Rulers

Countries Br-Bu

Contents of this page:
Brazil - British Indian Ocean Territory - British Virgin Islands - Brunei - Bulgaria - Burkina Faso - Burundi

Brazil

       1530                Portuguese colony
       1714                Viceroyalty of Brazil
16 Dec 1815                Kingdom of Brazil (part of the United Kingdom of
                           Portugal, Brazil, and Algarve)
 7 Sep 1822                independence of Kingdom of Brazil proclaimed
12 Oct 1822                Empire of Brazil
15 Nov 1889                Republic of the United States of Brazil
15 Mar 1967                Federative Republic of Brazil

Governors-general
22 May 1694 -  3 Jul 1702  João de Lencastre                  (b. 1646 - d. 1707)
 3 Jul 1702 -  8 Sep 1708  Rodrigo da Costa                   (b. 1657 - d. 1722)
 8 Sep 1708 -  3 May 1710  Luís César de Meneses              (b. 1653 - d. 1720)
 3 May 1710 - 14 Oct 1711  Lourenço de Almada                 (b. c.1650 - d. 1729)
14 Oct 1711 - 13 Jul 1714  Pedro de Vasconcellos e Sousa      (b. 1664 - d. 1732)
Viceroys
13 Jul 1714 - 11 Jun 1718  Pedro de Noronha Albuquerque e
                           Sousa, conde de Villa Verde,
                           marquês de Angeja                  (b. 1661 - d. 1731)
21 Aug 1718 - 13 Oct 1719  Sancho de Faro e Souza, conde
                           de Vimieiro (governor-general)     (b. 1659 - d. 1719)
14 Oct 1719 - 23 Nov 1720  Provisional Government Junta
                           - Sebastião Monteiro da Vide
                           - Caetano de Brito e Figueiredo
                           - João de Araújo e Azevedo
23 Nov 1720 - 11 May 1735  Vasco Fernandes César de Meneses,
                           conde de Sabugosa                  (b. 1673 - d. 1743)
11 May 1735 - 17 Dec 1749  André de Melo e Castro, conde
                           das Galveias                       (b. 1668 - d. 1753)
17 Dec 1749 - 17 Aug 1754  Luís Pedro Peregrino de Carvalho
                           e Ataíde, conde de Atouguia        (b. 1700 - d. 1758)
17 Aug 1754 - 23 Dec 1755  Provisional Government Junta
                           - José Botelho de Matos
                           - Manuel Antônio da Cunha
                             Souto Maior
                           - Lourenço Monteiro
23 Dec 1755 -  9 Jan 1760  Marcos José de Noronha e Brito,
                           conde dos Arcos                    (b. 1712 - d. 1768)
 9 Jan 1760 -  4 Jul 1760  Antônio de Almeida Soares e
                           Portugal, conde de Avintes,
                           marquês do Lavradio                (b. 1699 - d. 1761)
 4 Jul 1760 - 27 Jun 1763  Provisional Government Junta
                           - Tomás Rubi de Barros Barreto
                           - José Carvalho de Andrada
                           - Barros e Alvim
27 Jun 1763 - 31 Aug 1767  Antônio Álvares da Cunha, conde
                           da Cunha                           (b. c.1700 - d. 1791)
17 Nov 1767 -  4 Nov 1769  Antônio Rolim de Moura Tavares,
                           conde de Azambuja                  (b. 1709 - d. 1782)
 4 Nov 1769 - 30 Apr 1778  Luís de Almeida Portugal Soares,
                           conde e marquês de Lavradio        (b. 1729 - d. 1790)
30 Apr 1778 -  9 May 1790  Luís de Vasconcellos e Sousa       (b. 1742 - d. 1809)
 9 May 1790 - 14 Oct 1801  José Luís de Castro, conde de
                           Resende                            (b. 1744 - d. 1819)
14 Oct 1801 - 21 Aug 1806  Fernando José de Portugal e
                           Castro, conde e marquês de Aguiar  (b. 1752 - d. 1817)
14 Oct 1806 - 22 Jan 1808  Marcos de Noronha e Brito,
                           conde dos Arcos                    (b. 1769 - d. 1828)
22 Jan 1808 - 16 Dec 1815  Prince João                        (b. 1767 - d. 1826)
Kings/Queens
- Bragança dynasty -
16 Dec 1815 - 20 Mar 1816  Maria I (f)                        (b. 1734 - d. 1816)
16 Dec 1815 - 20 Mar 1816    Prince João                      (s.a.)
                             (regent for incapacitated Maria)
20 Mar 1816 -  7 Sep 1822  João VI                            (s.a.)
 7 Sep 1822 - 12 Oct 1822  Prince Pedro (regent)              (b. 1798 - d. 1834)
Emperors¹
- Bragança dynasty -
12 Oct 1822 -  7 Apr 1831  Pedro I                            (s.a.)
 7 Apr 1831 - 15 Nov 1889  Pedro II                           (b. 1825 - d. 1891)
 7 Apr 1831 - 18 Jun 1831    Provisional Regency
                             - José Joaquim Carneiro de
                               Campos, visconde e marquês
                               de Caravelas                   (b. 1768 - d. 1836)
                             - Nicolau Pereira de Campos
                               Vergueiro                      (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
                             - Francisco de Lima e Silva      (b. 1785 - d. 1853)
18 Jun 1831 - 12 Oct 1835    Regency
                             - Francisco de Lima e Silva      (s.a.)
                             - José da Costa Carvalho         (b. 1796 - d. 1860)
                             - João Bráulio Muniz             (b. 1796 - d. 1835)
                               (to 20 Sep 1835)
12 Oct 1835 - 19 Sep 1837    Diogo Antônio Feijó (regent)     (b. 1784 - d. 1843)
19 Sep 1837 - 23 Jul 1840    Pedro de Araújo Lima             (b. 1793 - d. 1870)
                             (regent; provisional to 7 Oct 1838)
25 May 1871 - 31 Mar 1872    Isabel (f) (1st time) (regent)   (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
26 Mar 1876 - 25 Sep 1877    Isabel (f) (2nd time) (regent)   (s.a.)
30 Jun 1887 - 22 Aug 1888    Isabel (f) (3rd time) (regent)   (s.a.)
Presidents
15 Nov 1889 - 23 Nov 1891  Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca          (b. 1827 - d. 1892)
                           (head of Provisional Government to 25 Feb 1891)
23 Nov 1891 - 15 Nov 1894  Floriano Peixoto (acting)          (b. 1839 - d. 1895)
15 Nov 1894 - 15 Nov 1898  Prudente José de Morais Barros     (b. 1841 - d. 1902)
10 Nov 1896 -  4 Mar 1897    Manuel Vitorino Pereira          (b. 1853 - d. 1902)
                             (acting for Morais)
15 Nov 1898 - 15 Nov 1902  Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales      (b. 1841 - d. 1913)
15 Nov 1902 - 15 Nov 1906  Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves (b. 1848 - d. 1919)
15 Nov 1906 - 14 Jun 1909  Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena        (b. 1847 - d. 1909)
14 Jun 1909 - 15 Nov 1910  Nilo Peçanha                       (b. 1867 - d. 1924)
15 Nov 1910 - 15 Nov 1914  Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca        (b. 1855 - d. 1923)
15 Nov 1914 - 15 Nov 1918  Venceslau Brás Pereira Gomes       (b. 1868 - d. 1966)
15 Nov 1918 - 28 Jul 1919  Delfim Moreira (acting)            (b. 1868 - d. 1920)
28 Jul 1919 - 15 Nov 1922  Epitâcio da Silva Pessoa           (b. 1865 - d. 1942)
15 Nov 1922 - 15 Nov 1926  Artur da Silva Bernardes           (b. 1875 - d. 1955)
15 Nov 1926 - 24 Oct 1930  Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa   (b. 1869 - d. 1957)
24 Oct 1930 -  3 Nov 1930  Augusto Tasso Fragoso              (b. 1869 - d. 1945)
                           (chairman Government Junta)
 3 Nov 1930 - 29 Oct 1945  Getúlio Vargas (1st time)          (b. 1882 - d. 1954)
                           (head of Provisional Government to 20 Jul 1934)
29 Oct 1945 - 31 Jan 1946  José Linhares                      (b. 1886 - d. 1957)
31 Jan 1946 - 31 Jan 1951  Eurico Gaspar Dutra                (b. 1883 - d. 1974)
31 Jan 1951 - 24 Aug 1954  Getúlio Vargas (2nd time)          (s.a.)
24 Aug 1954 - 31 Jan 1956  João Café Filho                    (b. 1899 - d. 1970)
 9 Nov 1955 - 11 Nov 1955    Carlos Coimbra da Luz            (b. 1894 - d. 1961)
                             (acting for Café)
11 Nov 1955 - 31 Jan 1956    Nereu de Oliveira Ramos          (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
                             (acting for Café)
31 Jan 1956 - 31 Jan 1961  Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira   (b. 1902 - d. 1976)
31 Jan 1961 - 25 Aug 1961  Jânio da Silva Quadros             (b. 1917 - d. 1992)
25 Aug 1961 -  7 Sep 1961  Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1910 - d. 1975)
 7 Sep 1961 -  2 Apr 1964  João Goulart                       (b. 1919 - d. 1976)
 2 Apr 1964 - 15 Apr 1964  Pascoal Ranieri Mazzilli
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
15 Apr 1964 - 15 Mar 1967  Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco (b. 1900 - d. 1967)
15 Mar 1967 - 14 Oct 1969  Artur da Costa e Silva             (b. 1902 - d. 1969)
14 Oct 1969 - 30 Oct 1969  Military junta
                           (ministers of navy, army, and military aeronautics)
                           (acting for Costa e Silva from 31 Aug 1969)
                           - Augusto Hamann Rademaker
                             Grünewald                        (b. 1905 - d. 1985)
                           - Aurélio de Lyra Tavares          (b. 1905 - d. 1998)
                           - Márcio de Souza e Mello          (b. 1906 - d. 1991)
30 Oct 1969 - 15 Mar 1974  Emílio Garrastazu Médici           (b. 1905 - d. 1985)
15 Mar 1974 - 15 Mar 1979  Ernesto Geisel                     (b. 1907 - d. 1996)
15 Mar 1979 - 15 Mar 1985  João Baptista de Oliveira
                           Figueiredo                         (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
23 Sep 1981 - 12 Nov 1981    Aureliano Chaves (1st time)      (b. 1929 - d. 2003)
                             (acting for Figueiredo)
14 Jul 1983 - 26 Aug 1983    Aureliano Chaves (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                             (acting for Figueiredo)
15 Mar 1985 - 15 Mar 1990  José Sarney                        (b. 1930)
                           (acting to 22 Apr 1985)
15 Mar 1990 - 29 Dec 1992  Fernando Collor de Mello           (b. 1949)
 2 Oct 1992 -  1 Jan 1995  Itamar Franco                      (b. 1930 - d. 2011)
                           (acting for suspended Collor to 29 Dec 1992)
 1 Jan 1995 -  1 Jan 2003  Fernando Henrique Cardoso          (b. 1931)
 1 Jan 2003 -  1 Jan 2011  Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva          (b. 1945)
 1 Jan 2011 -              Dilma Rousseff (f)                 (b. 1947)

Principal ministers (titled Ministro e Secretário de Estado dos Negócios do Reino; from 12 Oct 1822, ...do Império) 10 Mar 1808 - 24 Jan 1817 Fernando José de Portugal e Castro, (from Dec 1808) conde e (from 1813) marquês de Aguiar (b. 1752 - d. 1817) 24 Jan 1817 - 21 Jun 1817 Antônio de Araújo de Azevedo, conde da Barca (b. 1754 - d. 1817) 23 Jun 1817 - 29 Nov 1817 João Paulo Bezerra 29 Nov 1817 - 26 Feb 1821 Tomás Antônio de Vila-Nova Portugal (b. 1755 - d. 1839) 26 Feb 1821 - 22 Apr 1821 Inácio da Costa Vilela 22 Apr 1821 - 16 Jan 1822 Marcos de Noronha e Brito, conde dos Arcos de Vildevez (b. 1771 - d. 1828) 16 Jan 1822 - 17 Jul 1823 José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (b. 1763 - d. 1838) 17 Jul 1823 - 10 Nov 1823 José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos (1st time) (b. 1786 - d. 1836) 10 Nov 1823 - 14 Nov 1823 Francisco Vilela Barbosa (b. 1769 - d. 1846) 14 Nov 1823 - 17 Nov 1823 Pedro de Araújo Lima (1st time) (s.a.) 17 Nov 1823 - 14 Oct 1824 João Severiano Maciel da Costa (b. 1769 - d. 1833) 14 Oct 1824 - 9 Nov 1825 Estêvão Ribeiro de Resende (b. 1777 - d. 1856) 9 Nov 1825 - 21 Nov 1825 Felisberto Caldeira Brant Pontes Oliveira e Horta, (from Oct 1825) visconde de Barbacena (b. 1772 - d. 1842) 21 Nov 1825 - 20 Jan 1826 José Feliciano Fernandes Pinheiro (b. 1774 - d. 1847) 20 Jan 1826 - 23 Jan 1826 João Vieira de Carvalho, barão de Lajes (b. 1781 - d. 1847) 23 Jan 1826 - 20 Nov 1827 José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos, visconde e (from Oct 1826) marquês de Caravelas (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Nov 1827 - 15 Jun 1828 Pedro de Araújo Lima (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Jun 1828 - 4 Dec 1829 José Clemente Pereira (b. 1787 - d. 1854) 4 Dec 1829 - 12 Aug 1830 José Joaquim Carneiro de Campos, visconde e marquês de Caravelas (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Aug 1830 - 4 Oct 1830 João Inácio da Cunha, barão e visconde de Alcântara (b. 1781 - d. 1834) 4 Oct 1830 - 18 Mar 1831 José Antônio da Silva Maia (1st time) (b. 1789 - d. 1853) 18 Mar 1831 - 5 Apr 1831 Bernardo José da Gama, barão e visconde de Goiana (1st time) (b. 1782 - d. 1854) 5 Apr 1831 - 6 Apr 1831 Antônio Luis Pereira da Cunha, visconde e marquês de Inhambupe de Cima (b. 1760 - d. 1837) 6 Apr 1831 - 26 Apr 1831 Bernardo José da Gama, barão e visconde de Goiana (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Apr 1831 - 16 Jul 1831 Manuel José de Sousa França (b. ... - d. 1856) 16 Jul 1831 - 3 Jan 1832 José Lino dos Santos Coutinho (b. 1784 - d. 1835) 3 Jan 1832 - 3 Aug 1832 Diogo Antônio Feijó (s.a.) 3 Aug 1832 - 13 Sep 1832 Antônio Francisco de Paula Holanda Cavalcânti e Albuquerque (b. 1797 - d. 1863) 13 Sep 1832 - 23 May 1833 Nicolau Pereira de Campos Vergueiro (b. 1778 - d. 1859) 23 May 1833 - 10 Oct 1833 Aureliano de Sousa e Oliveira Coutinho (b. 1800 - d. 1855) 10 Oct 1833 - 16 Jan 1835 Antônio Pinto Chichorro da Gama (b. 1800 - d. 1887) 16 Jan 1835 - 20 Jan 1835 Manuel do Nascimento Castro e Silva (b. 1788 - d. 1846) 20 Jan 1835 - 14 Oct 1835 Joaquim Vieira da Silva e Sousa (b. 1800 - d. 1864) 14 Oct 1835 - 5 Feb 1836 Antônio Paulino Limpo de Abreu (1st time) (acting) (b. 1798 - d. 1883) 5 Feb 1836 - 7 Jun 1836 José Inácio Borges (b. 17... - d. 1838) 7 Jun 1836 - 29 Sep 1836 Antônio Paulino Limpo de Abreu (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 29 Sep 1836 - 1 Nov 1836 Gustavo Adolfo de Aguilar Pantoja (b. 1798 - d. 1867) 1 Nov 1836 - 18 Mar 1837 Manuel da Fonseca Lima e Silva (b. 1793 - d. 1869) 18 Mar 1837 - 16 May 1837 Antônio Paulino Limpo de Abreu (3rd time) (acting) (s.a.) 16 May 1837 - 18 Sep 1837 Manuel Alves Branco (1st time) (b. 1797 - d. 1855) 18 Sep 1837 - 19 Sep 1837 Pedro de Araújo Lima (3rd time) (s.a.) 19 Sep 1837 - 16 Apr 1839 Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos (1st time) (acting) (b. 1795 - d. 1850) 16 Apr 1839 - 1 Sep 1839 Francisco de Paula Almeida e Albuquerque (acting) (b. 1795 - d. 1868) 1 Sep 1839 - 2 May 1840 Manuel Antônio Galvão (b. 1791 - d. 1850) 2 May 1840 - 18 May 1840 Francisco Ramiro de Assis Coelho 18 May 1840 - 22 Jul 1840 Caetano Maria Lopes Gama (acting) (b. 1795 - d. 1864) 22 Jul 1840 (9 hours) Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcelos (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Jul 1840 - 24 Jul 1840 Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres (b. 1802 - d. 1872) (acting) 24 Jul 1840 - 27 Mar 1841 Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada Machado e Silva (b. 1773 - d. 1845) 27 Mar 1841 - 20 Jan 1843 Cândido José de Araújo Viana (b. 1793 - d. 1875) 20 Jan 1843 - 2 Feb 1844 José Antônio da Silva Maia (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Feb 1844 - 2 May 1846 José Carlos de Almeida Torres (b. 1799 - d. 1850) 29 Sep 1845 - 2 May 1846 Manuel Alves Branco (s.a.) (acting for Torres, who is absent from the capital) 2 May 1846 - 22 May 1847 Joaquim Marcelino de Brito (b. 1799 - d. 1879) 22 May 1847 - 20 Jul 1847 Manuel Alves Branco (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers 20 Jul 1847 - 7 Mar 1848 Manuel Alves Branco (s.a.) 8 Mar 1848 - 31 May 1848 José Carlos de Almeida Torres, visconde de Macaé (s.a.) 31 May 1848 - 29 Sep 1848 Francisco de Paula Sousa e Melo (b. 1791 - d. 1851) 29 Sep 1848 - 8 Oct 1849 Pedro de Araújo Lima, visconde de Olinda (1st time) (s.a.) 8 Oct 1849 - 11 May 1852 José da Costa Carvalho, barão e visconde de Monte Alegre (s.a.) 11 May 1852 - 6 Sep 1853 Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres, visconde de Itaboraí (1st time) (b. 1802 - d. 1872) 6 Sep 1853 - 3 Sep 1856 Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, visconde e (from 1854) marquês de Paraná (b. 1801 - d. 1856) 3 Sep 1856 - 4 May 1857 Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, barão, conde e marquês de Caxias (1st time) (b. 1803 - d. 1880) 4 May 1857 - 12 Dec 1858 Pedro de Araújo Lima, visconde e marquês de Olinda (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Dec 1858 - 10 Aug 1859 Antônio Paulino Limpo de Abreu, visconde de Abaeté (s.a.) 10 Aug 1859 - 2 Mar 1861 Ângelo Muniz da Silva Ferraz (b. 1812 - d. 1867) 2 Mar 1861 - 24 May 1862 Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, barão, conde e marquês de Caxias (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 May 1862 - 30 May 1862 Zacarias de Góis e Vasconcelos (1st time) (b. 1815 - d. 1877) 30 May 1862 - 15 Jan 1864 Pedro de Araújo Lima, visconde e marquês de Olinda (3rd time) (s.a.) 8 Oct 1862 - 18 Nov 1862 Miguel Calmon du Pin e Almeida, visconde e marquês de Abrantes (b. 1794 - d. 1865) (acting for Olinda) 15 Jan 1864 - 31 Aug 1864 Zacarias de Góis e Vasconcelos (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Aug 1864 - 12 May 1865 Francisco José Furtado (b. 1818 - d. 1870) 12 May 1865 - 3 Aug 1866 Pedro de Araújo Lima, visconde e marquês de Olinda (4th time) (s.a.) 3 Aug 1866 - 16 Jul 1868 Zacarias de Góis e Vasconcelos (3rd time) (s.a.) 16 Jul 1868 - 29 Sep 1870 Joaquim José Rodrigues Torres, visconde de Itaboraí (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Sep 1870 - 7 Mar 1871 José Antônio Pimenta Bueno, visconde de São Vicente (b. 1803 - d. 1878) 7 Mar 1871 - 25 Jun 1875 José Maria da Silva Paranhos, visconde do Rio Branco (b. 1819 - d. 1880) 25 Jun 1875 - 5 Jan 1878 Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, barão, conde, marquês e duque de Caxias (3rd time) (s.a.) 5 Jan 1878 - 28 Mar 1880 João Lins Vieira Cansação de Sinimbu, visconde de Sinimbu (b. 1810 - d. 1907) 28 Mar 1880 - 21 Jan 1882 José Antônio Saraiva dito o conselheiro (1st time) (b. 1823 - d. 1895) 21 Jan 1882 - 3 Jul 1882 Martinho Álvares da Silva Campos (b. 1816 - d. 1887) 3 Jul 1882 - 24 May 1883 João Lustosa da Cunha Paranaguá, visconde e marquês de Paranaguá (b. 1821 - d. 1912) 24 May 1883 - 6 Jun 1884 Lafayette Rodrigues Pereira 6 Jun 1884 - 6 May 1885 Manoel Pinto de Sousa Dantas (b. 1831 - d. 1894) 6 May 1885 - 20 Aug 1885 José Antônio Saraiva dito o conselheiro (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Aug 1885 - 10 Mar 1888 João Maurício Wanderley, barão de Cotegipe (b. 1815 - d. 1889) 10 Mar 1888 - 7 Jun 1889 João Alfredo Correia de Oliveira (b. 1835 - d. 1919) 7 Jun 1889 - 15 Nov 1889 Afonso Celso de Assis Figueiredo, visconde de Ouro Preto (b. 1836 - d. 1912) Prime ministers 8 Sep 1961 - 3 Jul 1962 Tancredo de Almeida Neves (b. 1910 - d. 1985) 3 Jul 1962 - 10 Jul 1962 Auro Soares de Moura Andrade (b. 1915 - d. 1982) 10 Jul 1962 - 17 Sep 1962 Francisco de Paula Brochado da Rocha (b. 1910 - d. 1962) 17 Sep 1962 - 24 Jan 1963 Hermes Lima (b. 1902 - d. 1978)
¹Full title: Imperador Constitucional e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil (Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil).

Pernambuco

 7 Mar 1817                Republic of Pernambuco (sometimes Pernambucan Republic)
                           proclaimed
20 May 1817                secession ended by military intervention of the royal forces

 7 Mar 1817 - 18 May 1817  Provisional Government
                           - João Ribeiro Pessoa de Melo
                             Montenegro                       (b. 1766 - d. 1817)
                           - Domingos Teotônio Jorge Martins
                             Pessoa                           (b. 17... - d. 1817)
                           - José Luís de Mendonça            (b. 17... - d. 1817)
                           - Manuel Correia de Araújo
                           - Domingos José Martins            (b. 1781 - d. 1817)
Civil and Military Governor
18 May 1817 - 20 May 1817  Domingos Teotônio Jorge Martins
                           Pessoa                             (s.a.)

Rio Grande do Sul

 6 Nov 1836                Rio Grande Republic
28 Feb 1845                reincorporation into Brazil

Presidents
 6 Nov 1836 - 16 Dec 1837  José Gomes de Vasconcelos Jardim
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1784 - d. 1854)
16 Dec 1837 -  4 Aug 1843  Bento Gonçalves da Silva Pinto     (b. 1788 - d. 1847)
 4 Aug 1843 - 28 Feb 1845  José Gomes de Vasconcelos Jardim
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)

Santa Catarina

29 Jul 1839                Catarinan Republic
15 Nov 1839                reincorporation into Brazil

President of the Municipal Chamber of São Antônio dos Anjos da Laguna
29 Jul 1839 -  7 Aug 1839  Vicente Francisco de Oliveira
Provisional Vice-President of the Republic
 7 Aug 1839 - 15 Nov 1839  Vicente Ferreira dos Santos Cordeiro

Acre

14 Jul 1899                Independent State of Acre (informally styled Republic
                           of Acre)
25 Apr 1900                reincorporated into Bolivia
 7 Aug 1902/15 Jan 1903    Independent State of Acre
13 May 1903                occupied by Brazil
31 Aug 1903                Independent State of Acre
25 Feb 1904                incorporated into Brazil

Presidents of the Provisional Government
(colloquially styled President of the Republic)
14 Jul 1899 -  1 Jan 1900  Luís Galvez Rodrigues de Arias
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1859 - d. 1946)
 1 Jan 1900 -    Jan 1900  Antônio de Sousa Braga
   Jan 1900 - 30 Jan 1900  Governing Junta
30 Jan 1900 - 15 Mar 1900  Luís Galvez Rodrigues de Arias
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
15 Mar 1900 - 25 Apr 1900  Joaquim Vítor da Silva (acting)
Commander-in-Chief of the Acrean Army
 7 Aug 1902 - 15 Jan 1903  José Plácido de Castro             (b. 1873 - d. 1908)
Governor
15 Jan 1903 - 13 May 1903  José Plácido de Castro (1st time)  (s.a.)
31 Aug 1903 - 25 Feb 1904  José Plácido de Castro (2nd time)  (s.a.)

Counani

18 Dec 1841                a region disputed between Brazil and French Guiana (present
                           Amapá state) is temporarily neutralized
23 Jul 1886                pro-French Republic of Independent Guiana proclaimed
                           (also called Republic of Counani)
 2 Sep 1887                republic terminated by French authorities
10 Dec 1894                pro-Brazilian Independent Territory of Amapá proclaimed
                           (also called Republic of Cunnani)
       1895                territory disbanded
 1 Dec 1900                Brazil and France having decided to submit the problem to
                           the president of Switzerland, the latter decides the area
                           belongs to Brazil
25 Feb 1901                part of Pará state

Pro-French republic

Chief of the Captaincy
       1886                Trajano Benitez
Presidents (from 2 Sep 1887 in name only)
       1886 -        1891  Jules Gros                         (b. 1829 - d. 1891)
       1892 -        1894  Adolphe Brézet (1st time)
       1894 -        1901  Albert Franken
       1901 -        1911  Adolphe Brézet (2nd time)
       1911 -        19..  Jules Gros, Jr.

President of the Council of Ministers 1886 - 1887 Jean Ferréol Guigues

Pro-Brazilian territory

Chairman of the Provisional Government
10 Dec 1894 - 26 Dec 1894  Desidério Antônio Coelho
Chairmen of the Triumvirate
26 Dec 1894 -    Jan 1895  Domingos Maltez
   Jan 1895                Francisco Xavier da Veiga Cabral   (b. 1861 - d. 1905)

Other dissident entities

Confederation of the Equator. This is an ambiguous enterprise. It is a reaction to the emperor's dissolving the Constituent Assembly of the Empire, and purports to have the "North" of Brazil rule itself. The declaration of "autonomy" or "secession" (interpretation is ambiguous) does not use the term Confederação do Equador, but this term does come into official use. The ambiguity is explicit in the draft Constitution, which does not mention Empire or emperor, and does mention a Secretary of the Interior and of Foreign Affairs, as well as the appointment of diplomatic representatives - a prime characteristic of sovereignty - yet does call the executive Supremo Govêrno Provincial [sic] da Confederação do Equador. The ambiguity of this and other dissidences is compounded by the fact that under the Empire the head of the government of each province is styled president. The entity was proclaimed 2 Jul 1824 by the president of the province of Pernambuco, Manuel de Carvalho Pais de Andrade (b. 1780 - d. 1855), who then headed the entire entity, which incorporated neighbouring states in varying configuration. The armed forces of the Confederação capitulated to the imperial army on 29 Nov 1824.
Cabanagem. Local agitators in several Northern states in the 1830s were called cabanos. The term Cabanagem refers to one particular severe uprising in the province of Pará. It was definitely in defiance of the imperial government, but while it superseded the president of Pará province with a succession of cabanos (see below), that was the purported extent of its dissidence. The record does not suggest that the intent was to have Pará secede from the empire.
Cabanos
 7 Jan 1835 - 21 Feb 1835  Félix Antônio Clemente Malcher     (b. 1782 - d. 1835)
21 Feb 1835 - 28 Jul 1835  Francisco Pedro Vinagre            (b. 1793 - d. 1873)
28 Jul 1835 -        1836  imperial authority reestablished
       1836 - 30 Oct 1836  Eduardo Francisco Nogueira
                           dito Angelim                       (b. 1814 - d. 1882)
30 Oct 1836                imperial authority reestablished
Sabinada. The unconditional independence of the province of Bahia was proclaimed 7 Nov 1837, but on 9 Nov the proclamation was slightly modified by the adding of "until the majority of the Emperor" (the revolt being against the regency). The leader of the revolt was Francisco Sabino Álvares da Rocha Vieira (d. 1846). João Carneiro da Silva Rego was appointed acting president. Bahia was taken by the imperial troops 14 Mar 1838; the last rebels surrendered the following day.
Britain: see United Kingdom.
British Guiana: see Guyana.
British Honduras: see Belize.

British Indian Ocean Territory

 8 Nov 1965                British colony established from parts of Seychelles
                           and Mauritius
29 Jun 1976                former Seychelles territory returned to independent
                           Seychelles

Commissioners
       1965 -        1976  the governors of Seychelles
 4 Jul 1976 -        1976  Norman Aspin                       (b. 1922 - d. 2011)
       1976 -        1979  Philip Mansfield                   (b. 1926)
       1979 -        1982  John Robson                        (b. 1930)
       1982 -        1985  Nigel Wenban-Smith                 (b. 1936)
       1985 -        1988  William Marsden                    (b. 1940)
       1988 -        1991  Richard Edis                       (b. 1943 - d. 2002)
   Sep 1991 -        1994  Thomas George Harris               (b. 1945)
       1994 -        1996  David Ross MacLennan               (b. 1945)
       1996 -        1998  Bruce Dinwiddy                     (b. 1946)
       1998 -        2001  John White                         (b. 1946)
       2001 -    Jan 2004  Alan Huckle                        (b. 1948)
   Jan 2004 -    Jul 2006  Tony Crombie                       (b. 1956)
   Jul 2006 -    Jul 2008  Leigh Turner                       (b. 1958)
   Jul 2008 - 17 Oct 2012  Colin Roberts                      (b. 1959)
17 Oct 2012 -              Peter Hayes                        (b. 1963)
Administrators
       1967 -        1975  John Rawling Todd                  (b. 1929 - d. 2002)
       1975 -  6 Jul 1976  David Kenneth Hay Dale             (b. 1927 - d. 2001)
 6 Jul 1976 -        1978  Martin Kenneth Ewans               (b. 1928)
       1978 -        1979  Alan Munro                         (b. 1935)
       1979 -        1980  John Robson                        (s.a.)
       1980 -        1981  J.G. Wallace
       1981 -        1982  Peter Albert Raftery               (b. 1929 - d. 1996)
       1982 -        1984  ...
       1984 -        1985  Denis Henry Doble                  (b. 1936)
       1985 -        1986  Peter Charles Freeman Gregory-Hood (b. 1943)
       1986 -        1988  Clive Somerville Stitt             (b. 1948)
       1988 -        1990  Robert Crompton
       1990 -        1991  S.E. Turner (acting)
       1991 -        1994  Roger Geoffrey Wells               (b. 1942)
       1994 -        199.  David Smith
       199. -        199.  Don Cairns
      *1997 -        2002  Louise Margaret Savill (f)
       2002 -    Feb 2005  Charles Hamilton
   Feb 2005 -    Dec 2007  Tony Humphries
   Dec 2007 -    Apr 2011  Joanne Yeadon (f)                  (b. 1965)
   Apr 2011 -    Jul 2013  John McManus                       (b. 1955)
   Jul 2013 -              Tom Moody

British Virgin Islands

       1666                English colony
       1833 -  1 Jan 1960  part of the Leeward Islands (see under Antigua and Barbuda)

Presidents
       1741                John Pickering                     (b. 1704 - d. 1768)
       1742 -        1750  John Hunt
       1750 -        1751  James Purcell
       1751 -        1775  John Purcell
       1775 -        1782  John Nugent                        (b. 17... - d. 1814)
       1782 -        1811  ...
       1811 -  8 Aug 1821  Richard Hetherington               (b. 1737 - d. 1821)
       1821 -        1833  ...
       1833 -    Apr 1838  William Rogers Isaacs              (b. c.1785 - d. 1838?)
       1839 -        1850  Edward Hay Drummond Hay            (b. 1815 - d. 1884)
       1850 - 11 May 1851  Sir John Atholl MacGregor          (b. 1810 - d. 1851)
       1852 - 28 Feb 1854  John Cornell Chads                 (b. 1793? - d. 1854)
       1854 -        1857  Cornelius Hendricksen Kortright    (b. 1817 - d. 1899)
       1859 -        1861  Thomas Price
       1861 -        1864  James Robert Longden               (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
       1865 -        1869  Sir Arthur Rumbold                 (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
       1869 -        1872  Alexander Wilson Moir              (b. 1825 - d. 1897)
       1873 -        1879  Richard Mahoney Hickson
       1879 -        1882  John Kemys Spencer-Churchill       (b. 1835 - d. 1913)
       1882 -        1884  Richard Henry Kortright Dyett      (b. 1862 - d. 19...)
       1884 -        1887  Fredrick Augustus Pickering        (b. 1835 - d. 1926)
Commissioners
       1887 -        1893  Edward John Cameron                (b. 1858 - d. 1947)
       1894 - 12 Feb 1896  Alexander Robert Mackay            (b. ... - d. 1896)
       1896 -        1903  Nathaniel George Cookman
       1903 -        1910  Robert Stephen Earl
       1910 -        1919  Thomas Leslie Hardtman Jarvis      (b. 1868 - d. 19...)
       1919 -        1922  Herbert Walter Peebles             (b. 1877 - d. 1955)
       1922 -        1923  Reginald Hargrove
       1923 -        1926  Otho Lewis Hancock                 (b. 1893 - d. 1942)
       1926 -        1934  Frank Cecil Clarkson               (b. 1882 - d. 19...)
       1934 -        1946  Donald Percy Wailling
       1946 -        1954  John Augustus Cockburn Cruikshank  (b. 1909 - d. 1957)
       1954 -        1956  Henry Anthony Camillo Howard       (b. 1913 - d. 1977)
Administrators
       1956 -        1959  Geoffrey Pole Allsebrook           (b. 1918 - d. 2010)
       1959 -    Jan 1962  Gerald Jackson Bryan               (b. 1921)
       1962 -    Apr 1967  Martin Samuel Staveley             (b. 1921 - d. 1998)
   Apr 1967 -        1971  John Sutherland Thomson            (b. 1920 - d. 2008)
Governors
   Mar 1971 - 29 Jul 1974  Derek George Cudmore               (b. 1923 - d. 1981)
29 Jul 1974 -    Oct 1978  Walter Wilkinson Wallace           (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
       1978 -        1981  James Alfred Davidson              (b. 1922 - d. 2004)
       1982 -        1986  David Robert Barwick               (b. 1927)
       1986 -        1991  Mark Herdman                       (b. 1932)
14 Oct 1991 - 21 Jun 1995  Peter Alfred Penfold               (b. 1944)
21 Jun 1995 -        1998  David Mackilligin                  (b. 1939)
 3 Jul 1998 -  5 Oct 2002  Frank Savage                       (b. 1943)
 5 Oct 2002 - 14 Oct 2002  Elton Georges (acting)             (b. 1943)
14 Oct 2002 - 10 Apr 2006  Tom Macan                          (b. 1946)
10 Apr 2006 - 18 Apr 2006  Dancia Penn (f) (acting)           (b. 1951)
18 Apr 2006 -  5 Aug 2010  David Pearey                       (b. 1948)
 5 Aug 2010 - 20 Aug 2010  V. Inez Archibald (f) (acting)     (b. 1945)
20 Aug 2010 -              Boyd McCleary                      (b. 1949)

Chief ministers Apr 1967 - Jun 1971 H. Lavity Stoutt (1st time) (b. 1929 - d. 1995) Jun 1971 - Nov 1979 Willard Wheatley (b. 1915 - d. 1997) Nov 1979 - 15 Nov 1983 H. Lavity Stoutt (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Nov 1983 - 1 Oct 1986 Cyril Romney (b. 1931 - d. 2007) 1 Oct 1986 - 14 May 1995 H. Lavity Stoutt (3rd time) (s.a.) 15 May 1995 - 17 Jun 2003 Ralph O'Neal (b. 1933) 17 Jun 2003 - 23 Aug 2007 Orlando Smith (b. 1944) Premiers 23 Aug 2007 - 9 Nov 2011 Ralph O'Neal (s.a.) 9 Nov 2011 - Orlando Smith (s.a.)

Brunei

       1363                Brunei founded (traditional date)
       14..                name Negara Brunei Darussalam (State of Brunei, Abode of
                           Peace) adopted
       1906                British protected state
22 Dec 1941 - 14 Jun 1945  occupied by Japan
 1 Jan 1984                independence

Sultans
     c.1690 -      c.1710  Nasruddin                          (b. 16... - d. c.1710)
     c.1710 -      c.1730  Kamaluddin (1st time)              (b. 16... - d. c.1740)
     c.1730 -      c.1737  Muhammad Alauddin                  (b. ... - d. c.1737)
     c.1737 -      c.1740  Kamaluddin (2nd time)              (s.a.)
     c.1740 -      c.1780  Omar Ali Saifuddin                 (b. 17... - d. 1795)
     c.1780 - 27 Apr 1804  Muhammad Tajuddin (1st time)       (b. 17... - d. 1807)
27 Apr 1804 - 10 Nov 1804  Muhammad Jamalul Alam              (b. 17... - d. 1804)
10 Nov 1804 - 14 Feb 1807  Muhammad Tajuddin (2nd time)       (s.a.)
       1807 -        1828  Muhammad Khanzul Alam              (b. 17... - d. 1828)
       1828 -        1852  Omar Ali Saifuddin                 (b. ... - d. 1852)
       1852 - 30 May 1885  Abdul Mumin ibni Pengiran
                           Shahbandar (regent to ... 1852)    (b. 1785 - d. 1885)
30 May 1885 - 10 May 1906  Hashim Jalilul Alam Akamuddin      (b. 1824 - d. 1906)
10 May 1906 - 11 Sep 1924  Muhammad Jamalul Alam (from 5 Jun
                           1920, Sir Muhammad Jamalul Alam)   (b. 1889 - d. 1924)
10 May 1906 - 15 May 1918    Council of Regency
                             - Pengiran Anak Muhammad Saleh   (b. 18... - d. 1912)
                               (to 2 Dec 1912)
                             - Pengiran Anak Chuchu Besar     (b. 1829 - d. 1917)
                               (to 3 Jul 1917)
                             - Pengiran al-Haji Muhammad
                               Yasin ibni al-Marhum Pengiran
                               Tua Omar Ali (from 1913)       (b. 1887 - d. 1951)
11 Sep 1924 -  4 Jun 1950  Ahmad Tajuddin Ahazul Khairi
                           Waddien (from 20 Sep 1949, Sir
                           Ahmad Tajuddin Ahazul Khairi
                           Waddien)                           (b. 1913 - d. 1950)
11 Sep 1924 - 19 Sep 1931    Council of Regency
                             - Pengiran al-Haji Muhammad
                               Yasin ibni al-Marhum Pengiran
                               Tua Omar Ali                   (s.a.)
                             - ...
 4 Jun 1950 -  4 Oct 1967  Omar Ali Saifuddin Sa´adul Khairi
                           Waddien (from 9 Jun 1953, Sir Omar
                           Ali Saifuddin Sa´adul Khairi
                           Waddien)                           (b. 1914 - d. 1986)
 4 Oct 1967 -              Hassanal Bolkiah Mu´izzadin
                           Waddaulah (from 29 Feb 1972,
                           Sir Hassanal Bolkiah Mu´izzadin
                           Waddaulah)                         (b. 1946)

Chief ministers Jul 1947 - 1959 Omar Ali Saifuddin Sa´adul Khairi Waddien (from 9 Jun 1953, Sir Omar Ali Saifuddin Sa´adul Khairi Waddien) (s.a.) 1959 - 1962 Pekin Dato Perdana Menteri Dato Paduka Haji Ibrahim 1962 - 1967 Dato Seri Paduka Haji Marsal bin Maun (b. 1913? - d. 2000) 1967 - 1972 Dato Pengiran Muhammad Yusuf bin Abdul Rahim (acting to ... 1967) (b. 1923?) May 1972 - Sep 1981 Pengiran Dipa Negara Laila Diraja Pengiran Abdul Mumin (b. 19... - d. 2008) (acting to 1973) Sep 1981 - 31 Dec 1983 Pehin Orang Kaya Laila Wijaya Dato Haji Abdul Aziz Umar (acting) (b. 1936) Prime minister 1 Jan 1984 - Sir Hassanal Bolkiah Mu´izzadin Waddaulah (s.a.) British residents (from 29 Sep 1959, high commissioners) Jan 1906 - May 1907 Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1934) May 1907 - Dec 1907 Harvey Chevallier (1st time) (b. 1861 - d. 1923) Jan 1908 - Apr 1908 Malcolm Stewart Hannibal McArthur (2nd time) (s.a.) Apr 1908 - Sep 1909 John Fortescue Owen (b. 1869 - d. 1942) Sep 1909 - Nov 1909 Bowes Ormonde Stoney (acting) (b. 1878 - d. 1910) Nov 1909 - Nov 1913 Harvey Chevallier (2nd time) (s.a.) Nov 1913 - Jan 1915 Francis William Douglas (acting) (b. 1874 - d. 1953) Feb 1915 - 18 May 1916 Ernest Barton Maundrell (acting) (b. 1880 - d. 1916) May 1916 - Mar 1921 Geoffrey Edmund Cator (b. 1884 - d. 1973) Mar 1921 - Jan 1923 Lucien Allen Arthur (b. 1888 - d. 1971) Jan 1923 - Feb 1926 Eric Ernest Falk Pretty (1st time) (b. 1891 - d. 1967) Mar 1926 - May 1927 Oswald Eric Venables (b. 1891 - d. 1960) May 1927 - May 1928 Eric Ernest Falk Pretty (2nd time) (s.a.) May 1928 - Jan 1929 Patrick Alexander Bruce McKerron (1st time) (b. 1896 - d. 1964) Jan 1929 - Aug 1929 Richard John Froude Curtis (b. 1897 - d. 198...) Aug 1929 - Sep 1931 Patrick Alexander Bruce McKerron (2nd time) (s.a.) Sep 1931 - Oct 1934 Thomas Falkland Carey (b. 1903 - d. 1966) Nov 1934 - Jan 1937 Roland Evelyn Turnbull (b. 1905 - d. 1960) Jan 1937 - Dec 1939 John Graham Black (b. 1896 - d. 1988) Jan 1940 - Dec 1941 Ernest Edgar Pengilley (b. 1897 - d. 1984) Jul 1946 - Jan 1948 John Peel (b. 1912 - d. 2004) Jan 1948 - Aug 1948 Leslie Harold Newsom Davis (b. 1909 - d. 2003) Aug 1948 - Jun 1951 Eric Ernest Falk Pretty (3rd time) (s.a.) Jul 1951 - Jun 1953 John Coleraine Hanbury Barcroft (b. 1908 - d. 1958) Jun 1953 - Jul 1958 John Orman Gilbert (b. 1907 - d. 1995) Jul 1958 - 31 Mar 1963 Dennis Charles White (from 1 Jan 1962, Sir Dennis Charles White) (b. 1910 - d. 1983) 1963 Angus MacKay Mackintosh (b. 1915 - d. 1986) 9 Dec 1963 - 1965 Edgar Ord Laird (b. 1915 - d. 1992) 1 Jul 1965 - 1967 Fernley Douglas Webber (b. 1918 - d. 1991) 1 May 1968 - 1972 Arthur Robin Adair (b. 1913 - d. 1981) 12 Jan 1972 - 1975 Peter Gautrey (b. 1918) 8 Jan 1975 - 1978 James Alfred Davidson (b. 1922 - d. 2004) 6 Nov 1978 - 1983 Arthur Christopher Watson (b. 1927 - d. 2001) 5 Aug 1983 - 31 Dec 1983 Francis Cornish (b. 1942)

Bua: see under Fiji.
Buganda: see under Uganda.
Bukhara: see under Uzbekistan.
Bukovina: see under Ukraine.

Bulgaria

       1396                part of Ottoman Empire
 8 Jul 1879                Principality of Bulgaria (under Ottoman suzerainty)
 5 Oct 1908                Tsardom of Bulgaria
15 Sep 1946                People's Republic of Bulgaria
15 Nov 1990                Republic of Bulgaria

General secretaries of the Bulgarian Communist Party
11 Aug 1948 -  2 Jul 1949  Georgi Dimitrov                    (b. 1882 - d. 1949)
 8 Nov 1950 -  4 Mar 1954  Vulko Chervenkov                   (b. 1900 - d. 1980)
 4 Mar 1954 - 10 Nov 1989  Todor Zhivkov                      (b. 1911 - d. 1998)
                           (until 4 Apr 1981 first secretary)
10 Nov 1989 -  2 Feb 1990  Petur Mladenov                     (b. 1936 - d. 2000)
                           ("leading role" of the party abolished 15 Jan 1990)

Princes - Battenberg dynasty - 8 Jul 1879 - 21 Aug 1886 Aleksandur (1st time) (b. 1857 - d. 1893) 21 Aug 1886 - 24 Aug 1886 Kliment (regent) (b. 1840 - d. 1901) 24 Aug 1886 - 28 Aug 1886 Petko Karavelov (regent) (b. 1843 - d. 1903) 28 Aug 1886 - 29 Aug 1886 Princely administrators - Stefan Stambolov (b. 1854 - d. 1895) - Petko Slaveykov (b. 1827 - d. 1895) - Georgi Stranski (b. 1847 - d. 1904) 29 Aug 1886 - 7 Sep 1886 Aleksandur (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Sep 1886 - 14 Aug 1887 Regency Council - Stefan Stambolov (s.a.) - Petko Karavelov (s.a.) (to 27 Oct 1886) - Georgi Zhivkov (b. 1844 - d. 1899) (from 13 Nov 1886) - Sava Mutkurov (b. 1852 - d. 1891) - Saxe-Coburg-Gotha dynasty - 14 Aug 1887 - 5 Oct 1908 Ferdinand I (b. 1861 - d. 1948) Tsars - Saxe-Coburg-Gotha dynasty - 5 Oct 1908 - 3 Oct 1918 Ferdinand I (s.a.) 27 Sep 1918 - 30 Sep 1918 Rayko Ivanov Daskalov (b. 1886 - d. 1923) (leader of the "Radomir Republic") 3 Oct 1918 - 28 Aug 1943 Boris III (b. 1894 - d. 1943) 28 Aug 1943 - 15 Sep 1946 Simeon II (b. 1937) 28 Aug 1943 - 14 Sep 1943 Bogdan Filov (regent) (b. 1883 - d. 1945) 14 Sep 1943 - 21 Sep 1943 Dobri Bozhilov (regent) (b. 1884 - d. 1945) 21 Sep 1943 - 9 Sep 1944 Regency Council - Knyaz Kiril (b. 1895 - d. 1945) - Bogdan Filov (s.a.) - Nikola Mihov (b. 1891 - d. 1945) 9 Sep 1944 - 15 Sep 1946 Regency Council - Venelin Yordanov Ganev (b. 1880 - d. 1966) - Todor Dimitrov Pavlov (b. 1890 - d. 1977) - Tsvetko Boboshevski (b. 1884 - d. 1952) Chairman of the Provisional Presidency 15 Sep 1946 - 9 Dec 1947 Vasil Kolarov (b. 1877 - d. 1950) Chairmen of the Presidium of the National Assembly 9 Dec 1947 - 27 May 1950 Mincho Neychev (b. 1887 - d. 1956) 27 May 1950 - 27 Nov 1958 Georgi Damyanov (b. 1892 - d. 1958) 27 Nov 1958 - 30 Nov 1958 Georgi Kulishev (1st time) (b. 1885 - d. 1974) + Nikolay Georgiev (1st time) (b. 1906 - d. 1987) (acting) 30 Nov 1958 - 20 Apr 1964 Dimitur Ganev (b. 1898 - d. 1964) 20 Apr 1964 - 23 Apr 1964 Georgi Kulishev (2nd time) (s.a.) + Nikolay Georgiev (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 23 Apr 1964 - 7 Jul 1971 Georgi Traykov (b. 1898 - d. 1975) Chairmen of the State Council 7 Jul 1971 - 17 Nov 1989 Todor Zhivkov (s.a.) 17 Nov 1989 - 3 Apr 1990 Petur Mladenov (s.a.) Presidents 3 Apr 1990 - 6 Jul 1990 Petur Mladenov (s.a.) 6 Jul 1990 - 17 Jul 1990 Stanko Todorov (acting) (b. 1920 - d. 1996) 17 Jul 1990 - 1 Aug 1990 Nikolay Todorov (acting) (b. 1921 - d. 2003) 1 Aug 1990 - 22 Jan 1997 Zhelyu Zhelev (b. 1935) 22 Jan 1997 - 22 Jan 2002 Petur Stoyanov (b. 1952) 22 Jan 2002 - 22 Jan 2012 Georgi Purvanov (b. 1957) 22 Jan 2012 - Rosen Plevneliev (b. 1964)
Prime ministers 17 Jul 1879 - 6 Dec 1879 Todor Stoyanov Burmov (b. 1834 - d. 1906) 6 Dec 1879 - 7 Apr 1880 Kliment (1st time) (s.a.) 8 Apr 1880 - 10 Dec 1880 Dragan Kiriakov Tsankov (1st time) (b. 1828 - d. 1911) 10 Dec 1880 - 9 May 1881 Petko Karavelov (1st time) (s.a.) 9 May 1881 - 13 Jul 1881 Yohan Kazimir Ernrot (b. 1833 - d. 1913) 5 Jul 1882 - 19 Sep 1883 Leonid Sobolev (b. 1844 - d. 1913) 19 Sep 1883 - 11 Jul 1884 Dragan Kiriakov Tsankov (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Jul 1884 - 21 Aug 1886 Petko Karavelov (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Aug 1886 - 24 Aug 1886 Kliment (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Aug 1886 - 28 Aug 1886 Petko Karavelov (3rd time) (s.a.) 28 Aug 1886 - 10 Jul 1887 Vasil Radoslavov (1st time) (b. 1854 - d. 1929) 11 Jul 1887 - 1 Sep 1887 Konstantin Stoilov (1st time) (b. 1853 - d. 1901) 1 Sep 1887 - 31 May 1894 Stefan Stambolov (s.a.) 31 May 1894 - 30 Jan 1899 Konstantin Stoilov (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Jan 1899 - 13 Oct 1899 Dimitur Grekov (b. 1847 - d. 1901) 13 Oct 1899 - 25 Jan 1901 Todor Ivanchov (b. 1858 - d. 1906) 25 Jan 1901 - 5 Mar 1901 Racho Petrov (1st time) (b. 1861 - d. 1942) 5 Mar 1901 - 3 Jan 1902 Petko Karavelov (4th time) (s.a.) 4 Jan 1902 - 19 May 1903 Stoyan Danev (1st time) (b. 1858 - d. 1949) 19 May 1903 - 4 Nov 1906 Racho Petrov (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Nov 1906 - 11 Mar 1907 Dimitur Petkov (b. 1858 - d. 1907) 12 Mar 1907 - 16 Mar 1907 Dimitur Stanchov (b. 1864 - d. 1940) 16 Mar 1907 - 29 Jan 1908 Petur Todorov Gudev (b. 1863 - d. 1932) 29 Jan 1908 - 29 Mar 1911 Aleksandur Malinov (1st time) (b. 1867 - d. 1938) 29 Mar 1911 - 14 Jun 1913 Ivan Evstratiev Geshov (b. 1849 - d. 1924) 14 Jun 1913 - 17 Jul 1913 Stoyan Danev (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Jul 1913 - 21 Jun 1918 Vasil Radoslavov (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1918 - 28 Nov 1918 Aleksandur Malinov (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Nov 1918 - 6 Oct 1919 Teodor Teodorov (b. 1859 - d. 1924) 7 Oct 1919 - 9 Jun 1923 Aleksandur Stamboliyski (b. 1879 - d. 1923) 9 Jun 1923 - 4 Jan 1926 Aleksandur Tsankov (b. 1879 - d. 1959) 4 Jan 1926 - 29 Jun 1931 Andrey Lyapchev (b. 1866 - d. 1933) 29 Jun 1931 - 12 Oct 1931 Aleksandur Malinov (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Oct 1931 - 19 May 1934 Nikola Mushanov (b. 1872 - d. 1951) 19 May 1934 - 22 Jan 1935 Kimon Georgiev (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1968) 22 Jan 1935 - 21 Apr 1935 Petko Ivanov Zlatev (b. 1881 - d. 1948) 21 Apr 1935 - 23 Nov 1935 Andrey Toshev (b. 1867 - d. 1944) 23 Nov 1935 - 15 Feb 1940 Georgi Kyoseivanov (b. 1884 - d. 1960) 15 Feb 1940 - 12 Sep 1943 Bogdan Filov (s.a.) 12 Sep 1943 - 14 Sep 1943 Petur Gabrovski (acting) (b. 1898 - d. 1945) 14 Sep 1943 - 1 Jun 1944 Dobri Bozhilov (s.a.) 1 Jun 1944 - 2 Sep 1944 Ivan Ivanov Bagrianov (b. 1891 - d. 1945) 2 Sep 1944 - 9 Sep 1944 Konstantin Vladov Muraviev (b. 1893 - d. 1965) 9 Sep 1944 - 22 Nov 1946 Kimon Georgiev (2nd time) (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (premiers) 23 Nov 1946 - 2 Jul 1949 Georgi Dimitrov (s.a.) 2 Jul 1949 - 23 Jan 1950 Vasil Kolarov (s.a.) (acting to 20 Jul 1949) 23 Jan 1950 - 18 Apr 1956 Vulko Chervenkov (s.a.) (acting to 1 Feb 1950) 18 Apr 1956 - 19 Nov 1962 Anton Yugov (b. 1904 - d. 1991) 19 Nov 1962 - 7 Jul 1971 Todor Zhivkov (s.a.) 7 Jul 1971 - 18 Jun 1981 Stanko Todorov (s.a.) 18 Jun 1981 - 24 Mar 1986 Grisha Filipov (b. 1919 - d. 1994) 24 Mar 1986 - 8 Feb 1990 Georgi Atanasov (b. 1933) 8 Feb 1990 - 20 Dec 1990 Andrey Lukanov (b. 1938 - d. 1996) Prime ministers 20 Dec 1990 - 8 Nov 1991 Dimitur Popov (b. 1927) 8 Nov 1991 - 30 Dec 1992 Filip Dimitrov (b. 1955) 30 Dec 1992 - 17 Oct 1994 Lyuben Berov (b. 1925 - d. 2006) 17 Oct 1994 - 25 Jan 1995 Reneta Indzhova (f) (interim) (b. 1953) 25 Jan 1995 - 12 Feb 1997 Zhan Videnov (b. 1959) 12 Feb 1997 - 21 May 1997 Stefan Sofiyanski (interim) (b. 1951) 21 May 1997 - 24 Jul 2001 Ivan Kostov (b. 1949) 24 Jul 2001 - 16 Aug 2005 Simeon Sakskoburggotski (= Simeon II) (s.a.) 16 Aug 2005 - 27 Jul 2009 Sergey Stanishev (b. 1966) 27 Jul 2009 - 13 Mar 2013 Boiko Borisov (b. 1959) 13 Mar 2013 - 29 May 2013 Marin Raikov (interim) (b. 1960) 29 May 2013 - Plamen Oresharski (b. 1960)

Allied Control Commission

Chairman
   Sep 1944 - 15 Sep 1947  Fyodor Tolbukhin (U.S.S.R.)        (b. 1894 - d. 1949)
   Sep 1944 -    May 1947    Sergey Biryuzov (U.S.S.R.)       (b. 1904 - d. 1964)
                             (acting for Tolbukhin)
   May 1947 - 15 Sep 1947    Aleksandr Cherepanov (U.S.S.R.)  (b. 1895 - d. 1984)
                             (acting for Tolbukhin)

Eastern Rumelia

19 May 1879                autonomy within the Ottoman Empire
18 Sep 1885                part of Bulgaria

Governors-general
19 May 1879 - 26 Apr 1884  Aleksandur Stefanov Bogoridi
                           "Aleko Pasha"                      (b. 1823 - d. 1910)
26 Apr 1884 - 18 Sep 1885  Gavril Baev Krustevich
                           "Gavril Pasha"                     (b. 1820 - d. 1898)

Bunyoro-Kitara: see under Uganda.

Burkina Faso

       1904                part of Haut-Sénégal-Niger (see under Mali)
 1 Mar 1919                Upper Volta a French colony (part of French West Africa;
                           see under Senegal)
 1 Jan 1933                partitioned between French Sudan, Ivory Coast, and Niger
 4 Jan 1947                French territory
11 Dec 1958                autonomy (Republic of Upper Volta)
 5 Aug 1960                independence
 4 Aug 1984                Burkina Faso

Lieutenant governors
 9 Nov 1919 -  7 Aug 1927  Frédéric Hesling                   (b. 1869 - d. 1934)
 7 Aug 1927 - 13 Jan 1928  Robert Arnaud (acting)             (b. 1873 - d. 1950)
13 Jan 1928 - 22 Dec 1932  Albéric Fournier
22 Dec 1932 - 31 Dec 1932  Gabriel Descemet                   (b. 1879 - d. 1961)
Governors
 6 Sep 1947 - 29 Apr 1948  Gaston Mourgues (acting)           (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
29 Apr 1948 -    Mar 1952  Albert Mouragues                   (b. 1908 - d. 1976)
   Mar 1952 - 23 Feb 1953  Roland Pré                         (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
23 Feb 1953 -  3 Nov 1956  Jean Étcheber                      (b. 1901 - d. 1967)
 3 Nov 1956 - 15 Jul 1958  Yvon Bourges                       (b. 1921 - d. 2009)
15 Jul 1958 - 11 Dec 1958  Max Berthet (acting)               (b. 1909 - d. 1961)
High commissioners
11 Dec 1958 -    Feb 1959  Max Berthet                        (s.a.)
   Feb 1959 -  5 Aug 1960  Paul Masson                        (b. 1920 - d. 2009)
Presidents
11 Dec 1959 -  4 Jan 1966  Maurice Yaméogo                    (b. 1921 - d. 1993)
 4 Jan 1966 - 25 Nov 1980  Sangoulé Lamizana                  (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
25 Nov 1980 -  7 Nov 1982  Saye Zerbo                         (b. 1932 - d. 2013)
                           (president of Military Committee of Recovery for
                           National Progress)
 8 Nov 1982 -  4 Aug 1983  Jean-Baptiste Ouedraogo            (b. 1942)
                           (chairman Provisional Committee of Popular Salvation
                           [provisional to 11 Nov 1982] to 26 Nov 1982, then
                           Head of State)
 4 Aug 1983 - 15 Oct 1987  Thomas Sankara                     (b. 1949 - d. 1987)
                           (chairman National Revolutionary Council and
                           Head of State)
15 Oct 1987 -              Blaise Compaoré                    (b. 1951)
                           (president of Popular Front [from 31 Oct 1987 also Head
                           of State] to 24 Dec 1991)

Prime ministers 18 May 1957 - 7 Sep 1958 Ouezzin Coulibaly (b. 1909 - d. 1958) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, then president of the Government Council) 7 Sep 1958 - 11 Dec 1959 Maurice Yaméogo (s.a.) (president of the Government Council to 11 Dec 1958 [acting to 21 Oct 1958]) 13 Feb 1971 - 8 Feb 1974 Gérard Kango Ouedraogo (b. 1925) 8 Feb 1974 - 7 Jul 1978 Sangoulé Lamizana (s.a.) 7 Jul 1978 - 25 Nov 1980 Joseph Conombo (b. 1917 - d. 2008) 25 Nov 1980 - 7 Nov 1982 Saye Zerbo (s.a.) 10 Jan 1983 - 17 May 1983 Thomas Sankara (s.a.) 16 Jun 1992 - 22 Mar 1994 Youssouf Ouedraogo (b. 1952) 22 Mar 1994 - 6 Feb 1996 Roch Marc Christian Kaboré (b. 1957) 6 Feb 1996 - 7 Nov 2000 Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo (b. 1953) 7 Nov 2000 - 11 Jun 2007 Paramanga Ernest Yonli (b. 1956) 11 Jun 2007 - 18 Apr 2011 Tertius Zongo (b. 1957) 18 Apr 2011 - Luc Adolphe Tiao (b. 1954)

Burma: see Myanmar.

Burundi

     c.1680                Burundi kingdom founded
 1 Jul 1890                part of German East Africa
   Jun 1916                Belgian occupation
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate (Ruanda-Urundi)
13 Dec 1946                United Nations trust territory
   Jan 1961                autonomy
 1 Jul 1962                independence (Kingdom of Burundi)
28 Nov 1966                Republic of Burundi

Kings (title Mwami)¹
     c.1680 -      c.1709  Ntare Rushatsi
     c.1709 -      c.1739  Mwezi Ndagushimiye
     c.1739 -      c.1767  Mutaga Senyamwiza                  (b. ... - d. c.1767)
     c.1767 -      c.1796  Mwambutsa Mbariza                  (b. ... - d. c.1796)
     c.1796 -      c.1850  Ntare IV Rugamba                   (b. ... - d. c.1850)
     c.1850 - 21 Aug 1908  Mwezi IV Gisabo²                   (b. 1840 - d. 1908)
       18.. -  9 May 1905    Macoonco (in rebellion)²         (b. 18... - d. 1905)
       18.. -    Apr 1906    Cyilima (in rebellion)²
       1908 - 30 Nov 1915  Mutaga IV Mbikije                  (b. 1903 - d. 1915)
16 Dec 1915 -  8 Jul 1966  Mwambutsa IV Bangilicenge          (b. 1912 - d. 1977)
 8 Jul 1966 -  1 Sep 1966  Prince Charles Ndizeye             (b. 1947 - d. 1972)
                           (Head of State)
 1 Sep 1966 - 28 Nov 1966  Ntare V Ndizeye                    (s.a.)
Presidents
28 Nov 1966 -  1 Nov 1976  Michel Micombero                   (b. 1940 - d. 1983)
 2 Nov 1976 -  3 Sep 1987  Jean-Baptiste Bagaza               (b. 1946)
                           (chairman Supreme Revolutionary Council to 10 Nov 1976)
 3 Sep 1987 - 10 Jul 1993  Pierre Buyoya (1st time)           (b. 1949)
                           (chairman Military Committee of National Salvation to
                           9 Sep 1987)
10 Jul 1993 - 21 Oct 1993  Melchior Ndadaye                   (b. 1953 - d. 1993)
21 Oct 1993 - 27 Oct 1993  François Ngeze
                           (chairman Committee of Public Salvation, in rebellion)
27 Oct 1993 -  5 Feb 1994  Sylvie Kinigi (f) (acting)         (b. 1953)
 5 Feb 1994 -  6 Apr 1994  Cyprien Ntaryamira                 (b. 1955 - d. 1994)
 6 Apr 1994 - 25 Jul 1996  Sylvestre Ntibantunganya           (b. 1956)
                           (acting to 1 Oct 1994)
25 Jul 1996 - 30 Apr 2003  Pierre Buyoya (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 11 Jun 1998)
30 Apr 2003 - 26 Aug 2005  Domitien Ndayizeye                 (b. 1953)
26 Aug 2005 -              Pierre Nkurunziza                  (b. 1964)

Prime ministers 26 Jan 1961 - 28 Sep 1961 Joseph Cimpaye (b. 1932 - d. 1972) 28 Sep 1961 - 13 Oct 1961 Louis Rwagasore (b. 1932 - d. 1961) 20 Oct 1961 - 17 Jun 1963 André Muhirwa (b. 1920 - d. 2003) 17 Jun 1963 - 6 Apr 1964 Pierre Ngendandumwe (1st time) (b. 1930 - d. 1965) 6 Apr 1964 - 11 Jan 1965 Albin Nyamoya (1st time) (b. 1924 - d. 2001) 11 Jan 1965 - 15 Jan 1965 Pierre Ngendandumwe (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Jan 1965 - 25 Jan 1965 Pie Masumbuko (acting) (b. 1931) 25 Jan 1965 - 30 Sep 1965 Joseph Bamina (b. 1925 - d. 1965) 30 Sep 1965 - 8 Jul 1966 Léopold Biha (b. 1919 - d. 2003) 11 Jul 1966 - 28 Nov 1966 Michel Micombero (s.a.) 15 Jul 1972 - 5 Jun 1973 Albin Nyamoya (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Nov 1976 - 13 Oct 1978 Édouard Nzambimana (b. 1945) 19 Oct 1988 - 10 Jul 1993 Adrien Sibomana (b. 1953) 10 Jul 1993 - 7 Feb 1994 Sylvie Kinigi (f) (s.a.) 7 Feb 1994 - 22 Feb 1995 Anatole Kanyenkiko (b. 1952) 22 Feb 1995 - 31 Jul 1996 Antoine Nduwayo (b. 1942) 31 Jul 1996 - 12 Jun 1998 Pascal-Firmin Ndimira (b. 1956) German residents 15 Nov 1907 - 1908 Werner von Grawert (b. 18... - d. 1918) 1908 - 1909 Heinrich Fonck (acting) (b. 1869 - d. 19...) 1909 Eberhard Gudowius (b. 1878 - d. 19...) 1909 Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1917) 1909 - 1910 Otto Brentzel Jan 1910 - Jan 1911 Wilhelm Göring 1911 Kurt von Stegmann und Stein 1911 - 1913 Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller (2nd time) (s.a.) 1913 - 1914 Karl von Bock 1914 - 12 Jan 1915 Karl Schimmer (b. 1877 - d. 1915) 1915 Max Wentzel 1915 - Jun 1916 Erich von Langenn-Steinkeller (3rd time) (s.a.) Belgian residents 191. - Dec 1918 Edouard van den Eede (b. 1888 - d. 1947) (military resident) Jan 1919 - 1928 Pierre Ryckmans (b. 1891 - d. 1959) 1928 - 12 May 1929 Oscar Defawe (acting) (b. 1891 - d. 1952) 1 Feb 1930 - 24 Dec 1930 Charles, baron de l'Epine (b. 1887 - d. 19...) (interim) 24 Dec 1930 - 17 Jul 1933 Léon Borgers (b. 1897 - d. 19...) 17 Jul 1933 - 1935 Oger Coubeau (b. 1885 - d. 19...) 1935 - 1937 R. Hombert 12 Jan 1938 - 1940 René Verstappen (acting) (b. 1895 - d. 19...) 2 Feb 1944 - Jul 1953 Robert Schmidt (b. 1908) Jul 1953 - 1956* Fernand Siroux (b. 1908) *1957 - 28 Oct 1959 Robert Scheyven (b. 1906) 28 Oct 1959 - 28 Jul 1961 Ivan Reisdorff (b. 1913 - d. 1981) 28 Jul 1961 - Jan 1962 Roberto Regnier High Representatives Jan 1962 - 1962 Roberto Regnier 1962 - 1 Jul 1962 Edouard Henniquiau (b. 1911 - d. 199...)

Ruanda-Urundi

       1899                military district of Usumbura formed within German East
                           Africa
       1906                becomes military residency
15 Nov 1907                divided into two civil residencies
       1916                Belgian conquest of parts of German East Africa
                           (including Ruanda and Urundi, but also other parts)
30 May 1919                treaty with Britain: only Ruanda and Urundi remain under
                           Belgian administration
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandate
 1 Mar 1926 - 30 Jun 1960  administrative union with Belgian Congo
13 Dec 1946                United Nations trust territory
 1 Jul 1962                independence of both territories

Commanders
       1899 -        1902  Heinrich von Bethe
       1902 -        1904  Robert von Beringe                 (b. 1865 - d. 1940)
       1904 - 15 Nov 1907  Werner von Grawert                 (s.a.)
                           (from 1906 resident)
Military governor of the occupied East African territories
       1916 - 22 Nov 1916  Charles Henry Marie Ernest,
                           baron Tombeur de Tabora            (b. 1867 - d. 1947)
Royal commissioners for occupied East Africa
22 Nov 1916 -    May 1919  Justin Malfeyt                     (b. 1862 - d. 1924)
   May 1919 - 20 Oct 1924  Alfred Marzorati                   (b. 1881 - d. 1955)
   Nov 1921 -    Jul 1922    Pierre Ryckmans (acting)         (s.a.)
Royal commissioner for Ruanda-Urundi
20 Oct 1924 - 28 Aug 1926  Alfred Marzorati                   (s.a.)
15 Nov 1925 - 13 Dec 1926    Pierre Ryckmans (acting)         (s.a.)
Governors (also deputy governors-general of the Belgian Congo)
28 Aug 1926 -  5 Feb 1929  Alfred Marzorati                   (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1929 -  4 Jul 1930  Louis Joseph Postiaux (acting)     (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
 4 Jul 1930 - 18 Aug 1932  Charles Voisin                     (b. 1887 - d. 1942)
18 Aug 1932 -  5 Jul 1946  Eugène Jungers                     (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
 5 Jul 1946 -    Aug 1949  Maurice Simon (acting to 1947)
   Aug 1949 -  1 Jan 1952  Léon Pétillon                      (b. 1903 - d. 1996)
 1 Jan 1952 -  1 Mar 1955  Alfred Claeys-Bouuaert             (b. 1906)
 1 Mar 1955 -        1960  Jean-Paul Harroy                   (b. 1909 - d. 1995)
Resident-general
       1960 - 11 Jan 1962  Jean-Paul Harroy                   (s.a.)
¹The names of the kings followed a fixed cycle: Ntare, Mwezi, Mutaga, Mwambutsa. Traditionally it was thought that there were four full cycles, but today it is believed there were only two.
²On 6 Jun 1903 the German authorities imposed on Mwezi Gisabo the independence of the two chiefs Macoonco and Cyilima. On 8 Oct 1905 the Germans recognized Mwezi Gisabo as "Sultan" of Burundi and its only supreme authority.