Mphephu, Patrick (Ramaano Mbulaheni) (b. 1926 - d. April 17, 1988, Pretoria, South Africa), chief councillor (1971-73), chief minister (1973-79), and president (1979-88) of Venda.
Mphoko, Phelekezela (b. June 11, 1940, Gwizane, Matabeleland North, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), vice president of Zimbabwe (2014- ). He was also high commissioner (2002-03) and ambassador (2003-05) to Botswana and ambassador to Russia (2005-10) and South Africa (2010-14).
Mpinga Kasenda (b. Aug. 30, 1937 - d. [plane crash] May 7, 1994, Kinshasa, Zaire [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), prime minister (1977-79) and foreign minister (1993-94) of Zaire.
Mpinganjira, Brown (James) (b. Nov. 7, 1950), foreign minister of Malawi (1999-2000). He has also been minister of information and broadcasting (1994-97), posts and telecommunications (1994-97), education (1997-99), sports and culture (1998-99), irrigation and water development (2013), and information and civic education (2013- ). He was a presidential candidate in 2004.
Mpotokwane, Lebang (Mogaetsho) (b. March 21, 1944, Serowe, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), acting executive secretary of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (1984). He was also Botswanan high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1974-75).
Mraywed, Hassan, Arabic Hasan Muraywid (b. 1927, Quneitra, Syria), foreign minister of Syria (1963-65).
Mrkic, Ivan (b. May 30, 1953, Belgrade, Serbia), foreign minister of Serbia (2012-14). He was Yugoslav ambassador to Cyprus (1993-99) and Serbian ambassador to Japan (2006-11).
Mroudjae, Ali (b. Aug. 2, 1939, Moroni, Comoros), foreign minister (1978-82) and prime minister (1982-84) of the Comoros.
Mrsic, Zdravko (b. May 11, 1936, Mostar, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]), foreign minister of Croatia (1990).
Msuya, Cleopa David (b. Nov. 4, 1931, Chomvu, Usangi, Mwanga district, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), finance minister (1972-75, 1983-90), prime minister (1980-83, 1994-95), and vice president (1994-95) of Tanzania. He was also minister of industry (1975-80) and industry and trade (1990-94).
Mswati II, also spelled Mswazi, also called Mavuso II (b. c. 1821, near Manzini, Swaziland - d. July 1868, Hhohho, Swaziland), paramount chief of Swaziland (1840-68). He was the son of Chief Sobhuza I and Thandile Ndwandwe. Mswati was the greatest of the Ngwane chiefs, and the Ngwane adopted his name and came to be known as Swazis, and their country as Swaziland. In 1845 he established contact with the Boer settlers of Ohrigstad and in 1846 a treaty was concluded ceding some territory to them in exchange for 110 head of cattle. In the early years of his reign several of his brothers were challenging his authority. His relations with one of them, Somcuba, who negotiated the 1846 treaty, became openly hostile in 1849; after a skirmish Somcuba and his followers received the protection of the new Boer settlement of Lijdenburg. At the same time Mswati had to face the threat of Zulu invasions. But because of internal Zulu divisions the last major Zulu attack occurred in 1852; as a result Mswati was able to dispose of Somcuba in 1855, and the remainder of his reign was free from either domestic challenges or serious external threat. He consolidated Ngwane hegemony internally, and expanded his influence externally. In 1860 a disputed succession in the Shangane kingdom enabled him to extend his control far towards the north. Much of his acquired territory was later lost again, but by the time of his death Swaziland was a far more cohesive political unit than it had been at his accession. His encouragement of contact with the Boers, however, may have been responsible for the eventual loss of Swazi independence in 1894.
Mswati III, original name Makhosetive (b. April 19, 1968, Manzini, Swaziland), king of Swaziland (1986- ). He was one of more than 60 sons of King Sobhuza II (d. 1982); according to some estimates, Sobhuza had had 112 wives and as many as 600 children. Reported to be the second youngest son of Sobhuza, Prince Makhosetive had the necessary qualifications to succeed him - he had no full brother and was left-handed - and as soon as he was chosen, he was sent to be schooled in the U.K., where, at Sherborne School in Dorset, he resumed his education following his coronation on April 25, 1986. At the age of 18, he became the world's youngest head of state. His accession had been expected to take place when he reached the age of 21, but the political uncertainty resulting from the lack of a monarch was thought to have caused the coronation to be held earlier. Leaders representing 37 countries traveled to Mbabane for the coronation ceremony, which included a series of rich displays of Swazi culture including traditional dances and Swazi poets reciting coronation poems. No invitations were issued for the royal dinner, to which all were welcome. Hundreds of thousands of Swazis attended the ceremonies, and every Swazi household contributed about £1.50 toward the costs. The highlight of the ceremony was the wedding of the king to his chosen bride. Despite his youth, he was quick to consolidate his power. In May he dissolved the Liqoqo (council of elders), which was the king's traditional advisory body but which had become the most powerful body in Swaziland during the three years without a monarch and thus posed a potential threat to his power base. In October he reshuffled his cabinet, putting two of his brothers in key positions. He married his 12th wife in 2005.
Mtshali, Lionel (Percival Hercules Mbeki) (b. Nov. 7, 1935, Utrecht, Natal [now in KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), premier of KwaZulu-Natal (1999-2004). He was also South African minister of arts, culture, science, and technology (1996-99).
Muallem, Walid, Arabic Walid al-Mu`allim (b. July 17, 1941, Damascus, Syria), foreign minister of Syria (2006- ). He was also ambassador to Romania (1975-80) and the United States (1990-2000).
Muasher, Marwan (Jamil), Arabic Marwan al-Mu`ashir (b. 1956, Amman, Jordan), foreign minister of Jordan (2002-04). He was also ambassador to Israel (1994-96) and the United States (1997-2002) and information minister (1996-97).
Muatetema Rivas, Cándido (b. Feb. 2, 1960, Batete village, near Luba, Bioko island, Equatorial Guinea - d. June 16, 2014, Berlin, Germany), prime minister of Equatorial Guinea (2001-04). From 2005 to his death he was ambassador to Germany.
Muazu, (Alhaji Ahmadu) Adamu (b. June 11, 1955, Boto [now in Bauchi state], Nigeria), governor of Bauchi (1999-2007).
Mubarak, (Muhammad) Hosni (Said), Hosni also spelled Husni (b. May 4, 1928, Kafr al-Meselha, al-Minufiyah governorate, Egypt), president of Egypt (1981-2011). He rose through the officer corps of the air force, becoming director of the air academy (1967-69) and air force chief of staff (1969-72). In 1972 Pres. Anwar as-Sadat appointed him commander of the air force. He was credited with the success of the force in the opening days of the war with Israel in October 1973 and was promoted to the rank of air marshal in 1974. In 1975 he was named vice president. He served as chief mediator in the dispute between Morocco, Algeria, and Mauritania over the Western Sahara. In 1978 he took over a key position as vice president of the ruling National Democratic Party. He was seated next to Sadat when the latter was assassinated on Oct. 6, 1981. The parliament then nominated him as presidential candidate, and he was confirmed in a referendum on October 13. He was reelected the same way in 1987, 1993, and 1999. He improved relations with the other Arab countries, although he reaffirmed Egypt's 1979 peace treaty with Israel and cultivated good relations with the United States, which provided more aid to Egypt than to any other country except Israel. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, he supported the U.S.-led military coalition against Iraq. He was chairman of the Organization of African Unity in 1989-90 and 1993-94. In June 1995 he escaped uninjured when gunmen fired on his motorcade as he arrived in Addis Ababa for an OAU meeting; it was one of several attempts on his life. Islamic militants threatened his regime throughout. In 2005 he won Egypt's first multi-candidate presidential election, which was marred by a very low turnout. His son Gamal was seen by many as his likely successor. In the face of a massive popular uprising in early 2011 he made the concession not to seek another term in elections later in the year, but refused demands to step down immediately; however, as the protests intensified, his resignation was finally announced. In June 2012 he was sentenced to life in prison for complicity in the killing of protesters; in January 2013 a retrial was ordered. In July 2013 a military coup seemed to restore the old guard; after having themselves massacred hundreds of protesters, they released Mubarak from prison in August. However, in May 2014, he was sentenced to three years for embezzlement. In the retrial for the killings, he was acquitted in November 2014.
Muccioli, Anna Maria (b. Aug. 15, 1964, San Leo, Emilia-Romagna, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (2013-14).
Muccioli, Claudio (b. April 8, 1958, Misano Adriatico, Emilia-Romagna, Italy), captain-regent of San Marino (2005-06).
Muchasim, Amur (b. March 9, 1943, Purwokerto, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia]), acting governor of Bangka-Belitung (2001-02).
Mückenberger, Erich (b. June 8, 1910, Chemnitz, Germany - d. Feb. 10, 1998, Berlin, Germany), first secretary of the Socialist Unity Party (SED) of Erfurt (1952-53) and Frankfurt (1961-71). He was a member of the SED Politburo from 1958 to 1989.
Mudashiru, Gbolahan (Adio) (b. Oct. 18, 1945, Lagos, Nigeria - d. Sept. 23, 2003, London, England), governor of Lagos (1984-86).
Mudavadi, (Wycliffe) Musalia (b. Sept. 21, 1960, Kakamega district [in present Vihiga district], Western region [now province], Kenya), vice president of Kenya (2002). He was also minister of supply and marketing (1989-93), finance (1993-98), agriculture (1998-99), information (1999-2001), and transport and communication (1999-2002) and deputy prime minister (2008-12). He was a presidential candidate in 2013.
Mudenda, Elijah (Haatukali Kaiba) (b. June 6, 1927, Macha village, near Choma, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Nov. 2, 2008, Lusaka, Zambia), finance minister (1967-69), foreign minister (1969, 1970-73), and prime minister (1975-77) of Zambia. He was also minister of agriculture (1964-67).
Mudenge, (Isack) Stan(islaus Gorerazvo) (b. Dec. 17, 1941, Zimutu reserve, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Oct. 4, 2012, Masvingo, Zimbabwe), foreign minister of Zimbabwe (1995-2005). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-90) and minister of higher education (1992-95) and higher and tertiary education (2005-12).
Muderhwa, Louis Léonce (Cirimwami) (b. September 1963, Bukavu, Congo [Léopoldville (now Kinshasa)]), governor of Sud-Kivu (2008-10).
Mudge, Dirk (Frederik) (b. Jan. 16, 1928, Otjiwarongo, northern South West Africa [now Namibia]), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1980-83) and chairman of the Transitional Government of National Unity (1986, 1988) of Namibia.
Mudie, Sir (Robert) Francis (b. Aug. 24, 1890 - d. Sept. 15, 1976), governor of Sind (1947) and of (Pakistani) Punjab (1947-49).
Mueshihange, Peter (Hilinganye), also spelled Mweshihange (b. May 5, 1930, Ipinga, South West Africa [now Namibia] - d. March 20, 1998, Windhoek, Namibia), defense minister of Namibia (1990-95). He was also ambassador to China (1996-98).
Mufiz, Ali (b. July 21, 1944, Jepara, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Tengah (2007-08).
Mufti, Sa`id al-, until 1952 Sa`id Pasha al-Mufti (b. 1898, Amman, Ottoman Empire [now in Jordan] - d. March 25, 1989), prime minister of Jordan (1950, 1955, 1956). In 1924 he entered local government service in Amman. A strong nationalist, he balked at the 1928 constitutional agreement with Britain, claiming it gave Britain too much say in Transjordan's affairs. Britain was responsible for Transjordan under a League of Nations mandate. From 1929 he served repeatedly in the cabinets of Transjordan (later Jordan), including as minister of communications (1944), interior minister (1944-45, 1948-50, 1951-53, 1957), foreign minister (1955), and deputy prime minister (several times). As a member of the non-Arab Circassian minority, he was generally respected by the Palestinians living in Jordan. After the formal annexation of the West Bank (1949-50), he was prime minister and opposed King Abdullah's negotiations with Israel. He was a major figure in the interim between the abdication of King Talal in 1952 and the full accession of King Hussein in 1953. In 1955 he resigned as prime minister due to his opposition to the Baghdad Pact, a U.S.-backed plan to create a belt of anti-communist nations from Turkey to Pakistan; in 1956 he was recalled by King Hussein in an effort to regain public support but he resigned again a month later. In 1957 he was again asked to form a government but failed. He left the cabinet in 1963 but remained president of the Senate for several years. In 1958 he was also chairman of the federal parliament of the short-lived Arab Union formed by Jordan and Iraq. One of his sons, Azmi al-Mufti, was assassinated in 1984 while serving as a diplomat in Romania.
Mugabe, Robert (Gabriel) (b. Feb. 21, 1924, Kutama, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), prime minister (1980-87) and president (1987- ) of Zimbabwe. He joined the Rev. Ndabaningi Sithole in forming the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), a breakaway from Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU), in 1963 and became its secretary-general. In 1964 ZANU was banned and he was arrested for "subversive speech." While still in prison he ousted Sithole as ZANU's leader in 1974. In 1975 he was freed, and in 1976 he and Nkomo formed the Patriotic Front to fight against the white-ruled Rhodesian government. Their guerrillas operated from bases in neighbouring Zambia, Mozambique, and Angola. He participated in the negotiations in London in 1979 that ended the war and led to British-supervised parliamentary elections in February 1980. His party, now called the Zimbabwe African National Union (Patriotic Front), or ZANU (PF), which drew its support from the majority Shona people, won a majority of seats, and he became prime minister, forming a coalition government with ZAPU, which was supported by the minority Ndebele people. But in 1982 he ousted Nkomo from the coalition cabinet, and ethnic strife between the Shona and the Ndebele followed. In 1984 his party adopted a new constitution aiming for the establishment of a one-party state. In 1987 Mugabe's and Nkomo's parties merged under the name of ZANU (PF) and Mugabe became the first executive president of Zimbabwe. He was reelected in 1990, 1996, and 2002. In 1998 he intervened in the civil war in Congo (Kinshasa) in support of Pres. Laurent Kabila. Controversial programs of land redistribution and slum clearance in the early 2000s resulted in international isolation of Mugabe and Zimbabwe's withdrawal from the Commonwealth. Amid hyperinflation and economic collapse, Mugabe seemed to try to rig the 2008 elections, leading to further condemnations of his regime; Britain stripped him of an honorary knighthood he had received in 1994. His opponent Morgan Tsvangirai, who was leading in the first round, pulled out of the runoff, citing intimidation, and Mugabe then won with 90% of the vote. A unity government with Tsvangirai as prime minister was formed in 2009. In 2013 Mugabe - at age 89 - roundly defeated Tsvangirai in the first round, winning 61% of the vote. Though there were still complaints of fraud, improved economic conditions had certainly reduced popular resentment. In 2015 he became chairman of the African Union, having already been chairman of the OAU in 1997-98.
Mugosa, Andrija (b. 1912, Ljesko Polje, Montenegro - d. April 8, 2006, Podgorica, Montenegro), president of the People's Assembly of Montenegro (1963-67); brother of Dusan Mugosa.
Mugosa, Dusan (b. 1914 - d. 1973), secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists (1956-65) and president of the Assembly (1960-63) of Kosovo; brother of Andrija Mugosa.
Muhammad, also spelled M'hamad (b. 1810 - d. Sept. 22, 1859, La Marsa, Tunisia), bey of Tunisia (1855-59); cousin of Ahmad.
Muhammad V, original name Sidi Muhammad ibn Yusuf (b. Aug. 10, 1909, Fès, Morocco - d. Feb. 26, 1961, Rabat, Morocco), sultan (1927-53, 1955-57) and king (1957-61) of Morocco. He was the third son of Sultan Yusuf. On his father's death in 1927, he was chosen as successor by the French authorities, who expected him to be more manageable than his two older brothers. In 1933 the Moroccan nationalists, wanting to make Muhammad a national symbol, initiated the Fête du Trône, an annual Throne Day festival to mark the anniversary of his accession. His speeches on these occasions, while moderate in tone, served to encourage nationalist sentiment. During World War II, he supported the Allies, and U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt met with him at the Casablanca conference in 1943 and expressed opposition to continuing French rule. In 1944 Muhammad began to let his sympathies for the nationalists appear. In a speech in Tangier in 1947 he ignored France but stressed the affinities of Morocco with the other Arab states. In 1951 the French, unable to impose their will on the sultan, mobilized the Berber tribesmen against him and on the pretext of protecting him surrounded his palace with troops, extorting from him a partial disavowal of the nationalist movement. In 1953 the French deported the sultan to Corsica and then to Madagascar and appointed an elderly nonentity to succeed him. The result was a great increase in his popularity and in acts of violence. The French government, already faced with rebellion in Algeria, yielded in 1955 and he made a triumphal return. In 1956 he secured Morocco's full independence; in 1957 he took the title of king. His son Mawlay Hassan (later King Hassan II) resented the slow pace of government, and in 1960 Muhammad made him deputy prime minister and relinquished active direction of the country.
Muhammad VI, original name Sidi Muhammad ibn Hassan (b. Aug. 21, 1963, Rabat, Morocco), king of Morocco (1999- ). The oldest son of King Hassan II, he completed secondary schooling at the Royal College in Rabat, then entered the Muhammad V University in Rabat, where he received a bachelor's degree in law in 1985 and certificates of higher studies in political sciences in 1987 and in public law in July 1988. In November 1988 the crown prince went for a few months' training to the headquarters of the European Commission in Brussels. He then entered the University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis in France and received a doctorate in law in October 1993, his thesis dealing with relations between the European Economic Community and the Arab Maghreb Union. Although he was rumoured to lead an active social life, he also took on increasing public responsibilities and represented his father at a number of political meetings and ceremonial functions, both in Morocco and abroad. He especially became known for heading several campaigns to alleviate poverty. In July 1994, he was promoted to general of division. In February 1999 he represented Morocco at the funeral of King Hussein of Jordan. After the death of King Hassan on July 23, 1999, he took the throne as Muhammad VI. He brought about a policy of gradual liberalization; in November 1999 he dismissed the long-serving interior minister Driss Basri, who symbolized political repression. In March 2002 he married Salma Bennani; their engagement had been officially announced in October 2001 in a break with royal tradition as previous kings' wedding details had never been discussed.
Muhammad, Abdel Halim (b. April 10, 1910, Omdurman, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - d. April 16, 2009, Khartoum, Sudan), member of the Committee of Sovereignty of The Sudan (1964-65). He was mayor of Khartoum in 1956-60.
Muhammad, Ali Mahdi, Somali Cali Mahdi Maxamed (b. c. 1939, Mogadishu, Somalia), president of Somalia (1991-97).
Muhammad (Husani), Ali Nasir (b. 1939, Dathina district, Yemen), prime minister (1971-85), chairman of the Presidential Council (1978), and chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Council (1980-86) of Yemen (Aden).
Muhammad, Elijah, original name Elijah Poole (b. c. Oct. 7, 1897, Sandersville, Ga. - d. Feb. 25, 1975, Chicago, Ill.), leader of the Nation of Islam (1934-75). Around 1930, he met the founder of the sect, Wallace D. Fard (or Wali Farad), at Temple No. 1 in Detroit. He soon became a devoted aide to Fard, who relieved him of his "slave name" Poole. When Fard mysteriously disappeared in 1934 Muhammad succeeded him as head of the movement. His succession was disputed by others in Detroit, and he moved to Chicago in 1936 where he established Temple No. 2. During World War II he advised followers to avoid the draft, and as a result was jailed (1942-46) for violating the Selective Service Act. Calling himself the "Messenger of Allah," he gradually built up the membership of the "Black Muslims," aided by his most prominent disciple, Malcolm X, who broke with him, however, in 1964. Muhammad advocated black separatism and the adoption of a religion based on the belief that blacks are Allah's chosen people; because triumph would be divinely accomplished, blacks should not involve themselves in politics. He became known especially for his flamboyant rhetoric demonizing white people. In his later years, however, he moderated his tone and stressed self-help among blacks. He developed the Nation of Islam's empire of schools, restaurants, stores, a bank, a publishing house, and farmlands. After his death in 1975, the Nation of Islam was continued under different names, led by his son Wallace D. Muhammad, before becoming part of the worldwide orthodox Muslim community in 1985. Another group, restoring both the name and the founding principles of Elijah Muhammad's original Nation of Islam, was established under the leadership of Louis Farrakhan in 1978.
Muhammad, Fadel (b. May 20, 1952, Ternate, Maluku [now in Maluku Utara], Indonesia), governor of Gorontalo (2001-09).
Muhammad Ahmad (ibn as-Sayyid `Abd Allah) (b. Aug. 12, 1844, Dirar island, Sudan - d. June 22, 1885, Omdurman, Sudan), ruler of the Sudan (1881-85). Having attracted a number of disciples, in 1870 he moved with them to a hermitage on Aba island in the White Nile, 280 km south of Khartoum. He built a unified movement that for a time would transcend tribalism and weld the Muslim faithful into an unconquerable military machine. He gradually became convinced that the entire ruling class had deserted Islam and that the khedive, the viceroy of Egypt, was a puppet in the hands of unbelievers and thus unfit to rule over Muslims. In March 1881 he revealed to his closest followers what he considered his divine mission - to purify Islam and to destroy all governments that defiled it. On June 29 he publicly assumed the title of al-Mahdi ("the Right-Guided One"), an eschatological figure in Islamic tradition. In the following years he made himself master of almost all the Sudanese territory hitherto occupied by the Egyptian government, capturing an enormous booty of money, other valuables, and military supplies - including Krupp artillery and Remington rifles. By the end of 1883 his Ansar ("helpers," a name first given to those people in the city of Medina who helped the Prophet Muhammad) had annihilated three Egyptian armies sent against them, the last a force of 8,000 men with a huge camel train, commanded by Gen. William Hicks. His crowning victory was the capture of Khartoum on Jan. 26, 1885 (during which Maj.Gen. Charles George Gordon was killed against the Mahdi's order). He then set up his capital at nearby Omdurman. But his rule was brief. He fell ill and died in June 1885. At his wish his temporal functions were assumed by the caliph `Abd Allah.
Muhammad al-Amin, also spelled Mohamed Lamine (b. Sept. 4, 1881, Ksar Said, near Tunis [or Carthage], Tunisia - d. Sept. 30, 1962, Tunis), bey of Tunisia (1943-57); cousin of Muhammad al-Munsif.
Muhammad al-Habib, also spelled Mohamed Lahbib (b. Aug. 13, 1858, Le Bardo, near Tunis, Tunisia - d. Feb. 11, 1929, Carthage, Tunisia), bey of Tunisia (1922-29); cousin of Muhammad an-Nasir.
Muhammad al-Hadi (b. June 24, 1855, Le Bardo, near Tunis, Tunisia - d. May 11, 1906, Dermech palace, near Carthage, Tunisia), bey of Tunisia (1902-06); son of Ali Muddat.
Muhammad al-Munsif, also spelled Mohamed Moncef (b. March 4, 1881 - d. Sept. 1, 1948, Pau, France), bey of Tunisia (1942-43); cousin of Ahmad. He was deposed by the Free French on May 15, 1943, on the grounds that he was a Vichy collaborator; he abdicated on July 6. He was exiled to Algeria (Laghouat, then Tenés) and, from 1945, to Pau.
Muhammad Ali (Bey), Arabic in full Muhammad `Ali Bay bin Muhammad Tawfiq (b. Nov. 9, 1875 - d. March 18, 1955), chairman of the Council of Regency of Egypt (1936-37); son of Muhammad Tawfiq Pasha.
Muhammad `Alim Khan (b. 1881 - d. April 28, 1944, Kabul, Afghanistan), emir of Bukhara (1911-20).
Muhammad an-Nasir, also spelled Mohamed El Naceur (b. July 14, 1855, La Marsa, Tunisia - d. July 10, 1922, La Marsa), bey of Tunisia (1906-22); cousin of Muhammad al-Hadi.
Muhammad as-Sadiq, also spelled Mohamed Essadok (b. Feb. 7, 1813 - d. Oct. 27, 1882, Bardo palace, near Tunis, Tunisia), bey of Tunisia (1859-82); brother of Muhammad.
Muhammad Ghazali bin Shafie, Tun (b. March 22, 1922, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaya [now in Malaysia] - d. Jan. 24, 2010, Wangsa Baiduri, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia), home affairs minister (1973-81) and foreign minister (1981-84) of Malaysia.
Muhammad (bin Haji) Muhammad Taib, Tan Sri (Dato' Haji) (b. July 29, 1945, Kalumpang, Selangor [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Selangor (1986-97). Facing two charges in a Brisbane court for trying to export $940,000 in cash from Australia on Dec. 22, 1996, he resigned as chief minister in April 1997. Taib, a vice-president of Malaysia's dominant political party, the United Malays National Organization (UMNO), was considered to be one of the country's most influential men. He also resigned as UMNO's liaison chief for Kuala Lumpur and Selangor and as chairman of Barisan Nasional, the ruling alliance, for the two regions. He received the titles Dato' (March 8, 1987), Tan Sri (June 7, 1989), and Datuk Seri (July 30, 1989).
M. M. Taib
Muhammad Said Pasha, Arabic Muhammad Sa`id Basha (b. Jan. 18, 1863, Alexandria, Egypt - d. July 20, 1928), prime minister of Egypt (1910-14, 1919).
M. Said Pasha
Muhammad Sharif Pasha (b. Nov. 26, 1826 - d. April 19, 1887), prime minister of Egypt (1879, 1881-82, 1882-84).
Muhammadu Sada dan Abu Bakar (b. Aug. 24, 1956, Sokoto, Nigeria), sultan of Sokoto (2006- ); son of Abu Bakar dan `Usuman as-Siddiq.
Muhirwa, André (b. 1920, Murete, Burundi - d. April 28, 2003), prime minister of Burundi (1961-63).
Muhyiddin (bin Haji Mohd) Yassin, Tan Sri (Dato' Haji) (b. March 15, 1947, Muar, Johor, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), chief minister of Johor (1986-95). He received the title Tan Sri in 1988 and Dato' in 1991.
Muirhead, James (Henry) (b. Aug. 24, 1925, Adelaide, South Australia - d. July 20, 1999, Darwin, Northern Territory), administrator of the Northern Territory (1989-93).
Mujawar, Ali Muhammad, Mujawar also spelled Mujur, Megawar, etc. (b. 1953, Shabwah province, Aden protectorate [now in Yemen]), prime minister of Yemen (2007-11). Earlier he was minister of fisheries (2003-06) and electricity (2006-07).
Mujezinovic, Mustafa (b. Dec. 27, 1954, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier (1996-98) and governor (1998-2000) of Sarajevo canton and prime minister of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2009-11).
Mujic, Enes (b. April 9, 1954, Banovici [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), premier of Tuzla canton (2007-11).
Mujica, Carlos (Aldo) (b. July 19, 1933 - d. May 7, 2013), governor of Santiago del Estero (1991-93).
Mujica (Cordano), José (Alberto), byname Pepe (b. May 20, 1935, Montevideo, Uruguay), president of Uruguay (2010-15).
Mukamba (Kadiata Nzemba), Jonas (b. Jan. 4, 1931 [another source has Nov. 8, 1929], Tshikapa, Congo-Kasaï, Belgian Congo [now in Kasaï Occidental, Congo (Kinshasa)]), interior minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1960-61) and governor of Sud-Kasaï (1965-66), Kasaï Oriental (1966-67), and Équateur (1967-68, 1980-83). He was a presidential candidate in 2006, winning 0.2% of the vote.
Mukarji, Nirmal (Kumar) (b. Jan. 9, 1921, Delhi, India - d. Aug. 29, 2002, New Delhi, India), governor of Punjab (1989-90).
Mukha, Vitaly (Petrovich) (b. May 17, 1936 - d. May 22, 2005), head of the administration of Novosibirsk oblast (1991-93, 1995-2000).
Mukhamedzhanov, Baurzhan (Alimovich) (b. Nov. 26, 1960), justice minister (1997-2000), deputy prime minister (2002-03), and interior minister of Kazakhstan (2005-09) and head of Mangistau region (2011-13). In 2013 he became ambassador to Lithuania.
Mukherjee, Pranab (Kumar) (b. Dec. 11, 1935, Kirnahar, West Bengal, India), finance minister (1982-84, 2009-12), foreign minister (1995-96, 2006-09), defense minister (2004-06), and president (2012- ) of India. First drafted into the federal cabinet in 1980, he briefly left the Congress party to start his own political group in 1987 after differences with Congress's leadership but returned in 1988. He came close to being prime minister after Rajiv Gandhi's assassination in 1991 but lost out to P.V. Narasimha Rao. As commerce minister (1980-82, 1984, 1993-95) he signed the World Trade Organization treaty on India's behalf in 1994.
Mukhitdinov, Nuritdin (Akramovich) (b. Nov. 19, 1917 - d. Aug. 27, 2008), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1951-53, 1954-55), foreign minister (1953-54), and first secretary of the Communist Party (1955-57) of the Uzbek S.S.R. He was also Soviet ambassador to Syria (1968-77).
Mukhriz (bin) Tun Mahathir, Datuk (b. November 1964, Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia), chief minister of Kedah (2013- ); son of Tun Mahathir bin Mohamad.
Mulamba, Léonard, also called Mulamba Nyunyi Wa Kadima (b. 1928, Luluabourg, Belgian Congo [now Kananga, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Aug. 12, 1986), prime minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1965-66). He was also ambassador to India (1967-69), Japan (1969-76), South Korea (1971-76), and Brazil (1976-79).
Mularoni, Antonella (b. Sept. 27, 1961, San Marino), foreign minister (2008-12) and captain-regent (2013) of San Marino.
Mularoni, Pier Marino (b. Sept. 6, 1962), captain-regent of San Marino (1997).
Mularoni, Pier Natalino (b. March 31, 1948 - d. Dec. 17, 2011), captain-regent of San Marino (1995-96).
Mulatu Teshome Wirtu (b. 1956?, Arjo, Ethiopia), president of Ethiopia (2013- ). He was agriculture minister in 2001-02, speaker of the House of the Federation (upper house) in 2002-05, and ambassador to Turkey in 2006-13.
Mulcahy, Richard (James), Irish Risteárd (Séamus) Ua Maolchatha (b. May 10, 1886, Waterford, Ireland - d. Dec. 16, 1971, Dublin, Ireland), Irish politician. He took part as a lieutenant in the Irish rebellion of 1916, was afterward interned at Frongoch and then was returned as Sinn Féin member of parliament for the Clontarf division of Dublin in December 1918. A member of the Irish Republican brotherhood, he became chief of staff of the Irish Volunteers in 1918 and assistant minister for defense (1919-21) in the Dáil ministry. He played a prominent part in the fighting before the truce of July 1921, and his assessment of the military situation caused him to give significant support to the treaty in December of that year. He was defense minister in the Dáil ministry formed by Arthur Griffith in January 1922. After Michael Collins' death in August, Mulcahy became commander in chief of the Free State forces and carried chief responsibility for the conduct of operations against the irregulars in the civil war. He was also defense minister in William Thomas Cosgrave's administration from September 1922 to March 1924 when he resigned. He returned to office as minister for local government and public health (1927-32) and represented Dublin city in the Dáil (1921-37 and 1938-43). He succeeded Cosgrave as president of the Fine Gael party in 1944 when he was returned to the Dáil for County Tipperary but served under John A. Costello, a less controversial figure, as minister for education in the interparty governments of 1948-51 and 1954-57. He resigned from the leadership of Fine Gael in 1960.
Muldoon, Sir Robert David (b. Sept. 25, 1921, Auckland, New Zealand - d. Aug. 5, 1992, Auckland), prime minister of New Zealand (1975-84). In 1949 he became chairman of the Young Nationals, the youth section of the conservative National Party (NP). After two unsuccessful bids (1954, 1957), he was elected a member of parliament (1960) and served as undersecretary of finance (1963-66), supervising the country's conversion to a decimal currency. After serving as minister of tourism (1967), he became minister of finance (1967-72) and developed into an interventionist who referred to his budget tinkering as "fine-tuning." In 1972 he became deputy to the new NP leader John Ross Marshall, and a general election defeat later that year left Marshall defenseless against a challenge from his deputy in 1974. He led the National Party to victory in the general elections of 1975 and again in 1978 and 1981. He pursued generally conservative financial policies in an attempt to achieve balanced growth without undue inflation. The results were not as intended; the economic pattern of his premiership was one of low growth, high inflation, growing unemployment, and high external debts and borrowing. In foreign policy, he was decidedly anti-Soviet in his views, reemphasized New Zealand's defense commitments to the United States and Australia under the ANZUS pact, and backed Britain in the 1982 Falklands crisis. Muldoon identified with the average New Zealanders he called "Rob's Mob," and he retained his leader-of-the-mob image even after he was knighted (1984). The NP was defeated in an ill-advised snap election he called in July 1984 and he lost the party leadership soon afterward, but he retained his seat in parliament until 1991.
Mulele, Pierre (b. July 25, 1929, Kulu-Matenda village, Belgian Congo [now in Bandundu province, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Oct. 9, 1968, Kinshasa), commander-in-chief of Kwilu (1964). A supporter of Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, he was education minister of Congo (Léopoldville) in 1960. After the overthrow of Lumumba, he switched his allegiance to Antoine Gizenga, serving in his rump government in Stanleyville and as its envoy to the United Arab Republic. After the collapse of that government, he spent about a year in China. He returned in 1963 and started a bloody uprising in Kwilu. His rebels controlled most of the province by January 1964. But Congolese army forces finally routed him; in November 1964 he was reported to have fled to the Sudan. In September 1968 Pres. Joseph-Désiré Mobutu sent his foreign minister, Justin Marie Bomboko, to Congo (Brazzaville) to lure Mulele back by giving the impression he would benefit from an amnesty proclaimed in August. But on his return he was arrested and Mobutu said the amnesty applied only to political prisoners, not to war criminals. An emergency military tribunal sentenced him to death for murder, rape, armed robbery, and rebellion on October 8, and he was executed the following day.
Muliika, Dan(iel) (b. January 1943, Mityana, Uganda), prime minister of Buganda (2005-07).
Muliloto, Maie, byname of Kamaliele Muliloto, prime minister of `Uvea (2003-04).
Mulino (Quintero), José Raúl (b. June 13, 1959, David, Panama), foreign minister (1993-94) and interior minister (2009- ) of Panama.
Mulinu'u, (Fiame) Mata'afa (Faumuina), II (b. Aug. 5, 1921, Lotofaga, 'Upolu island, Samoa - d. May 20, 1975, Lepea, 'Upolu), prime minister of Western Samoa (1959-70, 1973-75).
Mulk, Shamsul (b. May 12, 1933, Dhagai village, Nowshera district, North-West Frontier Province [now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa], India [now in Pakistan]), chief minister of North-West Frontier Province (2007-08).
Mulken, Johannes Josephus van (b. June 29, 1796, Kampen, Batavian Republic [now Netherlands] - d. Oct. 21, 1879, The Hague, Netherlands), acting foreign minister of the Netherlands (1870-71).
Mulki, Hani (Fawzi al-) (b. Oct. 15, 1951, Amman, Jordan), foreign minister of Jordan (2004-05). He was also minister of industry and trade (1997-98, 2011), minister of water and irrigation and of energy and mineral resources (1998-99), and ambassador to Egypt (2001-04, 2008-11).
Müller, Erich (b. Nov. 24, 1889, Halle [now in Sachsen-Anhalt], Germany - d. 19...), commander of the German-occupied Channel Islands (1941-43).
Müller(-Franken), Hermann (b. May 18, 1876, Mannheim, Germany - d. March 20, 1931, Berlin, Germany), chancellor of Germany (1920, 1928-30). In 1903 he was elected to the Görlitz town council. Elected to the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1906, he steered a moderate course between the left and right wings. He represented the party at congresses of the Second International and in July 1914 was sent on an abortive mission to France to coordinate Socialist opposition to the impending World War I. He became a member of the Reichstag in 1916 and, after the revolution of November 1918, entered the new provisional government and was co-chairman of the Central Council of the republic (1918-19). As foreign minister (1919-20) he signed the Treaty of Versailles for Germany (June 1919). After Wolfgang Kapp's abortive coup (March 1920), Müller assumed office as chancellor until the June 1920 elections. From then on, Müller (who acquired the byname Müller-Franken to distinguish himself from other Müllers in the Reichstag) was the parliamentary leader of the SPD, which was to remain in opposition for eight years. After its success in the 1928 elections, he formed a "grand coalition" government with the moderate parties - the last parliamentary-based government of the Weimar era. A naval construction program was begun under his administration, and the Young Plan was negotiated, which reduced the reparations payments stipulated by the Treaty of Versailles. He was frequently in conflict with his own party. The advent of the Great Depression led to the breakup of the coalition; Müller was forced to resign on March 27, 1930, when his party wished to increase unemployment benefits for the workers and would not support him in a compromise on the question.
Muller, Hilgard (b. May 4, 1914, Potchefstroom, Transvaal [now in North West province], South Africa - d. July 10, 1985, Pretoria, Transvaal [now in Gauteng], South Africa), foreign minister of South Africa (1964-77). He served as a city councillor (1951-57) and mayor (1953-55) of Pretoria. He was elected to parliament as National Party member for Pretoria East in 1958. He was high commissioner (1961), then, following South Africa's withdrawal from the Commonwealth, ambassador (1961-64) in London before becoming foreign minister. Both as ambassador and minister, Muller encountered problems resulting from South Africa's increased isolation following its change of status from Commonwealth member to republic and its rigid enforcement of apartheid policies. Though he remained largely a background figure, he played an influential role in formulating policies governing relations with black African countries. He withdrew from politics in 1977.
Müller, Peter (Aloysius) (b. Sept. 25, 1955, Illingen, Saarland [now in Germany]), minister-president of Saarland (1999-2011). In 2011 he became a judge of the Constitutional Court.
Muller, Phillip (Henry) (b. Jan. 2, 1956), foreign minister of the Marshall Islands (1994-2000, 2012-14). He has also been minister of education (1986-94) and health services (2014- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-12).
Mullings, Seymour (St. Edward), byname Foggy (b. May 12, 1931, Cave Valley, St. Ann parish, Jamaica - d. Oct. 9, 2013, Kingston, Jamaica), finance minister (1989-90), deputy prime minister (1993-2001), and foreign minister (1995-2000) of Jamaica. He was also minister of agriculture (1979, 1990-95) and health and social security (1979-80) and ambassador to the U.S. (2001-04).
Muloki, Henry Wako (b. Feb. 18, 1921, Bulamogi, Uganda - d. Sept. 1, 2008, Kampala, Uganda), Kyabazinga of Busoga (1956-62, 1996-2008); son of Ezekieri Tenywa Wako III. His first period of rule was characterized by power fights, some of which ended up in the High Court following suits by two of his challengers. With Muloki subscribing to the Democratic Party, his predecessor William Wilberforce Kadhumbula Nadiope III, then vice-president and a ruling Uganda People's Congress party diehard, used his political muscle to grab the throne from Muloki. Nadiope's attempt to use the courts to legitimize his usurpation of the throne was unsuccessful. It took the intervention of Pres. Milton Obote through an express parliamentary act for Nadiope to be recognized as Kyabazinga. Nadiope, however, ran out of favour shortly after when Obote locked him up together with four cabinet ministers over an alleged rebellious act. The kyabazingaship, like other traditional, cultural, and hereditary institutions, was abolished in 1967 by Obote's government. In 1980, Muloki was appointed chairman of Uganda Airlines and later, a director of the Uganda Marketing Board. The traditional institutions were restored in 1993, but his return to the throne met another round of interference as another royal traditional chief, Eriakesi Kiregeya, claimed it was his turn to be Kyabazinga. The two ended up in court, where Kiregeya lost, and Muloki was re-installed on Feb. 11, 1996. The kyabazingaship in Busoga is an elective post from within the five royal clans of the 11 Busoga clans, and it is held for a given period, but when Muloki was elected the second time, the royal chiefs decided that he was to rule until his death, in recognition of his age and contribution to the kingdom.
Mulroney, (Martin) Brian (b. March 20, 1939, Baie-Comeau, Quebec), prime minister of Canada (1984-93). He did not at first run for elected office but instead concentrated on gaining control of the provincial Progressive Conservative Party apparatus in Quebec. He made a bid in 1976 for the national PC leadership, finishing a close second to Joe Clark. In his second attempt he defeated Clark on June 11, 1983. He won a seat in the House of Commons in a Nova Scotia by-election on August 29. In the general election of Sept. 4, 1984, the Conservatives won a parliamentary majority by one of the largest margins of victory in Canadian history, 211 of 282 seats. In the election campaign he put the Conservatives in the centre of the political spectrum. He promised efficiency in government management and an improvement in economic conditions. During his first term economic growth was strong, job creation was high, and inflation was kept under control. His government was reelected in 1988; the elections were viewed partly as a referendum on his proposed free-trade pact with the United States. His political success rested in part on his creation of a coalition of Quebec nationalists and western conservatives, and he sought to unify the country while recognizing Quebec's status as a "distinct society"; the collapse of the Meech Lake and Charlottetown accords were among his greatest disappointments. After signing a free-trade agreement and an acid rain pact with the United States, he announced his retirement from politics in early 1993; he was succeeded as party leader and prime minister by Kim Campbell that June. Allegations that he had accepted kickbacks in 1988 on the sale of 34 Airbus jets to Air Canada led to the first-ever criminal investigation into the affairs of a Canadian prime minister in 1995; it was ended in 2003 for lack of evidence.
Mulumba Lukoji, (Crispin) (b. March 5, 1943 - d. March 3, 1997, Johannesburg, South Africa), prime minister of Zaire (1991).
Muluzi, (Elson) Bakili (b. March 17, 1943, Machinga, Nyasaland [now Malawi]), president of Malawi (1994-2004). He became president in an election that ended the dictatorship of Hastings Kamuzu Banda, riding a wave of popular support for his promise to reduce poverty afflicting 60% of Malawians. But not much changed in the 10 years he held power; Malawi remained one of the world's poorest countries. He conceded that democracy did not bring economic gains. "Malawians cannot eat democracy," he often said. His bid to amend the constitution to allow him to stand for a third term was rejected by parliament. He then handpicked Bingu wa Mutharika as his successor. Mutharika was elected in 2004 but in 2005 left Muluzi's United Democratic Front (UDF), accusing his former allies of blocking his clampdown on corruption. Muluzi himself was briefly investigated for corruption in 2006, but remained a powerful political force and was endorsed by the UDF as its candidate for the 2009 presidential election. He was arrested in May 2008 in connection with an alleged coup plot and again in February 2009 on charges of siphoning off some U.S.$11 million of international aid. In May 2009 the constitutional court rejected his presidential candidacy because of term limits. In December 2009 he stepped down as chairman of the UDF and announced his retirement from active politics.
Mumbengegwi, Samuel (Creighton) (b. Oct. 23, 1942), finance minister of Zimbabwe (2007-09). He was also minister of higher education and technology (2001-02), minister of industry and international trade (2002-05), and minister of state for indigenisation and empowerment (2005-07).
Mumbengegwi, Simbarashe (Simbanenduku) (b. July 20, 1945, Chivi, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]), foreign minister of Zimbabwe (2005- ). He was also minister of water resources and development (1982), housing (1982-84), public construction and national housing (1984-88), and transport (1988-90), permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-95), ambassador to Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (1995-99), high commissioner (1999-2003) and ambassador (2003-05) to the United Kingdom, and ambassador to Ireland (1999-2005).
Mumuni, (Alhaji) Mohammed (b. July 28, 1949), foreign minister of Ghana (2009-13) and secretary-general of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (2013- ). He was also minister of employment and social welfare (1997-2001).
Muna, Salomon Tandeng (b. 1912, Ngyen Mbo village [now in North West province], Cameroon - d. Jan. 22, 2002, Douala, Cameroon), prime minister of West Cameroon (1968-72). Considered as one of the main craftsmen of the reunification of the British and French Cameroons, he was also vice president of Cameroon (1970-72) and president of the National Assembly (1973-88).
Munandar, Djoko (b. March 19, 1947, Surakarta, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia), governor of Banten (2002-07).
Munandar, Imam (b. June 15, 1927, Blitar, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia]), governor of Riau (1980-88).
Munck (af Fulkila), Lennart (Fritiof) (b. Oct. 31, 1852, Ulvila, Finland - d. Oct. 28, 1941, Helsinki, Finland), governor of Mikkeli (1900-03).
Munda, Arjun (b. Jan. 5, 1968, Ghoda Bandha village, Jamshedpur, Bihar [now in East Singhbhum district, Jharkhand], India), chief minister of Jharkhand (2003-05, 2005-06, 2010-13).
Mundia, Nalumino (b. Nov. 21, 1927, Namanda village, Kalabo district, Barotseland [now in Zambia] - d. Nov. 8, 1988, La Paz, Bolivia), prime minister (1981-85) and finance minister (1983) of Zambia. He subsequently was ambassador to the United States, Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela, and presented his credentials to the president of Bolivia just days before his death.
Mungai, (Magana) Njoroge (b. Jan. 7, 1926, Gichungo village, outskirts of Nairobi, Kenya - d. Aug. 16, 2014, Nairobi), foreign minister of Kenya (1969-74).
Mung'omba, Wila (D'Israeli) (b. Oct. 18, 1939, Mbala, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Feb. 17, 2014, Johannesburg, South Africa), president of the African Development Bank (1980-85).
Mungra, Subhas (Chandra) (b. Sept. 2, 1945, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname]), finance minister (1986-90) and foreign minister (1991-96) of Suriname. He has also been permanent representative to the United Nations (1997-2001) and ambassador to the United States (2011- ).
Mungul Diaka (Koda Kombu), Bernardin (b. Nov. 12, 1933, Léopoldville province [in present Bandundu province], Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. June 3, 1999, Kinshasa), prime minister of Zaire (1991) and governor of Kinshasa (1992-96). He was also minister of education (1967-68) and higher education and scientific research (1979-80).
Muñiz, Carlos Manuel (b. Feb. 2, 1922, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Oct. 31, 2007, Buenos Aires), foreign minister of Argentina (1962-63).
Munkh-Orgil, Tsendiyn (b. 1964, Baruun-Urt, Mongolia), foreign minister (2004-06) and internal affairs minister (2007-08) of Mongolia.
Münnich, Ferenc (b. Nov. 16, 1886, Seregélyes, Hungary - d. Nov. 29, 1967, Budapest, Hungary), prime minister of Hungary (1958-61). He was also minister to Finland (1949-50), minister (1951-54) and ambassador (1954) to Bulgaria, and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1954-56), and interior (1956, 1956-57) and defense (1956-57) minister.
Munnik, Lourens Albertus Petrus Anderson (b. Aug. 3, 1925, Cape Town, South Africa), administrator of Cape province (1975-79). He was also South African minister of health and social welfare (1979-82), posts and telecommunications (1982-84), and communications and public works (1984-86).
Munongo (Mwenda Msiri), Godefroid (b. Nov. 20, 1925, Bunkeya village, Katanga, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. May 28, 1992), interior minister (1960-63) and joint acting president (1961) of Katanga, interior minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1964-65), and governor of Katanga Oriental (1965-66) and Sud-Katanga (1966). He was a grandson of Ngelengwa "Msiri," mwami of Katanga, and himself succeeded to the traditional rulership in 1976, as Mwenda Msiri Shyombeka we Shalo.
Muñoz (Valenzuela), Heraldo (Benjamín) (b. July 22, 1948, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (2014- ).
Muñoz Grandes, Agustín, earlier known as Agustín Muñoz Grande (b. Jan. 27, 1896, Madrid, Spain - d. July 11, 1970, Madrid), army minister (1951-57) and deputy prime minister (1962-67) of Spain.
Muñoz Marín, (José) Luis (Alberto) (b. Feb. 18, 1898, San Juan, Puerto Rico - d. April 30, 1980, San Juan), governor of Puerto Rico (1949-65); son of Luis Muñoz Rivera. He served as secretary to the resident commissioner in the U.S. (1916-18) and returned to Puerto Rico in 1926. After joining the Liberal Party, he was elected to the Puerto Rican Senate in 1932. He was expelled from the Liberal Party in 1937 because of his alignment with the radicals advocating complete independence from the United States. He changed his mind about the issue, however, and called for an improvement of living conditions on the island before statehood or independence should be considered. In 1938 he organized the Popular Democratic Party, which won the 1940 elections on this platform. He was made president of the Senate, a post he held until 1948. He worked closely with the U.S.-appointed governor, Rexford G. Tugwell, to improve housing, farming, and industrial conditions. When the U.S. granted Puerto Rico the right to elect its own governor (1948), Muñoz Marín won the office by an overwhelming margin; he was reelected in 1952, 1956, and 1960. In 1952 Puerto Rico's status was changed to that of a commonwealth. It thus became self-governing in most internal matters without giving up the benefits of economic union with the United States and exemption from U.S. taxes. His "Operation Bootstrap" brought rapid economic growth; by the 1960s Puerto Rico had the highest standard of living in Latin America. In December 1963 he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He refused to run for a fifth term as governor in 1964, stepping aside to serve once again in the Senate of Puerto Rico. He was co-chairman of the advisory group whose proposals for greater autonomy were presented to Congress in 1975.
Muñoz Rivera, Luis (b. July 17, 1859, Barranquitas, Puerto Rico - d. Nov. 15, 1916, Santurce, Puerto Rico), Puerto Rican leader. He founded the newspaper La Democracia, the purpose of which was to obtain Puerto Rican autonomy from Spain, in 1889 and became a leader in the autonomist parties. In 1897 Puerto Rico was given a charter of home rule, and he soon became secretary of state and later president of the first autonomist cabinet. He resigned in 1899 as the United States put an end to the short-lived home rule. He spent most of the rest of his life in the U.S., urging measures to help his country. In 1904 he dissolved the Federal Party he had founded earlier, and joined the broad-based Unión de Puerto Rico. He became Puerto Rico's resident commissioner in Washington, D.C., in 1910 and died just before successful completion of his campaign for passage of the Jones Bill, which gave Puerto Rico a large measure of self-government (though less than under the Spanish charter).
Muñoz Turnbull, Marco Antonio (b. Aug. 6, 1914, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico - d. Jan. 3, 2001, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Veracruz (1950-56).
Munro, Sir Alan (Gordon) (b. Aug. 17, 1935), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1978-79); knighted 1990. He was ambassador to Algeria (1984-87) and Saudi Arabia (1989-93).
Munro, Sir Leslie (Knox) (b. Feb. 26, 1901, Auckland, New Zealand - d. Feb. 13, 1974, Hamilton, New Zealand), president of the UN General Assembly (1957-58); knighted 1955. He was New Zealand's ambassador to the United States and permanent representative to the United Nations (1952-58).
Muntasir, Mahmud al- (b. 1903 - d. [in detention] September 1970), prime minister (1951-54, 1964-65) and foreign minister (1951-54) of Libya. He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1954-57).
Muntasir, Umar Mustafa al- (b. 1939, Misratah, Libya - d. Jan. 23, 2001), foreign minister of Libya (1992-2000). He was close to Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi since the 1969 coup that brought him to power. Qaddafi promoted him to the cabinet in the early 1970s. As foreign minister he played a significant role in negotiations that led Libya to hand over the two citizens wanted for the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. In April 1999 the Libyan government surrendered the two suspects for trial in a Scottish court in the Netherlands, and a UN air embargo on Libya was suspended. In 1998, during the protracted extradition negotiations, Muntasir said Libya was not trying to delay the trial of the Lockerbie suspects but that it wanted to ensure the "honesty" of the court.
Munteanu, Aurel Dragos (Ilie) (b. Jan. 16, 1942, Buda-Lapusna, near Chisinau, Romania [now in Moldova] - d. May 30, 2005, New York City), member of the Council of the National Salvation Front of Romania (1989). He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-92) and ambassador to the United States (1992-94).
Munyembari, Paul (b. May 30, 1946), foreign minister of Burundi (1995).
Munzinger, Martin J(osef) (b. Nov. 11, 1791 - d. Feb. 6, 1855), president of Switzerland (1851).
Murai, Jin (b. March 28, 1937, Nagano prefecture, Japan), governor of Nagano (2006-10).
Murai, Yoshihiro (b. Aug. 20, 1960), governor of Miyagi (2005- ).
Muraliyev, Amangeldy (Mursadykovich) (b. Aug. 7, 1947, Kum-Aryk village, Kalinin rayon, Chu oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1999-2000). Earlier he was chairman of the Frunze city executive committee (1988-91), minister of economy and finance of Kyrgyzstan (1992-93), president of the industrial workers' and entrepreneurs' union (1993), chairman of the state committee on economy (1993-94), deputy prime minister (1996), and governor of Osh oblast (1996-99).
Muratov, Ravil (Fatykhovich) (b. Aug. 30, 1949, Tyurnyasevsky sovkhoz, Oktyabrsky district, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), acting prime minister of Tatarstan (2010).
Muratovic, Hasan (b. April 11, 1940, Olovo, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]), prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996-97). In 1993-96 he served as minister without portfolio, a troubleshooter assigned some of the government's most sensitive and difficult tasks. "Muratovic is the most visible and capable of all the current ministers," said Ejup Ganic, a member of Bosnia's collective presidency, in 1996. "He was used for everything from negotiating with the Serbs to dealing with the UN, NATO, and the World Bank." Diplomats said Muratovic was a master at browbeating the United Nations into accommodating Bosnian government needs, although he ruffled the feathers of UN bureaucrats by using the international press corps to help make his case. On the day when the serious NATO air strikes which would break the Serb army and bring the Bosnian war to a rapid end had just begun, the UN commander, Lieut.Gen. Rupert Smith, went to brief Muratovic. According to one of those present, Muratovic pulled out a bottle of whisky and said: "There's no need to discuss anything because today is the first day of the rest of the war." Bosnia's ruling (Muslim) Party of Democratic Action (SDA) chose Muratovic to form the country's new central government in 1996, elbowing aside Haris Silajdzic, with whom it had been feuding for months. Although Muratovic was not an SDA member he was a man with strong academic and private sector connections who went with the political flow while lending professionalism to government. After his premiership he was foreign trade and economy minister (1997) and ambassador to Croatia (1998-2001).
Muraviev, Konstantin (Vladov) (b. Feb. 21, 1893, Pazardzhik, Bulgaria - d. Jan. 31, 1965, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister and foreign minister of Bulgaria (1944). He was also chargé d'affaires in the Netherlands (1921) and Turkey (1922-23) and minister of war (1923), education (1931-32), and agriculture (1932-34).
Muravyov, Mikhail (Nikolayevich) (b. April 19 [April 7, O.S.], 1845, Grodno, Russia - d. June 21 [June 8, O.S.], 1900, St. Petersburg, Russia), foreign minister of Russia (1897-1900). He was also minister to Denmark (1893-97).
Muravyov, Nikolay (Valerianovich) (b. Sept. 27, 1850 - d. Dec. 1, 1908, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Russia (1894-1905). He was also secretary of state (1892-94) and ambassador to Italy (1905-08).
Murayama, Tomiichi (b. March 3, 1924, Oita, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1994-96). After World War II he became active in the local fishermen's union in Oita before winning election to the Oita city assembly in 1955 and moving up to a seat in the Oita prefectural assembly in 1963. He was first elected to the lower house of the Diet (parliament) in 1972 as a member of the Japan Socialist Party (JSP), which changed its official name in English in 1991 to Social Democratic Party of Japan (SDPJ). He first gained national recognition in September 1993 when he became chairman of the SDPJ, supported by an intraparty group which was critical of the leadership of the previous chairman, Sadao Yamahana. The SDPJ was a member of a seven-party coalition that had come to power in August 1993, ending almost four decades of uninterrupted rule by the Liberal-Democratic Party (LDP). In April 1994, however, he abruptly withdrew his party's support from Tsutomu Hata, the second prime minister elected by the coalition, and when Hata resigned in June, the SDPJ formed an alliance with the LDP and the New Party Sakigake. The SDPJ and LDP had opposed each other on vital issues over the years but now joined forces to block the ambitions of LDP renegade Ichiro Ozawa. With no previous experience in government, Murayama was viewed as a titular head of a shaky coalition, but he surprised many by lasting as long in the saddle as he did. Only the second left-winger to become prime minister since 1945, he altered certain leftist policies of his party, such as by formally approving the constitutionality of Japan's Self-Defense Forces and the national anthem, once anathema to the JSP. He resigned as prime minister in January 1996 and from the SDPJ leadership in September.
Murdani, Leonardus Benyamin, byname Benny Murdani (b. Oct. 2, 1932, Cepu, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Aug. 29, 2004, Jakarta, Indonesia), defense minister of Indonesia (1988-93). He entered the military soon after Indonesia's 1945-49 war of independence against the Dutch. In what has become part of national folklore, Murdani, by then a major, parachuted with 120 men into Netherlands New Guinea in 1962 during Indonesia's effort to occupy the region. Although his unit was devastated by Dutch Marines, the brief conflict ended with the United Nations handing the vast territory to Indonesia. Murdani emerged as a hero and received the country's highest medal from Pres. Sukarno. He also planned and led the 1975 invasion of East Timor. As commander of the Indonesian armed forces in 1983-88 Murdani, by then a four-star general, was the country's second most powerful man after Pres. Suharto. He is believed to be the man behind the so-called "mysterious killings" during the early 1980s, when hundreds of hardcore criminals and former convicts were executed and their bodies discarded along roads across Indonesia - an incident that produced international criticism. Human rights activists allege that in 1984 he oversaw the killing of some three dozen Muslim activists during an anti-Suharto protest at Jakarta's port, Tanjung Priok. He was demoted to the defense ministry in 1988 after urging Suharto to rein in his children's business activities.
Murekezi, Anastase (b. June 15, 1952, Nyaruguru district, southern Rwanda), prime minister of Rwanda (2014- ).
Murerwa, Herbert (Muchemwa) (b. July 31, 1941), finance minister of Zimbabwe (1995-2000, 2002-04, 2004-07). He was also high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1984-90) and minister of environment and tourism (1990-95), industry and commerce (1995-96), higher education and technology (2000-01), industry and international trade (2001-02), higher and tertiary education (2004-05), and lands and rural resettlement (2009-13).
Murigande, Charles (b. Aug. 15, 1958, Butare, Rwanda), foreign minister of Rwanda (2002-08). He was also minister of transport and communications (1995-97), cabinet affairs (2008-09), and education (2009-11). In 2011 he became ambassador to Japan (also accredited to Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines).
Murillo de la Rocha, Javier (b. 1943, La Paz, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (1997-2001). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union/Russia (1981-84, 1991-93) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-03).
Murkowski, Frank, byname of Francis Hughes Murkowski (b. March 28, 1933, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Alaska (2002-06). A Republican, he was appointed by Gov. Walter Hickel as commissioner of economic development (1966-70), then ran for Congress and lost to incumbent Democrat Nick Begich (1970). In 1980, he ran for the Senate and won a six-candidate primary with 59% of the vote. He campaigned against environmental restriction groups and called Democratic candidate Clark Gruening a "no growther." He won 54%-46%. In the Senate, he won a seat on the Energy and Natural Resources Committee, which he chaired from 1995 to June 2001. He was reelected to the Senate in 1998 by 74%-20%. There is little doubt that he could have won reelection in 2004, but he evidently found his Senate career frustrating, so in October 2001 he began to run for governor. The state budget was facing a shortfall which by election day 2002 was routinely described as $1 billion. The race quickly boiled down to a contest between Murkowski (who defeated Anchorage lawyer Wayne Ross 70%-26% in the Republican primary) and Democratic lieutenant governor Fran Ulmer. Murkowski opposed new taxes and counseled against "gloom and doom" about the $1 billion shortfall; he called for building roads and other transportation infrastructure. Ulmer called for a "parachute plan" to institute a statewide tax when the Constitutional Budget Reserve fell below $1 billion and said Murkowski's approach to the budget was "don't worry, be happy." Polls showed a close race, but Alaska's Republican sentiments prevailed and Murkowski won by a solid 56%-41% margin. He took office December 2 and was permitted to appoint his successor in the Senate - on December 20, he chose his daughter, Lisa. He became one of the most unpopular governors in Alaska's history; in 2006 he came third in the Republican primary, with 19% of the vote.
Murphy, Sir Dermod (Art Pelly) (b. Aug. 10, 1914 - d. Oct. 21, 1975), governor of Saint Helena (1968-71); knighted 1969.
Murphy, Frank, byname of William Francis Murphy (b. April 13, 1890, Harbor Beach, Mich. - d. July 19, 1949, Detroit, Mich.), mayor of Detroit (1930-33), governor-general (1933-35) and high commissioner (1935-36) of the Philippines, governor of Michigan (1937-39), and U.S. attorney general (1939-40).
Murr, Elias (Michel), Arabic Ilyas Mishal al-Murr (b. Jan. 30, 1962, Bteghrin, Lebanon), interior minister (2000-04) and defense minister (2005-11) of Lebanon; son of Michel Murr; son-in-law of Émile Lahoud. Considered a Damascus loyalist, he entered politics in 2000 when he replaced his father as interior minister. He instigated a swoop on anti-Syrian Christian groups in August 2001, leading to 250 imprisonments including three jail terms handed down for having "contacts with Israel." In early 2004 Murr said his security forces had dismantled an Islamist network smuggling arms to be used by the raging insurgency in Iraq. Sunni Islamist groups alleged that investigators in that case used a heavy hand in questioning, leading to the death in prison of suspect Ismail Khatib, allegedly al-Qaeda's main operative in Lebanon. Rioters subsequently called for Murr's resignation as security forces said the 31-year-old Khatib had died from a heart attack. On July 12, 2005, Murr was slightly wounded when his motorcade was attacked; two others were killed in the blast.
Murr, Michel, Arabic Mishal al-Murr (b. 1932, Bteghrin, Lebanon), Lebanese politician. In 1991 he survived an assassination attempt, for which Christian militia leader Samir Geagea received a sentence of life imprisonment. Murr was appointed as a deputy in 1991. He was deputy prime minister (1990-2000), defense minister (1990-92), and interior minister (1994-2000). He was known to be a staunch ally of Damascus. Environmentalists slammed Murr for encouraging indiscriminate quarrying all over Lebanon. His role as a candidate and supervisor of the 2000 elections was also criticized. Opponents accused him of using his employees to spoil their campaigns.
Murray, Sir Brian (Stewart) (b. Dec. 26, 1921 - d. June 4, 1991), governor of Victoria (1982-85); knighted 1982.
Murray, Sir (John) Hubert (Plunkett) (b. Dec. 29, 1861, Sydney, N.S.W. - d. Feb. 27, 1940), administrator of Papua (1908-40); knighted 1925.
Murray, Hubert Leonard (b. Dec. 13, 1886 - d. Dec. 10, 1963), acting administrator of Papua (1940-42).
Murray, John F. (b. Feb. 28, 1862 - d. Dec. 31, 1928, Mount McGregor, N.Y.), borough president of Bronx (1909-10).
Murray, Philip (b. May 25, 1886, Blantyre, Lanarkshire, Scotland - d. Nov. 9, 1952, San Francisco, Calif.), president (1940-52) of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). He emigrated to the United States in 1902 and was naturalized in 1911. Becoming a coal miner near Pittsburgh, Pa., he was elected president of the local union of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) at age 18. He was subsequently elected a member of the union's international board in 1912, president of a district in 1916, and vice president in 1920, a post he held until 1942. He played an important role in forming the CIO, dedicated to unionism on an industry rather than a craft basis, in 1935. UMWA president John L. Lewis became the first president of the CIO and in 1936 asked Murray to undertake the organization of an industry-wide steelworkers' union. Murray became chairman of the Steelworkers Organizing Committee and then in 1942 president of its successor, the United Steelworkers of America, which in his lifetime grew to include 2,500 local unions. Meanwhile, in 1940 Lewis had supported Republican Wendell L. Willkie for U.S. president while Murray and most other CIO leaders supported Democratic incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt; after Roosevelt's victory Lewis resigned and Murray took over as CIO president. In 1942 Lewis expelled Murray from the UMWA and took that union out of the CIO. Murray opposed Roosevelt's plan (proposed in 1944 but never put into effect) for compulsory civilian labour in war industries, but otherwise supported the U.S. effort in World War II as well as in the Korean War. In 1949-50 he purged several Communist-dominated unions from the CIO.
Murray of Epping Forest, Len Murray, Baron, original name Lionel Murray (b. Aug. 2, 1922, Hadley, Shropshire, England - d. May 20, 2004, London, England), general secretary of the Trades Union Congress (1973-84). He started in 1947 as an assistant in the TUC's economics department. He was head of that department seven years later and in 1969 was elected assistant general secretary to the TUC. He succeeded Victor Feather as general secretary in 1973, and summed up his role thus: "Ultimately I see my job as getting a decent standard of living for ordinary people." He guided the trade union movement to the peak of its power in the mid-1970s, playing a central role in helping to draft the so-called Social Contract with the Labour government of the time. But he was also at the helm when the unions' influence waned under Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government. He retired early, in September 1984, during perhaps the movement's most volatile period. He became a Labour peer the following year.
Murtaza Quli Khan, styled (from 1896) Sani ud-Daula (d. [killed] Feb. 6, 1911, Tehran, Iran), finance minister (1896-97, 1908), president of the Majlis (1906-07), and prime minister (1908) of Iran.
Murtinho, Manoel José (b. Dec. 15, 1847, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. April 22, 1917, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Mato Grosso (1891-95).
Murumbi, Joseph (Zuzarte) (b. 1911 - d. June 22, 1990, Nairobi, Kenya), foreign minister (1964-66) and vice president (1966) of Kenya.
Musa, (Abdulkadir) Balarabe (b. Aug. 21, 1936), governor of Kaduna (1979-81). He was impeached by the state House of Assembly on June 23, 1981.
Musa, Said (Wilbert) (b. March 19, 1944, San Ignacio, Cayo district, British Honduras [now Belize]), foreign minister (1989-93, 1998-2002), prime minister (1998-2008), defense minister (2004-07), and finance minister (2004-08) of Belize. He became involved with the United Black Association for Development with Evan X. Hyde and a group of young, talented, socially conscious Belizeans, who made an impact on the Belizean scene of the early to mid-1970s. During this time also, along with Assad Shoman, he formed the People's Action Committee (PAC) and the Society for the Promotion of Education and Research (SPEAR). Early in 1974, he found a home in the People's United Party (PUP), where he joined in the struggle for Belizean independence. His first general election bid in 1974 was unsuccessful, but Premier George Price appointed him senator for the 1974-79 term. Musa went back to the voters of the Fort George constituency in 1979 and waged a political comeback that demolished United Democratic Party leader Dean Lindo and convincingly christened him a consummate politician. He was appointed attorney general and minister of education and sports in the 1979-84 PUP government. Later in the same administration he was given the additional portfolio of minister for economic development. He travelled extensively in Belize's quest for worldwide support for independence and the preservation of existing borders. Musa helped to win that independence in 1981. As foreign minister, he presided over such triumphs as the recognition of Belize's sovereignty and independence by Guatemala and the admission of Belize into the Organization of American States. In 1996 he became the leader of the PUP when Price stepped down. He quickly closed ranks within the party, and led it to great victories in 1998 and 2003. But his popularity was shaken by graft scandals, ballooning public debt, and tax hikes that sparked riots in 2005. In the 2008 elections his party was soundly defeated; he then stepped down as its leader.
Musa, Solomon Anthony James, also known as SAJ Musa, Action Man, or Eagle (d. Dec. 22, 1998, Benguema, Sierra Leone), Sierra Leonean rebel. In 1992 he was one of the plotters of the coup against Pres. Joseph Saidu Momoh and became deputy head of state under Valentine Strasser. But he was fired by Strasser in July 1993 and since lived in exile in Britain. In April 1997 he was offered a job by elected president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah to act as a middleman between the government and disillusioned soldiers. Musa had written to the president to offer his services as a mediator. Kabbah knowing the clout that Musa carried amongst the other ranks of the army immediately responded in the positive. But on May 25, Kabbah was deposed in a coup. After dancing through the streets of Freetown with Musa's picture, the soldiers invited Musa back from the U.K. Musa, forgetting the job offer given to him by Kabbah, decided to be ungrateful to the president and joined the coup plotters. However, Kabbah was restored to power by a Nigerian-led force in 1998, and Musa became a rebel leader. After his rebels had secured the town of Benguema on December 22, Musa moved there, inspected the large cache of ammunition left behind by the fleeing Nigerians, and ordered his men to transport all the light arms and ammunitions back to their bases. However, there were several missiles and bombs that were too heavy to be transported. Musa gave the order that these heavier weapons be destroyed. The rebels then packed all of the heavy arms into the sturdily built Benguema Ammo Dump and set explosives to the dump. They underestimated the power of the explosion, however, and when the explosives went off, the bomb blast that resulted spread fragments and pieces of bricks all around. Musa died instantly.
Musa, Stahl (d. [plane crash] Dec. 14, 2002, a cliff near Guhu, Madang province, Papua New Guinea), governor of Madang (2002).
Musa Aman, Datuk (b. March 30, 1951, Beaufort, British North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), chief minister of Sabah (2003- ).
Musabekov, Gazanfar (Makhmud ogly), Azeri Häzänfar Mahmud oglu Musabäkov (b. July 26 [July 14, O.S.], 1888, Perebidil, Kuba region, Baku province, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. [executed] Feb. 9, 1938), co-chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the U.S.S.R. (1925-37).
Muscat, Joseph (b. Jan. 22, 1974, Pietà, Malta), prime minister of Malta (2013- ).
Muselier, Émile (b. April 17, 1882, Marseille, France - d. Nov. 2, 1965, Toulon, France), French admiral. He was directed by Charles de Gaulle in 1941 to seize the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon from Vichy control, which was effected on December 24.
Museminari, Rosemary (Kobusingye), also spelled Museminali (b. 1962), foreign minister of Rwanda (2008-09). She was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (2000-05).
Musendiku Buraimoh Adeniji Adele II, (Sir) (b. Nov. 13, 1893 - d. July 12, 1964), Oba of Lagos (1949-64).
Museveni, Yoweri (Kaguta) (b. 1944?1, near Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda), president of Uganda (1986- ). He worked for a short time in the office of Pres. Milton Obote until he was overthrown by Idi Amin in 1971. Museveni then fled to Tanzania. In 1972 Museveni and Obote joined forces and invaded Uganda but were decisively defeated, causing a split between the two leaders. After the defeat Museveni returned to Tanzania, where he formed the Front for National Salvation. It participated in the 1979 invasion that overthrew Amin. After Amin's downfall, Museveni was made defense minister in Pres. Yusufu Lule's transitional government in 1979, but he soon quarreled with many of his colleagues. He then set up the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM) to campaign in the 1980 elections. He alleged that the election that gave victory to Obote's Uganda People's Congress had been rigged. His own UPM managed to win only one seat; Museveni himself lost in his home constituency. He took his supporters into the bush to wage an armed struggle in December 1980. In January 1986 he was sworn in as president after his National Resistance Army captured the capital, Kampala, and routed the government forces of Gen. Tito Okello. He adopted a pro-Western policy and his reputation as a Marxist quickly diminished. He reached his goal of popular approval for his conversion from guerrilla chief to national leader when he was elected president in 1996. He rejected multiparty democracy, arguing that such an arrangement in a poor African country would degenerate into tribal politics. At the same time, he allowed a free press, even though it was frequently critical of his policies. He was reelected in 2001, 2006, and 2011. In 1990-91 he was chairman of the Organization of African Unity.
1 Born to illiterate nomads, he has said he does not know his exact date of birth but came to the conclusion that the year "must be 1944 or 1945, but more likely 1944."
Musgrove, Ronnie, byname of David Ronald Musgrove (b. July 29, 1956, Tocowa, Miss.), governor of Mississippi (2000-04). In 1987 he was elected to the Mississippi state senate, representing Tate and Panola counties, and was appointed vice chairman of the committee on colleges and universities. In 1992 he became chairman of the senate education committee, where he championed equitable funding for all schools as the architect of the Mississippi adequate education program. He also worked for the expansion of tech-prep sites across the state and increases in teacher pay. He became lieutenant governor in 1996 and used that office to start community-based programs designed to connect education and business such as BIG (business influencing generations) and ComPEET (commercial postgraduate electrical engineering training). Musgrove obtained 49.5% of the popular vote to Republican Mike Parker's 48.6% in the November 1999 gubernatorial election. The two candidates evenly split the state's 122 electoral votes, which are based on Mississippi's House districts. On Jan. 4, 2000, Mississippi's House of Representatives, overwhelmingly controlled by Democrats, voted 86 to 36 to select Musgrove over Parker as the state's new governor. It was the first time state officials had ever been called upon to cast such a vote. Mississippi's politicians were required to vote because of a provision in the state's 1890 constitution giving legislators the power to select a governor if no candidate won a majority of both the popular and electoral vote. Musgrove replaced two-term Republican Gov. Kirk Fordice who said he would have resigned if not for the knowledge that Musgrove would automatically assume the governor's mantle.
Mushanov, Nikola (Stoichev) (b. April 12, 1872, Dryanovo, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. [in prison] May 11, 1951, Sofia, Bulgaria), prime minister and foreign minister of Bulgaria (1931-34). He was also minister of education (1908-10), interior (1910-11, 1918-19, 1931), public works (1918), and railways, posts, and telegraphs (1918, 1934).
Musharraf, Pervez (b. Aug. 11, 1943, New Delhi, India), chief executive (1999-2002) and president (2001-08) of Pakistan. He joined the Pakistan army in 1964 in an artillery regiment after training in the well-known military academy of Kakul in North-West Frontier Province, which he joined in 1962. He fought in the 16-day war with India in 1965 and received a medal for gallantry displayed during fierce fighting against Indian troops in the Khem Karan sector in Punjab province. In 1971, when Pakistan again went to war with India, Musharraf, who had trained as a commando, was a member of the elite military Special Services Group of commandos. He held senior staff and teaching positions in his rise through the ranks, commanding armoured divisions and infantry brigades along the way. As a lieutenant-general, his last key posting was in 1995 as commander in Mangla in Punjab, an important military area close to the border with India. He was promoted to general and appointed army chief in October 1998 after the controversial resignation of former military chief Gen. Jehangir Karamat, who stepped down after making remarks seen as critical of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. Musharraf led a bloodless coup in October 1999, ousting Sharif, who had tried to dismiss him. He was proclaimed the country's chief executive; the constitution was suspended and parliament dissolved. In 2001 he made himself president as well, while in 2002 he held elections and gave up the chief executive post, handing over to a prime minister elected by parliament. After the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks he agreed to cooperate with the U.S. "war on terrorism," angering a significant part of the population; he survived several assassination attempts. He stepped down as army chief in November 2007. In elections in February 2008, pro-Musharraf parties were defeated. In August 2008 he resigned as president to avoid facing impeachment charges for illegally seizing power and mishandling the economy. After four years of self-imposed exile, he returned to Pakistan in March 2013, planning to lead his party in the May general election. In April he was arrested on charges relating to the unlawful detention of judges in 2007. In August he was also charged with involvement in the 2007 assassination of opposition leader Benazir Bhutto.
Mushid III, (Kaumb), original name Benjamin (Kaumb Diur) Tshombe (b. June 6, 1945, Sandoa, Katanga province, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), ruler of Ruund (2005- ); brother of Moise Tshombe and Kawel II.
Mushikiwabo, Louise (b. May 22, 1961, Jabana, Kigali, Rwanda), foreign minister of Rwanda (2009- ). She was also information minister (2008-09).
Mushobekwa Kalimba Wa Katana, (Fraterne Didier) (b. Jan. 12, 1943, Costermansville, eastern Belgian Congo [now Bukavu, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Sept. 20, 2004, Belgium), foreign minister of Zaire (1990-91). He was also ambassador to China (1982-85), Belgium (1987-88), and the United States (1988-90).
Mushota, Remmy (b. February 1953 - d. Jan. 7, 2000), foreign minister of Zambia (1994-95).
Music, Fikret (b. 1953, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Sarajevo canton (2011-12).
Muskie, Edmund S(ixtus) (b. March 28, 1914, Rumford, Maine - d. March 26, 1996, Washington, D.C.), governor of Maine (1955-59) and U.S. secretary of state (1980-81). He served six years in the Maine House of Representatives (1947-53) before being elected governor in 1954 (as the first Democrat in 20 years); in that post he supported clean air and water legislation. In 1958 he was elected to the U.S. Senate, where his continued support of environmental issues earned him the nickname "Mr. Clean." He sponsored the Model Cities Act (1966), the Clean Air Act (1970), and the Clean Water Act (1972). In 1968 he became nationally known as Hubert Humphrey's vice-presidential running mate. His excellent performance in that losing cause made him a favourite for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination, but a combination of poor organization, fatigue, the famous Muskie temper, and "dirty tricks" financed by campaign aides to Pres. Richard Nixon lost it in the early primaries. While campaigning in New Hampshire and angrily denouncing attacks by the Manchester Union Leader (Feb. 26, 1972), he seemed to some to be crying. He said that what appeared to be tears on his face was really melting snow, but he could not shake an image of weakness. In 1975 he became chairman of the new Senate Budget Committee. When Cyrus Vance suddenly resigned as secretary of state in April 1980, Pres. Jimmy Carter surprised Washington by giving the job to Muskie. It was seen as a masterful political stroke that removed from contention one of the few Democrats who might be a compromise presidential candidate should the Democratic convention become deadlocked between Carter and Ted Kennedy. After Carter left office in 1981, Muskie also withdrew from politics.
Musokotwane, Kebby (Sililo Kabulu) (b. May 5, 1946, Musokotwane village, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Feb. 11, 1996, Lusaka, Zambia), prime minister of Zambia (1985-89). He entered politics in 1973 when he became member of parliament for Katombora constituency in the first one-party elections of December 1973. In 1977, he was appointed minister of water and natural resources. In 1979, he was moved to the sports ministry in the same capacity. That same year he was transferred to the education ministry where he stayed for two years before becoming finance minister. At 38, Musokotwane made history as Zambia's youngest prime minister in 1985. In 1987 he combined the post with that of finance minister. He was relieved of the prime minister's portfolio in 1989 and initially sent back to education but after protest was sent to Canada as Zambia's high commissioner. When the multiparty lobby gained momentum in 1990, speculation was high that he would join the Movement for Multiparty Democracy. But he stuck to the United National Independence Party (UNIP) and later became the party's secretary-general after its disastrous showing in the October 1991 election. Musokotwane became UNIP president in October 1992. But to some he seemed not to fit in former president Kenneth Kaunda's oversized shoes. Doubts of his leadership continued until the June 1995 congress where he lost to Kaunda who polled 1,916 to Musokotwane's 400 votes.
Musonge, Peter Mafany (b. Dec. 3, 1942, Muea, British Cameroons [now in Fako département, Sud-Ouest province, Cameroon]), prime minister of Cameroon (1996-2004).
Musset, Joseph-Mathurin (b. July 1, 1749, Légé [now in Loire-Atlantique département], France - d. April 11, 1831, Neufchâteau, Belgium), plenipotentiary civil commissioner of the Piedmontese Republic (1799).
Mussolini, Benito (Amilcare Andrea), byname Il Duce ("The Leader") (b. July 29, 1883, Predappio, Emilia-Romagna, Italy - d. April 28, 1945, near Dongo, Lombardia, Italy), prime minister (1922-43) and foreign minister (1922-29, 1932-36) of Italy. Originally a Socialist, he began in 1918 to advocate the emergence of a dictator, hinting that he himself might be such a man. In 1919 he formed the nucleus of a party, called the Fasci di Combattimento ("fighting bands"). His opportunity presented itself in 1922 when, to the dismay of the Italian people as a whole, a general strike was called. Mussolini declared that unless the government prevented the strike, the Fascists would. When the Fascists began to march on Rome, threatening to bring down the government, King Vittorio Emanuele III made Mussolini prime minister (the youngest in Italian history). He obtained full dictatorial powers for a year, and used that time to push through a law that enabled the Fascists to secure a majority in the Chamber. Subsequently he assumed permanent dictatorial powers and dissolved all other political parties. Dreams of empire led him to invade Ethiopia in 1935. Sanctions were imposed by the League of Nations, but he found a new ally in Adolf Hitler's Germany, and, seeing Hitler's initial successes in World War II, he joined the German side on June 10, 1940. But from the beginning the war went badly for Italy. When the Allies invaded Sicily in July 1943, it was obvious that collapse was imminent. The Fascist Grand Council dismissed him; he was arrested but rescued by the Germans on September 12. He followed Hitler's suggestion to establish a new Fascist government in the north, where he awaited the inevitable end. When he tried to cross the frontier, he was recognized and shot by Italian partisans.
Mussoni, Francesco (b. May 15, 1971, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2009-10). He has also been minister of labour, cooperation, and posts (2011-12) and health, social security, and family (2012- ).
Mustafa, al- (b. August 1786 - d. Oct. 10, 1837, La Goulette, Tunisia), bey of Tunisia (1835-37); brother of al-Husayn.
Mustafa, Isa (b. May 15, 1951, Prapashticë, Kosovo), prime minister of Kosovo (2014- ). He was mayor of Pristina in 2007-13.
Mustafaj, Besnik (Bajram) (b. Sept. 4, 1958, Tropojë, Albania), foreign minister of Albania (2005-07). He was ambassador to France in 1992-97.
Mustafayev, Firuz (Rajab ogly), acting prime minister of Azerbaijan (1992).
Mustajbegovic, Zahid (b. July 30, 1954), premier of Central Bosnia (1999).
Musukov, Aliy (Takhirovich) (b. May 11, 1969, Khabaz, Zolsky rayon, Kabardino-Balkar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Kabardino-Balkariya (2014- ).
Musuleng-Cooper, Dorothy (Harriet Eugenia) (b. Sept. 9, 1930, Arthington, Montserrado county, Liberia - d. June 30, 2009, Monrovia, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (1994-95).
Musyoka, (Stephen) Kalonzo (b. Dec. 24, 1953, Tseikuru, Eastern province, Kenya), foreign minister (1993-98, 2003-04) and vice president and home affairs minister (2008-13) of Kenya. He was also minister of education and human resource development (1998-99), education (1999-2001), tourism and information (2001-02), and environment and natural resources (2004-05) and a presidential candidate (2007).
Mutaga IV Mbikije (b. 1903 - d. [killed] Nov. 30, 1915, Kibara forest, near Murangara, Rwanda), king of Burundi (1908-15).
Mutalibov, Ayaz (Niyazi ogly), Azeri Äyaz Niyazi oglu Muttalibov (b. May 12, 1938, Baku, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), president of Azerbaijan (1990-92, 1992).
Mutalov, Abdulkhashim (Mutalovich) (b. April 27, 1947, Telyau, Tashkent oblast, Uzbek S.S.R.), prime minister of Uzbekistan (1992-95). He was also minister of grain products (1987-91) and deputy prime minister (1991-92).
Mutara III, personal name Charles Léon Pierre Rudahigwa (b. 1913 - d. July 25, 1959, Bujumbura, Burundi), king of Rwanda (1931-59). He was assassinated in 1959. His widow, Queen Rosalin Gicanda, and six of her relatives were killed in the 1994 massacres.
Mutharika, Bingu wa, original name Brightson Thom, also called Ryson Webster Thomu Mtalika, from about 1964 Bingu Mutharika (b. Feb. 24, 1934, Kamoto village, Thyolo district, Nyasaland [now Malawi] - d. April 5, 2012, Lilongwe, Malawi), president of Malawi (2004-12). He served in the civil service of the government of Nyasaland (1963-64) and in the government of Zambia (1965-66) and had a long and rewarding career in the United Nations, where he became director for trade and development finance for Africa (1978-90). From 1991 to 1997 he was secretary-general of the regional economic grouping, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa). Having helped bring about an end to the Hastings Kamuzu Banda regime in 1994, he formed the United Party in 1997 and ran for president in the 1999 elections, in which he emerged last out of five candidates. He dissolved the party after being offered the deputy governorship at the Reserve Bank of Malawi (central bank). He was appointed minister of economic planning and development in 2002 before Pres. Bakili Muluzi picked him as his successor. In the run-up to the 2004 elections there were revelations of how Mutharika lost his post as Comesa secretary-general in the late 1990s. A probe found that Mutharika had among others misused Comesa funds and abused his office, according to reports in the daily Nation. But Mutharika denied everything and threatened to sue the newspaper. He won the election but the opposition rejected the results. In February 2005 he resigned from the ruling United Democratic Front and formed the Democratic Progressive Party. In 2010-11 he was chairman of the African Union. He died in office.
B. wa Mutharika
Mutharika, (Arthur) Peter (b. July 18, 1940, Thyolo district, Nyasaland [now Malawi]), foreign minister (2011-12) and president (2014- ) of Malawi; brother of Bingu wa Mutharika. He was also minister of justice (2009-10) and education, science and technology (2010-11).
Muthaura, Francis (b. Oct. 20, 1946, Meru, Eastern province, Kenya), secretary-general of the East African Community (1996-2001).
Muti, Muhammad Saleh (Abdullah) (b. June 16, 1944, Aden - d. [reportedly killed by a guard while attempting to escape from prison] February 1981, Aden), interior minister (1971-73) and foreign minister (1973-79) of Yemen (Aden).
Mutz, Pierre (b. Nov. 15, 1942, Tournon-d'Agenais, Lot-et-Garonne, France), prefect of police of Paris (2004-07) and prefect of Paris département (2007-08). He was also prefect of the départements of Essonne (1996-2000) and Haute-Vienne (2000-02).
Muwanga, Paulo (b. 1924, Mpigi, Buganda - d. April 1, 1991, near Kampala, Uganda), chairman of the Military Commission (1980) and prime minister (1985) of Uganda. In the 1950s he joined Uganda's first political party, the Uganda People's Congress, founded by Milton Obote. When independence from Britain came in 1962, Muwanga joined Obote's Foreign Ministry, becoming ambassador to Egypt in 1964 and chief of protocol in 1969. After the 1971 coup that brought Gen. Idi Amin to power, Muwanga was named ambassador to Paris, but he went into exile two years later. Amin was overthrown in 1979, and Muwanga emerged as the head of the six-member military council that took control in 1980. After Obote was reelected president, Muwanga served as defense minister and vice president until 1985, when Obote was again ousted; Muwanga then served as prime minister for less than a month. He denied accusations that he was responsible for a policy of torture and murder that left at least 300,000 people dead. He was acquitted of kidnapping with intent to murder, and other criminal charges were dropped.
Muzaffar ad-Din Bahadur Khan (b. 1819 - d. Dec. 13, 1885), emir of Bukhara (1860-85).
Muzanty, João Augusto de Oliveira (b. 1872, Lisbon, Portugal - d. 1937, Lisbon), governor of Portuguese Guinea (1906-09).
Muzenda, Simon (Vengai Murefu) (b. Oct. 28, 1922, Gutu, Masvingo province, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Sept. 20, 2003, Harare, Zimbabwe), Zimbabwean politician. For his political activism against colonial rule, he spent most of the decade 1962-72 in prison or under colonial restriction orders curtailing his movements. He fled into exile in neighbouring Zambia and then to Mozambique, joining Robert Mugabe in reorganizing the ZANU party and its guerrilla war against the white government of Rhodesia, as Zimbabwe was then known. He was Mugabe's deputy since independence in 1980, first as deputy prime minister and later as vice president when the country adopted the executive presidency system on Dec. 31, 1987. He was also foreign minister in 1980-81. The gruff one-time carpenter was one of the least educated politicians in the ruling elite but was rewarded for his loyalty with high office that brought him wealth and status. He was frequently the target of ridicule over his humble origins and often clumsy politicking. During campaigning for parliamentary elections in 2000, Muzenda told supporters of the ruling ZANU-PF party in his home district in southern Zimbabwe that the party was so popular there that "if we put a baboon as a candidate, people will vote for it." He backed Mugabe's controversial land redistribution programme and said he had held off his planned retirement to see the first phase of the programme to a successful conclusion. He was at the centre of a controversy in 2002 when the mainly white Commercial Farmers Union accused him of leading a group which forcibly ejected a farmer in his southern home province of Masvingo.
Muzito, Adolphe (b. Feb. 12, 1957, Gungu, Belgian Congo [now in Bandundu province, Congo (Kinshasa)]), prime minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (2008-12).
Muzorewa, Abel T(endekayi) (b. April 14, 1925, Old Umtali, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. April 8, 2010, Borrowdale, near Harare, Zimbabwe), prime minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979). He became a bishop of the United Methodist Church in 1968 and first emerged as a political figure in the 1970s at a time when all the major black politicians in the country were in prison or in exile. Generally a moderate, he showed himself to be as militant as the radicals on the issue of black rule. When Lord Pearce was sent to Rhodesia by the British government to test public opinion about proposals for a settlement of the conflict, Muzorewa took a leading part in mobilizing opposition to the offered terms. At the time he appeared as a spokesman for the veteran nationalist leader Joshua Nkomo, but the two men quarreled after Nkomo's release from detention, and Muzorewa chose to lead his own party. This brought him into conflict with the established nationalist leaders grouped together in the Patriotic Front, which resorted to guerrilla warfare. He nevertheless proved himself to be a tough negotiator during the months of difficult talks over the ending of the war; he had to face the aggressive opposition not only of the Patriotic Front leaders but also of Ian Smith, the white Rhodesian leader with whom he negotiated an internal settlement in 1978. On May 29, 1979, he became Rhodesia's first black prime minister after his party, the United African National Council, won 51 seats in the 100-member parliament under a new majority-rule constitution. Only six months later he agreed to relinquish his premiership when an agreement was reached in London for the restoration of Britain's legal presence in Rhodesia, ending the 14-year-old rebellion there. He then led his party in new elections in 1980 but it was defeated. In 1983 he was detained for 10 months without trial by the government.
Mvouba, Isidore (b. 1954, Kindamba, southern French Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)]), prime minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (2005-09).
Mwaanga, Vernon (Johnson) (b. June 25, 1944, Choma, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), foreign minister of Zambia (1973-75, 1991-94). He was also ambassador to the U.S.S.R. (1965-68), permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-72), and information minister (2001-02, 2005-07).
Mwakwere, Chirau Ali (b. June 15, 1945, Kwale, Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (2004-05). He was also high commissioner to Zimbabwe (1992-98), ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (1998-2000), and minister of labour (2003-04), transport (2005-10), trade (2010-12), and environment and mineral resources (2012-13).
Mwale, Siteke (Gibson) (b. Oct. 22, 1929, Nyimba, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Sept. 19, 2010, Lusaka, Zambia), foreign minister of Zambia (1976-78).
Mwambutsa IV, personal name Charles Bangilicenge (b. 1912, Nyabiyogi, Burundi - d. April 26, 1977, Geneva, Switzerland), king of Burundi (1915-66).
Mwananshiku, Luke (b. March 9, 1938, Mashitolo village, Samfya district, Luapula province, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. March 2, 2003, Lusaka, Zambia), finance minister (1975-76, 1983-86) and foreign minister (1986-90) of Zambia.
Mwanawasa, Levy (Patrick) (b. Sept. 3, 1948, Mufulira, Copperbelt province, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Aug. 19, 2008, Paris, France), president of Zambia (2002-08). He was solicitor general in 1985-86. A founding member of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) in 1990, he was elected to the National Assembly in 1991. He served as vice president from 1991 until July 1994 when he resigned citing gross abuse of office and corruption by some leaders and insubordination to him by some colleagues. In 1995, he contested the presidency of the ruling MMD and lost. He retired from active politics again until he was chosen presidential candidate in 2001, handpicked by Pres. Frederick Chiluba after Chiluba failed in his attempt to change the constitution so he could run for a third term. His series of gaffes and miscues made headlines, none more than when he referred to Chiluba as his sister. In a field of 11 candidates and with Zambia's first-past-the-post system, 29% of the vote was sufficient for him to narrowly win the election. The opposition made allegations of vote rigging; his closest rival Anderson Mazoka and two other losing candidates petitioned the Supreme Court, but in February 2005 the court upheld his election. In 2006 he was reelected with 43% of the vote. During his presidency he focused on rebuilding a struggling economy and ridding public offices of rampant corruption. He ensured that several high-ranking figures from the former Chiluba government were included in his corruption and theft dragnet; Chiluba's own immunity from prosecution was waived and a trial for corruption and the theft of public funds set. But in the face of a lack of convictions, this campaign widely came to be viewed as a tool by which Mwanawasa settled battles with political opponents and detractors. He died in office.
Mwangale, Elijah (Wasike) (b. 1939, Matili village, Kimilili division, Bungoma district, Kenya - d. Nov. 24, 2004, Nairobi, Kenya), foreign minister of Kenya (1983-87). He was also minister of agriculture (1987-89, 1990-92) and livestock development (1989-90).
Mwansa, Kalombo (Thomson) (b. Sept. 9, 1955, Nchelenge, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), foreign minister (2002-05), home affairs minister (2005, 2008-09), and defense minister (2009-11) of Zambia.
Mwapachu, Juma Volter (b. Sept. 27, 1942, Mwanza, northwestern Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), secretary-general of the East African Community (2006-11). He served as Tanzanian ambassador to France in 2002-06.
Mwencha, Erastus (Jarnalese Onkundi) (b. Nov. 15, 1947, Kisii, Kenya), deputy chairman of the Commission of the African Union (2008- ).
Mwila, Benjamin (Yoram) ("BY") (b. Sept. 17, 1943, Mufulira, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Aug. 17, 2013, South Africa), defense minister of Zambia (1991-97); uncle of Frederick Chiluba. He was a presidential candidate in 2001.
Mwinyi, Ali Hassan (b. May 8, 1925, Kivure village, Coast region, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), president of Tanzania (1985-95). Although born on the mainland, he was taken as a young child by his parents to Zanzibar. In 1964 he joined the Afro-Shirazi Party and entered the Zanzibar public service, in the Ministry of Education. A year later, after the island's revolution, he was given a senior post in the State Trading Corporation, where he was discovered by Pres. Julius Nyerere in 1970. From then on he held various ministerial posts, including minister of health (1972-75), home affairs (1975-77), and natural resources and tourism (1982-83), and was ambassador to Egypt (1977-81). In 1984 he became president of Zanzibar (and first vice president of Tanzania) at a time when the previous incumbent had lost control over a movement demanding the island's secession from the mainland. He showed political skill and moderation in dealing with the situation. After Nyerere decided to retire, Mwinyi became president of Tanzania in 1985. He came to office at a difficult time following years of drought and economic collapse due to a variety of causes including the steep rise in oil prices, the downturn in world demand and prices for some of the country's agricultural exports, and the cost of the war to bring down Uganda's tyrant, Idi Amin. Like Nyerere, Mwinyi was a strong believer in consensus politics. That Mwinyi, as an islander and a Muslim in a predominantly Christian country, came to be president testified to the success of Nyerere's policies in eliminating tribalism and religion as divisive factors in the nation's politics. Unlike Nyerere, though, Mwinyi was not a committed ideologist. He moved his nation toward a free-market system in an effort to revitalize the economy. He was reelected in 1990. From 1990 to 1996 he was chairman of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party, whose monopoly of power was ended when multipartyism was introduced in 1992.
Myasnikou, Alyaksandr Fyodaravich, Armenian Aleksandr Teodorosi Myasnikyan (b. Feb. 9 [Jan. 28, O.S.], 1886, Nakhichevan-na-Donu [now part of Rostov-na-Donu], Russia - d. [air crash] March 22, 1925, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919), chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee (1921) and of the Council of People's Commissars (1921-22) of Armenia, and member of the Union Council (1922) and first secretary of the Communist Party (1922-25) of Transcaucasia.
Myasnikovich, Mikhail (Vladimirovich), Belarusian Mikhail (Uladzimiravich) Myasnikovich (b. May 6, 1950, Novy Snov village, Minsk oblast, Belorussian S.S.R.), prime minister of Belarus (2010-14). In 2015 he became chairman of the Council of the Republic.
Myint Maung (b. March 10, 1921, Magwe, Burma), foreign minister of Burma (1978-80).
Myrdal, Alva Reimer (b. Jan. 31, 1902, Uppsala, Sweden - d. Feb. 1, 1986, Ersta, near Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish diplomat. She was director of the United Nations Department of Social Welfare (1949-50) and of the UNESCO Department of Social Sciences (1951-55). From 1955 to 1961 she served, first as minister, then as ambassador, of the Swedish government to India, Burma, and Ceylon. She was named special disarmament adviser to the Swedish foreign minister in 1961 and head of the Swedish delegation to the Geneva Disarmament Conference in 1962. She was also elected to parliament as a Social Democrat in 1962, and remained a member until 1970. In 1966 she was appointed minister without portfolio in charge of disarmament affairs, holding that post and the one in Geneva until 1973. Thereafter she continued to write and speak frequently on behalf of disarmament, her publications including The Game of Disarmament: How the United States and Russia Run the Arms Race (1976). She was corecipient with Alfonso García Robles of Mexico of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982. Earlier she had been awarded the West German Peace Prize (1970; jointly with her husband, Gunnar Myrdal), the Albert Einstein Peace Prize (1980), the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding (1981), and the Norwegian "People's Peace Prize" (1982).
Mzali, Mohamed, Arabic Muhammad Muzali (b. Dec. 23, 1925, Monastir, Tunisia - d. June 23, 2010, Paris, France), defense minister (1968-69), prime minister (1980-86), and interior minister (1984-86) of Tunisia. He was also minister of youth and sports (1969-70), education (1971-73, 1976-80), and health (1973-76). He returned to Tunisia on Aug. 6, 2002, after 15 years of exile in France.
Mzali, Mohamed Salah, Arabic Muhammad Salah Muzali (b. 1896, Monastir, Tunisia - d. af. 1972), prime minister of Tunisia (1954).
Mzimba, Ibrahim Ali (b. April 12, 1963, Démbeni, Grande Comore, Comoros), foreign minister of the Comoros (1997-98).