Caamaño Deñó, Francisco Alberto (b. June 11, 1932, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - d. [executed] Feb. 16, 1973), president of the Dominican Republic in opposition (1965).
Caballero (de Añasco y Melgarejo), Bernardino (b. May 20, 1839, Ybycuí, Paraguay - d. Feb. 26, 1912, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (1880-86). He was also minister of war (1871) and interior (1878-80).
Caballero Codas, Marcos (Honorio), member of the Triumvirate of Paraguay (1912); son of Bernardino Caballero.
Caballero y Fernández de Rodas, Antonio (b. April 3, 1816 - d. 1876), governor of Cuba (1869-70).
Caballero y Góngora, Antonio (Pascual de San Pedro de Alcántara) (b. May 23, 1723, Priego de Córdoba, Spain - d. March 24, 1796, Córdoba, Spain), viceroy of New Granada (1782-88). He was bishop of Mérida (Yucatán) (1776-78) and archbishop of Santafé en Nueva Granada (today Bogotá) (1778-88) and of Córdoba (1788-96).
Caballeros (López), Harold (Osberto) (b. June 20, 1956, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (2012-13).
Cabanes (Dalmau), Josep Maria (b. Feb. 21, 1958), justice and interior minister of Andorra (2003-07).
Cabello (Rondón), Diosdado (b. April 15, 1963, El Furrial, Monagas state, Venezuela), executive vice-president (2002), acting president (2002), and interior minister (2002-03) of Venezuela and governor of Miranda (2004-08). He was also minister of infrastructure (2003-04, 2008-09) and public works and housing (2009-10). In 2012 he became president of the National Assembly.
Cabi, Martinho Ndafa (b. Sept. 17, 1957, Nhacra, Oio region, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), prime minister of Guinea-Bissau (2007-08). He was also minister of energy and natural resources (2004-05) and defense (2005).
Cable, Jack, byname of Ivan John Cable (b. Aug. 17, 1934, Hamilton, Ont.), commissioner of Yukon Territory (2000-05).
Cabral, Amílcar (Lopes) (b. Sept. 12, 1924, Bafata, Portuguese Guinea - d. Jan. 20, 1973, Conakry, Guinea), Guinea-Bissau politician. Already determined to find ways of working for his country's independence, he served for two years in the colonial administration of Portuguese Guinea. His opinions became offensive to the governor of the colony, and Cabral transferred to Angola. There, late in 1956, he helped to form, with Agostinho Neto, the earliest important nationalist grouping of that colony, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). A few months earlier, during a visit to Bissau, he also formed with five others the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde; PAIGC) and became its secretary-general. This small clandestine grouping pressed for political concessions by organizing strikes and demonstrations, but decided in September 1959, after the particularly violent repression of a strike in the Bissau docks, to prepare for armed action. It was from this period that Cabral began to demonstrate the personal qualities of patience, courage, and political farsightedness which were soon to make him, as well as the movement that he led, into a most formidable opponent of continued Portuguese colonial rule. The armed uprising of the PAIGC was launched in January 1963 and survived all Portuguese efforts at repression. In the late 1960s Cabral was the de facto ruler of the parts of Portuguese Guinea not occupied by army units from Portugal. In 1972 he established a Guinean People's National Assembly as a step toward independence. He was assassinated outside his home in Conakry, where his party had established its headquarters.
Cabral, Filomeno da Câmara Melo (b. 1873 - d. 1934), governor of Portuguese Timor (1911-17), governor-general of Angola (1918-19), and finance minister of Portugal (1926).
Cabral, Luís de Almeida (b. April 11, 1931, Bissau, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau] - d. May 30, 2009, Lisbon, Portugal), chairman of the Council of State of Guinea-Bissau (1973-80); half-brother of Amílcar Cabral.
Cadieux, Léo Alphonse Joseph (b. May 28, 1908, Saint-Jérôme, Quebec, Canada - d. May 12, 2005), defense minister of Canada (1967-70). He was ambassador to France in 1970-75.
Cadillac, Antoine (Laumet) de Lamothe (b. March 5, 1658, Les Laumets [now in Tarn-et-Garonne], France - d. Oct. 15, 1730, Castelsarrasin [now in Tarn-et-Garonne]), governor of Louisiana (1713-16). Going to Canada in 1683, he fought against the Iroquois Indians, lived for a time in Maine, and first served in present-day Michigan as commandant of the important frontier post of Mackinac (1694-97). With permission from King Louis XIV, Cadillac established a Great Lakes fur-trading post and founded Fort-Pontchartrain du Détroit (1701), later called Detroit. He governed there until 1710, when his enemies in Quebec and Paris forced his removal to the new French colony of Louisiana. Increasingly unpopular there and himself dissatisfied with his appointment, Cadillac was recalled to France and was briefly confined in the Bastille (1717-18). He lived the rest of his life in retirement in Languedoc. The city of Cadillac, Mich.; Cadillac Mountain, Maine; and the Cadillac automobile are named for him.
Cadman, Radclyffe (Macbeth) (b. Jan. 13, 1924, Heatonville, Zululand, South Africa - d. Oct. 11, 2011), administrator of Natal (1984-90).
Cadot, Michel (François Jacques) (b. May 22, 1954, Suresnes, Hauts-de-Seine, France), prefect of Martinique (2000-04). He has also been prefect of the départements of Meuse (1998-2000), Maine-et-Loire (2004), Haute-Vienne (2007), Ille-et-Vilaine (2009-13), and Bouches-du-Rhône (2013- ).
Caetano, Marcelo (José das Neves Alves) (b. Aug. 17, 1906, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Oct. 26, 1980, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), prime minister of Portugal (1968-74). He served with Finance Minister António Salazar (later prime minister) in 1929 and helped to draft the constitution of 1933 and other legal documents of the "New State." In 1940 he became head of Mocidade Portuguesa, the national youth movement. He was vice-president of the Corporative Chamber, the upper house, and served as minister of the colonies (1944-47). Between 1950 and 1955 he was president of the Chamber, and in 1955 Salazar chose him as his right-hand man as minister of the presidency, a post he filled for three years. Despite his occasional disputes with Salazar, he wholeheartedly supported the latter's right-wing policies. When Salazar suffered a stroke in 1968, Caetano was appointed prime minister. He admitted an opposition and rectified the constitution. While Salazar rarely moved from Lisbon, Caetano made frequent trips abroad - to Africa, Latin America, the United States, and Europe. In 1970 he became the first prime minister to visit the Portuguese African territories. But Africa was at the centre of his downfall. The major part of the armed forces were engaged in policing the colonies and fighting guerrilla wars at an enormous cost to the nation. World opinion was against colonialism and there was universal concern at reports in 1973 that Portuguese troops had massacred 400 in Mozambique. Dissatisfaction in the army led to the "Revolution of the Flowers," which in 1974 overthrew the New State and drove Caetano into exile. He settled in Brazil.
Café, João (Fernandes Campos), Filho (b. March 3, 1899, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. Feb. 20, 1970, Rio de Janeiro), president of Brazil (1954-56).
Cafiero (Cafiero), Antonio (Francisco) (b. Sept. 12, 1922, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Oct. 13, 2014), federal interventor in Mendoza (1974-75), governor of Buenos Aires (1987-91), and cabinet chief of Argentina (2001-02). He was also minister of foreign trade (1952-55) and economy (1975-76) and ambassador to Chile (1992-93).
Çagatay, Mustafa (b. April 20, 1937, Limassol, Cyprus), prime minister of North Cyprus (1978-83).
Cagigal de la Vega (Salinas y Acevedo), Francisco Antonio (b. 1695, Hoz de Anero, Cantabria, Spain - d. 1777, Hoz de Anero), governor of Cuba (1747-60) and acting viceroy of New Spain (1760).
Çaglayangil, Ihsan Sabri (b. 1908, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Dec. 30, 1993, Ankara, Turkey), foreign minister (1965-71) and acting president (1980) of Turkey. He was chairman of the Senate in 1979-80.
Cahen, Alfred (b. Sept. 28, 1929, Elsene [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium - d. April 19, 2000, Brussels), secretary-general of the Western European Union (1985-89). He was also Belgian ambassador to France (1989-96).
Cahill, William T(homas) (b. June 25, 1912, Philadelphia, Pa. - d. July 1, 1996, Haddonfield, N.J.), governor of New Jersey (1970-74). He was a six-term congressman before he served as governor. In Congress, he was active in passage of the Civil Rights Act as a member of the House Judiciary Committee. He was a liberal Republican, pro-union and active in urban causes. He once singled out Richard Nixon for not paying more attention to domestic problems such as the urban decay affecting Newark. Cahill broke with fellow Republicans at times, praising students who protested Nixon's decision to invade Cambodia during the Vietnam War, and pushing to soften penalties for possessing small amounts of marijuana. As governor, he focused on the environment (the Department of Environmental Protection was created during his term), raised the state sales tax from 3% to 5% to balance the budget shortly after taking office, and also presided over introduction of a state lottery. But he lost an attempt to get voter approval of a state income tax recommended by a commission he had appointed. Opposition to his tax proposals and corruption charges against associates limited Cahill to one term as governor. Seeking a second term, he was defeated in the Republican primary - the only time he lost an election for public office.
Cai Chengxun (b. 1871, Tianjin, China - d. 1946, Tianjin), governor of Suiyuan (1917-20), civil governor of Gansu (1920-21), army minister of China (1921), and military and civil governor of Jiangxi (1922-24). He was graduated from Beiyang Military College and in 1911 became a brigade commander. After a series of promotions, he was named commander of the 1st Division during his term in Suiyuan. He was sent to Jiangxi after he left the cabinet, but was expelled from office by Fang Benren in 1924.
Cai E (b. Dec. 18, 1882, Shaoyang, Hunan, China - d. Nov. 8, 1916, Fukuoka, Japan), Chinese revolutionary general. He started his career of revolt against the Qing dynasty when he was only 18. Serving as the commander of the 37th Brigade, he declared independence in Yunnan shortly after the Wuchang Uprising of Oct. 10, 1911, and took office as military governor of Yunnan. He was put under house arrest by Pres. Yuan Shikai for his strong belief in democracy and admiration of revolutionary activist Song Jiaoren. He escaped from Beijing in 1915 and planned his revolt against Yuan's government. Having returned to Yunnan via Japan, he led an uprising there and then led his army into Sichuan. Winning several campaigns there, he soon put Sichuan under his control. He took office as Sichuan governor after Yuan's death in 1916, but died himself later that year.
Cai Tinggan (b. May 15, 1861, Zhongshan, Guangdong, China - d. Sept. 29, 1935, Beijing, China), foreign minister of China (1926). Having graduated from Tianjin Navy College, he served in the Chinese navy from 1892, and joined the sea warfare against the Japanese in 1894, in which he was wounded and captured. He was named director of the rank bureau subordinated to the minister of navy in 1911. After the republic was founded, he was made the senior military adviser of the president's office, as well as Pres. Yuan Shikai's secretary for English language. He was also involved in Chinese tariffs. As a senior adviser of the Chinese delegation for tariff negotiations, he participated in the Washington conference of 1921-22.
Cai Yuanpei (b. Jan. 11, 1868, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China - d. March 5, 1940, Hong Kong), education minister of China (1912). A successful candidate in the imperial examination, he founded the "Chinese Educational Conference" in 1902 and started his propaganda work against the Qing dynasty. Having been the leader of the "Recover Association" (an anti-Qing organization) from 1903, he joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (precursor of the Kuomintang) in 1905 in Shanghai. He was named education minister in Sun Yat-sen's Nanjing government and maintained his post after the capital moved to Beijing. Protesting Pres. Yuan Shikai's premier nomination of Lu Zhengxiang, he and other Kuomintang cabinet members resigned in June 1912. He later became the president of Peking University (1916-27), vowing to incorporate diverse ideas and theories into his college. He participated in the founding of the Chinese Human Rights Protective Alliance in 1932 and was nominated as its vice-president. He moved to Hong Kong on the outbreak of the war with Japan.
Caillard, Henri Jean Auguste (b. June 12, 1872, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Corrèze, France - d. Jan. 10, 1926), administrator of Kwangchowan (1912-15).
Cain, John (b. Jan. 19, 1882, Greendale, Victoria [Australia] - d. Aug. 4, 1957, Townsville, Queensland, Australia), premier of Victoria (1943, 1945-47, 1952-55).
Cain, John (b. April 26, 1931, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia), premier of Victoria (1982-90); son of the earlier premier of the same name.
Cairns, Jim, byname of James Ford Cairns (b. Oct. 4, 1914, Carlton, near Melbourne, Victoria, Australia - d. Oct. 12, 2003, Narre Warren East, near Melbourne), Australian politician. He entered federal politics as the member for Yarra in 1955. He played a large role in keeping Catholic anti-communists within the Victorian Labor Party at bay. He rose through the ranks particularly by his anti-Vietnam War stance. While the Labor Party remained ambivalent in the early years of the war, Cairns was quick to denounce Australia's strong support for the United States. It culminated in him leading huge antiwar marches, and in Labor's decision to oppose conscription and the war. He also opposed the White Australia policy. His strong position also aroused anger and in 1969 he and his family were bashed in their home, one of his attackers saying, "Who do you think you are - God?" Cairns took months to recover. He was defeated for the party leadership in 1966 when Arthur Calwell was replaced by Gough Whitlam as leader. Two years later, when Whitlam resigned the leadership in an internal squabble, Cairns lost again, falling six votes short of Whitlam. When Labor gained power in 1972 with Whitlam at the helm, Cairns was made trade and secondary industry minister. Among his achievements was a trade deal with China and closer links with the Middle East. Following the economic problems that confounded the government, he was made treasurer and deputy prime minister in 1974. In 1975, he was sacked as treasurer for allegedly misleading parliament over his involvement in overseas loan-raising, but within Labor the move was seen as punishment for an improper relationship with his office coordinator Junie Morosi. He spent a short period as environment minister before the Whitlam government was swept from office in 1975. In 1977 he retired.
Caix (de Saint-Aymour), Robert de (b. Feb. 5, 1869, Paris - d. March 12, 1970), acting high commissioner of Syria and Lebanon (1922-23).
Çakmak, (Mustafa) Fevzi, until Jan. 1, 1935, Mustafa Fevzi Pasha (b. Jan. 12, 1876, Istanbul - d. April 10, 1950, Istanbul), Turkish politician. A lieutenant in 1895, he was made lieutenant colonel and appointed chief of staff of an army corps in 1910. He fought in the Balkan Wars of 1912-13 as commander of a division, and in World War I as commander of an army corps and (in 1917-18) of an army. War minister in 1920, he resigned the commission and office granted him by the sultan and joined Kemal Atatürk's "rebellion" in Ankara. There he was made prime minister and minister of defense. Promoted to the rank of full general during the Greek invasion of Anatolia, he resigned his premiership in 1922 and became deputy to Ismet Inönü, then chief of staff. After the victorious conclusion of the War of Liberation, he was promoted as the new republic's first marshal and appointed chief of staff, holding this position for 20 years. With Atatürk and Inönü, he was one of the three statesmen who created modern Turkey. In the 1946 elections he stood as an independent and was elected with a great majority. In 1948 he accepted the honorary leadership of the Nation's (conservative) Party.
Cakobau, Ratu Sir George (Kadavulevu), Vunivalu of Bau (b. Nov. 6, 1912, Bau island, Fiji - d. Nov. 25, 1989, Suva, Fiji), governor-general of Fiji (1973-83); knighted 1973; great-grandson of Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau.
Cakobau, Ratu Seru Epenisa (b. 1815, Lakeba island, Fiji - d. February 1883), ruler (Vunivalu) of Bau (1852-74), president of the General Assembly of the Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti (1865-67), king of Bau (1867-69) and of Viti (1871-74).
Caldera (Rodríguez), Rafael (Antonio) (b. Jan. 24, 1916, San Felipe, Yaracuy state, Venezuela - d. Dec. 24, 2009, Caracas, Venezuela), president of Venezuela (1969-74, 1994-99). He entered politics in the 1930s, and in 1946 founded the Social-Christian COPEI party, a movement grounded in the middle class. He helped revive democracy as one of the three signers of the Punto Fijo pact, which organized elections after the fall of dictator Gen. Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958. Under the pact, COPEI and Rómulo Betancourt's Democratic Action party shared power for 40 years. Viewed by many as the grandfather of Venezuelan politics, Caldera ran in six presidential elections and won twice, in 1969 and 1993. Tough with political adversaries and inclined toward populism, he was also known for living simply and for integrity in a country where corruption was common. Caldera's supporters said his second term, during which he grew increasingly frail to the point of infirmity, brought relative political stability to Venezuela. The country had been buffeted by 1989 price riots, two 1992 military coup attempts, and the 1993 dismissal of a president who later was tried and convicted on corruption charges. Caldera's critics argued that he fell short on his promises to restructure and modernize an inefficient state apparatus. They noted that he presided over two devaluations in three years and left Latin America's fourth-largest economy in deep recession. In 1994, Caldera pardoned Hugo Chávez, who was jailed for leading one of the failed coups two years earlier. But Caldera was later deeply at odds with Chávez, who came to succeed him as president.
Caldera Cardenal, Norman José (b. Oct. 21, 1946, Managua, Nicaragua), foreign minister of Nicaragua (2002-07). He was also minister of development, industry, and trade (1999-2001).
Calderón (Hinojosa), Felipe (de Jesús) (b. Aug. 18, 1962, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico), president of Mexico (2006-12).
Calderón (Serra de Cantero Frau), Sila María (b. Sept. 23, 1942, San Juan), governor of Puerto Rico (2001-05). When Luis Silva Recio, a former professor of Calderón's, was chosen as Puerto Rico's secretary of labour in 1973, she became his executive assistant. In 1984 she served as the special assistant to Gov. Rafael Hernández Colón, who the following year appointed her chief of staff, and she then served as secretary of the interior before becoming secretary of state in 1988. She was elected mayor of San Juan in 1996 and was later chosen as head of the Popular Democratic Party. In the 1998 referendum on statehood organized by pro-statehood governor Pedro Rosselló, she led the pro-commonwealth campaign; her efforts were rewarded when the majority voted in favour of commonwealth status. In running for governor in 2000, she promised to end corruption and the U.S. Navy's bombing exercises on Vieques, an island off the east coast of the main island of Puerto Rico that had been used for naval exercises since 1941. Her strong antibombing stance, plus the killing of a security officer by an errant bomb in 1999 and the island's alarmingly high cancer rate (which many attributed to the exercises), brought her the victory. Immediately after her inauguration she vowed to step up efforts to end the military use of the island. On April 24, 2001, she launched legal action against the U.S. government, basing the suit on the Noise Control Act of 1972. Although U.S. Pres. George W. Bush initially resisted ending the exercises, in June his administration announced that the bombings would be permanently halted in 2003. Having divorced her longtime husband Adolfo Krans soon after taking office, she married her former secretary of economic development, Ramón Cantero Frau, in 2003.
Calderón Berti, Humberto (b. Oct. 21, 1941, Boconó, Trujillo state, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1992). He was also minister of energy and mines (1979-83).
Calderón Fournier, Rafael Ángel (b. March 14, 1949, Diriamba, Nicaragua), foreign minister (1978-80) and president (1990-94) of Costa Rica; son of Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia. He was arrested in October 2004 after being accused of taking an illegal commission during a government purchase of medical equipment from Finland. The first former head of state to be tried for corruption in Costa Rica, he was sentenced to five years in jail in October 2009.
Calderón Guardia, Rafael Ángel (del Socorro) (b. March 10, 1900, San José, Costa Rica - d. June 9, 1970, San José), president of Costa Rica (1940-44). He entered politics in 1934, serving successively as vice president and president of congress (1935-39). He was leader of the Republican, or Calderista, party. As president, he brought Costa Rica into World War II on the Allied side and cooperated closely with the United States. He later served as ambassador to Mexico (1966-70).
Calderón Sol, Armando (b. June 24, 1948, San Salvador, El Salvador), president of El Salvador (1994-99). He was also mayor of San Salvador (1988-94).
Caldoro, Stefano (b. Dec. 3, 1960, Campobasso, Molise, Italy), president of Campania (2010- ).
Calfa, Marián (b. May 7, 1946, Trebisov, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), prime minister of Czechoslovakia (1989-92).
Caliguiri, Richard S. (b. Oct. 20, 1931, Pittsburgh, Pa. - d. May 6, 1988, Pittsburgh), mayor of Pittsburgh (1977-88).
Calinescu, Armand (Mihai) (b. June 3 [May 22, Old Style], 1893, Pitesti, Romania - d. Sept. 21, 1939, Bucharest, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1939). He was an organizer for the National Peasant Party and in 1919 entered on a public political career as general secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture. In 1926 he was elected to parliament. In 1930 he was made undersecretary of state of the Ministry of the Interior. In December 1937 he became minister of interior in the National Christian cabinet of Octavian Goga. In February 1938 Romania was on the verge of serious disturbances, and Calinescu told King Carol that he could not guarantee the maintenance of order during the elections which were about to be held as the anti-Semitic partisans of Alexandru C. Cuza had gotten out of hand in the provinces. On the other hand, the Iron Guard, an equally anti-Semitic and conspiratorial body guilty of a long list of political assassinations, seemed almost certain to be returned in such a strength as to entitle it to office. King Carol dismissed Goga, entrusting the formation of a new cabinet to the Orthodox patriarch Miron Cristea. Calinescu remained interior minister and became in fact the driving force of the government, carrying on the fight against the Iron Guards, bringing them up to trial and subsequently obtaining from the courts heavy sentences on their leaders. When Cristea's health failed, Calinescu was appointed vice premier, and he became premier on the patriarch's death (March 1939). He was one of the sponsors of the Romanian National Renaissance Front, aiming at uniting in one group all the Romanian political parties. But his plans were cut short when he was assassinated by Guardist terrorists.
Callaghan (of Cardiff), (Leonard) James Callaghan, Baron (b. March 27, 1912, Portsmouth, Hampshire, England - d. March 26, 2005, Ringmer, East Sussex, England), prime minister of the United Kingdom (1976-79). By 1936 he had become a full-time trade-union official. He entered Parliament in 1945, representing the Welsh constituency of Cardiff South. Between 1947 and 1951 Callaghan held junior posts at the Ministry of Transport and at the Admiralty. When Harold Wilson's Labour government was formed in 1964, Callaghan was named chancellor of the exchequer. In this capacity he helped secure in 1966-67 international agreement to a system called Special Drawing Rights, which in effect created a new kind of international money. He resigned from the exchequer in 1967, when he was forced to devalue the pound sterling. He then served as home secretary until 1970. In Wilson's second government in 1974, Callaghan was named foreign secretary; and in 1976, upon Wilson's resignation, Callaghan succeeded him as prime minister, largely because the Parliamentary Labour Party considered him the least divisive candidate. A moderate within the party, he tried to stem the increasingly vociferous demands of Britain's trade unions. He also had to secure the passage of unpopular spending cuts early in his ministry. His reassuring public manner came to be criticized as complacency when a series of labour strikes in 1978-79 paralyzed hospital care, refuse collection, and other essential services. In March 1979 his government was brought down by a vote of no confidence passed in the House of Commons, the first such occurrence since 1924. At the subsequent general election, Labour was defeated. On Oct. 15, 1980, he resigned as party leader, to be succeeded by Michael Foot. He was created a life peer in 1987.
Callbeck, Catherine S(ophia) (b. July 25, 1939, Central Bedeque, P.E.I.), premier of Prince Edward Island (1993-96). Callbeck's political career began with her election to the island legislature in 1974, where she served until 1978. She was elected to Parliament in 1988, but resigned in November 1992 to seek the Liberal leadership in the province, which she won in January 1993. She led the Liberals to victory in every seat but one in the March 1993 election. She became the first woman elected to lead a Canadian provincial government. (Canada's first female premier was Rita Johnston in British Columbia, who took over after a resignation but was then defeated in elections.) Callbeck, who could have remained in office until early 1998, resigned on Aug. 6, 1996. The unexpected resignation followed reports of dissension within her Liberal Party after she decided against calling an early election in June. Opposition leaders said Callbeck backed off because support for her government had fallen. Callbeck also quit the Liberal Party leadership. On Sept. 23, 1997, she was called to the Senate of Canada.
Callejas (Romero), Rafael Leonardo (b. Nov. 14, 1943, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), president of Honduras (1990-94). He was also minister of agriculture and natural resources (1978-80). He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1985 before winning in 1989.
Calleri (conte) di Sala, Edoardo (b. 1927? - d. April 20, 2002, Turin, Italy), president of Piemonte (1970-73).
Calles, Plutarco Elías, original name Francisco Plutarco Elías Campuzano (b. Sept. 25, 1877, Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico - d. Oct. 19, 1945, Mexico City), president of Mexico (1924-28). He joined the struggle of Francisco Madero against the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz in 1910. Calles was an extremely gifted organizer and leader and a general in the battles, first against Victoriano Huerta, who had assassinated Madero, and then against Pancho Villa and his rebel forces. In 1917 Calles became governor of Sonora. Appointed secretary of commerce, labour, and industry under Pres. Venustiano Carranza, he resigned to support the candidacy of Álvaro Obregón and was instrumental in overthrowing Carranza in 1920. Calles served as secretary of foreign relations under Adolfo de la Huerta (1920) and then as secretary of the interior under Obregón (1920-24). In 1924 Calles was elected president. Although becoming increasingly conservative, he sponsored agrarian, labour, and educational reforms. His term was marked also by difficulties with the Roman Catholic Church and the United States. President-elect Obregón was assassinated in 1928, and for the next six years Calles was the real power behind three puppet presidents. His base was the Partido Nacional Revolucionario (PNR), which he organized in 1929; its support of a candidate was tantamount to election. In those six years the more radical aspects of the revolution were methodically curbed. But by 1934, left-wing groups had begun to control the PNR, and Calles had to support their candidate for president, Lázaro Cárdenas. This deteriorated into an open break, and Calles was forced into exile. He lived in California until 1941, when he was permitted to return.
Calmy-Rey, Micheline (Anne-Marie), née Rey, official surname Calmy (b. July 8, 1945, Sion, Valais, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Genève (2001-02) and foreign minister (2003-11), vice president (2006), and president (2007, 2011) of Switzerland.
Calonder, Felix (Louis) (b. Dec. 7, 1863, Scuol, Graubünden, Switzerland - d. June 14, 1952, Zürich), president of the Council of States (1911-12), interior minister (1913-17), foreign minister (1918-19), and president (1918) of Switzerland.
Calonne, Charles Alexandre de (b. Jan. 20, 1734, Douai, France - d. Oct. 29, 1802, Paris), French statesman. He held various posts in French Flanders and in Artois before becoming intendant of Metz (1768) and of Lille (1774). His financial genius and court connections led to his appointment as controller general of finance in November 1783. At that time the French government was heavily in debt. Calonne reconstituted a sinking fund (1784) to pay off the debt, and in 1785 he reformed the gold coinage. He soon discovered, however, that major reforms were necessary to save France from bankruptcy. In August 1786 he submitted to King Louis XVI a far-reaching plan of reform that involved increasing the taxation of the privileged noble and clerical orders through a proportional tax on land. Recognizing that the Parlements (high courts of justice) would reject his proposals, Calonne submitted them instead to a special Assembly of Notables - nobles, clergy, and magistrates - which convened on Feb. 22, 1787. Nevertheless, the intrigues of his political opponents and the antagonism of the higher clergy and magistrates in the assembly thwarted his efforts. His revelation of the annual deficit of more than 100,000,000 livres and the failure of his reform schemes ensured the summons of the Estates-General in August 1788, which in turn led directly to the French Revolution. In April 1787 Louis XVI dismissed Calonne from office, and four months later he withdrew to England. After the Revolution began, Calonne devoted himself to the cause of counterrevolution. He was chief adviser to the émigrés (nobles in exile) from December 1790 until the fall of the monarchy in August 1792. In 1802, during Napoléon Bonaparte's Consulate regime, he returned to France. He died soon thereafter.
Cals, Jo(seph Maria Laurens Theo) (b. July 18, 1914, Roermond, Limburg, Netherlands - d. Dec. 30, 1971, The Hague), prime minister of the Netherlands (1965-66). He was also minister of education, arts, and sciences (1952-63).
Calvani (Silva), Arístides (b. Jan. 10, 1918, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad - d. [air accident] Jan. 18, 1986, Petén forest, Guatemala), foreign minister of Venezuela (1969-74).
Calvel, Auguste (Marie Léon) (b. Aug. 28, 1892 - d. May 11, 1981), governor of French Sudan (1942-46).
Calvert, Lorne (Albert) (b. Dec. 24, 1952, Moose Jaw, Sask.), premier of Saskatchewan (2001-07).
Calvo, Eddie (Baza) (b. Aug. 29, 1961, Tamuning, Guam), governor of Guam (2011- ); son of Paul M. Calvo.
Calvo, Paul M(cDonald) (b. July 25, 1934, Agana, Guam), governor of Guam (1979-83).
Calvo Rosales, Joaquín Bernardo (b. Aug. 20, 1799, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Oct. 20, 1865, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1844-46, 1847-56). He was also finance and war minister (1844), interior minister (1844-46, 1847-59), and president of the Senate (1864-65).
Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo, Leopoldo (Ramón Pedro), from June 24, 2002, marqués de la Ría de Ribadeo (b. April 14, 1926, Madrid, Spain - d. May 3, 2008, Pozuelo, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1981-82). Although he held ministerial office from the end of the Franco era, he first gained political prominence for his role in helping to organize the Christian Democrats and groups further to the right into the Unión Centro Democrático (UCD) in time to win the June 1977 elections. In the subsequent administration he was rewarded with the post of minister without portfolio, in charge of negotiating Spain's accession to the European Communities (EC). Following the resignation of Premier Adolfo Suárez González and the abortive coup of Feb. 23-24, 1981, Deputy Premier Calvo-Sotelo took over the premiership on February 25 and with it the task of guiding Spain's uneasy transition from the authoritarianism of the Franco regime to Western European-style democracy. His task was rendered more difficult by conflict within the ruling UCD between right-wing Christian Democrats and "Suaristas" (followers of former premier Suárez). Calvo-Sotelo's election as UCD president in November, replacing Agustín Rodríguez Sahagún (Suárez's brother-in-law) would, it was hoped, consolidate the party under his leadership. Calvo-Sotelo was regarded as a superb administrator and surrounded himself with able technocrats. If his political talents were less marked than those of his predecessor, his credibility with the private sector and trade unions enabled him to achieve the lowest wage settlement in Spain's recent history. His critics faulted him for his lack of success, initially at least, in demonstrating his independence from the preceding government and for his lack of progress (through little fault of his own) in negotiating an agreement with the EC.
Calzada Rovirosa, José (Eduardo) (b. Aug. 21, 1964, Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (2009- ); son of Antonio Calzada Urquiza.
Calzada Urquiza, Antonio (b. Sept. 9, 1931, Querétaro, Mexico), governor of Querétaro (1973-79). He was also Mexican ambassador to Colombia (1984-85).
Camacho, Carlos G(arcia) (b. Nov. 16, 1924, Agana, Guam - d. Dec. 6, 1979, Agana), governor of Guam (1969-75).
Camacho, Carlos S(ablan) (b. Feb. 27, 1937, Garapan, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands), governor of the Northern Mariana Islands (1978-82).
Camacho, Felix (Perez) (b. Oct. 30, 1957, Camp Zama, south of Tokyo, Japan), governor of Guam (2003-11); son of Carlos G. Camacho.
Camacho Omiste, Edgar (b. Aug. 8, 1936, Oruro, Bolivia - d. Jan. 1, 2013, Cochabamba, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1970, 1985). He was also non-resident ambassador to India, Nepal, and Vietnam (1996-97) and ambassador to Brazil (2004-06).
Camacho Quiroz, César (b. Feb. 14, 1959, Metepec, México), governor of México (1997-99).
Camacho Solís, (Víctor) Manuel (b. March 30, 1946, Mexico City), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (1988-93) and foreign minister of Mexico (1993-94). He was a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) from 1965 to 1995 but was a founding member of the Democratic Centre Party (PCD) in 1996 and its presidential candidate in 2000.
Camaño, Eduardo (Oscar) (b. June 17, 1946, Buenos Aires, Argentina), acting president of Argentina (2001-02). He became president of the Chamber of Deputies on Dec. 10, 2001.
Camara, Arafan (b. 1947? - d. Jan. 6, 2008, Paris, France), defense minister of Guinea (2007).
Camara, Assan Musa, originally (before conversion to Islam in 1974) Andrew (David) Camara (b. April 21, 1923, Mansajang village, Gambia - d. Sept. 15, 2013), foreign minister (1967-74), vice president (1972-77, 1978-82), and finance minister (1977-79) of The Gambia. He was a presidential candidate in 1987 (winning 13.7% of the votes) and 1992 (8%).
Camara, Eugène (b. Jan. 21, 1942, N'Zérékoré, French Guinea [now Guinea]), prime minister of Guinea (2007). He was also governor of the administrative regions of Guinée Forestière (1992-94) and Kindia (1994-97) and minister of higher education and scientific research (1997-2004) and planning (2004-07).
Câmara, José Sette, Filho (b. April 21, 1920, Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. May 30, 2002, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Guanabara (1960) and Distrito Federal (1961-62).
Camara, Moïse Dadis, before conversion to Christianity (2010) Moussa Dadis Camara (b. 1964, Kouré, Guinea), president of Guinea (2008-10).
Camata, Gérson (b. June 29, 1941, Castelo, Espírito Santo, Brazil), governor of Espírito Santo (1983-86).
Camblor, Juan Carlos (b. 1927 - d. Aug. 14, 2008), defense minister of Argentina (1983).
Cambon, Jules (Martin) (b. April 5, 1845, Paris, France - d. Sept. 19, 1935, Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland), governor-general of Algeria (1891-97). He entered the prefectorial administration after service in the Franco-German War (1870-71). In June 1878 he was appointed prefect of Constantine (Algeria) and then served as secretary-general of the prefecture of Paris and prefect of the départements of Nord (1882-87) and Rhône (1887-91). In January 1891 he returned to Algeria as governor-general. After a conspicuously successful term in Algeria, he was appointed ambassador to the United States (October 1897) and helped negotiate the peace after the Spanish-American War (1898). As ambassador to Spain (1902-07) and to Germany (1907-14), he was concerned in the disputes between France and Germany at Algeciras (1906) and after the Agadir crisis (1911). Together with his brother Paul, who was ambassador to Great Britain, he laboured to avoid war with Germany. When the hostilities began (1914), he returned to Paris to become secretary-general of the Foreign Ministry (1915). During the Versailles peace conferences, he served as chairman of the commissions for Greek, Czech, and Polish matters. In 1918 he was elected to the French Academy. At the end of the Versailles peace conference (1919) Georges Clemenceau appointed him to preside over the Council of Ambassadors, which was designed to supervise the application of the peace agreements, and he held this post until March 1922.
Cambon, (Pierre) Paul (b. Jan. 20, 1843, Paris, France - d. May 28, 1924, Paris), French resident minister (1882-85) and resident-general (1885-86) of Tunisia; brother of Jules Cambon. He was also prefect of Nord département (1878-82) and ambassador to Spain (1886-91), Turkey (1891-98), and the United Kingdom (1898-1920).
Cameli, Orleir Messias (b. March 16, 1949, Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil - d. May 8, 2013, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil), governor of Acre (1995-99).
Camelia-Römer, Susanne (Fransisca Coromoto), byname Suzie Camelia-Römer (b. Jan. 4, 1959, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1993, 1998-99).
Cameron, Charles (baptized June 13, 1766, London - d. June 26, 1828, Roydon, England), civil commissioner of Malta (1801-03) and governor of the Bahamas (1804-20).
Cameron, David (William Donald) (b. Oct. 9, 1966, London, England), British prime minister (2010- ); great-great-great-great-great-grandson of William IV. The first step of his political career was a job in the Conservative Party research department. After a spell seconded to No. 10 Downing Street where he helped brief John Major for Prime Minister's Questions, he was talent-spotted by Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont who made him his special adviser. After unsuccessfully standing in Stafford in the 1997 general election, he entered Parliament in 2001 as MP for Witney, northwest of London. He became the leading light of the so-called "Notting Hill set" of young modernizers who grouped themselves around Michael Howard after he became leader in 2003. After only two years in Parliament, Cameron was appointed to the Conservative front bench. Howard entrusted him with the key task of policy coordinator in the run-up to the 2005 election. After the Conservatives were defeated and Howard resigned, Cameron was elected party leader, defeating David Davis in the final vote. In the 2010 general election he built the Tory campaign around the concept of the "Big Society" - a far cry (at least rhetorically) from the days of Margaret Thatcher, who said there was no such thing as society. His "green" credentials took a knock when it was disclosed that he was followed on his bicycle ride to work by a driver taking his papers and other belongings. The Conservatives emerged as the strongest party, but short of a majority, and he formed a government together with the Liberal Democrats, the first coalition government since World War II. At 43 he became the youngest prime minister in almost 200 years, being a few months younger than Tony Blair was on taking office in 1997.
Cameron, Sir Edward John (b. May 14, 1858 - d. July 20, 1947), administrator of the British Virgin Islands (1887-93), commissioner of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1893-99), administrator of Saint Lucia (1909-14), and governor of The Gambia (1914-20); knighted 1916.
Camilión (Fernández), Oscar (Héctor) (b. Jan. 6, 1930, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister (1981) and defense minister (1993-96) of Argentina.
Campa y Caraveda, Miguel Ángel de la (b. 1882 - d. Aug. 20, 1965, Miami, Fla.), foreign minister of Cuba (1939-40, 1952-54). He was also ambassador to the United States (1955-58).
Campagnolo, Iona, née Hardy (b. Oct. 18, 1932, Galiano Island, B.C.), lieutenant governor of British Columbia (2001-07). She first entered politics in 1966, as a school board trustee, and later as alderman, in the city of Prince Rupert. In 1973 she decided to enter federal politics and was elected as a Liberal in the Skeena riding. She soon became a popular figure in the party, and Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau appointed her minister of fitness and amateur sport (1976-79). In 1982 she was elected as the first woman president of the Liberal Party. She resigned from politics after the Liberals' electoral defeat in 1984, and returned to British Columbia to pursue her career in broadcasting, as well as a brief stint as founding chancellor of the University of Northern British Columbia. In 2001 Governor-General Adrienne Clarkson appointed her as the first female lieutenant governor of British Columbia. She received the Order of Canada in 1973 and the Order of British Columbia in 1998.
Campara, Avdo (b. May 25, 1937, Gacko, Yugoslavia [now in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. April 4, 2008, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), chairman of the House of Peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1997-98).
Campbell, Carroll A(shmore), Jr. (b. July 24, 1940, Greenville, S.C. - d. Dec. 7, 2005, West Columbia, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1987-95).
Campbell, Sir Clifford (Clarence) (b. June 28, 1892, Petersfield, Westmoreland, Jamaica - d. Sept. 28, 1991), governor-general of Jamaica (1962-73); knighted 1962.
Campbell, Gordon (Muir) (b. Jan. 12, 1948, Vancouver, B.C.), premier of British Columbia (2001-11). He first entered politics in the 1970s serving as an executive assistant to Vancouver mayor Art Phillips. Campbell was elected city councillor in 1984 and mayor in 1986. As mayor, the former real-estate executive earned a reputation as the "developer's mayor" and eliminated many of the city's cultural attractions that were seen at the time as being non-profitable. In 1993, he ran for the leadership of the newly reformed B.C. Liberal Party and won, beating incumbent leader Gordon Wilson. The party became badly divided, and Wilson, clearly bitter over his defeat, formed his own party, the Progressive Democratic Alliance, and began to siphon support from Campbell's Liberals. When the ruling New Democratic Party called a provincial election in 1996, the split in the conservative vote due to the PDA and the Reform Party caused Campbell to narrowly lose the election, even though he won a plurality of the popular vote. He remained as opposition leader during the days of the Glen Clark government, and public support for his party began to increase as the NDP became bogged down in numerous scandals. In 2001 Premier Ujjal Dosanjh called a late election, and Campbell easily rode a wave of public support to the biggest provincial majority in British Columbian history, winning 77 seats to the NDP's 2. Reelected in 2005 and 2009, he resigned in 2011.
Campbell, Jack M., byname of John Moren Campbell (b. Sept. 10, 1916, Hutchinson, Kan. - d. June 14, 1999, Santa Fe, N.M.), U.S. politician. He was a Marine during World War II, an FBI agent, and speaker of the New Mexico state House. A Democrat, he served two terms as governor of New Mexico (1963-67), enforcing a nonpartisan civil service for state employees and modernizing services for the mentally ill. He was the first New Mexico governor to appoint a science adviser. He had a wide interest in space and technology and served on several boards that promoted development in those areas.
Campbell, Jane (Louise) (b. May 19, 1953, Ann Arbor, Mich.), mayor of Cleveland (2002-06).
Campbell, Kim, byname of Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell (b. March 10, 1947, Port Alberni, B.C.), prime minister of Canada (1993). In British Columbian provincial politics, she was associated with the Social Credit Party and served as key policy adviser to Premier Bill Bennett. She ran unsuccessfully for the provincial legislature in 1983 and in May 1986 was defeated in a bid for the Social Credit provincial leadership. In October 1986, however, she won a seat in the Legislative Assembly for a Vancouver riding. Turning her attention to federal politics and the Progressive Conservative Party, she was elected to the House of Commons in 1988 for the British Columbian riding of Vancouver Centre. Her mentor, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, saw her as a possible successor and fostered her career. She was appointed minister for Indian affairs and Northern development in 1989. In 1990 she became justice minister and attorney general; her tenure was marked by several legislative successes, including strengthening Canada's gun-control laws and passing a tough rape law. Mulroney brought her into the inner cabinet in 1990 as a member of the Expenditure Review Committee. Her appointment as defense minister in January 1993 was seen as a signal of Mulroney's confidence in her political future, especially when he announced his own retirement shortly thereafter. She was selected by a party convention to replace Mulroney on June 13, and became Canada's first woman and first West Coast prime minister on June 25. Her tenure, however, was brief. Her party suffered a crushing defeat in the October 25 general elections. Campbell herself lost her seat. She left office in November, and on December 13 she resigned as party leader. In 1996-2000 she was consul general in Los Angeles.
Campbell, W(illiam) Bennett (b. Aug. 27, 1943, Montague, P.E.I. - d. Sept. 11, 2008, Charlottetown, P.E.I.), premier of Prince Edward Island (1978-79). He was first elected to the P.E.I. legislature in 1970 and held several portfolios, including education and finance. He succeeded Alexander Bradshaw Campbell (no relation) as leader of the P.E.I. Liberals and premier in 1978, but the Conservatives defeated his caretaker government a year later. He made a successful jump to federal politics in 1981 and served as veterans affairs minister until losing his seat in 1984.
W. Bennett Campbell
Sir W. Campbell
Campbell, W(illiam) Telfer (b. 1863 - d. 19...), resident commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1901-09) and British consul in Tonga (1909-13).
Campbell, Sir Walter (Benjamin) (b. March 4, 1921 - d. Sept. 4, 2004, Brisbane, Queensland), governor of Queensland (1985-92); knighted 1979.
Campbell, William (d. Dec. 1, 1796), governor of Bermuda (1796).
Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry, original name Henry Campbell (b. Sept. 7, 1836, Glasgow, Scotland - d. April 22, 1908, London, England), British prime minister (1905-08). A member of the House of Commons from 1868, Campbell-Bannerman (who in 1871 added his mother's family surname to that of his father) was financial secretary to the War Office (1871-74, 1880-82), parliamentary and financial secretary to the Admiralty and spokesman for the Admiralty in the Commons (1882-84), chief secretary for Ireland (1884-85), and secretary of state for war (1886, 1892-95). On June 21, 1895, he induced the Duke of Cambridge to retire as commander in chief of the armed forces. During his 39-year tenure the duke had blocked army reform, and the queen, recognizing the necessity of the change, rewarded Campbell-Bannerman with a knighthood. On Feb. 6, 1899, Campbell-Bannerman was elected leader in the Commons of the badly divided Liberal Party. During the South African War he at first pursued a middle course between the imperialists and the antiwar "pro-Boers" among the Liberals, but on June 14, 1901, he exacerbated party disunity by condemning the British "methods of barbarism in South Africa." The Liberal imperialists' threatened secession from the party was averted, and the end of the war a year later eased party tensions, as did Campbell-Bannerman's "step by step" approach to the divisive issue of Irish Home Rule. He became prime minister after Arthur James Balfour's resignation late in 1905. The general election of January 1906 produced a large Liberal majority in the Commons, but much of his legislative program was nullified by the House of Lords. In 1907 his health began to fail, and, 17 days before his death, he resigned in favour of H.H. Asquith.
Campero (Leyes), (José) Narciso (b. Oct. 29, 1813, Tojo, Bolivia - d. Dec. 11, 1896, Sucre, Bolivia), president of Bolivia (1880, 1880-84).
Campillo Seyde, Arturo (b. Aug. 14, 1894, Paso del Macho, Veracruz state, Mexico - d. May 25, 1958, Mexico City), governor of Quintana Roo (1930-31).
Cámpora (Demaestre), Héctor José (b. March 26, 1909, Mercedes, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Dec. 19, 1980, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico), president of Argentina (1973).
Campos, Carlos Wilson Rocha de Queiroz (b. March 11, 1950, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. April 11, 2009, Recife), acting governor of Pernambuco (1990-91).
Campos, Eduardo Henrique Accioly (b. Aug. 10, 1965, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. [plane crash] Aug. 13, 2014, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Pernambuco (2007-14); grandson of Miguel Arraes de Alencar. He was also Brazilian minister of science and technology (2004-05). At the time of his death he was the Brazilian Socialist Party candidate for the October 2014 presidential election.
Campos, Neudo Ribeiro (b. Sept. 1, 1946), governor of Roraima (1995-2002).
Canahuati (Panayotti), Mario (Miguel) (b. Sept. 12, 1955, San Pedro Sula, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (2010-11). He was ambassador to the U.S. in 2002-05.
Canard, Henri Philibert (b. April 10, 1824, Rocroi, Ardennes, France - d. April 20, 1894, Rochefort, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France), governor of Senegal (1881-82).
Cañas (Quintanilla), Antonio José (b. Oct. 26, 1785, San Vicente, San Salvador - d. Feb. 24, 1844), acting/provisional supreme chief of state of El Salvador (1839, 1840-41).
Candeth, K(unhiraman) P(alat) (b. Oct. 23, 1916, Ottapalam [now in Kerala], India - d. May 19, 2003, New Delhi, India), Indian military governor of Portuguese India (1961-62).
Canham, Erwin D(ain) (b. Feb. 13, 1904, Auburn, Maine - d. Jan. 3, 1982, Agana, Guam), resident commissioner of the Northern Mariana Islands (1976-78). He was a longtime editor of the Christian Science Monitor.
Canning, George (b. April 11, 1770, London, England - d. Aug. 8, 1827, Chiswick, near London), British prime minister (1827). In July 1792, he came under the influence of the prime minister, William Pitt, who undertook to find him a seat in Parliament. He was elected for the privately controlled borough of Newtown, Isle of Wight, in July 1793 and quickly became recognized as one of the rising men on the government side of the House. Pitt further procured for him the undersecretaryship of state for foreign affairs in 1796. In 1799 he left the foreign office and was appointed a commissioner of the Board of Control for the government of India. In May 1800 he was promoted to the office of joint paymaster of the forces and was made a privy councillor. When Pitt resigned in 1801, Canning, too, left office. On the formation of Pitt's last ministry in May 1804, Canning became treasurer of the navy, but his unpopularity (his biting wit made him many enemies) kept him out of the cabinet. He became foreign secretary in 1807. Holding Viscount Castlereagh, the war secretary, responsible for disasters in the Peninsular War, Canning in 1809 insisted on his dismissal. They quarreled and fought a duel on September 21, in which Canning was wounded in the thigh. Both had already resigned, Canning because of the nonfulfillment by Prime Minister William Bentinck of his promise that Castlereagh should be removed from the War Department. After Castlereagh committed suicide (Aug. 12, 1822), King George IV reluctantly acquiesced in Canning's succession to the "whole inheritance" - the foreign secretaryship and the leadership of the House of Commons. In April 1827 he became prime minister. But his health broke down, and his ministry lasted only four months.
Cannon, Lawrence (b. Dec. 6, 1947, Québec, Quebec), foreign minister of Canada (2008-11). He has also been minister of transport, infrastructure, and communities (2006-08) and ambassador to France (2012- ).
Cannon, Patrick (DeAngelo) (b. Nov. 27, 1966), mayor of Charlotte (2013-14). He resigned when he was arrested on bribery and corruption charges.
Cannonier, (Legay) Craig (b. 1963, St. David's, Bermuda), premier of Bermuda (2012-14).
Cantau, Julien Edgard (b. Dec. 26, 1877 - d. July 23, 1952), acting governor of French Guiana (1923).
Cao Kun (b. Dec. 12, 1862, Tianjin, China - d. May 16, 1938, Tianjin), military (1916-22) and civil (1917-18) governor of Zhili and president of China (1923-24). He was a commander in the Beiyang Army since the Qing dynasty. After the founding of the republic, he became commander of a division. He became a leader of the Zhili Military Group after the death of Gen. Feng Guozhang. Having defeated Duan Qirui in 1920 together with Zhang Zuolin, and then defeated his ally Zhang in 1922, he forced Pres. Xu Shichang to resign, and revived the parliament, which elected Li Yuanhong president again. But soon after that, he grew a strong desire to be the chief of state himself, so he first bought off the speaker of the House of Representatives, Wu Jinglian, who persuaded the MPs to "impeach" President Li. After Li left, Cao managed to get the MPs to elect him as president by bribery (5,000 yuan per congressman vote). In 1924, after reorganizing his own army, Zhang Zuolin started a war against Cao, during which Cao's general Feng Yuxiang left the front line and unexpectedly occupied Beijing in October, detained the Cao brothers, and dissolved the parliament which elected him. Cao moved to Tianjin after being released in April 1926.
Cao Rui (b. 1868, Tianjin, China - d. Nov. 30, 1924, Beijing, China), civil governor of Zhili (1918-22). He was a general of the Zhili military group. He helped his elder brother Cao Kun to win his presidential campaign in 1923 through bribery and was detained by Feng Yuxiang in the Beijing coup of October 1924. He committed suicide as a detainee the following month.
Cao Rulin (b. Jan. 23, 1877, Shanghai, China - d. Aug. 4, 1966, Detroit, Mich.), foreign minister (1913, 1916), transport minister (1916, 1917-19), and finance minister (1918-19) of China. He studied abroad in Japan; after his return, he was appointed deputy secretary of foreign affairs. In 1913, he was appointed deputy foreign minister; he signed the "Twenty-one Demands" treaty with Japanese delegates in 1915. China's failure in diplomacy at the Paris conference of 1919, which, in accordance with the Twenty-one Demands, transferred all the German interests in China to Japan instead of restoring them to China, despite the fact that China was a victorious nation of World War I, led to the famous "May 4 Movement." The students in anger burnt Cao's house. Under pressure from all sides, Cao was sacked as minister. He served for the Japanese-backed "North China Provisional Government" during World War II. He fled to Taiwan in 1949, and then moved to Japan and the U.S.
Capagorry, André (Jean Charles) (b. Feb. 17, 1894, Bayonne, Basses-Pyrénées [now Pyrénées-Atlantiques], France - d. May 19, 1981, Saint-Denis, Réunion), governor of Réunion (1942-47).
Capdeville, Robert (b. Dec. 2, 1919, Gensac, Gironde, France - d. Oct. 19, 2001, Carcassonne, Aude, France), president of the Regional Council of Languedoc-Roussillon (1983-86).
Caperon, (Aignan) Maurice (b. April 28, 1846, Orléans, France - d. Jan. 2, 1907, Paris), interim governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1893-94, 1897-99, 1899-1900, 1900-01, 1902-03, 1904).
Caperton, W. Gaston, in full William Gaston Caperton III (b. Feb. 21, 1940, Charleston, W.Va.), governor of West Virginia (1989-97). Running for governor in 1988, the Democrat won 38% in a seven-candidate primary; in the general, he faced Arch Moore, elected in 1968, 1972, and 1984, but under a cloud on corruption charges for which in 1990 he was sentenced to five years in jail; Caperton won 59%-41%. Once in office, Caperton's job rating plunged when he broke his no-new-taxes pledge and steered to passage a $392 million tax increase, restoring the food sales tax former governor (now Senator) Jay Rockefeller had repealed. Then came a soap opera episode, as his wife divorced him and ran for state treasurer. But he had positive achievements, including an ethics bill, a road building package, and, most important, an education bill that raised teacher pay, set performance standards, and promised a computer for every classroom. Caperton won the 1992 Democratic primary, but led "coal miner's daughter" Charlotte Pritt by only 43%-35%. But he beat state Agriculture Secretary Cleve Benedict 56%-37% in the general, and afterwards his popularity seemed to rise as the West Virginia economy grew and new jobs were created. He claimed credit for reorganizing, rationalizing, and cutting state government; but he failed to get his Health Care Authority bill through the legislature in 1995. Caperton was not eligible for reelection in 1996.
Capes, Mark (Andrew) (b. Feb. 19, 1954), deputy governor of Anguilla (2002-06) and Bermuda (2006-09) and governor of Saint Helena (2011- ).
Capest, Pierre Paul Marie (b. Oct. 26, 1857, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. 19...), governor of Senegal and acting governor-general of French West Africa (1902).
Capiberibe, Carlos Camilo Góes (b. May 23, 1972, Macapá, Amapá, Brazil), governor of Amapá (2011-15); son of João Alberto Rodrigues Capiberibe.
Capiberibe, João Alberto Rodrigues (b. May 6, 1947, Afuá, Pará, Brazil), governor of Amapá (1995-2002).
Capicchioni, Gian Carlo (b. Feb. 19, 1956, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2013-14).
Capitanich, Jorge (Milton) (b. Nov. 28, 1964, Roque Sáenz Peña, Chaco, Argentina), cabinet chief of Argentina (2002, 2013- ) and governor of Chaco (2007- ).
Cappelen, Andreas Zeier (b. Jan. 31, 1915, Vang, Hedmark, Norway - d. Sept. 2, 2008, Stavanger, Norway), finance minister (1963, 1963-65), foreign minister (1971-72), and justice minister (1979-80) of Norway.
Capriles Radonski, Henrique (b. July 11, 1972, Caracas, Venezuela), governor of Miranda (2008- ) and Venezuelan presidential candidate (2012, 2013).
Caprivi (de Caprara de Montecuculi), (Georg) Leo Graf von (b. Feb. 24, 1831, Berlin-Charlottenburg - d. Feb. 6, 1899, Skyren, Brandenburg, Germany [now Skórzyn, Poland]), chancellor of Germany (1890-94). He entered the army in 1849 and took part in the Austrian campaign of 1866. In 1870-71, in the Franco-German War, he was chief of staff to the X Army Corps (part of the II Army) and took part in battles before Metz as well as in those around Orléans. In 1883 he was made chief of the admiralty, in which post he commanded the fleet and represented the department in the Reichstag. He resigned in 1888 and was appointed commander of the X Army Corps. Chancellor Otto von Bismarck had already referred to Caprivi as a possible successor, for Caprivi had shown great administrative ability and was unconnected with any political party, and in March 1890 he was appointed chancellor, foreign minister, and Prussian prime minister. His first achievement as chancellor was the conclusion in July 1890 of a general agreement with Great Britain regarding the spheres of influence of the two countries in Africa. But the abandonment of an aggressive policy in East Africa and Nigeria and the withdrawal of German claims to Zanzibar (in exchange for Helgoland) aroused the hostility of the colonial parties. He was given the title of count (Graf) in 1891. His position was seriously compromised in 1892 when an education bill that he had defended by saying that the question at issue was Christianity or atheism failed to carry, and he resigned the Prussian prime ministry, which was then given to Count Eulenburg. In 1894 a difference arose between Eulenburg and Caprivi concerning the bill for an amendment of the criminal code (the Umsturzvorlage), and in October the emperor dismissed both.
Captan, Monie (Ralph) (b. May 28, 1962), foreign minister of Liberia (1996-2003); nephew of Charles Taylor.
Caputo, Dante (Mario Antonio) (b. Nov. 25, 1943, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister of Argentina (1983-89) and president of the UN General Assembly (1988-89).
Caradon, Hugh Mackintosh Foot, Baron (b. Oct. 8, 1907, Plymouth, England - d. Sept. 5, 1990, near Plymouth), British colonial administrator. He was a son of Isaac Foot, a scholarly, impassioned Liberal Party member of Parliament; his two brothers Dingle and Michael were also elected to Parliament (later the three brothers were known as "the Three Left Feet" for their politics). Hugh instead joined the civil administrative service (1929) and was posted to Palestine (1929-39) and then to Transjordan (1939-43), where he joined the Army as a lieutenant colonel in charge of the military administration of Cyrenaica (1943). He was named colonial secretary of Cyprus (1943-45) and then, having established a record of ruling under turmoil, was dispatched to Jamaica (1945-47) as colonial secretary. Next he was sent to Nigeria (1947-50), where he was a steadying presence as the idea of independence grew. He returned to Jamaica in 1951 and stayed until 1957 as captain general and governor in chief. He then accepted the post of governor of Cyprus, where he championed conciliation between Greeks and Turks and a plan for peaceable independent rule, which Cyprus achieved in 1960. Foot was made (1961) Britain's representative to the UN and appointed principal adviser on emerging countries. He resigned (1962) over Britain's policy on Rhodesia, but in 1963 he returned to the UN as a special adviser on African development and inquirer into apartheid in South Africa. In 1964, with the return of a Labour government, Foot was created a life peer and appointed permanent U.K. representative to the UN. He left that post in 1970 but continued as a consultant (1970-75) to the UN Development Program. He was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1939.
Carattoni, Antonio (b. Nov. 8, 1945, Sant'Agata Feltria, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (2006-07).
Caraway, Hattie Ophelia, née Wyatt (b. Feb. 1, 1878, near Bakerville, Tenn., U.S. - d. Dec. 21, 1950, Falls Church, Va.), U.S. politician. In 1902 she married Thaddeus H. Caraway, who subsequently became a congressman and then a U.S. senator for Arkansas. When he died in November 1931, his widow was appointed to his seat by the state's governor, and she subsequently won a special election (January 1932) to fill the few remaining months of her late husband's term. She thus became the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate. She won reelection to the seat later in 1932 with the help of Louisiana governor Huey Long, who campaigned for her. Caraway was reelected again in 1938, after a primary victory over Rep. John L. McClellan, but failed in her bid for a third term in 1944, being defeated in the Democratic primary by Rep. J. William Fulbright. In her 13 years in the Senate, she was the first woman to preside over a session of that body and the first to serve as a committee chairman. She supported prohibition, labour unions' and women's rights, and most of the New Deal legislation.
Carayon, Jean-Louis (Joseph) (b. Jan. 26, 1794, Castres, Tarn, France - d. ...), commandant of Sainte-Marie de Madagascar (1819-21, 1830).
Carazo (Aranda), Evaristo (b. Oct. 24, 1821, Cartago, Costa Rica [according to other sources Rivas, Nicaragua] - d. Aug. 1, 1889, Managua, Nicaragua), president of Nicaragua (1887-89).
Carazo Odio, Rodrigo (José Ramón Francisco de Jesús) (b. Dec. 27, 1926, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Dec. 9, 2009, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1978-82). Through the 1950s and 1960s he was active in the Partido de Liberación Nacional (PLN). During this time he served as director of the National Institute of Housing and Urbanization and the Central Bank of Costa Rica. He resigned from the party in 1969 and became a leader of the political opposition. In a stunning upset, Carazo defeated the candidate of the dominant PLN to capture the presidency in February 1978. His triumph was in part due to the PLN's ties with fugitive U.S. financier Robert Vesco. Carazo campaigned on a reform platform as candidate of a four-party opposition coalition called Partido de Unidad. Speaking from a balcony in downtown San José following announcement of his narrow victory (Carazo captured slightly more than half of the 755,000 votes cast), he pledged, as he had throughout the campaign, to get rid of "waste and corruption." Indeed, Carazo's campaign had focused not so much on opponent Luis Alberto Monge as on his opponent's party. Appealing to what he sensed was the nation's "enormous desire for change," he lashed out at the government's expanding bureaucracy and budget. But when Carazo talked about getting rid of corruption, he usually meant expelling Vesco, the accused expatriate embezzler. He viewed Vesco's activities in Costa Rica, especially his close association with former president and PLN founder José Figueres Ferrer and with outgoing president Daniel Oduber Quirós, as reprehensible. Carazo charged that Vesco had been involved in government corruption in Costa Rica, and he vowed that he would be asked to leave Costa Rica "as quickly as possible." Vesco's application for Costa Rican citizenship was turned down in August.
Carbillet, Gabriel Marie Victor (b. June 19, 1884, Langres, Haute-Marne, France - d. 19...), governor of Jebel Druze (1924-25).
Carbo (y Amador), Luis F(elipe) (b. Aug. 17, 1857, Guayaquil, Ecuador - d. Feb. 25, 1913, New York), foreign minister of Ecuador (1895, 1907-08). He was also minister to Mexico (1893), the United States (1896-1903, 1906-07), and Colombia (1899-1900).
Carbonara, Luigi (Domenico Gaetano) (b. March 11, 1753, Genoa - d. Jan. 25, 1826, Genoa), member of the Extraordinary Commission of Government of the Ligurian Republic (1800-02). He was made count by Napoléon on Oct. 15, 1809.
Çarçani, Adil (b. May 4 or 15, 1922, Fushebardhe, southern Albania - d. Oct. 13, 1997, Tiranë), prime minister of Albania (1982-91). He rose from the ranks to become the political leader of a partisan army division during Albania's fight against the Italian fascist and Nazi occupiers during World War II. A member of the communist party as early as a year after its creation in November 1941, he became a member of the 11-member Politburo in the early 1960s. He served as mining minister in the 1950s. He became premier after the mysterious death of Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu in December 1981. The avuncular Çarçani was first deputy premier at the time. His government fell after crowds tore down the statue of Enver Hoxha in central Tiranë in February 1991. He was later elected to parliament and made the opening speech of Albania's first freely-elected parliament in April 1991. In 1994 he was found guilty of abuse of power and embezzlement and was sentenced to five years in jail which were commuted to house arrest because he was too ill to serve.
Carde, Jules (Gaston Henri) (b. June 3, 1874, Batna, Algeria - d. July 10, 1949), lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1916-17), commissioner of French Cameroons (1919-23), and governor-general of French West Africa (1923-30) and Algeria (1930-35).
Cardelli, Luciano (b. Dec. 6, 1949), captain-regent of San Marino (1988-89).
Carden, Derrick Charles, byname Bill Carden (b. Oct. 30, 1921 - d. April 26, 2006), British political agent in Qatar (1955-58) and consul-general in Muscat and Oman (1965-69). He was also ambassador to Yemen (Sana) (1973-76) and The Sudan (1977-79).
Cárdenas (del Castillo), Adán (b. Feb. 22, 1836, Rivas, Nicaragua - d. July 12, 1916, Managua, Nicaragua), president of Nicaragua (1883-87).
Cárdenas (Solórzano), Cuauhtémoc (b. May 1, 1934, Mexico City), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (mayor of Mexico City; 1997-99); son of Lázaro Cárdenas. He was elected to the Senate in 1976. In 1980, as a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), he began a six-year term as governor of Michoacán. Disillusioned with PRI manoeuvres to undo reforms instituted by his father, Cárdenas split with the party in 1987. The following year he headed a coalition comprising Socialists and former Communists and made a bid for the presidency. In what Cárdenas believed to be an act of intimidation, his top campaign aide was murdered shortly before the election. While ballots were being tabulated, the government abruptly ended the count, declaring PRI candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari president. In October 1988 he announced the formation of a new party, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). Cárdenas ran third in the 1994 presidential election. In retaliation for his outspoken stand against government privatization and the North American Free Trade Agreement, Salinas's government targeted Cárdenas and his supporters. From 1988 to 1994 approximately 500 activists affiliated with the PRD were murdered. Cárdenas returned, however, to clinch the 1997 Mexico City race for mayor. Promising to tackle problems never before addressed by PRI leaders, he campaigned against poverty, corruption, crime, and pollution. He won the July 6 election in a landslide, with 47% of the vote, the largest margin of victory by an opposition leader since 1929. The PRI polled 26% of the vote, followed by the right-wing National Action Party with 16%. In December he was sworn in as the first-ever elected mayor of North America's largest city. Previously, the president of Mexico had appointed the mayor. Cárdenas made a third unsuccessful attempt for the presidency in 2000. In later years he often clashed with the PRD leadership, and he resigned from the party in 2014.
Cárdenas (Garza), Francisco A(tenógenes) (b. July 16, 1879, Abasolo, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. July 3, 1943, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.), governor of Nuevo León (1931-33).
Cárdenas (del Río), Lázaro (b. May 21, 1895, Jiquilpan, Michoacán, Mexico - d. Oct. 19, 1970, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Mexico (1934-40). At the age of 18, he joined a branch of the revolutionary army led by Gen. Guillermo García Aragón, and within a year he had risen to the rank of captain. When the revolutionary forces split into opposing factions, he remained loyal to Venustiano Carranza, whose army triumphed in 1920. In that year Cárdenas was appointed general, the highest rank in the Mexican army, and continued to participate in military campaigns until 1929. In 1928, he was elected governor of his native state of Michoacán, serving in that position for a full term, until 1932. Cárdenas also played an important role in forming the Partido Nacional Revolucionario (PNR) in 1929, and in the following year he was chosen to be the party's president. He was minister of the interior for six weeks in 1931 and minister of war and marine for five months in 1933. It was from the latter job that he retired to become the PNR's candidate for president in the 1934 election. Although his election was assured, he spent the year between his nomination and polling day carrying out an intensive campaign. Once elected president, he moved cautiously at first. The army, the civil administration, and much of the political structure of the regime remained under the control of former president Plutarco Elías Calles. In 1936, Cárdenas felt strong enough to have Calles sent into exile in the United States. Under his agrarian reform program, Cárdenas distributed nearly twice as much land to peasants as had all of his predecessors combined. His presidential term ended in 1940, but he returned to public office to serve as minister of national defense (1943-45). A supporter of Cuba's Fidel Castro, he left the ruling party in 1961.
Cárdenas Batel, Lázaro (b. April 2, 1964, Jiquilpan, Michoacán), governor of Michoacán (2002-08); son of Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas.
Cardon, Philip V(incent) (b. April 25, 1889, Logan, Utah - d. Oct. 13, 1965), director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (1954-56).
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (b. June 18, 1931, Rio de Janeiro), president of Brazil (1995-2003). Not long after the military took control of the government in Brazil in 1964, he went into exile. He returned in 1968. Cardoso entered politics in 1986 when he won a seat as senator from São Paulo; he gained a reputation as a centrist who was willing to compromise. In 1988 he cofounded the centre-left Party of Brazilian Social Democracy, which ran on a clean-government platform. In 1992, after Pres. Fernando Collor de Mello was impeached on corruption charges and Itamar Franco took over, Cardoso resigned his Senate seat and joined the cabinet as foreign minister. In May 1993 Cardoso allowed himself to be drafted as finance minister - the fourth in 13 months. He oversaw the complicated political negotiations that produced the Real Plan, an anti-inflation package that introduced a new currency, the real. In March 1994 Cardoso announced his bid for the presidency, and he stepped down from his post as finance minister. Inflation was running at 45% in June, and when the Real Plan went into effect on July 1, Cardoso was trailing his closest opponent by 20 points. As inflation plummeted to less than 2% in September, however, his popularity soared. Many observers suspected that the business sector had held a lid on prices to boost Cardoso's campaign and, further, that painful economic restructuring loomed after the election. During his campaign Cardoso called for moving Brazil away from a state-dominated economy and toward increased foreign investment, more rapid privatization of state-owned companies, and large-scale funding of education and social services.
Cardoso, Joaquim Maurício (b. 1888, Soledade, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. [air crash] May 1938, Santos, São Paulo), acting governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1938).
Cardoso, Leonel (Alexandre Gomes) (b. Sept. 28, 1919 - d. Sept. 15, 1988), high commissioner of Angola (1975).
Cardoso, Maurício Graccho (de Azevedo) (b. Aug. 9, 1874, Estância, Sergipe, Brazil - d. May 3, 1950, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Sergipe (1922-26).
Cardoze (Fábrega), Fernando (b. Oct. 11, 1937, Panama City, Panama), foreign minister of Panama (1984-85).
Carenco, Jean-François (b. July 7, 1952, Talence, Gironde, France), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1996-97) and of Guadeloupe (1999-2002). He has also been prefect of the départements of Tarn-et-Garonne (1997-99), Haute-Savoie (2002-04), Seine-Maritime (2006-07), Haute-Garonne (2007-08), and Rhône (2010- ).
Carey, Sir de Vic (Graham) (b. June 15, 1940), bailiff of Guernsey (1999-2005); knighted 2002; grandson of Sir Victor Gosselin Carey.
Carey, George (Leonard) (b. Nov. 13, 1935, Bow, London), archbishop of Canterbury (1991-2002).
Carey, George Jackson (b. 1822 - d. June 12, 1872, Manchester, England), acting governor of Victoria (1866).
Carey, Sir Thomas Godfrey (b. Jan. 5, 1832 - d. Nov. 6, 1906), bailiff of Guernsey (1895-1902); knighted 1900.
Carey, Sir Victor Gosselin (b. July 2, 1871 - d. June 28, 1957), bailiff of Guernsey (1935-46); knighted 1945.
Carey, Sir William (b. Feb. 1, 1853 - d. July 27, 1915, Beechwood, Guernsey), bailiff of Guernsey (1908-15); knighted 1915.
Carías Andino, Tiburcio (b. March 15, 1876, Tegucigalpa, Honduras - d. Dec. 23, 1969, Tegucigalpa), president of Honduras (1933-49).
Carías Castillo, Tiburcio (b. May 16, 1908, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (1965-71); son of Tiburcio Carías Andino. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1946-57) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1948-57) and the United States (1957-58).
Carías Zapata, Mario (b. July 1, 1941), foreign minister of Honduras (1990-94). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-82) and ambassador to the Netherlands (1986-89) and France (2002-05).
Cariello, Mario J. (b. Jan. 23, 1907, New York City), borough president of Queens (1963-68).
Cariot, Auguste René (b. May 7, 1833, Grand-Bourg, Marie-Galante island, Guadeloupe - d. ...), interim commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1879-80).
Carl XVI Gustaf, in full Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus (b. April 30, 1946, Haga palace, Stockholm, Sweden), king of Sweden (1973- ). The only son of King Gustaf VI Adolf's eldest son, Prince Gustaf Adolf (who died in an air crash in 1947), Carl Gustaf became crown prince in 1950, when his grandfather acceded to the throne. He studied at military cadet schools, at the University of Uppsala, and in France and was commissioned as a naval officer in 1968. At the 1972 Munich Olympic Games he met Silvia Sommerlath (b. Dec. 23, 1943, Heidelberg, Germany), whom he married on June 19, 1976, three years after his accession, which occurred at a time when the role of the Swedish monarchy was being radically altered. Under the constitution prior to 1975, the king played a formal role in the administration of the country; for example, he presided over councils of state, signed government decisions, commanded the armed forces, and appointed someone to form a new government upon the resignation of the current administration. The new constitutional laws, enacted in 1973 and made effective on Jan. 1, 1975, relieved the king of all these duties, leaving him with a solely symbolic function. The king has three children. According to the Act of Succession of 1980, which superseded that of 1810, the eldest child of the king and queen is heir to the throne, regardless of gender. Accordingly, Crown Princess Victoria (b. July 14, 1977, Stockholm) is heir to the throne. The other children are Prince Carl (b. May 13, 1979, Stockholm) and Princess Madeleine (b. June 10, 1982, Drottningholm).
Carle, (Cyr Louis Charles) Joseph (b. Sept. 2, 1830, La Gorgue, Nord, France - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1875-76).
Carli, (Antoine) Désiré (Toussaint) (b. Nov. 9, 1924, Brazzaville, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. Jan. 12, 2010), prefect of French Guiana (1980-81). He was also prefect of Hautes-Alpes (1981-82) and commissioner of the republic of Meurthe-et-Moselle (1986-89).
Carlisle, Sir James (Beethoven) (b. Aug. 5, 1937, Bolans, Antigua), governor-general of Antigua and Barbuda (1993-2007); knighted 1993.
Carlos I, in full Carlos Fernando Luís Maria Víctor Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis José Simão (b. Sept. 28, 1863, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Feb. 1, 1908, Lisbon), king of Portugal (1889-1908). The son of King Luís and of Maria Pia of Savoy, daughter of Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy, he married Marie Amélie of Orléans, a granddaughter of the French king Louis-Philippe, in 1886 and succeeded his father on Oct. 19, 1889. Forces generated by mistakes made before his time proved to be the undoing of this talented and intelligent man, who was also known for his paintings and oceanographical studies. At home, republicans, disaffected monarchists, and Freemasons kept up a running opposition. Popular indignation over the British ultimatum of 1890 demanding Portuguese withdrawal from certain African territories resulted in the republican revolt at Oporto (January 1891). In an effort to surmount political difficulties and bring about economic and administrative reform after a series of strikes and revolts, Carlos appointed João Franco as prime minister in May 1906 and allowed him to assume dictatorial powers soon thereafter. Although some useful reforms were effected, strong opposition was aroused by governmental coercion and controversies over extravagances and the private life of Carlos. While driving through the streets of Lisbon, the king and his eldest son, Luís Filipe, were assassinated. Carlos was succeeded by another son, Manuel II.
Carlot, Alfred (Rolland) (b. June 11, 1959), foreign minister of Vanuatu (2011, 2011-13); nephew of Maxime Carlot Korman. In 2014 he became justice minister.
Carlot Korman, Maxime (b. April 26, 1941), prime minister (1991-95, 1996), foreign minister (1993-95), deputy prime minister (2004), and acting president (2009) of Vanuatu. He was speaker of parliament in 1980-83, 1995-96, 2009-10, and 2010-11. Korman is an honorific title given to him by his home village in 1992.
Carlson, Arne (Helge) (b. Sept. 24, 1934, New York City), governor of Minnesota (1991-99). The Republican spent eight years in the state legislature and 12 as elected state auditor until he ran for governor in 1990. He bypassed the convention, already solidly conservative and anti-abortion, and lost to its designee Jon Grunseth in the primary 49%-32%. But in mid-October the Minneapolis Star-Tribune charged Grunseth with sexual improprieties; Grunseth hesitated, then withdrew. A Republican delegation named Carlson as the party's nominee, and for two weeks he ran against embattled Democratic incumbent Rudy Perpich. Carlson won the general 51%-47%, carrying the Twin Cities metro area, losing the rest of the state. In office, he made a liberal record, signing HealthRight, wetlands preservation, and gay rights legislation. He succeeded in keeping the Minnesota Timberwolves basketball team in Minnesota by buying the Target Center arena for $55 million. He boasted of spending more for education and cutting taxes. His personal life was often the subject of his former wife Barbara Carlson, a radio talk show host, who occasionally broadcast her program while in a hot tub. In 1994, Carlson was opposed by farmer and former legislator Allen Quist, a strong abortion opponent. Quist was endorsed by the Republican convention 69%-29%, but Carlson won the primary 66%-34%. The DFL convention endorsed John Marty, who displayed less than overwhelming strength in the primary, winning 38% to 36% for Mike Hatch and 25% for Tony Bouza. Carlson won the general 62%-33%. On his agenda for a second term were welfare reform, scaling back workmen's compensation, term limits and more education spending.
Carlsson, Bernt (Wilmar) (b. Nov. 21, 1938, Stockholm, Sweden - d. [plane crash] Dec. 21, 1988, Lockerbie, Scotland), UN commissioner for Namibia (1987-88).
Carlsson, Ingvar (Gösta) (b. Nov. 9, 1934, Borås, Västra Götaland county, western Sweden), prime minister of Sweden (1986-91, 1994-96). During the period 1958-60 he was, like Olof Palme, one of "Erlander's boys," part of the group of bright young men working with Prime Minister Tage Erlander. After spending a year in the U.S. in 1961, Carlsson returned to Sweden to become chairman of the Social Democratic Youth Movement. He was elected to the Riksdag (parliament) in 1964 and three years later he graduated to the post of undersecretary in the Cabinet Office. He served in Palme's governments as minister of education (1969-73) and minister of housing (1973-76). When the Social Democrats lost power after 44 years in office, Palme gave Carlsson the job of orchestrating the party's return to power, coupled with the task of preparing a master plan to put the economy on a sounder footing. When the party returned to power in 1982, Carlsson received his reward. He became deputy prime minister and, as Palme's personal troubleshooter, occupied himself with a study of possible future strategies for the Social Democrats. When the party won again in 1985, he was appointed minister of the environment. On Palme's assassination in February 1986, Carlsson replaced him as party leader and prime minister. He pursued a predictably cautious path, his biggest triumph being victory over public-sector labour union militancy in late 1986. He lost his majority in September 1991 and resigned, but was returned in September 1994 at the head of a minority government. In 1995 he announced his intention to resign March 1996, citing personal reasons.
Carlucci, Frank (Charles, III) (b. Oct. 18, 1930, Scranton, Pa.), U.S. politician. He joined the U.S. Department of State as a foreign service officer in 1956. While serving in Congo (Kinshasa), he used his athletic ability to rescue U.S. citizens from mobs. In 1969 he accidentally encountered Donald Rumsfeld, director of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) in the administration of Pres. Richard Nixon, and accepted Rumsfeld's offer of a job at OEO. He succeeded Rumsfeld as director in 1970. In 1971 he became associate director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and he was named deputy director in 1972. Caspar Weinberger, director of the OMB, came to appreciate Carlucci's skills. Carlucci eventually became under secretary of health, education, and welfare - by invitation of Weinberger, who had become secretary. Carlucci returned to the State Department in 1975 as ambassador to Portugal. He established ties with military officers who were leftist but not pro-Soviet and apparently helped them to defeat a plot by pro-Soviet officers to take over the government. In 1978 he became deputy to the director of central intelligence. Weinberger became secretary of defense in the Ronald Reagan administration in 1981 and insisted on having Carlucci as his deputy. In December 1986 Reagan appointed Carlucci as assistant for national security affairs. Carlucci tried to mediate rivalries between government agencies. On Nov. 23, 1987, Carlucci succeeded Weinberger as secretary of defense, having been nominated by Reagan on November 5 and confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 91-1 on November 20. He was considered less of a hard-liner than Weinberger, and before taking office had secured the resignation of one of Weinberger's most vocally anti-Soviet aides.
Carmona, Anthony (Thomas Aquinas) (b. March 7, 1953, Palo Seco, Trinidad and Tobago), president of Trinidad and Tobago (2013- ).
Carmona, António Óscar de Fragoso (b. Nov. 24, 1869, Lisbon, Portugal - d. April 18, 1951, Lisbon), president of Portugal (1926-51).
Carmona Estanga, Pedro (Francisco) (b. July 6, 1941, Barquisimeto, Lara state, Venezuela), president of Venezuela (2002). As head of Venezuela's largest business association, Fedecámaras, he often clashed with left-leaning Pres. Hugo Chávez. Carmona was installed as president in a short-lived coup in April 2002 by rebel military officers. When Chávez was restored to power, Carmona was put under house arrest and faced trial for rebellion and conspiracy. He escaped house arrest and fled to the Colombian ambassador's residence in Caracas. Colombia, which had stood virtually alone among Latin American countries in applauding the coup, granted him asylum on May 26; he arrived in Bogotá on May 29.
Carnahan, Mel(vin Eugene) (b. Feb. 11, 1934, Birchtree, Mo. - d. Oct. 16, 2000, Jefferson County, Mo.), governor of Missouri (1993-2000). The Democrat was elected to the legislature in 1962, and was majority leader in 1965-67. In 1980, he was elected state treasurer and served four years; in 1988, he was elected lieutenant governor. In 1992, he won the Democratic gubernatorial primary over St. Louis Mayor Vince Schoemehl, 55%-34%. In the general, Carnahan won over Republican William Webster 59%-41%. There is a certain similarity between Carnahan's record as an executive and Bill Clinton's as president. In 1993, Carnahan got his education reform and tax increase through the Democratic legislature; in 1994 the legislature rejected his attempt to require health insurers to disregard preexisting conditions and make policies portable between jobs. He spent much effort on avoiding federal control, to counter what some considered draconian federal sanctions imposed on the St. Louis area under the Clean Air Act. But his attempt to negotiate with the EPA proved unsuccessful, and the state attorney general took the case to court. Carnahan's job rating in early 1995 was much higher than Clinton's and one well-known challenger, former secretary of state Roy Blunt, decided not to run. His 1996 opponent was Auditor Margaret Kelly. In 2000 Carnahan, his son Randy, and aide Chris Sifford died in a plane crash while heading to a campaign event for Carnahan's closely watched race for the U.S. Senate. Carnahan's name remained on the ballot because a deadline for changes had passed and ballots were being printed. In the election, Carnahan became the first dead person to be elected to the Senate. His widow Jean was appointed to take his seat.
Carnell, Kate, byname of Anne Katherine Carnell (b. May 30, 1955, Brisbane, Queensland), chief minister of the Australian Capital Territory (1995-2000). She joined the Liberal Party in 1991, was elected to the Legislative Assembly from Molonglo on March 20, 1992 (reelected on March 2, 1995), and became leader of the Liberal Party (and thus leader of the opposition) on April 21, 1993. On March 9, 1995, she became chief minister, and on March 15 also treasurer and minister for health and community care; on Feb. 3, 1997, she took the additional portfolio of minister for business and employment.
Carnieri, Claudio (b. March 17, 1944, Terni, Umbria, Italy), president of Umbria (1993-95).
Carnogurský, Ján (b. Jan. 1, 1944, Bratislava, Slovakia), prime minister (1991-92) and justice minister (1998-2002) of Slovakia.
Carnot, Lazare (Nicolas Marguerite) (b. May 13, 1753, Nolay, Burgundy, France - d. Aug. 2, 1823, Magdeburg, Prussia [now in Germany]), president (1794) and member of the Committee of Safety (1794, 1794-95) of the National Convention, president of the Executive Directory (1796, 1797), and member of the Commission of Government (1815) of France.
Carnot, (Marie François) Sadi (b. Aug. 11, 1837, Limoges, France - d. June 25, 1894, Lyon), president of France (1887-94). He was the son of Hippolyte Carnot, a leftist deputy who was a vigorous opponent of the July Monarchy (after 1830), and grandson of Lazare Carnot, the famous "Organizer of Victory" of the French Revolution. After service as a government engineer at Annecy, he was named commissioner of Normandy with responsibility for organizing resistance there in the Franco-German War (1870-71). After a brief term as prefect of Seine-Inférieure he was elected to the National Assembly from the Côte-d'Or département, and later to the Chamber of Deputies from Beaune. Sitting with the Left Republicans, he concentrated on issues concerning public works and railroad development. In October 1878 he was appointed undersecretary of public works, and in 1880-81 he was minister. He served as vice president of the Chamber in 1883-85, and thereafter served as minister of commerce and finance. After the resignation of Jules Grévy in 1887, he was elected president of the republic without actively aspiring to the office. The Carnot presidency was marked by the plots of the political adventurer Gen. Georges Boulanger, labour agitation, anarchist movements, and the Panama Canal scandals (1892). Yet he managed to retain his popularity through 10 different governments formed in the course of seven years. On June 24, 1894, after delivering a speech at a Lyon exposition, he was fatally stabbed by the Italian anarchist Sante Caserio (though he did not die until past midnight).
Carnoy, Albert (Joseph) (b. Nov. 7, 1878, Leuven, Belgium - d. Jan. 12, 1961), interior minister of Belgium (1927-29).
Caro Figueroa, (José) Armando (b. July 5, 1944, Salta, Argentina), labour minister of Argentina (1993-97).
Carod-Rovira, Josep Lluís (b. May 17, 1952, Cambrils de Mar, near Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain), prime councillor of Catalonia (2003-04).
Carossino, Angelo (b. Feb. 21, 1929, Genoa, Italy), president of Liguria (1975-79).
Carper, Tom, byname of Thomas Richard Carper (b. Jan. 23, 1947, Beckley, W.Va.), governor of Delaware (1993-2001). In 1976, the Democrat was elected state treasurer; he ran for Congress in 1982 and beat a scandal-tarred incumbent. In the House, Carper had a moderate voting record and worked to let banks into the securities business and to prevent ocean sludge dumping, both causes supported by Delaware constituencies. After 10 years in Congress, Carper was the favourite for governor when Republican Mike Castle had to step down in 1992 after two terms; with Castle elected to Congress, these two politicians of different parties changed places, seemingly postponing their inevitable showdown for a Senate seat. Carper won his primary with 89% and the general with 65% and pledged a partnership with Democratic Lieutenant Governor Ruth Ann Minner. After two years, he was proud that 20,000 more Delawareans had health insurance, and he also claimed credit for placing 2,400 welfare recipients in full- or part-time employment and removing 1,300 people from the rolls altogether. He took an active approach to creating and preserving Delaware jobs, lobbying General Motors to keep its Boxwood plant, which employed 3,000 people, open and quadrupling the state's economic development fund. In 1996 he beat Republican state treasurer Janet Rzewnicki for a second term, despite a smear campaign from an out-of-state GOP group that alleged Carper beat his wife and was planning a divorce. In 2000 he was elected to the U.S. Senate.
Carr, Bob, byname of Robert John Carr (b. Sept. 28, 1947, Matraville, N.S.W., Australia), premier of New South Wales (1995-2005) and foreign minister of Australia (2012-13).
Carr of Hadley, (Leonard) Robert Carr, Baron (b. Nov. 11, 1916), British politician. He was lord president of the council (1972) and home secretary (1972-74) and was created a life peer in 1976.
Carra Saint-Cyr, Jean-François (b. Dec. 27, 1756, Lyon, France - d. Jan. 5, 1834, Vailly-sur-Aisne, Aisne, France), governor of French Guiana (1817-19).
Carranza, Roque (Guillermo) (b. Sept. 29, 1919, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Feb. 8, 1986), public works minister (1983-85) and defense minister (1985-86) of Argentina.
Carranza (de la Garza), Venustiano (b. Dec. 29, 1859, Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico - d. May 21, 1920, Tlaxcalantongo, Mexico), president of Mexico (1915-20). He became active in local and state politics in 1877. In 1910, as governor of Coahuila, he joined the struggle of Francisco Madero against Porfirio Díaz and in 1913 led the forces against Victoriano Huerta. After Huerta fled in 1914, Carranza's Constitutionalist Army began to splinter. Rebels led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata opposed his provisional government, demanding immediate social reforms. He secured his position as provisional president, however, when his army, led by Gen. Álvaro Obregón, defeated Villa's forces at Celaya in April 1915. Only reluctantly did Carranza accept the provisions of the 1917 constitution establishing basic reforms in landownership, control of natural resources, and labour and social legislation. When he became the constitutional president on May 1, 1917, he did little to effectuate those provisions, and his term was marked by continued difficulties with Villa and Zapata, serious financial problems, and general social unrest brought on by his reluctance to institute far-reaching reforms. An ardent nationalist, he was involved in serious controversies with the U.S. He was instrumental in keeping Mexico neutral in World War I. In 1920 he attempted to force the election of his chosen successor, Ignacio Bonillas, despite opposition from his more radical generals. Obregón led an armed rebellion in April, and Carranza fled the capital before the rebels entered it on May 7. When he headed for Veracruz with government records and treasure, his train was attacked. With a few followers, he fled on horseback into the mountains. On the night of May 20/21 he was betrayed and murdered.
Carras, Hubert Eugène Paul (b. Oct. 18, 1890 - d. March 1, 1947), governor of French Cameroons (1943-44).
Carrascalão, Mário Viegas (b. May 12, 1937, Uaitalibu, near Venilale, Baucau district, eastern Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste]), governor of Timor Timur (1983-92).
Carrasco Altamirano, Diódoro (Humberto) (b. Jan. 30, 1954, Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico), governor of Oaxaca (1992-98) and interior minister of Mexico (1999-2000).
Carrera (Castro), (Luis) Fernando (b. April 1966, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (2013-14). In 2014 he became permanent representative to the United Nations.
Carrera Andrade, Jorge (b. Sept. 14, 1902, Quito, Ecuador - d. Nov. 7, 1978, Quito), foreign minister of Ecuador (1966-67). He was also chargé d'affaires (1944-46) and ambassador (1961-63) to Venezuela and ambassador to Nicaragua (1963-64) and France (1964-66).
Carrero Blanco, Luis (b. March 3, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria, Spain - d. [killed in car bomb attack] Dec. 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1973).
Carrié, Evremont (Justin) (b. Feb. 12, 1886, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. Sept. 2, 1962, Port-au-Prince), foreign minister of Haiti (1957).
Carrié, (Justin Alexis Victor) Turenne (b. Nov. 6, 1827, Santo Domingo, Haiti [now in Dominican Republic] - d. Sept. 4, 1905), member of the Council of Secretaries of State of Haiti (1874).
Carrillo (Solares), Santiago (José) (b. Jan. 18, 1915, Gijón, Spain - d. Sept. 18, 2012, Madrid, Spain), secretary-general of the Spanish Communist Party (1960-82). He joined the party at the time of the Popular Front's electoral victory in Spain in 1936. He was in charge of public order in Madrid, and some held him responsible for the massacre of prisoners at Paracuellos in November of that year. After the Spanish Civil War he went to the Americas, and he later spent many years in Paris. He participated in the founding (July 1974) of the Junta Democrática Española, which partially united the opposition to the Franco regime, and in March 1977 he helped found the Coordinación Democrática, which incorporated the opposition parties and Spain's regional autonomy movements. After its legalization in 1977, the Spanish Communist Party maintained a low profile while winning votes and parliamentary seats. Carrillo received wide publicity from his book Eurocomunismo y Estado (1977; Eurocommunism and the State), which espoused the independence of national communist parties. He cooperated in the drafting of Spain's new constitution and supported the government in its attempts to cope with economic difficulties and to overcome terrorism. He favoured working for "a plurality of political parties and for democratic alternation between the majority and the minority," and he supported the Basque and Catalan sections of the Communist Party in their desire to take an independent stance based on the needs of their own regions.
Carrillo Flores, Antonio (b. June 23, 1909, Mexico City - d. March 20, 1986, Mexico City), foreign minister of Mexico (1964-70). He was also finance minister (1952-58) and ambassador to the United States (1959-64) and the Soviet Union (1980-81).
Carrillo Puerto, Felipe (b. Feb. 28, 1872, Motul, Yucatán - d. [executed] Jan. 3, 1924, Mérida, Yucatán), governor of Yucatán (1922-23).
Carrington, Edwin W(ilberforce) (b. June 23, 1938, Tobago island), secretary-general of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (1984-89) and of the Caribbean Community (1992-2010).
Carrington (of Upton), Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, (6th) Baron, Baron Carrington of Bulcot Lodge (b. June 6, 1919, London), British politician. In 1938 he inherited a peerage, a place in the House of Lords, and a title dating back to 1796. After service in World War II, he became a junior minister under Winston Churchill. He entered Alexander Douglas-Home's cabinet in 1963 and, after the Conservative defeat in the general election of 1964, led the opposition in the House of Lords. With the Conservatives back in power in 1970, he became defense secretary and, in the last days of the Edward Heath government, energy secretary. One of Heath's closest confidants, he was described as "Ted's troubleshooter." When a Conservative government under Margaret Thatcher was formed in 1979, Carrington became foreign secretary. His charm and diplomatic skills, not least with the prime minister herself, enabled him to achieve a negotiated independence for Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and an end to the bloody civil war there in 1979-80. He then turned his attention to the Middle East and at the same time sought negotiated solutions to Britain's residual colonial problems, which included the Falkland Islands. While his back was turned in April 1982, the Argentines invaded the Falklands. He resigned his post amid harsh criticism of his misreading of the intentions of the Argentine government. Carrington became secretary-general of NATO on June 25, 1984, and served until 1988. He emphasized the importance of communication with the Soviet Union, believing that issue to be central to the restoration of public confidence in NATO.
Carrión (Mena), Francisco (b. April 8, 1953, Quito, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (2005-07). He was also chargé d'affaires to the United Kingdom (1991-96), ambassador to Spain (2000-05), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-11).
Carrizalez (Rengifo), Ramón (Alonzo) (b. Nov. 8, 1952, Guárico, Venezuela), executive vice-president (2008-10) and acting defense minister (2009-10) of Venezuela and governor of Apure (2011- ). He was infrastructure minister in 2004-06 and housing minister in 2006-08.
Carstens, Karl (Walter) (b. Dec. 14, 1914, Bremen, Germany - d. May 30, 1992, Meckenheim, Germany), president of West Germany (1979-84). He joined the Nazi party in 1940 but never was an active member of the party; he also had been a member of the SA, the Nazi paramilitary organization, in 1933-35. He served in an army anti-aircraft unit in World War II, and after the war he was cleared by an Allied denazification court. He represented Bremen in the new central government from 1949 until 1954, when he was chosen to represent West Germany in the Council of Europe. Three years later he was one of the architects of the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community. As a member of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer's Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Carstens served as state secretary of foreign affairs (1960-66), deputy defense minister (1966-67), and head of the chancellor's office (1968-69). In 1972 he was elected to the Bundestag (parliament), where he served as chairman of the joint parliamentary group of Christian Democrat and Christian Social Union (CSU) members (1973-76). He occupied a position in the CDU somewhat to the right of centre. His conservatism put him on good terms with the Bavarian CSU - an asset at all times, but especially when the two parties were on the brink of breaking their alliance. In December 1976 he was elected president, or speaker, of the Bundestag, a post he held until he became chief of state in 1979. Despite controversy over his nomination because of his Nazi affiliation, he was an effective and popular president. He retired from public office in 1984 at the end of his term.
Carstensen, Peter Harry (b. March 12, 1947, Elisabeth-Sophien-Koog, Nordstrand island, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany), minister-president of Schleswig-Holstein (2005-12).
Carter, (Edward) Charles (b. April 13, 1943), foreign minister of The Bahamas (1989-90). He was health minister in 1990-92.
Carter, Jimmy, byname of James Earl Carter, Jr. (b. Oct. 1, 1924, Plains, Ga.), president of the United States (1977-81). The Democrat won election to the Georgia state Senate in 1962 and was reelected in 1964. He won the governorship of Georgia in 1970. In his inaugural address he announced that "the time for racial discrimination is over" and proceeded to open Georgia's government offices to blacks and women. He announced his candidacy for the Democratic nomination for president in 1974, just before his term as governor ended. Though lacking a national political base or major backing, he managed through tireless and systematic campaigning to assemble a broad constituency whose votes enabled him to win the Democratic nomination in July 1976. He chose the liberal U.S. senator Walter F. Mondale of Minnesota as his running mate and defeated the incumbent Republican president, Gerald R. Ford, in November 1976, winning 51% of the popular vote and garnering 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240. In foreign affairs, although Carter's championship of international human rights received prominent attention, his major achievements were on the more pragmatic level of patient diplomacy. Despite the apparent failure of his domestic policies and the ongoing Iran hostage crisis, Carter won the Democratic nomination in 1980. But public confidence in Carter's executive abilities had fallen to an irretrievable low, and in the elections held that November he was overwhelmingly defeated by Republican nominee Ronald Reagan, winning only 41% of the popular vote. Carter later served as a sort of diplomat-without-portfolio in various conflicts in a number of countries - including Nicaragua, Panama, Ethiopia, and Haiti. He was awarded the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize.
Carter, John (McGregor) (b. May 8, 1950, Te Kopuru, New Zealand), high commissioner of the Cook Islands (2011-13). He was a National Party member of the New Zealand parliament in 1987-2011. In a 1998 speech in committee he was talking about "stunts" pulled by the Labour opposition and, when trying to say "cunning stunt," made a spoonerism of it which had the chairman almost fall out of his chair. In 2013 he resigned the high commissioner's post to run for mayor of Far North district.
Carter, William A(rnold) (b. June 27, 1907, Corsicana, Texas - d. May 18, 1996), governor of the Panama Canal Zone (1960-62). He was commissioned second lieutenant of the U.S. Army in 1930, and advanced through the ranks to major general in 1953. He was a combat engineer in World War II and was chief engineer of the II Corps in the Mediterranean under Gen. Omar Bradley and chief engineer of the 1st Army for Normandy invasion and European campaign. Carter was appointed chief engineer of the 3rd U.S. Army from 1948 to 1951. He served as Canal Zone governor for a short year and a half. During that time, he carried forward a number of programs begun by his predecessors. A project to widen the Panama Canal continued, the Thatcher Ferry bridge took shape, the first of the new locks towing locomotives arrived, three new towboats were ordered and plans were made to convert the canal's Marine Traffic Control Center to an electronic operation. Under his tenure, new methods of locks overhauls were studied to reduce time lost while chambers were drained for maintenance. A very visible leader, Carter traveled widely throughout Panama seeking to improve U.S. relations with the Panamanian people and their leaders. A group of Panamanian friends presented him with a gold medal and hailed him as a "Friend of Panama." Carter earned a Distinguished Service Medal. After retiring from active duty, he was senior engineering adviser of the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington, D.C.
Carteret, Antoine (Alfred Désiré) (b. April 3, 1813, Geneva - d. Jan. 28, 1889, Petit-Saconnex [now part of Geneva]), president of the Council of State of Genève (1871-72, 1873-74, 1875-76, 1877-78, 1880-81, 1882-83, 1884-85).
Cartes (Jara), Horacio (Manuel) (b. July 5, 1956, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Paraguay (2013- ).
Carton de Tournai, Henri (Joseph Georges) (b. Feb. 19, 1878, Tournai, Belgium - d. Jan. 18, 1969, Brussels, Belgium), interior minister of Belgium (1932).
Carton de Wiart, Henri (Victor Marie Ghislain), comte (Count; from 1922) (b. Jan. 31, 1869, Brussels, Belgium - d. May 6, 1951, Uccle, Belgium), Belgian politician. Elected in 1896 to the Belgian House of Representatives as a member of the Catholic Party's reform-oriented left wing, he served as minister of justice (1911-18) and helped secure passage of child-welfare legislation (1912). Subsequently, he served as prime minister and interior minister (1920-21) and minister of social welfare (1932-34). He was later appointed president of the Supreme Court of the Belgian-Luxembourg Economic Council and was the Belgian delegate to the League of Nations (1928-35). In 1945 he reorganized the Catholic Party as the Social Christian Party. Serving as minister without portfolio (1949-50) and minister of justice (1950), he devoted much effort to an unsuccessful attempt to return the exiled Belgian king Leopold III to power. A member of the Jeune Belgique (Young Belgium), a nationalist literary movement, he wrote historical novels and treatises held to depict a uniquely Belgian national spirit.
Cartwright, Dame Silvia (Rose), née Poulter (b. Nov. 7, 1943, Dunedin, New Zealand), governor-general of New Zealand (2001-06); knighted 1989. In 1989 she became the first female chief justice of a district court and in 1993 the first woman in the High Court.
Caruana, Peter (Richard) (b. Oct. 15, 1956, Gibraltar), chief minister of Gibraltar (1996-2011).
Carvajal (y Gual), Francisco S(ebastián) (b. Dec. 9, 1870, Campeche - d. Sept. 20, 1932, Mexico City), interim president of Mexico (1914). He held the office in his capacity as president of the Supreme Court.
Carvajal Prado, Patricio (b. Sept. 13, 1916, Santiago - d. [suicide] July 15, 1994), defense minister (1973-74, 1983-90) and foreign minister (1974-78) of Chile.
Carvalhas, Carlos (Alberto do Vale Gomes) (b. Nov. 9, 1941, São Pedro do Sul, northern Portugal), general secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party (1992-2004).
Carvalho, Álvaro Pereira de (b. Feb. 19, 1885, Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brazil - d. Oct. 5, 1952, João Pessoa, Paraíba), acting governor of Paraíba (1930).
Carvalho, Evaristo (do Espírito Santo) (b. 1942), prime minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1994, 2001-02).
Carvalho, Manuel de Abreu Ferreira de (b. Jan. 19, 1893, Porto, Portugal - d. after 1956), governor of Portuguese Timor (1940-45). After the Allied occupation in 1941 he wished to be considered a prisoner of war and confined himself to his residence. Under the following Japanese occupation (1942-45), he was likewise nominally recognized but his authority was bypassed. He achieved a transfer of powers from the Japanese on Sept. 5, 1945.
Carvalho dos Santos, Benedito Augusto, byname Beni Carvalho (b. Jan. 3, 1886, Aracati, Ceará, Brazil - d. Jan. 22, 1959, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Ceará (1945-46).
Carvalho e Silva, Coriolano de (b. May 23, 1857, Barras, Piauí, Brazil - d. 1926), governor of Piauí (1892-96).
Carvalho Pinto, Carlos Alberto Alves de (b. March 15, 1910, São Paulo - d. March 23, 1987, São Paulo), governor of São Paulo (1959-63).
Carvel, Elbert N(ostrand) (b. Feb. 9, 1910, Shelter Island, N.Y. - d. Feb. 6, 2005, Laurel, Del.), governor of Delaware (1949-53, 1961-65). In 1944 he ran for lieutenant governor and won. Four years later, he ran for governor, campaigning on the need for more and better schools, along with better roads and state infrastructure. He defeated Hyland F. George and became only the second Democratic governor to win election in Delaware in the 20th century. There were some milestones in Carvel's first term - the first span of the Delaware Memorial Bridge opened to traffic, and the state Supreme Court was established in 1951 - but he found it difficult to advance his objectives in a Republican-controlled legislature. When he sought reelection in 1952, he and many of his fellow Democrats nationwide were swamped by the incoming Republican tide led by Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was elected president. Carvel lost the gubernatorial race to J. Caleb Boggs, and he suffered another defeat when he took on U.S. Sen. John Williams in 1958. But in 1960 he was elected governor once more, defeating Lt.Gov. John Rollins, amid the Democratic tide that sent John F. Kennedy to the White House. A champion of civil rights at a time when many supported segregation, he appointed the first Human Relations Commission, which recommended a public-accommodations law that Carvel pushed through a reluctant General Assembly in 1963.
Carver, John (b. c. 1576, Nottinghamshire or Derbyshire, England - d. April 15, 1621, Plymouth, Mass.), governor of Plymouth (1620-21). He joined the Separatists, a Puritan religious group. They were critical of the Church of England and also believed that the government was too tolerant towards those who were guilty of adultery, drunkenness, and breaching the Sabbath. The Separatists were persecuted, and in 1608 Carver and others decided to emigrate to Holland, which had a reputation of tolerance towards dissenters. But Carver and his friends soon became disillusioned with their new home, and in 1620 they decided to emigrate to North America. Carver obtained financial backing for the trip and chartered the Mayflower, which was boarded by 102 people in Delft harbour. After crossing the Atlantic they decided to settle at a place they called Plymouth in Massachusetts Bay. He was elected governor on Nov. 21, 1620, after the signing of the Mayflower Compact. His major accomplishment was the establishment of a treaty of alliance between the Indian chief Massasoit and James I of England.
Carver (of Shackleford), (Richard) Michael (Power) Carver, Baron (b. April 24, 1915, Bletchingley, Surrey - d. Dec. 9, 2001, Fareham, Hampshire), British military officer. He began moving up the ranks with a commission in the Royal Tank Corps in 1935 and went on to become chief of the General Staff (1971-73) and chief of the Defence Staff (1973-76). He was chief of staff in Kenya in 1954 during the Mau Mau rebellion, which led to Kenya's independence from Britain in 1963. He commanded UN peacekeeping forces in Cyprus in 1964, but later criticized them as impeding progress toward a political settlement. He was Britain's resident commissioner in Rhodesia in 1977-78. As a member of the House of Lords, he opposed Britain's decision to buy Trident submarines with nuclear-armed missiles. In a Lords debate on Britain's nuclear weapons in 1997, he tartly asked a government minister "who is supposed to be deterred by the deterrent to which she referred, and from doing what?" He was a member of the Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, created by the Australian government, which released a report in 1996 outlining a plan for nuclear disarmament. "The destructiveness of nuclear weapons is so great, and their use so catastrophic, that they have no military utility against a comparably equipped opponent other than the belief that they deter such an opponent from using his nuclear weapons," he said. "Therefore, their elimination would remove that justification for their retention. Their use against a non-nuclear opponent is politically and morally indefensible, as history has shown." He was also a critic of NATO. In a Lords debate he urged abolition of the NATO command, saying it existed only to camouflage the reality that the United States commands the allied forces. He was knighted in 1966 and created a life peer in 1977.
Casali, Augusto (b. April 14, 1949, San Marino), secretary of state for foreign and political affairs of San Marino (2002).
Casamatta, François (b. Dec. 6, 1899 - d. Nov. 4, 1961), acting chef de territoire (1944) and acting governor (1949, 1951) of Chad.
Casaroli, Agostino Cardinal (b. Nov. 24, 1914, Castel San Giovanni, Piacenza province, Italy - d. June 9, 1998, Rome), secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church (1967-79) and secretary of state (1979-90) of Vatican City. He went to the Accademia Pontificia, the school for Vatican diplomats. The breakthrough in his career came in 1961, when Pope John XXIII, detecting signs of détente in Communist attitudes, sought ways of entering into contact. Casaroli was sent to Vienna to head the Vatican delegation at a conference on diplomatic relations; he was back again two years later for another conference on consular relations. He made his first contacts with Communist diplomats and henceforward was identified with the Vatican's Ostpolitik. Some of the landmarks along the way were the negotiation of a modus vivendi with Yugoslavia in 1966, the signing of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in Moscow in 1971, and a notable speech at the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe at Helsinki in July 1973. He visited Eastern Europe many times, concentrating on establishing the freedom of the church to appoint its own bishops and then on the right to teach religion to children and students. Casaroli was sometimes accused of weakness in his dealings with Communists, but the election of a Polish pope in October 1978 changed the situation. John Paul II could not be accused of weakness, and his appointment (April 30, 1979) of Casaroli as secretary of state, the number-two post in the Vatican, was a mark of confidence. Casaroli was made a cardinal at the consistory of June 30, 1979.
Casas y Arragorri, Luis de las (b. 1745, Sopuerta, País Vasco, Spain - d. 1800, El Puerto de Santa María, Andalucía, Spain), governor of Cuba (1790-96).
Cascardo, Hercolino (b. 1900, Rio de Janeiro - d. 1967, Rio de Janeiro), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1931-32).
Casembroot, Guus de, byname of Auguste François Charles de Casembroot (b. Dec. 17, 1906, Middelburg - d. Feb. 10, 1965, Utrecht), queen's commissioner of Zeeland (1944-45, 1948-65).
Casey, Albert V(incent) (b. Feb. 28, 1920, Boston, Mass. - d. July 10, 2004, Dallas, Texas), U.S. postmaster general (1986). He was CEO of American Airlines in 1974-85.
Casey (of Berwick in the State of Victoria and Commonwealth of Australia and of the City of Westminster), Richard Gardiner Casey, Baron (b. Aug. 29, 1890, Brisbane, Queensland - d. June 17, 1976, Berwick, Vic.), governor of Bengal (1944-46) and foreign minister (1951-60) and governor-general (1965-69) of Australia. He was created a life peer in 1960 and knighted (G.C.M.G.) in 1965.
Casey, Robert P(atrick) (b. Jan. 9, 1932, Jackson Heights, Queens, N.Y. - d. May 30, 2000, Scranton, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1987-95). He started his public career in 1962 when he was elected to the state Senate at age 31. He was endorsed for governor for the 1966 primary but lost. In 1968, Casey was elected state auditor general and in 1970 again received the party nod for governor, but again lost the primary. Despite gaining a reputation as a watchdog for taxpayers while auditor general between 1969 and 1977, Casey couldn't convert that trust to a gubernatorial victory. He lost in the 1978 primary while another Bob Casey, a Pittsburgh school teacher, apparently fooled voters and won the lieutenant governor's primary. In 1986, Casey finally exorcized the ghosts of primaries past and defeated Philadelphia District Attorney Ed Rendell for the Democratic gubernatorial nomination. With the help of a then unknown political consultant, Casey used a bitingly negative television ad to ensure a narrow gubernatorial win that November. The consultant, James Carville, went on to help Bill Clinton win the presidency in 1992. Casey was reelected handily in 1990. He was ineligible to run for a third consecutive term in 1994. As governor, Casey prided himself on overseeing a frugal government with a caring touch. He relentlessly berated his party and its 1992 presidential candidate, Clinton, for abandoning its traditional constituencies with what Casey called an abortion-on-demand philosophy. He made headlines in 1992 when he was denied a chance to speak at the Democratic National Convention. And in March 1995, he formed an exploratory committee to challenge Clinton for the 1996 nomination, only to drop the effort a month later.
Casey, William (Joseph) (b. March 13, 1913, Elmhurst, Queens, N.Y. - d. May 6, 1987, Glen Cove, N.Y.), CIA director (1981-87). During World War II he worked in Europe (1941-46) with the Office of Strategic Studies (forerunner of the CIA) to drop agents behind Nazi lines. After conducting research for Richard M. Nixon's 1968 presidential campaign, Casey helped the new president by establishing the Citizens Committee for Peace with Security. Casey later served as chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission (1971-73), under secretary of state for economic affairs (1973-74), president and chairman of the Export-Import Bank (1974-75), and a member of the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (1976). He served as manager of Ronald Reagan's presidential campaign in 1980. He was named director of central intelligence in 1981, and under his leadership the agency built up its ability to act militarily and politically outside the U.S. Covert action increased in places such as Afghanistan, Central America, and Angola, and the agency stepped up its support for various anti-Communist insurgent organizations. During his tenure the agency began providing the contras with military assistance and clandestine training before such aid was outlawed by Congress in 1984. He was viewed as a pivotal figure in detailing the role of the CIA in the Iran-contra affair, in which weapons were sold by the U.S. to Iran and money from the sale was funneled to the Nicaraguan contras (in possible violation of U.S. law). Due to illness, his crucial testimony was never heard, and his death occurred less than 24 hours after the congressional hearings on the affair began.
Cash, Sir Gerald (Christopher) (b. May 28, 1917, Nassau, Bahamas - d. Jan. 6, 2003), governor-general of The Bahamas (1979-88); knighted 1977.
Cashin, Sir Michael Patrick (b. 1864, Cape Broyle, Newfoundland - d. Aug. 30, 1926), prime minister of Newfoundland (1919). He began his political career in 1893 with his election as an independent Member of the House of Assembly for Ferryland District. He was reelected in 1897. In 1900 and 1904 Cashin ran as a Liberal and was again elected in Ferryland. In the elections of 1908, 1909, and 1913 Cashin was elected as a member of the People's Party for Ferryland. From March 1909 Cashin served as minister of finance and customs. He was knighted in 1918. On May 22, 1919, Cashin was asked by the governor to form a new administration. As well as accepting the office of prime minister, Cashin retained his cabinet post of finance and customs. For the next election Cashin changed the name of his party from the People's Party to the Liberal-Progressives. His major opponent, Richard A. Squires, resigned his Legislative Council seat to lead the Liberal Reform Party, which he was instrumental in forming. The election was held on Nov. 3, 1919, and Cashin was elected in Ferryland for the eighth time. His party was elected to 12 seats and the Squires party elected 13. From 1919 to 1923 Cashin was opposition leader and a vocal critic of the administration. It was only in 1923, because of ill-health, that he surrendered the leadership of the Liberal-Progressive Party to John R. Bennett. After representing Ferryland for over 25 years Cashin chose to run in 1923 as a Liberal-Labour-Progressive candidate for the district of St. John's West, to try to break the Liberal administration's hold over the district. He was elected, and his son Peter Cashin was elected in his father's old district of Ferryland. Continuing ill-health forced Cashin to retire in 1924.
Casimir, Fernand Georges Gaston (Émile Robert) (b. 1896 - d. 19...), resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1935-37) and lieutenant governor of Niger (1952-53).
Casimir, Pierre Richard (b. Feb. 19, 1970, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (2012-14).
Casimir-Perier, Auguste (Casimir Victor Laurent), original surname (until March 14, 1874) Perier (b. 1811, Paris - d. July 6, 1876, Paris), interior minister of France (1871-72, 1873); son of Casimir Perier.
Casimir-Perier, Jean (Paul Pierre), original surname (until March 14, 1874) Perier (b. Nov. 8, 1847, Paris, France - d. March 11, 1907, Paris), president of France (1894-95); son of Auguste Casimir-Perier. He served as a captain during the Franco-German War (1870-71). In 1876 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a Left Republican from Aube département, serving as the chamber's vice president (1890-92) and president (1893). On Dec. 4, 1893, he formed his own cabinet, which fell within six months because of his inability to cope with anarchist terrorism and the vexing church-state issue. Casimir-Perier returned to the presidency of the chamber (June 1894) and in the wake of the assassination of Sadi Carnot was elected (June 27, 1894) president of the Third Republic. Unable to control his premier, Charles Dupuy, and faced with the mounting fury of the Dreyfus affair, he quickly became a target for the political left. His most vigorous assailant, the journalist Alfred Gérault-Richard, was convicted of slander, but then the Socialist leader Jean Jaurès picked up the cudgel. Gérault-Richard's release by the Chamber of Deputies proved so embarrassing that, after only six months in office, Casimir-Perier resigned.
Casis, Roberto Enrique (b. 1927 - d. Dec. 10, 2011), governor of Santa Fe (1982-83).
Cass, Lewis (b. Oct. 9, 1782, Exeter, N.H. - d. June 17, 1866, Detroit, Mich.), U.S. presidential candidate (1848). In 1806 he was elected to the Ohio legislature. During the War of 1812 he rose from the rank of colonel of volunteers to brigadier general in the regular army. He was governor of Michigan Territory from 1813 to 1831. As such he was also superintendent of Indian affairs for the territory, and this remained for several years the most important part of his duties. As secretary of war in Pres. Andrew Jackson's cabinet (1831-36), he directed the conduct of the Black Hawk and Seminole wars. For the next six years he served as minister to France. As a member of the U.S. Senate (1845-48, 1849-57), Cass became a leader of the 1846 bloc demanding the "reannexation" of all the Oregon country south of latitude 54°40´ N or war with England. He supported Pres. James K. Polk's administration during the Mexican War (1846-48) and opposed the Wilmot Proviso, an antislavery proposal applying to land acquired from Mexico. In the 1848 presidential campaign, Cass was the Democratic nominee but was defeated by the Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor. He served as secretary of state (1857-60) under Pres. James Buchanan, but he retired from the post when the president refused to take a firmer stance against the secession of the Southern states.
Cassandra, José (Cardoso dos Ramos), byname Tozé Cassandra (b. Feb. 17, 1964, Príncipe), president of the Regional Government of Príncipe (2006- ).
Casse, (Eugène François) Germain (b. Sept. 22, 1837, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. Dec. 9, 1900, Avignon, France), governor of Martinique (1889-92).
Casseres, Ronald Anthony, byname Ronny Casseres (b. Aug. 3, 1939, Curaçao - d. Oct. 22, 1988, Miami, Fla.), administrator of Curaçao (1982-88).
Cassidy, Joseph (b. 1866? - d. Nov. 21, 1920, Far Rockaway, Queens, New York City), borough president of Queens (1902-05).
Cassol, Ivo Narciso (b. Jan. 20, 1959, Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil), governor of Rondônia (2003-10).
Castañeda (Gutman), Jorge G(ermán) (b. May 24, 1953, Mexico City), foreign minister of Mexico (2000-03); son of Jorge Castañeda y Álvarez.
Castañeda y Álvarez (de la Rosa), Jorge (b. Oct. 1, 1921, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Dec. 11, 1997, Mexico City), foreign minister of Mexico (1979-82). A career diplomat, he served as permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-62) and ambassador to Egypt (1962-65) and France (1983-89). He also represented Mexico before UN organizations and was the author of numerous books and papers on national and international law.
Castellano y de Gastón, Gaspar (b. 1928, La Berné, Ejea de los Caballeros, Zaragoza province, Aragón, Spain), president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1981-82).
Castellanos Everardo, Milton (b. March 23, 1920, Copainalá, Chiapas, Mexico - d. Oct. 10, 2011, Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico), governor of Baja California (1971-77).
Castellón (Sanabria), Francisco (b. 1815, León, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 8, 1855), director of Nicaragua (rival government, 1854-55).
Castelo, Plácido Aderaldo (b. Jan. 11, 1906, Mombaça, Ceará, Brazil - d. June 17, 1979, Fortaleza, Ceará), governor of Ceará (1966-71).
Castelo Branco, Humberto de Alencar (b. Sept. 20, 1900, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil - d. [airplane accident] July 18, 1967, Fortaleza), president of Brazil (1964-67).
Castiella (y Maíz), Fernando María (b. 1907, Bilbao - d. Nov. 25, 1976, Madrid), foreign minister of Spain (1957-69).
Castilho (Barreto e Noronha), Augusto (Vidal) de (b. Oct. 10, 1844, Lisbon, Portugal - d. March 30, 1912), governor-general of Mozambique (1885-89).
Castilla (y Marquesado), Ramón (b. Aug. 27, 1797, Tarapacá, Peru - d. May 25, 1867, Arica, Chile), president of Peru (1845-51, 1855-62). As a young man he fought for the Spaniards until he was captured by the Chilean patriots. He then fought against the Spaniards in Peru, performing heroically with José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar. In 1839 he was named minister of war and treasury in the government of Pres. Agustín Gamarra. Acting as minister of the treasury, he arranged the first contract (1841) with British capitalists to exploit guano, a fertilizer made from bird dung that accumulated on islands near the coast. In the anarchy that followed the death of Gamarra in 1841, Castilla assumed power and was elected president in 1845. He served until 1851 and then overthrew the next president, José Rufino Echenique, in 1855. When Castilla seized power, Peru had been racked by disorder and rebellions for almost 20 years. A strong and skillful leader, he had the good fortune to be in power when huge supplies of guano and sodium nitrate were discovered. The income from these resources helped him bring about economic improvements, reduce the nation's debt, build schools, improve transportation, and foster domestic business. He also abolished Negro slavery and the head tax on Indians, and, although he was a strong supporter of the church, he eliminated the church courts and the compulsory tithe. In 1860 he supported Peru's new constitution, which narrowed the franchise, gave wide powers to the president, and recognized the Roman Catholic Church exclusively; it remained in force until 1920. When Castilla's paternal despotism ended in 1862, the nation once again lapsed into 20 years of chaos and rebellion.
Castillo, Arnoldo (Aníbal) (b. April 29, 1922, Quilmes, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. Sept. 29, 2005, San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Catamarca, Argentina), governor of Catamarca (1981-83, 1991-99).
Castillo (Morales), Carlos Manuel (b. Nov. 19, 1928, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, near San José, Costa Rica - d. Feb. 20, 1999, San José), Costa Rican politician. He served as first vice president in 1974-77 in the administration of Daniel Oduber. He also was economy minister (1971-72) and head of the central bank (1982-84, 1994-95). Castillo was one of the founders of the social-democratic National Liberation Party. He sought his party's presidential nomination five times, but only once achieved it - in 1990, when he lost to Social Christian candidate Rafael Ángel Calderón.
Castillo (Barrantes), (José) Enrique (b. Aug. 27, 1945, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (2011-14). He was ambassador to France (1986-90), justice minister (1994-95), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-11).
Castillo (y Gil de la Torre Bustamante y Cossío), Ignacio María del, (from 1888) conde de Bilbao (b. 1817, Veracruz, Mexico - d. 1893, Madrid, Spain), governor of Cuba (1883-84).
Castillo (Gálvez), Jorge (Alfonso Alejandro) del (b. July 2, 1950, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2006-08).
J. del Castillo
Castillo, Miguel Ángel (b. Sept. 29, 1915, San Salvador - d. 19...), member of the Junta of Government of El Salvador (1960-61).
Castillo, Oscar (Aníbal) (b. Jan. 18, 1954, San Fernando del Valle de Catamarca, Catamarca, Argentina), governor of Catamarca (1999-2003); son of Arnoldo Castillo.
Castillo (Barrionuevo), Ramón S.1 (b. Nov. 20, 1873, Ancasti, Catamarca - d. Oct. 12, 1944), president of Argentina (1942-43). As vice president from 1938, he became acting president for the incapacitated Pres. Roberto M. Ortiz in 1940; he succeeded as president on Ortiz's resignation in 1942 but was deposed in 1943.
1 He was named Ramón Antonio Castillo Barrionuevo (Ramón alone at birth; Antonio added at confirmation) before he adopted the initial S.; the meaning is undocumented, though it has been suggested that it stands for Santiago.
Castillo Armas, Carlos (b. Nov. 4, 1914, Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa, Escuintla department, Guatemala - d. [assassinated] July 26, 1957, Guatemala City), president of Guatemala (1954-57).
Castillo Arriola, Eduardo (b. Jan. 5, 1914, Huehuetenango, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (1982-83).
Castillo Figueroa, Fabio (b. 1921 - d. Nov. 4, 2012), member of the Junta of Government of El Salvador (1960-61).
Castle of Blackburn (of Ibstone in the County of Buckinghamshire), Barbara (Anne) Castle, Baroness, née Betts (b. Oct. 6, 1910, Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England - d. May 3, 2002, Ibstone, Buckinghamshire, England), British politician. She was committed to the Labour Party's traditional left-wing philosophy, favouring a welfare state that fought for the interests of pensioners and the disabled. She was a parliamentarian for 31 years (1945-79) and served as a cabinet minister under Harold Wilson, becoming the first woman in some posts. She first became minister of overseas development (1964-65), then minister of transport (1965-68) and secretary of state for employment and productivity (1968-70). She remained in the shadow cabinet during the Conservative government of the early 1970s and when Labour regained power in 1974 she became secretary of state for social services. However, when James Callaghan replaced Wilson as prime minister in 1976, Castle was banished to the back benches. She was the architect of legislation promoting equal pay for women and fighting drunken driving. However, she failed to rein in Britain's powerful unions in an effort to stop their unofficial strikes, which often undermined the British economy and Labour governments. She was once expected to become Britain's first female prime minister, a landmark achieved by Conservative Margaret Thatcher in 1979 when Labour was voted out of office. Castle left Westminster that year to begin a 10-year career as a member of the European Parliament, where she led the British Labour group until 1985 and was vice chairman of the Socialist group until 1986. She was granted a life peerage in 1990. She criticized Tony Blair's Labour government when his policies began moving the party from the left to the centre.
Castor, Elie (b. April 28, 1943, Cayenne, French Guiana - d. June 16, 1996, Clermont-Ferrand, Puy-de-Dôme, France), president of the General Council of French Guiana (1983-94).
Castrejón (Castrejón), Adrián (b. June 6, 1893, Apaxtla, Guerrero - d. March 15, 1954, Mexico City), governor of Guerrero (1929-33).
Castries, Charles Eugène (Gabriel) de La Croix, marquis de (b. Feb. 25, 1727, Paris - d. Jan. 12, 1801, Wolfenbüttel, Principality of Brunswick [now in Niedersachsen, Germany]), French minister of marine and colonies (1780-87).
Castro, Álvaro (Xavier) de (b. Nov. 9, 1878, Guarda, Portugal - d. June 29, 1928, Coimbra, Portugal), governor-general of Mozambique (1915-18) and prime minister of Portugal (1920, 1923-24).
Á. de Castro
Castro (Ruz), Fidel (Alejandro)1 (b. Aug. 13, 1926?2, near Birán, Cuba), Cuban premier (1959-76) and president of the Councils of State and Ministers (1976-2008). He became a member of the Cuban People's Party (called Ortodoxos) in 1947 and was their candidate for a parliamentary seat in elections scheduled for 1952. But on March 10, 1952, Gen. Fulgencio Batista overthrew the government of Pres. Carlos Prío Socarrás and canceled the elections. Castro began to organize a revolution early in 1953. On July 26 he led a small group against the Moncada military barracks in Santiago, but he was arrested. Upon his release from prison in 1955, he went to Mexico to organize the next step in the revolution, heading an organization called the 26th of July Movement. On Dec. 2, 1956, he led a group that landed in Cuba aboard the yacht Granma. Meeting initial setbacks, Castro, his brother Raúl, Che Guevara, and others retreated into the Sierra Maestra to wage guerrilla warfare against Batista's demoralized forces. Batista finally fled the country on Dec. 31, 1958. In February 1959 Castro became premier. His movement was merged with other groups in 1961 and became the Communist Party of Cuba in 1965, with him as first secretary. His government vastly expanded educational opportunities and redistributed economic wealth and access to health facilities. The U.S. equipped thousands of Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro, but their Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961 failed. In 1962 the Soviet Union stationed ballistic missiles in Cuba, and the world came close to nuclear war. The crisis ended when the Soviet Union agreed to withdraw its missiles in exchange for a pledge that the U.S. would no longer seek to overthrow the Cuban government. Still, the CIA continued for some time to plot to assassinate Castro. In 2006, for health reasons, he put his leading posts in charge of Raúl, and he did not stand for reelection as president in 2008 or as party chief in 2011.
1 Originally Fidel Hipólito Ruz. He was recognized by his father - and perhaps legitimated - in 1943.
2 His official birthday is Aug. 13, 1926, but some of his siblings told biographers that he was actually born in 1927 and that his parents falsified his age so that he could attend school a year earlier. In a letter he wrote to U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt in November 1940, congratulating him on his reelection, he said he was twelve years old which would suggest the birth year 1928.
Castro (Rivera), Jesús Agustín (b. Aug. 15, 1887, Ciudad Lerdo, Durango, Mexico - d. March 22, 1953, Tetelpan, Distrito Federal, Mexico), governor of Chiapas (1914-15), Oaxaca (1915-16), and Durango (1920-24) and acting war and marine minister (1917-18) and defense minister (1939-40) of Mexico. He was a presidential candidate in 1946.
Castro, Julián (b. Sept. 16, 1974, San Antonio, Texas), mayor of San Antonio (2009-14) and U.S. secretary of housing and urban development (2014- ).
Castro, Manoel de, Filho (b. July 1, 1912, Morada Nova, Ceará, Brazil - d. Sept. 18, 1995, Fortaleza, Ceará), acting governor of Ceará (1982-83).
Castro, Noli de, byname of Manuel Leuterio de Castro, also nicknamed Kabayan (b. July 6, 1949, Pola, Oriental Mindoro province, Philippines), vice president of the Philippines (2004-10).
Castro, Pacifico A(lbano) (b. June 30, 1932, Ilocos Norte province, Philippines - d. March 11, 2001, Makati City, Philippines), acting foreign secretary of the Philippines (1985-86). He joined the country's foreign service in July 1957 and served as Philippine ambassador to Algeria, Jordan, Canada, and Belgium. He also served in the country's diplomatic posts in Seoul and Paris as Third Secretary and Vice Consul and in Paris and Geneva as Minister Counselor and Consul General. In the Home Office, he served in various capacities, as Special Assistant in the Office of Legal Affairs; Chief of the Division of UN Affairs and concurrently Acting Executive Officer and later Special Assistant to the Undersecretary for Policy; Director of the Foreign Service Institute; Deputy Minister; and Director-General of the Office of Middle East and African Affairs. He authored and edited several books on international law and diplomacy, among them, Philippine Diplomatic and Consular Practice, Digest of Philippine International Law Jurisprudence, and the Philippine Foreign Service Code.
Castro (Ruz), Raúl (Modesto), originally Raúl Ruz (b. June 3, 1931, Birán, Cuba), Cuban politician. He was armed forces (defense) minister from 1959 to 2008. As second secretary of the Communist Party from 1965 and first vice president of the Council of State and Council of Ministers from 1976, he was the designated successor of his brother Fidel Castro. In 2006 Fidel, because of ill health, delegated his leading positions to Raúl. Fidel was not able to take them up again, and Raúl officially succeeded him as president in 2008 and as first secretary of the Communist Party in 2011.
Castro, Raul H(ector) (b. June 12, 1916, Cananea, Sonora, Mexico), governor of Arizona (1975-77). He was also U.S. ambassador to El Salvador (1964-68), Bolivia (1968-69), and Argentina (1977-80).
Castro (Salazar), René (b. Aug. 25, 1957), foreign minister of Costa Rica (2010-11).
Castro Morán, Mariano (b. 1916 - d. Nov. 7, 2005), member of the Civic-Military Directory of El Salvador (1961-62).
Casule, Slobodan (b. Sept. 27, 1945, Skopje), foreign minister of Macedonia (2001-02).
Catargiu, Lascar (Stefan) (b. Nov. 13, 1823, Iasi, Romania - d. April 11, 1899, Bucharest, Romania), prime minister of Romania (1866, 1871-76, 1889, 1891-95). Under Prince Grigore Ghica (1849-56), he rose to be prefect of police at Iasi. In 1858 he served on the Moldavian divan ad hoc (representative commission) formed to determine the future political organization of the Danubian principalities - Moldavia and Walachia - and in 1859 was the Conservative candidate for the throne of Moldavia. After the unification of the principalities, he joined the secret committee that successfully planned the overthrow of the first prince of united Romania, Alexandru Ioan, and his replacement by Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1866), thereafter prince, and later (1881) King Carol I. From February 1866 until the accession of Carol in May, he served on the three-member governing regency and, from May to July 1866, headed his first cabinet. During the antidynastic agitation of 1871, he was called to form another government. His policy, which averted revolution and revived the popularity of the crown, was regarded as unpatriotic and reactionary by the Liberals, who resumed office in 1876, and a proposal to impeach the whole Catargiu cabinet was only withdrawn in 1878. In opposition, he led his Conservative Party in violent attacks against the ruling Liberals, until in 1889 he formed another cabinet, taking the portfolio of the interior, but this administration fell after seven months. In Emanoil Ion Florescu's ministry of March 1891 he occupied the same position, and in December he again became prime minister, retaining office until 1895. During this period he was responsible for several useful reforms, chiefly financial and commercial.
Cato, (Robert) Milton (b. June 3, 1915, Saint Vincent island - d. Feb. 10, 1997, Kingstown, Saint Vincent), prime minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979-84). Having joined the Canadian Army, he saw active service in Europe in World War II. Back in St. Vincent, he began to identify himself with local political aspirations. He was elected a parliamentary member of the short-lived West Indies Federation. In 1955 he, along with others, founded the St. Vincent Labour Party (SVLP). In May 1967, as leader of the SVLP, he became chief minister and afterward premier when the island moved from dependency status to associated statehood. In 1972 his party lost to an opposition coalition, but in 1974, in an extraordinary turnabout, he led it to victory in conjunction with the island's other main political party. By 1976 this coalition had collapsed, but Cato retained the position of prime minister as the SVLP still had a majority in the legislative assembly. When St. Vincent cast loose its links of association with Britain on Oct. 27, 1979, Cato became its first prime minister under the new constitution, a position that was confirmed in elections on December 5. Cato was one of the few remaining Caribbean heads of government of the old school. Though a socialist, his political convictions did not embrace modern regional interpretations, let alone Marxism-Leninism. He had been highly critical, in both public and private, of the effect of the revolution in neighbouring Grenada and developments in Jamaica and Guyana. Instead he preferred to establish closer links with the relatively conservative governments of Trinidad and Barbados, both at an economic level and through the establishment of a joint coast guard and a fisheries protection service with Barbados.
Catroux, Georges (Albert Julien) (b. Jan. 29, 1877, Limoges, Haute-Vienne, France - d. Dec. 21, 1969, Paris), French administrator. He served in World War I, was wounded and taken prisoner in 1916 at which time he met another wounded POW, Charles de Gaulle. He was promoted to general in 1931, led a pacification campaign in Morocco, and commanded an army corps in Algeria. Appointed acting governor-general of Indochina in 1939, he was dismissed by the Vichy government in 1940 and joined General de Gaulle's Free French movement. He was tried in absentia and sentenced to death by Vichy in 1941. De Gaulle gave him the command of the French forces in the Syrian campaign in 1941 and he was delegate-general of Syria and Lebanon in 1941-43 where his tact and negotiating ability took some of the edge off quarrels between the British and Free French. He restored calm after a disastrous Free French decision to arrest the president and the government of Lebanon in 1943. He was governor-general of Algeria in 1943-44, minister for North Africa in the French provisional government in 1944, and French ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1945-48. He was a member of the Grand Council of de Gaulle's Rassemblement du Peuple Français but left it in 1952. He remained in close contact with de Gaulle and, like him, protested against the forced exile of the sultan of Morocco in 1953. In September 1955, when Prime Minister Edgar Faure was undoing the work of French reactionaries, it was Catroux who was sent to Madagascar for talks with the exiled Muhammad V and who brought him back to France. He was appointed resident minister of Algeria in 1956, but his reputation as a liberal and friend of Muslims caused an outcry among the Europeans in Algeria and he quickly resigned.
Caudière, Paul Michel Frédéric (b. June 26, 1822, Martigues, Bouches-du-Rhône, France - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1876-79).
Causevic, Sead (b. Sept. 15, 1949, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Tuzla canton (2011-14).
Cavaco Silva, Aníbal (António) (b. July 15, 1939, Boliqueime parish, Loulé municipality, Algarve, Portugal), finance minister (1980-81), prime minister (1985-95), and president (2006- ) of Portugal. He was president of the Social Democratic Party in 1985-95. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1996 but won in 2006 and was reelected in 2011.
Cavaignac, Louis Eugène (b. Oct. 15, 1802, Paris - d. Oct. 28, 1857, Ourne, Sarthe département), chief executive of France (1848). Cavaignac's father, Jean-Baptiste, was a Jacobin member of the Committee of General Security during the French Revolution (1789-92), and Louis retained his father's strong republican beliefs. His uncle, Jacques-Marie, served the Bourbons and the July Monarchy, which ruled France in 1830-48, and helped Cavaignac regain his appointment in the army, from which he had been dismissed in 1831 because of his republicanism. Nevertheless, he was sent to the relative isolation of Algeria. Cavaignac performed with distinction during the French conquest of Algeria in the 1840s, and in 1848 he was appointed governor-general. Amid the revolutionary activity of that year, he was elected to the legislature in France and appointed minister of war by the provisional government of the newly formed Second Republic. That June there was a large workers' revolt in Paris to protest the expulsion of Socialist leaders from the National Assembly and the closing of the national workshops (government-sponsored employment centres). Cavaignac directed the suppression of the revolt, for which he became known as "the butcher of June." On June 28 the National Assembly named him chief executive of France, but he lost the presidential election to Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (later Emperor Napoléon III) that December. Cavaignac remained a leader of the opposition to Bonaparte. He was arrested in 1851, but the next year he was elected to the Corps Législatif. He refused, however, to take an oath of allegiance to the new emperor and thus was denied his seat in the legislature both then and again in 1857.
Cavalcante, Luiz de Souza (b. June 18, 1913, Rio Largo, Alagoas, Brazil - d. Sept. 30, 2002, Brasília), governor of Alagoas (1961-66).
Cavalcânti, Clóvis Bezerra (b. July 9, 1911, Bananeiras, Paraíba, Brazil), acting governor of Paraíba (1982-83).
Cavalcânti, José Francisco de Moura (b. Oct. 20, 1925, Cipó Branco farm, Macaparana municipality [now São Vicente Ferrer], Pernambuco, Brazil - d. Nov. 28, 1994, Recife, Brazil), governor of Amapá (1961) and Pernambuco (1975-79). He was also Brazilian minister of agriculture (1973-74).
Cavalcânti, Odon Bezerra (b. May 20, 1901, Bananeiras, Paraíba, Brazil - d. Aug. 12, 1949), governor of Paraíba (1946).
Cavallo, Domingo (Felipe) (b. July 21, 1946, San Francisco, Córdoba province, Argentina), Argentine politician. He was foreign minister in 1989-91 and then became economy minister. When inflation ran around 5,000%, he pegged the peso to the U.S. dollar and ushered in a period of economic stability and growth for Latin America's third-largest economy. Under the Peronist administration of Pres. Carlos Menem, he oversaw the mass privatization of Argentina's inefficient state-owned companies. The country became a darling of Wall Street investors. Legend has it Cavallo was greeted like a sports hero when he stepped into the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange in 1995 amid a market meltdown across Latin America. As traders chanted his nickname "Mingo" to the cadence usually reserved for soccer stars, Argentine stocks rebounded, if only for a moment. In July 1996, he left Menem's administration after he ruffled feathers by alleging the existence of crime rings in the government. Cavallo began the Action for the Republic party and won a seat in Congress. Since then, he made an effort to remain in the public eye at home and abroad. He gave advice to crisis-torn Ecuador and even his old boss was proud to see a countryman on the world stage in 1998 when Russia sought his advice on its debt crisis. Cavallo ran for president in 1999 but got only about 10% of the vote. He also ran for mayor of Buenos Aires, and lost. In March 2001 he again became economy minister. He stepped down as head of his party in May 2001, saying he wanted to concentrate on rescuing the ailing economy - this time without success. He had to quit along with de la Rúa in December after their economic policies triggered bloody riots. He was jailed from April to June 2002 in connection with an arms-smuggling scandal.
Cavazos Ceballos, (Jesús) Silverio (b. Dec. 15, 1968, Tecomán, Colima, Mexico - d. [assassinated] Nov. 21, 2010, Colima, Colima), governor of Colima (2005-09).
Cavelier de Cuverville, Jules Marie Armand, comte de (b. July 28, 1834, Allineuc, Côtes-du-Nord [now Côtes-d'Armor], France - d. March 14, 1912, Paris), commandant of the Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa (1884-86).
Caveri, Luciano (Emilio) (b. Dec. 25, 1958, Aosta, Valle d'Aosta, Italy), president of Valle d'Aosta (2005-08); grandson of Severino Caveri.
Caveri, Severino (b. May 29, 1908 - d. Dec. 19, 1977), president of Valle d'Aosta (1946-54, 1963-66).
Cavero (y Cárdenas), Ignacio (b. between June 23 and 29, 1757, Merida, Yucatán, Mexico - d. Aug. 17 or 22, 1834, Cartagena, Colombia), president of the Supreme Junta of Government of Cartagena (1811-12).
Cavic, Dragan (b. March 10, 1958, Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of the Republika Srpska (2002-06).
Cavina, Sergio (b. May 5, 1929, Ravenna, Italy - d. Dec. 22, 1977, Bologna, Italy), president of Emilia-Romagna (1976-77).
Çavusoglu, Mevlüt (b. Feb. 5, 1968, Alanya, Turkey), foreign minister of Turkey (2014- ). He was also minister for EU affairs (2013-14).
Cayetano, Ben(jamin Jerome) (b. Nov. 14, 1939, Honolulu), governor of Hawaii (1994-2002). After serving in the state's House of Representatives (1975-78) and Senate (1979-86), the Democrat became lieutenant governor of Hawaii (1986-94). Cayetano's election as governor in 1994 was due less to the strength of his Democratic machine than to the weakness and division of his opponents. Former Congresswoman Pat Saiki, a strong though losing candidate against Senator Daniel Akaka in 1990, and of Japanese descent, seemed as potent a candidate as Republicans could field. But she split the anti-Democratic vote with Frank Fasi, longtime (1968-80, 1984-94) mayor of Honolulu. In 1994, Fasi formed his own The Best party, raised money from city employees and was endorsed by the carpenters' union; meanwhile, Cayetano beat state healthcare program director Jack Lewin by only 55%-38% in the September primary. Cayetano said he was more concerned about education than prisons, and argued that Democrats' programs benefited ordinary people; Saiki talked tough on crime and promised a better business climate to "grow" the economy; Fasi combatively stressed his get-things-done record as mayor. Cayetano, relying on a half-hour ad telling his personal story, won with 37% of the vote; Saiki had 31% and Fasi 29%. In office, Cayetano reluctantly cut spending increases sharply and declined to raise taxes: in tandem with mainland politics.
Cayla, Léon (Henri Charles) (b. Nov. 17, 1881, Oran, Algeria - d. April 25, 1965, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, France), governor of the Alawite Territory (1925) and Lebanon (1925-26) and governor-general of Madagascar (1930-39, 1940-41) and French West Africa (1939-40).
Caylus, Charles de Thubières, marquis de (b. 1698 - d. 1750?), governor of Martinique (1744-50). He mysteriously disappeared while he was in office, being no more seen in Martinique after May 12, 1750. It is not known whether he died or left the island.
Cayrel, Laurent (Jacques Hubert) (b. July 9, 1950, Bordeaux, France), prefect of Réunion (2005-06). He has also been secretary-general of New Caledonia (1994-97; acting high commissioner 1995) and prefect of the départements of Jura (2000-02), Morbihan (2006-09), Var (2012-14), and Haute-Vienne (2014- ).
Cea Bermúdez (y Bozo), Francisco, conde de Colombí (b. Oct. 28, 1779, Málaga, Spain - d. July 6, 1850, Paris), first secretary of state of Spain (1824-25, 1832-34).
Ceausescu, Nicolae (Andruta) (b. Jan. 26, 1918, Scornicesti, Romania - d. Dec. 25, 1989, Tirgoviste, near Bucharest), Romanian Communist Party leader (1965-89). A prominent member of the Romanian Communist youth movement during the early 1930s, he was twice imprisoned for his Communist Party activities. While in prison he became a protégé of his cell mate, the Communist leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. After the Communists' full accession to power in 1947, he was agriculture minister (1948-50) and deputy minister of the armed forces (1950-54). With the death of Gheorghiu-Dej in March 1965, he succeeded to the Communist Party leadership as first secretary (general secretary from July 1965) and became president of the State Council in December 1967. He was elected to the newly created post of president of Romania in 1974. While following an independent policy in foreign relations, he adhered ever more closely to the communist orthodoxy of centralized administration at home. He instituted an extensive personality cult and appointed his wife, Elena (1919-89), and many members of his extended family to high government and party posts. Among his grandiose and impractical schemes was a plan to bulldoze thousands of villages and move their residents into new apartment buildings. His regime collapsed after he ordered his security forces to fire on antigovernment demonstrators in Timisoara on Dec. 17, 1989. The demonstrations spread to Bucharest, and on December 22 the army defected to the demonstrators. That same day Ceausescu and his wife fled the capital in a helicopter but were captured by the armed forces. On December 25 they were hurriedly tried and convicted by a special military tribunal on charges of mass murder and other crimes and were then shot by a firing squad.
Ceballos y Vargas, Francisco (de Paula), (from Oct. 24, 1876) marqués de Torrelavega (b. Oct. 9, 1814, Torrelavega, Cantabria, Spain - d. March 9, 1883, Madrid, Spain), governor of Cuba (1872-73) and war minister of Spain (1875-79).
Cecchetti, Alberto (b. Jan. 9, 1944, Genoa, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (1975, 1994, 1998, 2001-02).
Ceccoli, Edda (b. June 26, 1947, Montegiardino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1991-92).
Cecil of Chelwood, (Edgar Algernon) Robert (Gascoyne-)Cecil, (1st) Viscount (b. Sept. 14, 1864, London - d. Nov. 24, 1958, Tunbridge Wells, Kent), British statesman; son of Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury. He entered parliament in 1906 where he remained, with one brief interruption, until 1923. During World War I, he was successively undersecretary of state for foreign affairs (1915-16), minister of blockade (1916-18), and assistant secretary of state for foreign affairs (1918). As early as 1916 he began to draw up an international peacekeeping agreement, and in 1919, when he was sent to the peace conference in Paris, his ideas proved generally compatible with those of U.S. Pres. Woodrow Wilson and South African Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts, the other prominent advocates of the League. Like Smuts, Cecil believed in a world order determined by the white nations; he successfully opposed a provision for absolute racial equality among League member states. In 1923 he was created lord privy seal, a post which gave him the opportunity to devote himself to affairs at Geneva, and later the same year he was elevated to the peerage. In 1924 he became chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. As the principal British delegate to the disarmament conference at Geneva (1926-27), Cecil disagreed with the instructions given him and resigned from Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin's government. During the 1930s he unsuccessfully argued for League measures against aggression by Japan in Manchuria and by Italy in Ethiopia. In 1937 his efforts were rewarded with the Nobel Prize for Peace. He was one of the few in Parliament to vote against the concessions made to Nazi Germany at Munich in 1938.
Cecotti, Sergio (b. Oct. 23, 1956, Udine, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy), president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1995-96).
Cederwall, Gustav (Fredrik Ernst) (b. April 5, 1913 - d. March 14, 2008), governor of Västmanland (1960-80).
Cédile, Jean (Henri Arsène) (b. Jan. 26, 1908, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. Feb. 13, 1984, Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine, France), commissioner of French Togo (1948-51).
Cedillo, Saturnino (b. 1890 - d. [killed] January 1939), governor of San Luis Potosí (1927-31).
Cédras, (Joseph) Raoul (b. July 9, 1949, Jérémie, Haiti), Haitian coup leader. He entered the Military Academy in August 1971 and was commissioned as a sublieutenant in January 1973. He spent almost all his career in the Military Academy, where he became a cadet commander in 1978, training officer in 1983, and director of the Academy in 1988. In 1986, he was commander of the Recruit Training Centre, and in 1990 he was named president of the Coordinating Committee for Election Security. He did this job well, which earned him the esteem of Jean-Bertrand Aristide who swept Haiti's first fully democratic elections with almost 70% of the vote. The very day of Aristide's inaugural, Feb. 7, 1991, Cédras was promoted to chief of the army general staff. After the resignation of the commander-in-chief of the army, Hérard Abraham, Aristide appointed Cédras as interim commander-in-chief, July 2. He took part in the coup ousting Aristide in September, and parliament subsequently confirmed his appointment as commander-in-chief for three years. Before the coup, Cédras, one of the few mulatto officers in the army, was perceived by public opinion as a moderate, but the favourable opinions of him were reversed following the coup, which he called "a democratic correction." He supported repressive actions of the army and paramilitary groups and did what he could to frustrate various international accords designed to return Aristide to power. He remained Haiti's de facto leader until October 1994, when a U.S. intervention ended his regime. He went into exile in Panama. In November 2000, a Haitian court sentenced Cédras and 36 army officers in absentia to life in prison with hard labour for their roles in an April 1994 massacre at Raboteau, a seaside shantytown.
Cehajic, Osman (b. Jan. 15, 1958, Kljuc [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Una-Sana (2005-07).
Çeku, Agim (b. Oct. 29, 1960, Pec, Kosovo, Serbia), prime minister of Kosovo (2006-08).
Celebrezze, Anthony J(oseph) (b. Sept. 4, 1910, Anzi, Basilicata, Italy - d. Oct. 29, 1998, Cleveland, Ohio), U.S. politician. He served in the U.S. Navy during World War II. A Democrat, he was a member of the Ohio senate (1951-53). He became mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1953 during a boom post-war period and served until 1962, when Pres. John F. Kennedy appointed him secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. In his cabinet position he helped guide a number of important New Frontier and Great Society bills to passage by Congress. He served under Kennedy and Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson until 1965, when he was appointed as a judge for the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati. He retired in 1980. His son Anthony J. Celebrezze, Jr., was Ohio's secretary of state (1979-83) and attorney general (1983-91).
Célestin, Martial (Lavaud) (b. Oct. 4, 1913, Ganthier, southeastern Haiti - d. Feb. 4, 2011), prime minister of Haiti (1988). He was Haiti's first prime minister, appointed by Pres. Leslie Manigat. At the same time he was also minister of justice.
Celio, Nello (b. Feb. 12, 1914, Quinto, Ticino, Switzerland - d. Dec. 29, 1995, Bern), president of the government of Ticino (1948-49, 1953-54, 1957-58); defense minister (1967-68), finance minister (1968-73), and president (1972) of Switzerland; and president of the Liberal-Democratic Party (1960-64).
Cellucci, (Argeo) Paul (b. April 24, 1948, Hudson, Mass. - d. June 8, 2013, Hudson), governor of Massachusetts (1997-2001). In 2001 he resigned to become ambassador to Canada, a post he held until 2005.
Celmins, Hugo (b. Oct. 30, 1877, Lubana parish, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. July 30, 1941, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister (1924-25, 1928-31) and foreign minister (1925, 1930-31) of Latvia. He was also minister of agriculture (1920-23, 1924-25) and education (1923-24), mayor of Riga (1931-35), and ambassador to Germany and Austria (1935-38).
Celoron de Blainville, Paul Louis Maxime (b. May 20, 1831, Goyave, Guadeloupe - d. 1889), commandant (1887) and governor (1887-88) of Mayotte.
Cem (Ipekçi1), Ismail (b. 1940, Istanbul, Turkey - d. Jan. 24, 2007, Istanbul), foreign minister of Turkey (1997-2002). He came to national attention in 1974 when he was appointed head of the state broadcasting company TRT and brightened up notoriously conservative radio and television broadcasts with a reformist administration he set up. Ousted from his post after a change of government, he published the left-leaning daily Politika, which was one of the most influential newspapers of its day. He was elected to parliament in 1987 for the Social Democratic People's Party and served as culture minister in a 1995 coalition government. The same year, he joined Bülent Ecevit's Democratic Left Party (DSP) and in December was reelected to parliament from the central province of Kayseri, his ancestral home; he was the first leftist legislator to be elected from the conservative stronghold. He was named foreign minister in 1997 in a minority coalition headed by the centre-right Motherland Party and retained his post after the April 1999 elections from which the DSP came out ahead to cobble together a three-party coalition. He won domestic praise for the resolution of a diplomatic row with Damascus over Syria's alleged support for Kurdish rebels. In 1999, he spearheaded an unprecedented rapprochement with Greece. In December 1999, the pro-European Cem saw Turkey granted candidacy for EU membership. He resigned in June 2002 amid a severe political crisis triggered by disagreement between coalition partners over reforms demanded by the EU and Ecevit's long absence from office due to bad health. He set up a new political group, the New Turkey Party, but failed to obtain any seats in the November 2002 election that propelled the Islamist-rooted Justice and Development Party to power.
1 He dropped his original surname Ipekçi in the 1970s to distance himself from his relative Abdi Ipekçi, who was editor of Milliyet, and avoid possible accusations of favouritism.
Cemerski, Angel (b. March 31, 1923, Kavadar, Yugoslavia [now Kavadarci, Macedonia] - d. Nov. 18, 2005, Skopje, Macedonia), secretary of the League of Communists (1969-82) and president of the Presidency (1982-83) of Macedonia.
Cemovic, Momcilo (b. May 21, 1928, Buce village, near Berane, Montenegro - d. Dec. 27, 2001, Buce), finance minister of Yugoslavia (1974-78) and president of the Executive Council of Montenegro (1978-82).
Cen Chunxuan (b. April 2, 1861, Xilin, Guangxi, China - d. April 27, 1933, Shanghai, China), governor-general of Sichuan (1902-03, 1907-08), Liangguang (1903-06), and Yungui (1906-07) and chairman of the Governing Committee of the Military Government of China (1918-20). He was under the protection of Gen. Lu Rongting after the revolution of 1916; he founded the Military Bureau in Zhaoqing, Guangdong, together with Liang Qichao, who opposed Pres. Yuan Shikai. In 1917, he took part in the Constitutional Movement launched by Sun Yat-sen against Premier Duan Qirui. In 1918 he became one of seven members, and then the chairman, of the Governing Committee of the southern government. He helped to push Sun Yat-sen out of the government, but he himself was expelled by the Guangdong army in 1920 and then left politics.
Cenac, (Emmanuel) Neville, foreign minister of Saint Lucia (1987-92); brother of Winston Cenac.
Cenac, Winston (Francis) (b. Sept. 14, 1925 - d. Sept. 23, 2004, Castries, Saint Lucia), prime minister of Saint Lucia (1981-82). After a number of legal appointments during 1962-67, he was successively attorney general of St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. In 1967 he was appointed to the post of director of public prosecutions in Grenada. In 1969 he returned to St. Lucia and entered private practice, and in 1971 he was appointed to act as puisne judge in St. Vincent. In 1972 he was appointed puisne judge for St. Kitts-Nevis and the British Virgin Islands. Following the failure of Allan Louisy, prime minister since the 1979 general election, to pass his budget through Parliament, a constitutional crisis developed. After attempts by the anti-Louisy faction in the Labour Party to form their own government, Cenac emerged as a compromise candidate. By offering the major portfolios - foreign affairs, trade and industry, and tourism - to his remaining principal rival within the Labour Party, Peter Josie, he was able to secure the support of enough members of his party in Parliament to obtain a wafer-thin overall majority of one. By nature Cenac was not a politician. Though he was able to bring to St. Lucia a public aura of calm after the bitter political infighting, those who knew him well indicated that, though personally charming, he lacked the grasp of the complex local and regional issues that others with years of political experience had. He resigned in January 1982 after strikes and street protests broke out when his government tried to pass a law that would have exonerated a member of parliament accused of benefiting financially from a government contract. Cenac often claimed his resignation saved St. Lucia from spiraling into civil strife and bloodshed.
Cenci, Massimo (b. June 8, 1967), captain-regent of San Marino (2009).
Cerar, Miro(slav) (b. Aug. 25, 1963, Ljubljana, Slovenia), prime minister of Slovenia (2014- ).
Cerda (y Aguilar), Manuel Antonio de la (b. 1780, Granada [now in Nicaragua] - d. [executed] Nov. 29, 1828, Rivas, Nicaragua), chief of Nicaragua (1825-26 and in rebellion 1827-28).
Cerezo Arévalo, Marco Vinicio (b. Dec. 26, 1942, Guatemala City, Guatemala), president of Guatemala (1986-90). The son of a member of Guatemala's Supreme Court, he began his own rise to political prominence in the Christian Democratic party (DCG). He eventually became his party's national organization secretary, traveling extensively throughout the country. For several generations Cerezo's family had actively opposed military dictatorship, and his determination to see his country restored to stable democratic rule was fired at the age of 11, when he witnessed the coup aided by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in 1954. While Cerezo described himself as an independently minded liberal not bound by party orthodoxy, his right-wing opponents perceived him as a leftist. Since 1980 three attempts on his life were made by the notorious death squads - a reminder of the power wielded by Guatemala's military and paramilitary. Presidential and congressional elections held on Nov. 3, 1985, showed Cerezo to be the most popular candidate, although he failed to gain the 50% majority required to secure the presidency; a second round on December 8 proved conclusive when he won 68% of the vote. On Jan. 14, 1986, he took office as Guatemala's first freely elected civilian president since 1970 (and only the second since 1954). The most notable achievements of this witty and debonair president were in the field of international and regional relations. On a trip to Washington in December 1985, he won the respect of the U.S. administration, ensuring the resumption of U.S. economic assistance, and a tour of Western European countries late in 1986 was equally successful. The formation of a Central American parliament, aimed at resolving regional conflict, was the result of a Cerezo initiative.
Cerneau, Marcel (b. July 2, 1905, Sainte-Marie, Réunion - d. March 5, 1990, Saint-Denis, Réunion), president of the Regional Council of Réunion (1973-78).
Cerník, Oldrich (b. Oct. 27, 1921, Ostrava, Czechoslovakia - d. Oct. 19, 1994, Prague, Czech Republic), prime minister of Czechoslovakia (1968-70). He joined the Communist Party in 1945 and by 1956 he had become a member of the party's Central Committee. Cerník gained a reputation as an able technocrat, and in 1960 he was named minister of fuel. He joined forces with others who believed in the decentralization of the state's economy and worked as a behind-the-scenes player in attempts to advance reform. In 1966 he was elected to the party's Presidium. In April 1968 he was appointed premier by party president Alexander Dubcek. Cerník was considered a centrist and a master at conciliation. After Warsaw Pact troops occupied Prague in August, he and a handful of other politicians were handcuffed and led away to the Soviet Union. Upon his return, he tried to maintain a balancing act, calling upon his countrymen to cooperate and publicly supporting the country's accord with Moscow while also promising to continue economic reform. He actively disassociated himself from the "errors" that he and others had committed. His about-face was insufficient; in January 1970 he was forced out as premier and by the end of the year expelled from the party. His attempts to rekindle his political career after the fall of the communist regime in 1989 were unsuccessful.
Cernomaz, Nicolae (b. Dec. 14, 1949, Tiganca village, Cantemir district, Moldavian S.S.R. [now Moldova]), foreign minister of Moldova (2000-01).
Cerpa Cartolini, Néstor, also known as Comandante Evaristo (b. Aug. 14, 1953, La Victoria district, Lima, Peru - d. April 22, 1997, Lima), Peruvian rebel leader. He was a union official jailed in 1979 for leading a worker occupation of a textile plant which was being closed. He later joined the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) and led a commando that occupied the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima on Dec. 17, 1996, taking all the guests at a reception in honour of Japan's emperor hostage. Most of the hostages were soon released, but the commando continued to hold 72 people, including the brother of President Alberto Fujimori, several generals and heads of police divisions, Peru's foreign minister, Supreme Court judges, members of Congress from the ruling party, and the ambassadors from Japan and Bolivia. On April 22, 1997, a raid was launched on the embassy compound by U.S.-trained Peruvian special forces. All 14 members of the MRTA's "Commando Edgar Sánchez," including Cerpa, were killed.
Cerqueira, António (Joaquim Machado Pereira) do Lago (b. Oct. 11, 1880, Casa da Calçada manor, Cepelos parish, Amarante municipality, Portugal - d. Oct. 28, 1945, Casa da Calçada manor), acting foreign minister of Portugal (1925).
Cerruto Calderón de la Barca, Javier (b. Aug. 30, 1919, La Paz, Bolivia - d. April 23, 2004, Puente Villa, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1980-81).
Cerulli, Enrico (b. Feb. 15, 1898, Naples, Italy - d. Sept. 19, 1988, Rome, Italy), governor of Showa (1939) and Harar (1939-40).
Cervera Pacheco, Víctor (b. April 23, 1936, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico - d. Aug. 18, 2004, Mérida), governor of Yucatán (1984-88, 1995-2001). He was also mayor of Mérida (1971-72) and Mexican minister of agrarian reform (1988-94).
Césaire, Aimé (Fernand David) (b. June 25, 1913, Basse-Pointe, Martinique - d. April 17, 2008, Fort-de-France, Martinique), president of the Regional Council of Martinique (1983-88). He was mayor of Fort-de-France from 1945 to 2001.
César, Carlos (Manuel Martins do Vale) (b. Oct. 30, 1956, Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal), president of the government of Azores (1996-2012).
Céspedes (y López del Castillo), Carlos Manuel (Perfecto del Carmen) de (b. April 18, 1819, Bayamo, Cuba - d. Feb. 27, 1874, San Lorenzo, Cuba), president of Cuba (1868-73).
(y L. del C.)
Céspedes (y de Quesada), Carlos Manuel de (b. Aug. 12, 1871, New York City - d. March 28, 1939, Vedada, near Havana, Cuba), foreign minister (1922-26, 1933) and president (1933) of Cuba; son of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes (y López del Castillo). He was also minister to Italy (1909-12), Argentina (1912-13), and France (1930-33) and ambassador to the United States (1913-22).
Çetin, Hikmet (b. 1937, Diyarbakir, Turkey), Turkish politician. He is a Kurdish social democrat whose skills as a deal-maker came to the fore in successful negotiations to merge two leftist parties in 1995. Dignified and widely respected, he served as foreign minister (1991-94) and as speaker of the Grand National Assembly (1997-99).