Ciampi, Carlo Azeglio (b. Dec. 9, 1920, Livorno, Toscana, Italy), prime minister (1993-94) and president (1999-2006) of Italy. In 1993, at the height of Italy's corruption scandals, Ciampi was press-ganged into leaving the Bank of Italy - Italy's central bank, where he had worked for a total of 47 years, including as governor - and becoming prime minister. During the 11 months he served as premier, Ciampi won praise for taming runaway state spending and kick-starting Italy's sluggish privatization programme. Ciampi has no party affiliation. As treasury and budget minister from 1996, the highly respected Ciampi was considered the mastermind behind Italy's economic about-turn and qualification for Europe's single currency. He served in that capacity until 1999, when he was elected president.
Ciani, Paolo (b. Dec. 8, 1961, Udine, Italy), acting president of Friuli-Venezia Giulia (2001).
Ciano, Galeazzo, conte (Count) di Cortellazzo e Buccari (b. March 18, 1903, Livorno, Toscana, Italy - d. Jan. 11, 1944, Verona), foreign minister of Italy (1936-43). At 18 he joined the newly founded Fascist movement and he took part in the Fascist March on Rome in 1922. Entering on a diplomatic career, he held posts in Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires and served as consul general in Shanghai and as minister to China. After his marriage (1930) to Edda Mussolini, daughter of Benito Mussolini, he rose rapidly through the ranks: chief of the press bureau (1933), undersecretary of state for press and propaganda (1934), and member of the Fascist Grand Council, the inner group that determined party policy. He led a bomber squadron in the war against Ethiopia (1935-36) and, on his return to Rome, became foreign minister (June 9, 1936). He was regarded by many as a likely successor to Mussolini. Although he had repeatedly advocated the Italo-German alliance, Ciano became wary of Adolf Hitler when Germany invaded Poland (1939) without first consulting Italy. At first Ciano persuaded Mussolini to adopt a policy of nonbelligerence, but, when France fell in 1940, he urged entry into the war. After several Axis defeats in 1942, he became one of many Fascist proponents of a separate peace with the Allies. The suspicious Mussolini dismissed his entire cabinet (Feb. 5, 1943), and Ciano was appointed ambassador to the Vatican. But Ciano and other leading Fascists retained enough power at the historic meeting of the Grand Council (July 24/25, 1943) to force Mussolini's resignation. When the new government was preparing charges of embezzling against him, Ciano fled Rome. He was captured by pro-Mussolini partisans and Germans in northern Italy. He was brought to trial on a charge of treason, found guilty, and executed by a shot in the back.
Ciavatta, Luciano (b. Jan. 12, 1955, Serravalle, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1994-95). He has also been minister of territory, environment, and agriculture (1997-98) and health and social security (1998-2000) and ambassador to Luxembourg (2008- ).
Ciavatta, Valeria (b. Jan. 16, 1959, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent (2003-04, 2014) and interior minister (2006-08, 2008-12) of San Marino.
Cibalonza Byaterana, Célestin (b. June 15, 1964), governor of Sud-Kivu (2007-08). He was deposed by the provincial assembly in November 2007, appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled in his favour in December, but did not return to office and resigned in February 2008.
Cic, Milan (b. Jan. 2, 1932, Dolný Kubín, Slovakia - d. Nov. 9, 2012), prime minister of Slovakia (1989-90). He was also justice minister (1988-89) and chief justice of the Constitutional Court (1993-2000).
Cicilline, David (Nicola) (b. July 15, 1961, Providence, R.I.), mayor of Providence (2003-11). He was the city's first Jewish and first openly gay mayor.
Cicognani, Amleto Giovanni Cardinal (b. Feb. 24, 1883, Brisighella, Emilia-Romagna, Italy - d. Dec. 17, 1973, Rome), Vatican official. He was ordained a priest in 1905. For the next five years he studied in Rome and by 1910 had earned doctorates in theology, philosophy, and canon law. After this he worked in the Sacred Congregation of the Sacraments, the Consistorial Congregation, and the Congregation for the Oriental Church. On March 17, 1933, he was appointed apostolic delegate to the United States. As the sixth prelate to hold this post, Cicognani was there for 25 years, longer than any of his predecessors. During this quarter of a century he traveled throughout the country and consecrated more than 50 bishops. On Nov. 17, 1958, Pope Ioannes XXIII elevated him to the Sacred College of Cardinals. Cardinal Cicognani was the second member of his family to join the Sacred College within six years (his older brother, Gaetano Cardinal Cicognani, was created a cardinal in January 1953). Cardinal Cicognani received his red hat at a consistory held in December. He was Vatican secretary of state in 1961-69.
Cifuentes, Cristina (b. July 1, 1964, Madrid, Spain), president of the government of Madrid (2015- ).
Çiller, Tansu (b. May 24, 1946, Istanbul, Turkey), prime minister of Turkey (1993-96). She joined the ruling True Path Party (DYP) in 1990, was elected to parliament in 1991 (one of eight women in the 450-seat assembly), and was named economics minister in Süleyman Demirel's coalition government. Although she advocated greater privatization of state-owned firms and a balanced budget, it was during her tenure as economics minister that government debt soared, inflation climbed to 65%, and the country suffered a downgrading of its international credit rating. Despite these woes, the DYP selected her as its leader at a special party conference on June 13, 1993. On June 25, 1993, she officially became Turkey's first woman prime minister and the first female without a family political connection to head an Islamic country. Her greatest challenges included dealing both with the rising tide of violence among Kurds in southeastern Turkey and with the pressing need to reduce government spending. In March 1996 a new coalition government was formed between Çiller's DYP and the Motherland Party of Mesut Yilmaz, who succeeded her as prime minister. Yilmaz resigned in June, and Çiller entered a coalition with the Islam-based Welfare Party of Necmettin Erbakan in which she became deputy prime minister and foreign minister. She was criticized by the secularist establishment for going into coalition with Erbakan, who had produced corruption charges against her. Erbakan resigned on June 18, 1997, after months of pressure from the secularist army. Çiller then faced the dual challenges of opposition and a full-scale party rebellion. Around a fifth of the DYP's deputies had quit since she joined the Islamists in power. She stepped down as party leader in 2002.
Cimoszewicz, Wlodzimierz (b. Sept. 13, 1950, Warsaw, Poland), prime minister (1996-97) and foreign minister (2001-05) of Poland. He was also justice minister (1993-95) and speaker of the Sejm (2005).
Cimpaye, Joseph (b. 1932, Kitega [now Gitega], Burundi - d. [killed] April 1972, Burundi), prime minister of Burundi (1961).
Cîmpeanu, Sorin (Mihai) (b. April 18, 1968), interim prime minister of Romania (2015). He was education minister in 2014-15.
Cincar-Markovic, Aleksandar (b. June 20, 1889, Belgrade, Serbia - d. July 1948, Belgrade), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1939-41). He was also minister to Bulgaria (1934-35) and Germany (1935-39).
Ciolos, Dacian (Julien) (b. July 27, 1969, Zalau, Romania), prime minister of Romania (2015- ). He was also agriculture minister (2007-08) and European commissioner for agriculture (2009-14).
Ciorbea, Victor (b. Oct. 26, 1954, Ponor, Apuseni mountains, western Romania), prime minister of Romania (1996-98). He joined politics after the fall of communism in December 1989 as a trade union leader and enrolled into the centrist opposition Democratic Convention bloc in 1994. He defeated former tennis star Ilie Nastase, the leftists' choice for mayor of Bucharest, during elections in the spring of 1996, and won quick popularity for sacking crooked city officials. In December 1996, he became Romania's youngest prime minister in history. He put his standing as a popular Bucharest mayor and his skills as former labour leader on the line when he took over as head of a centrist coalition cabinet after a general election which ended seven years of post-communist leftist administration. Early in 1997 he won support in parliament on an economic reform programme blending the doctrines of his Christian Democrats, senior coalition partners, with those of their Social Democrat, Liberal, and ethnic Hungarian allies. But praise turned into criticism as the year wore out. The Social Democrats, led by former prime minister Petre Roman, spearheaded a mud-slinging campaign against Ciorbea and withdrew their ministers from the cabinet in February 1998. Ciorbea saw his popularity plunge to 32% in public opinion polls, from 72% a year earlier, when he won Western praise and credits with pledges to reverse timid change under his leftist predecessors. In March, a group of senior Christian Democrats and the Liberals, junior coalition allies, joined the Social Democrats' demands for Ciorbea to resign to end the crisis. On March 30 he finally resigned the premiership and also stepped down as Bucharest mayor.
Cioroianu, Adrian (Mihai) (b. Jan. 5, 1967, Craiova, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (2007-08).
Ciosek, Stanislaw (Józef) (b. May 2, 1939, Pawlowice, Poland), Polish politician. He was minister without portfolio (1980-83), minister of labour, wages, and social questions (1983-84), and ambassador to the U.S.S.R./Russia (1989-96).
Çipa, Stefan (Marko) (b. Jan. 20, 1959, Sarandë, Albania), interior minister of Albania (2002).
Cishambo (Ruhoya), Marcellin (b. July 20, 1956, Nyangezi, Kivu [now in Sud-Kivu], Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), governor of Sud-Kivu (2010- ).
Cisneros, Henry G(abriel) (b. June 11, 1947, San Antonio, Texas), U.S. politician. After three terms in the city council, where he was an able mediator, in 1981 he was elected mayor of San Antonio, the first Mexican-American to win such an important municipal post. Cisneros won 62% of the vote over John Steen, a 59-year-old insurance executive and Reagan supporter. His victory followed a heated campaign in which the two men agreed on the need for stimulating the city's economic growth but differed on appropriate methods for doing so. Steen, representing the old guard, favoured conservative programs, while Cisneros advocated aggressive ones. During the campaign Cisneros stated that he hoped to wean the city away from federal grants and concentrate on attracting new industry. If residential water rates must be raised to finance the modern water facilities needed by new industry, so be it. Cisneros' election culminated a long struggle by San Antonio's Hispanics (then 53% of the city's population) to put one of their own in the mayor's office. The improvements Cisneros brought to San Antonio gained national attention. In 1984 Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale seriously considered him as a running mate. In 1992 he worked on Bill Clinton's presidential campaign and after Clinton was elected president, he joined his administration as secretary of housing and urban development (1993-97).
Cissé, Alioune Badara (b. Feb. 16, 1958, Saint-Louis, Senegal), foreign minister of Senegal (2012).
Cissé, Amadou (Boubacar) (b. June 29, 1948, Niamey, Niger), prime minister of Niger (1995, 1996-97). He has also been minister of economy, finance, and planning (1996) and planning, regional planning, and community development (2011- ).
Cissoko, Diango (b. 1948), prime minister of Mali (2012-13). He was also justice minister (1984-88) and ombudsman (2011-12).
Çitaku, Vlora (b. 1980), acting foreign minister of Kosovo (2010-11). She has also been minister for European integration (2011-14) and ambassador to the United States (2015- ).
Citters, (Jonkheer) Schelto van, heer van Gapinge (b. Jan. 13, 1865, The Hague, Netherlands - d. March 13, 1942, Brummen, Gelderland, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Gelderland (1909-25).
Ciubuc, Ion (Condrat) (b. May 29, 1943, Hadarauti, Ocnita district, Romania [now in Moldova]), prime minister of Moldova (1997-99). He was also first deputy prime minister (1991-92).
Ciupaila, Regimantas (b. Aug. 20, 1956, Kaunas, Lithuanian S.S.R.), interior minister of Lithuania (2007-08).
Civiletti, Benjamin R(ichard) (b. July 17, 1935, Peekskill, N.Y.), U.S. attorney general (1979-81). Unlike many other cabinet officers, he was not a personal friend of Pres. Jimmy Carter. But he became head of the Justice Department's criminal division in 1977 on the recommendation of Charles Kirbo, an Atlanta lawyer who was one of Carter's closest advisers. Kirbo had been impressed by Civiletti's work when both were involved in an antitrust case in Baltimore. As head of the criminal division, Civiletti handled a number of hot political problems, including the investigation of Bert Lance, former director of the Office of Management and Budget and a close personal friend of the president. Lance later was indicted on charges of bank fraud. Civiletti also supervised the investigation of Korean influence buying involving Park Tong Sun and a number of U.S. congressmen. When Attorney General Griffin Bell let it be known in early 1979 that he would retire from the administration, there was little doubt that his deputy, Civiletti, was Bell's choice to be his successor. On August 1 the U.S. Senate confirmed the appointment, and Civiletti became attorney general at the comparatively young age of 44. He immediately encountered a fresh batch of politically sensitive cases. One involved a special prosecutor's probe of the Carter family's peanut warehouse; another investigation went into the alleged misdeeds of Hamilton Jordan, the White House chief of staff. Through it all Civiletti insisted that he, and the president, were determined to keep the Justice Department free from outside influence and political pressure.
Cjiekella, Grizelda (Boniwe) (b. April 1970), acting premier of Northern Cape (2012-13).
Claes, Willy (Werner Hubert) (b. Nov. 24, 1938, Hasselt, Belgium), NATO secretary-general (1994-95). He was elected to the Hasselt City Council in 1964. A Flemish Socialist, he entered national politics in 1968 when he was elected to parliament. He became spokesman for the Belgian Socialist Party in 1971 and was named minister of education in 1972. In 1973 he accepted appointment as minister of economic affairs, and he was praised for his handling of the 1973-74 oil crisis. After his party's return to power, he again served as minister of economic affairs (1977-82). In 1979 he was also appointed deputy prime minister, a post he held five times. He developed a reputation as a talented diplomat, and he was enlisted by King Baudouin to aid in the formation of a coalition government during a period of political turmoil in the 1980s. In 1992, following a third term as economics minister, he became foreign minister. That same year, he was elected chairman of the Party of European Socialists. On Sept. 29, 1994, the North Atlantic Council chose Claes as the new secretary-general of NATO. Following his appointment, he reaffirmed his commitment to the alliance as the bedrock of European security. Demands that he resign intensified after Belgian police raided his home and office on April 7, 1995. The authorities were searching for evidence that the Flemish Socialist Party had accepted a bribe in 1988, allegedly paid by the Italian aviation company Agusta SpA to secure a contract for 46 military helicopters. At the time, Claes was minister of economic affairs and was one of the officials who approved the contract. On Oct. 20, 1995, he resigned as secretary-general to face charges of corruption, fraud, and forgery in connection with the Agusta scandal.
Claeys-Bouuaert, Alfred (Maria Josephus Ghislencus), governor of Ruanda-Urundi (1952-55).
Clair, (Louis) Serge (b. April 1, 1940, Rodrigues), chief commissioner of Rodrigues (2003-06, 2012- ).
Clancy, Donald D(aniel) (b. July 24, 1921, Cincinnati, Ohio - d. June 12, 2007, Montgomery, Ohio), mayor of Cincinnati (1957-60).
Clancy, John T(homas), byname Pat Clancy (b. April 11, 1903, Long Island City, N.Y. - d. May 14, 1985, Palm Beach, Fla.), borough president of Queens (1959-62).
Clancy, Michael (John) (b. March 31, 1949 - d. February 2010), governor of Saint Helena (2004-07).
Clarendon, George William Frederick Villiers, (4th) Earl of (b. Jan. 12, 1800, London, England - d. June 27, 1870, London), British foreign secretary (1853-58, 1865-66, 1868-70). He was also minister to Spain (1833-39), lord privy seal (1840-41), chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1840-41, 1864-65), president of the Board of Trade (1846-47), and lord lieutenant of Ireland (1847-52). He succeeded to the earldom in 1838.
Clariond Reyes (Retana), Benjamín (b. Nov. 23, 1948, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico), interim governor of Nuevo León (1996-97). He was also mayor of Monterrey (1992-94).
Clark, Christy, byname of Christina Joan Clark (b. Oct. 29, 1965, Burnaby, B.C.), premier of British Columbia (2011- ).
Clark, Glen (David) (b. Nov. 22, 1957, Nanaimo, B.C.), premier of British Columbia (1996-99). He worked as an assistant to Canadian parliamentarian Ian Waddell before he was elected (1986) to the British Columbia legislature from the riding of Vancouver-Kingsway. There he made a name for himself as a harsh critic of the government. When his socialist New Democratic Party (NDP) came to power in November 1991, he was appointed government house leader and minister of finance and corporate relations. He delivered two budgets that raised taxes and the provincial debt to record levels, and in 1993 he proposed a tax on houses worth more than $500,000. Following a public outcry, he was moved to the Ministry of Employment and Investment. He was elected leader of the provincial NDP on Feb. 18, 1996, to replace Premier Mike Harcourt, who resigned. When Clark took office as the 31st premier of British Columbia on February 22, he broke with tradition by having the swearing-in ceremony in his home riding (district) rather than at the legislature in Victoria. The NDP was returned to power in the general election of May 28, 1996. As premier, he proposed that the government invest in education and training, resource development, and megaprojects. On March 2, 1999, Canadian Mounties brandishing search warrants raided Clark's home in an investigation related to the issuing of a gambling license to a group that included Dimitrios Pilarinos, a neighbour of Clark. Clark denied wrongdoing, but resigned in August 1999 saying that documents seized in the case made him look "terrible," and "in hindsight I should have taken steps to ensure my actions were not misinterpreted." In October 2000 he was charged with fraud and breach of trust in connection with the affair. He was acquitted in August 2002.
Clark, Helen (Elizabeth) (b. Feb. 26, 1950, Hamilton, New Zealand), prime minister of New Zealand (1999-2008). She joined the Labour Party in 1971 and in 1975 stood for election to Parliament for the first time, in the safe National seat of Piako. In 1981 she was elected as MP for Mt. Albert (Owairaka). Nineteen years later, she had earned the unofficial title of "Mother of the House" - the longest serving woman member among current MPs. With the election of the fourth Labour government in the snap election of July 1984, the political career of the future prime minister took off. Between 1984 and 1987 Clark was chair of the foreign affairs and defense select committee, at a time when New Zealand declared itself nuclear free and generally pursued a more independent stance in its foreign policy. In 1986 she was awarded the annual Peace Prize of the Danish Peace Foundation for her work in promoting peace and disarmament. In 1987, following the reelection of Labour, Clark was elected to the cabinet. Over the next three years she held a number of ministerial portfolios - conservation and housing (1987-89), labour and health (1989-90). From August 1989 to October 1990 she was deputy prime minister, the first woman to hold that position. As health minister she sponsored the introduction of tobacco control legislation. This provided protection against smoking in workplaces and public places, and eliminated tobacco advertising and the sponsorship of sporting events by tobacco companies. Clark was deputy leader of the opposition in 1990-93. She was elected leader of the Labour Party in December 1993 and served as leader of the opposition until the general election of 1999, when Labour was again elected to government and she became prime minister. She led the party to two more victories in 2002 and 2005 before being defeated in 2008. She then resigned the party leadership after having held the position for a record 15 years.
Clark, Joe, byname of Charles Joseph Clark (b. June 5, 1939, High River, Alberta), prime minister of Canada (1979-80). He was active in politics since 1957, when he solicited votes door-to-door for the Progressive Conservative (PC) Party. In 1959 he became private secretary to the Alberta PC leader, W.J.C. Kirby, and in 1962-65 he was national president of the Progressive Conservative Student Federation. In 1967 he directed the campaign organization that brought Peter Lougheed to power as premier of Alberta and in 1967-70 he served as executive assistant to Robert Stanfield, then the PC leader in the House of Commons. Clark himself was first elected to Parliament in 1972 and he was elected leader of his party in 1976. In May 1979 the PC won a plurality of seats in Parliament, and Clark became head of a minority government, the youngest person ever to become Canadian prime minister. Only six months later, however, his government fell on a budget question; and in the subsequent general elections his party was swamped by the triumphant Liberals headed by Pierre Elliott Trudeau. Clark was perceived as well meaning but lacking in authority. A party convention was held in January 1983 to determine support for his leadership, and he won only 66% of the delegates' votes. He then elected to hold a formal leadership-selection meeting in June and was defeated by lawyer Brian Mulroney. Clark served in Mulroney's government as foreign minister (1984-91) and president of the Privy Council (1991-93); he also served briefly (1993) as United Nations special representative to Cyprus. In November 1998 he once again became leader of the PC, and he returned to the House of Commons in a by-election in September 2000. He retired as party leader in 2003.
Clark, (William) Ramsey (b. Dec. 18, 1927, Dallas, Texas), U.S. attorney general (1966-69); son of Tom C. Clark. He was named assistant attorney general by Pres. John F. Kennedy in 1961 and deputy attorney general by Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965. He became acting attorney general in 1966 and was nominated attorney general by Johnson in 1967. As a top Justice Department official, he engaged in civil rights activities including surveying Southern school districts desegregating under court order in 1963. He also supervised the drafting and passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and Civil Rights Act of 1968 containing the first federal open housing law. In the years after government service, he raised eyebrows many times by associating with some of the declared enemies of the U.S. government, including Libya's Muammar al-Qaddafi, Iraq's Saddam Hussein, and Yugoslavia's Slobodan Milosevic.
Clark, Tom C., byname of Thomas Campbell Clark (b. Sept. 23, 1899, Dallas, Texas - d. June 13, 1977, New York City), U.S. attorney general (1945-49). He was an associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1949-67; when his son Ramsey was appointed attorney general, he resigned to avoid conflict of interest.
Clark, Vern(on E.) (b. Sept. 7, 1944, Sioux City, Iowa), U.S. chief of naval operations (2000-05).
Clarke, Charles (Rodway) (b. Sept. 21, 1950, London, England), British home secretary (2004-06). He was also minister without portfolio (2001-02) and education secretary (2002-04).
Clarke, Sir Ellis (Emmanuel Innocent) (b. Dec. 28, 1917, Belmont, Trinidad - d. Dec. 30, 2010, Maraval, Trinidad), governor-general (1972-76) and president (1976-87) of Trinidad and Tobago. He was knighted in 1963 but was obliged to relinquish the knighthood upon becoming president, resuming it after retirement.
Clarke, Sir Frederick (Joseph) (b. May 12, 1912, Castries, Saint Lucia - d. Oct. 26, 1980), governor of Saint Lucia (1967-71); knighted 1967.
Clarke, James P(aul) (b. Aug. 19, 1854, Yazoo county, Miss. - d. Oct. 1, 1916, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1895-97) and president pro tempore of the United States Senate (1913-16).
Clarke, Kenneth (Harry) (b. July 2, 1940, Nottingham, England), British politician. He entered the House of Commons in 1970 as member for Rushcliffe, near Nottingham. He quickly established himself on the liberal, pro-European wing of his party. However, when Margaret Thatcher became prime minister in 1979, Clarke was immediately given a junior government post, working for a friend from his student days, Norman Fowler, at the Ministry of Transport. Six years later Clarke was promoted to the cabinet as deputy employment secretary. In 1988 he was switched to health secretary, a post that gave him a chance to prove his fighting spirit. In the autumn of 1989 he imposed a pay settlement on ambulance workers, rejecting their demands for arbitration. They went on strike, refusing to respond to all nonemergency calls. He resisted calls for compromise, and eventually the strike was abandoned. Clarke won high praise from inside his party for successfully standing firm; in particular, the Conservative right wing warmed to his style. In November 1990, following Sir Geoffrey Howe's resignation from the cabinet, Thatcher moved Clarke to education; four weeks later John Major became prime minister and kept Clarke in the same job until April 1992, when he appointed Clarke as home secretary - one of the few Conservative opponents of capital punishment to hold the job. Following Norman Lamont's dismissal in May 1993, Clarke was appointed chancellor of the exchequer. With his government in trouble and the U.K.'s economy still struggling to escape recession, Major thus turned to one of his most combative cabinet members to restore his fortunes. In his first budget, in November 1993, Clarke increased taxation, in contrast to his party's 1992 election pledge to keep taxes down. He served as chancellor until the Conservative defeat in 1997. When the party came back to power in 2010, he became justice secretary, but in 2012 he was demoted to minister without portfolio.
Clarkson, Adrienne (Louise), née Poy, original Chinese name Wu Bingzhi (b. Feb. 10, 1939, Hong Kong), governor-general of Canada (1999-2005). She came to Canada as a refugee with her family in 1942, during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong. A leading figure in Canada's cultural life, she had a rich and distinguished career in broadcasting, journalism, the arts, and public service. In 1965-82 she worked as host, writer, and producer of several influential programs on CBC Television, including "Take Thirty," "Adrienne at Large," and the "Fifth Estate." In 1982-87 she served as the first agent-general for Ontario in Paris, promoting Ontario's business and cultural interests in France, Italy, and Spain. She was the president and publisher of McClelland & Stewart in 1987-88. She also contributed numerous articles to major newspapers and magazines in Canada and wrote three books. In 1988, she assumed responsibilities as executive producer, host, and writer for the programs "Adrienne Clarkson's Summer Festival" and "Adrienne Clarkson Presents" for a period of 10 years. She also wrote and directed several films. Her work in television garnered her dozens of TV awards in Canada and the U.S. Until her appointment as governor-general, Clarkson served as chairwoman of the Board of Trustees of the Canadian Museum of Civilization in Hull, Quebec, as well as president of the Executive Board of IMZ, the international audio-visual association of music, dance, and cultural programmers, based in Vienna. She was also the executive producer and host of the CBC Television program "Something Special," a lay bencher of the Law Society of Upper Canada, as well as honorary patron of a number of artistic and charitable organizations.
Clauzel, Bertrand, comte (Count), Clauzel also spelled Clausel (b. Dec. 12, 1772, Mirepoix [now in Ariège département], France - d. April 21, 1842, Secourrieu, Haute-Garonne), governor-general of Algeria (1835-37). After service in the eastern Pyrenees, northwestern France, and Italy, he rose to general of division in 1802 and distinguished himself during the Peninsular War (1809-12). Having crushed the Bordeaux royalists during the Hundred Days, he was made a peer of France by Napoleon (1815) but had to flee to the United States in 1816 to escape prosecution under the Restoration. Returning to France under the 1820 amnesty, he was elected deputy for Ariège in 1827. After the July Revolution of 1830 he temporarily replaced Marshal Bourmont in command in Algeria. On his recall he was elected deputy for Ardennes (October 1830) and made marshal of France (February 1831). Convinced of Algeria's possibilities, he proposed that settlers be brought there from all countries, that cotton be grown there, and that the Mitidja Plain be drained and protected by a network of blockhouses. Presenting himself as the only man capable of establishing and extending the French colony, he secured appointment as governor-general (1835). The French cabinet, however, would not condone his aggressive policy. When he precipitately attacked Constantine (Algeria) and was defeated (1836), he was recalled to Paris and relieved of his post.
Clavijo (Batlle), Fernando (b. Aug. 10, 1971, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain), president of the government of Canarias (2015- ).
Clay, Gervas (Charles Robert) (b. April 16, 1907, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England - d. April 18, 2009, Wincanton, Somerset, England), British resident commissioner of Barotseland (1958-61).
Clay, Henry (b. April 12, 1777, Hanover county, Va. - d. June 29, 1852, Washington, D.C.), U.S. presidential candidate (1824, 1832, 1844). A Jeffersonian Republican, he was elected to seven terms in the Kentucky legislature (1803-09). Twice he went to Washington to fill out unexpired terms in the U.S. Senate (1806-07, 1810-11). He was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1811-14, 1815-21, 1823-25), usually serving as speaker. In 1820 he promoted the passage of the Missouri Compromise, which maintained the balance between slave states and free states within the Union, and his followers began to call him "the great pacificator." He was an unsuccessful candidate for the presidency in 1824. But the decision between the front-running candidates John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson was thrown into the House of Representatives. Clay threw his support to Adams, who was elected and made Clay his secretary of state. Jackson won the 1828 election decisively. Clay retired for a time but in 1831 returned to the Senate where he headed the opposition to the Jacksonian democracy. Nominated for president by the National Republicans in 1832, he was defeated by Jackson. Clay became a leader of the Whig Party, which gradually emerged in the mid-1830s. He expected the party's nomination in 1840, but the Whig politicians turned to Gen. William Henry Harrison. Clay resigned from the Senate in 1842. The Whigs nominated Clay for president in 1844, but he lost to Democrat James K. Polk. In 1849 Clay came back to the Senate where, in a great speech (Feb. 5-6, 1850), he outlined what became the Compromise of 1850, which again kept the numerical balance between slave and free states and perhaps delayed the Civil War by a decade.
Clay, Lucius D(uBignon) (b. April 23, 1897, Marietta, Ga. - d. April 16, 1978, Cape Cod, Mass.), U.S. military governor of Germany (1947-49). Graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. (1918), Clay served in army engineer assignments before becoming head of the first national civil airport program (1940-41). Soon after the U.S. entrance into the war (December 1941), he became a leading production and supply specialist and was placed in charge of the army procurement program (1942-44). In 1945 Clay was assigned by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt to be deputy military governor in Germany under Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Two years later he was elevated to commander in chief of the U.S. forces in Europe and military governor of the U.S. Zone in Germany. During these demanding years, he had to gauge the requirements of food and shelter for a devastated civilian population and, simultaneously, supervise a de-Nazification and de-industrialization program that would harmonize with the postwar recovery of Germany's neighbours. In 1948-49 his administration was marked by the successful Allied airlift of food and supplies into Berlin during the Soviet blockade of that city. Following his retirement in May 1949 Clay entered private business and became active in politics as a supporter and adviser of President Eisenhower (1953-61). In 1961 and 1962 Pres. John F. Kennedy asked Clay to serve as his personal representative in Berlin, with the rank of ambassador, to help deal with the critical situation that had developed among the four occupying powers concerning that city's future status.
Clayton, Powell (b. Aug. 7, 1833, Bethel, Pa. - d. Aug. 25, 1914, Washington, D.C.), governor of Arkansas (1868-71). He was also U.S. ambassador to Mexico (1897-1905).
Cleaver, (Leroy) Eldridge (b. Aug. 31, 1935, Wabbaseka, near Little Rock, Ark. - d. May 1, 1998, Pomona, Calif.), U.S. black militant. In correctional institutions in California almost all the time from junior high school days to 1966 for crimes ranging from bicycle theft and marijuana possession to assault with intent to kill, Cleaver became a follower of the Black Muslim separatist Malcolm X. Soon after his parole, he joined the Black Panthers, eventually becoming their "minister of information." His autobiographical volume Soul on Ice (1968) is a classical statement of black alienation in the United States. His parole was rescinded after a 1968 police confrontation between the Panthers and the Oakland, Calif., police following Martin Luther King's assassination. Later that year it was reinstated, which allowed Cleaver to run for the U.S. presidency for the Peace and Freedom Party (he received 36,563 votes). In November of the same year, his parole was again revoked; instead of returning to jail, he fled the country, first to Canada, then to Cuba, Algiers (where he maintained a headquarters for an international section of the Black Panthers), and Paris, and finally to the French Riviera. In November 1975 Cleaver returned voluntarily to the U.S. and posted bond in California to avoid being jailed on charges of attempted murder and assault. He spent an additional eight months in prison. The charges against Cleaver were dropped in 1979 when he agreed to plead guilty to assault in connection with the 1968 shoot-out. Cleaver, who had proclaimed himself a born-again Christian, was placed on a five-year probation during which he was to occupy himself with community service.
Clech, Guy (b. April 7, 1916 - d. July 20, 2002), interim governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1949-50).
Cleland, Sir Donald (Mackinnon) (b. June 28, 1901 - d. Aug. 27, 1975), administrator of Papua and New Guinea (1952-66); knighted 1961.
Clemenceau, Georges (Eugène Benjamin), byname the Tiger, French le Tigre (b. Sept. 28, 1841, Mouilleron-en-Pareds, Vendée, France - d. Nov. 24, 1929, Paris), prime minister of France (1906-09, 1917-20). He opposed the regime of Napoléon III and, as a result, spent several years in the U.S. (1865-69). When the empire collapsed in 1870, he was among the crowd that invaded the Palais-Bourbon on September 4 and hailed the radical leader Léon Gambetta, who was proclaiming the republic. In 1871 he became involved in the insurrection known as the Paris Commune and unsuccessfully tried to mediate between its leaders and the National Assembly. In the Chamber of Deputies (1876-93), his destructive political power won him an ever-increasing number of enemies, and his implication in the scandal caused by the failure of the French Panama Canal Company (1892) gave them all an opportunity for revenge. He was defeated in the 1893 election, but his support for Alfred Dreyfus, the young Jewish officer who was accused of selling secrets to Germany, brought him back into favour with his fellow republicans, and he was elected senator in April 1902. He became a member of the cabinet in 1906 as interior minister and, when the ministry of Ferdinand Sarrien resigned in October 1906, he became premier. In July 1909, he resigned after a violent and unexpected argument with the influential statesman Théophile Delcassé. In 1917, after three years of World War I, when France's morale and resources were at their lowest ebb, he accepted Pres. Raymond Poincaré's invitation to head the war government (1917-20). His steadfast and ruthless pursuit of war brought him the title "Father of Victory." Defeated in the presidential election of Jan. 17, 1920, he resigned as premier. He also gave up all other political activities.
Clément, Félix Ambroise (b. April 30, 1822, Lorient, Morbihan, France - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1875-76).
Clement, Wolfgang (b. July 7, 1940, Bochum [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany), minister-president of Nordrhein-Westfalen (1998-2002) and economy and labour minister of Germany (2002-05).
Clément-Grandcourt, Abel (Jean Ernest) (b. March 27, 1873, Paris, France - d. Nov. 8, 1948, Lyon, France), governor of Jebel Druze (1927-32).
Clemente di San Luca, Ferdinando (b. 1925 - d. late December 2004), president of Campania (1989-93). He was mayor of Naples in 1963-66.
Clementis, Vladimír (b. Sept. 20, 1902, Rimavská Sobota, Hungary [now in Slovakia] - d. [executed] Dec. 3, 1952, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), foreign minister of Czechoslovakia (1948-50).
Clements, Gilbert R(alph) (b. Sept. 11, 1928, Victoria Cross, P.E.I. - d. Nov. 27, 2012, Montague, P.E.I.), Canadian politician. First elected to the Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island as the member for the Fourth District of Kings in 1970, Clements was reelected at six subsequent general elections in 1974, 1979, 1982, 1986, 1989, and 1993. He served as opposition critic for finance and environment during the period 1979-86 and held various ministerial portfolios in the government of Premier Alex Campbell including municipal affairs, tourism, parks and conservation, and community and cultural affairs. He served as the interim leader of the P.E.I. Liberal Party and opposition leader in 1981, during the leadership race that he eventually lost to Joseph Ghiz. In the government of Premier Ghiz he served as minister of the environment and minister of finance. Clements served as chair of the Canadian Council of Environment Ministers on two separate occasions. In 1976, he was recognized as the only elected official to receive the Travel Industry Association of Canada Crandall Award, given for the greatest contribution to preserving the environment in Canada. He attended conferences on the environment in England, the U.S.S.R., Venezuela, and Alaska. In 1992, he was an official member of the Canadian delegation to the "Earth Summit" in Rio de Janeiro. Clements served as lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island from 1995 to 2001.
Clerc, Denis (b. Dec. 18, 1935, Rossens, Fribourg), president of the Council of State of Fribourg (1988).
Clérismé, (Jean) Rénald (b. Nov. 7, 1937, Arniquet, Haiti - d. Oct. 29, 2013, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (2006-08).
Cleveland, (Stephen) Grover (b. March 18, 1837, Caldwell, N.J. - d. June 24, 1908, Princeton, N.J.), president of the United States (1885-89, 1893-97). As mayor of Buffalo in 1882 he quickly won wide notice as a foe of corruption, and he was elected governor of New York the same year. His independence of political machines won him the undying hostility of New York City's dominant Democratic machine, Tammany Hall, and in 1884 the Democratic nomination for president. After a virulent campaign, he became the first Democrat elected president since 1856 - by virtue of the electoral vote of New York state, which he won by a scant plurality of some 1,100 (out of over a million) votes. As president, he continued his policies of reform and independence, transferring thousands of jobs from patronage to civil service, often rejecting the pleas of fellow Democrats for appointments. He opposed the high protective tariff that was producing a treasury surplus and strenuously advocated a lowered tariff, which led business interests to label the usually conservative Cleveland a radical. The Republican-controlled Senate scuttled his tariff proposals with crippling amendments. In the 1888 election he won a majority of the popular vote but Republican Benjamin Harrison won in the Electoral College. The Democrats renominated Cleveland in 1892 with significant opposition only from Tammany Hall. Tariff again was the issue, and in a three-way race, Cleveland defeated the Populist Party candidate and the Republican incumbent Harrison with the largest popular plurality since Ulysses S. Grant. In 1896 free silver forces took over the Democratic Party and nominated William Jennings Bryan, even rejecting a resolution commending Cleveland's "honesty, economy, courage, and fidelity."
Clieu, Gabriel Mathieu de, sieur de Derchigny (b. 1687, Dieppe [now in Seine-Maritime département], France - d. Nov. 29, 1774, Paris, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1737-53).
Clifford, Clark M(cAdams) (b. Dec. 25, 1906, Fort Scott, Kan. - d. Oct. 10, 1998, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. politician. He was a junior naval assistant in Harry S. Truman's White House. He became special counsel to the president in 1946, and in that capacity he assisted in the formulation of the Truman Doctrine, created the whistle-stop campaign that helped Truman win the 1948 election, and was instrumental in persuading Truman to recognize the nation of Israel. He was John F. Kennedy's attorney while the latter was still a senator, and Kennedy continued to seek his advice during his campaign and presidency. After the Bay of Pigs debacle in Cuba, he suggested that Kennedy create an independent presidential board to oversee the intelligence community, which stood accused of misleading the White House. He was secretary of defense (1968-69) under Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson, who awarded him the presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969. One significant action during his brief tenure was to advise the president to commence action to end the war in Vietnam. His guidance was also sought by Pres. Jimmy Carter, who consulted him regarding difficulties involving his budget director. As chairman (1982-91) of the bank holding company First American Bankshares, he persuaded regulators to approve its charter, assuring them that no hidden interests were involved. He denied any knowledge of a link between First American and the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, which had used a group of Middle Eastern front men to buy the bank in 1982 and was shut down in July 1991 for bribery, fraud, and money laundering. Criminal charges against him were dropped in 1993 because of his age and ill health, and the last of several civil suits prompted by the case were settled in September 1998.
Clifford, Sir Hugh (Charles) (b. March 5, 1866, London - d. Dec. 18, 1941, Roehampton, London), British resident of Pahang (1896-1900, 1901-03) and governor of North Borneo (1900-01), the Gold Coast (1912-19), Nigeria (1919-25), Ceylon (1907 [acting], 1925-27), and the Straits Settlements (1927-29); knighted 1909.
Clifford, Nathan (b. Aug. 18, 1803, Rumney, N.H. - d. July 25, 1881, Cornish, Maine), U.S. attorney general (1846-48). He was also minister to Mexico (1848-49).
Clinton, Bill, byname of William Jefferson Clinton, original name (until 1962) William Jefferson Blythe III (or IV) (b. Aug. 19, 1946, Hope, Ark.), president of the United States (1993-2001). He directed the presidential campaign of Democratic candidate George McGovern (1972) in Texas and that of Jimmy Carter (1976) in Arkansas, and in 1974 he ran unsuccessfully for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. He was elected attorney general of Arkansas in 1976, and in 1978 he was elected governor, becoming at age 32 the youngest governor the nation had seen in 40 years. He failed in his reelection bid in 1980 but regained the governor's office in 1982, after which he was successively reelected three more times by substantial margins. He won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1992 and went on to win the presidential election that November, defeating Republican incumbent George Bush. In 1993 he obtained narrow congressional approval of legislation designed to reduce the continuing large budget deficit through a combination of increased taxes on the wealthy and cuts in government programs. In the 1994 elections the Republicans won control of both houses of Congress, and for the first few months of 1995 they dominated U.S. politics. He vetoed the 1996 budget, and Republican leaders forced two partial government shutdowns. He and his wife, Hillary Rodham Clinton, continued to be dogged by allegations of wrongdoing. None of these seemed to be decisive for the electorate, however, and on Nov. 5, 1996, he became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to win reelection, defeating Republican nominee Bob Dole. On Dec. 19, 1998, the House of Representatives approved two articles of impeachment against Clinton but he was acquitted by the Senate in January 1999.
Clinton, George (b. July 26, 1739, Little Britain, N.Y. - d. April 20, 1812, Washington, D.C., U.S.), U.S. vice president (1805-12). He served in the last French and Indian War (1756-63) and was a member of the New York Assembly (1768-75) and, in 1775, of the Continental Congress. In the summer of 1776 he was ordered by Gen. George Washington to New York City before he could sign the Declaration of Independence. In March 1777 he was appointed brigadier general. Immensely popular with the people of New York, Clinton served for 18 consecutive years as governor (1777-95) and later served an additional three-year term (1801-04). As governor he was a forceful leader and an able administrator. During the struggle in New York over the adoption of the U.S. Constitution, he was one of the leaders of the opposition. In national politics Clinton was a follower of Thomas Jefferson. He was elected vice president of the United States in 1804 and 1808. In the latter year he unsuccessfully sought the nomination for the presidency. He died before the expiration of his second term as vice president.
Clinton, Hillary (Diane Rodham), née Rodham (b. Oct. 26, 1947, Chicago, Ill.), U.S. secretary of state (2009-13); wife of Bill Clinton. At Wellesley (Mass.) College she headed the local chapter of the Young Republicans. Her political proclivities took a sharp turn in the late 1960s, and she converted to the Democratic Party. At Yale Law School she met Bill Clinton; on Oct. 11, 1975, they were married, although she opted to retain her maiden name. They moved to Little Rock, Ark., in 1976 when Bill was elected state attorney general. In 1978 she aided Bill's campaign for governor while working at Rose Law Firm, where she was made a partner in 1980. After Bill lost his reelection bid, she underwent an image makeover and decided to use her husband's last name. As U.S. first lady, she drew both praise and criticism for her image as independent, outspoken, and supportive. As leader of the Task Force on National Health Care Reform, she completed an exhausting series of meetings and hearings. In September 1993 a proposal for the first national health-care program in the U.S. was unveiled. It failed to win congressional approval in 1994, however, and she then adopted a lower profile. Nevertheless, she continued to be an advocate for issues such as education and child welfare, and her 1996 book It Takes a Village, on the role of the community in raising children, was a best-seller. She campaigned for Democrats in important races, and she traveled throughout the world, often as the representative of the president. On Nov. 23, 1999, ending months of speculation, she confirmed that she would be a Democratic candidate for the U.S. Senate from New York in 2000. She was the first wife of a U.S. president to seek public office. In the event, she defeated Rick Lazio 55%-44%. In January 2007 she announced her entry into the 2008 presidential race. Although initially widely considered the favourite, she was ultimately (June 2008) defeated for the nomination by Barack Obama, who went on to win the election and then named her secretary of state. In April 2015 she declared her candidacy for the 2016 presidential election.
Clinton, Mark (Anthony) (b. Feb. 7, 1915, Moynalty, County Meath, Ireland - d. Dec. 23, 2001, Lucan, County Dublin), agriculture minister of Ireland (1973-77).
Clodumar, Kinza (Godfrey) (b. Feb. 8, 1945, Nauru), president of Nauru (1997-98). He first entered parliament in 1971. He held the finance portfolio on several occasions between 1976 and 1992 and was principal financial adviser to Pres. Bernard Dowiyogo from 1992 to 1995. When Clodumar took office in February 1997 with a parliamentary majority of one, he was the fifth president in four months. As president he took a strong stand on several issues, especially on global warming, which did not endear him to the Australian government. He was critical of the closure of the Australian High Commission on Nauru, and of the much publicized leaked Cairns document which described Nauru as being at the "bottom of the heap." Clodumar said Nauru's diplomatic relations with Australia had been unsettled following what he termed "a serious breach of protocol." He expressed deep concern that details of a confidential discussion he had with Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer had been leaked to a Melbourne newspaper. Under Clodumar's leadership, Nauru applied for full membership in the Commonwealth and announced its intention to seek United Nations membership. An experienced back-room actor in Nauru, Clodumar long harboured leadership ambitions but achieved them only when Nauru was in financial crisis. He came to power complicit in the mistakes of the past and exploiting discontent with hard times and anxiety about the future. He exploited worry about the reform plans of the Lagumot Harris government but was then forced into similar measures. Government continued to borrow and mortgage assets, though more slowly than in the past. He raised taxes but his budget was unlikely to balance as he predicted, and he delayed the restructuring of government operations. He was deposed in a no-confidence vote in 1998. He failed to regain the presidency in three parliamentary votes in 2003, but later served again as finance minister (2003-04).
Clodumar, Vinci (Neil) (b. March 23, 1951), finance minister of Nauru (1992-94). He was also minister of justice (1989), health and education (1989-92), works and community service (1994-95), and education (1996) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2005).
Cloots, Anacharsis (Cloots also spelled Clootz), pseudonym of Jean-Baptiste du Val-de-Grâce, baron de Cloots, original name Johannes Baptista Hermann Maria Freiherr von Cloots (b. June 24, 1755, Schloss Gnadenthal, near Kleve, Brandenburg [Germany] - d. March 24, 1794, Paris, France), radical democrat of the French Revolution. Born into a noble Prussian family of Dutch origin, he went to Paris in 1776 and took part in the compilation of Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie. He left France in 1784, traveled throughout Europe, and returned to Paris at the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789. He quickly became an ardent democrat and a member of the Jacobin Club. As head of a delegation of 36 real or make-believe foreigners (his self-proclaimed "embassy of the human race"), he addressed the revolutionary National Assembly on June 19, 1790, declaring that the whole world adhered to the democratic ideals of the Revolution. He henceforth titled himself "the Orator of the Human Race" and adopted the pseudonym Anacharsis after the Scythian philosopher. He became a naturalized French citizen and in September 1792 was elected to the National Convention. There he advocated that France "liberate" the rest of Europe. The Convention backed his call for a revolutionary crusade, and France was soon at war with most of the European powers. After the Jacobins took control of the government in June 1793, Cloots identified himself with the Jacobins' left wing under the leadership of Jacques Hébert. In December the Jacobin leader Maximilien Robespierre had Cloots expelled from the Jacobin Club for Cloots's support of the Hébertist "de-Christianizers," who were attempting to destroy all Roman Catholic institutions. Accused by Robespierre of being a foreign agent, Cloots was guillotined with the leading Hébertists.
Clos i Matheu, Joan (b. June 29, 1949, Parets del Vallès, near Barcelona, Spain), mayor of Barcelona (1997-2006). He was also Spanish minister of industry, tourism, and trade (2006-08) and ambassador to Turkey and Azerbaijan (2008-10).
Closs (Olsson), Maurice (Fabián) (b. June 10, 1971, Aristóbulo del Valle, Misiones, Argentina), governor of Misiones (2007- ).
Cloué, Georges Charles (b. Aug. 20, 1817, Paris, France - d. Dec. 25, 1889, Paris), governor of Martinique (1871-74) and French minister of marine and colonies (1880-81).
Clozel, (Marie) François Joseph (b. March 29, 1860, Annonay, Ardèche, France - d. March 11, 1918, Rabat, Morocco), governor of Ivory Coast (1902-07), lieutenant governor of Haut-Sénégal-Niger (1908-15), and governor-general of French West Africa (1912 [acting], 1915-17).
Cluchard, Jean-Aimé (b. June 11, 1923, Bordeaux, France - d. April 2013), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1974-75).
Clugny de Thénissey, Charles François de (d. July 25, 1792, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe), governor of Guadeloupe (1784-92).
Clunies-Ross, George (b. June 20, 1842, New Selma island, Cocos Islands - d. July 7, 1910, Ventnor, Isle of Wight, England), governor of the Cocos Islands (1872-1910); son of John George Clunies-Ross. He did not assume authority immediately upon his father's death, but called all the residents of the islands together and asked them to select their new leader. They chose him and gave him the name "Tuan Tinggi" (the tall master). Making use of his engineering training, he introduced new methods for harvesting, importing European tools and machinery. But trouble continued with the imported labourers, one of whom made an attempt to kill him. He abandoned the practice of employing convicts and brought in free men from Java. In 1886, Britain transferred control of the Cocos from Ceylon to Singapore at the same time granting all of the Cocos Islands "to have and to hold unto George Clunies-Ross and his heirs for ever." George turned his attention to Christmas Island, Cocos' nearest neighbour, some 860 km to the east. A visiting geologist, John Murray, had discovered phosphate on the island, a mineral resource in huge demand as fertilizer. In 1891 the British Colonial Office conferred joint tenancy of Christmas Island on George Clunies-Ross and John Murray. In 1888 George laid the foundations of a substantial mansion on Home Island. Two shiploads of white enamel faced bricks were imported from Glasgow - and the internal walls were panelled in teak. The building was named "Oceania House." In 1901 a submarine telegraph cable connected Cocos with Britain and Australia. In 1909 another cyclone hit the islands destroying 90% of the coconut plantation. A year later a visiting British official noted "the conditions of life and the contentment of the inhabitants show that the rule of an autocrat in such a community cannot be improved upon when the autocrat himself has so thoroughly the interests and welfare of his people at heart as Mr Ross has." In poor health, he took his family to England where he died.
Clunies-Ross, John (b. 1786, Weisdale, Shetland Islands, Scotland - d. May 26, 1854), king of the Cocos Islands (1827-54). He was a Scottish sea captain who was employed by Alexander Hare, a merchant who had been the British resident in Borneo. Hare was a shady character who ran a harem and was a slave trader. When the Dutch took over Java, Hare was banned from residence in the Netherlands Indies. He asked Clunies-Ross to help him find a new home, and in his travels Clunies-Ross visited Cocos in 1825, but claimed the uninhabited islands for himself. It would be two years before Clunies-Ross returned to Cocos, only to discover that Hare had settled there with his harem. There was strong antagonism between the two men, and Hare left Cocos in 1831. Clunies-Ross imported some Malay labourers and began harvesting coconuts for copra. In 1836 Charles Darwin visited Cocos and observed, "The Malays are nominally in a state of freedom, but they are considered as slaves." In 1837 the workers went on strike, demanding higher wages, and Clunies-Ross offered to provide houses and gardens for each family. He tried unsuccessfully to bring Cocos under the protection of Britain, then turned to the Dutch colony in Java, who allowed him to trade duty free on the basis of his previous residence in Borneo. By the time of his death in 1854 he had established a flourishing copra business.
Clunies-Ross, John Cecil (b. Nov. 29, 1928, London, England), governor of the Cocos Islands (1947-78); son of Sydney Clunies-Ross. He took control of the islands after a period of military administration. The copra plantation could not support the 1,200 workers who now lived on Cocos and the Singapore administration arranged a program of emigration. 800 workers left the island, leaving a workforce of 350. Clunies-Ross made copra manufacturing more efficient and was able to treble the wages paid to his workers. In 1955 administration of the Cocos passed from Singapore to Australia and in 1957 Paul Hasluck, Australian minister for territories, visited the islands and wrote, "Mr Clunies-Ross does not regard himself as an Australian, or a person in any way subject to the Australian government." So began a long war of attrition between Clunies-Ross and Australian governments determined to reform what they regarded as conditions of feudal serfdom on Cocos. In 1978 the Australian government negotiated the sale of all of the land on Home Island, with the exception of Oceania House and its grounds, and paid Clunies-Ross $6,250,000. A new Council was formed and became responsible for the administration of the islands. In 1980 the Council requested the Australian government "to do whatever is necessary to remove John Clunies-Ross permanently from the Cocos Islands." In 1984 the Malay population of the Cocos voted overwhelmingly for integration with Australia. In the same year, Australia gave instructions that government agencies were not to ship any cargo with the shipping company owned by Clunies-Ross, the company he had invested in with the proceeds of the sale of his land. Without regular income the shipping company became insolvent and in 1986 he was declared bankrupt. He was forced to sell Oceania House and left the Cocos Islands. He now lives in Perth, Australia.
Clunies-Ross, John George (b. 1823 - d. 1872, Cocos Islands), king (1854-57) and governor (1857-72) of the Cocos Islands; son of John Clunies-Ross. He imported more Javanese labourers, instituted a more efficient method of collecting coconuts, and set up a steam-powered oil mill. Although his education had been limited, he showed an aptitude for medicine and the islanders credited him with some extraordinary cures. They called him "Tuan Pandai" (learned master). In 1857 the Cocos Islands were claimed for Britain by Captain Fremantle who had mistaken them for the Cocos Islands in the Bay of Bengal. This upset Clunies-Ross's trading arrangements with the Javanese authorities and in 1860 he went to London to ask for the islands to be attached to a British colony. His request went unanswered. In 1861 a powerful cyclone shattered the settlement and John George recalled his eldest son, George, from Scotland, to help with rebuilding. Some of the contract labourers John George imported were convicts, and in 1867 one of them committed a brutal murder. Confronted by an angry mob, John George struck the ringleader down with a blow of his cutlass. He contracted typhus fever on a journey to Batavia and died shortly after his return to Cocos.
Clunies-Ross, (John) Sydney (b. 1868 - d. Aug. 14, 1944, Cocos Islands), governor of the Cocos Islands (1910-44); son of George Clunies-Ross. World War I tightened the Clunies-Ross financial position and Sydney's main source of income was dividends from the Christmas Island Phosphate Company. After the war copra prices soared and he built new houses for all his labourers. He travelled to England in wintertime and sought out the colder climate of Scotland and the Shetland Islands. In 1925, at age 56, he married Rose Nash, a 22-year old cashier at his favourite London restaurant. In 1928 she returned to London to give birth to John Cecil, the son and heir Sydney had been hoping for. In 1936, on one of his visits to Britain, a tabloid newspaper headlined a story about him, "Rules 1500 with a little stick." He was quoted as saying, "when my stick is ineffective a whip is sufficient to restore order." The remark caught the attention of Anti-Slavery society and in 1937 a British official was sent to Cocos to report on conditions. "From all that I saw and heard," he wrote, "I am quite convinced that the islanders form a happy and peaceful community, quite contented with their lot. Any suggestion of cruelty or exploitation strikes me as ridiculous." During World War II the cable station on Cocos was bombed by Japanese aircraft. Sydney's family had moved to Britain and his children were educated in English schools. In 1944 Home Island was bombed by the Japanese and he died shortly afterwards.
Clydesmuir, David John Colville, (1st) Baron (b. Feb. 13, 1894, Motherwell House, Lanarkshire, Scotland - d. Oct. 31, 1954, Braidwood, Lanarkshire), governor of Bombay (1943-48). He was also British secretary of state for Scotland (1938-40). He was knighted in 1943 and became Baron Clydesmuir in 1948.
Clyne, George E(lliott) D(unbar) (d. November 1984), chief minister of Grenada (1961).
Clynes, John Robert (b. March 27, 1869, Oldham, Lancashire, England - d. Oct. 23, 1949, London, England), British politician. He was a trade-union officer from 1889 and one of the original members of the Labour Party. During his parliamentary career (he held the Platting division of Manchester from 1906 to 1931 and from 1935 to 1945), he was also president of the National Union of General and Municipal Workers (1912-37). In the second coalition during World War I he was parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Food while Lord Rhondda was at its head, and briefly became minister when Lord Rhondda retired (1918). In 1919 he served as deputy leader of the Labour Party in Parliament, and he then became leader (1921-22) until he was defeated by Ramsay MacDonald and thereafter was deputy again. In the first Labour government (January-October 1924), he was lord privy seal and, though nominally only deputy leader of the House of Commons, much of the actual leadership devolved on him because of the engrossment of MacDonald in foreign affairs. In the second Labour government he was home secretary (1929-31). When MacDonald formed his coalition National Government in August 1931, Clynes joined most of his fellow cabinet members in opposition and was defeated for reelection to Parliament in October of that year. Although eventually returned to the House of Commons, he was never again in a cabinet office.