governing Commission
                           - António Taveira da Neiva da
                             Silveira (1st time)
                           - João de Mesquita Matos Teixeira
                           - Filippe de Valladares Souto
                             Maior
23 Sep 1756 - 19 Oct 1765  Manuel de Saldanha e Albuquerque,
                           conde da Ega                       (b. 1712 - d. 1771)
19 Oct 1765 - 12 Mar 1768  Governing Commission
                           - António Taveira da Neiva da
                             Silveira (2nd time)
                           - João Baptista Vaz Pereira
                           - João José de Mello               (b. c.1700 - d. 1774)
Governors
12 Mar 1768 - 10 Jan 1774  João José de Mello                 (s.a.)
 4 Feb 1774 - 24 Sep 1774  Filippe de Valladares Souto Maior  (b. 1691 - d. 1775)
24 Sep 1774 - 26 Jun 1779  José Pedro da Camarra              (b. 1721 - d. 1789)
26 Jun 1779 -  3 Nov 1786  Federico Guilherme de Souza        (b. 1737 - d. 1790)
 3 Nov 1786 - 22 May 1794  Francisco da Cunha e Menezes       (b. 1747 - d. 1812)
22 May 1794 - 30 May 1807  Francisco António da Veiga Cabral  (b. 1734 - d. 1810)
Viceroys
30 May 1807 - 29 Nov 1816  Bernardo José de Lorena, conde
                           de Sarzedas                        (b. 1756 - d. 1818)
29 Nov 1816 - 16 Sep 1821  Diogo de Souza, conde de Rio Pardo (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
16 Sep 1821 -    Dec 1822  Governing Commission
                           - Manoel Godinho da Mira
                           - Joaquim Manoel Correia da Silva
                             e Gama
                           - Gonçalo de Magalhães Teixeira
                           - Manoel Duarte Leitão
   Dec 1822 - 18 Nov 1823  Governing Commission
                           - Manoel da Camara                 (b. 1789 - d. 1825)
                           - Fray Paulo de San Thomé de Aquino
                           - António de Mello Souto Maior
                           - João Carlos Leal
                           - António José de Lima Leitão
18 Nov 1823 -        1825  Manoel da Camara                   (s.a.)
                           (governor to 22 Aug 1824)
       1825 -  9 Oct 1827  Governing Commission
                           - Fray Manoel de San Galdino
                           - Candido José Mourão Garcez Palha
                           - António Ribeiro de Carvalho
 9 Oct 1827 - 14 Jan 1835  Manoel de Portugal e Castro        (b. 1787 - d. 1854)
                           (governor to 7 Apr 1830)
14 Jan 1835 - 31 Jan 1835  Bernardo Peres da Silva (prefect)  (b. 1775 - d. 1846)
   Feb 1835 -  3 Mar 1835  Joaquim Manoel Correia da Silva
                           e Gama
                           (chairman Provincial Committee)
Chairmen of the Provisional Government
 3 Mar 1835 -    Dec 1836  João C. da Rocha Vasconcellos
                           + Manoel José Ribeiro              (b. ... - d. 1837)
                           + Fray Constantino de Santa Rita
   Dec 1836 -    Apr 1837  João Cabral de Estifique
                           + António Maria de Mello
                           + Joaquim António de Moraes
                             Carneiro
   Apr 1837 -  7 Dec 1837  José António de Lemos
                           + António Mariano de Azevedo       (b. ... - d. 1838)
Governors-general
 7 Dec 1837 - 14 Oct 1838  Simão Infante de Lacerda, barão
                           de Sabroso                         (b. 1793 - d. 1838)
   Oct 1838 -  5 Mar 1839  Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Feliciano de Santa Rita
                           - José António Vieira da Fonseca   (b. 1793 - d. 1863)
                           - José Cancio Freire de Lima
                           - Domingo José Mariano Luiz
 5 Mar 1839 - 15 Nov 1839  José António Vieira da Fonseca     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
15 Nov 1839 - 18 Apr 1840  Manoel José Mendes, barão de
                           Candal                             (b. 1787 - d. 1840)
   Apr 1840 - 24 Sep 1840  Governing Council (acting)
                           - José António Vieira da Fonseca   (s.a.)
                           - José Carneiro Freire de Lima
                           - António João de Athaíde
                             (1st time)
                           - Domingo José Mariano Luiz
                           - José da Costa Campos (1st time)
                           - Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcellos
                             (1st time)
24 Sep 1840 - 27 Apr 1842  José Joaquim Lopez de Lima         (b. c.1797 - d. 1852)
                           (acting)
27 Apr 1842 - 19 Sep 1842  Governing Council (acting)
                           - António Ramalho da Sá
                           - José de Mello Souta Maior Telles
                           - António João de Athaíde
                             (2nd time)
                           - José da Costa Campos (2nd time)
                           - Caetano de Sousa e Vasconcellos
                             (2nd time)
19 Sep 1842 - 25 Apr 1843  Francisco Xavier da Silva Pereira,
                           conde das Antas                    (b. 1793 - d. 1852)
25 Apr 1843 - 20 May 1844  Joaquim Mourão Garcês Palha        (b. 1775 - d. 1850)
20 May 1844 - 15 Jan 1851  José Ferreira Pestana (1st time)   (b. 1795 - d. 1885)
15 Jan 1851 -        1855  José Joaquim Januário Lapa,
                           barão de Villa Nova de Ourém       (b. 1796 - d. 1859)
       1855 -  6 May 1855  Governing Council (acting)
                           - Joaquim de Santa Rita Botelho
                           - Luiz da Costa Campos
                           - Francisco Xavier Peres
                           - Bernardo Hector da Silveira
                           - Victor Anastacio Mourão Garcez
                             Palha
 6 May 1855 - 25 Dec 1864  António Cesar de Vasconcellos
                           Correia, visconde de Torres Novas
25 Dec 1864 -  7 May 1870  José Ferreira Pestana (2nd time)   (s.a.)
 7 May 1870 - 10 Dec 1871  Januário Correia de Almeida,
                           visconde de São Januário           (b. 1829 - d. 1901)
10 Dec 1871 - 10 May 1875  Joaquim José de Macedo e Couto     (b. 1810 - d. 1879)
10 May 1875 - 24 Jul 1877  João Tavares de Almeida            (b. 1816 - d. 1877)
25 Jul 1877 -  3 May 1878  António Sérgio de Sousa,
                           visconde de Sérgio de Sousa        (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
   May 1878 -  3 Dec 1878  Governing Council (acting)
                           - Ayres de Oruellas e Vasconcellos
                           - João Caetano da Silva Campos
                           - Francisco Xavier Soares da Veiga
                             (to ... 1878)
                           - Thomas Nunes da Serva e Moura
                             (from ... 1878)
                           - António Sérgio de Sousa          (b. 1842 - d. 1906)
                           - Eduardo Augusto Pinto Balsemão
 3 Dec 1878 -    Nov 1881  Caetano Alexandre de Almeida
                           e Albuquerque                      (b. 1824 - d. 1916)
   Nov 1881 -    Dec 1885  Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva,
                           visconde de Paço de Arcos          (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
   Dec 1885 -    Oct 1886  Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do
                           Amaral                             (b. 1844 - d. 1923)
   Oct 1886 -    Apr 1889  Augusto César Cardoso de Carvalho  (b. 1836 - d. 1905)
   Apr 1889 -  8 Jan 1891  Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
 8 Jan 1891 -  4 Feb 1892  Francisco Maria da Cunha           (b. 1832 - d. 1909)
 4 Feb 1892 - 11 Mar 1893  Francisco Teixeira da Silva        (b. 1826 - d. 1894)
11 Mar 1893 -        1894  Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1851 - d. 1900)
       1894 -        1895  Elesbão Betencourt Lapa, visconde
                           de Vila Nova de Ourém              (b. 1831 - d. 1899)
       1895 -        1896  Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1896                Afonso Henriques, duque de Pôrto   (b. 1865 - d. 1920)
                           (viceroy)
       1896 -        1897  João António de Brissac das Neves
                           Ferreira                           (b. 1846 - d. 1902)
       1897 -        1900  Joaquim José Machado               (b. 1847 - d. 1925)
       1900 -        1905  Eduardo Augusto Rodrigues Galhardo (b. 1845 - d. 1908)
       1905 -        1907  Arnaldo de Novaes Guedes Rebelo    (b. c.1850 - d. 19...)
       1907 -        1910  José Maria de Sousa Horta e Costa  (b. 1858 - d. 1927)
12 Oct 1910 -  3 Jul 1917  Francisco Manuel Couceiro da Costa (b. 1870 - d. 1925)
 3 Jul 1917 - 17 Jul 1917  Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
                           (1st time) (acting)
18 Jul 1917 - 24 Nov 1917  Governing Council
24 Nov 1917 - 12 Jun 1919  José de Freitas Ribeiro            (b. 1868 - d. 1929)
12 Jun 1919 - 11 Nov 1919  Augusto de Paiva Bobela Mota       (b. 1879 - d. 1931)
                           (acting)
12 Nov 1919 -  7 Apr 1925  Jaime Alberto de Castro Morais     (b. 1882 - d. 1973)
 7 Apr 1925 -  7 Jul 1925  Francisco Maria Peixoto Vieira
                           (2nd time) (acting)
 7 Jul 1925 -    Jun 1926  Mariano Martins                    (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
   Jun 1926 -  4 Aug 1926  Tito Augusto de Morais (acting)    (b. 1880 - d. 1963)
 4 Aug 1926 - 15 Aug 1926  Acurcio Mendes da Rocha Diniz
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1885 - d. 1943)
15 Aug 1926 - 17 Apr 1929  Pedro Francisco Massano de Amorim  (b. 1862 - d. 1929)
17 Apr 1929 - 12 Jul 1929  Acurcio Mendes da Rocha Diniz
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
25 Aug 1929 - 17 Sep 1936  João Carlos Craveiro Lopes         (b. 1871 - d. 1945)
17 Sep 1936 - 12 Jul 1938  Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes    (b. 1894 - d. 1964)
12 Jul 1938 -    Jul 1945  José Ricardo Pereira Cabral        (b. 1879 - d. 1956)
   Jul 1945 -  8 Apr 1946  Paulo Bénard Guedes (1st time)     (b. 1892 - d. 1960)
                           (acting)
 8 Apr 1946 -  3 Aug 1947  José Silvestre Ferreira Bossa      (b. 1894 - d. 1970)
 3 Aug 1947 - 27 Jun 1948  Fernando Quintanilha Mendonça
                           e Dias (1st time) (acting)         (b. 1898 - d. 1992)
27 Jun 1948 - 23 Dec 1948  José Alves Ferreira (acting)       (b. 1891 - d. ...)
23 Dec 1948 -        1952  Fernando Quintanilha Mendonça
                           e Dias (2nd time) (acting)         (s.a.)
       1953 -        1958  Paulo Bénard Guedes (2nd time)     (s.a.)
       1958 -        1962  Manuel António Vassalo e Silva     (b. 1899 - d. 1985)
19 Dec 1961 -  6 Jun 1962    K.P. Candeth                     (b. 1916 - d. 2003)
                             (Indian military governor)

Tranquebar

       1620                Danish rule
       1808 -        1815  British rule
       1845                part of British India

Governors (of the Danish East India Company to 1779)
       1694 - 19 May 1701  Claus Vogdt
19 May 1701 -        1701  Andreas Andreæ                     (b. ... - d. 1701)
       1701 -        1702  Mikkel Knudsen Crone               (b. ... - d. 1716)
   Jul 1702 -        1704  Jørgen Hermansen Bjørn             (b. 1652 - d. 1704)
 1 Jul 1704 - 20 Oct 1716  Johan Sigismund Hassius            (b. 1664 - d. 1729)
20 Oct 1716 - 21 Jan 1720  Christen Brun-Lundegaard           (b. ... - d. 1724)
23 Jan 1720 - 12 Oct 1726  Christian Ulrich von Nissen        (b. 1691 - d. 1756)
12 Oct 1726 -  8 Aug 1730  Rasmus Hansen Attrup               (b. ... - d. 1745)
 8 Aug 1730 -  1 Aug 1733  Diderich Mühlenport                (b. ... - d. 1746)
 1 Aug 1733 - 13 Jul 1741  Poul Krisk Panck                   (b. 1690 - d. 1747)
13 Jul 1741 - 17 Sep 1744  Ivar Bonsack                       (b. ... - d. 1748)
17 Sep 1744 -  5 Sep 1754  Hans Ernst Bonsack
 5 Sep 1754 - 10 Aug 1759  Hans Georg Krog                    (b. 1720 - d. 1796)
 9 May 1759 -  4 Jul 1760  Christian Frederik Høyer           (b. ... - d. 1763)
 4 Jul 1760 - 27 Apr 1761  Herman Jacob Forck                 (b. ... - d. 1761)
29 Apr 1761 - 14 Feb 1775  Peter Hermann Abbestee (1st time)  (b. 1728 - d. 1794)
14 Feb 1775 - 17 Jan 1779  David Brown                        (b. ... - d. 1784)
17 Jan 1779 - 17 May 1788  Peter Hermann Abbestee (2nd time)  (s.a.)
17 May 1788 -  7 Feb 1806  Peter Anker                        (b. 1744 - d. 1832)
 7 Feb 1806 - 13 Feb 1808  Johan Peter Hermannson (1st time)  (b. ... - d. 1822)
20 Sep 1815 - 19 Nov 1816  Gerhard Sievers Bille              (b. 1765 - d. 1816)
19 Nov 1816 - 15 Feb 1822  Johan Peter Hermannson (2nd time)  (s.a.)
16 Feb 1822 -  7 May 1823  Jens Kofoed                        (b. 1775 - d. 1833)
 7 May 1823 -  7 Mar 1825  Ulrich Anton Schönheyder           (b. 1775 - d. 1858)
 7 Mar 1825 - 26 Mar 1829  Hans Diderich Brinck-Seidelin      (b. 1779 - d. 1859)
26 Mar 1829 - 14 May 1832  Lauritz Christensen                (b. 1793 - d. 1832)
17 May 1832 -  1 May 1838  Conrad Emil Mourier                (b. 1795 - d. 1865)
 1 May 1838 - 18 Jun 1841  Johannes von Rehling               (b. 1775 - d. 1841)
18 Jun 1841 - 15 Sep 1841  Christian Tiemroth                 (b. 1799 - d. 1888)
16 Oct 1841 -  7 Nov 1845  Peder Hansen                       (b. 1798 - d. 1880)

Coromandel Coast

       1608                Dutch rule
       1780 -        1784  British occupation
       1795 -        1818  British occupation
       1825                part of British India

Governors
       1698 -        1705  Dirk Comans
       1705 -        1710  Johannes van Steelandt
       1710 -        1716  Daniel Bernard Guilliams
       1716 -        1719  Adriaan de Visscher
       1719 -        1723  Gerard van Westrenen
       1723 -        1730  Dirk van Cloon                     (b. 1688 - d. 1735)
       1730 -        1733  Adriaan Pla
       1733 -        1737  Elias Guillot
       1738 -        1743  Jacob Mossel                       (b. 1704 - d. 1761)
       1743 -        1747  Galenus Mersen
       1747 -        1753  Librecht Hooreman
       1753 -        1758  Steven Vermont
       1758 -        1761  Lubbert Jan van Eck                (b. 1719 - d. 1765)
       1761 -        1765  Christiaan van Teylingen
       1765 -        1773  Pieter Haksteen
       1773 -        1780  Reinier van Vlissingen
       1785 -        1789  Willem Blauwkamer
       1790 -        1795  Jacob Eilbracht
       1818 -        1824  F.C. Regel
       1824 -        1825  Henry François von Söhsten

Malabar Coast

 7 Jan 1663                Dutch rule
       1795                British occupation
       1818                annexed to British India

Commanders
       1697 -        1701  Magnus Wichelmann
       1701 -        1704  Abraham Vink
       1704 -        1708  Willem Moerman
       1708 -        1709  Adam van der Duijn
       1709 -        1716  Barend Ketel
       1716 -        1723  Johannes Hertenberg
       1723 -        1731  Jacob de Jong
       1731 -        1734  Adriaan Maten
       1734 -        1742  Julius Valentijn Steijn von
                           Gollonesse
       1742 -        1747  Reinierus Siersma
       1747 -        1751  Corijn Stevens
       1751                Abraham Cornelis de la Haye
       1751 -        1756  Frederik Cunes
       1756 -        1761  Casparus de Jong
       1761 -        1765  Godefrid Weyerman
       1765 -        1768  Cornelis Breekpot
       1768 -        1770  Christiaan Lodewijk Senff
       1770 -        1781  Adriaan Moens
       1781 -        1793  Johan Gerard von Angelbeek
       1793 -        1795  Jan Lambertus van Spall

Sikkim

       1642                'Bras-ljongs (Sikkim) kingdom established
    af.1793 -        1817  annexed by Nepal
16 May 1975                annexed to India (retroactive to 26 Apr 1975)
                           (see under Indian states after 1947 M-W)

Kings (title Maharaja; from 11 Mar 1965 Mi-dbang Chos-rgyal-chen-po [Chogyal])
- rNam-rgyal dynasty -
       1642 -        1670  Phun-tshogs rNam-rgyal I           (b. 1604 - d. 1670)
                           [Phuntso Namgyal I]
       1670 -        1700  bsTan-srung rNam-rgyal             (b. 1644 - d. 1700)
                           [Tensung Namgyal]
       1700 -        1716  Phyag-dor rNam-rgyal               (b. 1686 - d. 1716)
                           [Chhagdor Namgyal]
       1716 -        1733  'Gyur-med rNam-rgyal               (b. 1707 - d. 1733)
                           [Gyurmed Namgyal]
       1733                Phun-tshogs rNam-rgyal II
                           [Phuntso Namgyal II] (1st time)    (b. 1733 - d. 1780)
       1733 -        17..  Chan-dzod rTa-mgrin
                           [Chandzod Tamding] (usurper)
       17.. -        1780  Phun-tshogs rNam-rgyal II
                           [Phuntso Namgyal II] (2nd time)    (s.a.)
       1780 -        1793  bsTan-'dzin rNam-rgyal             (b. 1769 - d. 1793)
                           [Tenzing Namgyal]
                           (in exile from 17...)
       1793 -        1862  gTsug-phud rNam-rgyal              (b. 1785 - d. 1863)
                           [Tsugphud Namgyal]
                           (in exile ...-1817)
       1862 -    Apr 1874  Srid-skyong Sprul-sku rNam-rgyal I
                           [Sidkeong Trulku Namgyal I]        (b. 1819 - d. 1874)
                           (regent 1861-62)
   Apr 1874 - 10 Feb 1914  mThu-stobs rNam-rgyal
                           [Thutob Namgyal (from 12 Dec 1911,
                           Sir Thutob Namgyal)]               (b. 1860 - d. 1914)
                           (in exile in Tibet 1892-93 and in India 1893-95)
11 Feb 1914 -  5 Dec 1914  Srid-skyong Sprul-sku rNam-rgyal II
                           [Sidkeong Trulku Namgyal II]       (b. 1879 - d. 1914)
 5 Dec 1914 -  2 Dec 1963  bKra-shis rNam-rgyal
                           [Tashi Namgyal (from 1 Jan 1923,
                           Sir Tashi Namgyal)]                (b. 1893 - d. 1963)
 3 Dec 1963 - 14 Apr 1975  dPal-ldan Don-grub rNam-rgyal
                           [Palden Thondup Namgyal]           (b. 1923 - d. 1982)
Chief executive
14 Apr 1975 - 16 May 1975  Bipen Bihari Lal                   (b. 1917)

Chief ministers 9 May 1949 - 6 Jun 1949 Tashi Tshering 6 Jun 1949 - 11 Aug 1949 Harishwar Dayal (b. 1915 - d. 1964) Dewans 11 Aug 1949 - 1954 John S. Lall (b. 1914 - d. 2002) Apr 1954 - 1959 Nari Kaikhosru Rustomji (b. 1919) 22 Aug 1959 - 1963 Baleshwar Prasad (b. 1914 - d. 1996) Principal administrative officer 1963 - 1969 R.N. Haldipur (b. 1921 - d. 2003) Sidlon 1969 - 1972 Inder Sen Chopra Chief administrative officer 9 Apr 1973 - 23 Jul 1974 B.S. Das (b. 1925) Prime minister 23 Jul 1974 - 16 May 1975 Kazi Lhendup Dorji (b. 1904 - d. 2007) British political officers 1889 - 1908 John Claude White (b. 1853 - d. 1918) 1908 - 1920 Charles Bell (1st time) (b. 1870 - d. 1945) 1920 John Bartley (b. 1886 - d. 1954) 1920 - 1921 Charles Bell (2nd time) (s.a.) 1921 - 1928 Frederick Marshman Bailey (b. 1882 - d. 1967) 1928 - 1932 Leslie Weir (b. 1883 - d. 1950) 1932 - 1935 Frederick Williamson (b. 1891 - d. 1935) 1935 - 1945 Basil Gould (from 1941, Sir Basil Gould) (b. 1883 - d. 1956) 1945 - 1947 Arthur John Hopkinson (b. 1894 - d. 1953) Indian political officers 1947 - 1948 Arthur John Hopkinson (s.a.) 1948 - 1952 Harishwar Dayal (s.a.) Mar 1952 - 1955 Balraj Krishna Kapur (b. 1910) 1955 - 1961 Apa B. Pant (b. 1912 - d. 1992) 1961 - 1963 I.J. Bahadur Singh (b. 1914 - d. 1987) 1964 - 1966 Avtar Singh (b. 1921) 1966 - 1967 Vincent Herbert Coelho (b. 1917) 1967 - 1970 Nedyam Balachandra Menon (b. 1921 - d. 2006) 1970 - 1972 ... 1972 - 1974 Kayatyani Shankar Bajpai (b. 1928) 1974 - 1975 Gurbachan Singh (b. 1923)

Indonesia

       1610                Netherlands East Indies
       1811 -        1816  British East India Company rule
 8 Mar 1942 - 29 Sep 1945  Japanese occupation
17 Aug 1945                independence proclaimed (Republic of Indonesia)
29 Sep 1945 - 30 Nov 1946  British occupation
20 Sep 1948                Netherlands East Indies renamed Indonesia
27 Dec 1949                independence of the Republic of the United States of
                           Indonesia, comprising the Republic of Indonesia (covering
                           parts of Java and Sumatra) and various states and autonomous
                           territories that had been established since 1946
17 Aug 1950                dissolution of the Republic of the United States of
                           Indonesia together with its remaining components other than
                           the Republic of Indonesia, which becomes the successor to
                           the entire state

Governors-general (of the Dutch East India Company to 1801)
       1691 -        1704  Willem van Outhoorn                (b. 1635 - d. 1720)
       1704 -        1709  Johan van Hoorn                    (b. 1653 - d. 1711)
       1709 -        1713  Abraham van Riebeeck               (b. 1653 - d. 1713)
       1713 -        1718  Christoffel van Swoll              (b. 1663 - d. 1718)
       1718 -        1725  Henricus Zwaardecroon              (b. 1667 - d. 1728)
   Jul 1725 -        1729  Matthaeus de Haan                  (b. 1663 - d. 1729)
       1729 -    Oct 1731  Dirk Durven                        (b. 1676 - d. 1740)
       1732 -        1735  Dirk van Cloon                     (b. 1688 - d. 1735)
       1735 -        1737  Abraham Patras                     (b. 1671 - d. 1737)
       1737 -        1741  Adriaan Valckenier                 (b. 1695 - d. 1751)
       1741 -        1743  Johannes Thedens (acting)          (b. c.1680 - d. 1748)
   May 1743 -  1 Nov 1750  Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff    (b. 1705 - d. 1750)
 1 Nov 1750 - 15 May 1761  Jacob Mossel (acting to 1752)      (b. 1720 - d. 1761)
15 May 1761 -        1775  Petrus Albertus van der Parra      (b. 1714 - d. 1775)
       1775 -        1777  Jeremias van Riemsdijk             (b. 1712 - d. 1777)
       1777 -        1780  Reinier de Klerk                   (b. 1710 - d. 1780)
       1780 -        1796  Willem Arnold Alting               (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
       1796 - 22 Aug 1801  Peter Gerhardus van Overstraten    (b. 1755 - d. 1801)
   Apr 1802 -    Sep 1804  Johannes Siberg                    (b. 1740 - d. 1817)
   Sep 1804 - 14 Jan 1808  Albertus Henricus Wiese            (b. 1761 - d. 1810)
14 Jan 1808 - 16 May 1811  Herman Willem Daendels             (b. 1762 - d. 1818)
16 May 1811 - 18 Sep 1811  Jan Willem Janssens                (b. 1762 - d. 1838)
Lieutenant governors
   Sep 1811 -    Mar 1816  Thomas Stamford Raffles            (b. 1781 - d. 1826)
   Mar 1816 -    Aug 1816  John Fendall                       (b. 1762 - d. 1825)
Commissioners-general
19 Aug 1816 - 16 Jan 1819  Cornelis Theodorus Elout           (b. 1767 - d. 1841)
                           + Godert Alexander Gerard Philip
                           van der Capellen                   (b. 1778 - d. 1848)
                           + Arnold Adriaan Buyskes           (b. 1771 - d. 1838)
Governors-general
16 Jan 1819 -  1 Jan 1826  Godert Alexander Gerard Philip
                           (from 28 Apr 1822, baron) van der
                           Capellen                           (s.a.)
 4 Feb 1826 - 16 Jan 1830  Hendrik Merkus de Kock             (b. 1779 - d. 1845)
                           (lieutenant governor)
16 Jan 1830 -  2 Jul 1833  Johannes van den Bosch             (b. 1780 - d. 1844)
 2 Jul 1833 - 29 Feb 1836  Jean Chrétien Baud (acting)        (b. 1789 - d. 1859)
29 Feb 1836 - 30 May 1840  Dominique Jacques de Eerens        (b. 1781 - d. 1840)
30 May 1840 -  6 Jan 1841  Carel Sirardus Willem graaf
                           van Hogendorp (acting)             (b. 1788 - d. 1856)
 6 Jan 1841 -  2 Aug 1844  Pieter Merkus                      (b. 1787 - d. 1844)
                           (acting to 14 Feb 1843)
 2 Aug 1844 - 30 Sep 1845  Jan Cornelis van Reijnst (acting)  (b. 1798 - d. 1871)
30 Sep 1845 - 12 May 1851  Jan Jacob Rochussen                (b. 1797 - d. 1871)
15 May 1851 - 22 May 1856  Albertus Jacobus Duymaer van Twist (b. 1809 - d. 1887)
22 May 1856 -  2 Sep 1861  Charles Ferdinand Pahud            (b. 1803 - d. 1873)
 2 Sep 1861 - 19 Oct 1861  Ary Prins (1st time) (acting)      (b. 1816 - d. 1867)
19 Oct 1861 - 25 Oct 1866  Ludolph Anne Jan Wilt baron Sloet
                           van de Beele                       (b. 1806 - d. 1890)
25 Oct 1866 - 28 Dec 1866  Ary Prins (2nd time) (acting)      (s.a.)
28 Dec 1866 -  1 Jan 1872  Pieter Mijer                       (b. 1812 - d. 1881)
 1 Jan 1872 - 26 Mar 1875  James Loudon                       (b. 1824 - d. 1900)
26 Mar 1875 - 12 Apr 1881  Johan Wilhelm van Lansberge        (b. 1830 - d. 1905)
12 Apr 1881 - 20 Jan 1884  Frederik s'Jacob                   (b. 1822 - d. 1901)
11 Apr 1884 - 29 Sep 1888  Otto van Rees                      (b. 1823 - d. 1892)
29 Sep 1888 - 15 Jul 1893  Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk         (b. 1847 - d. 1908)
17 Oct 1893 -  3 Oct 1899  Carel Herman Aart van der Wijck    (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
 3 Oct 1899 -  1 Oct 1904  Willem Rooseboom                   (b. 1843 - d. 1920)
 1 Oct 1904 - 18 Dec 1909  Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz      (b. 1851 - d. 1924)
18 Dec 1909 - 21 Mar 1916  Alexander Willem Frederik Idenburg (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
21 Mar 1916 - 24 Mar 1921  Johan Paul graaf van Limburg
                           Stirum                             (b. 1873 - d. 1948)
24 Mar 1921 -  6 Sep 1926  Dirk Fock                          (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
 7 Sep 1926 - 11 Sep 1931  Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff    (b. 1872 - d. 1957)
12 Sep 1931 - 16 Sep 1936  Bonifacius Cornelis de Jonge       (b. 1875 - d. 1958)
16 Sep 1936 - 16 Oct 1945  Alidius Warmoldus Lambertus Tjarda
                           van Starkenborgh Stachouwer        (b. 1888 - d. 1978)
14 Sep 1944 - 15 Oct 1948  Hubertus Johannes van Mook         (b. 1894 - d. 1965)
                           (lieutenant governor [acting to 23 Feb 1945];
                           acting for Tjarda to 16 Oct 1945)
Commanders of British forces
29 Sep 1945 - 30 Jan 1946    Sir Philip Christison            (b. 1893 - d. 1993)
30 Jan 1946 - 19 Apr 1946    Sir Montagu Stopford             (b. 1892 - d. 1971)
19 Apr 1946 - 30 Nov 1946    E.C. Mansergh                    (b. 1900 - d. 1970)
High commissioners
29 Oct 1948 - 18 May 1949  Louis Beel                         (b. 1902 - d. 1977)
18 May 1949 - 27 Dec 1949  Antonius Hermanus Johannes Lovink  (b. 1902 - d. 1995)
Presidents
17 Aug 1945 - 12 Mar 1967  Sukarno                            (b. 1901 - d. 1970)
                           (Dutch prisoner 19 Dec 1948 - 13 Jul 1949)
19 Dec 1948 - 13 Jul 1949    Sjafruddin Prawiranegara         (b. 1911 - d. 1989)
                             (head of emergency government acting for Sukarno)
   Dec 1949 -    Aug 1950    Assaat                           (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
                             (acting president of Republic of Indonesia)
15 Feb 1958 - 28 Aug 1961    Sjafruddin Prawiranegara         (s.a.)
                             (head of provisional government, in rebellion;
                             United Indonesian Republic proclaimed 15 Feb 1960)
12 Mar 1967 - 21 May 1998  Suharto                            (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
                           (acting to 27 Mar 1968)
21 May 1998 - 20 Oct 1999  B.J. Habibie                       (b. 1936)
20 Oct 1999 - 23 Jul 2001  Abdurrahman Wahid                  (b. 1940 - d. 2009)
23 Jul 2001 - 20 Oct 2004  Megawati Sukarnoputri (f)          (b. 1947)
20 Oct 2004 -              Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono           (b. 1949)

Prime ministers 14 Nov 1945 - 20 Jun 1947 Sutan Sjahrir (b. 1909 - d. 1966) 3 Jul 1947 - 29 Jan 1948 Amir Sjarifoeddin (b. 1903 - d. 1948) 29 Jan 1948 - 16 Jan 1950 Mohammad Hatta (b. 1902 - d. 1980) 16 Jan 1950 - 5 Sep 1950 Abdul Halim (b. 1911 - d. 1987) 5 Sep 1950 - 27 Apr 1951 Mohammad Natsir (b. 1908 - d. 1993) 27 Apr 1951 - 1 Apr 1952 Sukiman Wirjosandjojo (b. 1898 - d. 1974) 1 Apr 1952 - 30 Jul 1953 Wilopo (b. 1908 - d. 1981) 30 Jul 1953 - 11 Aug 1955 Ali Sastroamidjojo (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1975) 11 Aug 1955 - 20 Mar 1956 Burhanuddin Harahap (b. 1917 - d. 1987) 20 Mar 1956 - 9 Apr 1957 Ali Sastroamidjojo (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Apr 1957 - 9 Jul 1959 Djuanda Kartawidjaja (b. 1911 - d. 1963) First minister 9 Jul 1959 - 7 Nov 1963 Djuanda Kartawidjaja (s.a.)

Bencoolen

       1685                British rule
       1825                part of Netherlands East Indies

Deputy governors
       1685                Ralph Ord
       1685 -        1690  Benjamin Bloome
       1690 -        1691  James Sowdon
       1691 -        1695  Charles Fleetwood
       1695 -        1696  Charles Barwell
       1696 -        1699  Matthew Mildmay
       1699 -        1700  Robert Broughton
       1700 -        1705  Richard Watts
       1705 -        1708  Matthew Ridley
       1708                James Cross
       1708                Abraham Hoyle
       1708                John Delapie
       1708 -        1710  Robert Skingle
       1710                Jeremiah Harrison (supervisor)
       1710 -        1711  Anthony Ettricke
       1711 -        1712  John Daniell
       1712                John Hunter
       1712 -        1716  Joseph Collett
       1716 -        1717  Theophilus Shyllinge
       1717 -        1718  Richard Farmer
       1718 -        1719  Thomas Cooke (supervisor)
       17.. -        1723  Thomas Dunster
       1723 -        1728  Joseph Walsh
       1728 -        1730  Nicholas Morse
       1730 -        1731  Stephen Newcome
       1731 -        1736  Francis Everest
       1736 -        1746  Robert Lennox
       1746 -        1752  Joseph Hurlock
       1752 -        1754  Robert Hindley
       1754 -        1755  John Walsh (supervisor)
       1755 -        1757  John Pybus
       1757 -        1758  Randolph Marriott
       1758 -        1760  Roger Carter
Governors
       1760 -        1767  Roger Carter
       1767 -        1776  Richard Wyatt
       1776                Robert Hay
       1776 -        1780  William Broff
       1780 -        1781  Hew Steuart
       1781 -        1785  Edward Coles
Deputy governors
       1785 -        1786  John Crisp (1st time)
       1786 -        1787  Thomas Palmer
       1787 -        1789  George Salmon (supervisor)
       1789 -        1793  John Crisp (2nd time)
       1793 -        1799  Robert Broff
       1799                John Crisp (3rd time)
       1799 -        1800  Philip Braham
       1800 -        1805  Walter Ewer
Residents
       1805 -        1807  Thomas Parr                        (b. 17... - d. 1807)
       1808 -        1810  Richard Parry
       1810 -        1812  William Parker
       1812 -        1818  George John Siddons
Lieutenant governor
       1818 -        1824  Thomas Stamford Raffles            (b. 1781 - d. 1826)
Resident
       1824 -        1825  John Prince

Netherlands New Guinea

       1828                part of Netherlands East Indies
29 Dec 1949                Netherlands New Guinea
 1 Oct 1962                UN administration
 1 May 1963                part of Indonesia

Governors
29 Dec 1949 -  8 Feb 1950  Jan Pieter Karel van Eechoud       (b. 1904 - d. 1958)
                           (acting)
 8 Feb 1950 - 24 Apr 1953  S.L.J. van Waardenburg             (b. 1900 - d. 1975)
24 Apr 1953 - 31 Mar 1958  Jan van Baal                       (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
31 Mar 1958 -  1 May 1958  Jan Christoffel Baarspul (acting)  (b. 1910 - d. 1988)
 1 May 1958 - 28 Sep 1962  Pieter Johannes Platteel           (b. 1911 - d. 1978)
28 Sep 1962 - 30 Sep 1962  Henk Veldkamp (acting)
Administrators
 1 Oct 1962 - 15 Nov 1962  José Rolz Bennett (Guatemala)      (b. 1918 - d. 1972)
                           (acting)
15 Nov 1962 -  1 May 1963  Djalal Abdoh (Iran)                (b. 1910 - d. 1992)

South Moluccas

25 Apr 1950                Republic of South Moluccas proclaimed
   Oct 1952                extinguished by Indonesia

Presidents
25 Apr 1950 -  3 May 1950  Johanes Herman Manuhutu (acting)   (b. 1908)
 3 May 1950 - 12 Apr 1966  Chris Soumokil                     (b. 1905 - d. 1966)
                           (Indonesian prisoner from 2 Dec 1962)
       1966 - 10 Apr 1993  Johannes Alvarez Manusama          (b. 1910 - d. 1995)
                           (in Netherlands exile)
10 Apr 1993 - 17 Apr 2010  Frans L.J. Tutuhatunewa            (b. 1923)
                           (in Netherlands exile)
17 Apr 2010 -              John Wattilete                     (b. 1955)
                           (in Netherlands exile)

Prime minister 25 Apr 1950 - 30 Oct 1950 Albert Wairisal (b. 1909)

Ionian Islands: see under Greece.

Iran

 Jl/Au 1501                Kingdom or Empire of Iran (literally "The [God-]Protected
                           Realms of Iran") (English name Persia until 21 Mar 1935)
 1 Apr 1979                Islamic Republic of Iran

Rahbar
 1 Jan 1980 -  3 Jun 1989  Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini        (b. 1902 - d. 1989)
 4 Jun 1989 -              Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei      (b. 1939)

Shahs (full style Shahanshah [King of Kings]) (note that rules by members of different dynasties overlap) - Safawi dynasty - 6 Aug 1694 - 23 Oct 1722 Soltan Hoseyn I (b. c.1668 - d. 1726) 10 Nov 1722 - 2 Sep 1732 Tahmasp II (b. 1704 - d. 1740) 8 Nov 1726 - Jul 1728 Sayyed Ahmad (in opposition) (b. ... - d. 1728) 3 Sep 1732 - 8 Mar 1736 Abbas III (b. 1732 - d. 1740) 17 Dec 1749 - 9 Jan 1750 Soleyman II (b. 1714 - d. 1763) 9 Jan 1750 - 1773 Esmail III (b. 1733 - d. 1773) 1753 - Jun 1753 Soltan Hoseyn II (in opposition) 1780 - 1786 Abu al-Fath Mohammad (b. ... - d. 1794) - Ghalzay dynasty - 23 Oct 1722 - 25 Apr 1725 Mahmud (b. c.1699 - d. 1725) 26 Apr 1725 - 13 Nov 1729 Ashraf (b. c.1700 - d. 1730) - Afshar dynasty - 8 Mar 1736 - 1 Jul 1747 Nader (b. 1688 - d. 1747) 6 Jul 1747 - 24 Sep 1748 Adel (b. 1719 - d. 1749) 24 Sep 1748 - May 1749 Ebrahim (b. c.1724 - d. 1749) (to 8 Dec 1748 regent as Ebrahim Khan) May 1749 - 17 Dec 1749 Esmail Rokh (1st time) (b. 1734 - d. 1796) (in opposition from 1 Oct 1748) 26 Jan 1750 - Jun 1750 Esmail Rokh (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 May 1755 - 14 May 1796 Esmail Rokh (3rd time) (s.a.) - Zand dynasty² - 1773 - 1 Mar 1779 Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (b. c.1707 - d. 1779) 6 Mar 1779 - 1779 Abu al-Fath Khan Zand (1st time) (b. 1755 - d. 1787) jointly with 6 Mar 1779 - 19 Jun 1779 Mohammad Ali Khan Zand (b. 1760 - d. ...) 19 Jun 1779 - 22 Aug 1779 Abu al-Fath Khan Zand (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Aug 1779 - 14 Mar 1781 Mohammad Sadeq Khan Zand (b. ... - d. 1782) 15 Mar 1781 - 11 Feb 1785 Ali Morad Khan Zand (b. ... - d. 1785) 12 Feb 1785 - 17 Feb 1785 Baqer Khan Khorasakani 18 Feb 1785 - 23 Jan 1789 Jaafar Khan Zand (b. ... - d. 1789) 23 Jan 1789 - 10 May 1789 Seyd Morad Khan Zand 10 May 1789 - 30 Oct 1794 Lotf Ali Khan Zand (b. c.1766 - d. 1794) (Shahanshah from Mar 1794) - Qajar dynasty - 12 Mar 1786 - 17 Jun 1797 Mohammad Qajar (b. 1742 - d. 1797) (to 14 May 1796 regent as Aga Mohammad Khan Qajar) 17 Jun 1797 - 23 Oct 1834 Fath Ali Qajar (b. 1772 - d. 1834) (to 29 Jul 1797 regent as Baba Khan Qajar) 7 Nov 1834 - 4 Sep 1848 Mohammad Qajar (b. 1808 - d. 1848) 16 Nov 1834 - Dec 1834 Ali Qajar (in rebellion) (b. 1789 - d. 1854) 5 Dec 1834 - 29 Mar 1835 Hossein Ali Qajar (in rebellion) (b. 1789 - d. 1835) 13 Sep 1848 - 1 May 1896 Naser ad-Din Qajar (b. 1831 - d. 1896) 2 May 1896 - 8 Jan 1907 Mozaffar ad-Din Qajar (b. 1853 - d. 1907) 8 Jan 1907 - 16 Jul 1909 Mohammad Ali Qajar (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1924) 16 Jul 1909 - 31 Oct 1925 Soltan Ahmad Qajar (b. 1898 - d. 1930) 18 Jul 1909 - 22 Sep 1910 Ali Reza Khan-e Qajar Quyunlu (b. 1847 - d. 1910) (regent) 23 Sep 1910 - 21 Jul 1914 Nasir al-Mulk (regent) 17 Jun 1911 - Jul 1911 Mohammad Ali Qajar (2nd time) (s.a.) (in rebellion) 24 Mar 1924 - 31 Oct 1925 Prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza (b. 1899 - d. 1943) (regent) - Pahlavi dynasty - 31 Oct 1925 - 16 Sep 1941 Reza Pahlavi (b. 1878 - d. 1944) (Provisional Head of State to 15 Dec 1925) 16 Sep 1941 - 5 Feb 1979 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (b. 1919 - d. 1980) (in exile 16-22 Aug 1953 [Baghdad; from 18 Aug 1953, Rome] and from 16 Jan 1979 [Egypt; from 22 Jan 1979, Morocco]) 16 Jan 1979 - 22 Jan 1979 Sayyed Jalaleddin Tehrani (chairman Regency Council) Leader of the Revolution 5 Feb 1979 - 4 Feb 1980 Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (s.a.) Presidents 4 Feb 1980 - 22 Jun 1981 Abolhassan Bani-Sadr (b. 1933) 22 Jun 1981 - 2 Aug 1981 Provisional Presidential Council - Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti (b. 1928 - d. 1981) (to 28 Jun 1981) - Ayatollah Abdolkarim Moussavi-Ardabili (1st time) (b. 1932) (from 29 Jun 1981) - Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (1st time) (b. 1934) - Mohammad Ali Raja´i (b. 1933 - d. 1981) 2 Aug 1981 - 30 Aug 1981 Mohammad Ali Raja´i (s.a.) 30 Aug 1981 - 13 Oct 1981 Provisional Presidential Council - Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Mahdavi-Kani (b. 1931) (from 2 Sep 1981) - Ayatollah Abdolkarim Moussavi-Ardabili (2nd time) (s.a.) - Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Oct 1981 - 3 Aug 1989 Hojatolislam Sayyed Ali Khamenei (from 4 Jun 1989, Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei) (s.a.) 3 Aug 1989 - 3 Aug 1997 Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (s.a.) 3 Aug 1997 - 3 Aug 2005 Hojatolislam Mohammad Khatami (b. 1943) 3 Aug 2005 - 3 Aug 2013 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (b. 1956) 3 Aug 2013 - Hojatolislam Hassan Rouhani (b. 1948)
Prime ministers 1 May 1907 - 31 Aug 1907 Mirza Ali Asghar Khan (b. 1856 - d. 1907) 9 Sep 1907 - 13 Sep 1907 Mirza Nasrollah Khan (b. 18... - d. 1907) 25 Oct 1907 - 21 Dec 1907 Nasir al-Mulk (1st time) 21 Dec 1907 - May 1908 Nizam as-Saltana May 1908 - 7 Jun 1908 Murtaza Quli Khan (b. 18... - d. 1911) 7 Jun 1908 - 29 Apr 1909 Mushir as-Saltana (b. 1872 - d. 1935) 29 Apr 1909 - May 1909 Prince Kamran Mirza (b. 1856 - d. 1927) May 1909 - 16 Jul 1909 Saad ad-Daula (1st time) 16 Jul 1909 - 6 Oct 1909 Nasir al-Mulk (2nd time) 6 Oct 1909 - Jul 1910 Mohammad Wali Khan (1st time) (b. 1884/85 - d. 1926) Jul 1910 - 19 Jul 1911 Mirza Hassan Khan (1st time) (b. 1874 - d. 1932) 19 Jul 1911 - 26 Jul 1911 Mohammad Wali Khan (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jul 1911 - 23 Nov 1912 Najaf Quli Khan (1st time) 23 Nov 1912 - 11 Jan 1913 Saad ad-Daula (2nd time) 11 Jan 1913 - 1 Jul 1914 Mirza Mohammad Ali Khan (b. 1872 - d. 1918) 1 Jul 1914 - Feb 1915 Mirza Hassan Khan (2nd time) (s.a.) Feb 1915 - Apr 1915 Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza (1st time) (b. 1858 - d. 1939) Apr 1915 - Jul 1915 Mirza Hassan Khan (3rd time) (s.a.) Jul 1915 - 18 Aug 1915 Prince Sultan Abdol Majid Mirza (1st time) (b. 1845 - d. 1926) 18 Aug 1915 - 25 Dec 1915 Mirza Hassan Khan (4th time) (s.a.) 25 Dec 1915 - Mar 1916 Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza (2nd time) (s.a.) Mar 1916 - Jul 1917 Mohammad Wali Khan (3rd time) (s.a.) Jul 1917 - Dec 1917 Mirza Hassan Khan (5th time) (s.a.) Dec 1917 - May 1918 Prince Sultan Abdol Majid Mirza (2nd time) (s.a.) May 1918 - Aug 1918 Najaf Quli Khan (2nd time) Aug 1918 - 21 Feb 1921 Mirza Hassan Khan (6th time) (s.a.) 21 Feb 1921 - 4 Jun 1921 Sayyed Ziauddin Tabatabai (b. 1888 - d. 1969) 4 Jun 1921 - 12 Oct 1921 Ahmad Qavam as-Saltana (1st time) (b. 1876 - d. 1955) 12 Oct 1921 - 20 Jan 1922 Shaw as-Saltana 20 Jan 1922 - 11 Jun 1922 Mirza Hassan Khan Pirnia (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1935) 11 Jun 1922 - 30 Jan 1923 Ahmad Qavam as-Saltana (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Jan 1923 - 15 Jun 1923 Mirza Hassan Khan (7th time) (s.a.) 15 Jun 1923 - 28 Oct 1923 Mirza Hassan Khan Pirnia (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Oct 1923 - 1 Nov 1925 Reza Khan (= Reza Pahlavi) (s.a.) 1 Nov 1925 - 13 Jun 1926 Mohammad Ali Khan Forughi (1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1942) 13 Jun 1926 - 2 Jun 1927 Mirza Hassan Khan (8th time) (s.a.) 2 Jun 1927 - 18 Sep 1933 Mahdi Qoli Khan Hidayat 18 Sep 1933 - 3 Dec 1935 Mohammad Ali Khan Forughi (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Dec 1935 - 27 Oct 1939 Mahmud Jam (b. 1880 - d. 1969) 27 Oct 1939 - 26 Jun 1940 Ahmad Matin-Daftari (b. 1896 - d. 1971) 26 Jun 1940 - 27 Aug 1941 Ali Mansur (1st time) (b. 1895 - d. 1974) 27 Aug 1941 - 9 Mar 1942 Mohammad Ali Khan Forughi (3rd time) (s.a.) 9 Mar 1942 - 9 Aug 1942 Ali Sohaili (1st time) (b. 1896 - d. 1958) 9 Aug 1942 - 15 Feb 1943 Ahmad Qavam as-Saltana (3rd time) (s.a.) 15 Feb 1943 - 6 Apr 1944 Ali Sohaili (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Apr 1944 - 25 Nov 1944 Mohammad Said Maraghei (1st time) (b. 1881 - d. 1973) 25 Nov 1944 - 13 May 1945 Morteza Qoli Khan Bayat (b. 1882 - d. 1955) 13 May 1945 - 7 Jun 1945 Ebrahim Hakimi (1st time) (b. 1869 - d. 1959) 7 Jun 1945 - 24 Oct 1945 Mohsen Sadr (b. 1883 - d. 1962) 24 Oct 1945 - 26 Jan 1946 Ebrahim Hakimi (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jan 1946 - 10 Dec 1947 Ahmad Qavam as-Saltana (4th time) (s.a.) 28 Dec 1947 - 13 Jun 1948 Ebrahim Hakimi (3rd time) (s.a.) 13 Jun 1948 - 9 Nov 1948 Abdol Hossein Hajir (b. 1897 - d. 1949) 9 Nov 1948 - 23 Mar 1950 Mohammad Said Maraghei (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Mar 1950 - 26 Jun 1950 Ali Mansur (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jun 1950 - 7 Mar 1951 Ali Razmara (b. 1901 - d. 1951) 12 Mar 1951 - 30 Apr 1951 Hossein Ala (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1964) 30 Apr 1951 - 17 Jul 1952 Mohammad Mossadegh (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1967) 17 Jul 1952 - 22 Jul 1952 Ahmad Qavam as-Saltana (5th time) (s.a.) 22 Jul 1952 - 19 Aug 1953 Mohammad Mossadegh (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Aug 1953 - 7 Apr 1955 Fazlollah Zahedi (b. 1897 - d. 1963) 7 Apr 1955 - 3 Apr 1957 Hossein Ala (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Apr 1957 - 31 Aug 1960 Manuchehr Ekbal (b. 1909 - d. 1977) 31 Aug 1960 - 9 May 1961 Jaafar Sharif-Emami (1st time) (b. 1910 - d. 1998) 9 May 1961 - 21 Jul 1962 Ali Amini (b. 1905 - d. 1992) 21 Jul 1962 - 7 Mar 1964 Asadollah Alam (b. 1919 - d. 1978) 7 Mar 1964 - 26 Jan 1965 Hassan Ali Mansur (b. 1923 - d. 1965) 21 Jan 1965 - 7 Aug 1977 Amir Abbas Hoveida (b. 1919 - d. 1979) (acting to 27 Jan 1965 [for Mansur to 26 Jan 1965]) 7 Aug 1977 - 27 Aug 1978 Jamshid Amouzegar (b. 1923) 27 Aug 1978 - 6 Nov 1978 Jaafar Sharif-Emami (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Nov 1978 - 4 Jan 1979 Gholam Reza Azhari (b. 1917 - d. 2001) 4 Jan 1979 - 5 Feb 1979³ Shahpur Bakhtiar (b. 1914 - d. 1991) 5 Feb 1979 - 6 Nov 1979 Mehdi Bazargan (b. 1907 - d. 1995) 6 Nov 1979 - 12 Aug 1980 Islamic Revolutionary Council 12 Aug 1980 - 4 Aug 1981 Mohammad Ali Raja´i (s.a.) 4 Aug 1981 - 30 Aug 1981 Hojatolislam Mohammad Javad Bahonar (b. 1933 - d. 1981) 2 Sep 1981 - 31 Oct 1981 Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Mahdavi-Kani (s.a.) 31 Oct 1981 - 3 Aug 1989 Mir Hossein Moussavi (b. 1941)
¹Often called spiritual leaders, but the term rahbar that appears in the constitution simply means "leader."
²The rulers of this dynasty refused (with one exception as noted) the style Shahanshah. The founding ruler adopted the style Wakil ar-Ra`aya (roughly, "Protector of the People"); it appears that his successors used the same style, although documentation is obscure.
³Bakhtiar initially did not recognize Khomeini's appointment of Bazargan as prime minister and resigned only on 11 Feb 1979.

Gilan

 5 Jun 1920                secession as Soviet Republic of Gilan
23 Oct 1921                retaken by Iran

Rulers
 5 Jun 1920 - 30 Jun 1920  Mirza Koochak Khan                 (b. 1880 - d. 1921)
       1920 - 23 Oct 1921  Ihsan Allah Khan

Azerbaijan

12 Dec 1945                autonomous government declared
12 Dec 1946                disbanded

Head of the Azerbaijani National Government
12 Dec 1945 - 12 Dec 1946  Jafar Pishevari                    (b. 1892 - d. 1947)

Kurdistan

22 Jan 1946                autonomous Republic of Kurdistan proclaimed at Mahabad
15 Dec 1946                disbanded

President
22 Jan 1946 - 15 Dec 1946  Qazi Mohammad                      (b. 1901 - d. 1947)

Prime minister 11 Feb 1946 - 15 Dec 1946 Haji Baba Sheikh

Iraq

18 Nov 1534                part of Ottoman Empire
10 Jan 1919                British rule
11 Nov 1920                State of Iraq (British protectorate)
23 Aug 1921                Iraqi Kingdom
 3 Oct 1932                full independence
14 Feb 1958 - 14 Jul 1958  federation with Jordan (Arab Union)
14 Jul 1958                Iraqi Republic
20 Mar 2003                U.S.-U.K. invasion (Baghdad taken 9 Apr 2003)
28 Jun 2004                sovereignty returned

Administrator
10 Jan 1919 -  1 Oct 1920  Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson           (b. 1884 - d. 1940)
High commissioners
 1 Oct 1920 -  4 May 1923  Sir Percy Cox                      (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
 4 May 1923 -    Oct 1928  Sir Henry Robert Conway Dobbs      (b. 1871 - d. 1934)
                           (acting to 15 Sep 1923)
   Oct 1928 - 11 Sep 1929  Sir Gilbert Falkingham Clayton     (b. 1875 - d. 1929)
 3 Oct 1929 -  3 Oct 1932  Sir Francis Henry Humphrys         (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
Chairman of the Council of State
11 Nov 1920 - 23 Aug 1921  Saiyid Abdul Rahman al-Haydari
                           al-Gaylani                         (b. 1841 - d. 1927)
Kings
23 Aug 1921 -  8 Sep 1933  Faysal I                           (b. 1885 - d. 1933)
 8 Sep 1933 -  4 Apr 1939  Ghazi I                            (b. 1912 - d. 1939)
 4 Apr 1939 - 14 Jul 1958  Faysal II                          (b. 1935 - d. 1958)
                           (also head of Arab Union from 14 Feb 1958)
 4 Apr 1939 -  1 Apr 1941    Abdul Ilah (1st time) (regent)   (b. 1913 - d. 1958)
 1 Apr 1941 -  1 Jun 1941    Sharaf ibn Rajih Al Fawwaz       (b. 1880 - d. 1955)
                             (regent)
 1 Jun 1941 -  2 May 1953    Abdul Ilah (2nd time) (regent)   (s.a.)
Chairman of the Sovereignty Council
14 Jul 1958 -  8 Feb 1963  Muhammad Najib al-Rubai            (b. 1904 - d. 19...)
Presidents
 8 Feb 1963 - 13 Apr 1966  Abdul Salam Arif                   (b. 1921 - d. 1966)
                           (provisional to 20 Nov 1963)
13 Apr 1966 - 17 Apr 1966  Abdul Rahman al-Bazzaz (acting)    (b. 1913 - d. 1973)
17 Apr 1966 - 17 Jul 1968  Abdul Rahman Arif                  (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
17 Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979  Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr               (b. 1914 - d. 1982)
16 Jul 1979 -  9 Apr 2003  Saddam Hussein                     (b. 1937 - d. 2006)
Supreme commanders of occupation forces (commanders-in-chief, U.S. Central Command)
 9 Apr 2003 -  7 Jul 2003  Tommy Franks                       (b. 1945)
 7 Jul 2003 - 28 Jun 2004  John Abizaid                       (b. 1951)
Presidents
28 Jun 2004 -  7 Apr 2005  Ghazi al-Yawer                     (b. 1958)
 7 Apr 2005 -              Jalal Talabani                     (b. 1933)

Prime ministers 11 Nov 1920 - 20 Nov 1922 Saiyid Abdul Rahman al-Haydari al-Gaylani (s.a.) 20 Nov 1922 - 22 Nov 1923 Abdul Muhsin Bey al-Saadun (1st time) (b. 1879 - d. 1929) 22 Nov 1923 - 2 Aug 1924
Jaafar al-Askari (1st time) (b. 1887 - d. 1936) 2 Aug 1924 - 26 Jun 1925 Yasin al-Hashimi (1st time) (b. 1894 - d. 1937) 26 Jun 1925 - 21 Nov 1926 Abdul Muhsin Bey al-Saadun (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Nov 1926 - 11 Jan 1928 Jaafar al-Askari (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Jan 1928 - 28 Apr 1929 Abdul Muhsin Bey al-Saadun (3rd time) (s.a.) 28 Apr 1929 - 19 Sep 1929 Tawfiq al-Suwaidi (1st time) (b. 1891 - d. 1968) 19 Sep 1929 - 13 Nov 1929 Abdul Muhsin Bey al-Saadun (4th time) (s.a.) 18 Nov 1929 - 23 Mar 1930 Ibrahim Naji Bey al-Suwaidi (b. 1882 - d. 1942) 23 Mar 1930 - 3 Nov 1932 Nuri Pasha as-Said (1st time) (b. 1888 - d. 1958) 3 Nov 1932 - 20 Mar 1933 Naji Shaukat Bey (b. 1893 - d. 1980) 20 Mar 1933 - 9 Nov 1933 Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (1st time) (b. 1892 - d. 1965) 9 Nov 1933 - 27 Aug 1934 Jamil al-Midfai (1st time) (b. 1890 - d. 1958) 27 Aug 1934 - 4 Mar 1935 Ali Jawdat al-Aiyubi (1st time) (b. 1896 - d. 1968) 4 Mar 1935 - 17 Mar 1935 Jamil al-Midfai (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Mar 1935 - 30 Oct 1936 Yasin al-Hashimi (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Oct 1936 - 17 Aug 1937 Hikmat Sulayman (b. 1889 - d. 1964) 17 Aug 1937 - 25 Dec 1938 Jamil al-Midfai (3rd time) (s.a.) 25 Dec 1938 - 31 Mar 1940 Nuri Pasha as-Said (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Mar 1940 - 3 Feb 1941 Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Feb 1941 - 13 Apr 1941 Taha al-Hashimi (b. 1888 - d. 1961) 13 Apr 1941 - 30 May 1941 Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Jun 1941 - 10 Oct 1941 Jamil al-Midfai (4th time) (s.a.) 10 Oct 1941 - 4 Jun 1944 Nuri Pasha as-Said (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Jun 1944 - 23 Feb 1946 Hamdi al-Bajaji (b. 1891 - d. 1948) 23 Feb 1946 - 1 Jun 1946 Tawfiq al-Suwaidi (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jun 1946 - 21 Nov 1946 Arshad al-Umari (1st time) (b. 1888 - d. 1978) 21 Nov 1946 - 29 Mar 1947 Nuri Pasha as-Said (4th time) (s.a.) 29 Mar 1947 - 29 Jan 1948 Sayyid Salih Jabr (b. 1896 - d. 1957) 29 Jan 1948 - 26 Jun 1948 Sayyid Muhammad al-Sadr (b. 1882 - d. 1956) 26 Jun 1948 - 6 Jan 1949 Muzahim al-Bajaji (b. 1891? - d. 1982) 6 Jan 1949 - 10 Dec 1949 Nuri Pasha as-Said (5th time) (s.a.) 10 Dec 1949 - 5 Feb 1950 Ali Jawdat al-Aiyubi (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Feb 1950 - 15 Sep 1950 Tawfiq al-Suwaidi (3rd time) (s.a.) 15 Sep 1950 - 12 Jul 1952 Nuri Pasha as-Said (6th time) (s.a.) 12 Jul 1952 - 23 Nov 1952 Mustafa al-Umari (b. 1894 - d. ...) 23 Nov 1952 - 29 Jan 1953 Nureddin Mahmud (b. 1899 - d. ...) 29 Jan 1953 - 17 Sep 1953 Jamil al-Midfai (5th time) (s.a.) 17 Sep 1953 - 29 Apr 1954 Muhammad Fadhel al-Jamali (b. 1903 - d. 1997) 29 Apr 1954 - 4 Aug 1954 Arshad al-Umari (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Aug 1954 - 20 Jun 1957 Nuri Pasha as-Said (7th time) (s.a.) 20 Jun 1957 - 15 Dec 1957 Ali Jawdat al-Aiyubi (3rd time) (s.a.) 15 Dec 1957 - 3 Mar 1958 Abdul Wahhab Marjan (b. 1910 - d. 1964) 3 Mar 1958 - 18 May 1958 Nuri Pasha as-Said (8th time) (s.a.) (18 May - 14 Jul 1958 premier of Arab Union) 18 May 1958 - 14 Jul 1958 Ahmad Mukhtar Baban (b. 1900 - d. 1976) 14 Jul 1958 - 8 Feb 1963 Abdul Karim Kassem (b. 1914 - d. 1963) 8 Feb 1963 - 18 Nov 1963 Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (1st time) (s.a.) 20 Nov 1963 - 6 Sep 1965 Tahir Yahya (1st time) (b. 1913 - d. 1986) 6 Sep 1965 - 16 Sep 1965 Arif Abdul Razzak (b. 1921 - d. 2007) 21 Sep 1965 - 9 Aug 1966 Abdul Rahman al-Bazzaz (s.a.) 9 Aug 1966 - 10 May 1967 Naji Talib (b. 1917 - d. 2012) 10 May 1967 - 10 Jul 1967 Abdul Rahman Arif (s.a.) 10 Jul 1967 - 17 Jul 1968 Tahir Yahya (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Jul 1968 - 30 Jul 1968 Abdul Razzak al-Naif (b. 1933 - d. 1978) 31 Jul 1968 - 16 Jul 1979 Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Jul 1979 - 23 Mar 1991 Saddam Hussein (1st time) (s.a.) 23 Mar 1991 - 13 Sep 1991 Saadun Hammadi (b. 1930 - d. 2007) 16 Sep 1991 - 5 Sep 1993 Muhammad Hamza al-Zubaydi (b. 1938 - d. 2005) 5 Sep 1993 - 29 May 1994 Ahmad Hussein Khudayir al-Samarrai (b. 1941) 29 May 1994 - 9 Apr 2003 Saddam Hussein (2nd time) (s.a.) Civil administrators 21 Apr 2003 - 12 May 2003 Jay Garner (b. 1938) (director, Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance) 12 May 2003 - 28 Jun 2004 Paul Bremer (b. 1941) (head of the Coalition Provisional Authority) Presidents of the Governing Council (subordinated to the civil administrator) 13 Jul 2003 - 31 Jul 2003 Muhammad Bahr al-Uloum (1st time) (b. 1923?) (acting) 1 Aug 2003 - 31 Aug 2003 Ibrahim al-Jaafari (b. 1947) 1 Sep 2003 - 30 Sep 2003 Ahmad Chalabi (b. 1944) 1 Oct 2003 - 31 Oct 2003 Iyad Allawi (b. 1945) 1 Nov 2003 - 30 Nov 2003 Jalal Talabani (s.a.) 1 Dec 2003 - 31 Dec 2003 Abdul Aziz al-Hakim (b. 1959 - d. 2009) 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Jan 2004 Adnan Pachachi (b. 1923) 1 Feb 2004 - 29 Feb 2004 Mohsen Abdul Hamid (b. c.1937) 1 Mar 2004 - 31 Mar 2004 Muhammad Bahr al-Uloum (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Apr 2004 - 30 Apr 2004 Massoud Barzani (b. 1946) 1 May 2004 - 17 May 2004 Ezzedine Salim (b. 1940 - d. 2004) 17 May 2004 - 1 Jun 2004 Ghazi al-Yawer (s.a.) Prime ministers 1 Jun 2004 - 3 May 2005 Iyad Allawi (s.a.) (subordinated to the civil administrator to 28 Jun 2004) 3 May 2005 - 20 May 2006 Ibrahim al-Jaafari (s.a.) 20 May 2006 - Nuri al-Maliki (b. 1950)

Kurdistan

 4 Jul 1992                Kurdistan Regional Government formed (not recognized by Iraq)
31 Aug 1996                Iraqi forces take control of the capital Arbil at the
                           request of the Kurdish Democratic Party, which establishes
                           a government there, opposed to the one controlled by the
                           Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, which moves to Sulaymaniyah
   Jun 2005                Kurdistan autonomous region established

Governments of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan

De facto ruler (secretary-general of the PUK)
 4 Jul 1992 -    Jun 2005  Jalal Talabani                     (b. 1933)

Prime ministers 4 Jul 1992 - 26 Apr 1993 Fuad Masum (b. 1938) 26 Apr 1993 - 21 Jan 2001 Kosrat Rasul Ali 21 Jan 2001 - 4 Jul 2004 Barham Salih (b. 1960) 4 Jul 2004 - Jun 2005 Umar Fattah (acting)

Governments of the Kurdish Democratic Party

De facto ruler (president of the KDP)
31 Aug 1996 -    Jun 2005  Massoud Barzani                    (b. 1946)

Prime ministers 26 Sep 1996 - 20 Dec 1999 Rowsch Shaways (b. 1947) 20 Dec 1999 - Jun 2005 Nechirvan Barzani (b. 1966)

Autonomous region

President
14 Jun 2005 -              Massoud Barzani                    (s.a.)

Prime ministers Jun 2005 - 28 Oct 2009 Nechirvan Barzani (s.a.) 28 Oct 2009 - Barham Salih (s.a.)

Ireland

   Jun 1541                Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with England
 1 Jan 1801                part of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
24 Apr 1916 - 29 Apr 1916  "Easter Rising"
21 Jan 1919                independence declared (Irish Republic)
 6 Dec 1922                Irish Free State (dominion)
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty to the
                           British dominions
29 Dec 1937                Éire (Ireland)
18 Apr 1949                Republic of Ireland

Lord lieutenants
 6 Feb 1697 - 28 Dec 1700  Henry de Massue, Earl of Galway    (b. 1648 - d. 1720)
                           + Edward Villiers, Earl of Jersey  (b. 1656 - d. 1711)
                           (29 Jul 1697 - 1699)
                           + Narcissius Harsh
                           (18 May - Aug 1699)
                           + Charles Paulet, Duke of Bolton
                           (1st time) (from 18 May 1699)      (b. 1661 - d. 1722)
                           + Charles Berkeley, Earl of
                           Berkeley (from 23 Aug 1699)        (b. 1649 - d. 1710)
28 Dec 1700 - 18 Sep 1701  Cyril Wyche                        (b. c.1632 - d. 1707)
                           + Henry Sidney, Earl of Romney     (b. 1641 - d. 1704)
                           (acting)
18 Sep 1701 -  4 Jun 1703  Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester   (b. 1641 - d. 1711)
 4 Jun 1703 - 24 Jun 1707  James Butler, Duke of Ormonde
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1665 - d. 1745)
24 Jun 1707 - 21 Apr 1709  Thomas Herbert, Earl of Pembroke   (b. 1656 - d. 1733)
21 Apr 1709 -  3 Jul 1711  Thomas Wharton, Baron Wharton      (b. 1648 - d. 1715)
 3 Jul 1711 - 27 Oct 1713  James Butler, Duke of Ormonde
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
27 Oct 1713 -  4 Oct 1714  Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury (b. 1660 - d. 1718)
 4 Oct 1714 - 13 Feb 1717  Charles Spencer, Earl of
                           Sunderland                         (b. 1674 - d. 1722)
13 Feb 1717 -  7 Aug 1717  Charles Townshend, Viscount
                           Townshend                          (b. 1674 - d. 1738)
 7 Aug 1717 - 28 Aug 1721  Charles Paulet, Duke of Bolton
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
28 Aug 1721 - 22 Oct 1724  Charles Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton   (b. 1683 - d. 1757)
22 Oct 1724 -    Apr 1730  John Carteret, Baron Carteret      (b. 1690 - d. 1763)
   Apr 1730 - 11 Sep 1731  Hugh Boulter                       (b. 1672 - d. 1742)
                           + Thomas Wyndham                   (b. 1681 - d. 1745)
                           + Ralph Gore                       (b. 1675 - d. 1733)
                           (acting)
11 Sep 1731 -  7 Sep 1737  Lionel Cranfield Sackville,
                           Duke of Dorset (1st time)          (b. 1688 - d. 1765)
 7 Sep 1737 - 31 Aug 1745  William Cavendish, Duke of
                           Devonshire                         (b. 1698 - d. 1755)
31 Aug 1745 - 13 Sep 1747  Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of
                           Chesterfield                       (b. 1694 - d. 1773)
13 Sep 1747 -    Apr 1750  William Stanhope, Earl of
                           Harrington                         (b. 1690 - d. 1756)
   Apr 1750 - 19 Sep 1751  Henry Boyle (acting)               (b. 1682 - d. 1764)
19 Sep 1751 -  5 May 1755  Lionel Cranfield Sackville,
                           Duke of Dorset (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 5 May 1755 - 25 Sep 1757  William Cavendish, Duke of
                           Devonshire                         (b. 1720 - d. 1764)
25 Sep 1757 -  6 Oct 1761  John Russell, Duke of Bedford      (b. 1710 - d. 1771)
 6 Oct 1761 - 22 Sep 1763  George Montagu Dunk, Earl of
                           Halifax                            (b. 1716 - d. 1771)
22 Sep 1763 -  5 Jun 1765  Hugh Smithson Percy, Earl of
                           Northumberland                     (b. 1715 - d. 1786)
 5 Jun 1765 - 18 Oct 1765  Thomas Thynne, Viscount Weymouth   (b. 1734 - d. 1796)
18 Oct 1765 -  6 Oct 1766  Francis Seymour, Earl of Hertford  (b. 1718 - d. 1794)
 6 Oct 1766 - 14 Oct 1767  George William Hervey, Earl of
                           Bristol                            (b. 1721 - d. 1775)
14 Oct 1767 - 30 Nov 1772  George Townshend, Viscount
                           Townshend                          (b. 1724 - d. 1807)
30 Nov 1772 - 25 Jan 1777  Simon Harcourt, Earl Harcourt      (b. 1714 - d. 1777)
25 Jan 1777 - 23 Dec 1780  John Hobart, Earl of
                           Buckinghamshire                    (b. 1723 - d. 1793)
23 Dec 1780 - 14 Apr 1782  Frederick Howard, Earl of Carlisle (b. 1748 - d. 1825)
14 Apr 1782 - 15 Sep 1782  William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck,
                           Duke of Portland                   (b. 1738 - d. 1809)
15 Sep 1782 -  3 Jun 1783  George Nugent-Temple-Grenville,
                           Earl Temple (1st time)             (b. 1753 - d. 1813)
 3 Jun 1783 - 24 Feb 1784  Robert Henley, Earl of Northington (b. 1747 - d. 1786)
24 Feb 1784 - 24 Oct 1787  Charles Manners, Duke of Rutland   (b. 1754 - d. 1787)
16 Dec 1787 -  5 Jan 1790  George Nugent-Temple-Grenville,
                           Marquess of Buckingham (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 5 Jan 1790 -  4 Jan 1795  John Fane, Earl of Westmorland     (b. 1759 - d. 1841)
 4 Jan 1795 - 31 Mar 1795  William Wentworth Fitzwilliam,
                           Earl Fitzwilliam                   (b. 1748 - d. 1833)
31 Mar 1795 - 20 Jun 1798  John Jeffreys Pratt, Earl Camden   (b. 1759 - d. 1840)
20 Jun 1798 - 25 May 1801  Charles Cornwallis, Marquess
                           Cornwallis                         (b. 1738 - d. 1805)
25 May 1801 - 28 Mar 1806  Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke    (b. 1757 - d. 1834)
28 Mar 1806 - 19 Apr 1807  John Russell, Duke of Bedford      (b. 1766 - d. 1839)
19 Apr 1807 - 26 Aug 1813  Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond   (b. 1764 - d. 1819)
26 Aug 1813 -  9 Oct 1817  Charles, Earl of Whitworth         (b. 1752 - d. 1825)
 9 Oct 1817 - 29 Dec 1821  Charles Chetwynd Talbot,
                           Earl Talbot                        (b. 1777 - d. 1849)
29 Dec 1821 -  1 Mar 1828  Richard Colley Wellesley,
                           Marquess Wellesley (1st time)      (b. 1760 - d. 1842)
 1 Mar 1828 -  6 Mar 1829  Henry William Paget, Marquess of
                           Anglesey (1st time)                (b. 1768 - d. 1854)
 6 Mar 1829 - 23 Dec 1830  Hugh Percy, Duke of Northumberland (b. 1785 - d. 1847)
23 Dec 1830 - 26 Sep 1833  Henry William Paget, Marquess of
                           Anglesey (2nd time)                (s.a.)
26 Sep 1833 -  6 Jan 1835  Richard Colley Wellesley,
                           Marquess Wellesley (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 6 Jan 1835 -    Apr 1835  Thomas Hamilton, Earl of
                           Haddington                         (b. 1780 - d. 1858)
11 May 1835 -  3 Apr 1839  Constantine Henry Phipps, Earl of
                           Mulgrave (from 25 Jun 1838,
                           Constantine Henry Phipps,
                           Marquess of Normanby)              (b. 1797 - d. 1863)
 3 Apr 1839 - 15 Sep 1841  Hugh Fortescue, (from 1841) Earl
                           Fortescue                          (b. 1783 - d. 1861)
15 Sep 1841 - 26 Jul 1844  Thomas Philip Robinson,
                           Earl de Grey                       (b. 1781 - d. 1859)
26 Jul 1844 - 11 Jul 1846  William à Court, Baron Heytesbury  (b. 1779 - d. 1860)
11 Jul 1846 - 16 May 1847  John William Ponsonby, Earl
                           Bessborough                        (b. 1781 - d. 1847)
26 May 1847 - 10 Mar 1852  George Villiers, Earl of Clarendon (b. 1800 - d. 1883)
10 Mar 1852 -    Dec 1852  Archibald Montgomerie, Earl of
                           Eglinton (1st time)                (b. 1812 - d. 1861)
 6 Jan 1853 - 13 Mar 1855  Edward Granville Eliot, Earl of
                           St. Germans                        (b. 1798 - d. 1877)
13 Mar 1855 - 12 Mar 1858  George Howard, Earl of Carlisle
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1802 - d. 1864)
12 Mar 1858 - 13 Jul 1859  Archibald Montgomerie, Earl of
                           Eglinton (2nd time)                (s.a.)
13 Jul 1859 -  8 Nov 1864  George Howard, Earl of Carlisle
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1864 - 20 Jun 1866  John Wodehouse, Baron Wodehouse,
                           (from 1866) Earl of Kimberley      (b. 1826 - d. 1902)
20 Jun 1866 - 23 Dec 1868  James Hamilton, Marquess (from
                           1868, Duke) of Abercorn (1st time) (b. 1811 - d. 1885)
23 Dec 1868 - 18 Apr 1874  John Poyntz Spencer, Earl Spencer
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1835 - d. 1910)
18 Apr 1874 - 11 Dec 1876  James Hamilton, Duke of Abercorn
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
11 Dec 1876 -  5 May 1880  John Churchill, Duke of
                           Marlborough                        (b. 1822 - d. 1883)
 5 May 1880 -  6 May 1882  Francis Thomas de Grey,
                           Earl Cowper                        (b. 1834 - d. 1905)
 6 May 1882 - 30 Jun 1885  John Poyntz Spencer, Earl Spencer
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
30 Jun 1885 - 20 Feb 1886  Henry Herbert, Earl of Carnarvon   (b. 1831 - d. 1890)
20 Feb 1886 -  5 Aug 1886  John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon,
                           Earl of Aberdeen (1st time)        (b. 1847 - d. 1934)
 5 Aug 1886 -  5 Oct 1889  Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart,
                           Marquess of Londonderry            (b. 1852 - d. 1915)
 5 Oct 1889 - 18 Aug 1892  Lawrence Dundas, Earl of Zetland   (b. 1844 - d. 1929)
18 Aug 1892 -  8 Jul 1895  Robert Crewe-Milnes, Baron
                           Houghton                           (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
 8 Jul 1895 - 16 Aug 1902  George Henry Cadogan, Earl Cadogan (b. 1840 - d. 1915)
16 Aug 1902 - 14 Dec 1905  William Humble Ward, Earl of
                           Dudley                             (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
14 Dec 1905 - 19 Feb 1915  John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon,
                           Earl of Aberdeen (2nd time)        (s.a.)
19 Feb 1915 - 11 Jul 1916  Ivor Churchill Guest, Viscount
                           Wimborne (1st time)                (b. 1873 - d. 1939)
24 Apr 1916 - 29 Apr 1916    Patrick Henry Pearse             (b. 1879 - d. 1916)
                             (president of the Provisional Government
                             of the Irish Republic)
11 Jul 1916 - 11 Aug 1916  Lord justices (acting)
                           - Bernard Edward Barnaby
                             Fitzpatrick, Baron Castletown    (b. 1849 - d. 1937)
                           - Sir David Harrel                 (b. 1841 - d. 1939)
                           - Richard Robert Cherry            (b. 1859 - d. 1923)
                           - James Owen Wylie                 (b. 1845 - d. 1935)
                           - Jonathan Pim                     (b. 1858 - d. 1949)
11 Aug 1916 -  2 May 1918  Ivor Churchill Guest, Viscount
                           Wimborne (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 2 May 1918 -  2 May 1921  John French, Viscount French       (b. 1852 - d. 1925)
 2 May 1921 -  6 Dec 1922  Edmund Bernard Fitzalan-Howard,
                           Viscount Fitzalan of Derwent       (b. 1855 - d. 1947)
Chairmen of Dáil Éireann
21 Jan 1919                Cathal Brugha                      (b. 1874 - d. 1922)
22 Jan 1919                George Noble, Count Plunkett       (b. 1851 - d. 1948)
Presidents (of Dáil Éireann)¹
22 Jan 1919 -  1 Apr 1919  Cathal Brugha                      (s.a.)
 1 Apr 1919 -  9 Jan 1922  Eamon de Valera                    (b. 1882 - d. 1975)
10 Jan 1922 - 12 Aug 1922  Arthur Griffith                    (b. 1872 - d. 1922)
12 Aug 1922 -  6 Dec 1922  William Thomas Cosgrave            (b. 1880 - d. 1965)
                           (acting to 9 Sep 1922)
25 Oct 1922 - 24 May 1923    Eamon de Valera (in opposition)  (s.a.)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 6 Dec 1922 - 31 Jan 1928  T.M. Healy                         (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
 1 Feb 1928 -  1 Nov 1932  James McNeill                      (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
 1 Nov 1932 - 26 Nov 1932  vacant
26 Nov 1932 - 12 Dec 1936  Domhnall Ua Buachalla²             (b. 1866 - d. 1963)
12 Dec 1936 - 29 Dec 1937  Frank Fahy                         (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
                           + Eamon de Valera                  (s.a.)
                           (acting³)
Presidents
29 Dec 1937 - 25 Jun 1938  Presidential Commission (acting)
                           - Timothy Sullivan                 (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
                           - Frank Fahy                       (s.a.)
                           - Conor Alexander Maguire          (b. 1889 - d. 1971)
25 Jun 1938 - 24 Jun 1945  Douglas Hyde                       (b. 1860 - d. 1949)
24 Jun 1945 - 24 Jun 1959  Sean T. O'Kelly                    (b. 1882 - d. 1966)
25 Jun 1959 - 24 Jun 1973  Eamon de Valera                    (s.a.)
25 Jun 1973 - 17 Nov 1974  Erskine H. Childers                (b. 1905 - d. 1974)
17 Nov 1974 - 18 Dec 1974  Presidential Commission (acting)
                           - Sean Treacy (1st time)           (b. 1923)
                           - James Dooge (1st time)           (b. 1922 - d. 2010)
                           - Thomas O'Higgins (1st time)      (b. 1916 - d. 2003)
19 Dec 1974 - 22 Oct 1976  Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh                (b. 1911 - d. 1978)
22 Oct 1976 -  2 Dec 1976  Presidential Commission (acting)
                           - Sean Treacy (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                           - James Dooge (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                           - Thomas O'Higgins (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1976 -  2 Dec 1990  Patrick J. Hillery                 (b. 1923 - d. 2008)
 3 Dec 1990 - 12 Sep 1997  Mary Robinson (f)                  (b. 1944)
12 Sep 1997 - 10 Nov 1997  Presidential Commission (acting)
                           - Liam Hamilton                    (b. 1928 - d. 2000)
                           - Seamus Pattison                  (b. 1936)
                           - Liam T. Cosgrave                 (b. 1956)
                             (to 17 Sep 1997)
                           - Brian Mullooly                   (b. 1935)
                             (from 17 Sep 1997)
11 Nov 1997 - 11 Nov 2011  Mary McAleese (f)                  (b. 1951)
11 Nov 2011 -              Michael D. Higgins                 (b. 1941)

Chairmen of the Provisional Government 16 Jan 1922 - 22 Aug 1922 Michael Collins (b. 1890 - d. 1922) 12 Jul 1922 - 6 Dec 1922 William Thomas Cosgrave (s.a.) (acting to 25 Aug 1922 [for Collins to 22 Aug 1922]) Prime ministers (Taoiseach; until 29 Dec 1937, presidents of the Executive Council) 6 Dec 1922 - 9 Mar 1932 William Thomas Cosgrave (s.a.) 9 Mar 1932 - 18 Feb 1948 Eamon de Valera (1st time) (s.a.) 18 Feb 1948 - 13 Jun 1951 John A. Costello (1st time) (b. 1891 - d. 1976) 13 Jun 1951 - 2 Jun 1954 Eamon de Valera (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Jun 1954 - 20 Mar 1957 John A. Costello (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Mar 1957 - 23 Jun 1959 Eamon de Valera (3rd time) (s.a.) 23 Jun 1959 - 10 Nov 1966 Sean F. Lemass (b. 1899 - d. 1971) 10 Nov 1966 - 14 Mar 1973 John Lynch (1st time) (b. 1917 - d. 1999) 14 Mar 1973 - 5 Jul 1977 Liam Cosgrave (b. 1920) 5 Jul 1977 - 11 Dec 1979 John Lynch (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Dec 1979 - 30 Jun 1981 Charles Haughey (1st time) (b. 1925 - d. 2006) 30 Jun 1981 - 9 Mar 1982 Garret FitzGerald (1st time) (b. 1926 - d. 2011) 9 Mar 1982 - 14 Dec 1982 Charles Haughey (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Dec 1982 - 10 Mar 1987 Garret FitzGerald (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Mar 1987 - 11 Feb 1992 Charles Haughey (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Feb 1992 - 15 Dec 1994 Albert Reynolds (b. 1932) 15 Dec 1994 - 26 Jun 1997 John Bruton (b. 1947) 26 Jun 1997 - 7 May 2008 Bertie Ahern (b. 1951) 7 May 2008 - 9 Mar 2011 Brian Cowen (b. 1960) 9 Mar 2011 - Enda Kenny (b. 1951)
¹The English-language constitution of Dáil Éireann of 25 Aug 1921 uses the wording "President who shall also be Prime Minister." At the election on 26 Aug 1921 it is asserted in Dáil (in English) that the proper style is "President of the Irish Republic." At the election on 10 Jan 1922 this is deprecated, and it is asserted, without formal contradiction, that the style is Uachtarán ar an nDáil Éireann ("President of Dáil Éireann"); the matter is left unresolved, the incumbents thereafter using the latter style.
²Ua Buachalla indicated a preference for not being called governor-general, instead insisting to be styled Seneschal (a back-translation from his official Irish-language style Seneascal).
³The Dáil, in accepting the abdication of Edward VIII on 12 Dec 1936, did not proclaim the succession of George VI, but merely provided for the use of the U.K. crown for purposes of foreign representation, while leaving a hiatus in the transition to the new constitutional arrangements. There was no explicit provision for an interim head of state until the new constitution was to take effect on 29 Dec 1937. The domestic functions of the sovereign were exercised in part by the chairman of Dáil Éireann (Frank Fahy) and in part by the president of the Executive Council (Eamon de Valera).

Isle of Man

 8 Jun 1333                English fiefdom
 1 Jun 1765                British possession

Lords of Man
21 Dec 1672 -  5 Nov 1702  William Stanley, Earl of Derby     (b. 1654 - d. 1702)
 5 Nov 1702 -  1 Feb 1736  James Stanley, Earl of Derby       (b. 16... - d. 1736)
 1 Feb 1736 -  8 Jan 1764  James Murray, Duke of Atholl       (b. 1690 - d. 1764)
 8 Jan 1764 -  1 Jun 1765  John Murray, Duke of Atholl        (b. 1729 - d. 1774)
Governors
       1696 -        1701  Nicholas Stanley
       1701 -        1702  James Cranstoun
       1703 -        1713  Robert Mawdesley
       1713 -        1718  Charles Z. Stanley
       1718 -        1723  Alexander Horne
       1723 -        1725  John Lloyd
       1725 -        1736  Thomas Horton                      (b. ... - d. 1757)
       1736 -        1744  James Murray, Duke of Atholl       (s.a.)
       1744 -        1751  Patrick Lindsey
       1751 -        1761  Basil Cochrane
       1761 - 30 Apr 1777  John Wood                          (b. 1722 - d. 1777)
       1777 -        1793  Edward Smith                       (b. 17... - d. 1808)
       1793 -        1828  John Murray, Duke of Atholl        (b. 1755 - d. 1830)
Lieutenant governors (acting for the governors to 1828)
       1773 -        1775  Henry Hope                         (b. ... - d. 1789)
       1775 -    Dec 1790  Richard Dawson
   Dec 1790 -        1804  Alexander Shaw
       1804 -        1805  Henry Murray, Earl of Murray       (b. 17... - d. 1805)
       1805 - 28 Nov 1832  Cornelius Smelt                    (b. 1748 - d. 1832)
       1832 -        1845  John Ready                         (b. 1777 - d. 1845)
       1845 -    Jul 1860  Charles Hope                       (b. 1808 - d. ...)
       1860                Mark Hildesley Quayle (1st time)   (b. 1804 - d. 1879)
                           (acting)
       1860 -        1863  Francis Stainsby Conant Piggott    (b. ... - d. 1863)
       1863                Mark Hildesley Quayle (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
       1863 -        1882  Henry Brougham Loch (from 1880,
                           Sir Henry Brougham Loch)           (b. 1827 - d. 1900)
       1882 -        1893  Sir Spencer Walpole                (b. 1839 - d. 1907)
       1893 -        1895  Sir Joseph West Ridgeway           (b. 1844 - d. 1930)
       1895 - 27 Jun 1902  John Major Henniker-Major,
                           Baron Henniker                     (b. 1842 - d. 1902)
       1902 -        1918  George Fitzroy Henry, Baron Raglan (b. 1857 - d. 1921)
       1918 -        1925  William Fry                        (b. 1858 - d. 1934)
       1925 -        1932  Sir Claude Hill                    (b. 1866 - d. 1934)
       1932 -        1937  Sir Montagu Sherard Dawes Butler   (b. 1873 - d. 1952)
       1937 -        1945  William Spencer Leveson Gower,
                           (from 1939) Earl Granville         (b. 1880 - d. 1953)
 7 Sep 1945 -        1952  Sir Geoffrey Rhodes Bromet         (b. 1891 - d. 1983)
 7 Sep 1952 -        1959  Sir Ambrose Dundas Flux Dundas     (b. 1899 - d. 1973)
 8 Sep 1959 -        1966  Sir Ronald Herbert Garvey          (b. 1903 - d. 1991)
 7 Sep 1966 -        1974  Sir Peter Hyla Gawne Stallard      (b. 1915 - d. 1995)
       1974 -        1980  Sir John Warburton Paul            (b. 1916 - d. 2004)
       1980 -        1985  Sir Nigel Cecil                    (b. 1925)
       1985 -        1990  Laurence New                       (b. 1932)
       1990 -        1995  Sir Laurence Jones                 (b. 1933 - d. 1995)
27 Oct 1995 -  1 Sep 2000  Sir Timothy Daunt                  (b. 1935)
 1 Sep 2000 - 25 Oct 2000  Thomas William Cain (acting)       (b. 1935)
25 Oct 2000 - 27 Sep 2005  Ian David Macfadyen                (b. 1942)
27 Sep 2005 - 17 Oct 2005  Michael Kerruish (acting)          (b. 1948 - d. 2010)
17 Oct 2005 -  1 Apr 2011  Sir Paul Haddacks                  (b. 1946)
 1 Apr 2011 -  7 Apr 2011  David Doyle (acting)
 7 Apr 2011 -              Adam Wood                          (b. 1955)

Chairmen of the Executive Council 1961 - Feb 1967 Charles Kerruish (b. 1917 - d. 2003) Feb 1967 - Jan 1971 E. Norman Crowe (b. 1905 - d. 1992) Jan 1971 - Jan 1977 Percy Radcliffe (1st time) (b. 1916 - d. 1991) Jan 1977 - 24 Nov 1981 Clifford Irving (b. 1914 - d. 2004) 24 Nov 1981 - Mar 1985 Percy Radcliffe (2nd time) (s.a.) Mar 1985 - Dec 1986 Edgar Mann (b. 1926 - d. 2013) Chief ministers Dec 1986 - 3 Dec 1996 Miles Walker (b. 1940) 3 Dec 1996 - 4 Dec 2001 Donald Gelling (1st time) (b. 1938) 4 Dec 2001 - 14 Dec 2004 Richard Corkill (b. 1951) 14 Dec 2004 - 14 Dec 2006 Donald Gelling (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Dec 2006 - 11 Oct 2011 Tony Brown (b. 1950) 11 Oct 2011 - Allan Bell (b. 1947)

Israel

       1516                part of Ottoman Empire
 9 Dec 1917                British capture Jerusalem
26 Sep 1918                British occupation of all Palestine
29 Sep 1923                League of Nations mandate
14 May 1948                independence (State of Israel)

Military administrators
 9 Dec 1917 -    Jun 1918  Sir Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby    (b. 1861 - d. 1936)
   Jun 1918 -    Jun 1919  Sir Arthur Wigram Money            (b. 1866 - d. 1951)
   Jun 1919 -  1 Jul 1920  Sir Louis Jean Bols                (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
High commissioners
 1 Jul 1920 - 30 Jun 1925  Sir Herbert Louis Samuel           (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
25 Aug 1925 - 31 Jul 1928  Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer,
                           Baron Plumer                       (b. 1857 - d. 1932)
31 Jul 1928 -  6 Dec 1928  Sir Harry Charles Luke (acting)    (b. 1884 - d. 1969)
 6 Dec 1928 -  1 Nov 1931  Sir John Robert Chancellor         (b. 1870 - d. 1952)
 1 Nov 1931 - 20 Nov 1931  Mark Young (acting)                (b. 1886 - d. 1974)
20 Nov 1931 -  1 Mar 1938  Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope       (b. 1874 - d. 1947)
   Sep 1937 - 24 Nov 1937    William Denis Battershill        (b. 1896 - d. 1959)
                             (acting for Wauchope)
 3 Mar 1938 - 30 Aug 1944  Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael       (b. 1882 - d. 1969)
 1 Nov 1944 -  5 Nov 1945  John Standish Surtees Prendergast
                           Vereker, Viscount Gort             (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
21 Nov 1945 - 14 May 1948  Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham         (b. 1887 - d. 1983)
Presidents
14 May 1948 - 17 May 1948  David Ben-Gurion                   (b. 1886 - d. 1973)
                           (chairman Provisional State Council)
17 May 1948 -  9 Nov 1952  Chaim Weizmann                     (b. 1874 - d. 1952)
                           (president of Provisional State Council to 17 Feb 1949)
 9 Nov 1952 - 10 Dec 1952  Yosef Sprinzak (interim)           (b. 1885 - d. 1959)
10 Dec 1952 - 23 Apr 1963  Yitzhak Ben-Zvi                    (b. 1884 - d. 1963)
24 Apr 1963 - 22 May 1963  Kadish Luz (interim)               (b. 1895 - d. 1972)
22 May 1963 - 24 May 1973  Zalman Shazar                      (b. 1889 - d. 1974)
24 May 1973 - 29 May 1978  Ephraim Katzir                     (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
29 May 1978 -  5 May 1983  Yitzhak Navon                      (b. 1921)
 5 May 1983 - 13 May 1993  Chaim Herzog                       (b. 1918 - d. 1997)
13 May 1993 - 12 Jul 2000  Ezer Weizman                       (b. 1924 - d. 2005)
12 Jul 2000 -  1 Aug 2000  Avraham Burg (interim)             (b. 1955)
 1 Aug 2000 -  1 Jul 2007  Moshe Katsav                       (b. 1945)
25 Jan 2007 -  1 Jul 2007    Dalia Itzik (f)                  (b. 1952)
                             (acting for Katsav)
 1 Jul 2007 - 15 Jul 2007  Dalia Itzik (f) (interim)          (s.a.)
15 Jul 2007 -              Shimon Peres                       (b. 1923)

Prime ministers 14 May 1948 - 7 Dec 1953 David Ben-Gurion (1st time) (s.a.) 7 Dec 1953 - 3 Nov 1955 Moshe Sharett (b. 1894 - d. 1965) (acting to 26 Jan 1954) 3 Nov 1955 - 26 Jun 1963 David Ben-Gurion (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jun 1963 - 26 Feb 1969 Levi Eshkol (b. 1895 - d. 1969) 26 Feb 1969 - 17 Mar 1969 Yigal Allon (acting) (b. 1918 - d. 1980) 17 Mar 1969 - 3 Jun 1974 Golda Meir (f) (b. 1898 - d. 1978) 3 Jun 1974 - 22 Apr 1977 Yitzhak Rabin (1st time) (b. 1922 - d. 1995) 22 Apr 1977 - 21 Jun 1977 Shimon Peres (1st time) (acting) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1977 - 10 Oct 1983 Menachem Begin (b. 1913 - d. 1992) 10 Oct 1983 - 14 Sep 1984 Yitzhak Shamir (1st time) (b. 1915 - d. 2012) 14 Sep 1984 - 20 Oct 1986 Shimon Peres (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Oct 1986 - 13 Jul 1992 Yitzhak Shamir (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Jul 1992 - 4 Nov 1995 Yitzhak Rabin (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Nov 1995 - 18 Jun 1996 Shimon Peres (3rd time) (s.a.) (acting to 22 Nov 1995) 18 Jun 1996 - 6 Jul 1999 Benjamin Netanyahu (1st time) (b. 1949) 6 Jul 1999 - 7 Mar 2001 Ehud Barak (b. 1942) 7 Mar 2001 - 14 Apr 2006 Ariel Sharon (b. 1928 - d. 2014) 4 Jan 2006 - 31 Mar 2009 Ehud Olmert (b. 1945) (acting for Sharon to 14 Apr 2006) 31 Mar 2009 - Benjamin Netanyahu (2nd time) (s.a.)

Italian East Africa: see under Ethiopia.

Italy

17 Mar 1861                Kingdom of Italy
18 Jun 1946                Italian Republic
27 Jun 2003                Republic of Italy (date of communication to United Nations
                           about change in English version; Italian name unchanged)

Kings¹
- Savoia dynasty -
17 Mar 1861 -  9 Jan 1878  Vittorio Emanuele II               (b. 1820 - d. 1878)
 9 Jan 1878 - 29 Jul 1900  Umberto I                          (b. 1844 - d. 1900)
29 Jul 1900 -  9 May 1946  Vittorio Emanuele III              (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
 5 Jun 1944 -  9 May 1946    Prince Umberto                   (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
                             (lieutenant general of the realm)
 9 May 1946 - 18 Jun 1946  Umberto II                         (s.a.)
Provisional Heads of State
18 Jun 1946 -  1 Jul 1946  Alcide De Gasperi (acting)         (b. 1881 - d. 1954)
 1 Jul 1946 -  1 Jan 1948  Enrico De Nicola                   (b. 1877 - d. 1959)
Presidents
 1 Jan 1948 - 12 May 1948  Enrico De Nicola                   (s.a.)
12 May 1948 - 11 May 1955  Luigi Einaudi                      (b. 1874 - d. 1961)
11 May 1955 - 11 May 1962  Giovanni Gronchi                   (b. 1887 - d. 1978)
11 May 1962 -  6 Dec 1964  Antonio Segni                      (b. 1891 - d. 1972)
 6 Dec 1964 - 29 Dec 1964  Cesare Merzagora (acting)          (b. 1898 - d. 1991)
29 Dec 1964 - 29 Dec 1971  Giuseppe Saragat                   (b. 1898 - d. 1988)
29 Dec 1971 - 15 Jun 1978  Giovanni Leone                     (b. 1908 - d. 2001)
15 Jun 1978 -  9 Jul 1978  Amintore Fanfani (acting)          (b. 1908 - d. 1999)
 9 Jul 1978 - 29 Jun 1985  Sandro Pertini                     (b. 1896 - d. 1990)
29 Jun 1985 - 28 Apr 1992  Francesco Cossiga                  (b. 1928 - d. 2010)
                           (acting to 3 Jul 1985)
28 Apr 1992 - 28 May 1992  Giovanni Spadolini (acting)        (b. 1925 - d. 1994)
28 May 1992 - 15 May 1999  Oscar Luigi Scalfaro               (b. 1918 - d. 2012)
15 May 1999 - 18 May 1999  Nicola Mancino (acting)            (b. 1931)
18 May 1999 - 15 May 2006  Carlo Azeglio Ciampi               (b. 1920)
15 May 2006 -              Giorgio Napolitano                 (b. 1925)

Prime ministers (presidents of the Council of Ministers) 17 Mar 1861 - 6 Jun 1861 Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour (b. 1810 - d. 1861) 6 Jun 1861 - 4 Mar 1862 Bettino Ricasoli, conte di Brolio (1st time) (b. 1809 - d. 1880) 4 Mar 1862 - 9 Dec 1862 Urbano Rattazzi (1st time) (b. 1808 - d. 1873) 9 Dec 1862 - 24 Mar 1863 Luigi Carlo Farini (b. 1812 - d. 1866) 24 Mar 1863 - 23 Sep 1864 Marco Minghetti (1st time) (b. 1818 - d. 1886) 23 Sep 1864 - 17 Jun 1866 Alfonso Ferrero, marchese di La Marmora (b. 1804 - d. 1878) 17 Jun 1866 - 11 Apr 1867 Bettino Ricasoli, conte di Brolio (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Apr 1867 - 27 Oct 1867 Urbano Rattazzi (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Oct 1867 - 12 Dec 1869 Conte Luigi Federico Menabrea (b. 1809 - d. 1896) 12 Dec 1869 - 10 Aug 1873 Giovanni Lanza (b. 1810 - d. 1882) 10 Aug 1873 - 25 Mar 1876 Marco Minghetti (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Mar 1876 - 23 Mar 1878 Agostino Depretis (1st time) (b. 1813 - d. 1887) 23 Mar 1878 - 18 Dec 1878 Benedetto Cairoli (1st time) (b. 1825 - d. 1889) 18 Dec 1878 - 12 Jul 1879 Agostino Depretis (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Jul 1879 - 28 May 1881 Benedetto Cairoli (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 May 1881 - 29 Jul 1887 Agostino Depretis (3rd time) (s.a.) 8 Aug 1887 - 9 Feb 1891 Francesco Crispi (1st time) (b. 1819 - d. 1901) 9 Feb 1891 - 15 May 1892 Antonio Starabba, marchese di Rudinì (1st time) (b. 1839 - d. 1908) 15 May 1892 - 10 Dec 1893 Giovanni Giolitti (1st time) (b. 1842 - d. 1928) 10 Dec 1893 - 10 Mar 1896 Francesco Crispi (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Mar 1896 - 29 Jun 1898 Antonio Starabba, marchese di Rudinì (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Jun 1898 - 24 Jun 1900 Luigi Pelloux (b. 1839 - d. 1924) 24 Jun 1900 - 15 Feb 1901 Giuseppe Saracco (b. 1821 - d. 1907) 15 Feb 1901 - 3 Nov 1903 Giuseppe Zanardelli (b. 1826 - d. 1903) 3 Nov 1903 - 12 Mar 1905 Giovanni Giolitti (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Mar 1905 - 28 Mar 1905 Tommaso Tittoni (b. 1855 - d. 1931) 28 Mar 1905 - 8 Feb 1906 Alessandro Fortis (b. 1842 - d. 1909) 8 Feb 1906 - 29 May 1906 Barone Sidney Sonnino (1st time) (b. 1847 - d. 1922) 29 May 1906 - 11 Dec 1909 Giovanni Giolitti (3rd time) (s.a.) 11 Dec 1909 - 31 Mar 1910 Barone Sidney Sonnino (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Mar 1910 - 30 Mar 1911 Luigi Luzzatti (b. 1841 - d. 1927) 30 Mar 1911 - 21 Mar 1914 Giovanni Giolitti (4th time) (s.a.) 21 Mar 1914 - 19 Jun 1916 Antonio Salandra (b. 1853 - d. 1931) 19 Jun 1916 - 30 Oct 1917 Paolo Boselli (b. 1838 - d. 1932) 30 Oct 1917 - 23 Jun 1919 Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (b. 1860 - d. 1952) 23 Jun 1919 - 16 Jun 1920 Francesco Saverio Nitti (b. 1868 - d. 1953) 16 Jun 1920 - 4 Jul 1921 Giovanni Giolitti (5th time) (s.a.) 4 Jul 1921 - 25 Feb 1922 Ivanoe Bonomi (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1951) 25 Feb 1922 - 31 Oct 1922 Luigi Facta (b. 1861 - d. 1930) 31 Oct 1922 - 25 Jul 1943 Benito Mussolini (b. 1883 - d. 1945) 26 Jul 1943 - 9 Jun 1944 Pietro Badoglio (b. 1871 - d. 1956) 9 Jun 1944 - 21 Jun 1945 Ivanoe Bonomi (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1945 - 10 Dec 1945 Ferruccio Parri (b. 1890 - d. 1981) 10 Dec 1945 - 17 Aug 1953 Alcide De Gasperi (s.a.) 17 Aug 1953 - 18 Jan 1954 Giuseppe Pella (b. 1902 - d. 1981) 18 Jan 1954 - 10 Feb 1954 Amintore Fanfani (1st time) (s.a.) 10 Feb 1954 - 6 Jul 1955 Mario Scelba (b. 1901 - d. 1991) 6 Jul 1955 - 19 May 1957 Antonio Segni (1st time) (s.a.) 19 May 1957 - 1 Jul 1958 Adone Zoli (b. 1887 - d. 1960) 1 Jul 1958 - 15 Feb 1959 Amintore Fanfani (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Feb 1959 - 26 Mar 1960 Antonio Segni (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Mar 1960 - 27 Jul 1960 Fernando Tambroni (b. 1901 - d. 1963) 27 Jul 1960 - 21 Jun 1963 Amintore Fanfani (3rd time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1963 - 5 Dec 1963 Giovanni Leone (1st time) (s.a.) 5 Dec 1963 - 25 Jun 1968 Aldo Moro (1st time) (b. 1916 - d. 1978) 25 Jun 1968 - 13 Dec 1968 Giovanni Leone (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Dec 1968 - 6 Aug 1970 Mariano Rumor (1st time) (b. 1915 - d. 1990) 6 Aug 1970 - 18 Feb 1972 Emilio Colombo (b. 1920 - d. 2013) 18 Feb 1972 - 8 Jul 1973 Giulio Andreotti (1st time) (b. 1919 - d. 2013) 8 Jul 1973 - 23 Nov 1974 Mariano Rumor (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Nov 1974 - 30 Jul 1976 Aldo Moro (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Jul 1976 - 5 Aug 1979 Giulio Andreotti (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Aug 1979 - 18 Oct 1980 Francesco Cossiga (s.a.) 18 Oct 1980 - 28 Jun 1981 Arnaldo Forlani (b. 1925) 28 Jun 1981 - 30 Nov 1982 Giovanni Spadolini (s.a.) 30 Nov 1982 - 4 Aug 1983 Amintore Fanfani (4th time) (s.a.) 4 Aug 1983 - 18 Apr 1987 Bettino Craxi (b. 1934 - d. 2000) 18 Apr 1987 - 29 Jul 1987 Amintore Fanfani (5th time) (s.a.) 29 Jul 1987 - 13 Apr 1988 Giovanni Goria (b. 1943 - d. 1994) 13 Apr 1988 - 23 Jul 1989 Ciriaco De Mita (b. 1928) 23 Jul 1989 - 28 Jun 1992 Giulio Andreotti (3rd time) (s.a.) 28 Jun 1992 - 29 Apr 1993 Giuliano Amato (1st time) (b. 1938) 29 Apr 1993 - 11 May 1994 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (s.a.) 11 May 1994 - 17 Jan 1995 Silvio Berlusconi (1st time) (b. 1936) 17 Jan 1995 - 18 May 1996 Lamberto Dini (b. 1931) 18 May 1996 - 21 Oct 1998 Romano Prodi (1st time) (b. 1939) 21 Oct 1998 - 26 Apr 2000 Massimo D'Alema (b. 1949) 26 Apr 2000 - 11 Jun 2001 Giuliano Amato (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Jun 2001 - 17 May 2006 Silvio Berlusconi (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 May 2006 - 8 May 2008 Romano Prodi (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 May 2008 - 16 Nov 2011 Silvio Berlusconi (3rd time) (s.a.) 16 Nov 2011 - 28 Apr 2013 Mario Monti (b. 1943) 28 Apr 2013 - 22 Feb 2014 Enrico Letta (b. 1966) 22 Feb 2014 - Matteo Renzi (b. 1975)
¹Full title: Per Grazia di Dio e per Volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia ("By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy").

Italian Social Republic (counter-government at Lake Garda)

 1 Dec 1943                National Republican State of Italy renamed Italian Social Republic

Head of State
23 Sep 1943 - 28 Apr 1945  Benito Mussolini                   (s.a.)

Partisan republics in 1944

In 1944 the Committee of National Liberation of Upper Italy staged a revolt that resulted in the establishment of a number of "partisan republics." Within the same year, however, they were reconquered by the occupying Germans. They were: Alto Monferrato (Sep - 2 Dec), Alto Tortonese (Sep-Dec), Bobbio (7 Jul - 27 Aug), Cansiglio (Jul-Sep), Carnia (Jul-Oct), Friuli Orientale (30 Jun - Sep), Imperia (Aug-Oct), Langhe (Sep-Nov), Montefiorino (17 Jun - 1 Aug), Ossola (10 Sep - 23 Oct), Val Ceno (10 Jun - 11 Jul), Val d'Enza e Val Parma (Jun-Jul), Val Maira e Val Varaita (Jun - 21 Aug), Val Taro (15 Jun - 24 Jul), Valli di Lanzo (25 Jun - Sep), Valsesia (11 Jun - 10 Jul), and Varzi (Sep - 29 Nov). Ossola was the only republic which received some recognition both by Swiss officials and by local Allied representatives.
President of the Provisional Junta of Government of Ossola
10 Sep 1944 - 23 Oct 1944  Ettore Tibaldi                     (b. 1887 - d. 1968)

Allied occupation

Heads of the Allied Military Government
10 Jul 1943 -    Jan 1944  Dwight D. Eisenhower (U.S.)        (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
   Jan 1944 -        1944  Sir Henry Maitland Wilson (U.K.)   (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
12 Dec 1944 - 29 Sep 1945  Sir Harold Alexander (U.K.)        (b. 1891 - d. 1969)
   Sep 1945 -        1945  Joseph Taggart McNarney (U.S.)     (b. 1893 - d. 1972)
                           (acting)
       1945 -        1947  Sir William Duthie Morgan (U.K.)   (b. 1891 - d. 1977)
       1947                John Clifford Hodges Lee (U.S.)    (b. 1887 - d. 1958)
                           (acting)
Chief commissioners of the Allied Control Commission
(from 24 Oct 1944, Allied Commission)
10 Nov 1943 -    Jan 1944  Kenyon A. Joyce (U.S.)             (b. 1879 - d. 1960)
   Jan 1944 -    Jun 1944  Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane (U.K.)   (b. 1889 - d. 1953)
   Jun 1944 - 31 Jan 1947  Ellery W. Stone (U.S.)             (b. 1894 - d. 1981)

Trieste

15 Sep 1947                Free Territory of Trieste
26 Oct 1954                divided between Italy and Yugoslavia

Military governors
- Zone A (British-U.S.) -
15 Sep 1947 - 31 Mar 1951  Sir Terence Sydney Airey           (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
 1 Apr 1951 - 26 Oct 1954  Sir John Winterton                 (b. 1898 - d. 1987)
- Zone B (Yugoslav) -
15 Sep 1947 -    Mar 1951  Mirko Lenac                        (b. 1919 - d. 1956)
   Mar 1951 - 25 Oct 1954  Milos Stamatovic                   (b. 1914)

Ivory Coast: see Côte d'Ivoire.