Rulers: United States

Government departments and offices, etc.

Contents of this page:
Vice presidents - Department of State - Department of Defense - Post Office Department - Department of the Treasury - Department of Justice - Department of the Interior - Department of Agriculture - Department of Commerce - Department of Labor - Department of Housing and Urban Development - Department of Transportation - Department of Energy - Department of Health and Human Services - Department of Education - Department of Veterans Affairs - Department of Homeland Security - UN representatives - Executive Office of the President - Independent agencies - Supreme Court - Congress - Political parties - Labour unions

Vice presidents
21 Apr 1789 -  4 Mar 1797  John Adams                    Fed  (b. 1735 - d. 1826)
 4 Mar 1797 -  4 Mar 1801  Thomas Jefferson              D-R  (b. 1743 - d. 1826)
 4 Mar 1801 -  4 Mar 1805  Aaron Burr                    D-R  (b. 1756 - d. 1836)
 4 Mar 1805 - 20 Apr 1812  George Clinton                D-R  (b. 1739 - d. 1812)
20 Apr 1812 -  4 Mar 1813  vacant
 4 Mar 1813 - 23 Nov 1814  Elbridge Gerry                D-R  (b. 1744 - d. 1814)
23 Nov 1814 -  4 Mar 1817  vacant
 4 Mar 1817 -  4 Mar 1825  Daniel D. Tompkins            D-R  (b. 1774 - d. 1825)
 4 Mar 1825 - 28 Dec 1832  John C. Calhoun               Dem  (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
28 Dec 1832 -  4 Mar 1833  vacant
 4 Mar 1833 -  4 Mar 1837  Martin Van Buren              Dem  (b. 1782 - d. 1862)
 4 Mar 1837 -  4 Mar 1841  Richard M. Johnson            Dem  (b. 1780 - d. 1850)
 4 Mar 1841 -  4 Apr 1841  John Tyler                    Whg  (b. 1790 - d. 1862)
 4 Apr 1841 -  4 Mar 1845  vacant
 4 Mar 1845 -  4 Mar 1849  George M. Dallas              Dem  (b. 1792 - d. 1864)
 4 Mar 1849 -  9 Jul 1850  Millard Fillmore              Whg  (b. 1800 - d. 1874)
 9 Jul 1850 -  4 Mar 1853  vacant
 4 Mar 1853 - 18 Apr 1853  William Rufus de Vane King    Dem  (b. 1786 - d. 1853)
18 Apr 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  vacant
 4 Mar 1857 -  4 Mar 1861  John C. Breckinridge          Dem  (b. 1821 - d. 1875)
 4 Mar 1861 -  4 Mar 1865  Hannibal Hamlin               Rep  (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
 4 Mar 1865 - 15 Apr 1865  Andrew Johnson                Dem  (b. 1808 - d. 1875)
15 Apr 1865 -  4 Mar 1869  vacant
 4 Mar 1869 -  4 Mar 1873  Schuyler Colfax               Rep  (b. 1823 - d. 1885)
 4 Mar 1873 - 22 Nov 1875  Henry Wilson                  Rep  (b. 1812 - d. 1875)
22 Nov 1875 -  4 Mar 1877  vacant
 4 Mar 1877 -  4 Mar 1881  William A. Wheeler            Rep  (b. 1819 - d. 1887)
 4 Mar 1881 - 19 Sep 1881  Chester A. Arthur             Rep  (b. 1829 - d. 1886)
19 Sep 1881 -  4 Mar 1885  vacant
 4 Mar 1885 - 25 Nov 1885  Thomas A. Hendricks           Dem  (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
25 Nov 1885 -  4 Mar 1889  vacant
 4 Mar 1889 -  4 Mar 1893  Levi P. Morton                Rep  (b. 1824 - d. 1920)
 4 Mar 1893 -  4 Mar 1897  Adlai E. Stevenson            Dem  (b. 1835 - d. 1914)
 4 Mar 1897 - 21 Nov 1899  Garret A. Hobart              Rep  (b. 1844 - d. 1899)
21 Nov 1899 -  4 Mar 1901  vacant
 4 Mar 1901 - 14 Sep 1901  Theodore Roosevelt            Rep  (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
14 Sep 1901 -  4 Mar 1905  vacant
 4 Mar 1905 -  4 Mar 1909  Charles W. Fairbanks          Rep  (b. 1852 - d. 1918)
 4 Mar 1909 - 30 Oct 1912  James S. Sherman              Rep  (b. 1855 - d. 1912)
30 Oct 1912 -  4 Mar 1913  vacant
 4 Mar 1913 -  4 Mar 1921  Thomas R. Marshall            Dem  (b. 1854 - d. 1925)
 4 Mar 1921 -  2 Aug 1923  Calvin Coolidge               Rep  (b. 1872 - d. 1933)
 2 Aug 1923 -  4 Mar 1925  vacant
 4 Mar 1925 -  4 Mar 1929  Charles G. Dawes              Rep  (b. 1865 - d. 1951)
 4 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Charles Curtis                Rep  (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
 4 Mar 1933 - 20 Jan 1941  John N. Garner                Dem  (b. 1868 - d. 1967)
20 Jan 1941 - 20 Jan 1945  Henry A. Wallace              Dem  (b. 1888 - d. 1965)
20 Jan 1945 - 12 Apr 1945  Harry S. Truman               Dem  (b. 1884 - d. 1972)
12 Apr 1945 - 20 Jan 1949  vacant
20 Jan 1949 - 20 Jan 1953  Alben W. Barkley              Dem  (b. 1877 - d. 1956)
21 Jan 1953 - 20 Jan 1961  Richard M. Nixon              Rep  (b. 1913 - d. 1994)
20 Jan 1961 - 22 Nov 1963  Lyndon B. Johnson             Dem  (b. 1908 - d. 1973)
22 Nov 1963 - 20 Jan 1965  vacant
20 Jan 1965 - 20 Jan 1969  Hubert H. Humphrey            Dem  (b. 1911 - d. 1978)
20 Jan 1969 - 10 Oct 1973  Spiro T. Agnew                Rep  (b. 1918 - d. 1996)
10 Oct 1973 -  6 Dec 1973  vacant
 6 Dec 1973 -  9 Aug 1974  Gerald R. Ford                Rep  (b. 1913 - d. 2006)
 9 Aug 1974 - 19 Dec 1974  vacant
19 Dec 1974 - 20 Jan 1977  Nelson A. Rockefeller         Rep  (b. 1908 - d. 1979)
20 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Walter F. Mondale             Dem  (b. 1928)
20 Jan 1981 - 20 Jan 1989  George Bush                   Rep  (b. 1924)
20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Dan Quayle                    Rep  (b. 1947)
20 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Al Gore                       Dem  (b. 1948)
20 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2009  Richard Cheney                Rep  (b. 1941)
20 Jan 2009 -              Joe Biden                     Dem  (b. 1942)
Party abbreviations: Dem=Democratic, D-R=Democratic-Republican, Fed=Federalist, Rep=Republican, Whg=Whig

Department of State

10 Jul 1781                Department of Foreign Affairs
15 Sep 1789                Department of State

Secretaries
20 Oct 1781 -    Jun 1783  Robert R. Livingston               (b. 1746 - d. 1813)
 7 May 1784 - 22 Mar 1790  John Jay                           (b. 1745 - d. 1829)
                           (acting from 4 Mar 1789)
22 Mar 1790 - 31 Dec 1793  Thomas Jefferson                   (b. 1743 - d. 1826)
 2 Jan 1794 - 20 Aug 1795  Edmund Randolph                    (b. 1753 - d. 1813)
20 Aug 1795 - 12 May 1800  Timothy Pickering                  (b. 1745 - d. 1829)
                           (acting to 9 Dec 1795)
13 May 1800 -  5 Jun 1800  Charles Lee (acting)               (b. 1758 - d. 1815)
 6 Jun 1800 -  4 Mar 1801  John Marshall                      (b. 1755 - d. 1835)
                           (acting from 4 Feb 1801)
 5 Mar 1801 -  1 May 1801  Levi Lincoln (acting)              (b. 1749 - d. 1820)
 2 May 1801 -  3 Mar 1809  James Madison                      (b. 1751 - d. 1836)
 6 Mar 1809 -  1 Apr 1811  Robert Smith                       (b. 1757 - d. 1842)
 6 Apr 1811 -  3 Mar 1817  James Monroe                       (b. 1758 - d. 1831)
                           (acting 1 Oct 1814 - 28 Feb 1815)
 4 Mar 1817 -  9 Mar 1817  John Graham (acting)
10 Mar 1817 - 22 Sep 1817  Richard Rush (acting)              (b. 1780 - d. 1859)
22 Sep 1817 -  3 Mar 1825  John Quincy Adams                  (b. 1767 - d. 1848)
 4 Mar 1825 -  7 Mar 1825  Daniel Brent (acting)
 7 Mar 1825 -  3 Mar 1829  Henry Clay                         (b. 1777 - d. 1852)
 4 Mar 1829 - 27 Mar 1829  James A. Hamilton (acting)
28 Mar 1829 - 23 May 1831  Martin Van Buren                   (b. 1782 - d. 1862)
24 May 1831 - 29 May 1833  Edward Livingston                  (b. 1764 - d. 1836)
29 May 1833 - 30 Jun 1834  Louis McLane                       (b. 1786 - d. 1857)
 1 Jul 1834 -  3 Mar 1841  John Forsyth                       (b. 1780 - d. 1841)
 4 Mar 1841 -  5 Mar 1841  Jacob L. Martin (acting)           (b. ... - d. 1848)
 6 Mar 1841 -  8 May 1843  Daniel Webster (1st time)          (b. 1782 - d. 1852)
 9 May 1843 - 20 Jun 1843  Hugh S. Legaré (acting)            (b. 1797 - d. 1843)
21 Jun 1843 - 23 Jun 1843  William S. Derrick (acting)        (b. 1802 - d. 1852)
24 Jun 1843 - 28 Feb 1844  Abel P. Upshur                     (b. 1790 - d. 1844)
                           (acting to 23 Jul 1843)
29 Feb 1844 - 31 Mar 1844  John Nelson (acting)               (b. 1794 - d. 1860)
 1 Apr 1844 - 10 Mar 1845  John C. Calhoun                    (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
10 Mar 1845 -  7 Mar 1849  James Buchanan                     (b. 1791 - d. 1868)
 8 Mar 1849 - 22 Jul 1850  John M. Clayton                    (b. 1796 - d. 1856)
23 Jul 1850 - 24 Oct 1852  Daniel Webster (2nd time)          (s.a.)
25 Oct 1852 -  5 Nov 1852  Charles M. Conrad (acting)         (b. 1804 - d. 1878)
 6 Nov 1852 -  3 Mar 1853  Edward Everett                     (b. 1794 - d. 1865)
 4 Mar 1853 -  7 Mar 1853  William Hunter (1st time) (acting) (b. 1805 - d. 1886)
 8 Mar 1853 -  6 Mar 1857  William L. Marcy                   (b. 1786 - d. 1857)
 6 Mar 1857 - 14 Dec 1860  Lewis Cass                         (b. 1782 - d. 1866)
15 Dec 1860 - 16 Dec 1860  William Hunter (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
17 Dec 1860 -  5 Mar 1861  Jeremiah S. Black                  (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
 6 Mar 1861 -  4 Mar 1869  William H. Seward                  (b. 1801 - d. 1872)
 5 Mar 1869 - 16 Mar 1869  Elihu B. Washburne                 (b. 1816 - d. 1887)
17 Mar 1869 - 12 Mar 1877  Hamilton Fish                      (b. 1808 - d. 1893)
12 Mar 1877 -  7 Mar 1881  William M. Evarts                  (b. 1818 - d. 1901)
 7 Mar 1881 - 19 Dec 1881  James G. Blaine (1st time)         (b. 1830 - d. 1893)
19 Dec 1881 -  6 Mar 1885  Frederick T. Frelinghuysen         (b. 1817 - d. 1885)
 7 Mar 1885 -  6 Mar 1889  Thomas F. Bayard                   (b. 1828 - d. 1898)
 7 Mar 1889 -  4 Jun 1892  James G. Blaine (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 4 Jun 1892 - 29 Jun 1892  William F. Wharton (1st time)      (b. 1847 - d. 1919)
                           (acting)
29 Jun 1892 - 23 Feb 1893  John W. Foster                     (b. 1836 - d. 1917)
24 Feb 1893 -  6 Mar 1893  William F. Wharton (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 7 Mar 1893 - 28 May 1895  Walter Q. Gresham                  (b. 1832 - d. 1895)
28 May 1895 -  9 Jun 1895  Edwin F. Uhl (acting)              (b. 1841 - d. 1901)
10 Jun 1895 -  5 Mar 1897  Richard Olney                      (b. 1835 - d. 1917)
 6 Mar 1897 - 27 Apr 1898  John Sherman                       (b. 1823 - d. 1900)
28 Apr 1898 - 16 Sep 1898  William R. Day                     (b. 1849 - d. 1923)
17 Sep 1898 - 29 Sep 1898  Alvey A. Adee (acting)             (b. 1842 - d. 1924)
30 Sep 1898 -  1 Jul 1905  John M. Hay                        (b. 1838 - d. 1905)
 1 Jul 1905 - 18 Jul 1905  Francis B. Loomis (acting)         (b. 1861 - d. 1948)
19 Jul 1905 - 27 Jan 1909  Elihu Root                         (b. 1845 - d. 1937)
27 Jan 1909 -  5 Mar 1909  Robert Bacon                       (b. 1860 - d. 1919)
 6 Mar 1909 -  5 Mar 1913  Philander Chase Knox               (b. 1853 - d. 1921)
 5 Mar 1913 -  9 Jun 1915  William Jennings Bryan             (b. 1860 - d. 1925)
 9 Jun 1915 - 13 Feb 1920  Robert Lansing                     (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
                           (acting to 23 Jun 1915)
14 Feb 1920 - 14 Mar 1920  Frank Lyon Polk (acting)           (b. 1871 - d. 1943)
23 Mar 1920 -  4 Mar 1921  Bainbridge Colby                   (b. 1869 - d. 1950)
 5 Mar 1921 -  4 Jan 1925  Charles Evans Hughes               (b. 1862 - d. 1948)
 5 Mar 1925 - 28 Mar 1929  Frank B. Kellogg                   (b. 1856 - d. 1937)
28 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Henry L. Stimson                   (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
 4 Mar 1933 - 30 Nov 1944  Cordell Hull                       (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
 1 Dec 1944 - 27 Jun 1945  Edward Stettinius                  (b. 1900 - d. 1949)
28 Jun 1945 -  3 Jul 1945  Joseph C. Grew (acting)            (b. 1880 - d. 1965)
 3 Jul 1945 - 21 Jan 1947  James Byrnes                       (b. 1879 - d. 1972)
21 Jan 1947 - 20 Jan 1949  George C. Marshall                 (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
20 Jan 1949 - 21 Jan 1949  Robert Lovett (acting)             (b. 1895 - d. 1986)
21 Jan 1949 - 20 Jan 1953  Dean Acheson                       (b. 1893 - d. 1971)
20 Jan 1953 - 21 Jan 1953  H. Freeman Matthews (acting)       (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
21 Jan 1953 - 22 Apr 1959  John Foster Dulles                 (b. 1888 - d. 1959)
22 Apr 1959 - 20 Jan 1961  Christian A. Herter                (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
20 Jan 1961 - 21 Jan 1961  Livingston T. Merchant (acting)    (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
21 Jan 1961 - 20 Jan 1969  Dean Rusk                          (b. 1909 - d. 1994)
20 Jan 1969 - 22 Jan 1969  Charles E. Bohlen (acting)         (b. 1904 - d. 1974)
22 Jan 1969 -  3 Sep 1973  William Rogers                     (b. 1913 - d. 2001)
 3 Sep 1973 - 22 Sep 1973  Kenneth Rush (acting)              (b. 1910 - d. 1994)
22 Sep 1973 - 20 Jan 1977  Henry Kissinger                    (b. 1923)
20 Jan 1977 - 23 Jan 1977  Philip C. Habib (acting)           (b. 1920 - d. 1992)
23 Jan 1977 - 28 Apr 1980  Cyrus Vance                        (b. 1917 - d. 2002)
28 Apr 1980 -  2 May 1980  Warren Christopher (1st time)      (b. 1925 - d. 2011)
                           (acting)
 2 May 1980 -  3 May 1980  David Newsom (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1918 - d. 2008)
 3 May 1980                Richard N. Cooper (acting)         (b. 1934)
 3 May 1980 -  4 May 1980  David Newsom (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
 4 May 1980 -  8 May 1980  Warren Christopher (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 8 May 1980 - 18 Jan 1981  Edmund S. Muskie                   (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
18 Jan 1981 - 22 Jan 1981  David Newsom (3rd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
22 Jan 1981 -  5 Jul 1982  Alexander Haig                     (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
 5 Jul 1982 - 16 Jul 1982  Walter J. Stoessel, Jr. (acting)   (b. 1920 - d. 1986)
16 Jul 1982 - 20 Jan 1989  George Shultz                      (b. 1920)
20 Jan 1989 - 25 Jan 1989  Michael H. Armacost (acting)       (b. 1937)
25 Jan 1989 - 23 Aug 1992  James Baker                        (b. 1930)
23 Aug 1992 - 19 Jan 1993  Lawrence Eagleburger               (b. 1930 - d. 2011)
                           (acting to 8 Dec 1992)
20 Jan 1993                Arnold Lee Kanter (acting)         (b. 1945 - d. 2010)
20 Jan 1993                Frank G. Wisner (acting)           (b. 1938)
20 Jan 1993 -  7 Jan 1997  Warren Christopher (3rd time)      (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1997 - 23 Jan 1997  Strobe Talbott (acting)            (b. 1946)
23 Jan 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Madeleine Albright (f)             (b. 1937)
20 Jan 2001 - 26 Jan 2005  Colin Powell                       (b. 1937)
26 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Condoleezza Rice (f)               (b. 1954)
20 Jan 2009 - 21 Jan 2009  William Burns (acting)             (b. 1956)
21 Jan 2009 -  1 Feb 2013  Hillary Clinton (f)                (b. 1947)
 1 Feb 2013 -              John Kerry                         (b. 1943)

Department of Defense

18 Sep 1947                Department of Defense, including the departments of the
                           Army, Navy, and Air Force

Secretaries
18 Sep 1947 - 28 Mar 1949  James V. Forrestal                 (b. 1892 - d. 1949)
28 Mar 1949 - 19 Sep 1950  Louis Johnson                      (b. 1891 - d. 1956)
21 Sep 1950 - 12 Sep 1951  George C. Marshall                 (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
17 Sep 1951 - 19 Jan 1953  Robert Lovett                      (b. 1895 - d. 1986)
19 Jan 1953 - 26 Jan 1953  Wilfred J. McNeil (acting)         (b. 1901 - d. 1979)
26 Jan 1953 -  8 Oct 1957  Charles Wilson                     (b. 1890 - d. 1961)
 9 Oct 1957 -  1 Dec 1959  Neil McElroy                       (b. 1904 - d. 1972)
 2 Dec 1959 - 20 Jan 1961  Thomas Gates                       (b. 1906 - d. 1983)
21 Jan 1961 - 29 Feb 1968  Robert S. McNamara                 (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
 1 Mar 1968 - 20 Jan 1969  Clark M. Clifford                  (b. 1906 - d. 1998)
22 Jan 1969 - 29 Jan 1973  Melvin Laird                       (b. 1922)
30 Jan 1973 - 24 May 1973  Elliot Richardson                  (b. 1920 - d. 1999)
 2 Jul 1973 - 19 Nov 1975  James R. Schlesinger               (b. 1929 - d. 2014)
20 Nov 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Donald Rumsfeld (1st time)         (b. 1932)
23 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Harold Brown                       (b. 1927)
21 Jan 1981 - 23 Nov 1987  Caspar Weinberger                  (b. 1917 - d. 2006)
23 Nov 1987 - 20 Jan 1989  Frank Carlucci                     (b. 1930)
20 Jan 1989 - 21 Mar 1989  William Howard Taft IV (acting)    (b. 1945)
21 Mar 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Richard Cheney                     (b. 1941)
21 Jan 1993 -  3 Feb 1994  Les Aspin                          (b. 1938 - d. 1995)
 3 Feb 1994 - 23 Jan 1997  William Perry                      (b. 1927)
24 Jan 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  William Cohen                      (b. 1940)
20 Jan 2001 - 18 Dec 2006  Donald Rumsfeld (2nd time)         (s.a.)
18 Dec 2006 -  1 Jul 2011  Robert M. Gates                    (b. 1943)
 1 Jul 2011 - 27 Feb 2013  Leon Panetta                       (b. 1938)
27 Feb 2013 -              Chuck Hagel                        (b. 1946)

Department of the Army

       1776                Board of War and Ordnance
       1777                Board of War
       1781                War Office
 7 Aug 1789                War Department
18 Sep 1947                War Department becomes the Department of the Army, a
                           branch of the new Department of Defense

Presidents
       1776 -        1777  John Adams                         (b. 1735 - d. 1826)
       1777 -        1781  Horatio Gates                      (b. 1727 - d. 1806)
Secretaries at War
       1781 -        1783  Benjamin Lincoln                   (b. 1733 - d. 1810)
       1783 -        1785  Joseph Carleton (acting)           (b. 1754 - d. 1812)
       1785 - 12 Sep 1789  Henry Knox                         (b. 1750 - d. 1806)
Secretaries of War
12 Sep 1789 - 31 Dec 1794  Henry Knox                         (s.a.)
 2 Jan 1795 - 10 Dec 1795  Timothy Pickering                  (b. 1745 - d. 1829)
27 Jan 1796 - 13 May 1800  James McHenry                      (b. 1753 - d. 1816)
13 May 1800 - 31 Jan 1801  Samuel Dexter                      (b. 1761 - d. 1816)
 3 Feb 1801 -  4 Mar 1801  Roger Griswold (acting)            (b. 1762 - d. 1812)
 5 Mar 1801 -  4 Mar 1809  Henry Dearborn                     (b. 1751 - d. 1829)
 7 Mar 1809 - 13 Jan 1813  William Eustis                     (b. 1753 - d. 1825)
13 Jan 1813 - 27 Sep 1814  John Armstrong, Jr.                (b. 1758 - d. 1843)
27 Sep 1814 -  2 Mar 1815  James Monroe                       (b. 1758 - d. 1831)
 1 Aug 1815 - 22 Oct 1816  William H. Crawford                (b. 1772 - d. 1834)
 7 Apr 1817 -  4 Oct 1817  George Graham (acting)
 8 Oct 1817 -  4 Mar 1825  John C. Calhoun                    (b. 1782 - d. 1850)
 7 Mar 1825 - 23 May 1828  James Barbour                      (b. 1775 - d. 1842)
26 May 1828 -  4 Mar 1829  Peter B. Porter                    (b. 1773 - d. 1844)
 9 Mar 1829 - 18 Jun 1831  John H. Eaton                      (b. 1790 - d. 1856)
 1 Aug 1831 -  5 Oct 1836  Lewis Cass                         (b. 1782 - d. 1866)
       1836 -  4 Mar 1837  Benjamin F. Butler (acting)        (b. 1795 - d. 1858)
 7 Mar 1837 -  4 Mar 1841  Joel R. Poinsett                   (b. 1779 - d. 1851)
 5 Mar 1841 - 13 Sep 1841  John Bell                          (b. 1797 - d. 1869)
13 Sep 1841 - 11 Oct 1841  John McLean (acting)
12 Oct 1841 -  4 Mar 1843  John C. Spencer                    (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
 8 Mar 1843 - 14 Feb 1844  James M. Porter                    (b. 1793 - d. 1862)
15 Feb 1844 -  4 Mar 1845  William Wilkins                    (b. 1779 - d. 1865)
 6 Mar 1845 -  4 Mar 1849  William L. Marcy                   (b. 1786 - d. 1857)
 8 Mar 1849 - 23 Jul 1850  George W. Crawford                 (b. 1798 - d. 1872)
23 Jul 1850 - 14 Aug 1850  Winfield Scott (acting)            (b. 1786 - d. 1866)
15 Aug 1850 -  4 Mar 1853  Charles M. Conrad                  (b. 1804 - d. 1878)
 7 Mar 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  Jefferson Davis                    (b. 1808 - d. 1889)
 6 Mar 1857 - 29 Dec 1860  John B. Floyd                      (b. 1806 - d. 1863)
18 Jan 1861 -  4 Mar 1861  Joseph Holt                        (b. 1807 - d. 1894)
 5 Mar 1861 - 14 Jan 1862  Simon Cameron                      (b. 1799 - d. 1889)
20 Jan 1862 - 28 May 1868  Edwin M. Stanton                   (b. 1814 - d. 1869)
 1 Jun 1868 - 13 Mar 1869  John M. Schofield                  (b. 1831 - d. 1906)
13 Mar 1869 -  6 Sep 1869  John A. Rawlins                    (b. 1831 - d. 1869)
 9 Sep 1869 - 24 Oct 1869  William T. Sherman                 (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
25 Oct 1869 -  2 Mar 1876  William W. Belknap                 (b. 1829 - d. 1890)
 8 Mar 1876 - 22 May 1876  Alphonso Taft                      (b. 1810 - d. 1891)
22 May 1876 -  4 Mar 1877  J. Donald Cameron                  (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
12 Mar 1877 - 10 Dec 1879  George W. McCrary                  (b. 1835 - d. 1890)
10 Dec 1879 -  4 Mar 1881  Alexander Ramsey                   (b. 1815 - d. 1903)
 5 Mar 1881 -  4 Mar 1885  Robert T. Lincoln                  (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
 5 Mar 1885 -  4 Mar 1889  William C. Endicott                (b. 1826 - d. 1900)
 5 Mar 1889 -  5 Nov 1891  Redfield Proctor                   (b. 1831 - d. 1908)
17 Dec 1891 -  4 Mar 1893  Stephen B. Elkins                  (b. 1841 - d. 1911)
 5 Mar 1893 -  4 Mar 1897  Daniel S. Lamont                   (b. 1851 - d. 1905)
 5 Mar 1897 -  1 Aug 1899  Russell A. Alger                   (b. 1836 - d. 1907)
 1 Aug 1899 - 31 Jan 1904  Elihu Root                         (b. 1845 - d. 1937)
 1 Feb 1904 - 30 Jun 1908  William Howard Taft                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
 1 Jul 1908 -  4 Mar 1909  Luke E. Wright                     (b. 1846 - d. 1922)
12 Mar 1909 - 21 May 1911  Jacob M. Dickinson                 (b. 1851 - d. 1928)
22 May 1911 -  4 Mar 1913  Henry L. Stimson (1st time)        (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
 5 Mar 1913 - 10 Feb 1916  Lindley M. Garrison                (b. 1864 - d. 1932)
 9 Mar 1916 -  4 Mar 1921  Newton D. Baker                    (b. 1871 - d. 1937)
 5 Mar 1921 - 13 Oct 1925  John W. Weeks                      (b. 1860 - d. 1926)
14 Oct 1925 -  4 Mar 1929  Dwight F. Davis                    (b. 1879 - d. 1945)
 6 Mar 1929 - 18 Nov 1929  James W. Good                      (b. 1866 - d. 1929)
 9 Dec 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Patrick J. Hurley                  (b. 1883 - d. 1963)
 4 Mar 1933 - 27 Aug 1936  George H. Dern                     (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
25 Sep 1936 - 20 Jun 1940  Harry H. Woodring                  (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
10 Jul 1940 - 21 Sep 1945  Henry L. Stimson (2nd time)        (s.a.)
27 Sep 1945 - 18 Jul 1947  Robert Patterson                   (b. 1891 - d. 1952)
19 Jul 1947 - 18 Sep 1947  Kenneth C. Royall                  (b. 1894 - d. 1971)
Secretaries of the Army
18 Sep 1947 - 20 Jun 1949  Kenneth C. Royall                  (s.a.)
20 Jun 1949 - 12 Apr 1950  Gordon Gray                        (b. 1909 - d. 1982)
12 Apr 1950 - 20 Jan 1953  Frank Pace, Jr.                    (b. 1912 - d. 1988)
 4 Feb 1953 - 21 Jul 1955  Robert T. Stevens                  (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
21 Jul 1955 - 19 Jan 1961  Wilber M. Brucker                  (b. 1894 - d. 1968)
24 Jan 1961 - 30 Jun 1962  Elvis J. Stahr, Jr.                (b. 1916 - d. 1998)
 5 Jul 1962 - 21 Jan 1964  Cyrus Vance                        (b. 1917 - d. 2002)
28 Jan 1964 -  1 Jul 1965  Stephen Ailes                      (b. 1912 - d. 2001)
 2 Jul 1965 - 30 Jun 1971  Stanley R. Resor                   (b. 1917 - d. 2012)
 1 Jul 1971 - 14 May 1973  Robert F. Froehlke                 (b. 1922)
15 May 1973 -  3 Jul 1975  Howard H. Callaway                 (b. 1927 - d. 2014)
 5 Aug 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Martin R. Hoffmann                 (b. 1932 - d. 2014)
14 Feb 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Clifford L. Alexander, Jr.         (b. 1933)
21 Jan 1981 - 13 Aug 1989  John O. Marsh, Jr.                 (b. 1926)
14 Aug 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Michael P.W. Stone                 (b. 1925 - d. 1995)
22 Nov 1993 -  2 Jan 1998  Togo D. West, Jr.                  (b. 1942)
 2 Jan 1998 -  2 Jul 1998  Robert M. Walker (acting)          (b. 1949)
 2 Jul 1998 - 20 Jan 2001  Louis Caldera                      (b. 1956)
20 Jan 2001 -  5 Mar 2001  Gregory R. Dahlberg (acting)       (b. 1951)
 5 Mar 2001 - 31 May 2001  Joseph W. Westphal (acting)        (b. 1948)
31 May 2001 -  9 May 2003  Thomas E. White                    (b. 1943)
 9 May 2003 - 19 Nov 2004  Les Brownlee (acting)              (b. 1939)
19 Nov 2004 -  9 Mar 2007  Francis J. Harvey                  (b. 1944)
 9 Mar 2007 - 18 Sep 2009  Pete Geren (acting to 13 Jul 2007) (b. 1952)
21 Sep 2009 -              John M. McHugh                     (b. 1948)

National Guard Bureau

Head of the Section of Militia Affairs
       1903 -        1908  James Parker                       (b. 1854 - d. 1934)
Chiefs of the Division of Militia Affairs
14 Feb 1908 - 14 Mar 1911  Erasmus M. Weaver, Jr.             (b. 1854 - d. 1920)
15 Mar 1911 - 31 Aug 1912  Robert K. Evans                    (b. 1852 - d. 1926)
 1 Sep 1912 - 18 Sep 1916  Albert L. Mills                    (b. 1854 - d. 1916)
Chiefs of the Militia Bureau
26 Oct 1916 - 26 Nov 1917  William A. Mann                    (b. 1854 - d. 1934)
26 Nov 1917 - 15 Aug 1918  Jesse McI. Carter                  (b. 1863 - d. 1930)
29 Jun 1921 - 28 Jun 1925  George C. Rickards                 (b. 1860 - d. 1933)
29 Jun 1925 - 28 Jun 1929  Creed C. Hammond                   (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
29 Jun 1929 - 30 Sep 1929  Ernest R. Redmond (acting)         (b. 1883 - d. 1966)
 1 Oct 1929 - 30 Nov 1931  William G. Everson                 (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
 1 Dec 1931 - 15 Jun 1933  George E. Leach                    (b. 1876 - d. 1955)
Chiefs of the National Guard Bureau
15 Jun 1933 - 30 Nov 1935  George E. Leach                    (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1935 - 16 Jan 1936  Herold J. Weiler (acting)          (b. 1886 - d. 1945)
17 Jan 1936 - 30 Jan 1936  John F. Williams (1st time)        (b. 1887 - d. 1953)
                           (acting)
31 Jan 1936 - 30 Jan 1940  Albert H. Blanding                 (b. 1876 - d. 1970)
31 Jan 1940 - 31 Jan 1946  John F. Williams (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting from 31 Jan 1944)
 1 Feb 1946 - 29 Sep 1947  Butler B. Miltonberger             (b. 1896 - d. 1977)
30 Sep 1947 -  4 Sep 1950  Kenneth F. Cramer                  (b. 1894 - d. 1954)
 5 Sep 1950 - 15 Feb 1953  Raymond H. Fleming                 (b. 1889 - d. 1974)
                           (acting to 13 Aug 1951)
16 Feb 1953 - 21 Jun 1953  Earl T. Ricks (acting)             (b. 1908 - d. 1954)
22 Jun 1953 - 31 May 1959  Edgar C. Erickson                  (b. 1896 - d. 1989)
 1 Jun 1959 - 19 Jul 1959  Winston P. Wilson (1st time)       (b. 1911 - d. 1996)
                           (acting)
20 Jul 1959 - 30 Aug 1963  Donald W. McGowan                  (b. 1898 - d. 1967)
31 Aug 1963 - 31 Aug 1971  Winston P. Wilson (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1971 - 23 Jun 1974  Francis S. Greenlief               (b. 1921 - d. 1999)
16 Aug 1974 - 15 Aug 1982  LaVern E. Weber                    (b. 1923 - d. 1999)
16 Aug 1982 - 15 Aug 1986  Emmett H. Walker, Jr.              (b. 1924 - d. 2007)
16 Aug 1986 - 31 Jan 1990  Herbert R. Temple, Jr.             (b. 1928)
 1 Feb 1990 -  1 Dec 1993  John B. Conaway                    (b. 1934)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Jul 1994  Raymond F. Rees (1st time)         (b. 1944)
                           (acting)
 1 Oct 1994 - 31 Jul 1998  Edward D. Baca                     (b. 1938)
31 Jul 1998 -  3 Aug 2002  Russell C. Davis                   (b. 1938)
                           (acting to 4 Aug 1998)
 4 Aug 2002 - 10 Apr 2003  Raymond F. Rees (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
11 Apr 2003 - 17 Nov 2008  H. Steven Blum                     (b. 1946)
17 Nov 2008 -  7 Sep 2012  Craig R. McKinley                  (b. 1952)
 7 Sep 2012 -              Frank Grass                        (b. 1951)

Department of the Navy

30 Apr 1798                Navy Department established
18 Sep 1947                becomes a branch of the Department of Defense

Secretaries
18 Jun 1798 - 31 Mar 1801  Benjamin Stoddert                  (b. 1751 - d. 1813)
27 Jul 1801 -  4 Mar 1809  Robert Smith                       (b. 1757 - d. 1842)
15 May 1809 - 31 Dec 1812  Paul Hamilton                      (b. 1762 - d. 1816)
19 Jan 1813 -  1 Dec 1814  William Jones                      (b. 1760 - d. 1831)
16 Jan 1815 - 30 Sep 1818  Benjamin W. Crowninshield          (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
 1 Jan 1819 - 31 Aug 1823  Smith Thompson                     (b. 1768 - d. 1843)
16 Sep 1823 -  4 Mar 1829  Samuel L. Southard                 (b. 1787 - d. 1842)
 9 Mar 1829 - 12 May 1831  John Branch                        (b. 1782 - d. 1863)
23 May 1831 - 30 Jun 1834  Levi Woodbury                      (b. 1789 - d. 1851)
 1 Jul 1834 - 30 Jun 1838  Mahlon Dickerson                   (b. 1770 - d. 1853)
 1 Jul 1838 -  4 Mar 1841  James K. Paulding                  (b. 1778 - d. 1860)
 6 Mar 1841 - 11 Sep 1841  George E. Badger                   (b. 1795 - d. 1866)
11 Oct 1841 - 23 Jul 1843  Abel P. Upshur                     (b. 1790 - d. 1844)
24 Jul 1843 - 18 Feb 1844  David Henshaw                      (b. 1791 - d. 1852)
19 Feb 1844 - 28 Feb 1844  Thomas W. Gilmer                   (b. 1802 - d. 1844)
26 Mar 1844 -  4 Mar 1845  John Y. Mason (1st time)           (b. 1799 - d. 1859)
11 Mar 1845 -  9 Sep 1846  George Bancroft                    (b. 1800 - d. 1891)
10 Sep 1846 -  4 Mar 1849  John Y. Mason (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 8 Mar 1849 - 22 Jul 1850  William B. Preston                 (b. 1805 - d. 1862)
 2 Aug 1850 - 25 Jul 1852  William A. Graham                  (b. 1804 - d. 1875)
26 Jul 1852 -  4 Mar 1853  John P. Kennedy                    (b. 1795 - d. 1870)
 8 Mar 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  James C. Dobbin                    (b. 1804 - d. 1857)
 7 Mar 1857 -  4 Mar 1861  Isaac Toucey                       (b. 1796 - d. 1869)
 7 Mar 1861 -  4 Mar 1869  Gideon Welles                      (b. 1802 - d. 1878)
 9 Mar 1869 - 25 Jun 1869  Adolph E. Borie                    (b. 1809 - d. 1880)
26 Jun 1869 -  4 Mar 1877  George M. Robeson                  (b. 1829 - d. 1897)
13 Mar 1877 - 20 Dec 1880  Richard W. Thompson                (b. 1823 - d. 1900)
 7 Jan 1881 -  4 Mar 1881  Nathan Goff, Jr.                   (b. 1843 - d. 1920)
 7 Mar 1881 - 16 Apr 1882  William H. Hunt                    (b. 1823 - d. 1884)
16 Apr 1882 -  4 Mar 1885  William E. Chandler                (b. 1835 - d. 1917)
 7 Mar 1885 -  4 Mar 1889  William C. Whitney                 (b. 1841 - d. 1904)
 6 Mar 1889 -  4 Mar 1893  Benjamin F. Tracy                  (b. 1830 - d. 1915)
 7 Mar 1893 -  4 Mar 1897  Hilary A. Herbert                  (b. 1834 - d. 1919)
 6 Mar 1897 - 30 Apr 1902  John D. Long                       (b. 1838 - d. 1915)
 1 May 1902 - 30 Jun 1904  William H. Moody                   (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
 1 Jul 1904 - 30 Jun 1905  Paul Morton                        (b. 1857 - d. 1911)
 1 Jul 1905 - 16 Dec 1906  Charles J. Bonaparte               (b. 1851 - d. 1921)
17 Dec 1906 - 30 Nov 1908  Victor H. Metcalf                  (b. 1853 - d. 1936)
 1 Dec 1908 -  4 Mar 1909  Truman Handy Newberry              (b. 1864 - d. 1945)
 6 Mar 1909 -  4 Mar 1913  George von Lengerke Meyer          (b. 1858 - d. 1918)
 5 Mar 1913 -  4 Mar 1921  Josephus Daniels                   (b. 1862 - d. 1948)
 6 Mar 1921 - 10 Mar 1924  Edwin C. Denby                     (b. 1870 - d. 1929)
19 Mar 1924 -  4 Mar 1929  Curtis D. Wilbur                   (b. 1867 - d. 1954)
 5 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Charles Francis Adams              (b. 1866 - d. 1954)
 4 Mar 1933 -  7 Jul 1939  Claude A. Swanson                  (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
 2 Jan 1940 - 24 Jun 1940  Charles Edison                     (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
11 Jul 1940 - 28 Apr 1944  Frank Knox                         (b. 1874 - d. 1944)
19 May 1944 - 17 Sep 1947  James V. Forrestal                 (b. 1892 - d. 1949)
18 Sep 1947 - 24 May 1949  John L. Sullivan                   (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
25 May 1949 - 31 Jul 1951  Francis P. Matthews                (b. 1887 - d. 1952)
31 Jul 1951 - 20 Jan 1953  Dan A. Kimball                     (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
 4 Feb 1953 -  3 May 1954  Robert B. Anderson                 (b. 1910 - d. 1989)
 3 May 1954 -  1 Apr 1957  Charles S. Thomas                  (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
 1 Apr 1957 -  8 Jun 1959  Thomas Gates                       (b. 1906 - d. 1983)
 8 Jun 1959 - 19 Jan 1961  William Franke                     (b. 1894 - d. 1979)
25 Jan 1961 - 20 Dec 1961  John B. Connally                   (b. 1917 - d. 1993)
 4 Jan 1962 -  1 Nov 1963  Fred Korth                         (b. 1909 - d. 1998)
 2 Nov 1963 - 28 Nov 1963  Paul B. Fay (acting)               (b. 1918 - d. 2009)
29 Nov 1963 - 30 Jun 1967  Paul H. Nitze                      (b. 1907 - d. 2004)
 1 Jul 1967 - 31 Aug 1967  Charles F. Baird (acting)          (b. 1922 - d. 2009)
 1 Sep 1967 - 20 Jan 1969  Paul R. Ignatius                   (b. 1920)
31 Jan 1969 -  4 May 1972  John H. Chafee                     (b. 1922 - d. 1999)
 4 May 1972 -  8 Apr 1974  John W. Warner                     (b. 1927)
 8 Apr 1974 - 20 Jan 1977  J. William Middendorf              (b. 1924)
14 Feb 1977 - 24 Aug 1979  W. Graham Claytor, Jr.             (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
24 Oct 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Edward Hidalgo                     (b. 1912 - d. 1995)
 5 Feb 1981 - 10 Apr 1987  John Lehman                        (b. 1942)
 1 May 1987 - 23 Feb 1988  James H. Webb                      (b. 1946)
28 Mar 1988 - 15 May 1989  William L. Ball                    (b. 1948)
15 May 1989 - 26 Jun 1992  Henry L. Garrett III               (b. 1939)
26 Jun 1992 -  7 Jul 1992  Daniel Howard (acting)             (b. 1943)
 7 Jul 1992 - 20 Jan 1993  Sean O'Keefe                       (b. 1956)
                           (acting to 2 Oct 1992)
20 Jan 1993 - 21 Jul 1993  Frank B. Kelso II (acting)         (b. 1933 - d. 2013)
22 Jul 1993 - 16 Nov 1998  John H. Dalton                     (b. 1941)
16 Nov 1998 - 20 Jan 2001  Richard Danzig                     (b. 1944)
20 Jan 2001 - 24 May 2001  Robert B. Pirie, Jr. (acting)      (b. 1933)
24 May 2001 - 24 Jan 2003  Gordon R. England (1st time)       (b. 1937)
24 Jan 2003 -  7 Feb 2003  Susan Morrisey Livingstone (f)     (b. 1946)
                           (acting)
 7 Feb 2003 -  1 Oct 2003  Hansford T. Johnson (acting)       (b. 1936)
 1 Oct 2003 - 29 Dec 2005  Gordon R. England (2nd time)       (s.a.)
29 Dec 2005 -  3 Jan 2006  Dionel M. Aviles (acting)          (b. 1961?)
 3 Jan 2006 - 13 Mar 2009  Donald C. Winter                   (b. 1948?)
13 Mar 2009 - 19 May 2009  B.J. Penn (acting)
19 May 2009 -              Ray Mabus                          (b. 1948)

Department of the Air Force

18 Sep 1947                Department of the Air Force created as a branch of the
                           Department of Defense

Secretaries
18 Sep 1947 - 24 Apr 1950  Stuart Symington                   (b. 1901 - d. 1988)
24 Apr 1950 - 20 Jan 1953  Thomas K. Finletter                (b. 1893 - d. 1980)
 4 Feb 1953 - 13 Aug 1955  Harold E. Talbott                  (b. 1888 - d. 1957)
15 Aug 1955 - 30 Apr 1957  Donald A. Quarles                  (b. 1894 - d. 1959)
 1 May 1957 - 10 Dec 1959  James H. Douglas                   (b. 1899 - d. 1988)
11 Dec 1959 - 20 Jan 1961  Dudley C. Sharp                    (b. 1905 - d. 1987)
24 Jan 1961 - 30 Sep 1965  Eugene M. Zuckert                  (b. 1911 - d. 2000)
 1 Oct 1965 - 15 Feb 1969  Harold Brown                       (b. 1927)
15 Feb 1969 - 14 May 1973  Robert C. Seamans, Jr.             (b. 1918 - d. 2008)
15 May 1973 - 23 Nov 1975  John L. McLucas                    (b. 1920 - d. 2002)
                           (acting to 18 Jul 1973)
24 Nov 1975 -  1 Jan 1976  James W. Plummer (acting)          (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
 2 Jan 1976 -  6 Apr 1977  Thomas C. Reed                     (b. 1934)
 6 Apr 1977 - 18 May 1979  John C. Stetson                    (b. 1920 - d. 2007)
18 May 1979 -  9 Feb 1981  Hans M. Mark                       (b. 1929)
                           (acting to 26 Jul 1979)
 9 Feb 1981 - 30 Nov 1985  Verne Orr                          (b. 1916 - d. 2008)
 9 Dec 1985 -  6 Apr 1986  Russell A. Rourke                  (b. 1931 - d. 2003)
 8 Apr 1986 - 16 Dec 1988  Edward C. Aldridge, Jr.            (b. 1938)
                           (acting to 8 Jun 1986)
16 Dec 1988 - 29 Apr 1989  James F. McGovern (acting)         (b. 1946)
29 Apr 1989 - 21 May 1989  John J. Welch, Jr.                 (b. 1930)
22 May 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Donald B. Rice                     (b. 1939)
20 Jan 1993 - 13 Jul 1993  Michael B. Donley (1st time)       (b. 1952)
                           (acting)
14 Jul 1993 -  5 Aug 1993  Merrill A. McPeak (acting)         (b. 1936)
 6 Aug 1993 - 31 Oct 1997  Sheila E. Widnall (f)              (b. 1938)
 1 Nov 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  F. Whitten Peters                  (b. 1946)
                           (acting to 30 Jul 1999)
21 Jan 2001 - 31 May 2001  Lawrence J. Delaney (acting)       (b. 1936?)
 1 Jun 2001 - 20 Jan 2005  James G. Roche                     (b. 1939)
20 Jan 2005 - 31 Mar 2005  Peter B. Teets (acting)            (b. 1942)
31 Mar 2005 - 29 Jul 2005  Michael L. Dominguez (acting)      (b. 1953)
29 Jul 2005 -  3 Nov 2005  Pete Geren (acting)                (b. 1952)
 3 Nov 2005 - 21 Jun 2008  Michael W. Wynne                   (b. 1944)
21 Jun 2008 - 21 Jun 2013  Michael B. Donley (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting to 17 Oct 2008)
21 Jun 2013 - 20 Dec 2013  Eric K. Fanning (acting)           (b. 1968?)
20 Dec 2013 -              Deborah Lee James (f)              (b. c.1957)

Joint Chiefs of Staff

Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief
20 Jul 1942 - 21 Mar 1949  William D. Leahy                   (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
16 Aug 1949 - 15 Aug 1953  Omar N. Bradley                    (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
15 Aug 1953 - 15 Aug 1957  Arthur W. Radford                  (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
15 Aug 1957 - 30 Sep 1960  Nathan F. Twining                  (b. 1897 - d. 1982)
 1 Oct 1960 - 30 Sep 1962  Lyman L. Lemnitzer                 (b. 1899 - d. 1988)
 1 Oct 1962 -  1 Jul 1964  Maxwell D. Taylor                  (b. 1901 - d. 1987)
 3 Jul 1964 -  2 Jul 1970  Earle G. Wheeler                   (b. 1908 - d. 1975)
 2 Jul 1970 -  1 Jul 1974  Thomas H. Moorer                   (b. 1912 - d. 2004)
 1 Jul 1974 - 20 Jun 1978  George S. Brown                    (b. 1918 - d. 1978)
21 Jun 1978 - 18 Jun 1982  David C. Jones                     (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
18 Jun 1982 - 30 Sep 1985  John W. Vessey, Jr.                (b. 1922)
 1 Oct 1985 - 30 Sep 1989  William J. Crowe, Jr.              (b. 1925 - d. 2007)
 1 Oct 1989 - 30 Sep 1993  Colin Powell                       (b. 1937)
 1 Oct 1993 - 24 Oct 1993  David E. Jeremiah (acting)         (b. 1934 - d. 2013)
25 Oct 1993 - 30 Sep 1997  John Shalikashvili                 (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
 1 Oct 1997 - 30 Sep 2001  Henry H. Shelton                   (b. 1942)
 1 Oct 2001 - 30 Sep 2005  Richard B. Myers                   (b. 1942)
30 Sep 2005 -  1 Oct 2007  Peter Pace                         (b. 1945)
 1 Oct 2007 - 30 Sep 2011  Michael Mullen                     (b. 1946)
30 Sep 2011 -              Martin E. Dempsey                  (b. 1952)

Army

Continental Army General and Commander in Chief
15 Jun 1775 - 23 Dec 1783  George Washington                  (b. 1732 - d. 1799)
Senior Officers
23 Dec 1783 - 20 Jun 1784  Henry Knox                         (b. 1750 - d. 1806)
20 Jun 1784 - 12 Aug 1784  John Doughty                       (b. 1754 - d. 1826)
12 Aug 1784 -  4 Mar 1791  Josiah Harmar                      (b. 1753 - d. 1813)
 4 Mar 1791 -  5 Mar 1792  Arthur St. Clair                   (b. 1736 - d. 1818)
13 Apr 1792 - 15 Dec 1796  Anthony Wayne                      (b. 1745 - d. 1796)
15 Dec 1796 - 13 Jul 1798  James Wilkinson (1st time)         (b. 1757 - d. 1825)
13 Jul 1798 - 14 Dec 1799  George Washington                  (s.a.)
14 Dec 1799 - 15 Jun 1800  Alexander Hamilton                 (b. 1757 - d. 1804)
15 Jun 1800 - 27 Jan 1812  James Wilkinson (2nd time)         (s.a.)
27 Jan 1812 - 15 Jun 1815  Henry Dearborn                     (b. 1751 - d. 1829)
15 Jun 1815 -    Jun 1821  Jacob J. Brown                     (b. 1775 - d. 1828)
Commanding Generals
   Jun 1821 - 24 Feb 1828  Jacob J. Brown                     (s.a.)
29 May 1828 - 25 Jun 1841  Alexander Macomb                   (b. 1782 - d. 1841)
 5 Jul 1841 -  1 Nov 1861  Winfield Scott                     (b. 1786 - d. 1866)
 1 Nov 1861 - 11 Mar 1862  George B. McClellan                (b. 1826 - d. 1885)
23 Jul 1862 -  9 Mar 1864  Henry W. Halleck                   (b. 1815 - d. 1872)
 9 Mar 1864 -  4 Mar 1869  Ulysses S. Grant                   (b. 1822 - d. 1885)
 8 Mar 1869 -  1 Nov 1883  William T. Sherman                 (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
 1 Nov 1883 -  5 Aug 1888  Philip H. Sheridan                 (b. 1831 - d. 1888)
14 Aug 1888 - 29 Sep 1895  John M. Schofield                  (b. 1831 - d. 1906)
 5 Oct 1895 -  8 Aug 1903  Nelson A. Miles                    (b. 1839 - d. 1925)
Chiefs of the Army Staff
15 Aug 1903 -  8 Jan 1904  Samuel B.M. Young                  (b. 1840 - d. 1924)
 9 Jan 1904 - 14 Jan 1906  Adna R. Chaffee                    (b. 1842 - d. 1914)
15 Jan 1906 - 13 Apr 1906  John C. Bates                      (b. 1842 - d. 1919)
14 Apr 1906 - 21 Apr 1910  J. Franklin Bell                   (b. 1856 - d. 1919)
22 Apr 1910 - 20 Apr 1914  Leonard Wood                       (b. 1860 - d. 1927)
21 Apr 1914 - 15 Nov 1914  William W. Wotherspoon             (b. 1850 - d. 1921)
16 Nov 1914 - 21 Sep 1917  Hugh L. Scott                      (b. 1853 - d. 1934)
22 Sep 1917 - 18 May 1918  Tasker H. Bliss                    (b. 1853 - d. 1930)
19 May 1918 - 30 Jun 1921  Peyton C. March                    (b. 1864 - d. 1955)
 1 Jul 1921 - 13 Sep 1924  John J. Pershing                   (b. 1860 - d. 1948)
14 Sep 1924 - 20 Nov 1926  John L. Hines                      (b. 1868 - d. 1968)
21 Nov 1926 - 20 Nov 1930  Charles P. Summerall               (b. 1867 - d. 1955)
21 Nov 1930 -  1 Oct 1935  Douglas MacArthur                  (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
 2 Oct 1935 - 31 Aug 1939  Malin Craig                        (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
 1 Sep 1939 - 18 Nov 1945  George C. Marshall                 (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
19 Nov 1945 -  7 Feb 1948  Dwight D. Eisenhower               (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
 7 Feb 1948 - 16 Aug 1949  Omar N. Bradley                    (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
16 Aug 1949 - 15 Aug 1953  J. Lawton Collins                  (b. 1896 - d. 1987)
16 Aug 1953 - 30 Jun 1955  Matthew B. Ridgway                 (b. 1895 - d. 1993)
30 Jun 1955 - 30 Jun 1959  Maxwell D. Taylor                  (b. 1901 - d. 1987)
 1 Jul 1959 - 30 Sep 1960  Lyman L. Lemnitzer                 (b. 1899 - d. 1988)
 1 Oct 1960 - 30 Sep 1962  George H. Decker                   (b. 1902 - d. 1980)
 1 Oct 1962 -  2 Jul 1964  Earle G. Wheeler                   (b. 1908 - d. 1975)
 3 Jul 1964 -  2 Jul 1968  Harold K. Johnson                  (b. 1912 - d. 1983)
 3 Jul 1968 - 30 Jun 1972  William C. Westmoreland            (b. 1914 - d. 2005)
 1 Jul 1972 - 11 Oct 1972  Bruce Palmer, Jr. (acting)         (b. 1913 - d. 2000)
12 Oct 1972 -  4 Sep 1974  Creighton W. Abrams, Jr.           (b. 1914 - d. 1974)
 3 Oct 1974 - 30 Sep 1976  Frederick C. Weyand                (b. 1916 - d. 2010)
 1 Oct 1976 - 21 Jun 1979  Bernard W. Rogers                  (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
22 Jun 1979 - 21 Jun 1983  Edward C. Meyer                    (b. 1928)
23 Jun 1983 - 23 Jun 1987  John A. Wickham, Jr.               (b. 1928)
23 Jun 1987 - 21 Jun 1991  Carl E. Vuono                      (b. 1934)
21 Jun 1991 - 20 Jun 1995  Gordon R. Sullivan                 (b. 1937)
20 Jun 1995 - 22 Jun 1999  Dennis J. Reimer                   (b. 1939)
22 Jun 1999 - 11 Jun 2003  Eric K. Shinseki                   (b. 1942)
11 Jun 2003 -  1 Aug 2003  John M. Keane (acting)             (b. 1943)
 1 Aug 2003 - 10 Apr 2007  Peter J. Schoomaker                (b. 1946)
10 Apr 2007 - 11 Apr 2011  George Casey                       (b. 1948)
11 Apr 2011 -  7 Sep 2011  Martin E. Dempsey                  (b. 1952)
 7 Sep 2011 -              Raymond T. Odierno                 (b. 1954)

Women's Army Corps

       1942                Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC)
       1943                Women's Army Corps (WAC)
       1978                WAC abolished

Directors
16 May 1942 - 11 Jul 1945  Oveta Culp Hobby (f)               (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
12 Jul 1945 -  4 Mar 1947  Westray Battle Boyce (f)           (b. 1901 - d. 1972)
 5 Mar 1947 -  2 Jan 1953  Mary A. Hallaren (f)               (b. 1907 - d. 2005)
                           (acting to 6 May 1947)
 3 Jan 1953 -  2 Jan 1957  Irene O. Galloway (f)              (b. 1908 - d. 1963)
 3 Jan 1957 - 31 Jul 1962  Mary L. Milligan (f)               (b. 1911 - d. 2012)
 1 Aug 1962 - 31 Jul 1966  Emily C. Gorman (f)                (b. 1909 - d. 2005)
 1 Aug 1966 - 31 Jul 1971  Elizabeth P. Hoisington (f)        (b. 1918 - d. 2007)
 1 Aug 1971 - 31 Jul 1975  Mildred C. Bailey (f)              (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
 1 Aug 1975 - 28 Apr 1978  Mary E. Clarke (f)                 (b. 1924 - d. 2011)

Navy

Chiefs of Naval Operations
11 May 1915 - 25 Sep 1919  William S. Benson                  (b. 1855 - d. 1932)
 1 Nov 1919 - 21 Jul 1923  Robert E. Coontz                   (b. 1864 - d. 1935)
21 Jul 1923 - 14 Nov 1927  Edward W. Eberle                   (b. 1864 - d. 1929)
14 Nov 1927 - 17 Sep 1930  Charles F. Hughes                  (b. 1866 - d. 1934)
17 Sep 1930 - 30 Jun 1933  William V. Pratt                   (b. 1869 - d. 1957)
 1 Jul 1933 -  1 Jan 1937  William H. Standley                (b. 1872 - d. 1963)
 2 Jan 1937 -  1 Aug 1939  William D. Leahy                   (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
 1 Aug 1939 - 26 Mar 1942  Harold R. Stark                    (b. 1880 - d. 1972)
26 Mar 1942 - 15 Dec 1945  Ernest J. King                     (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
15 Dec 1945 - 15 Dec 1947  Chester W. Nimitz                  (b. 1885 - d. 1966)
15 Dec 1947 -  1 Nov 1949  Louis E. Denfeld                   (b. 1891 - d. 1972)
 2 Nov 1949 - 22 Jul 1951  Forrest P. Sherman                 (b. 1896 - d. 1951)
16 Aug 1951 - 17 Aug 1953  William M. Fechteler               (b. 1896 - d. 1967)
17 Aug 1953 - 17 Aug 1955  Robert B. Carney                   (b. 1895 - d. 1990)
17 Aug 1955 -  1 Aug 1961  Arleigh A. Burke                   (b. 1901 - d. 1996)
 1 Aug 1961 -  1 Aug 1963  George W. Anderson, Jr.            (b. 1906 - d. 1992)
 1 Aug 1963 -  1 Aug 1967  David L. McDonald                  (b. 1906 - d. 1997)
 1 Aug 1967 - 30 Jun 1970  Thomas H. Moorer                   (b. 1912 - d. 2004)
 1 Jul 1970 - 30 Jun 1974  Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr.               (b. 1920 - d. 2000)
 1 Jul 1974 - 30 Jun 1978  James L. Holloway III              (b. 1922)
 1 Jul 1978 - 30 Jun 1982  Thomas B. Hayward                  (b. 1924)
 1 Jul 1982 - 30 Jun 1986  James D. Watkins                   (b. 1927 - d. 2012)
 1 Jul 1986 - 30 Jun 1990  Carlisle A.H. Trost                (b. 1930)
 1 Jul 1990 - 23 Apr 1994  Frank B. Kelso II                  (b. 1933 - d. 2013)
23 Apr 1994 - 16 May 1996  Jeremy M. Boorda                   (b. 1939 - d. 1996)
 2 Aug 1996 - 21 Jul 2000  Jay L. Johnson                     (b. 1946)
21 Jul 2000 - 22 Jul 2005  Vern Clark                         (b. 1944)
22 Jul 2005 - 29 Sep 2007  Michael Mullen                     (b. 1946)
29 Sep 2007 - 23 Sep 2011  Gary Roughead                      (b. 1951)
23 Sep 2011 -              Jonathan W. Greenert               (b. 1953)

Marine Corps

Commandants of the Marine Corps (subordinate to Secretary of the Navy)
28 Nov 1775 -        1781  Samuel Nicholas¹                   (b. 1744 - d. 1790)
12 Jul 1798 -  6 Mar 1804  William W. Burrows                 (b. 1758 - d. 1804)
 7 Mar 1804 -  1 Sep 1818  Franklin Wharton                   (b. 1767 - d. 1818)
 2 Sep 1818 - 15 Sep 1818  Samuel Miller (acting)
16 Sep 1818 -  2 Mar 1819  Archibald Henderson (1st time)     (b. 1783 - d. 1859)
                           (acting)
 3 Mar 1819 - 16 Oct 1820  Anthony Gale                       (b. 1782 - d. 1843)
17 Oct 1820 -  6 Jan 1859  Archibald Henderson (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1859 - 12 May 1864  John Harris                        (b. 1790 - d. 1864)
13 May 1864 -  9 Jun 1864  Augustus S. Nicholson (acting)
10 Jun 1864 - 31 Oct 1876  Jacob Zeilin                       (b. 1806 - d. 1880)
 1 Nov 1876 - 29 Jan 1891  Charles McCawley                   (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
30 Jan 1891 -  2 Oct 1903  Charles Heywood                    (b. 1839 - d. 1915)
 3 Oct 1903 - 30 Nov 1910  George Elliott                     (b. 1846 - d. 1931)
 1 Dec 1910 - 24 Feb 1914  William P. Biddle                  (b. 1853 - d. 1923)
                           (acting to 3 Feb 1911)
25 Feb 1914 - 30 Jun 1920  George Barnett                     (b. 1859 - d. 1930)
 1 Jul 1920 -  4 Mar 1929  John A. Lejeune                    (b. 1867 - d. 1942)
 5 Mar 1929 -  8 Jul 1930  Wendell Neville                    (b. 1870 - d. 1930)
 9 Jul 1930 - 28 Feb 1934  Ben H. Fuller                      (b. 1870 - d. 1937)
 1 Mar 1934 - 30 Nov 1936  John H. Russell                    (b. 1872 - d. 1947)
 1 Dec 1936 - 31 Dec 1943  Thomas Holcomb                     (b. 1879 - d. 1965)
 1 Jan 1944 - 31 Dec 1947  Alexander A. Vandegrift            (b. 1887 - d. 1973)
 1 Jan 1948 - 31 Dec 1951  Clifton B. Cates                   (b. 1893 - d. 1970)
 1 Jan 1952 - 31 Dec 1955  Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr.            (b. 1896 - d. 1990)
 1 Jan 1956 - 31 Dec 1959  Randolph McCall Pate               (b. 1898 - d. 1961)
 1 Jan 1960 - 31 Dec 1963  David M. Shoup                     (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
 1 Jan 1964 - 31 Dec 1967  Wallace M. Greene, Jr.             (b. 1907 - d. 2003)
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1971  Leonard F. Chapman, Jr.            (b. 1913 - d. 2000)
 1 Jan 1972 - 30 Jun 1975  Ronert E. Cushman, Jr.             (b. 1914 - d. 1985)
 1 Jul 1975 - 30 Jun 1979  Louis H. Wilson, Jr.               (b. 1920 - d. 2005)
 1 Jul 1979 - 30 Jun 1983  Robert H. Barrow                   (b. 1922 - d. 2008)
 1 Jul 1983 - 30 Jun 1987  Paul X. Kelley                     (b. 1928)
 1 Jul 1987 - 30 Jun 1991  Alfred M. Gray, Jr.                (b. 1928)
 1 Jul 1991 - 30 Jun 1995  Carl E. Mundy, Jr.                 (b. 1935 - d. 2014)
 1 Jul 1995 - 30 Jun 1999  Charles C. Krulak                  (b. 1942)
 1 Jul 1999 - 13 Jan 2003  James L. Jones                     (b. 1943)
13 Jan 2003 - 13 Nov 2006  Michael W. Hagee                   (b. 1944)
13 Nov 2006 - 22 Oct 2010  James T. Conway                    (b. 1947)
22 Oct 2010 - 17 Oct 2014  James F. Amos                      (b. 1946)
17 Oct 2014 -              Joseph F. Dunford, Jr.             (b. 1955)
¹The resolution of Congress on 10 Nov 1775 provided for a colonel to command two battalions of Marines authorized, but the highest rank received by any Marine during the revolution was major. Samuel Nicholas was appointed "Captain of Marines" on 28 Nov 1775, and promoted to major on 25 Jun 1776. Because of his senior status among other Marine officers of the Revolution, he is numbered as the first Commandant. The year 1781 saw Major Nicholas' return to private life. By the summer of 1781 there were only three Marine captains and three lieutenants on active duty, and the overall organization had ceased to exist.
Air Force

Chiefs of the Air Force Staff
18 Sep 1947 - 30 Apr 1948  Carl A. Spaatz                     (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
30 Apr 1948 - 30 Jun 1953  Hoyt S. Vandenberg                 (b. 1899 - d. 1954)
30 Jul 1953 - 30 Jun 1957  Nathan F. Twining                  (b. 1897 - d. 1982)
 1 Jul 1957 - 30 Jun 1961  Thomas D. White                    (b. 1901 - d. 1965)
30 Jun 1961 - 31 Jan 1965  Curtis E. LeMay                    (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
 1 Feb 1965 -  1 Aug 1969  John P. McConnell                  (b. 1908 - d. 1986)
 1 Aug 1969 - 31 Jul 1973  John D. Ryan                       (b. 1915 - d. 1983)
 1 Aug 1973 - 30 Jun 1974  George S. Brown                    (b. 1918 - d. 1978)
 1 Jul 1974 - 20 Jun 1978  David C. Jones                     (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
 1 Jul 1978 - 30 Jun 1982  Lew Allen, Jr.                     (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
 1 Jul 1982 - 30 Jun 1986  Charles A. Gabriel                 (b. 1928 - d. 2003)
 1 Jul 1986 - 30 Jun 1990  Larry D. Welch                     (b. 1934)
 1 Jul 1990 - 17 Sep 1990  Michael J. Dugan                   (b. 1937)
17 Sep 1990 - 27 Oct 1990  John M. Loh (acting)               (b. 1938)
27 Oct 1990 - 25 Oct 1994  Merrill A. McPeak                  (b. 1936)
26 Oct 1994 -  1 Sep 1997  Ronald R. Fogleman                 (b. 1942)
 2 Sep 1997 -  5 Oct 1997  Ralph E. Eberhart (acting)         (b. 1946)
 6 Oct 1997 -  6 Sep 2001  Michael E. Ryan                    (b. 1941)
 6 Sep 2001 -  2 Sep 2005  John P. Jumper                     (b. 1945)
 2 Sep 2005 -  1 Aug 2008  T. Michael Moseley                 (b. 1949)
 1 Aug 2008 - 12 Aug 2008  Duncan McNabb (acting)             (b. 1952)
12 Aug 2008 - 10 Aug 2012  Norton Schwartz                    (b. 1951)
10 Aug 2012 -              Mark A. Welsh III                  (b. 1954)

World-regional commands

African Command (AFRICOM)

Commanders
 1 Oct 2007 -  9 Mar 2011  William E. Ward                    (b. 1949)
 9 Mar 2011 -  5 Apr 2013  Carter Ham                         (b. 1952)
 5 Apr 2013 -              David M. Rodriguez                 (b. 1954?)

European Command (EUCOM)

Commanders-in-chief
 1 Aug 1952 - 11 Jul 1953  Matthew B. Ridgway                 (b. 1895 - d. 1993)
11 Jul 1953 - 20 Nov 1956  Alfred M. Gruenther                (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
20 Nov 1956 -  1 Nov 1962  Lauris Norstad                     (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
 1 Nov 1962 -  5 May 1969  Lyman L. Lemnitzer                 (b. 1899 - d. 1988)
 5 May 1969 -  1 Nov 1974  Andrew J. Goodpaster               (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
 1 Nov 1974 - 27 Jun 1979  Alexander Haig                     (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
27 Jun 1979 - 25 Jun 1987  Bernard W. Rogers                  (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
25 Jun 1987 - 23 Jun 1992  John Galvin                        (b. 1929)
23 Jun 1992 - 21 Oct 1993  John Shalikashvili                 (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
21 Oct 1993 - 10 Jul 1997  George A. Joulwan                  (b. 1939)
10 Jul 1997 -  2 May 2000  Wesley K. Clark                    (b. 1944)
 2 May 2000 - 16 Jan 2003  Joseph W. Ralston                  (b. 1943)
16 Jan 2003 -  4 Dec 2006  James L. Jones                     (b. 1943)
 4 Dec 2006 - 30 Jun 2009  Bantz J. Craddock                  (b. 1949)
30 Jun 2009 - 10 May 2013  James G. Stavridis                 (b. 1955)
10 May 2013 -              Philip M. Breedlove                (b. 1955)

Central Command (CENTCOM)

Commanders-in-chief
 1 Jan 1983 - 27 Nov 1985  Robert C. Kingston                 (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
27 Nov 1985 - 23 Nov 1988  George B. Crist                    (b. 1931)
23 Nov 1988 -  9 Aug 1991  H. Norman Schwarzkopf              (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
 9 Aug 1991 -  5 Aug 1994  Joseph P. Hoar                     (b. 1934)
 5 Aug 1994 - 13 Aug 1997  J.H. Binford Peay III              (b. 1940)
13 Aug 1997 -  6 Jul 2000  Anthony Zinni                      (b. 1943)
 6 Jul 2000 -  7 Jul 2003  Tommy Franks                       (b. 1945)
 7 Jul 2003 - 16 Mar 2007  John Abizaid                       (b. 1951)
16 Mar 2007 - 28 Mar 2008  William J. Fallon                  (b. 1944)
28 Mar 2008 - 31 Oct 2008  Martin E. Dempsey (acting)         (b. 1952)
31 Oct 2008 - 30 Jun 2010  David Petraeus                     (b. 1952)
30 Jun 2010 - 11 Aug 2010  John R. Allen (acting)
11 Aug 2010 - 22 Mar 2013  James N. Mattis                    (b. 1950)
22 Mar 2013 -              Lloyd Austin                       (b. 1953)

Pacific Command (PACOM)

Commanders-in-chief
 1 Jan 1947 - 28 Feb 1947  John H. Towers                     (b. 1885 - d. 1955)
28 Feb 1947 -  3 Dec 1947  Louis E. Denfeld                   (b. 1891 - d. 1972)
12 Jan 1948 - 30 Apr 1949  DeWitt C. Ramsey                   (b. 1888 - d. 1961)
30 Apr 1949 - 10 Jul 1953  Arthur W. Radford                  (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
10 Jul 1953 - 31 Jul 1958  Felix B. Stump                     (b. 1894 - d. 1972)
31 Jul 1958 - 30 Jun 1964  Harry D. Felt                      (b. 1902 - d. 1992)
30 Jun 1964 - 31 Jul 1968  Ulysses S. Grant Sharp             (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
31 Jul 1968 -  1 Sep 1972  John S. McCain, Jr.                (b. 1911 - d. 1981)
 1 Sep 1972 - 30 Aug 1976  Noel A.M. Gayler                   (b. 1914 - d. 2011)
30 Aug 1976 - 31 Oct 1979  Maurice F. Weisner                 (b. 1917 - d. 2006)
31 Oct 1979 -  1 Jul 1983  Robert L.J. Long                   (b. 1920 - d. 2002)
 1 Jul 1983 - 18 Sep 1985  William J. Crowe, Jr.              (b. 1925 - d. 2007)
18 Sep 1985 - 30 Sep 1988  Ronald J. Hays                     (b. 1928)
30 Sep 1988 -  1 Mar 1991  Huntington Hardisty                (b. 1929 - d. 2003)
 1 Mar 1991 - 11 Jul 1994  Charles R. Larson                  (b. 1936 - d. 2014)
11 Jul 1994 - 19 Jul 1994  Harold T. Fields                   (b. 1938)
19 Jul 1994 - 31 Jan 1996  Richard C. Macke                   (b. 1938)
31 Jan 1996 - 20 Feb 1999  Joseph W. Prueher                  (b. 1942)
20 Feb 1999 -  2 May 2002  Dennis C. Blair                    (b. 1947)
 2 May 2002 - 26 Feb 2005  Thomas B. Fargo                    (b. 1948)
26 Feb 2005 - 12 Mar 2007  William J. Fallon                  (b. 1944)
12 Mar 2007 - 26 Mar 2007  Daniel P. Leaf (acting)
26 Mar 2007 - 19 Oct 2009  Timothy J. Keating                 (b. 1948)
19 Oct 2009 -  9 Mar 2012  Robert F. Willard                  (b. 1950)
 9 Mar 2012 -              Samuel J. Locklear III             (b. 1954)

Northern Command (NORTHCOM)

Commanders-in-chief
 1 Oct 2002 -  5 Nov 2004  Ralph E. Eberhart                  (b. 1946)
 5 Nov 2004 - 23 Mar 2007  Timothy J. Keating                 (b. 1948)
23 Mar 2007 - 19 May 2010  Victor E. Renuart, Jr.             (b. 1949)
19 May 2010 -  3 Aug 2011  James A. Winnefeld, Jr.            (b. 1956)
 3 Aug 2011 -  5 Dec 2014  Charles Jacoby, Jr.                (b. 1954)
 5 Dec 2014 -              William E. Gortney                 (b. 1955)

Southern Command (SOUTHCOM)

   Jul 1917                Panama Canal Department
10 Feb 1941                Caribbean Defense Command
 1 Nov 1947                U.S. Caribbean Command
 6 Jun 1963                U.S. Southern Command

Commanders-in-chief
   Jul 1917 -    Aug 1917  Edward H. Plummer                  (b. 1855 - d. 1927)
   Aug 1917                Adelbert Cronkhite                 (b. 1861 - d. 1937)
   Aug 1917 -    Oct 1917  C.E. Lander
   Oct 1917 -    Feb 1918  W.W. Graves
   Feb 1918 -    Apr 1919  Richard M. Blatchford              (b. 1859 - d. 1934)
   Apr 1919 -    May 1921  Charles W. Kennedy
   May 1921 -    Oct 1921  B.B. Babbitt
   Oct 1921 -    Sep 1924  Samuel D. Sturgis                  (b. 1861 - d. 1933)
   Sep 1924 -    Jan 1926  William Lassiter                   (b. 1867 - d. 1959)
   Jan 1926 -    Apr 1928  Charles H. Martin                  (b. 1863 - d. 1946)
   Apr 1928 -    Aug 1930  Malin Craig                        (b. 1875 - d. 1945)
   Aug 1930 -    Nov 1930  L.R. Erwin
   Nov 1930 -    Sep 1933  Preston Brown                      (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
   Sep 1933 -    Nov 1935  Harold B. Fiske                    (b. 1871 - d. 1960)
   Nov 1935 -    Jul 1936  Lytle Brown                        (b. 1872 - d. 1951)
   Jul 1936 -    Feb 1937  Henry W. Butner                    (b. 1875 - d. 1937)
   Feb 1937 -    Apr 1937  Frank W. Rowell
   Apr 1937 -    Jan 1940  David L. Stone
   Jan 1940 -    Sep 1941  Daniel Van Voorhis                 (b. 1878 - d. 1956)
 9 Sep 1941 -  8 Nov 1942  Frank M. Andrews                   (b. 1884 - d. 1943)
   Nov 1942 -    Oct 1945  George Howard Brett                (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
   Oct 1945 - 28 Jun 1948  Willis D. Crittenberger            (b. 1890 - d. 1980)
28 Jun 1948 -  1 Oct 1949  Matthew B. Ridgway                 (b. 1895 - d. 1993)
 1 Oct 1949 -  1 Apr 1952  William Morris, Jr.                (b. 1890 - d. 1971)
 1 Apr 1952 - 15 Jun 1954  Horace L. McBride
15 Jun 1954 -  5 Jan 1957  William K. Harrison                (b. 1895 - d. 1987)
 5 Jan 1957 - 20 Feb 1958  Robert M. Montague                 (b. 1899 - d. 1958)
20 Feb 1958 -  1 Apr 1958  Truman H. Landon                   (b. 1905 - d. 1986)
 1 Apr 1958 - 15 Jul 1960  Ridgely Gaither                    (b. 1903 - d. 1992)
15 Jul 1960 -  1 Feb 1961  Robert F. Sink                     (b. 1905 - d. 1965)
 1 Feb 1961 - 22 Feb 1965  Andrew P. O'Meara                  (b. 1907 - d. 2005)
22 Feb 1965 - 18 Feb 1969  Robert W. Porter, Jr.              (b. 1908 - d. 2000)
18 Feb 1969 - 20 Sep 1971  George R. Mather                   (b. 1911 - d. 1993)
20 Sep 1971 - 17 Jan 1973  George V. Underwood, Jr.           (b. 1913 - d. 1984)
17 Jan 1973 -  1 Aug 1975  William B. Rosson                  (b. 1918 - d. 2004)
 1 Aug 1975 -  1 Oct 1979  Dennis P. McAuliffe                (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
 1 Oct 1979 - 24 May 1983  Wallace H. Nutting                 (b. 1928)
24 May 1983 -  1 Mar 1985  Paul F. Gorman                     (b. 1927)
 1 Mar 1985 -  6 Jun 1987  John Galvin                        (b. 1929)
 6 Jun 1987 -  1 Oct 1989  Fred F. Woerner                    (b. 1933)
 1 Oct 1989 - 21 Nov 1990  Maxwell R. Thurman                 (b. 1931 - d. 1995)
21 Nov 1990 - 17 Feb 1994  George A. Joulwan                  (b. 1939)
17 Feb 1994 -    Mar 1996  Barry McCaffrey                    (b. 1942)
   Mar 1996 - 26 Jun 1996  James B. Perkins III (acting)      (b. 1942)
26 Jun 1996 -    Jul 1997  Wesley K. Clark                    (b. 1944)
   Jul 1997 -    Sep 1997  Walter F. Doran (acting)           (b. 1945)
   Sep 1997 -  8 Sep 2000  Charles E. Wilhelm                 (b. 1941)
 8 Sep 2000 -  1 Oct 2001  Peter Pace                         (b. 1945)
 1 Oct 2001 - 18 Aug 2002  Gary D. Speer (acting)             (b. 1950)
18 Aug 2002 -  9 Nov 2004  James T. Hill                      (b. 1946)
 9 Nov 2004 - 19 Oct 2006  Bantz J. Craddock                  (b. 1949)
19 Oct 2006 - 25 Jun 2009  James G. Stavridis                 (b. 1955)
25 Jun 2009 - 19 Nov 2012  Douglas M. Fraser                  (b. 1953)
19 Nov 2012 -              John F. Kelly                      (b. 1950)

National Security Agency

15 Jul 1949                Armed Forces Security Agency
   Nov 1952                National Security Agency

Directors
15 Jul 1949 - 15 Jul 1951  Earl E. Stone                      (b. 1895 - d. 1989)
15 Jul 1951 - 23 Nov 1956  Ralph J. Canine                    (b. 1895 - d. 1969)
24 Nov 1956 - 23 Nov 1960  John A. Samford                    (b. 1905 - d. 1968)
24 Nov 1960 - 30 Jun 1962  Laurence H. Frost                  (b. 1902 - d. 1977)
 1 Jul 1962 - 31 May 1965  Gordon A. Blake                    (b. 1910 - d. 1997)
 1 Jun 1965 - 31 Jul 1969  Marshall S. Carter                 (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
 1 Aug 1969 - 31 Jul 1972  Noel Gayler                        (b. 1914 - d. 2011)
 1 Aug 1972 - 14 Aug 1973  Samuel C. Phillips                 (b. 1921 - d. 1990)
15 Aug 1973 -  4 Jul 1977  Lew Allen, Jr.                     (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
 5 Jul 1977 - 31 Mar 1981  Bobby Ray Inman                    (b. 1931)
 1 Apr 1981 - 27 Mar 1985  Lincoln D. Faurer                  (b. 1928)
 5 May 1985 - 31 Jul 1988  William E. Odom                    (b. 1932 - d. 2008)
 1 Aug 1988 -  8 Apr 1992  William O. Studeman                (b. 1940)
22 May 1992 - 22 Feb 1996  J. Michael McConnell               (b. 1943)
23 Feb 1996 - 15 Mar 1999  Kenneth A. Minihan                 (b. 1943)
25 Mar 1999 -    May 2005  Michael Hayden                     (b. 1945)
   May 2005 -    Jul 2005  William B. Black, Jr. (acting)     (b. 1936)
 1 Aug 2005 - 28 Mar 2014  Keith B. Alexander                 (b. 1951)
 2 Apr 2014 -              Michael S. Rogers                  (b. 1959?)

Post Office Department

26 Jul 1775                office of Postmaster General created by Congress
       1829                Postmaster General becomes a cabinet member
 8 Jun 1872                Post Office Department formally established as an
                           executive department
 1 Jul 1971                U.S. Postal Service (no longer a cabinet position)

Postmasters General
26 Jul 1775 -  7 Nov 1776  Benjamin Franklin                  (b. 1706 - d. 1790)
 7 Nov 1776 - 28 Jan 1782  Richard Bache                      (b. 1737 - d. 1811)
28 Jan 1782 - 26 Sep 1789  Ebenezer Hazard                    (b. 1744 - d. 1817)
26 Sep 1789 - 12 Aug 1791  Samuel Osgood                      (b. 1747 - d. 1813)
12 Aug 1791 - 25 Feb 1795  Timothy Pickering                  (b. 1745 - d. 1829)
25 Feb 1795 - 28 Nov 1801  Joseph Habersham                   (b. 1751 - d. 1815)
28 Nov 1801 - 17 Mar 1814  Gideon Granger                     (b. 1767 - d. 1822)
17 Mar 1814 - 26 Jun 1823  Return J. Meigs, Jr.               (b. 1764 - d. 1825)
26 Jun 1823 -  3 Mar 1829  John McLean                        (b. 1785 - d. 1861)
 9 Mar 1829 -  1 May 1835  William T. Barry                   (b. 1785 - d. 1835)
 1 May 1835 - 19 May 1840  Amos Kendall                       (b. 1789 - d. 1869)
19 May 1840 -  3 Mar 1841  John M. Niles                      (b. 1787 - d. 1856)
 6 Mar 1841 - 13 Sep 1841  Francis Granger                    (b. 1792 - d. 1868)
13 Sep 1841 -  3 Mar 1845  Charles A. Wickliffe               (b. 1788 - d. 1869)
 6 Mar 1845 -  3 Mar 1849  Cave Johnson                       (b. 1793 - d. 1866)
 8 Mar 1849 - 23 Jul 1850  Jacob Collamer                     (b. 1791 - d. 1865)
23 Jul 1850 - 31 Aug 1852  Nathan K. Hall                     (b. 1810 - d. 1874)
31 Aug 1852 -  3 Mar 1853  Samuel D. Hubbard                  (b. 1799 - d. 1855)
 7 Mar 1853 -  3 Mar 1857  James Campbell                     (b. 1812 - d. 1893)
 6 Mar 1857 -  8 Mar 1859  Aaron V. Brown                     (b. 1795 - d. 1859)
14 Mar 1859 - 12 Feb 1861  Joseph Holt                        (b. 1807 - d. 1894)
12 Feb 1861 -  3 Mar 1861  Horatio King                       (b. 1811 - d. 1897)
 5 Mar 1861 - 24 Sep 1864  Montgomery Blair                   (b. 1813 - d. 1883)
24 Sep 1864 - 25 Jul 1866  William Dennison, Jr.              (b. 1815 - d. 1882)
25 Jul 1866 -  3 Mar 1869  Alexander W. Randall               (b. 1819 - d. 1872)
 5 Mar 1869 -  3 Jul 1874  John A.J. Creswell                 (b. 1828 - d. 1891)
 3 Jul 1874 - 24 Aug 1874  James W. Marshall                  (b. 1822 - d. 1910)
24 Aug 1874 - 12 Jul 1876  Marshall Jewell                    (b. 1825 - d. 1883)
12 Jul 1876 -  3 Mar 1877  James N. Tyner                     (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
12 Mar 1877 -  2 Jun 1880  David M. Key                       (b. 1824 - d. 1900)
 2 Jun 1880 -  3 Mar 1881  Horace Maynard                     (b. 1814 - d. 1882)
 5 Mar 1881 - 20 Dec 1881  Thomas L. James                    (b. 1831 - d. 1916)
20 Dec 1881 -  3 Apr 1883  Timothy O. Howe                    (b. 1816 - d. 1883)
 3 Apr 1883 - 14 Oct 1884  Walter Q. Gresham                  (b. 1832 - d. 1895)
14 Oct 1884 -  3 Mar 1885  Frank Hatton                       (b. 1846 - d. 1894)
 6 Mar 1885 -  6 Jan 1888  William F. Vilas                   (b. 1840 - d. 1908)
 6 Jan 1888 -  3 Mar 1889  Don M. Dickinson                   (b. 1846 - d. 1917)
 5 Mar 1889 -  3 Mar 1893  John Wanamaker                     (b. 1838 - d. 1922)
 6 Mar 1893 -  1 Mar 1895  Wilson S. Bissell                  (b. 1847 - d. 1903)
 1 Mar 1895 -  3 Mar 1897  William L. Wilson                  (b. 1843 - d. 1900)
 5 Mar 1897 - 21 Apr 1898  James A. Gary                      (b. 1833 - d. 1920)
21 Apr 1898 -  9 Jan 1902  Charles Emory Smith                (b. 1842 - d. 1908)
 9 Jan 1902 - 10 Oct 1904  Henry C. Payne                     (b. 1843 - d. 1904)
10 Oct 1904 -  3 Mar 1905  Robert J. Wynne                    (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
 6 Mar 1905 - 15 Jan 1907  George B. Cortelyou                (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
15 Jan 1907 -  3 Mar 1909  George von Lengerke Meyer          (b. 1858 - d. 1918)
 5 Mar 1909 -  3 Mar 1913  Frank H. Hitchcock                 (b. 1869 - d. 1935)
 5 Mar 1913 -  3 Mar 1921  Albert S. Burleson                 (b. 1863 - d. 1937)
 5 Mar 1921 -  4 Mar 1922  Will Hays                          (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
 4 Mar 1922 - 27 Feb 1923  Hubert Work                        (b. 1860 - d. 1942)
27 Feb 1923 -  3 Mar 1929  Harry S. New                       (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
 5 Mar 1929 -  3 Mar 1933  Walter F. Brown                    (b. 1869 - d. 1961)
 4 Mar 1933 - 10 Sep 1940  James A. Farley                    (b. 1888 - d. 1976)
10 Sep 1940 -  8 May 1945  Frank C. Walker                    (b. 1886 - d. 1959)
 8 May 1945 - 16 Dec 1947  Robert E. Hannegan                 (b. 1903 - d. 1949)
16 Dec 1947 - 20 Jan 1953  Jesse M. Donaldson                 (b. 1885 - d. 1970)
21 Jan 1953 - 20 Jan 1961  Arthur E. Summerfield              (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
21 Jan 1961 - 30 Sep 1963  J. Edward Day                      (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
30 Sep 1963 -  3 Nov 1965  John A. Gronouski                  (b. 1919 - d. 1996)
 3 Nov 1965 - 26 Apr 1968  Lawrence F. O'Brien                (b. 1917 - d. 1990)
26 Apr 1968 - 20 Jan 1969  W. Marvin Watson                   (b. 1924)
22 Jan 1969 -  1 Jan 1972  Winton M. Blount                   (b. 1921 - d. 2002)
 1 Jan 1972 - 16 Feb 1975  E.T. Klassen                       (b. 1908 - d. 1990)
16 Feb 1975 - 15 Mar 1978  Benjamin F. Bailar                 (b. 1934)
15 Mar 1978 -  1 Jan 1985  William F. Bolger                  (b. 1923 - d. 1989)
 1 Jan 1985 -  7 Jan 1986  Paul N. Carlin                     (b. 1931)
 7 Jan 1986 - 16 Aug 1986  Albert V. Casey                    (b. 1920 - d. 2004)
16 Aug 1986 -  1 Mar 1988  Preston Robert Tisch               (b. 1926 - d. 2005)
 1 Mar 1988 -  6 Jul 1992  Anthony M. Frank                   (b. 1931)
 6 Jul 1992 - 16 May 1998  Marvin T. Runyon                   (b. 1924 - d. 2004)
16 May 1998 -  1 Jun 2001  William J. Henderson               (b. 1947)
 1 Jun 2001 -  3 Dec 2010  John E. Potter                     (b. 1956)
 6 Dec 2010 -              Patrick R. Donahoe

Department of the Treasury

 2 Sep 1789                Department of the Treasury

Secretaries
11 Sep 1789 - 31 Jan 1795  Alexander Hamilton                 (b. 1757 - d. 1804)
 3 Feb 1795 - 31 Dec 1800  Oliver Wolcott, Jr.                (b. 1760 - d. 1833)
 1 Jan 1801 - 13 May 1801  Samuel Dexter                      (b. 1761 - d. 1816)
14 May 1801 -  8 Feb 1814  Albert Gallatin                    (b. 1761 - d. 1849)
 9 Feb 1814 -  5 Oct 1814  George W. Campbell                 (b. 1769 - d. 1848)
 6 Oct 1814 - 21 Oct 1816  Alexander J. Dallas                (b. 1759 - d. 1817)
22 Oct 1816 -  4 Mar 1825  William H. Crawford                (b. 1772 - d. 1834)
 7 Mar 1825 -  4 Mar 1829  Richard Rush                       (b. 1780 - d. 1859)
 6 Mar 1829 - 20 Jun 1831  Samuel D. Ingham                   (b. 1779 - d. 1860)
 8 Aug 1831 - 28 May 1833  Louis McLane                       (b. 1786 - d. 1857)
29 May 1833 - 22 Sep 1833  William J. Duane                   (b. 1780 - d. 1865)
23 Sep 1833 - 25 Jun 1834  Roger B. Taney                     (b. 1777 - d. 1864)
 1 Jul 1834 -  4 Mar 1841  Levi Woodbury                      (b. 1789 - d. 1851)
 4 Mar 1841 - 11 Sep 1841  Thomas Ewing                       (b. 1789 - d. 1871)
13 Sep 1841 -  1 Mar 1843  Walter Forward                     (b. 1786 - d. 1852)
 8 Mar 1843 -  2 May 1844  John C. Spencer                    (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
 4 Jul 1844 -  4 Mar 1845  George M. Bibb                     (b. 1776 - d. 1859)
 8 Mar 1845 -  4 Mar 1849  Robert J. Walker                   (b. 1801 - d. 1869)
 8 Mar 1849 - 22 Jul 1850  William M. Meredith                (b. 1799 - d. 1873)
23 Jul 1850 -  4 Mar 1853  Thomas Corwin                      (b. 1794 - d. 1865)
 7 Mar 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  James Guthrie                      (b. 1792 - d. 1869)
 7 Mar 1857 -  8 Dec 1860  Howell Cobb                        (b. 1815 - d. 1868)
12 Dec 1860 - 14 Jan 1861  Philip F. Thomas                   (b. 1810 - d. 1890)
15 Jan 1861 -  4 Mar 1861  John Adams Dix                     (b. 1798 - d. 1879)
 7 Mar 1861 - 30 Jun 1864  Salmon P. Chase                    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
 5 Jul 1864 -  4 Mar 1865  William P. Fessenden               (b. 1806 - d. 1869)
 9 Mar 1865 -  4 Mar 1869  Hugh McCulloch (1st time)          (b. 1808 - d. 1895)
12 Mar 1869 - 16 Mar 1873  George S. Boutwell                 (b. 1818 - d. 1905)
17 Mar 1873 -  3 Jun 1874  William A. Richardson              (b. 1821 - d. 1896)
 4 Jun 1874 - 20 Jun 1876  Benjamin H. Bristow                (b. 1832 - d. 1890)
 7 Jul 1876 -  4 Mar 1877  Lot M. Morrill                     (b. 1813 - d. 1883)
10 Mar 1877 -  4 Mar 1881  John Sherman                       (b. 1823 - d. 1900)
 8 Mar 1881 - 13 Nov 1881  William H. Windom (1st time)       (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
14 Nov 1881 -  4 Sep 1884  Charles J. Folger                  (b. 1818 - d. 1884)
 5 Sep 1884 - 30 Oct 1884  Walter Q. Gresham                  (b. 1832 - d. 1895)
31 Oct 1884 -  7 Mar 1885  Hugh McCulloch (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 8 Mar 1885 - 31 Mar 1887  Daniel Manning                     (b. 1831 - d. 1887)
 1 Apr 1887 -  3 Mar 1889  Charles S. Fairchild               (b. 1842 - d. 1924)
 7 Mar 1889 - 29 Jan 1891  William H. Windom (2nd time)       (s.a.)
25 Feb 1891 -  6 Mar 1893  Charles Foster                     (b. 1828 - d. 1904)
 7 Mar 1893 -  5 Mar 1897  John G. Carlisle                   (b. 1835 - d. 1910)
 6 Mar 1897 - 31 Jan 1902  Lyman J. Gage                      (b. 1836 - d. 1927)
 1 Feb 1902 -  4 Mar 1907  Leslie M. Shaw                     (b. 1848 - d. 1932)
 4 Mar 1907 -  4 Mar 1909  George B. Cortelyou                (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
 8 Mar 1909 -  4 Mar 1913  Franklin MacVeagh                  (b. 1837 - d. 1934)
 6 Mar 1913 - 15 Dec 1918  William G. McAdoo                  (b. 1863 - d. 1941)
16 Dec 1918 -  1 Feb 1920  Carter Glass                       (b. 1858 - d. 1946)
 2 Feb 1920 -  4 Mar 1921  David F. Houston                   (b. 1866 - d. 1940)
 4 Mar 1921 - 12 Feb 1932  Andrew W. Mellon                   (b. 1855 - d. 1937)
13 Feb 1932 -  4 Mar 1933  Ogden L. Mills                     (b. 1884 - d. 1937)
 5 Mar 1933 - 17 Nov 1933  William H. Woodin                  (b. 1868 - d. 1934)
17 Nov 1933 - 22 Jul 1945  Henry Morgenthau, Jr.              (b. 1891 - d. 1967)
                           (acting to 1 Jan 1934)
23 Jul 1945 - 23 Jun 1946  Fred M. Vinson                     (b. 1890 - d. 1953)
25 Jun 1946 - 20 Jan 1953  John W. Snyder                     (b. 1895 - d. 1985)
21 Jan 1953 - 29 Jul 1957  George M. Humphrey                 (b. 1890 - d. 1970)
29 Jul 1957 - 20 Jan 1961  Robert B. Anderson                 (b. 1910 - d. 1989)
21 Jan 1961 -  1 Apr 1965  C. Douglas Dillon                  (b. 1909 - d. 2003)
 1 Apr 1965 - 20 Dec 1968  Henry H. Fowler                    (b. 1908 - d. 2000)
21 Dec 1968 - 20 Jan 1969  Joseph W. Barr                     (b. 1918 - d. 1996)
22 Jan 1969 - 10 Feb 1971  David M. Kennedy                   (b. 1905 - d. 1996)
11 Feb 1971 - 12 Jun 1972  John B. Connally                   (b. 1917 - d. 1993)
12 Jun 1972 -  8 May 1974  George Shultz                      (b. 1920)
 8 May 1974 - 20 Jan 1977  William E. Simon                   (b. 1927 - d. 2000)
23 Jan 1977 -  4 Aug 1979  Michael Blumenthal                 (b. 1926)
 6 Aug 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  G. William Miller                  (b. 1925 - d. 2006)
22 Jan 1981 -  1 Feb 1985  Donald Regan                       (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
 4 Feb 1985 - 17 Aug 1988  James Baker                        (b. 1930)
15 Sep 1988 - 17 Jan 1993  Nicholas F. Brady                  (b. 1930)
20 Jan 1993 - 22 Dec 1994  Lloyd Bentsen                      (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
22 Dec 1994 - 11 Jan 1995  Frank Newman (acting)
11 Jan 1995 -  2 Jul 1999  Robert E. Rubin                    (b. 1938)
 2 Jul 1999 - 20 Jan 2001  Lawrence H. Summers                (b. 1954)
20 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2002  Paul O'Neill                       (b. 1935)
 1 Jan 2003 -  3 Feb 2003  Kenneth W. Dam (acting)            (b. 1932)
 3 Feb 2003 - 29 Jun 2006  John Snow                          (b. 1939)
29 Jun 2006 - 10 Jul 2006  Robert M. Kimmitt (acting)         (b. 1947)
10 Jul 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Henry M. Paulson, Jr.              (b. 1946)
20 Jan 2009 - 26 Jan 2009  Stuart Levey (acting)
26 Jan 2009 - 25 Jan 2013  Timothy Geithner                   (b. 1961)
26 Jan 2013 - 28 Feb 2013  Neal Wolin (acting)                (b. 1961)
28 Feb 2013 -              Jack Lew                           (b. 1955)

Treasurers
29 Jul 1775 - 11 Sep 1789  Michael Hillegas                   (b. 1729 - d. 1804)
11 Sep 1789 - 31 Oct 1801  Samuel Meredith                    (b. 1741 - d. 1817)
 1 Dec 1801 -  2 May 1828  Thomas T. Tucker                   (b. 1745 - d. 1828)
 4 Jun 1828 -    May 1829  William Clark                      (b. 1774 - d. 1851)
   May 1829 - 20 Jul 1839  John Campbell
22 Jul 1839 - 23 Nov 1850  William Selden
27 Nov 1850 -  6 Apr 1852  John Sloan
 4 Apr 1853 - 22 Dec 1859  Samuel Casey
28 Feb 1860 -    Mar 1861  William C. Price
   Mar 1861 - 30 Jun 1875  Francis E. Spinner                 (b. 1802 - d. 1890)
30 Jun 1875 -  1 Jul 1876  John C. New
 1 Jul 1876 - 30 Jun 1877  A.U. Wyman (1st time)
 1 Jul 1877 - 31 Mar 1883  James Gilfillan
 1 Apr 1883 - 30 Apr 1885  A.U. Wyman (2nd time)
 1 May 1885 - 23 May 1887  Conrad N. Jordan
24 May 1887 - 10 May 1889  James W. Hyatt
11 May 1889 - 24 Apr 1891  J.N. Huston
25 Apr 1891 - 31 May 1893  Enos H. Nebeker                    (b. 1836 - d. 1913)
 1 Jun 1893 - 30 Jun 1897  Daniel N. Morgan
 1 Jul 1897 - 30 Jun 1905  Ellis H. Roberts
 1 Jul 1905 - 30 Oct 1909  Charles H. Treat
 1 Nov 1909 - 21 Nov 1912  Lee McClung
22 Nov 1912 - 31 Mar 1913  Carmi A. Thompson                  (b. 1870 - d. 1942)
 1 Apr 1913 -  5 Jan 1921  John Burke                         (b. 1859 - d. 1937)
 2 May 1921 -  1 May 1928  Frank White                        (b. 1856 - d. 1940)
31 May 1928 - 17 Jan 1929  H.T. Tate
18 Jan 1929 - 31 May 1933  Walter O. Woods
 1 Jun 1933 - 29 May 1949  William A. Julian                  (b. 1860 - d. 1949)
21 Jun 1949 - 27 Jan 1953  Georgia Neese Clark (f)            (b. 1900 - d. 1995)
28 Jan 1953 - 29 Jan 1961  Ivy Baker Priest (f)               (b. 1905 - d. 1975)
30 Jan 1961 - 13 Apr 1962  Elizabeth Rudel Smith (f)          (b. 1911 - d. 1997)
 9 Jan 1963 - 22 Nov 1966  Kathryn O'Hay Granahan (f)         (b. 1894 - d. 1979)
 8 May 1969 -  3 Jul 1971  Dorothy Andrews Elston
                           (from 17 Sep 1970, Dorothy
                           Andrews Kabis) (f)                 (b. 1917 - d. 1971)
17 Dec 1971 -  8 May 1974  Romana Acosta Bañuelos (f)         (b. 1925)
21 Jun 1974 - 19 Jan 1977  Francine I. Neff (f)               (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
12 Sep 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Azie Taylor Morton (f)             (b. 1936 - d. 2003)
17 Mar 1981 -  5 Jul 1983  Angela M. Buchanan (f)             (b. 1948)
22 Sep 1983 -  1 Jul 1989  Katherine Davalos Ortega (f)       (b. 1934)
20 Nov 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Catalina Vasquez Villalpando (f)   (b. 1940)
 1 Mar 1994 - 20 Jan 2001  Mary Ellen Withrow (f)             (b. 1930)
16 Aug 2001 - 30 Jun 2003  Rosario Marin (f)                  (b. 1958)
19 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Anna Escobedo Cabral (f)           (b. 1959)
20 Aug 2009 -              Rosa Gumataotao Rios (f)           (b. 1966)

U.S. Mint

Directors
   Apr 1792 -    Jun 1795  David Rittenhouse                  (b. 1732 - d. 1796)
   Jul 1795 -    Oct 1795  Henry William de Saussure          (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
   Oct 1795 -    Jul 1805  Elias Boudinot                     (b. 1740 - d. 1821)
   Jan 1806 -    Jul 1824  Robert Patterson                   (b. 1743 - d. 1824)
   Jul 1824 -    Jul 1835  Samuel Moore                       (b. 1774 - d. 1861)
   Jul 1835 -    Jul 1851  Robert Maskell Patterson           (b. 1787 - d. 1854)
   Jul 1851 -    Apr 1853  George N. Eckert                   (b. 1802 - d. 1865)
   Apr 1853 - 30 May 1853  Thomas M. Pettit                   (b. 1797 - d. 1853)
   Jun 1853 -    Apr 1861  James Ross Snowden                 (b. 1809 - d. 1878)
   May 1861 -    Sep 1866  James Pollock (1st time)           (b. 1811 - d. 1890)
   Oct 1866 -    Apr 1867  William Millward                   (b. 1822 - d. 1871)
   Apr 1867 -    Apr 1869  Henry Richard Linderman (1st time) (b. 1825 - d. 1879)
   May 1869 -    Mar 1873  James Pollock (2nd time)           (s.a.)
   Apr 1873 -    Dec 1878  Henry Richard Linderman (2nd time) (s.a.)
   Feb 1879 -    Jun 1885  Horatio C. Burchard                (b. 1825 - d. 1908)
   Jul 1885 -    Oct 1889  James P. Kimball                   (b. 1836 - d. 1913)
   Oct 1889 -    May 1893  Edward O. Leech                    (b. 1850 - d. 1900)
   Nov 1893 -    Feb 1898  Robert E. Preston                  (b. 1836 - d. 1911)
   Feb 1898 -    Jul 1907  George E. Roberts (1st time)       (b. 1857 - d. 1948)
   Sep 1907 -    Nov 1909  Frank A. Leach                     (b. 1846 - d. 1929)
   Nov 1909 -    Jun 1910  A. Piatt Andrew                    (b. 1873 - d. 1936)
   Jul 1910 -    Nov 1914  George E. Roberts (2nd time)       (s.a.)
   Mar 1915 -    Jul 1916  Robert W. Woolley                  (b. 1871 - d. 1958)
   Sep 1916 -    Feb 1917  F.J.H. von Engelken                (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
   Mar 1917 -    Mar 1922  Raymond T. Baker                   (b. 1877 - d. 1935)
   Mar 1922 -    Sep 1923  F.E. Scobey                        (b. 1866 - d. 1931)
   Nov 1923 -    May 1933  Robert J. Grant                    (b. 1862 - d. 1949)
   May 1933 -    Apr 1953  Nellie Tayloe Ross (f)             (b. 1876 - d. 1977)
   Jul 1954 -    Jan 1961  William H. Brett                   (b. 1893 - d. 1989)
   Oct 1961 -    Aug 1969  Eva Adams (f)                      (b. 1908 - d. 1991)
   Sep 1969 -    Feb 1977  Mary Brooks (f)                    (b. 1907 - d. 2002)
   Nov 1977 -    Apr 1981  Stella Hackel Sims (f)             (b. 1926)
   Jul 1981 -    Aug 1991  Donna Pope (f)                     (b. 1931)
   Sep 1992 -    Nov 1993  David J. Ryder                     (b. 1955)
   Jun 1994 -    Mar 2000  Philip N. Diehl                    (b. 1951)
   Mar 2000 -    Aug 2001  Jay W. Johnson                     (b. 1943 - d. 2009)
 7 Aug 2001 -    Aug 2005  Henrietta Holsman Fore (f)         (b. 1948)
   Aug 2005 -  5 Sep 2006  David A. Lebryk (acting)
 5 Sep 2006 -  9 Jan 2011  Edmund C. Moy                      (b. 1957)
 9 Jan 2011 - 13 Jan 2011  Andrew D. Brunhart (acting)
13 Jan 2011 - 25 Jan 2011  Rosa Gumataotao Rios (f) (acting)  (b. 1966)
25 Jan 2011 -              Richard Peterson (acting)

Internal Revenue Service

       1953                Bureau of Internal Revenue renamed Internal Revenue Service

Commissioners
17 Jul 1862 -  4 Mar 1863  George S. Boutwell                 (b. 1818 - d. 1905)
 5 Mar 1863 - 30 Jun 1865  Joseph J. Lewis
                           (acting to 17 Mar 1863)
 1 Jul 1865 - 31 Oct 1865  William Orton
 1 Nov 1865 - 10 Mar 1869  Edward A. Rollins
11 Mar 1869 - 31 Oct 1870  Columbus Delano
 1 Nov 1870 -  2 Jan 1871  John W. Douglass (1st time)
                           (acting)
 3 Jan 1871 -  8 Aug 1871  Alfred Pleasonton                  (b. 1824 - d. 1897)
 9 Aug 1871 - 14 May 1875  John W. Douglass (2nd time)
15 May 1875 -  1 Aug 1876  Daniel D. Pratt
 2 Aug 1876 - 30 Apr 1883  Green B. Raum                      (b. 1829 - d. 1909)
 1 May 1883 - 10 May 1883  Henry C. Rogers (1st time)
                           (acting)
11 May 1883 - 20 May 1883  John J. Knox (acting)
21 May 1883 - 19 Mar 1885  Walter Evans                       (b. 1842 - d. 1923)
20 Mar 1885 - 20 Mar 1889  Joseph S. Miller (1st time)
21 Mar 1889 - 18 Apr 1893  John W. Mason
19 Apr 1893 - 26 Nov 1896  Joseph S. Miller (2nd time)
27 Nov 1896 - 31 Dec 1897  W. St. John Forman
 1 Jan 1898 - 28 Feb 1899  Nathan B. Scott                    (b. 1842 - d. 1924)
 1 Mar 1899 - 27 Nov 1900  George W. Wilson
28 Nov 1900 - 19 Dec 1900  Robert Williams, Jr. (acting)
20 Dec 1900 - 30 Apr 1907  John W. Yerkes
 1 May 1907 -  4 Jun 1907  Henry C. Rogers (2nd time)
                           (acting)
 5 Jun 1907 - 31 Aug 1909  John G. Capers
 1 Sep 1909 - 27 Apr 1913  Royal E. Cabell
28 Apr 1913 - 25 Sep 1917  William H. Osborn                  (b. 1856 - d. 1921)
26 Sep 1917 - 31 Mar 1920  Daniel C. Roper                    (b. 1867 - d. 1943)
 1 Apr 1920 - 11 Apr 1921  William M. Williams
12 Apr 1921 - 26 May 1921  Millard F. West (acting)
27 May 1921 - 31 May 1929  David H. Blair
 1 Jun 1929 - 15 Aug 1930  Robert H. Lucas                    (b. 1888 - d. 1947)
16 Aug 1930 - 19 Aug 1930  H.F. Mires (acting)
20 Aug 1930 - 15 May 1933  David Burnet
16 May 1933 -  5 Jun 1933  Pressly R. Baldridge (acting)
 6 Jun 1933 -  8 Oct 1943  Guy T. Helvering                   (b. 1878 - d. 1946)
 9 Oct 1943 - 22 Jan 1944  Robert E. Hannegan                 (b. 1903 - d. 1949)
23 Jan 1944 - 29 Feb 1944  Harold N. Graves (acting)
 1 Mar 1944 - 30 Jun 1947  Joseph D. Nunan, Jr.
 1 Jul 1947 - 31 Jul 1951  George J. Schoeneman
 1 Aug 1951 - 18 Nov 1952  John B. Dunlap
19 Nov 1952 - 19 Jan 1953  John S. Graham (acting)
20 Jan 1953 -  3 Feb 1953  Justin F. Winkle (acting)
 4 Feb 1953 - 31 Oct 1955  T. Coleman Andrews                 (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
 1 Nov 1955 -  4 Dec 1955  O. Gordon Delk (1st time) (acting)
 5 Dec 1955 - 30 Sep 1958  Russell C. Harrington
 1 Oct 1958 -  4 Nov 1958  O. Gordon Delk (2nd time) (acting)
 5 Nov 1958 - 20 Jan 1961  Dana Latham
21 Jan 1961 -  6 Feb 1961  Charles I. Fox (acting)
 7 Feb 1961 - 10 Jul 1964  Mortimer M. Caplin
11 Jul 1964 - 24 Jan 1965  Bertrand M. Harding (acting)
25 Jan 1965 - 20 Jan 1969  Sheldon S. Cohen
21 Jan 1969 - 31 Mar 1969  William H. Smith (acting)
 1 Apr 1969 - 22 Jun 1971  Randolph W. Thrower                (b. 1913 - d. 2014)
23 Jun 1971 -  5 Aug 1971  Harold T. Swartz (acting)
 6 Aug 1971 - 30 Apr 1973  Johnnie M. Walters                 (b. 1919 - d. 2014)
 1 May 1973 - 25 May 1973  Raymond F. Harless (acting)
25 May 1973 - 26 Feb 1977  Donald C. Alexander                (b. 1921 - d. 2009)
27 Feb 1977 -  4 May 1977  William E. Williams (1st time)
                           (acting)
 5 May 1977 - 31 Oct 1980  Jerome Kurtz                       (b. 1931)
 1 Nov 1980 - 13 Mar 1981  William E. Williams (2nd time)
                           (acting)
14 Mar 1981 - 30 Apr 1986  Roscoe L. Egger, Jr.               (b. 1920 - d. 1999)
 1 May 1986 -  3 Aug 1986  James I. Owens (acting)
 4 Aug 1986 -  4 Mar 1989  Lawrence B. Gibbs                  (b. 1938)
 5 Mar 1989 -  4 Jul 1989  Michael J. Murphy (acting)
 5 Jul 1989 -  2 Feb 1992  Fred Goldberg, Jr.                 (b. 1947)
 3 Feb 1992 - 20 Jan 1993  Shirley D. Peterson (f)            (b. 1941)
21 Jan 1993 - 26 May 1993  Michael P. Dolan (1st time)
                           (acting)
27 May 1993 - 31 May 1997  Margaret Milner Richardson (f)     (b. 1943)
 1 Jun 1997 - 12 Nov 1997  Michael P. Dolan (2nd time)
                           (acting)
13 Nov 1997 -  6 Nov 2002  Charles O. Rossotti                (b. 1941)
 6 Nov 2002 -  1 May 2003  Robert E. Wenzel (acting)
 1 May 2003 -  4 May 2007  Mark W. Everson                    (b. 1954)
 4 May 2007 - 10 Sep 2007  Kevin M. Brown (acting)
10 Sep 2007 - 24 Mar 2008  Linda Stiff (f) (acting)
24 Mar 2008 -  9 Nov 2012  Douglas H. Shulman                 (b. 1967)
10 Nov 2012 - 22 May 2013  Steven T. Miller (acting)
22 May 2013 - 23 Dec 2013  Daniel I. Werfel (acting)          (b. 1971)
23 Dec 2013 -              John A. Koskinen                   (b. 1939)

Department of Justice

24 Sep 1789                Office of Attorney General
   Mar 1792                becomes a cabinet post
22 Jun 1870                Department of Justice

Attorneys General
26 Sep 1789 - 26 Jan 1794  Edmund Randolph                    (b. 1753 - d. 1813)
27 Jan 1794 -  9 Dec 1795  William Bradford                   (b. 1755 - d. 1795)
10 Dec 1795 - 19 Feb 1801  Charles Lee                        (b. 1758 - d. 1815)
 5 Mar 1801 - 31 Dec 1804  Levi Lincoln                       (b. 1749 - d. 1820)
 3 Mar 1805 -  6 Aug 1805  Robert Smith                       (b. 1757 - d. 1842)
 7 Aug 1805 - 14 Dec 1806  John Breckinridge                  (b. 1760 - d. 1806)
20 Jan 1807 - 10 Dec 1811  Caesar A. Rodney                   (b. 1772 - d. 1824)
11 Dec 1811 -  9 Feb 1814  William Pinkney                    (b. 1764 - d. 1822)
10 Feb 1814 - 12 Nov 1817  Richard Rush                       (b. 1780 - d. 1859)
13 Nov 1817 -  4 Mar 1829  William Wirt                       (b. 1772 - d. 1834)
 9 Mar 1829 - 19 Jul 1831  John M. Berrien                    (b. 1781 - d. 1856)
20 Jul 1831 - 14 Nov 1833  Roger B. Taney                     (b. 1777 - d. 1864)
15 Nov 1833 -  4 Jul 1838  Benjamin F. Butler                 (b. 1795 - d. 1858)
 5 Jul 1838 - 10 Jan 1840  Felix Grundy                       (b. 1777 - d. 1840)
11 Jan 1840 -  4 Mar 1841  Henry D. Gilpin                    (b. 1801 - d. 1860)
 5 Mar 1841 - 12 Sep 1841  John J. Crittenden (1st time)      (b. 1787 - d. 1863)
13 Sep 1841 - 30 Jun 1843  Hugh S. Legaré                     (b. 1797 - d. 1843)
 1 Jul 1843 -  4 Mar 1845  John Nelson                        (b. 1794 - d. 1860)
 5 Mar 1845 - 16 Oct 1846  John Y. Mason                      (b. 1799 - d. 1859)
17 Oct 1846 - 17 Mar 1848  Nathan Clifford                    (b. 1803 - d. 1881)
21 Jun 1848 -  4 Mar 1849  Isaac Toucey                       (b. 1796 - d. 1869)
 8 Mar 1849 - 21 Jul 1850  Reverdy Johnson                    (b. 1796 - d. 1876)
22 Jul 1850 -  4 Mar 1853  John J. Crittenden (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 7 Mar 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  Caleb Cushing                      (b. 1800 - d. 1879)
 6 Mar 1857 -    Dec 1860  Jeremiah S. Black                  (b. 1810 - d. 1883)
20 Dec 1860 -  4 Mar 1861  Edwin M. Stanton                   (b. 1814 - d. 1869)
 5 Mar 1861 - 21 Jan 1863  Edward Bates                       (b. 1793 - d. 1869)
22 Jan 1863 -  1 Dec 1864  Titian James Coffey                (b. 1824 - d. 1867)
 2 Dec 1864 - 22 Jul 1866  James Speed                        (b. 1812 - d. 1887)
23 Jul 1866 - 16 Jul 1868  Henry Stanberry                    (b. 1803 - d. 1881)
17 Jul 1868 -  4 Mar 1869  William M. Evarts                  (b. 1818 - d. 1901)
 5 Mar 1869 - 22 Nov 1870  Ebenezer R. Hoar                   (b. 1816 - d. 1895)
23 Nov 1870 - 13 Dec 1871  Amos T. Akerman                    (b. 1821 - d. 1880)
14 Dec 1871 - 25 Apr 1875  George H. Williams                 (b. 1823 - d. 1910)
26 Apr 1875 - 21 May 1876  Edwards Pierrepont                 (b. 1817 - d. 1892)
22 May 1876 -  4 Mar 1877  Alphonso Taft                      (b. 1810 - d. 1891)
12 Mar 1877 -  4 Mar 1881  Charles Devens                     (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
 5 Mar 1881 - 15 Dec 1881  Wayne MacVeagh                     (b. 1833 - d. 1917)
16 Dec 1882 -  4 Mar 1885  Benjamin H. Brewster               (b. 1816 - d. 1888)
 6 Mar 1885 -  4 Mar 1889  Augustus H. Garland                (b. 1832 - d. 1899)
 7 Mar 1889 -  4 Mar 1893  William H.H. Miller                (b. 1840 - d. 1917)
 6 Mar 1893 -  7 Apr 1895  Richard Olney                      (b. 1835 - d. 1917)
 8 Apr 1895 -  4 Mar 1897  Judson Harmon                      (b. 1846 - d. 1927)
 5 Mar 1897 - 25 Jan 1898  Joseph McKenna                     (b. 1843 - d. 1926)
25 Jan 1898 - 29 Mar 1901  John W. Griggs                     (b. 1849 - d. 1927)
 5 Apr 1901 - 30 Jun 1904  Philander Chase Knox               (b. 1853 - d. 1921)
 1 Jul 1904 - 17 Dec 1906  William H. Moody                   (b. 1853 - d. 1917)
17 Dec 1906 -  4 Mar 1909  Charles J. Bonaparte               (b. 1851 - d. 1921)
 4 Mar 1909 -  4 Mar 1913  George W. Wickersham               (b. 1858 - d. 1936)
 5 Mar 1913 - 29 Aug 1914  James C. McReynolds                (b. 1862 - d. 1946)
29 Aug 1914 -  4 Mar 1919  Thomas W. Gregory                  (b. 1861 - d. 1933)
 5 Mar 1919 -  4 Mar 1921  A. Mitchell Palmer                 (b. 1872 - d. 1936)
 4 Mar 1921 -  6 Apr 1924  Harry M. Daugherty                 (b. 1860 - d. 1941)
 7 Apr 1924 -  1 Mar 1925  Harlan Fiske Stone                 (b. 1872 - d. 1946)
 7 Mar 1925 -  4 Mar 1929  John G. Sargent                    (b. 1860 - d. 1939)
 4 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  William D. Mitchell                (b. 1874 - d. 1955)
 4 Mar 1933 -  1 Jan 1939  Homer S. Cummings                  (b. 1870 - d. 1956)
 2 Jan 1939 - 18 Jan 1940  Frank Murphy                       (b. 1890 - d. 1949)
18 Jan 1940 - 25 Aug 1941  Robert H. Jackson                  (b. 1892 - d. 1954)
26 Aug 1941 - 26 Jun 1945  Francis Biddle                     (b. 1886 - d. 1968)
27 Jun 1945 - 26 Jul 1949  Tom C. Clark                       (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
27 Jul 1949 -  3 Apr 1952  J. Howard McGrath                  (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
 4 Apr 1952 - 20 Jan 1953  James P. McGranery                 (b. 1895 - d. 1962)
21 Jan 1953 - 23 Oct 1957  Herbert Brownell, Jr.              (b. 1904 - d. 1996)
23 Oct 1957 - 20 Jan 1961  William Rogers                     (b. 1913 - d. 2001)
20 Jan 1961 -  3 Sep 1964  Robert F. Kennedy                  (b. 1925 - d. 1968)
 4 Sep 1964 - 30 Sep 1966  Nicholas deB. Katzenbach           (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
                           (acting to 28 Jan 1965)
28 Nov 1966 - 20 Jan 1969  Ramsey Clark                       (b. 1927)
                           (acting to 10 Mar 1967)
20 Jan 1969 - 15 Feb 1972  John N. Mitchell                   (b. 1913 - d. 1988)
15 Feb 1972 - 25 May 1973  Richard G. Kleindienst             (b. 1923 - d. 2000)
25 May 1973 - 20 Oct 1973  Elliot Richardson                  (b. 1920 - d. 1999)
20 Oct 1973 -  4 Jan 1974  Robert H. Bork (acting)            (b. 1927 - d. 2012)
 4 Jan 1974 - 14 Jan 1975  William B. Saxbe                   (b. 1916 - d. 2010)
14 Jan 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Edward H. Levi                     (b. 1911 - d. 2000)
26 Jan 1977 - 16 Aug 1979  Griffin B. Bell                    (b. 1918 - d. 2009)
16 Aug 1979 - 19 Jan 1981  Benjamin R. Civiletti              (b. 1935)
23 Jan 1981 - 25 Feb 1985  William F. Smith                   (b. 1917 - d. 1990)
25 Feb 1985 - 12 Aug 1988  Edwin Meese III                    (b. 1931)
12 Aug 1988 - 15 Aug 1991  Richard Thornburgh                 (b. 1932)
15 Aug 1991 - 20 Jan 1993  William P. Barr                    (b. 1950)
                           (acting to 26 Nov 1991)
20 Jan 1993 - 12 Mar 1993  Stuart M. Gerson (acting)          (b. 1944)
12 Mar 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Janet Reno (f)                     (b. 1938)
20 Jan 2001 -  2 Feb 2001  Eric H. Holder, Jr. (1st time)     (b. 1951)
                           (acting)
 2 Feb 2001 -  3 Feb 2005  John Ashcroft                      (b. 1942)
 3 Feb 2005 - 17 Sep 2007  Alberto Gonzales                   (b. 1955)
17 Sep 2007 -  9 Nov 2007  Peter Keisler (acting)             (b. 1960)
 9 Nov 2007 - 20 Jan 2009  Michael Mukasey                    (b. 1941)
20 Jan 2009 -  3 Feb 2009  Mark Filip (acting)
 3 Feb 2009 -              Eric H. Holder, Jr. (2nd time)     (s.a.)

Solicitors General
   Oct 1870 -    Nov 1872  Benjamin H. Bristow                (b. 1832 - d. 1896)
   Nov 1872 -    May 1885  Samuel F. Phillips                 (b. 1824 - d. 1903)
   May 1885 -    Aug 1886  John Goode (acting)                (b. 1829 - d. 1909)
   Aug 1886 -    May 1889  George A. Jenks                    (b. 1836 - d. 1908)
   May 1889 -    Jan 1890  Orlow W. Chapman                   (b. 1832 - d. 1890)
   Feb 1890 -    Mar 1892  William Howard Taft                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
   Mar 1892 -    May 1893  Charles H. Aldrich                 (b. 1850 - d. 1929)
   May 1893 -    Jan 1895  Lawrence Maxwell, Jr.
   Feb 1895 -    Jul 1897  Holmes Conrad                      (b. 1840 - d. 1915)
   Jul 1897 -    Mar 1903  John K. Richards
   Mar 1903 -    Mar 1909  Henry M. Hoyt                      (b. 1856 - d. 1910)
   Apr 1909 -  9 Sep 1910  Lloyd Wheaton Bowers               (b. 1859 - d. 1910)
   Dec 1910 -    Jul 1912  Frederick W. Lehmann               (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
   Jul 1912 -    Mar 1913  William Marshall Bullitt           (b. 1873 - d. 1957)
   Aug 1913 -    Nov 1918  John W. Davis                      (b. 1873 - d. 1955)
   Nov 1918 -    May 1920  Alexander C. King                  (b. 1856 - d. 1926)
   Jun 1920 -    Jun 1921  William L. Frierson                (b. 1869 - d. 1953)
   Jun 1921 -    Jun 1925  James M. Beck                      (b. 1861 - d. 1936)
   Jun 1925 -    Mar 1929  William D. Mitchell                (b. 1874 - d. 1955)
   May 1929 -    Apr 1930  Charles Evans Hughes, Jr.          (b. 1889 - d. 1950)
   Apr 1930 -    May 1933  Thomas D. Thacher                  (b. 1881 - d. 1950)
   May 1933 -    Mar 1935  James Crawford Biggs               (b. 1872 - d. 1960)
   Mar 1935 -    Jan 1938  Stanley F. Reed                    (b. 1884 - d. 1980)
   Mar 1938 -    Jan 1940  Robert H. Jackson                  (b. 1892 - d. 1954)
   Jan 1940 -    Sep 1941  Francis Biddle                     (b. 1886 - d. 1968)
   Nov 1941 -    Sep 1945  Charles Fahy                       (b. 1892 - d. 1979)
   Oct 1945 -    Oct 1946  J. Howard McGrath                  (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
   Jul 1947 -    Aug 1952  Philip B. Perlman                  (b. 1890 - d. 1960)
   Dec 1952 -    Mar 1953  Walter J. Cummings, Jr.            (b. 1916 - d. 1999)
   Feb 1954 -    Jul 1956  Simon E. Sobeloff                  (b. 1894 - d. 1973)
   Aug 1956 -    Jan 1961  J. Lee Rankin                      (b. 1907 - d. 1996)
   Jan 1961 -    Jul 1965  Archibald Cox                      (b. 1912 - d. 2004)
   Aug 1965 -    Aug 1967  Thurgood Marshall                  (b. 1908 - d. 1993)
   Oct 1967 -    Jun 1973  Erwin N. Griswold                  (b. 1904 - d. 1994)
   Jun 1973 -    Jan 1977  Robert H. Bork                     (b. 1927 - d. 2012)
   Jan 1977 -    Mar 1977  Dan Friedman (acting)              (b. 1916 - d. 2011)
   Mar 1977 -    Aug 1981  Wade H. McCree                     (b. 1920 - d. 1987)
   Aug 1981 -    Jun 1985  Rex Lee                            (b. 1935 - d. 1996)
   Oct 1985 -    Jan 1989  Charles Fried                      (b. 1935)
   May 1989 -    Jan 1993  Kenneth W. Starr                   (b. 1946)
   May 1993 -    Jul 1996  Drew S. Days III                   (b. 1941)
   Aug 1996 -    Aug 1997  Walter Dellinger (acting)          (b. 1941)
13 Nov 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Seth P. Waxman                     (b. 1951)
20 Jan 2001 - 11 Jun 2001  Barbara D. Underwood (f) (acting)  (b. 1944)
11 Jun 2001 - 12 Jul 2004  Theodore B. Olson                  (b. 1940)
12 Jul 2004 -  2 Jun 2008  Paul D. Clement                    (b. 1966)
                           (acting to 13 Jun 2005)
 2 Jun 2008 -    Jan 2009  Gregory G. Garre                   (b. 1964)
                           (acting to 6 Oct 2008)
   Jan 2009 - 20 Mar 2009  Edwin S. Kneedler (acting)         (b. 1946)
20 Mar 2009 -    Aug 2010  Elena Kagan (f)                    (b. 1960)
10 May 2010 -  9 Jun 2011  Neal K. Katyal                     (b. 1970)
                           (acting [for Kagan to Aug 2010])
 9 Jun 2011 -              Donald Verrilli                    (b. 1957)

Federal Bureau of Investigation

26 Jul 1908                Special Agent Force of the Department of Justice
16 Mar 1909                Bureau of Investigation
 1 Jul 1932                U.S. Bureau of Investigation
10 Aug 1933                Division of Investigation
 1 Jul 1935                Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Chiefs
26 Jul 1908 - 30 Apr 1912  Stanley W. Finch                   (b. 1872 - d. 1951)
                           (Chief Examiner to 16 Mar 1909)
30 Apr 1912 - 10 Feb 1919  A. Bruce Bielaski                  (b. 1883 - d. 1964)
10 Feb 1919 -  1 Jul 1919  William E. Allen (acting)
Directors
 1 Jul 1919 - 22 Aug 1921  William J. Flynn                   (b. 1867 - d. 1928)
22 Aug 1921 - 10 May 1924  William J. Burns                   (b. 1861 - d. 1932)
10 May 1924 -  2 May 1972  J. Edgar Hoover                    (b. 1895 - d. 1972)
                           (acting to 10 Dec 1924)
 3 May 1972 - 27 Apr 1973  L. Patrick Gray (acting)           (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
27 Apr 1973 -  9 Jul 1973  William D. Ruckelshaus (acting)    (b. 1932)
 9 Jul 1973 - 23 Feb 1978  Clarence M. Kelley                 (b. 1911 - d. 1997)
23 Feb 1978 - 26 May 1987  William H. Webster                 (b. 1924)
26 May 1987 -  2 Nov 1987  John E. Otto (acting)              (b. 1938)
 2 Nov 1987 - 19 Jul 1993  William S. Sessions                (b. 1930)
19 Jul 1993 -  1 Sep 1993  Floyd I. Clarke (acting)
 1 Sep 1993 - 25 Jun 2001  Louis Freeh                        (b. 1950)
25 Jun 2001 -  4 Sep 2001  Thomas J. Pickard (acting)         (b. 1950)
 4 Sep 2001 -  4 Sep 2013  Robert Mueller                     (b. 1944)
 4 Sep 2013 -              James Comey                        (b. 1960)

Drug Enforcement Administration

14 Jun 1930                Bureau of Narcotics (under Department of the Treasury)
 8 Apr 1968                Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (under Department
                           of Justice)
28 Jan 1972                Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement (ODALE)
 1 Jul 1973                Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

Commissioners
       1930 -        1962  Harry J. Anslinger                 (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
       1962 -        1968  Henry Giordano                     (b. 1914 - d. 2003)
       1968 -        1973  John E. Ingersoll
Director (of ODALE)
28 Jan 1972 -        1973  Myles J. Ambrose                   (b. 1926 - d. 2014)
Administrators
   Oct 1973 - 30 May 1975  John R. Bartels, Jr.
30 May 1975 - 23 Jan 1976  Henry S. Dogin (acting)
23 Jan 1976 - 10 Jul 1981  Peter B. Bensinger                 (b. 1936)
                           (acting to 23 Feb 1976)
10 Jul 1981 -  1 Mar 1985  Francis M. Mullen, Jr.             (b. 1934)
                           (acting to 10 Nov 1983)
 1 Mar 1985 - 23 Mar 1990  John C. Lawn                       (b. 1935)
                           (acting to 26 Jul 1985)
23 Mar 1990 - 13 Aug 1990  Terrance M. Burke (acting)
13 Aug 1990 -    Oct 1993  Robert C. Bonner                   (b. 1942)
15 Apr 1994 -  2 Jul 1999  Thomas A. Constantine              (b. 1938)
 2 Jul 1999 -    Jun 2001  Donnie R. Marshall
                           (acting to 2 Jun 2000)
 8 Aug 2001 - 29 Jan 2003  Asa Hutchinson                     (b. 1950)
29 Jan 2003 - 17 Sep 2003  John B. Brown III (acting)
17 Sep 2003 -    Nov 2007  Karen Tandy (f)                    (b. 1953)
   Nov 2007 -              Michele M. Leonhart (f)
                           (acting to Dec 2010)

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

 1 Jul 1972                Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms within
                           Treasury Department
24 Jan 2003                Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
                           within Justice Department

Directors
       1972 -        1979  Rex Davis                          (b. 1924 - d. 2008)
       1979 -        1982  G.R. Dickerson
       1982 -        1993  Stephen Higgins                    (b. 1938)
   Oct 1993 - 20 Dec 1999  John Magaw                         (b. 1935)
20 Dec 1999 -  3 Jan 2004  Bradley A. Buckles                 (b. 1949)
   Jan 2004 -    Apr 2004  Edgar A. Domenech (1st time)
                           (acting)
18 Apr 2004 -    Aug 2006  Carl J. Truscott                   (b. 1957)
   Aug 2006 -    Sep 2006  Edgar A. Domenech (2nd time)
                           (acting)
   Sep 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Michael J. Sullivan (acting)       (b. 1954)
20 Jan 2009 - 12 Apr 2009  Ronnie A. Carter (acting)          (b. 1953?)
12 Apr 2009 - 30 Aug 2011  Kenneth E. Melson (acting)
30 Aug 2011 -              B. Todd Jones                      (b. 1957)
                           (acting to 29 Aug 2013)

Department of the Interior

 3 Mar 1849                Department of the Interior

Secretaries
 8 Mar 1849 -        1850  Thomas Ewing                       (b. 1789 - d. 1871)
       1850                Thomas M.T. McKennan               (b. 1794 - d. 1852)
       1850 -  4 Mar 1853  Alexander H.H. Stuart              (b. 1807 - d. 1891)
 7 Mar 1853 -  4 Mar 1857  Robert McClelland                  (b. 1807 - d. 1880)
 6 Mar 1857 -  4 Mar 1861  Jacob Thompson                     (b. 1810 - d. 1885)
 6 Mar 1861 -  7 Jan 1863  Caleb B. Smith                     (b. 1808 - d. 1864)
 8 Jan 1863 - 14 May 1865  John P. Usher                      (b. 1816 - d. 1889)
15 May 1865 - 26 Jul 1866  James Harlan                       (b. 1820 - d. 1899)
27 Jul 1866 -  4 Mar 1869  Orville H. Browning                (b. 1806 - d. 1881)
 5 Mar 1869 - 31 Oct 1870  Jacob D. Cox                       (b. 1828 - d. 1900)
 1 Nov 1870 - 18 Oct 1875  Columbus Delano                    (b. 1809 - d. 1896)
19 Oct 1875 -  4 Mar 1877  Zachariah Chandler                 (b. 1813 - d. 1879)
12 Mar 1877 -  4 Mar 1881  Carl Schurz                        (b. 1829 - d. 1906)
 5 Mar 1881 -  5 Jun 1882  Samuel J. Kirkwood                 (b. 1813 - d. 1894)
 6 Jun 1882 -  4 Mar 1885  Henry M. Teller                    (b. 1830 - d. 1914)
 6 Mar 1885 - 15 Jan 1888  Lucius Q.C. Lamar                  (b. 1825 - d. 1893)
16 Jan 1888 -  4 Mar 1889  William F. Vilas                   (b. 1840 - d. 1908)
 7 Mar 1889 -  4 Mar 1893  John W. Noble                      (b. 1831 - d. 1912)
 6 Mar 1893 - 24 Aug 1896  Hoke Smith                         (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
24 Aug 1896 -  4 Mar 1897  David R. Francis                   (b. 1850 - d. 1927)
   Mar 1897 -    Dec 1898  Cornelius N. Bliss                 (b. 1833 - d. 1911)
   Dec 1898 -  4 Mar 1907  Ethan A. Hitchcock                 (b. 1835 - d. 1909)
 4 Mar 1907 -  4 Mar 1909  James R. Garfield                  (b. 1865 - d. 1950)
   Mar 1909 - 12 Mar 1911  Richard A. Ballinger               (b. 1858 - d. 1922)
13 Mar 1911 -  4 Mar 1913  Walter L. Fisher                   (b. 1862 - d. 1935)
 6 Mar 1913 - 29 Feb 1920  Franklin Knight Lane               (b. 1864 - d. 1921)
13 Mar 1920 -  4 Mar 1921  John Barton Payne                  (b. 1855 - d. 1935)
 5 Mar 1921 -  4 Mar 1923  Albert B. Fall                     (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
 5 Mar 1923 - 24 Jul 1928  Hubert Work                        (b. 1860 - d. 1942)
25 Jul 1928 -  4 Mar 1929  Roy O. West                        (b. 1868 - d. 1958)
 5 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Ray Lyman Wilbur                   (b. 1875 - d. 1949)
 4 Mar 1933 - 15 Feb 1946  Harold L. Ickes                    (b. 1874 - d. 1952)
18 Mar 1946 - 30 Nov 1949  Julius A. Krug                     (b. 1907 - d. 1970)
 1 Dec 1949 - 20 Jan 1953  Oscar L. Chapman                   (b. 1896 - d. 1978)
21 Jan 1953 - 15 Apr 1956  Douglas McKay                      (b. 1893 - d. 1959)
 8 Jun 1956 - 20 Jan 1961  Fred A. Seaton                     (b. 1909 - d. 1974)
21 Jan 1961 - 20 Jan 1969  Stewart L. Udall                   (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
21 Jan 1969 - 25 Nov 1970  Walter J. Hickel                   (b. 1919 - d. 2010)
30 Jan 1971 - 30 Apr 1975  Rogers C.B. Morton                 (b. 1914 - d. 1979)
13 Jun 1975 - 25 Jul 1975  Stanley K. Hathaway                (b. 1924 - d. 2005)
25 Jul 1975 - 17 Oct 1975  Kent Frizzell (acting)             (b. 1929)
17 Oct 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Thomas S. Kleppe                   (b. 1919 - d. 2007)
23 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Cecil D. Andrus                    (b. 1931)
21 Jan 1981 -  8 Nov 1983  James G. Watt                      (b. 1938)
21 Nov 1983 -  6 Feb 1985  William P. Clark                   (b. 1931 - d. 2013)
 7 Feb 1985 - 20 Jan 1989  Donald P. Hodel                    (b. 1935)
 8 Feb 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Manuel Lujan, Jr.                  (b. 1928)
22 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Bruce Babbitt                      (b. 1938)
20 Jan 2001 - 31 Jan 2001  Thomas N. Slonaker (acting)        (b. 1934)
31 Jan 2001 - 31 Mar 2006  Gale Norton (f)                    (b. 1954)
 1 Apr 2006 - 26 May 2006  Lynn Scarlett (f) (acting)         (b. 1949)
26 May 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Dirk Kempthorne                    (b. 1951)
21 Jan 2009 - 12 Apr 2013  Ken Salazar                        (b. 1955)
12 Apr 2013 -              Sally Jewell (f)                   (b. 1956)

Bureau of Indian Affairs

Commissioners of Indian Affairs
11 Mar 1824 -        1830  Thomas L. McKenney                 (b. 1785 - d. 1859)
30 Sep 1830 -        1832  Samuel S. Hamilton
   Aug 1831 -        1836  Elbert Herring                     (b. 1777 - d. 1876)
 4 Jul 1836 -        1838  Carey A. Harris
22 Oct 1838 - 28 Oct 1845  T. Hartley Crawford                (b. 1786 - d. 1863)
28 Oct 1845 -        1849  William Medill                     (b. 1802 - d. 1865)
30 Jun 1849 -        1850  Orlando Brown                      (b. 1801 - d. 1867)
 1 Jul 1850 -        1853  Luke Lea                           (b. 1810 - d. 1898)
24 Mar 1853 -        1857  George W. Manypenny                (b. 1808 - d. 1892)
17 Apr 1857 -    Jun 1857  James W. Denver (1st time)         (b. 1817 - d. 1892)
14 Jun 1858 -        1858  Charles E. Mix
 8 Nov 1858 - 31 Mar 1859  James W. Denver (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 4 May 1859 - 13 Mar 1861  Alfred B. Greenwood                (b. 1811 - d. 1889)
13 Mar 1861 -        1865  William P. Dole
10 Jul 1865 -        1866  Dennis N. Cooley
 1 Nov 1866 -        1867  Lewis V. Bogy                      (b. 1813 - d. 1877)
29 Mar 1867 - 21 Apr 1869  Nathaniel G. Taylor                (b. 1819 - d. 1887)
21 Apr 1869 -        1871  Ely S. Parker                      (b. 1828 - d. 1895)
       1871                H.R. Clum (1st time) (acting)
21 Nov 1871 -        1872  Francis A. Walker                  (b. 1840 - d. 1897)
       1872 -        1873  H.R. Clum (2nd time) (acting)
20 Mar 1873 -        1875  Edward P. Smith                    (b. 1827 - d. 1876)
11 Dec 1875 -        1877  John Q. Smith                      (b. 1824 - d. 1901)
20 Sep 1877 -        1880  Ezra A. Hayt                       (b. 1823 - d. 1902)
       1880                E.M. Marble (acting)
15 Mar 1880 -        1881  R.E. Trowbridge                    (b. 1821 - d. 1881)
 6 May 1881 -        1884  Hiram Price                        (b. 1814 - d. 1901)
21 Mar 1885 -        1888  John D.C. Atkins                   (b. 1825 - d. 1908)
10 Oct 1888 -        1889  John H. Oberly                     (b. 1837 - d. 1899)
30 Jun 1889 -        1893  Thomas J. Morgan                   (b. 1839 - d. 1902)
18 Apr 1893 -        1897  Daniel M. Browning                 (b. 1846 - d. 1903)
 3 May 1897 -        1905  William A. Jones
 1 Jan 1905 -        1909  Francis E. Leupp                   (b. 1849 - d. 1918)
19 Jun 1909 -        1913  Robert G. Valentine                (b. 1872 - d. 1916)
 2 Jun 1913 -        1921  Cato Sells                         (b. 1859 - d. 1948)
 7 May 1921 -        1929  Charles H. Burke                   (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
18 Apr 1929 -        1933  Charles J. Rhoads                  (b. 1872 - d. 1956)
21 Apr 1933 -        1945  John Collier                       (b. 1884 - d. 1968)
 6 Mar 1945 -        1948  William A. Brophy                  (b. 1903 - d. 1962)
       1948 -        1949  William R. Zimmerman (acting)
13 Apr 1949 -        1950  John R. Nichols
 5 May 1950 - 20 Mar 1953  Dillon S. Myer                     (b. 1891 - d. 1982)
10 Aug 1953 -        1961  Glenn L. Emmons                    (b. 1895 - d. 1980)
26 Sep 1961 -        1966  Philleo Nash                       (b. 1909 - d. 1987)
27 Apr 1966 -        1969  Robert L. Bennett                  (b. 1912 - d. 2002)
 8 Aug 1969 -        1972  Louis R. Bruce                     (b. 1905 - d. 1989)
 3 Dec 1973 -        1976  Morris Thompson                    (b. 1939 - d. 2000)
 7 Dec 1976 -        1977  Benjamin Reifel                    (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
Assistant Secretaries of the Interior for Indian Affairs
       1977 -        1980  Forrest J. Gerard                  (b. 1925)
       1981 -        1984  Kenneth L. Smith                   (b. 1935)
       1985 -    Jan 1989  Ross Swimmer                       (b. 1943)
       1989                Pat Ragsdale (acting)
       1989 -        1993  Eddie Frank Brown                  (b. 1945)
   Jul 1993 - 12 Nov 1997  Ada E. Deer (f)                    (b. 1935)
12 Nov 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Kevin Gover                        (b. 1955)
20 Jan 2001 -  4 Jul 2001  James H. McDivitt (acting)
 4 Jul 2001 -  6 Jan 2003  Neal A. McCaleb                    (b. 1935)
 6 Jan 2003 -  2 Feb 2004  Aurene M. Martin (f) (acting)      (b. 1965?)
 2 Feb 2004 - 12 Feb 2005  Dave Anderson                      (b. 1953?)
12 Feb 2005 -  8 Mar 2007  Jim Cason (acting)
 8 Mar 2007 - 23 May 2008  Carl J. Artman                     (b. 1965)
23 May 2008 - 22 May 2009  George T. Skibine (acting)         (b. 1952)
22 May 2009 - 27 Apr 2012  Larry EchoHawk                     (b. 1948)
27 Apr 2012 -  9 Oct 2012  Donald Laverdure (acting)
 9 Oct 2012 -              Kevin K. Washburn                  (b. 1967)

Bureau of Reclamation

       1902                Service of Reclamation within U.S. Geological Survey
       1907                separate service within Department of the Interior
       1923                renamed Bureau of Reclamation

Chief Engineer in Charge of the Service of Reclamation
       1902 -        1907  Frederick H. Newell                (b. 1862 - d. 1932)
Directors of the Service of Reclamation
       1907 -        1914  Frederick H. Newell                (s.a.)
       1914 -        1923  Arthur Powel Davis                 (b. 1861 - d. 1933)
Commissioners of Reclamation
       1923 -        1924  David W. Davis                     (b. 1873 - d. 1959)
       1924 - 26 Jan 1936  Elwood Mead                        (b. 1858 - d. 1936)
       1936 -        1943  John C. Page                       (b. 1887 - d. 1955)
       1943 -        1945  Harry W. Bashore                   (b. 1880 - d. 1973)
       1945 -        1953  Michael W. Straus                  (b. 1897 - d. 1970)
       1953                Goodrich W. Lineweaver (acting)
       1953 -        1959  Wilbur A. Dexheimer                (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
 1 May 1959 -  1 Dec 1969  Floyd E. Dominy                    (b. 1909 - d. 2010)
       1969 -        1973  Ellis L. Armstrong                 (b. 1914 - d. 2001)
       1973 -        1977  Gilbert G. Stamm                   (b. 1911 - d. 1989)
       1977                Donald D. Anderson (acting)
       1977 -        1981  R. Keith Higginson                 (b. 1930 - d. 2007)
       1981                Clifford I. Barrett (1st time)
                           (acting)
       1981 -        1984  Robert N. Broadbent                (b. 1926 - d. 2003)
       1984 -        1985  Robert N. Olsen (acting)
       1985                Clifford I. Barrett (2nd time)
                           (acting)
       1986 -        1989  C. Dale Duvall                     (b. 1933)
   Jul 1989 -    Nov 1989  Joe D. Hall (acting)
       1989 -        1993  Dennis B. Underwood                (b. 1944 - d. 2005)
       1993 -        1995  Daniel Beard                       (b. 1943)
       1995                Stephen P. Magnussen (acting)
       1995 -        2001  Eluid L. Martinez                  (b. 1944)
       2001                J. William McDonald (1st time)
                           (acting)
17 Jul 2001 - 14 Apr 2006  John W. Keys III                   (b. 1942 - d. 2008)
14 Apr 2006 - 17 Oct 2006  William Rinne (acting)
17 Oct 2006 -    Jan 2009  Robert W. Johnson
   Jan 2009 -  1 Jun 2009  J. William McDonald (2nd time)
                           (acting)
 1 Jun 2009 -    Mar 2014  Michael L. Connor                  (b. 1963?)
   Mar 2014 -              Lowell Pimley (acting)

Fish and Wildlife Service

Commissioners of Fish and Fisheries
       1871 -        1887  Spencer F. Baird                   (b. 1823 - d. 1887)
       1887 -        1888  George B. Goode (acting)           (b. 1851 - d. 1896)
       1888 -        1895  Marshall McDonald                  (b. 1835 - d. 1895)
       1895 -        1896  Herbert A. Gill (acting)
       1896 -        1898  John J. Brice
       1898 -        1903  George M. Bowers                   (b. 1863 - d. 1925)
Chiefs of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries
       1903 -        1913  George M. Bowers                   (s.a.)
       1913 -        1922  Hugh M. Smith                      (b. 1865 - d. 1941)
13 May 1922 - 15 Apr 1933  Henry O'Malley                     (b. 1876 - d. 1936)
       1933 -        1939  Frank T. Bell
       1939 -        1940  Charles Jackson (acting)
Chiefs of the Bureau of Biological Survey (1885-86 Office of Economic Ornithology and
Mammalogy; 1886-96 Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy; 1896-1905 Division
of Biological Survey)
       1885 -        1910  Clinton H. Merriam                 (b. 1855 - d. 1942)
       1910 -        1916  Henry W. Henshaw                   (b. 1850 - d. 1930)
       1916 -        1927  Edward W. Nelson                   (b. 1855 - d. 1934)
       1927 -        1934  Paul G. Redington
       1934 -        1935  Jay N. Darling                     (b. 1876 - d. 1962)
       1935 -        1940  Ira N. Gabrielson                  (b. 1889 - d. 1977)
Directors of the Fish and Wildlife Service
       1940 -        1946  Ira N. Gabrielson                  (s.a.)
       1946 -        1953  Albert M. Day
       1953 -        1957  John L. Farley
Chiefs of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
       1957 -        1967  Donald L. McKernan
       1967 -        1970  Harold E. Crowther
Chiefs of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
       1957 -        1964  Daniel H. Jantzen
 1 Dec 1964 -        1970  John S. Gottschalk                 (b. 1912 - d. 1999)
       1970 -        1973  Spencer H. Smith
       1973 - 30 Jun 1974  Lynn A. Greenwalt                  (b. 1931)
Directors of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
       1974 -        1981  Lynn A. Greenwalt                  (s.a.)
       1981 -        1985  Robert A. Jantzen                  (b. 1928)
       1986 -        1989  Frank H. Dunkle                    (b. 1924? - d. 1993)
       1989 -        1993  John F. Turner
10 Sep 1993 -  5 Jun 1996  Mollie H. Beattie (f)              (b. 1947 - d. 1996)
31 Jul 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Jamie R. Clark (f)
20 Jan 2001 - 21 Feb 2002  Marshall Jones (acting)
21 Feb 2002 - 16 Mar 2005  Steven A. Williams                 (b. 1957?)
16 Mar 2005 - 12 Oct 2005  Matt Hogan (acting)                (b. 1967?)
12 Oct 2005 -    Jan 2009  Dale Hall
   Jan 2009 -  1 Sep 2009  Rowan Gould (1st time) (acting)
 1 Sep 2009 - 20 Feb 2010  Sam D. Hamilton                    (b. 1955 - d. 2010)
   Feb 2010 -  1 Jul 2011  Rowan Gould (2nd time) (acting)
 1 Jul 2011 -              Daniel M. Ashe

U.S. Geological Survey

Director of the Geographical Surveys West of the 100th Meridian¹
       1872 -        1879  George M. Wheeler                  (b. 1842 - d. 1905)
Director of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel¹
       1867 -        1879  Clarence R. King                   (b. 1842 - d. 1901)
Director of the U.S. Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region
       1869 -        1879  John W. Powell                     (b. 1834 - d. 1902)
Director of the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories
       1867 -        1879  Ferdinand V. Hayden                (b. 1829 - d. 1887)
Directors of the U.S. Geological Survey
       1879 -        1881  Clarence R. King                   (s.a.)
       1881 -        1894  John W. Powell                     (s.a.)
       1894 -        1907  Charles D. Walcott                 (b. 1850 - d. 1927)
       1907 -        1930  George O. Smith                    (b. 1871 - d. 1944)
       1930 -        1943  Walter C. Mendenhall               (b. 1871 - d. 1957)
       1943 -        1956  William E. Wrather                 (b. 1883 - d. 1963)
       1956 -        1965  Thomas B. Nolan                    (b. 1901 - d. 1992)
       1965 -        1971  William T. Pecora                  (b. 1913 - d. 1972)
       1971 -        1978  Vincent E. McKelvey                (b. 1916 - d. 1987)
       1978 -        1981  Henry William Menard               (b. 1920 - d. 1986)
       1981 -        1993  Dallas L. Peck                     (b. 1929 - d. 2005)
       1994 -        1997  Gordon P. Eaton                    (b. 1929)
13 Nov 1998 - 20 Jun 2005  Charles G. Groat                   (b. 1940)
20 Jun 2005 - 26 Sep 2006  P. Patrick Leahy (acting)          (b. 1947)
26 Sep 2006 -    Jan 2009  Mark Myers                         (b. 1954?)
   Jan 2009 -    Oct 2009  Suzette Kimball (f) (1st time)
                           (acting)
   Oct 2009 - 15 Feb 2013  Marcia McNutt (f)                  (b. 1952)
15 Feb 2013 -              Suzette Kimball (f) (2nd time)
                           (acting)
¹Survey dependent on the Department of War/Office of the Chief Engineer.

National Park Service

General Superintendent and Landscape Engineer for the National Parks
       1914 -        1915  Mark Daniels
General Superintendent of National Parks
       1915 -        1916  Robert Marshall
Directors of the National Park Service
16 May 1917 -  8 Jan 1929  Stephen T. Mather                  (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
12 Jan 1929 -  9 Aug 1933  Horace M. Albright                 (b. 1890 - d. 1987)
10 Aug 1933 -  9 Aug 1940  Arno B. Cammerer                   (b. 1860 - d. 1940)
20 Aug 1940 - 31 Mar 1951  Newton B. Drury                    (b. 1889 - d. 1978)
 1 Apr 1951 -  8 Dec 1951  Arthur E. Demaray                  (b. 1887 - d. 1958)
 9 Dec 1951 -  7 Jan 1964  Conrad L. Wirth                    (b. 1899 - d. 1993)
 8 Jan 1964 - 31 Dec 1972  George B. Hartzog, Jr.             (b. 1920 - d. 2008)
 1 Jan 1973 -  3 Jan 1975  Ronald H. Walker                   (b. 1937)
13 Jan 1975 - 27 May 1977  Gary E. Everhardt                  (b. 1936)
 5 Jul 1977 - 13 May 1980  William J. Whalen                  (b. 1940 - d. 2006)
15 May 1980 -  3 Mar 1985  Russell E. Dickenson               (b. 1923 - d. 2008)
 1 May 1985 - 15 Apr 1989  William Penn Mott                  (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
17 Apr 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  James M. Ridenour                  (b. 1942)
 1 Jun 1993 - 29 Mar 1997  Roger G. Kennedy                   (b. 1926 - d. 2011)
 4 Aug 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Robert Stanton                     (b. 1940)
17 Jul 2001 - 16 Oct 2006  Fran P. Mainella (f)               (b. 1947)
17 Oct 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Mary A. Bomar (f)
20 Jan 2009 -  2 Oct 2009  Daniel N. Wenk (acting)
 2 Oct 2009 -              Jon Jarvis                         (b. 1953)

Department of Agriculture

15 May 1862                Department of Agriculture created
 9 Feb 1889                commissioner becomes a cabinet secretary

Commissioners
       1862 -        1867  Isaac Newton                       (b. 1800 - d. 1867)
       1867                John W. Stokes
       1867 -        1871  Horace Capron                      (b. 1804 - d. 1885)
       1871 -        1877  Frederick Watts                    (b. 1801 - d. 1889)
       1877 -        1881  William G. LeDuc                   (b. 1823 - d. 1917)
       1881 -        1885  George B. Loring                   (b. 1817 - d. 1891)
       1885 -  9 Feb 1889  Norman J. Colman                   (b. 1827 - d. 1911)
Secretaries
 9 Feb 1889 -  4 Mar 1889  Norman J. Colman                   (s.a.)
 6 Mar 1889 -  4 Mar 1893  Jeremiah M. Rusk                   (b. 1830 - d. 1893)
 7 Mar 1893 -  4 Mar 1897  J. Sterling Morton                 (b. 1832 - d. 1902)
 6 Mar 1897 -  4 Mar 1913  James Wilson                       (b. 1835 - d. 1920)
 6 Mar 1913 -  2 Feb 1920  David F. Houston                   (b. 1866 - d. 1940)
 2 Feb 1920 -  4 Mar 1921  Edwin T. Meredith                  (b. 1876 - d. 1928)
 5 Mar 1921 - 25 Oct 1924  Henry C. Wallace                   (b. 1866 - d. 1924)
22 Nov 1924 -  4 Mar 1925  Howard M. Gore                     (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
 5 Mar 1925 -  4 Mar 1929  William M. Jardine                 (b. 1879 - d. 1955)
 6 Mar 1929 -  4 Mar 1933  Arthur M. Hyde                     (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
 4 Mar 1933 -  4 Sep 1940  Henry A. Wallace                   (b. 1888 - d. 1965)
 5 Sep 1940 - 29 Jun 1945  Claude R. Wickard                  (b. 1893 - d. 1967)
30 Jun 1945 - 10 May 1948  Clinton P. Anderson                (b. 1895 - d. 1975)
 2 Jun 1948 - 20 Jan 1953  Charles F. Brannan                 (b. 1903 - d. 1992)
21 Jan 1953 - 20 Jan 1961  Ezra Taft Benson                   (b. 1899 - d. 1994)
21 Jan 1961 - 20 Jan 1969  Orville L. Freeman                 (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
21 Jan 1969 - 17 Nov 1971  Clifford M. Hardin                 (b. 1915 - d. 2010)
22 Dec 1971 -  4 Oct 1976  Earl L. Butz                       (b. 1909 - d. 2008)
 4 Oct 1976 - 20 Jan 1977  John A. Knebel (acting)            (b. 1936)
23 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Robert S. Bergland                 (b. 1928)
23 Jan 1981 - 14 Feb 1986  John R. Block                      (b. 1935)
 7 Mar 1986 - 20 Jan 1989  Richard Lyng                       (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
16 Feb 1989 -  1 Mar 1991  Clayton K. Yeutter                 (b. 1930)
12 Mar 1991 - 20 Jan 1993  Edward Madigan                     (b. 1936 - d. 1994)
22 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1994  Mike Espy                          (b. 1953)
31 Dec 1994 - 30 Mar 1995  Bob Nash (acting)                  (b. 1947)
30 Mar 1995 - 20 Jan 2001  Dan Glickman                       (b. 1944)
20 Jan 2001 - 21 Jan 2005  Ann Veneman (f)                    (b. 1949)
21 Jan 2005 - 20 Sep 2007  Mike Johanns                       (b. 1950)
20 Sep 2007 - 28 Jan 2008  Chuck Conner (acting)              (b. 1957)
28 Jan 2008 - 20 Jan 2009  Edward T. Schafer                  (b. 1946)
21 Jan 2009 -              Tom Vilsack                        (b. 1950)

Forest Service

       1881                Division of Forestry
       1901                Bureau of Forestry
       1905                Forest Service

Special Agent
       1876 -        1880  Franklin B. Hough                  (b. 1822 - d. 1885)
Chiefs
       1881 -        1883  Franklin B. Hough                  (s.a.)
       1883 -        1886  Nathaniel H. Egleston              (b. 1822 - d. 1912)
       1886 -        1898  Bernhard E. Fernow                 (b. 1851 - d. 1923)
Foresters
       1898 -        1910  Gifford Pinchot                    (b. 1865 - d. 1946)
       1910 -        1920  Henry S. Graves                    (b. 1871 - d. 1951)
       1920 -        1928  William B. Greeley                 (b. 1879 - d. 1955)
       1928 -        1933  Robert Y. Stuart                   (b. 1883 - d. 1933)
       1933 -        1935  Ferdinand A. Silcox                (b. 1882 - d. 1939)
Chiefs
       1935 -        1939  Ferdinand A. Silcox                (s.a.)
       1939 -        1943  Earle H. Clapp (acting)            (b. 1877 - d. 1970)
       1943 -        1952  Lyle F. Watts                      (b. 1890 - d. 1962)
       1952 -        1962  Richard E. McArdle                 (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
       1962 -        1972  Edward P. Cliff                    (b. 1909 - d. 1987)
       1972 -        1979  John R. McGuire                    (b. 1916 - d. 2002)
       1979 -  2 Feb 1987  R. Max Peterson                    (b. 1927)
   Feb 1987 - 28 Oct 1993  F. Dale Robertson                  (b. 1940)
28 Oct 1993 -  1 Dec 1993  Dave Unger (1st time) (acting)     (b. 1932?)
 1 Dec 1993 -  2 Dec 1996  Jack Ward Thomas                   (b. 1934)
 2 Dec 1996 -  6 Jan 1997  Dave Unger (2nd time) (acting)     (s.a.)
 6 Jan 1997 - 31 Mar 2001  Mike Dombeck                       (b. 1948)
12 Apr 2001 -  2 Feb 2007  Dale Bosworth                      (b. 1945)
 5 Feb 2007 -  3 Jul 2009  Gail Kimbell (f)                   (b. 1953)
 3 Jul 2009 -              Tom Tidwell                        (b. 1954?)

Department of Commerce

14 Feb 1903                Department of Commerce and Labor
 4 Mar 1913                divided into Department of Commerce and Department of Labor

Secretaries of Commerce and Labor
18 Feb 1903 - 30 Jun 1904  George B. Cortelyou                (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
 1 Jul 1904 - 16 Dec 1906  Victor H. Metcalf                  (b. 1853 - d. 1936)
17 Dec 1906 -  5 Mar 1909  Oscar S. Straus                    (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
 6 Mar 1909 -  4 Mar 1913  Charles Nagel                      (b. 1849 - d. 1940)
Secretaries of Commerce
 5 Mar 1913 - 31 Oct 1919  William C. Redfield                (b. 1858 - d. 1932)
16 Dec 1919 -  4 Mar 1921  Joshua W. Alexander                (b. 1852 - d. 1936)
 5 Mar 1921 - 21 Aug 1928  Herbert Hoover                     (b. 1874 - d. 1964)
22 Aug 1928 -  4 Mar 1929  William F. Whiting                 (b. 1864 - d. 1936)
 5 Mar 1929 -  7 Aug 1932  Robert P. Lamont                   (b. 1867 - d. 1948)
 8 Aug 1932 -  3 Mar 1933  Roy D. Chapin                      (b. 1880 - d. 1936)
 4 Mar 1933 - 23 Dec 1938  Daniel C. Roper                    (b. 1867 - d. 1943)
24 Dec 1938 - 18 Sep 1940  Harry L. Hopkins                   (b. 1890 - d. 1946)
19 Sep 1940 -  1 Mar 1945  Jesse H. Jones                     (b. 1874 - d. 1956)
 2 Mar 1945 - 20 Sep 1946  Henry A. Wallace                   (b. 1888 - d. 1965)
 7 Oct 1946 - 22 Apr 1948  Averell Harriman                   (b. 1891 - d. 1986)
 6 May 1948 - 20 Jan 1953  Charles Sawyer                     (b. 1887 - d. 1979)
21 Jan 1953 - 10 Nov 1958  Sinclair Weeks                     (b. 1893 - d. 1972)
13 Nov 1958 - 30 Jun 1959  Lewis L. Strauss                   (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
10 Aug 1959 - 19 Jan 1961  Frederick H. Muller                (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
21 Jan 1961 - 15 Jan 1965  Luther H. Hodges                   (b. 1898 - d. 1974)
18 Jan 1965 - 31 Jan 1967  John T. Connor                     (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
14 Jun 1967 -  1 Mar 1968  Alexander B. Trowbridge            (b. 1929 - d. 2006)
 6 Mar 1968 - 19 Jan 1969  Cyrus R. Smith                     (b. 1899 - d. 1990)
21 Jan 1969 - 15 Feb 1972  Maurice H. Stans                   (b. 1908 - d. 1998)
29 Feb 1972 -  1 Feb 1973  Peter G. Peterson                  (b. 1926)
 2 Feb 1973 - 26 Mar 1975  Frederick B. Dent                  (b. 1922)
 1 May 1975 -  2 Feb 1976  Rogers C.B. Morton                 (b. 1914 - d. 1979)
 2 Feb 1976 - 20 Jan 1977  Elliot Richardson                  (b. 1920 - d. 1999)
23 Jan 1977 - 31 Oct 1979  Juanita M. Kreps (f)               (b. 1921 - d. 2010)
31 Oct 1979 -  9 Jan 1980  Luther H. Hodges, Jr. (acting)     (b. 1937?)
 9 Jan 1980 - 19 Jan 1981  Philip M. Klutznick                (b. 1907 - d. 1999)
20 Jan 1981 - 25 Jul 1987  Malcolm Baldrige                   (b. 1922 - d. 1987)
19 Oct 1987 - 30 Jan 1989  C. William Verity                  (b. 1917 - d. 2007)
31 Jan 1989 - 15 Jan 1992  Robert A. Mosbacher                (b. 1927 - d. 2010)
27 Jan 1992 - 20 Jan 1993  Barbara H. Franklin (f)            (b. 1940)
22 Jan 1993 -  3 Apr 1996  Ron Brown                          (b. 1941 - d. 1996)
12 Apr 1996 - 21 Jan 1997  Mickey Kantor                      (b. 1939)
30 Jan 1997 - 15 Jul 2000  William M. Daley                   (b. 1948)
15 Jul 2000 - 21 Jul 2000  Robert L. Mallett (acting)         (b. 1957)
21 Jul 2000 - 20 Jan 2001  Norman Y. Mineta                   (b. 1931)
20 Jan 2001 -  7 Feb 2005  Don Evans                          (b. 1946)
 7 Feb 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Carlos Gutierrez                   (b. 1953)
20 Jan 2009 - 26 Mar 2009  Otto J. Wolff (acting)
26 Mar 2009 -  1 Aug 2011  Gary Locke                         (b. 1950)
 1 Aug 2011 - 21 Oct 2011  Rebecca M. Blank (f) (1st time)    (b. 1955)
                           (acting)
21 Oct 2011 - 20 Jun 2012  John Bryson                        (b. 1943)
20 Jun 2012 - 31 May 2013  Rebecca M. Blank (f) (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 1 Jun 2013 - 26 Jun 2013  Cameron Kerry (acting)             (b. 1950)
26 Jun 2013 -              Penny Pritzker (f)                 (b. 1959)

Department of Labor

 4 Mar 1913                Department of Labor

Secretaries
 6 Mar 1913 -  4 Mar 1921  William B. Wilson                  (b. 1862 - d. 1934)
 5 Mar 1921 - 30 Nov 1930  James J. Davis                     (b. 1873 - d. 1947)
 9 Dec 1930 -  4 Mar 1933  William N. Doak                    (b. 1882 - d. 1933)
 4 Mar 1933 - 30 Jun 1945  Frances Perkins (f)                (b. 1880 - d. 1965)
 1 Jul 1945 - 10 Jun 1948  Lewis B. Schwellenbach             (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
13 Aug 1948 - 20 Jan 1953  Maurice J. Tobin                   (b. 1901 - d. 1953)
21 Jan 1953 - 10 Sep 1953  Martin P. Durkin                   (b. 1894 - d. 1955)
 9 Oct 1953 - 20 Jan 1961  James P. Mitchell                  (b. 1900 - d. 1964)
21 Jan 1961 - 20 Sep 1962  Arthur J. Goldberg                 (b. 1908 - d. 1990)
25 Sep 1962 - 20 Jan 1969  W. Willard Wirtz                   (b. 1912 - d. 2010)
22 Jan 1969 -  1 Jul 1970  George Shultz                      (b. 1920)
 2 Jul 1970 -  1 Feb 1973  James D. Hodgson                   (b. 1915 - d. 2012)
 2 Feb 1973 - 15 Mar 1975  Peter J. Brennan                   (b. 1918 - d. 1996)
18 Mar 1975 - 31 Jan 1976  John T. Dunlop                     (b. 1914 - d. 2003)
10 Feb 1976 - 20 Jan 1977  W.J. Usery, Jr.                    (b. 1923)
27 Jan 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Ray Marshall                       (b. 1928)
 4 Feb 1981 - 15 Mar 1985  Raymond J. Donovan                 (b. 1930)
29 Apr 1985 - 31 Oct 1987  William E. Brock                   (b. 1930)
17 Dec 1987 - 20 Jan 1989  Ann D. McLaughlin (f)              (b. 1941)
25 Jan 1989 - 23 Nov 1990  Elizabeth Dole (f)                 (b. 1936)
23 Nov 1990 - 22 Feb 1991  Roderick A. DeArment (acting)      (b. 1947?)
22 Feb 1991 - 20 Jan 1993  Lynn Martin (f)                    (b. 1939)
22 Jan 1993 - 10 Jan 1997  Robert Reich                       (b. 1946)
10 Jan 1997 -  1 May 1997  Cynthia Metzler (f) (acting)
 1 May 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Alexis Herman (f)                  (b. 1947)
31 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2009  Elaine Chao (f)                    (b. 1953)
20 Jan 2009 -  2 Feb 2009  Howard Radzely (acting)
 2 Feb 2009 - 24 Feb 2009  Edward C. Hugler (acting)
24 Feb 2009 - 22 Jan 2013  Hilda Solis (f)                    (b. 1957)
24 Jan 2013 - 23 Jul 2013  Seth Harris (acting)               (b. 1962)
23 Jul 2013 -              Thomas Perez                       (b. 1961)

Department of Housing and Urban Development

 9 Sep 1965                Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

Secretaries
18 Jan 1966 -  7 Jan 1969  Robert C. Weaver                   (b. 1907 - d. 1997)
 7 Jan 1969 - 20 Jan 1969  Robert C. Wood                     (b. 1923 - d. 2005)
22 Jan 1969 -  2 Feb 1973  George W. Romney                   (b. 1907 - d. 1995)
 2 Feb 1973 - 10 Mar 1975  James T. Lynn                      (b. 1927 - d. 2010)
10 Mar 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Carla A. Hills (f)                 (b. 1934)
23 Jan 1977 - 24 Sep 1979  Patricia Harris (f)                (b. 1924 - d. 1985)
24 Sep 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Moon Landrieu                      (b. 1930)
23 Jan 1981 - 20 Jan 1989  Samuel R. Pierce, Jr.              (b. 1922 - d. 2000)
13 Feb 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Jack Kemp                          (b. 1935 - d. 2009)
22 Jan 1993 - 29 Jan 1997  Henry G. Cisneros                  (b. 1947)
29 Jan 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Andrew Cuomo                       (b. 1957)
20 Jan 2001 - 24 Jan 2001  William C. Apgar (acting)
24 Jan 2001 - 12 Dec 2003  Mel Martinez                       (b. 1946)
12 Dec 2003 - 18 Apr 2008  Alphonso Jackson                   (b. 1945)
                           (acting to 1 Apr 2004)
18 Apr 2008 -  5 Jun 2008  Roy Bernardi (acting)              (b. 1942)
 5 Jun 2008 - 20 Jan 2009  Steven Preston                     (b. 1960)
20 Jan 2009 - 26 Jan 2009  Brian D. Montgomery (acting)
26 Jan 2009 - 28 Jul 2014  Shaun Donovan                      (b. 1966)
28 Jul 2014 -              Julián Castro                      (b. 1974)

Department of Transportation

15 Oct 1966                Department of Transportation

Secretaries
16 Jan 1967 - 20 Jan 1969  Alan S. Boyd                       (b. 1922)
22 Jan 1969 -  1 Feb 1973  John A. Volpe                      (b. 1908 - d. 1994)
 2 Feb 1973 -  1 Feb 1975  Claude S. Brinegar                 (b. 1926 - d. 2009)
 2 Feb 1975 -  6 Mar 1975  John W. Barnum (acting)
 7 Mar 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  William T. Coleman, Jr.            (b. 1920)
23 Jan 1977 - 20 Jul 1979  Brock Adams                        (b. 1927 - d. 2004)
21 Jul 1979 - 15 Aug 1979  W. Graham Clayton, Jr. (acting)    (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
15 Aug 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Neil E. Goldschmidt                (b. 1940)
23 Jan 1981 -  1 Feb 1983  Andrew L. Lewis, Jr.               (b. 1931)
 7 Feb 1983 - 30 Sep 1987  Elizabeth Dole (f)                 (b. 1936)
 1 Oct 1987 - 20 Jan 1989  James H. Burnley IV                (b. 1948)
                           (acting to 2 Dec 1987)
 6 Feb 1989 - 16 Dec 1991  Samuel Skinner                     (b. 1938)
16 Dec 1991 - 23 Feb 1992  James B. Busey IV (acting)         (b. 1932)
24 Feb 1992 - 20 Jan 1993  Andrew H. Card, Jr.                (b. 1947)
21 Jan 1993 - 14 Feb 1997  Federico F. Peña                   (b. 1947)
14 Feb 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Rodney E. Slater                   (b. 1955)
20 Jan 2001 - 25 Jan 2001  Mortimer L. Downey (acting)        (b. 1936)
25 Jan 2001 -  7 Jul 2006  Norman Y. Mineta                   (b. 1931)
 8 Jul 2006 - 17 Oct 2006  Maria Cino (f) (acting)            (b. 1957)
17 Oct 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Mary Peters (f)                    (b. 1948)
23 Jan 2009 -  2 Jul 2013  Ray LaHood                         (b. 1945)
 2 Jul 2013 -              Anthony Foxx                       (b. 1971)

Federal Aviation Administration

20 May 1926                Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce
 1 Jul 1934                Bureau of Air Commerce under Department of Commerce
22 Aug 1938                Civil Aeronautics Authority (independent agency)
30 Jun 1940                Civil Aeronautics Administration under Department of Commerce
31 Dec 1958                Federal Aviation Agency (independent agency)
 1 Apr 1967                Federal Aviation Administration under Department of
                           Transportation

Assistant Secretaries of Commerce for Aeronautics
11 Aug 1926 -  1 Oct 1929  William P. MacCracken, Jr.         (b. 1888 - d. 1969)
 1 Oct 1929 - 15 Jun 1933  Clarence M. Young                  (b. 1889 - d. 1973)
Director of Aeronautics
19 Sep 1933 - 30 Jun 1934  Eugene L. Vidal                    (b. 1895 - d. 1969)
Directors of Air Commerce
 1 Jul 1934 - 28 Feb 1937  Eugene L. Vidal                    (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1937 - 15 Apr 1938  Fred D. Fagg, Jr.                  (b. 1896 - d. 1981)
16 Apr 1938 - 21 Aug 1938  Denis Mulligan
Chairmen
22 Aug 1938 - 12 Apr 1939  Edward J. Noble                    (b. 1882 - d. 1958)
12 Apr 1939 - 30 Jun 1940  Robert H. Hinckley                 (b. 1892 - d. ...)
Administrator
22 Aug 1934 - 30 Jun 1940  Clinton M. Hester
Administrators of Civil Aeronautics
11 Jul 1940 - 15 Jan 1942  Donald H. Connolly                 (b. 1886 - d. 1969)
20 Jul 1942 - 23 Sep 1944  Charles I. Stanton                 (b. 1893 - d. 1986)
23 Sep 1944 -  1 Mar 1948  Theodore P. Wright                 (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
 1 Jun 1948 -  4 Oct 1950  Delos W. Rentzel                   (b. 1910? - d. 1991)
 4 Oct 1950 - 18 May 1951  Donald W. Nyrop                    (b. 1912 - d. 2010)
18 May 1951 -  6 Mar 1953  Charles F. Horne
27 Apr 1953 - 10 Dec 1955  Frederick B. Lee
12 Dec 1955 -  5 Sep 1956  Charles J. Lowen, Jr.              (b. ... - d. 1956)
26 Dec 1956 - 30 Dec 1958  James T. Pyle                      (b. 1913 - d. 1998)
Administrators
31 Dec 1958 - 20 Jan 1961  Elwood R. Quesada                  (b. 1904 - d. 1993)
20 Jan 1961 -  3 Mar 1961  James T. Pyle (acting)             (s.a.)
 3 Mar 1961 -  1 Jul 1965  Najeeb E. Halaby                   (b. 1915 - d. 2003)
 1 Jul 1965 - 31 Jul 1968  William F. McKee                   (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
31 Jul 1968 - 24 Mar 1969  David D. Thomas (acting)
24 Mar 1969 - 14 Mar 1973  John H. Shaffer                    (b. 1919 - d. 1997)
14 Mar 1973 - 31 Mar 1975  Alexander P. Butterfield           (b. 1926)
31 Mar 1975 - 24 Nov 1975  James E. Dow (acting)
24 Nov 1975 -  1 Apr 1977  John L. McLucas                    (b. 1920 - d. 2002)
 4 May 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Langhorne M. Bond                  (b. 1937)
22 Apr 1981 - 31 Jan 1984  J. Lynn Helms                      (b. 1925 - d. 2011)
31 Jan 1984 - 10 Apr 1984  Michael J. Fenello (acting)        (b. 1916 - d. 1997)
10 Apr 1984 -  2 Jul 1987  Donald D. Engen                    (b. 1924 - d. 1999)
22 Jul 1987 - 17 Feb 1989  T. Allan McArtor                   (b. 1942)
30 Jun 1989 -  4 Dec 1991  James B. Busey IV                  (b. 1932)
 4 Dec 1991 - 27 Jun 1992  Barry L. Harris (acting)
27 Jun 1992 - 20 Jan 1993  Thomas C. Richards                 (b. 1930)
10 Aug 1993 -  9 Nov 1996  David R. Hinson                    (b. 1933)
 9 Nov 1996 - 31 Jan 1997  Linda Hall Daschle (f) (acting)    (b. 1955)
 1 Feb 1997 -  4 Aug 1997  Barry L. Valentine (acting)
 4 Aug 1997 -  4 Aug 2002  Jane F. Garvey (f)                 (b. 1944)
 4 Aug 2002 - 13 Sep 2002  Monte Belger (acting)
13 Sep 2002 - 13 Sep 2007  Marion Blakey (f)                  (b. 1948)
14 Sep 2007 - 16 Jan 2009  Robert A. Sturgell (acting)        (b. 1959?)
16 Jan 2009 -  1 Jun 2009  Lynne A. Osmus (f) (acting)
 1 Jun 2009 -  6 Dec 2011  Randy Babbitt                      (b. 1946)
 6 Dec 2011 -              Michael Huerta                     (b. 1956)
                           (acting to 9 Jan 2013)

Maritime Administration

29 Jun 1936                Maritime Commission
24 May 1950                Maritime Administration (under Department of Commerce)
 6 Aug 1981                under Department of Transportation

Maritime Administrators
26 Sep 1936 - 15 Apr 1937  Henry A. Wiley                     (b. 1867 - d. 1943)
16 Apr 1937 - 17 Feb 1938  Joseph P. Kennedy                  (b. 1888 - d. 1969)
18 Feb 1938 - 15 Jan 1946  Emory S. Land                      (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
 3 Jun 1946 - 16 Apr 1949  William W. Smith
 6 Jun 1949 - 23 May 1950  Philip B. Fleming                  (b. 1887 - d. 1955)
 8 Aug 1950 -  1 Oct 1952  E.L. Cochrane
 2 Oct 1952 - 30 Jun 1953  Albert W. Gatov
 1 Jul 1953 - 25 Feb 1955  Louis S. Rothschild                (b. 1900 - d. 1984)
16 Mar 1955 -  1 May 1960  Clarence G. Morse                  (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
 1 Jul 1960 - 22 Feb 1961  Ralph E. Wilson
23 Feb 1961 -  8 Oct 1961  Thomas E. Staken
 9 Oct 1961 - 31 Oct 1963  Donald W. Alexander
 2 Mar 1964 - 30 Jun 1966  Nicholas Johnson                   (b. 1934)
25 Mar 1969 -  6 Jul 1972  Andrew E. Gibson                   (b. 1922 - d. 2001)
 7 Jul 1972 -  9 Apr 1979  Robert J. Blackwell                (b. 1925?)
19 Jul 1979 - 31 Jul 1981  Samuel B. Nemirow (acting to 1980)
19 Oct 1981 - 31 May 1985  Harold E. Shear                    (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
26 Nov 1985 - 26 Mar 1989  John A. Gaughan                    (b. 1947)
11 Oct 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Warren G. Leback                   (b. 1924)
14 Sep 1993 - 30 Jun 1997  Albert J. Herberger
30 Jun 1997 -  6 Aug 1998  John E. Graykowski (1st time)
                           (acting)
 6 Aug 1998 -    Jan 2000  Clyde J. Hart, Jr.                 (b. 1946)
   Jan 2000 -        2001  John E. Graykowski (2nd time)
                           (acting)
       2001 -  6 Dec 2001  Bruce Carlton (acting)
 6 Dec 2001 - 12 Feb 2005  William G. Schubert
12 Feb 2005 -  1 May 2006  John Jamian (acting)               (b. 1954)
 1 May 2006 -  6 Sep 2006  Julie A. Nelson (f) (acting)
 6 Sep 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Sean T. Connaughton                (b. 1961)
20 Jan 2009 - 30 Jul 2009  James E. Caponiti (acting)
30 Jul 2009 -  4 Jun 2013  David T. Matsuda                   (b. 1972)
                           (acting to 25 Jun 2010)
 4 Jun 2013 -              Paul N. Jaenichen, Sr. (acting)    (b. 1960?)

Department of Energy

 4 Aug 1977                Department of Energy

Secretaries
 5 Aug 1977 - 24 Aug 1979  James R. Schlesinger               (b. 1929 - d. 2014)
24 Aug 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Charles W. Duncan, Jr.             (b. 1926)
23 Jan 1981 -  5 Nov 1982  James B. Edwards                   (b. 1927)
 5 Nov 1982 -  7 Feb 1985  Donald P. Hodel                    (b. 1935)
                           (acting to 9 Dec 1982)
 7 Feb 1985 - 20 Jan 1989  John S. Herrington                 (b. 1939)
 9 Mar 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  James D. Watkins                   (b. 1927 - d. 2012)
22 Jan 1993 - 13 Mar 1997  Hazel O'Leary (f)                  (b. 1937)
13 Mar 1997 - 18 Aug 1998  Federico F. Peña                   (b. 1947)
18 Aug 1998 - 20 Jan 2001  Bill Richardson                    (b. 1947)
20 Jan 2001 -  1 Feb 2005  Spencer Abraham                    (b. 1952)
 1 Feb 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Samuel Bodman                      (b. 1938)
21 Jan 2009 - 23 Apr 2013  Steven Chu                         (b. 1948)
23 Apr 2013 - 21 May 2013  Daniel Poneman (acting)            (b. 1956)
21 May 2013 -              Ernest Moniz                       (b. 1944)

Atomic Energy Commission

Chairmen
 1 Nov 1946 - 15 Feb 1950  David E. Lilienthal                (b. 1899 - d. 1981)
11 Jul 1950 - 30 Jun 1953  Gordon Dean                        (b. 1905 - d. 1958)
 2 Jul 1953 - 30 Jun 1958  Lewis L. Strauss                   (b. 1896 - d. 1974)
14 Jul 1958 - 20 Jan 1961  John A. McCone                     (b. 1902 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1961 - 16 Aug 1971  Glenn T. Seaborg                   (b. 1912 - d. 1999)
17 Aug 1971 - 26 Jan 1973  James R. Schlesinger               (b. 1929 - d. 2014)
 6 Feb 1973 - 18 Jan 1975  Dixy Lee Ray (f)                   (b. 1914 - d. 1994)

Department of Health and Human Services

       1939                Federal Security Agency
11 Apr 1953                Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)
27 Sep 1979                divided into Department of Health and Human Services
                           (HHS) and Department of Education

Administrators of the Federal Security Agency
       1939 -        1945  Paul V. McNutt                     (b. 1891 - d. 1955)
       1945 -        1947  Watson B. Miller                   (b. 1878 - d. 1961)
       1947 -    Jan 1953  Oscar R. Ewing                     (b. 1889 - d. 1980)
   Jan 1953 - 11 Apr 1953  Oveta Culp Hobby (f)               (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
Secretaries of Health, Education and Welfare
11 Apr 1953 - 31 Jul 1955  Oveta Culp Hobby (f)               (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1955 - 31 Jul 1958  Marion B. Folsom                   (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
 1 Aug 1958 - 20 Jan 1961  Arthur S. Flemming                 (b. 1905 - d. 1996)
21 Jan 1961 - 13 Jul 1962  Abraham A. Ribicoff                (b. 1910 - d. 1998)
31 Jul 1962 - 17 Aug 1965  Anthony J. Celebrezze              (b. 1910 - d. 1998)
18 Aug 1965 -  1 Mar 1968  John W. Gardner                    (b. 1912 - d. 2002)
16 Mar 1968 - 20 Jan 1969  Wilbur J. Cohen                    (b. 1913 - d. 1987)
21 Jan 1969 - 24 Jun 1970  Robert H. Finch                    (b. 1925 - d. 1995)
24 Jun 1970 - 29 Jan 1973  Elliot Richardson                  (b. 1920 - d. 1999)
12 Feb 1973 -  8 Aug 1975  Caspar Weinberger                  (b. 1917 - d. 2006)
 8 Aug 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Forrest D. Mathews                 (b. 1935)
25 Jan 1977 -  3 Aug 1979  Joseph A. Califano, Jr.            (b. 1931)
 3 Aug 1979 - 27 Sep 1979  Patricia Harris (f)                (b. 1924 - d. 1985)
Secretaries of Health and Human Services
27 Sep 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Patricia Harris (f)                (s.a.)
22 Jan 1981 -  3 Feb 1983  Richard S. Schweiker               (b. 1926)
 9 Mar 1983 - 13 Dec 1985  Margaret M. Heckler (f)            (b. 1931)
13 Dec 1985 - 20 Jan 1989  Otis R. Bowen                      (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
 1 Mar 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Louis W. Sullivan                  (b. 1933)
22 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Donna Shalala (f)                  (b. 1941)
20 Jan 2001 -  2 Feb 2001  David Satcher (acting)             (b. 1941)
 2 Feb 2001 - 26 Jan 2005  Tommy G. Thompson                  (b. 1941)
26 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Mike Leavitt                       (b. 1951)
20 Jan 2009 - 28 Apr 2009  Charles E. Johnson (acting)
28 Apr 2009 -  9 Jun 2014  Kathleen Sebelius (f)              (b. 1948)
 9 Jun 2014 -              Sylvia Mathews Burwell (f)         (b. 1965)

Public Health Service

       1798                Marine Hospital Service
 1 Jul 1902                Public Health and Marine Hospital Service
14 Aug 1912                Public Health Service
       1939                under the Federal Security Agency
       1953                under the Department of Health, Education and Welfare
       1979                under the Department of Health and Human Services

Surgeons General
29 Mar 1871 - 14 Mar 1879  John Maynard Woodworth             (b. 1837 - d. 1879)
                           (Supervising Surgeon to 3 Mar 1875,
                           then Supervising Surgeon General)
 3 Apr 1879 -  1 Jun 1891  John B. Hamilton                   (b. 1847 - d. 1898)
                           (Supervising Surgeon General)
 1 Jun 1891 - 21 Nov 1911  Walter Wyman                       (b. 1848 - d. 1911)
                           (Supervising Surgeon General to 1902)
13 Jan 1912 -  3 Mar 1920  Rupert Blue                        (b. 1868 - d. 1948)
 3 Mar 1920 -  6 Apr 1936  Hugh Cumming                       (b. 1869 - d. 1948)
 6 Apr 1936 -  6 Apr 1948  Thomas Parran                      (b. 1892 - d. 1968)
 6 Apr 1948 -  8 Aug 1956  Leonard A. Scheele                 (b. 1907 - d. 1993)
 1 Aug 1956 - 29 Jan 1961  LeRoy Edgar Burney                 (b. 1906 - d. 1998)
 2 Mar 1961 -  1 Oct 1965  Luther Leonidas Terry              (b. 1911 - d. 1985)
 1 Oct 1965 -  1 Aug 1969  William H. Stewart                 (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
18 Dec 1969 - 30 Jun 1973  Jesse Leonard Steinfeld            (b. 1927 - d. 2014)
 1 Jul 1973 - 13 Jul 1977  S. Paul Ehrlich, Jr. (acting)      (b. 1932 - d. 2005)
13 Jul 1977 - 14 May 1981  Julius B. Richmond                 (b. 1916 - d. 2008)
14 May 1981 - 21 Jan 1982  Edward Brandt, Jr. (acting)        (b. 1933 - d. 2007)
21 Jan 1982 -  1 Oct 1989  C. Everett Koop                    (b. 1916 - d. 2013)
 1 Oct 1989 -  9 Mar 1990  James O. Mason (acting)            (b. 1930)
 9 Mar 1990 - 30 Jun 1993  Antonia Coello Novello (f)         (b. 1944)
 1 Jul 1993 -  8 Sep 1993  Robert A. Whitney (acting)         (b. 1935)
 8 Sep 1993 - 31 Dec 1994  Joycelyn Elders (f)                (b. 1933)
 1 Jan 1995 -  1 Jul 1997  Audrey F. Manley (f) (acting)      (b. 1934)
13 Feb 1998 -    Feb 2002  David Satcher                      (b. 1941)
   Feb 2002 -  5 Aug 2002  Kenneth Moritsugu (1st time)       (b. 1946?)
                           (acting)
 5 Aug 2002 - 29 Jul 2006  Richard Carmona                    (b. 1949)
29 Jul 2006 -  4 Oct 2007  Kenneth Moritsugu (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 4 Oct 2007 -  1 Oct 2009  Steven K. Galson (acting)          (b. 1956)
 1 Oct 2009 -  3 Nov 2009  Donald L. Weaver (acting)
 3 Nov 2009 - 17 Jul 2013  Regina Benjamin (f)                (b. 1956)
17 Jul 2013 -              Boris D. Lushniak (acting)

Food and Drug Administration

       1901                Bureau of Chemistry within Department of Agriculture
       1927                Food, Drug and Insecticide Administration
       1930                Food and Drug Administration
       1940                under the Federal Security Agency
       1953                under the Department of Health, Education and Welfare
       1968                under the Public Health Service

Chiefs
       1901 - 15 Mar 1912  Harvey Washington Wiley            (b. 1844 - d. 1930)
16 Dec 1912 - 15 Jul 1921  Carl L. Alsberg                    (b. 1877 - d. 1940)
16 Jul 1921 - 30 Jun 1924  Walter G. Campbell (1st time)      (b. 1877 - d. 1963)
 1 Jul 1924 - 30 Jun 1927  Charles A. Browne                  (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
 1 Jul 1927 -        1940  Walter G. Campbell (2nd time)      (s.a.)
Commissioners
       1940 - 30 Apr 1944  Walter G. Campbell                 (s.a.)
 6 May 1944 - 31 May 1951  Paul B. Dunbar                     (b. 1882 - d. 1968)
 1 Jun 1951 - 31 Jul 1954  Charles Crawford                   (b. 1888 - d. 1957)
12 Aug 1954 - 27 Dec 1965  George P. Larrick                  (b. 1901 - d. 1968)
17 Jan 1966 -  1 Jul 1968  James L. Goddard                   (b. 1923 - d. 2009)
 1 Jul 1968 - 12 Dec 1969  Herbert Ley, Jr.                   (b. 1923 - d. 2001)
13 Dec 1969 - 15 Mar 1973  Charles Edwards                    (b. 1923 - d. 2011)
15 Mar 1973 - 20 Jul 1973  Sherwin Gardner (1st time)         (b. 1928)
                           (acting)
20 Jul 1973 - 30 Nov 1976  Alexander M. Schmidt               (b. 1930 - d. 1991)
30 Nov 1976 -  4 Apr 1977  Sherwin Gardner (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 4 Apr 1977 - 30 Jun 1979  Donald Kennedy                     (b. 1931)
30 Jun 1979 - 21 Oct 1979  Sherwin Gardner (3rd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
21 Oct 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Jere E. Goyan                      (b. 1927 - d. 2007)
20 Jan 1981 - 13 Apr 1981  Mark Novitch (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1932)
13 Apr 1981 - 11 Sep 1983  Arthur Hull Hayes, Jr.             (b. 1933 - d. 2010)
11 Sep 1983 - 15 Jul 1984  Mark Novitch (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
15 Jul 1984 - 17 Dec 1989  Frank E. Young                     (b. 1931)
17 Dec 1989 -  8 Nov 1990  James S. Benson (acting)
 8 Nov 1990 - 28 Feb 1997  David A. Kessler                   (b. 1951)
28 Feb 1997 - 15 Dec 1998  Michael A. Friedman (acting)
15 Dec 1998 - 19 Jan 2001  Jane E. Henney (f)                 (b. 1947)
19 Jan 2001 - 25 Feb 2002  Bernard Schwetz (acting)           (b. 1940)
25 Feb 2002 - 14 Nov 2002  Lester M. Crawford (1st time)      (b. 1938)
                           (acting)
14 Nov 2002 - 26 Mar 2004  Mark B. McClellan                  (b. 1963)
26 Mar 2004 - 23 Sep 2005  Lester M. Crawford (2nd time)      (s.a.)
                           (acting to 18 Jul 2005)
23 Sep 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Andrew C. von Eschenbach           (b. 1941)
                           (acting to Dec 2006)
20 Jan 2009 - 30 Mar 2009  Frank M. Torti (acting)            (b. 1948?)
30 Mar 2009 - 22 May 2009  Joshua Sharfstein (acting)         (b. 1970)
22 May 2009 -              Margaret Hamburg (f)               (b. 1955)

Civilian Conservation Corps

 5 Apr 1933                Emergency Conservation Work
28 Jun 1937                Civilian Conservation Corps
25 Apr 1939                under the Federal Security Agency
30 Jun 1943                abolished

National directors
 5 Apr 1933 - 31 Dec 1939  Robert Fechner                     (b. 1876 - d. 1939)
15 Feb 1940 - 30 Jun 1943  James J. McEntee                   (b. 1884 - d. 1957)

Department of Education

       1867                Department of Education established as a non-cabinet agency
       1868                Office of Education
       1869                Bureau of Education
       1930                Office of Education
       1939                under the Federal Security Agency
       1953                under the Department of Health, Education and Welfare
       1979                Department of Education

Commissioners
       1867 -        1870  Henry Barnard                      (b. 1811 - d. 1900)
       1870 -        1886  John Eaton, Jr.                    (b. 1820 - d. 1906)
       1886 -        1889  Nathaniel H.R. Dawson
       1889 -        1906  William T. Harris                  (b. 1835 - d. 1909)
       1906 -        1911  Elmer E. Brown                     (b. 1861 - d. 1934)
       1911 -        1921  Philander P. Claxton               (b. 1862 - d. 1957)
       1921 -        1928  John J. Tigert IV                  (b. 1882 - d. 1965)
       1928 -        1933  William J. Cooper
       1933 -        1934  George F. Zook                     (b. 1885 - d. 1951)
       1934 -        1948  John W. Studebaker                 (b. 1887 - d. 1989)
       1948 -        1949  Rall I. Grigsby (acting)
       1949 -        1953  Earl J. McGrath                    (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
       1953 -        1956  Samuel M. Brownell                 (b. 1900 - d. 1990)
       1956 -        1961  Lawrence G. Derthick               (b. 1905 - d. 1992)
       1961 -        1962  Sterling M. McMurrin               (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
       1962 -        1965  Francis Keppel                     (b. 1916 - d. 1990)
       1965 -        1968  Harold Howe II                     (b. 1918 - d. 2002)
       1969 -        1970  James E. Allen, Jr.                (b. 1911 - d. 1971)
       1970 -        1972  Sidney P. Marland                  (b. 1914 - d. 1992)
       1974 -        1976  Terrel H. Bell                     (b. 1921 - d. 1996)
       1977 -        1979  Ernest L. Boyer                    (b. 1928 - d. 1995)
Secretaries
27 Sep 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Shirley Hufstedler (f)             (b. 1925)
20 Jan 1981 -  7 Feb 1985  Terrel H. Bell                     (s.a.)
 7 Feb 1985 - 20 Sep 1988  William Bennett                    (b. 1943)
20 Sep 1988 - 15 Dec 1990  Lauro F. Cavazos                   (b. 1927)
15 Dec 1990 - 22 Mar 1991  Ted Sanders (acting)
22 Mar 1991 - 20 Jan 1993  Lamar Alexander                    (b. 1940)
22 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Richard W. Riley                   (b. 1933)
20 Jan 2001 - 31 Jan 2005  Rod Paige                          (b. 1933)
31 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Margaret Spellings (f)             (b. 1957)
21 Jan 2009 -              Arne Duncan                        (b. 1964)

Department of Veterans Affairs

       1922                Veterans Bureau
21 Jul 1930                Veterans Administration
15 Mar 1989                Department of Veterans Affairs

Directors
       1922 -        1923  Charles R. Forbes                  (b. 1877 - d. 1952)
       1923 -        1930  Frank T. Hines                     (b. 1879 - d. 1960)
Administrators
       1930 -        1945  Frank T. Hines                     (s.a.)
       1945 -        1947  Omar N. Bradley                    (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
 1 Jan 1948 -        1953  Carl R. Gray                       (b. 1889 - d. 1955)
   Jul 1953 -        1957  Harvey V. Higley                   (b. 1892 - d. 1986)
   Dec 1957 -        1961  Sumner G. Whittier                 (b. 1911 - d. 2010)
       1961 -        1964  John S. Gleason                    (b. 1915 - d. 1993)
       1965 -        1969  William J. Driver                  (b. 1918 - d. 1985)
       1969 -        1974  Donald E. Johnson                  (b. 1924 - d. 1999)
       1974 -        1977  Richard L. Roudebush               (b. 1918 - d. 1995)
       1977 -        1981  Max Cleland                        (b. 1942)
       1981 -        1982  Robert P. Nimmo                    (b. 1922 - d. 2005)
       1982 -        1986  Harry N. Walters                   (b. 1936)
       1986 -        1989  Thomas K. Turnage                  (b. 1923 - d. 2000)
 1 Mar 1989 - 15 Mar 1989  Edward J. Derwinski                (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
Secretaries
15 Mar 1989 - 26 Sep 1992  Edward J. Derwinski                (s.a.)
26 Sep 1992 - 20 Jan 1993  Anthony J. Principi (1st time)     (b. 1944)
                           (acting)
22 Jan 1993 -  1 Jul 1997  Jesse Brown                        (b. 1944 - d. 2002)
 1 Jul 1997 -  2 Jan 1998  Hershel W. Gober (1st time)        (b. 1936)
                           (acting)
 2 Jan 1998 - 25 Jul 2000  Togo D. West, Jr.                  (b. 1942)
                           (acting to 5 May 1998)
25 Jul 2000 - 20 Jan 2001  Hershel W. Gober (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
24 Jan 2001 -  1 Feb 2005  Anthony J. Principi (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Feb 2005 -  1 Oct 2007  Jim Nicholson                      (b. 1938)
 1 Oct 2007 - 20 Dec 2007  Gordon H. Mansfield (acting)
20 Dec 2007 - 20 Jan 2009  James Peake                        (b. 1944)
21 Jan 2009 - 30 May 2014  Eric K. Shinseki                   (b. 1942)
30 May 2014 - 30 Jul 2014  Sloan D. Gibson (acting)
30 Jul 2014 -              Robert McDonald                    (b. 1953)

Department of Homeland Security

 8 Oct 2001                Office of Homeland Security (within Executive Office of the
                           President)
24 Jan 2003                Department of Homeland Security

Director
 8 Oct 2001 - 24 Jan 2003  Tom Ridge                          (b. 1945)
Secretaries
24 Jan 2003 -  1 Feb 2005  Tom Ridge                          (s.a.)
 2 Feb 2005 - 15 Feb 2005  James M. Loy (acting)              (b. 1942)
15 Feb 2005 - 21 Jan 2009  Michael Chertoff                   (b. 1953)
21 Jan 2009 -  6 Sep 2013  Janet Napolitano (f)               (b. 1957)
 6 Sep 2013 - 23 Dec 2013  Rand Beers (acting)                (b. 1942)
23 Dec 2013 -              Jeh Johnson                        (b. 1957)

Coast Guard

 4 Aug 1790                Congress creates a service to enforce customs laws;
                           alternately known as the system of cutters, Revenue Service,
                           and Revenue-Marine this service would officially be named the
                           Revenue Cutter Service (USRCS)
18 Jun 1878                U.S. Life-Saving Service established under the control of the
                           Treasury Department
28 Jan 1915                Revenue Cutter Service joined with Life-Saving Service to form
                           U.S. Coast Guard
 1 Apr 1967                Coast Guard transferred to Department of Transportation
 1 Mar 2003                transferred to Department of Homeland Security

Chiefs
       1843 -        1848  Alexander V. Fraser
       1848 -        1849  Richard Evans
       1869 -        1871  N. Broughton Devereux
       1871 -        1878  Sumner I. Kimball                  (b. 1834 - d. 1923)
       1878 -        1885  Ezra Clark
       1885 -        1889  Peter Bonnett
28 Dec 1889 -  1 Mar 1895  Leonard G. Shepard                 (b. 1846 - d. 1895)
19 Mar 1895 - 27 Mar 1905  Charles F. Shoemaker               (b. 1841 - d. 1913)
Commandants
25 Apr 1905 - 30 Apr 1911  Worth G. Ross                      (b. 1854 - d. 1916)
19 Jun 1911 - 30 Jun 1919  Ellsworth P. Bertholf              (b. 1866 - d. 1921)
 2 Oct 1919 - 11 Jan 1924  William E. Reynolds                (b. 1860 - d. 1944)
11 Jan 1924 - 17 May 1932  Frederick C. Billard               (b. 1873 - d. 1932)
14 Jun 1932 - 14 Jun 1936  Harry G. Hamlet                    (b. 1874 - d. 1954)
14 Jun 1936 -  1 Jan 1946  Russell R. Waesche                 (b. 1886 - d. 1946)
 1 Jan 1946 - 31 Dec 1949  Joseph F. Farley                   (b. 1889 - d. 1974)
 1 Jan 1950 - 31 May 1954  Merlin O'Neill                     (b. 1898 - d. 1981)
 1 Jun 1954 - 31 May 1962  Alfred C. Richmond                 (b. 1902 - d. 1984)
 1 Jun 1962 - 31 May 1966  Edwin J. Roland                    (b. 1905 - d. 1985)
 1 Jun 1966 - 31 May 1970  Willard J. Smith                   (b. 1910 - d. 2000)
 1 Jun 1970 - 31 May 1974  Chester R. Bender                  (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
 1 Jun 1974 - 31 May 1978  Owen W. Siler                      (b. 1922 - d. 2007)
 1 Jun 1978 - 28 May 1982  John B. Hayes                      (b. 1924 - d. 2001)
28 May 1982 - 30 May 1986  James S. Gracey                    (b. 1927)
30 May 1986 - 31 May 1990  Paul A. Yost, Jr.                  (b. 1929)
31 May 1990 - 31 May 1994  J. William Kime                    (b. 1934 - d. 2006)
 1 Jun 1994 - 31 May 1998  Robert E. Kramek                   (b. 1939)
 1 Jun 1998 - 30 May 2002  James M. Loy                       (b. 1942)
30 May 2002 - 25 May 2006  Thomas H. Collins                  (b. 1946)
25 May 2006 - 25 May 2010  Thad W. Allen                      (b. 1949)
25 May 2010 - 30 May 2014  Robert J. Papp, Jr.                (b. 1952)
30 May 2014 -              Paul F. Zukunft                    (b. 1955)

Federal Emergency Management Agency

31 Mar 1979                Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) established
 1 Mar 2003                transferred to Department of Homeland Security

Directors
   Apr 1979 -    Jul 1979  Gordon Vickery (acting)            (b. 1920 - d. 1996)
   Jul 1979                Thomas Casey (acting)
   Aug 1979 -    Jan 1981  John Macy                          (b. 1917 - d. 1986)
   Jan 1981 -    Apr 1981  Bernard Gallagher (acting)         (b. 1922 - d. 2000)
   Apr 1981 -    May 1981  John W. McConnell (acting)         (b. 1921 - d. 2001)
   May 1981 -    Sep 1985  Louis O. Giuffrida                 (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
   Sep 1985 -    Nov 1985  Robert H. Morris (1st time)
                           (acting)
   Nov 1985 -    Jun 1989  Julius W. Becton, Jr.              (b. 1926)
   Jun 1989 -    May 1990  Robert H. Morris (2nd time)
                           (acting)
   May 1990 -    Aug 1990  Jerry D. Jennings (acting)
 4 Aug 1990 -    Jan 1993  Wallace E. Stickney                (b. 1934)
   Jan 1993 -    Apr 1993  William C. Tidball (acting)
   Apr 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  James Lee Witt                     (b. 1944)
20 Jan 2001 - 15 Feb 2001  John Magaw (acting)                (b. 1935)
15 Feb 2001 -  1 Mar 2003  Joe Allbaugh                       (b. 1952)
Undersecretaries for Emergency Preparedness and Response
 1 Mar 2003 - 12 Sep 2005  Michael D. Brown                   (b. 1954)
12 Sep 2005 -  8 Jun 2006  R. David Paulison (acting)         (b. 1947)
Undersecretary for Federal Emergency Management
 8 Jun 2006 -  1 Apr 2007  R. David Paulison                  (s.a.)
Administrators
 1 Apr 2007 - 21 Jan 2009  R. David Paulison                  (s.a.)
21 Jan 2009 - 19 May 2009  Nancy L. Ward (f) (acting)
19 May 2009 -              W. Craig Fugate                    (b. 1959)

Secret Service

 1 Mar 2003                transferred to Department of Homeland Security

Chiefs (from 1965, directors)
 5 Jul 1865 -        1869  William P. Wood                    (b. 1820 - d. 1903)
       1869 -        1874  Herman C. Whitley
       1874 -        1876  Elmer Washburn                     (b. 1834 - d. 1918)
       1876 -        1888  James Brooks
       1888 -        1890  John S. Bell
       1891 -        1894  A.L. Drummond
       1894 -        1898  William P. Hazen
       1898 -        1911  John E. Wilkie                     (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
       1912 -        1917  William J. Flynn                   (b. 1867 - d. 1928)
       1917 -        1936  William H. Moran
       1937 -        1946  Frank J. Wilson                    (b. 1887 - d. 1970)
       1946 -        1948  James J. Maloney
       1948 - 31 Aug 1961  U.E. Baughman                      (b. 1905 - d. 1978)
 1 Sep 1961 -    Oct 1973  James J. Rowley                    (b. 1908 - d. 1992)
   Nov 1973 - 30 Nov 1981  H. Stuart Knight                   (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
   Dec 1981 -        1992  John R. Simpson                    (b. 1932)
       1992 - 30 Sep 1993  John Magaw                         (b. 1935)
30 Sep 1993 -    Dec 1993  Guy P. Caputo (acting)
   Dec 1993 -        1997  Eljay B. Bowron                    (b. 1951)
   Jun 1997 -        1999  Lewis C. Merletti                  (b. 1948?)
 4 Mar 1999 - 27 Jan 2003  Brian L. Stafford                  (b. 1948)
27 Jan 2003 - 31 May 2006  W. Ralph Basham                    (b. 1943?)
31 May 2006 - 22 Feb 2013  Mark J. Sullivan
27 Mar 2013 -  1 Oct 2014  Julia A. Pierson (f)               (b. 1959?)
 1 Oct 2014 -              Joseph Clancy (acting)             (b. 1955?)

Immigration and Naturalization Service

       1891                superintendent of immigration established in
                           Treasury Department
       1913                transferred to Department of Labor
       1940                transferred to Department of Justice
 1 Mar 2003                abolished; functions taken over by Department of
                           Homeland Security

Superintendents of Immigration
 1 Jul 1891 -  7 Apr 1893  William D. Owen                    (b. 1846 - d. 1906)
 8 Apr 1893 -  1 Mar 1895  Herman Stump                       (b. 1837 - d. 1917)
Commissioners General of Immigration
 2 Mar 1895 - 30 Jun 1897  Herman Stump                       (s.a.)
 1 Jul 1897 - 24 Jun 1902  Terence V. Powderly                (b. 1849 - d. 1924)
25 Jun 1902 -  4 Sep 1908  Frank P. Sargent                   (b. 1854 - d. 1908)
 1 Jul 1909 - 31 May 1913  Daniel Keefe                       (b. 1852 - d. 1929)
 1 Jun 1913 - 13 Mar 1921  Anthony J. Caminetti               (b. 1854 - d. 1923)
15 Mar 1921 - 15 May 1925  William Husband                    (b. 1871 - d. 1942)
15 May 1925 - 26 Apr 1933  Harry E. Hull                      (b. 1864 - d. 1938)
27 Apr 1933 -  9 Aug 1933  Daniel W. MacCormack               (b. 1880 - d. 1937)
Commissioners of Naturalization
 4 Mar 1913 - 21 Dec 1922  Richard Campbell                   (b. 1853 - d. 1931)
 1 Jan 1923 -  9 Aug 1933  Raymond Crist                      (b. 1871 - d. 1944)
Commissioners of Immigration and Naturalization
10 Aug 1933 -  1 Jan 1937  Daniel W. MacCormack               (s.a.)
26 Aug 1937 - 31 Jul 1940  James L. Houghteling               (b. 1881 - d. 1962)
 1 Oct 1940 - 19 Jul 1942  Lemuel B. Schofield                (b. 1892 - d. 1955)
20 Jul 1942 - 20 Jul 1944  Earl G. Harrison                   (b. 1899 - d. 1955)
 9 Jan 1945 - 26 Aug 1947  Ugo Carusi                         (b. 1902 - d. 1994)
27 Aug 1947 -  9 Jun 1950  Watson B. Miller                   (b. 1878 - d. 1961)
23 Apr 1951 - 23 May 1954  Argyle R. Mackey                   (b. 1898? - d. 1968)
24 May 1954 -  5 Jan 1962  Joseph M. Swing                    (b. 1894 - d. 1984)
 5 Feb 1962 - 31 Mar 1973  Raymond F. Farrell                 (b. 1906 - d. 2000)
29 Nov 1973 - 12 May 1977  Leonard F. Chapman                 (b. 1913 - d. 2000)
13 May 1977 -  1 Oct 1979  Leonel J. Castillo                 (b. 1939)
22 Feb 1982 - 16 Jun 1989  Alan C. Nelson                     (b. 1933 - d. 1997)
26 Oct 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Gene McNary                        (b. 1935)
18 Oct 1993 - 17 Nov 2000  Doris Meissner (f)                 (b. 1941)
17 Nov 2000 -  6 Aug 2001  Mary Ann Wyrsch (f) (acting)
 6 Aug 2001 - 30 Nov 2002  James W. Ziglar                    (b. 1945)
 1 Dec 2002 -  1 Mar 2003  Michael Garcia (acting)

U.S. Representatives to the United Nations

Ambassadors
21 Dec 1945 -  3 Jun 1946  Edward Stettinius                  (b. 1900 - d. 1949)
 3 Jun 1946 - 13 Jan 1947  Herschel V. Johnson (acting)       (b. 1894 - d. 1966)
13 Jan 1947 - 22 Jan 1953  Warren R. Austin                   (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
23 Jan 1953 -  3 Sep 1960  Henry Cabot Lodge                  (b. 1902 - d. 1985)
 8 Sep 1960 - 21 Jan 1961  James J. Wadsworth                 (b. 1905 - d. 1984)
21 Jan 1961 - 14 Jul 1965  Adlai E. Stevenson                 (b. 1900 - d. 1965)
26 Jul 1965 - 14 May 1968  Arthur J. Goldberg                 (b. 1908 - d. 1990)
14 May 1968 -  4 Oct 1968  George W. Ball                     (b. 1909 - d. 1994)
 4 Oct 1968 - 20 Jan 1969  James Russell Wiggins              (b. 1903 - d. 2000)
22 Jan 1969 - 16 Feb 1971  Charles W. Yost                    (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
16 Feb 1971 - 18 Jan 1973  George Bush                        (b. 1924)
 3 Feb 1973 - 10 Jun 1975  John A. Scali                      (b. 1918 - d. 1995)
10 Jun 1975 -  2 Feb 1976  Daniel Patrick Moynihan            (b. 1927 - d. 2003)
15 Mar 1976 - 18 Jan 1977  William W. Scranton                (b. 1917 - d. 2013)
27 Jan 1977 - 23 Sep 1979  Andrew Young                       (b. 1927)
23 Sep 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Donald F. McHenry                  (b. 1936)
29 Jan 1981 -  1 Apr 1985  Jeane Kirkpatrick (f)              (b. 1926 - d. 2006)
17 May 1985 -  8 Mar 1989  Vernon A. Walters                  (b. 1917 - d. 2002)
 8 Mar 1989 -  6 Apr 1992  Thomas R. Pickering                (b. 1931)
 6 Apr 1992 - 27 Jan 1993  Edward J. Perkins                  (b. 1928)
27 Jan 1993 - 21 Jan 1997  Madeleine Albright (f)             (b. 1937)
13 Feb 1997 - 11 Sep 1998  Bill Richardson                    (b. 1947)
11 Sep 1998 - 25 Aug 1999  A. Peter Burleigh (acting)         (b. 1942)
25 Aug 1999 - 20 Jan 2001  Richard Holbrooke                  (b. 1941 - d. 2010)
20 Jan 2001 - 18 Sep 2001  James B. Cunningham (acting)       (b. 1952)
18 Sep 2001 - 25 Jun 2004  John Negroponte                    (b. 1939)
 1 Jul 2004 - 20 Jan 2005  John Danforth                      (b. 1936)
20 Jan 2005 -  1 Aug 2005  Anne W. Patterson (f) (acting)     (b. 1949)
 1 Aug 2005 -  9 Dec 2006  John Bolton                        (b. 1948)
 9 Dec 2006 - 23 Apr 2007  Alejandro D. Wolff (1st time)
                           (acting)
23 Apr 2007 - 20 Jan 2009  Zalmay Khalilzad                   (b. 1951)
20 Jan 2009 - 26 Jan 2009  Alejandro D. Wolff (2nd time)
                           (acting)
26 Jan 2009 - 26 Jun 2013  Susan Rice (f)                     (b. 1964)
26 Jun 2013 -  2 Aug 2013  Rosemary A. DiCarlo (f) (acting)
 2 Aug 2013 -              Samantha Power (f)                 (b. 1970)

Executive Office of the President

White House chiefs of staff

Assistants to the president
12 Dec 1946 - 20 Jan 1953  John R. Steelman                   (b. 1900 - d. 1999)
20 Jan 1953 -  7 Oct 1958  Sherman Adams                      (b. 1899 - d. 1986)
 7 Oct 1958 - 20 Jan 1961  Wilton B. Persons                  (b. 1896 - d. 1977)
Chiefs of staff
   Jan 1969 - 30 Apr 1973  H.R. Haldeman                      (b. 1926 - d. 1993)
 4 May 1973 -    Sep 1974  Alexander Haig                     (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
   Sep 1974 -    Nov 1975  Donald Rumsfeld                    (b. 1932)
   Nov 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Richard Cheney                     (b. 1941)
18 Jul 1979 -    Jun 1980  Hamilton Jordan                    (b. 1944 - d. 2008)
   Jun 1980 - 20 Jan 1981  Jack Watson                        (b. 1938)
20 Jan 1981 -  4 Feb 1985  James Baker (1st time)             (b. 1930)
 4 Feb 1985 - 27 Feb 1987  Donald Regan                       (b. 1918 - d. 2003)
27 Feb 1987 -  1 Jul 1988  Howard Baker                       (b. 1925 - d. 2014)
 1 Jul 1988 - 20 Jan 1989  Kenneth Duberstein                 (b. 1944)
20 Jan 1989 - 16 Dec 1991  John Sununu                        (b. 1939)
16 Dec 1991 - 23 Aug 1992  Samuel Skinner                     (b. 1938)
23 Aug 1992 - 20 Jan 1993  James Baker (2nd time)             (s.a.)
20 Jan 1993 - 27 Jun 1994  Mack McLarty                       (b. 1946)
27 Jun 1994 - 20 Jan 1997  Leon Panetta                       (b. 1938)
20 Jan 1997 - 30 Oct 1998  Erskine Bowles                     (b. 1946)
30 Oct 1998 - 20 Jan 2001  John Podesta                       (b. 1949)
20 Jan 2001 - 14 Apr 2006  Andrew H. Card, Jr.                (b. 1947)
14 Apr 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Joshua Bolten                      (b. 1954)
20 Jan 2009 -  1 Oct 2010  Rahm Emanuel                       (b. 1959)
 1 Oct 2010 - 13 Jan 2011  Pete Rouse                         (b. 1946)
13 Jan 2011 - 27 Jan 2012  William M. Daley                   (b. 1948)
27 Jan 2012 - 25 Jan 2013  Jack Lew                           (b. 1955)
25 Jan 2013 -              Denis McDonough                    (b. 1969)

National Security Advisors

23 Mar 1953                post of Assistant to the President for National Security
                           Affairs (National Security Advisor) created

National Security Advisors
23 Mar 1953 -  2 Apr 1955  Robert Cutler (1st time)           (b. 1895 - d. 1974)
 2 Apr 1955 -  1 Sep 1956  Dillon Anderson                    (b. 1906 - d. 1974)
 7 Jan 1957 - 24 Jun 1958  Robert Cutler (2nd time)           (s.a.)
24 Jun 1958 - 13 Jan 1961  Gordon Gray                        (b. 1909 - d. 1982)
20 Jan 1961 - 28 Feb 1966  McGeorge Bundy                     (b. 1919 - d. 1996)
 1 Apr 1966 - 20 Jan 1969  Walt W. Rostow                     (b. 1916 - d. 2003)
20 Jan 1969 -  3 Nov 1975  Henry Kissinger                    (b. 1923)
 3 Nov 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Brent Scowcroft (1st time)         (b. 1925)
20 Jan 1977 - 21 Jan 1981  Zbigniew Brzezinski                (b. 1928)
21 Jan 1981 -  4 Jan 1982  Richard V. Allen                   (b. 1936)
 4 Jan 1982 - 17 Oct 1983  William P. Clark                   (b. 1931 - d. 2013)
17 Oct 1983 -  4 Dec 1985  Robert C. McFarlane                (b. 1937)
 4 Dec 1985 - 25 Nov 1986  John M. Poindexter                 (b. 1936)
 2 Dec 1986 - 23 Nov 1987  Frank Carlucci                     (b. 1930)
23 Nov 1987 - 20 Jan 1989  Colin Powell                       (b. 1937)
20 Jan 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Brent Scowcroft (2nd time)         (s.a.)
20 Jan 1993 - 14 Mar 1997  Anthony Lake                       (b. 1939)
14 Mar 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Sandy Berger                       (b. 1945)
20 Jan 2001 - 26 Jan 2005  Condoleezza Rice (f)               (b. 1954)
26 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Stephen Hadley                     (b. 1947)
20 Jan 2009 - 21 Oct 2010  James L. Jones                     (b. 1943)
21 Oct 2010 - 30 Jun 2013  Thomas E. Donilon                  (b. 1955)
 1 Jul 2013 -              Susan Rice (f)                     (b. 1964)

U.S. Trade Representatives

11 Oct 1962                Special Representative for Trade Negotiations
15 Jan 1963                part of the Executive Office of the President
       1979                U.S. Trade Representative

Ambassadors
10 Dec 1962 - 30 Dec 1966  Christian A. Herter                (b. 1895 - d. 1966)
24 Mar 1967 - 20 Jan 1969  William Matson Roth                (b. 1916 - d. 2014)
 6 Aug 1969 - 21 Sep 1971  Carl J. Gilbert                    (b. 1906 - d. 1983)
12 Nov 1971 - 24 Dec 1974  William D. Eberle                  (b. 1923 - d. 2008)
26 Mar 1975 - 20 Jan 1977  Frederick B. Dent                  (b. 1922)
30 Mar 1977 - 17 Aug 1979  Robert S. Strauss                  (b. 1918 - d. 2014)
 1 Oct 1979 - 31 Dec 1980  Reubin Askew                       (b. 1928 - d. 2014)
23 Jan 1981 - 29 Apr 1985  William E. Brock                   (b. 1930)
 1 Jul 1985 - 20 Jan 1989  Clayton K. Yeutter                 (b. 1930)
 6 Feb 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  Carla A. Hills (f)                 (b. 1934)
22 Jan 1993 - 12 Apr 1996  Mickey Kantor                      (b. 1939)
12 Apr 1996 - 20 Jan 2001  Charlene Barshefsky (f)            (b. 1949)
                           (acting to 17 Mar 1997)
 7 Feb 2001 - 22 Feb 2005  Robert B. Zoellick                 (b. 1953)
22 Feb 2005 - 29 Apr 2005  Peter Allgeier (1st time) (acting) (b. 1947)
29 Apr 2005 -  2 Jun 2006  Rob Portman                        (b. 1955)
 9 Jun 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Susan Schwab (f)                   (b. 1955)
20 Jan 2009 - 18 Mar 2009  Peter Allgeier (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
18 Mar 2009 - 15 Mar 2013  Ron Kirk                           (b. 1954)
15 Mar 2013 - 23 May 2013  Demetrios Marantis (acting)        (b. 1968)
23 May 2013 - 21 Jun 2013  Miriam Sapiro (f) (acting)         (b. 1960)
21 Jun 2013 -              Michael Froman                     (b. 1962)

Independent agencies

Central Intelligence Agency

11 Jul 1941                Coordinator of Information (COI)
13 Jun 1942                Office of Strategic Services (OSS)
 1 Oct 1945                OSS disbanded
22 Jan 1946                Central Intelligence Group (CIG)
18 Sep 1947                Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Coordinator of Information (from 13 Jun 1942, Director of Strategic Services)
11 Jul 1941 -  1 Oct 1945  William J. Donovan                 (b. 1883 - d. 1959)
Directors of Central Intelligence (from 21 Apr 2005, directors of the CIA)
23 Jan 1946 - 10 Jun 1946  Sidney W. Souers                   (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
10 Jun 1946 -  1 May 1947  Hoyt S. Vandenberg                 (b. 1899 - d. 1954)
 1 May 1947 -  7 Oct 1950  Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter            (b. 1897 - d. 1982)
 7 Oct 1950 -  9 Feb 1953  Walter Bedell Smith                (b. 1895 - d. 1961)
 9 Feb 1953 - 29 Nov 1961  Allen W. Dulles                    (b. 1893 - d. 1969)
                           (acting to 26 Feb 1953)
29 Nov 1961 - 28 Apr 1965  John A. McCone                     (b. 1902 - d. 1991)
28 Apr 1965 - 30 Jun 1966  William F. Raborn, Jr.             (b. 1905 - d. 1990)
30 Jun 1966 -  2 Feb 1973  Richard Helms                      (b. 1913 - d. 2002)
 2 Feb 1973 -  2 Jul 1973  James R. Schlesinger               (b. 1929 - d. 2014)
 2 Jul 1973 -  4 Sep 1973  Vernon A. Walters (acting)         (b. 1917 - d. 2002)
 4 Sep 1973 - 30 Jan 1976  William E. Colby                   (b. 1920 - d. 1996)
30 Jan 1976 - 20 Jan 1977  George Bush                        (b. 1924)
20 Jan 1977 -  9 Mar 1977  E. Henry Knoche (acting)           (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
 9 Mar 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Stansfield Turner                  (b. 1923)
28 Jan 1981 - 29 Jan 1987  William J. Casey                   (b. 1913 - d. 1987)
29 Jan 1987 - 26 May 1987  Robert M. Gates (1st time)         (b. 1943)
                           (acting)
26 May 1987 - 31 Aug 1991  William H. Webster                 (b. 1924)
 1 Sep 1991 -  6 Nov 1991  Richard J. Kerr (acting)           (b. 1935)
 6 Nov 1991 - 20 Jan 1993  Robert M. Gates (2nd time)         (s.a.)
21 Jan 1993 -  5 Feb 1993  William O. Studeman (1st time)     (b. 1940)
                           (acting)
 5 Feb 1993 - 10 Jan 1995  James Woolsey                      (b. 1941)
11 Jan 1995 -  9 May 1995  William O. Studeman (2nd time)     (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 9 May 1995 - 15 Dec 1996  John Deutch                        (b. 1938)
15 Dec 1996 - 11 Jul 2004  George Tenet                       (b. 1953)
                           (acting to 11 Jul 1997)
11 Jul 2004 - 24 Sep 2004  John McLaughlin (acting)           (b. 1942)
24 Sep 2004 - 30 May 2006  Porter Goss                        (b. 1938)
30 May 2006 - 13 Feb 2009  Michael Hayden                     (b. 1945)
13 Feb 2009 -  1 Jul 2011  Leon Panetta                       (b. 1938)
 1 Jul 2011 -  6 Sep 2011  Michael Morell (1st time) (acting) (b. 1958)
 6 Sep 2011 -  9 Nov 2012  David Petraeus                     (b. 1952)
 9 Nov 2012 -  8 Mar 2013  Michael Morell (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
 8 Mar 2013 -              John Brennan                       (b. 1955)

Office of the Director of National Intelligence

Directors of National Intelligence
21 Apr 2005 - 20 Feb 2007  John Negroponte                    (b. 1939)
20 Feb 2007 - 27 Jan 2009  Michael McConnell                  (b. 1943)
27 Jan 2009 - 29 Jan 2009  Ronald L. Burgess, Jr. (acting)    (b. 1952)
29 Jan 2009 - 28 May 2010  Dennis C. Blair                    (b. 1947)
28 May 2010 -  9 Aug 2010  David C. Gompert (acting)
 9 Aug 2010 -              James R. Clapper                   (b. 1941)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

 1 Oct 1958                National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
                           established

Administrators
 1 Oct 1958 - 20 Jan 1961  T. Keith Glennan                   (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
20 Jan 1961 - 14 Feb 1961  Hugh L. Dryden (acting)            (b. 1898 - d. 1965)
14 Feb 1961 -  7 Oct 1968  James E. Webb                      (b. 1906 - d. 1992)
 7 Oct 1968 - 15 Sep 1970  Thomas O. Paine                    (b. 1921 - d. 1992)
                           (acting to 21 Mar 1969)
15 Sep 1970 - 27 Apr 1971  George M. Low (acting)             (b. 1926 - d. 1984)
27 Apr 1971 -  1 May 1977  James C. Fletcher (1st time)       (b. 1919 - d. 1991)
 1 May 1977 - 21 Jun 1977  Alan M. Lovelace (1st time)        (b. 1929)
                           (acting)
21 Jun 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Robert A. Frosch                   (b. 1928)
20 Jan 1981 - 10 Jul 1981  Alan M. Lovelace (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (acting)
10 Jul 1981 -  4 Dec 1985  James M. Beggs                     (b. 1926)
 4 Dec 1985 - 12 May 1986  William R. Graham (acting)         (b. 1937)
12 May 1986 -  8 Apr 1989  James C. Fletcher (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 8 Apr 1989 - 13 May 1989  Dale D. Myers (acting)             (b. 1922)
14 May 1989 - 31 Mar 1992  Richard H. Truly                   (b. 1937)
 1 Apr 1992 - 17 Nov 2001  Daniel S. Goldin                   (b. 1940)
19 Nov 2001 - 21 Dec 2001  Daniel R. Mulville (acting)
21 Dec 2001 - 18 Feb 2005  Sean O'Keefe                       (b. 1956)
18 Feb 2005 - 14 Apr 2005  Frederick D. Gregory (acting)      (b. 1941)
14 Apr 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Michael Griffin                    (b. 1949)
20 Jan 2009 - 17 Jul 2009  Christopher Scolese (acting)
17 Jul 2009 -              Charles Bolden                     (b. 1946)

Federal Reserve System

23 Dec 1913                Federal Reserve System created

Governors (from 23 Aug 1935, chairmen of the Board of Governors)
10 Aug 1914 -  9 Aug 1916  Charles S. Hamlin                  (b. 1861 - d. 1938)
10 Aug 1916 -  9 Aug 1922  W.P.G. Harding                     (b. 1864 - d. 1930)
 1 May 1923 - 15 Sep 1927  Daniel R. Crissinger               (b. 1860 - d. 1942)
 4 Oct 1927 - 31 Aug 1930  Roy A. Young                       (b. 1882 - d. 1960)
16 Sep 1930 - 10 May 1933  Eugene Meyer                       (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
19 May 1933 - 15 Aug 1934  Eugene R. Black                    (b. 1873 - d. 1934)
15 Nov 1934 - 15 Apr 1948  Marriner S. Eccles                 (b. 1890 - d. 1977)
15 Apr 1948 - 31 Mar 1951  Thomas B. McCabe                   (b. 1893 - d. 1982)
 2 Apr 1951 - 31 Jan 1970  William M. Martin                  (b. 1906 - d. 1998)
 1 Feb 1970 - 31 Jan 1978  Arthur F. Burns                    (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
 8 Mar 1978 -  6 Aug 1979  G. William Miller                  (b. 1925 - d. 2006)
 6 Aug 1979 - 11 Aug 1987  Paul A. Volcker                    (b. 1927)
11 Aug 1987 - 31 Jan 2006  Alan Greenspan                     (b. 1926)
 1 Feb 2006 - 31 Jan 2014  Ben Bernanke                       (b. 1953)
 1 Feb 2014 -              Janet Yellen (f)                   (b. 1946)

Environmental Protection Agency

 2 Dec 1970                Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established

Administrators
 4 Dec 1970 - 30 Apr 1973  William D. Ruckelshaus (1st time)  (b. 1932)
30 Apr 1973 - 12 Sep 1973  Robert W. Fri (acting)             (b. 1935)
13 Sep 1973 - 20 Jan 1977  Russell E. Train                   (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
21 Jan 1977 -  6 Mar 1977  John R. Quarles, Jr. (acting)      (b. 1935 - d. 2012)
 7 Mar 1977 - 20 Jan 1981  Douglas M. Costle                  (b. 1939)
21 Jan 1981 - 25 Jan 1981  Steve Jellinek (acting)
26 Jan 1981 - 19 May 1981  Walter Barber, Jr. (acting)
20 May 1981 -  9 Mar 1983  Anne M. Gorsuch (f)                (b. 1942 - d. 2004)
10 Mar 1983 - 17 May 1983  Lee Verstandig (acting)            (b. 1937)
18 May 1983 -  4 Jan 1985  William D. Ruckelshaus (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 4 Jan 1985 - 20 Jan 1989  Lee M. Thomas                      (b. 1944)
                           (acting to 8 Feb 1985)
21 Jan 1989 -  5 Feb 1989  John Moore (acting)
 6 Feb 1989 - 20 Jan 1993  William K. Reilly                  (b. 1940)
22 Jan 1993 - 20 Jan 2001  Carol M. Browner (f)               (b. 1955)
20 Jan 2001 - 31 Jan 2001  W. Michael McCabe (acting)         (b. 1952)
31 Jan 2001 - 27 Jun 2003  Christine Todd Whitman (f)         (b. 1946)
28 Jun 2003 - 11 Jul 2003  Linda J. Fisher (f) (acting)       (b. 1952)
12 Jul 2003 -  6 Nov 2003  Marianne Lamont Horinko (f)        (b. 1961)
                           (acting)
 6 Nov 2003 - 26 Jan 2005  Mike Leavitt                       (b. 1951)
26 Jan 2005 - 20 Jan 2009  Stephen L. Johnson                 (b. 1951)
                           (acting to 2 May 2005)
26 Jan 2009 - 14 Feb 2013  Lisa P. Jackson (f)                (b. 1962)
15 Feb 2013 - 19 Jul 2013  Bob Perciasepe (acting)            (b. 1951)
19 Jul 2013 -              Gina McCarthy (f)                  (b. 1954?)

Peace Corps

Directors
22 Mar 1961 - 28 Feb 1966  R. Sargent Shriver                 (b. 1915 - d. 2011)
 1 Mar 1966 - 30 Apr 1969  Jack H. Vaughn                     (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
 1 May 1969 -  1 Jul 1971  Joseph H. Blatchford               (b. 1934)
 1 Jul 1971 - 11 Aug 1972  Kevin O'Donnell                    (b. 1925 - d. 2012)
11 Aug 1972 - 30 Sep 1973  Donald K. Hess                     (b. 1930)
 1 Oct 1973 -  1 Sep 1974  Nicholas W. Craw                   (b. 1936)
28 Apr 1975 - 13 May 1977  John R. Dellenback                 (b. 1918 - d. 2002)
11 Oct 1977 - 18 Dec 1978  Carolyn R. Payton (f)              (b. 1925 - d. 2001)
27 Apr 1979 - 20 Jan 1981  Richard F. Celeste                 (b. 1937)
 6 May 1981 - 20 Apr 1989  Loret Miller Ruppe (f)             (b. 1936 - d. 1996)
20 Apr 1989 -  1 Oct 1991  Paul D. Coverdell                  (b. 1939 - d. 2000)
 8 Oct 1991 - 13 Nov 1992  Elaine Chao (f)                    (b. 1953)
13 Nov 1992 -  7 Oct 1993  Jack Hogan (acting)
 7 Oct 1993 -  1 May 1995  Carol Bellamy (f)                  (b. 1942)
 1 May 1995 - 11 Aug 1995  Charles R. Baquet III (1st time)   (b. 1941)
                           (acting)
11 Aug 1995 - 11 Aug 1999  Mark D. Gearan                     (b. 1956)
11 Aug 1999 - 23 Dec 1999  Charles R. Baquet III (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
23 Dec 1999 - 20 Jan 2001  Mark L. Schneider                  (b. 1941)
20 Jan 2001 - 15 Feb 2002  Charles R. Baquet III (3rd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
15 Feb 2002 - 26 Sep 2006  Gaddi H. Vasquez                   (b. 1955)
26 Sep 2006 - 20 Jan 2009  Ronald Tschetter                   (b. 1941)
20 Jan 2009 - 24 Aug 2009  Jody K. Olsen (f) (acting)
24 Aug 2009 - 17 Sep 2012  Aaron S. Williams                  (b. 1947)
17 Sep 2012 -              Carrie Hessler-Radelet (f)
                           (acting)

National Endowment for the Arts

Chairmen
29 Sep 1965 - 11 Mar 1969  Roger L. Stevens                   (b. 1910 - d. 1998)
 6 Oct 1969 -  2 Oct 1977  Nancy Hanks (f)                    (b. 1927 - d. 1983)
 7 Nov 1977 -    Nov 1981  Livingston L. Biddle, Jr.          (b. 1918 - d. 2002)
   Nov 1981 -    Feb 1989  Frank Hodsoll                      (b. 1938)
   Feb 1989 -    Jul 1989  Hugh Southern (acting)             (b. 1932)
   Jul 1989 -  1 May 1992  John E. Frohnmayer                 (b. 1942)
 1 May 1992 -    Oct 1993  Anne-Imelda Radice (f) (acting)    (b. 1948)
   Oct 1993 -    Oct 1997  Jane Alexander (f)                 (b. 1939)
   Oct 1997 - 28 May 1998  Scott Shanklin-Peterson (acting)
28 May 1998 - 30 Sep 2001  Bill Ivey                          (b. 1944)
 1 Oct 2001 - 22 Jan 2002  Robert Sidney Martin (acting)
22 Jan 2002 - 29 Jan 2002  Michael Hammond                    (b. 1932 - d. 2002)
30 Jan 2002 - 13 Feb 2003  Eileen Mason (f) (acting)          (b. 1943)
13 Feb 2003 - 22 Jan 2009  Dana Gioia                         (b. 1950)
29 Jan 2009 - 11 Aug 2009  Patrice Walker Powell (f) (acting)
11 Aug 2009 - 26 Dec 2012  Rocco Landesman                    (b. 1947)
26 Dec 2012 - 19 Jun 2014  Joan Shigekawa (f) (acting)        (b. 1937?)
19 Jun 2014 -              Jane Chu (f)                       (b. 1958?)

Tennessee Valley Authority

Chairmen
 1 Jun 1933 - 23 Mar 1938  Arthur E. Morgan                   (b. 1878 - d. 1975)
23 Mar 1938 - 15 Sep 1941  Harcourt A. Morgan                 (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
15 Sep 1941 - 28 Oct 1946  David E. Lilienthal                (b. 1899 - d. 1981)
 4 Nov 1946 - 18 May 1954  Gordon R. Clapp                    (b. 1905 - d. 1963)
 1 Sep 1954 - 30 Jun 1962  Herbert D. Vogel                   (b. 1900 - d. 1984)
 1 Jul 1962 - 18 May 1978  Aubrey J. Wagner                   (b. 1912 - d. 1990)
19 May 1978 - 22 Jun 1981  S. David Freeman                   (b. 1926)
22 Jun 1981 - 25 Jan 1988  Charles Dean                       (b. 1925 - d. 1995)
25 Jan 1988 -  6 Jul 1992  Marvin T. Runyon                   (b. 1924 - d. 2004)
 6 Jul 1992 - 18 May 1993  John B. Waters, Jr.                (b. 1929)
14 Jul 1993 - 16 Apr 2001  Craven Crowell                     (b. 1943)
23 Jul 2001 - 18 May 2005  Glenn L. McCullough, Jr.           (b. 1954)
   Jun 2005 - 31 Mar 2006  Bill Baxter                        (b. 1953?)
31 Mar 2006 - 18 May 2009  Bill Sansom (1st time)
18 May 2009 - 18 May 2010  Mike Duncan                        (b. 1951)
18 May 2010 -    Jan 2012  Dennis C. Bottorff                 (b. 1944)
   Jan 2012 - 18 May 2014  Bill Sansom (2nd time)
19 May 2014 -              Joe H. Ritch                       (b. 1951)

Chief executive officers 31 Mar 2006 - 31 Dec 2012 Tom Kilgore (b. 194...) (acting to 13 Oct 2006) 1 Jan 2013 - William D. Johnson (b. 1954)

American Battle Monuments Commission

Chairmen
       1923 - 15 Jul 1948  John J. Pershing                   (b. 1860 - d. 1948)
       1949 - 16 Oct 1959  George C. Marshall                 (b. 1880 - d. 1959)
       1960 -        1969  Jacob L. Devers                    (b. 1887 - d. 1979)
       1969 - 17 Apr 1984  Mark W. Clark                      (b. 1896 - d. 1984)
       1985 -        1990  Andrew J. Goodpaster               (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
       1991 -        1994  Paul X. Kelley (1st time)          (b. 1928)
       1994 -    Aug 2001  Fred F. Woerner                    (b. 1933)
   Aug 2001 -    Jan 2005  Paul X. Kelley (2nd time)          (s.a.)
   Jan 2005 -    Jan 2009  Frederick M. Franks, Jr.           (b. 1936)
   Jan 2009 -    Jun 2009  John W. Nicholson (secretary)
   Jun 2009 -    Jun 2011  Max Cleland (secretary)            (b. 1942)
   Jun 2011 -              Merrill A. McPeak                  (b. 1936)

Social Security Administration

23 Aug 1935                Social Security Board
16 Jul 1946                Social Security Administration

Chairmen
23 Aug 1935 - 19 Feb 1937  John G. Winant                     (b. 1889 - d. 1947)
19 Feb 1937 - 16 Jul 1946  Arthur J. Altmeyer                 (b. 1891 - d. 1972)
Commissioners
16 Jul 1946 - 10 Apr 1953  Arthur J. Altmeyer                 (s.a.)
11 Apr 1953 - 23 Nov 1953  William L. Mitchell (1st time)     (b. 1900 - d. 1983)
                           (acting)
24 Nov 1953 - 31 Jul 1954  John W. Tramburg                   (b. 1913 - d. 1963)
23 Aug 1954 - 31 Dec 1958  Charles I. Schottland              (b. 1906 - d. 1995)
 4 Feb 1959 -  3 Apr 1962  William L. Mitchell (2nd time)     (s.a.)
17 Apr 1962 - 17 Mar 1973  Robert M. Ball                     (b. 1914 - d. 2008)
18 Mar 1973 - 24 Oct 1973  Arthur E. Hess (acting)            (b. 1916 - d. 2005)
25 Oct 1973 - 12 Dec 1977  James B. Cardwell                  (b. 1922 - d. 2012)
13 Dec 1977 -  4 Oct 1978  Don I. Wortman (acting)
 5 Oct 1978 - 31 Dec 1979  Stanford G. Ross                   (b. 1931)
 1 Jan 1980 -  2 Jan 1980  Herbert R. Doggette, Jr.
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1933)
 3 Jan 1980 - 19 Jan 1981  William J. Driver                  (b. 1918 - d. 1985)
20 Jan 1981 -  5 May 1981  Herbert R. Doggette, Jr.
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 6 May 1981 - 12 Sep 1983  John A. Svahn                      (b. 1943)
14 Sep 1983 - 25 Jun 1986  Martha A. McSteen (f) (acting)     (b. 1923)
26 Jun 1986 - 31 Jul 1989  Dorcas R. Hardy (f)                (b. 1946)
 1 Aug 1989 - 30 Sep 1992  Gwendolyn S. King (f)              (b. 1941)
 1 Oct 1992 - 18 Jul 1993  Louis D. Enoff (acting)            (b. 1942)
19 Jul 1993 -  7 Oct 1993  Lawrence H. Thompson (acting)      (b. 1943)
 8 Oct 1993 - 28 Feb 1997  Shirley S. Chater (f)
 1 Mar 1997 - 28 Sep 1997  John J. Callahan (acting)          (b. 1944)
29 Sep 1997 - 20 Jan 2001  Kenneth S. Apfel                   (b. 1948)
21 Jan 2001 - 28 Mar 2001  William Halter (acting)
29 Mar 2001 -  9 Nov 2001  Larry G. Massanari (acting)
 9 Nov 2001 - 12 Feb 2007  Jo Anne B. Barnhart (f)            (b. 1950)
12 Feb 2007 - 14 Feb 2013  Michael J. Astrue                  (b. 1956)
14 Feb 2013 -              Carolyn W. Colvin (f) (acting)     (b. 1942)

National Archives and Records Administration

       1884                American Historical Association founded
       1934                National Archives Establishment set up
       1949                National Archives and Records Service
 1 Apr 1985                National Archives and Records Administration

Presidents of the American Historical Association
       1884 -        1885  Andrew D. White                    (b. 1832 - d. 1918)
       1885 -        1886  George Bancroft                    (b. 1800 - d. 1891)
       1886 -        1887  Justin Winsor                      (b. 1831 - d. 1897)
       1887 -        1888  William F. Poole                   (b. 1821 - d. 1894)
       1889                Charles Kendall Adams              (b. 1835 - d. 1902)
       1890                John Jay                           (b. 1817 - d. 1894)
       1891                William W. Henry                   (b. 1831 - d. 1900)
       1892                James B. Angell                    (b. 1829 - d. 1916)
       1893 -        1894  Henry Adams                        (b. 1838 - d. 1918)
       1895                George F. Hoar                     (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
       1896                Richard S. Storrs                  (b. 1821 - d. 1900)
       1897                James Schouler                     (b. 1839 - d. 1920)
       1898                George P. Fisher                   (b. 1827 - d. 1909)
       1899                James F. Rhodes                    (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
       1900                Edward Eggleston                   (b. 1837 - d. 1902)
       1901                Charles Francis Adams              (b. 1835 - d. 1915)
       1902                Alfred T. Mahan                    (b. 1840 - d. 1914)
       1903                Henry C. Lea                       (b. 1825 - d. 1909)
       1904                Goldwin Smith                      (b. 1823 - d. 1910)
       1905                John B. McMaster                   (b. 1852 - d. 1932)
       1906                Simeon E. Baldwin                  (b. 1840 - d. 1927)
       1907                John F. Jameson                    (b. 1859 - d. 1937)
       1908                George Burton Adams                (b. 1851 - d. 1925)
       1909                Albert B. Hart                     (b. 1854 - d. 1943)
       1910                Frederick J. Turner                (b. 1861 - d. 1932)
       1911                William M. Sloane                  (b. 1850 - d. 1928)
       1912                Theodore Roosevelt                 (b. 1858 - d. 1919)
       1913                William A. Dunning                 (b. 1857 - d. 1922)
       1914                Andrew C. McLaughlin               (b. 1861 - d. 1947)
       1915                H. Morse Stephens                  (b. 1857 - d. 1919)
       1916                George L. Burr                     (b. 1857 - d. 1938)
       1917                Worthington C. Ford                (b. 1858 - d. 1941)
       1918 -        1919  William R. Thayer                  (b. 1859 - d. 1923)
       1920                Edward Channing                    (b. 1856 - d. 1931)
       1921                Jean J. Jusserand                  (b. 1855 - d. 1932)
       1922                Charles H. Haskins                 (b. 1870 - d. 1937)
       1923                Edward P. Cheyney                  (b. 1861 - d. 1947)
       1924 -  3 Feb 1924  Woodrow Wilson                     (b. 1856 - d. 1924)
       1924 -        1925  Charles M. Andrews                 (b. 1863 - d. 1943)
       1926                Dana C. Munro                      (b. 1866 - d. 1933)
       1927                Henry O. Taylor                    (b. 1856 - d. 1941)
       1928                James H. Breasted                  (b. 1865 - d. 1935)
       1929                James H. Robinson                  (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
       1930                Evarts B. Greene                   (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
       1931                Carl L. Becker                     (b. 1873 - d. 1945)
       1932                Herbert E. Bolton                  (b. 1870 - d. 1953)
       1933                Charles A. Beard                   (b. 1874 - d. 1948)
       1934                William E. Dodd                    (b. 1869 - d. 1940)
Archivists of the United States
10 Oct 1934 - 15 Sep 1941  R.D.W. Connor                      (b. 1878 - d. 1950)
18 Sep 1941 - 31 May 1948  Solon J. Buck                      (b. 1884 - d. 1962)
 2 Jun 1948 -  6 Nov 1965  Wayne Grover                       (b. 1906 - d. 1970)
 7 Nov 1965 -  9 Mar 1968  Robert H. Bahmer                   (b. 1904 - d. 1990)
                           (acting to 16 Jan 1966)
10 Mar 1968 -        1979  James B. Rhoads                    (b. 1928)
                           (acting to 2 May 1968)
       1979 -    Jul 1980  James O'Neill (acting)
   Jul 1980 - 15 Apr 1985  Robert M. Warner                   (b. 1927 - d. 2007)
16 Apr 1985 -  4 Dec 1987  Frank G. Burke (acting)            (b. 1927)
 4 Dec 1987 - 24 Mar 1993  Don Wilson                         (b. 1942)
25 Mar 1993 - 29 May 1995  Trudy Huskamp Peterson (f)         (b. 1945)
                           (acting)
30 May 1995 - 15 Feb 2005  John W. Carlin                     (b. 1940)
16 Feb 2005 - 19 Dec 2008  Allen Weinstein                    (b. 1937)
19 Dec 2008 - 13 Nov 2009  Adrienne Thomas (f) (acting)
13 Nov 2009 -              David Ferriero                     (b. 1945)

Smithsonian Institution

       1846                Smithsonian Institution established

Chancellors
       1846 -              the chief justices of the U.S.
Secretaries
       1846 - 13 May 1878  Joseph Henry                       (b. 1797 - d. 1878)
       1878 - 19 Aug 1887  Spencer F. Baird                   (b. 1823 - d. 1887)
       1887 - 27 Feb 1906  Samuel P. Langley                  (b. 1834 - d. 1906)
       1907 -  9 Feb 1927  Charles D. Walcott                 (b. 1850 - d. 1927)
       1928 - 29 Jun 1944  Charles G. Abbot                   (b. 1872 - d. 1973)
       1945 -    Dec 1952  Alexander Wetmore                  (b. 1886 - d. 1978)
 2 Jan 1953 - 31 Jan 1964  Leonard B. Carmichael              (b. 1898 - d. 1973)
 1 Feb 1964 -    Sep 1984  S. Dillon Ripley                   (b. 1913 - d. 2001)
17 Sep 1984 -        1994  Robert McCormick Adams             (b. 1926)
19 Sep 1994 -    Dec 1999  I. Michael Heyman                  (b. 1930 - d. 2011)
24 Jan 2000 - 26 Mar 2007  Lawrence M. Small                  (b. 1941)
26 Mar 2007 -  1 Jul 2008  Cristián Samper (acting)           (b. 1965)
 1 Jul 2008 -              G. Wayne Clough                    (b. 1941)

Supreme Court

       1789                Supreme Court of the United States established

Chief justices
26 Sep 1789 - 29 Jun 1795  John Jay                           (b. 1745 - d. 1829)
12 Aug 1795 - 15 Dec 1795  John Rutledge (acting)             (b. 1739 - d. 1800)
 8 Mar 1796 - 15 Dec 1800  Oliver Ellsworth                   (b. 1745 - d. 1807)
 4 Feb 1801 -  6 Jul 1835  John Marshall                      (b. 1755 - d. 1835)
28 Mar 1836 - 12 Oct 1864  Roger B. Taney                     (b. 1777 - d. 1864)
15 Dec 1864 -  7 May 1873  Salmon P. Chase                    (b. 1808 - d. 1873)
 4 Mar 1874 - 23 Mar 1888  Morrison R. Waite                  (b. 1816 - d. 1888)
 8 Oct 1888 -  4 Jul 1910  Melville W. Fuller                 (b. 1833 - d. 1910)
19 Dec 1910 - 19 May 1921  Edward D. White                    (b. 1845 - d. 1921)
11 Jul 1921 -  3 Feb 1930  William Howard Taft                (b. 1857 - d. 1930)
24 Feb 1930 - 30 Jun 1941  Charles Evans Hughes               (b. 1862 - d. 1948)
 3 Jul 1941 - 22 Apr 1946  Harlan Fiske Stone                 (b. 1872 - d. 1946)
24 Jun 1946 -  8 Sep 1953  Fred M. Vinson                     (b. 1890 - d. 1953)
 5 Oct 1953 - 23 Jun 1969  Earl Warren                        (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
23 Jun 1969 - 26 Sep 1986  Warren E. Burger                   (b. 1907 - d. 1995)
26 Sep 1986 -  3 Sep 2005  William H. Rehnquist               (b. 1924 - d. 2005)
29 Sep 2005 -              John G. Roberts, Jr.               (b. 1955)

Congress

Senate

Presidents pro tempore ("pro tem") of the Senate¹
 3 Apr 1890 -  2 Mar 1891  John J. Ingalls               Rep  (b. 1833 - d. 1900)
 2 Mar 1891 - 22 Mar 1893  Charles F. Manderson          Rep  (b. 1837 - d. 1911)
22 Mar 1893 -  7 Jan 1895  Isham Harris (1st time)       Dem  (b. 1818 - d. 1897)
 7 Jan 1895 - 10 Jan 1895  Matt Ransom                   Dem  (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
10 Jan 1895 -  3 Mar 1895  Isham Harris (2nd time)       Dem  (s.a.)
 7 Feb 1896 - 27 Apr 1911  William P. Frye               Rep  (b. 1830 - d. 1911)
14 Aug 1911                Augustus O. Bacon (1st time)  Dem  (b. 1839 - d. 1914)
 4 Dec 1911 - 12 Dec 1911  Charles Curtis                Rep  (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
15 Jan 1912 - 17 Jan 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (2nd time)  Dem  (s.a.)
12 Feb 1912 - 14 Feb 1912  Jacob H. Gallinger (1st time) Rep  (b. 1837 - d. 1918)
11 Mar 1912 - 12 Mar 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (3rd time)  Dem  (s.a.)
25 Mar 1912 - 26 Mar 1912  Henry Cabot Lodge             Rep  (b. 1850 - d. 1924)
 8 Apr 1912                Augustus O. Bacon (4th time)  Dem  (s.a.)
26 Apr 1912 -  7 May 1912  Jacob H. Gallinger (2nd time) Rep  (s.a.)
10 May 1912                Augustus O. Bacon (5th time)  Dem  (s.a.)
25 May 1912                Frank B. Brandegee            Rep  (b. 1864 - d. 1924)
30 May 1912 -  5 Jul 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (6th time)  Dem  (s.a.)
 6 Jul 1912 - 31 Jul 1912  Jacob H. Gallinger (3rd time) Rep  (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1912 - 10 Aug 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (7th time)  Dem  (s.a.)
12 Aug 1912 - 26 Aug 1912  Jacob H. Gallinger (4th time) Rep  (s.a.)
27 Aug 1912 - 15 Dec 1912  Augustus O. Bacon (8th time)  Dem  (s.a.)
16 Dec 1912 -  4 Jan 1913  Jacob H. Gallinger (5th time) Rep  (s.a.)
 5 Jan 1913 - 18 Jan 1913  Augustus O. Bacon (9th time)  Dem  (s.a.)
19 Jan 1913 -  1 Feb 1913  Jacob H. Gallinger (6th time) Rep  (s.a.)
 2 Feb 1913 - 15 Feb 1913  Augustus O. Bacon (10th time) Dem  (s.a.)
16 Feb 1913 -  3 Mar 1913  Jacob H. Gallinger (7th time) Rep  (s.a.)
13 Mar 1913 -  1 Oct 1916  James P. Clarke               Dem  (b. 1854 - d. 1916)
14 Dec 1916 -  3 Mar 1919  Willard Saulsbury, Jr.        Dem  (b. 1861 - d. 1927)
19 May 1919 -  6 Mar 1925  Albert B. Cummins             Rep  (b. 1850 - d. 1926)
 6 Mar 1925 -  3 Mar 1933  George H. Moses               Rep  (b. 1869 - d. 1944)
 9 Mar 1933 - 10 Nov 1940  Key Pittman                   Dem  (b. 1872 - d. 1940)
19 Nov 1940 -  3 Jan 1941  William H. King               Dem  (b. 1863 - d. 1949)
 6 Jan 1941 - 22 Jun 1941  Pat Harrison                  Dem  (b. 1881 - d. 1941)
10 Jul 1941 -  3 Jan 1945  Carter Glass                  Dem  (b. 1858 - d. 1946)
 6 Jan 1945 -  3 Jan 1947  Kenneth McKellar (1st time)   Dem  (b. 1869 - d. 1957)
 4 Jan 1947 -  3 Jan 1949  Arthur H. Vandenberg          Rep  (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
 3 Jan 1949 -  3 Jan 1953  Kenneth McKellar (2nd time)   Dem  (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1953 -  3 Jan 1955  Styles Bridges                Rep  (b. 1898 - d. 1961)
 5 Jan 1955 -  3 Jan 1957  Walter F. George              Dem  (b. 1878 - d. 1957)
 3 Jan 1957 -  3 Jan 1969  Carl Hayden                   Dem  (b. 1877 - d. 1972)
 3 Jan 1969 - 21 Jan 1971  Richard B. Russell            Dem  (b. 1897 - d. 1971)
22 Jan 1971 - 27 Jul 1972  Allen J. Ellender             Dem  (b. 1890 - d. 1972)
28 Jul 1972 - 27 Dec 1978  James O. Eastland             Dem  (b. 1904 - d. 1986)
15 Jan 1979 -  5 Dec 1980  Warren G. Magnuson (1st time) Dem  (b. 1905 - d. 1989)
 5 Dec 1980 -  6 Dec 1980  Milton Young                  Rep  (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
 6 Dec 1980 -  3 Jan 1981  Warren G. Magnuson (2nd time) Dem  (s.a.)
 5 Jan 1981 -  3 Jan 1987  Strom Thurmond (1st time)     Rep  (b. 1902 - d. 2003)
 6 Jan 1987 -  3 Jan 1989  John C. Stennis               Dem  (b. 1901 - d. 1995)
 3 Jan 1989 -  3 Jan 1995  Robert C. Byrd (1st time)     Dem  (b. 1917 - d. 2010)
 4 Jan 1995 -  3 Jan 2001  Strom Thurmond (2nd time)     Rep  (s.a.)
 3 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2001  Robert C. Byrd (2nd time)     Dem  (s.a.)
20 Jan 2001 -  6 Jun 2001  Strom Thurmond (3rd time)     Rep  (s.a.)
 6 Jun 2001 -  3 Jan 2003  Robert C. Byrd (3rd time)     Dem  (s.a.)
 7 Jan 2003 -  3 Jan 2007  Ted Stevens                   Rep  (b. 1923 - d. 2010)
 4 Jan 2007 - 28 Jun 2010  Robert C. Byrd (4th time)     Dem  (s.a.)
28 Jun 2010 - 17 Dec 2012  Daniel Inouye                 Dem  (b. 1924 - d. 2012)
18 Dec 2012 -              Patrick Leahy                 Dem  (b. 1940)
¹The U.S. vice president formally serves as president of the Senate, but rarely presides over routine day-to-day debate. Until 1890, the Senate elected a president pro tempore whenever the vice president was not in attendance. When the vice president returned, the pro tempore lost his place, and when the vice president was again absent, the Senate again elected a president pro tempore. By the standing order agreed to on 12 Mar 1890, the Senate declared that the president pro tempore shall hold office during "the pleasure of the Senate and until another is elected, and shall execute the duties thereof during all future absences of the Vice President until the Senate does otherwise order."
Senate majority leaders
 5 Mar 1925 -  3 Mar 1929  Charles Curtis                Rep  (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
 5 Mar 1929 -  3 Mar 1933  James E. Watson               Rep  (b. 1864 - d. 1948)
 4 Mar 1933 - 14 Jul 1937  Joseph T. Robinson            Dem  (b. 1872 - d. 1937)
22 Jul 1937 -  3 Jan 1947  Alben W. Barkley              Dem  (b. 1877 - d. 1956)
 3 Jan 1947 -  3 Jan 1949  Wallace H. White, Jr.         Rep  (b. 1877 - d. 1952)
 3 Jan 1949 -  3 Jan 1951  Scott W. Lucas                Dem  (b. 1892 - d. 1968)
 3 Jan 1951 -  3 Jan 1953  Ernest W. McFarland           Dem  (b. 1894 - d. 1984)
 3 Jan 1953 - 31 Jul 1953  Robert A. Taft                Rep  (b. 1889 - d. 1953)
 4 Aug 1953 -  3 Jan 1955  William F. Knowland           Rep  (b. 1908 - d. 1974)
 3 Jan 1955 -  3 Jan 1961  Lyndon B. Johnson             Dem  (b. 1908 - d. 1973)
 3 Jan 1961 -  3 Jan 1977  Mike Mansfield                Dem  (b. 1903 - d. 2001)
 4 Jan 1977 -  3 Jan 1981  Robert C. Byrd (1st time)     Dem  (b. 1917 - d. 2010)
 3 Jan 1981 -  3 Jan 1985  Howard Baker                  Rep  (b. 1925 - d. 2014)
 3 Jan 1985 -  3 Jan 1987  Bob Dole (1st time)           Rep  (b. 1923)
 3 Jan 1987 -  3 Jan 1989  Robert C. Byrd (2nd time)     Dem  (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1989 -  3 Jan 1995  George J. Mitchell            Dem  (b. 1933)
 3 Jan 1995 - 11 Jun 1996  Bob Dole (2nd time)           Rep  (s.a.)
12 Jun 1996 -  3 Jan 2001  Trent Lott (1st time)         Rep  (b. 1941)
 3 Jan 2001 - 20 Jan 2001  Tom Daschle (1st time)        Dem  (b. 1947)
20 Jan 2001 -  6 Jun 2001  Trent Lott (2nd time)         Rep  (s.a.)
 6 Jun 2001 -  3 Jan 2003  Tom Daschle (2nd time)        Dem  (s.a.)
 7 Jan 2003 -  3 Jan 2007  Bill Frist                    Rep  (b. 1952)
 4 Jan 2007 -              Harry Reid                    Dem  (b. 1939)

House of Representatives

Speakers of the House of Representatives
 1 Apr 1789 -  3 Mar 1791  Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1750 - d. 1801)
24 Oct 1791 -  3 Mar 1793  Jonathan Trumbull                  (b. 1740 - d. 1809)
 2 Dec 1793 -  3 Mar 1795  Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 7 Dec 1795 -  3 Mar 1799  Jonathan Dayton                    (b. 1760 - d. 1824)
 2 Dec 1799 -  3 Mar 1801  Theodore Sedgwick                  (b. 1746 - d. 1813)
 7 Dec 1801 -  3 Mar 1807  Nathaniel Macon                    (b. 1758 - d. 1837)
26 Oct 1807 -  3 Mar 1811  Joseph B. Varnum                   (b. 1750 - d. 1821)
 4 Nov 1811 - 19 Jan 1814  Henry Clay (1st time)         Rep  (b. 1777 - d. 1852)
19 Jan 1814 -  3 Mar 1815  Langdon Cheves                Rep  (b. 1776 - d. 1857)
 4 Dec 1815 - 28 Oct 1820  Henry Clay (2nd time)         Rep  (s.a.)
15 Nov 1820 -  3 Mar 1821  John W. Taylor (1st time)     Rep  (b. 1784 - d. 1854)
 4 Dec 1821 -  3 Mar 1823  Philip P. Barbour             Rep  (b. 1783 - d. 1841)
 3 Dec 1823 -  6 Mar 1825  Henry Clay (3rd time)         Rep  (s.a.)
 5 Dec 1825 -  3 Mar 1827  John W. Taylor (2nd time)     Rep  (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1827 -  2 Jun 1834  Andrew Stevenson  7 Dec 1829: Jck  (b. 1784 - d. 1857)
 2 Jun 1834 -  3 Mar 1835  John Bell                          (b. 1797 - d. 1869)
 7 Dec 1835 -  3 Mar 1839  James K. Polk                 Jck  (b. 1795 - d. 1849)
16 Dec 1839 -  3 Mar 1841  Robert M.T. Hunter            Whg  (b. 1809 - d. 1887)
31 May 1841 -  3 Mar 1843  John White                    Whg  (b. 1802 - d. 1845)
 4 Dec 1843 -  3 Mar 1845  John W. Jones                 Dem  (b. 1791 - d. 1848)
 1 Dec 1845 -  3 Mar 1847  John W. Davis                 Dem  (b. 1799 - d. 1859)
 6 Dec 1847 -  3 Mar 1849  Robert C. Winthrop            Whg  (b. 1809 - d. 1894)
22 Dec 1849 -  3 Mar 1851  Howell Cobb                   Dem  (b. 1815 - d. 1868)
 1 Dec 1851 -  3 Mar 1855  Linn Boyd                     Dem  (b. 1800 - d. 1859)
 2 Feb 1856 -  3 Mar 1857  Nathaniel P. Banks            AP   (b. 1816 - d. 1894)
 7 Dec 1857 -  3 Mar 1859  James L. Orr                  Dem  (b. 1822 - d. 1873)
 1 Feb 1860 -  3 Mar 1861  William Pennington            Rep  (b. 1796 - d. 1862)
 4 Jul 1861 -  3 Mar 1863  Galusha A. Grow               Rep  (b. 1823 - d. 1907)
 7 Dec 1863 -  3 Mar 1869  Schuyler Colfax               Rep  (b. 1823 - d. 1885)
 3 Mar 1869                Theodore M. Pomeroy           Rep  (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
 4 Mar 1869 -  3 Mar 1875  James G. Blaine               Rep  (b. 1830 - d. 1893)
 6 Dec 1875 - 19 Aug 1876  Michael C. Kerr               Dem  (b. 1827 - d. 1876)
 4 Dec 1876 -  3 Mar 1881  Samuel J. Randall             Dem  (b. 1828 - d. 1890)
 5 Dec 1881 -  3 Mar 1883  J. Warren Keifer              Rep  (b. 1836 - d. 1932)
 3 Dec 1883 -  3 Mar 1889  John G. Carlisle              Dem  (b. 1835 - d. 1910)
 2 Dec 1889 -  3 Mar 1891  Thomas B. Reed (1st time)     Rep  (b. 1839 - d. 1902)
 7 Dec 1891 -  3 Mar 1895  Charles F. Crisp              Dem  (b. 1845 - d. 1896)
 2 Dec 1895 -  3 Mar 1899  Thomas B. Reed (2nd time)     Rep  (s.a.)
 4 Dec 1899 -  3 Mar 1903  David B. Henderson            Rep  (b. 1840 - d. 1906)
 9 Nov 1903 -  3 Mar 1911  Joseph G. Cannon              Rep  (b. 1836 - d. 1926)
 4 Apr 1911 -  3 Mar 1919  Champ Clark                   Dem  (b. 1850 - d. 1921)
19 May 1919 -  3 Mar 1925  Frederick H. Gillett          Rep  (b. 1851 - d. 1935)
 7 Dec 1925 -  3 Mar 1931  Nicholas Longworth            Rep  (b. 1869 - d. 1931)
 7 Dec 1931 -  3 Mar 1933  John N. Garner                Dem  (b. 1868 - d. 1967)
 9 Mar 1933 - 19 Aug 1934  Henry T. Rainey               Dem  (b. 1860 - d. 1934)
 3 Jan 1935 -  4 Jun 1936  Joseph W. Byrns               Dem  (b. 1869 - d. 1936)
 4 Jun 1936 - 15 Sep 1940  William B. Bankhead           Dem  (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
16 Sep 1940 -  3 Jan 1947  Sam Rayburn (1st time)        Dem  (b. 1882 - d. 1961)
 3 Jan 1947 -  3 Jan 1949  Joseph W. Martin, Jr.
                           (1st time)                    Rep  (b. 1884 - d. 1968)
 3 Jan 1949 -  3 Jan 1953  Sam Rayburn (2nd time)        Dem  (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1953 -  3 Jan 1955  Joseph W. Martin, Jr.
                           (2nd time)                    Rep  (s.a.)
 5 Jan 1955 - 16 Nov 1961  Sam Rayburn (3rd time)        Dem  (s.a.)
10 Jan 1962 -  3 Jan 1971  John W. McCormack             Dem  (b. 1891 - d. 1980)
21 Jan 1971 -  3 Jan 1977  Carl Albert                   Dem  (b. 1908 - d. 2000)
 4 Jan 1977 -  3 Jan 1987  Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr.        Dem  (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
 6 Jan 1987 -  6 Jun 1989  Jim Wright                    Dem  (b. 1922)
 6 Jun 1989 -  3 Jan 1995  Thomas S. Foley               Dem  (b. 1929 - d. 2013)
 4 Jan 1995 -  3 Jan 1999  Newt Gingrich                 Rep  (b. 1943)
 6 Jan 1999 -  3 Jan 2007  Dennis Hastert                Rep  (b. 1942)
 4 Jan 2007 -  3 Jan 2011  Nancy Pelosi (f)              Dem  (b. 1940)
 5 Jan 2011 -              John Boehner                  Rep  (b. 1949)
Party abbreviations: AP=American Party, Dem=Democratic, Jck=Jacksonian, Rep=Republican, Whg=Whig

Library of Congress

24 Apr 1800                Library of Congress created

Librarians of Congress
29 Jan 1802 -  8 Apr 1807  John J. Beckley                    (b. 1757 - d. 1807)
 7 Nov 1807 - 28 Jan 1815  Patrick Magruder                   (b. 1768 - d. 1819)
21 Mar 1815 - 28 May 1829  George Watterston                  (b. 1783 - d. 1854)
28 May 1829 - 24 May 1861  John Silva Meehan                  (b. 1790 - d. 1863)
24 May 1861 - 31 Dec 1864  John G. Stephenson                 (b. 1828 - d. 1882)
31 Dec 1864 - 30 Jun 1897  Ainsworth Rand Spofford            (b. 1825 - d. 1908)
30 Jun 1897 - 17 Jan 1899  John Russell Young                 (b. 1840 - d. 1899)
 5 Apr 1899 -  1 Oct 1939  Herbert Putnam                     (b. 1861 - d. 1955)
 2 Oct 1939 - 19 Dec 1944  Archibald MacLeish                 (b. 1892 - d. 1982)
30 Jun 1945 -  5 Jul 1953  Luther H. Evans                    (b. 1902 - d. 1981)
 1 Sep 1954 - 31 Dec 1974  L. Quincy Mumford                  (b. 1903 - d. 1982)
12 Nov 1975 -  4 Aug 1987  Daniel J. Boorstin                 (b. 1914 - d. 2004)
14 Sep 1987 -              James H. Billington                (b. 1929)

Government Accountability Office

       1921                General Accounting Office
 7 Jul 2004                renamed Government Accountability Office

Comptrollers General
 1 Jul 1921 - 30 Jun 1936  John R. McCarl                     (b. 1879 - d. 1940)
11 Apr 1939 - 19 Jun 1940  Fred H. Brown                      (b. 1879 - d. 1955)
 1 Nov 1940 - 30 Apr 1954  Lindsay C. Warren                  (b. 1889 - d. 1976)
14 Dec 1954 - 31 Jul 1965  Joseph Campbell                    (b. 1900 - d. 1984)
 8 Mar 1966 -  4 Mar 1981  Elmer B. Staats                    (b. 1914 - d. 2011)
   Sep 1981 -    Sep 1996  Charles A. Bowsher                 (b. 1931)
 9 Nov 1998 - 13 Mar 2008  David M. Walker                    (b. 1951)
13 Mar 2008 -              Gene L. Dodaro                     (b. 1951)
                           (acting to 22 Dec 2010)

Political parties

Democratic Party

Chairmen of the Democratic National Committee
       1848 -        1852  Benjamin F. Hallett                (b. 1797 - d. 1862)
       1852 -        1856  Robert M. McLane                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
       1856 -        1860  David A. Smalley                   (b. 1809 - d. 1877)
       1860 -        1872  August Belmont                     (b. 1816 - d. 1890)
       1872 -        1876  Augustus Schell                    (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
       1876 -        1877  Abram Stevens Hewitt               (b. 1822 - d. 1903)
       1877 -        1889  William H. Barnum                  (b. 1818 - d. 1889)
       1889 -        1892  Calvin Stewart Brice               (b. 1845 - d. 1898)
       1892 -        1896  William F. Harrity                 (b. 1850 - d. 1912)
       1896 -        1904  James K. Jones                     (b. 1839 - d. 1908)
       1904 -        1908  Thomas Taggart                     (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
       1908 -        1912  Norman E. Mack                     (b. 1858 - d. 1932)
       1912 -        1914  William F. McCombs                 (b. 1875 - d. 1921)
       1914 -        1916  Homer S. Cummings                  (b. 1870 - d. 1956)
       1916 -        1919  Vance C. McCormick                 (b. 1872 - d. 1946)
       1920 -        1921  George White                       (b. 1872 - d. 1953)
       1921 -        1924  Cordell Hull                       (b. 1871 - d. 1955)
       1924 -        1928  Clem L. Shaver                     (b. 1867 - d. 1954)
       1928 -        1932  John J. Raskob                     (b. 1879 - d. 1950)
       1932 -        1940  James A. Farley                    (b. 1888 - d. 1976)
       1940 -        1943  Edward J. Flynn                    (b. 1892 - d. 1953)
       1943 -    Jan 1944  Frank C. Walker                    (b. 1886 - d. 1959)
   Jan 1944 -    Oct 1947  Robert E. Hannegan                 (b. 1903 - d. 1949)
   Oct 1947 -    Aug 1949  J. Howard McGrath                  (b. 1903 - d. 1966)
       1949 -        1951  William M. Boyle, Jr.              (b. 1903 - d. 1961)
       1951 -        1952  Frank E. McKinney                  (b. 1904? - d. 1974)
       1952 -        1955  Stephen A. Mitchell                (b. 1903 - d. 1974)
       1955 -    Jul 1960  Paul M. Butler                     (b. 1905 - d. 1961)
   Jul 1960 - 21 Jan 1961  Henry M. Jackson                   (b. 1912 - d. 1983)
21 Jan 1961 -        1968  John M. Bailey                     (b. 1904 - d. 1975)
       1968 -        1969  Lawrence F. O'Brien (1st time)     (b. 1917 - d. 1990)
       1969 -        1970  Fred R. Harris                     (b. 1930)
       1970 -        1972  Lawrence F. O'Brien (2nd time)     (s.a.)
       1972                Jean M. Westwood (f)               (b. 1923 - d. 1997)
       1972 - 21 Jan 1977  Robert S. Strauss                  (b. 1918 - d. 2014)
21 Jan 1977 - 27 Jan 1978  Kenneth M. Curtis                  (b. 1931)
27 Jan 1978 - 27 Feb 1981  John C. White                      (b. 1924 - d. 1995)
27 Feb 1981 -  1 Feb 1985  Charles T. Manatt                  (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
 1 Feb 1985 - 10 Feb 1989  Paul G. Kirk, Jr.                  (b. 1938)
10 Feb 1989 - 21 Jan 1993  Ron Brown                          (b. 1941 - d. 1996)
21 Jan 1993 - 11 Nov 1994  David Wilhelm                      (b. 1956)
11 Nov 1994 - 21 Jan 1995  Debra DeLee (f)                    (b. 1948)
- National chairmen -
21 Jan 1995 - 21 Jan 1997  Donald L. Fowler                   (b. 1935)
21 Jan 1997 - 20 Mar 1999  Steve Grossman                     (b. 1946)
20 Mar 1999 -  3 Feb 2001  Joe Andrew                         (b. 1960)
- General chairmen -
21 Jan 1995 - 21 Jan 1997  Chris Dodd                         (b. 1944)
21 Jan 1997 - 25 Sep 1999  Roy Romer                          (b. 1928)
25 Sep 1999 -  3 Feb 2001  Ed Rendell                         (b. 1944)
- Chairmen -
 3 Feb 2001 - 12 Feb 2005  Terry McAuliffe                    (b. 1957)
12 Feb 2005 - 21 Jan 2009  Howard Dean                        (b. 1948)
21 Jan 2009 -  5 Apr 2011  Tim Kaine                          (b. 1958)
 5 Apr 2011 -  4 May 2011  Donna Brazile (f) (acting)         (b. 1959)
 4 May 2011 -              Debbie Wasserman Schultz (f)       (b. 1966)

Republican Party

Chairmen of the Republican National Committee
       1856 -        1864  Edwin D. Morgan (1st time)         (b. 1811 - d. 1883)
       1864 -        1866  Henry J. Raymond                   (b. 1820 - d. 1869)
       1866 -        1868  Marcus L. Ward                     (b. 1812 - d. 1884)
       1868 -        1872  William Claflin                    (b. 1818 - d. 1905)
       1872 -        1876  Edwin D. Morgan (2nd time)         (s.a.)
       1876 -        1879  Zachariah Chandler                 (b. 1813 - d. 1879)
       1879 -        1880  Donald Cameron                     (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
       1880 -        1883  Marshall Jewell                    (b. 1825 - d. 1883)
       1883 -        1884  Dwight M. Sabin                    (b. 1843 - d. 1902)
       1884 -        1888  Benjamin Franklin Jones            (b. 1824 - d. 1903)
       1888 -        1891  Matthew S. Quay                    (b. 1833 - d. 1904)
       1891 -        1892  James S. Clarkson                  (b. 1842 - d. 1918)
       1892 -        1896  Thomas H. Carter                   (b. 1854 - d. 1911)
       1896 - 15 Feb 1904  Marcus A. Hanna                    (b. 1837 - d. 1904)
15 Feb 1904 - 23 Jun 1904  Henry C. Payne                     (b. 1843 - d. 1904)
                           (acting to 20 Jun 1904)
23 Jun 1904 -        1907  George B. Cortelyou                (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
       1907 -        1908  Harry S. New                       (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
       1908 -        1909  Frank H. Hitchcock                 (b. 1867 - d. 1935)
       1910 -        1912  John F. Hill                       (b. 1855 - d. 1912)
       1912 -        1916  Charles D. Hilles                  (b. 1867 - d. 1949)
       1916 -        1918  William R. Willcox                 (b. 1863 - d. af.1939)
       1918 -        1921  Will Hays                          (b. 1879 - d. 1954)
       1921 -        1924  John T. Adams                      (b. 1862 - d. 1939)
       1924 -        1928  William Butler                     (b. 1861 - d. 1937)
       1928 -        1929  Hubert Work                        (b. 1860 - d. 1942)
       1930 -        1932  Simeon D. Fess                     (b. 1861 - d. 1936)
       1932 -        1934  Everett Sanders                    (b. 1882 - d. 1950)
       1934 -        1936  Henry P. Fletcher                  (b. 1873 - d. 1959)
       1936 -        1940  John D.M. Hamilton                 (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
       1940 -        1942  Joseph W. Martin, Jr.              (b. 1884 - d. 1968)
       1942 -        1944  Harrison E. Spangler               (b. 1879 - d. 1965)
       1944 -        1946  Herbert Brownell, Jr.              (b. 1904 - d. 1996)
       1946 -        1948  Carroll Reece                      (b. 1889 - d. 1961)
       1948 -        1949  Hugh D. Scott, Jr.                 (b. 1900 - d. 1994)
       1949 -    Jul 1952  Guy G. Gabrielson                  (b. 1891 - d. 1976)
   Jul 1952 -    Jan 1953  Arthur E. Summerfield              (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
   Jan 1953 -    Mar 1953  Wesley Roberts                     (b. 1902 - d. 1975)
   Apr 1953 -  1 Feb 1957  Leonard W. Hall                    (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
 1 Feb 1957 -        1959  Meade Alcorn                       (b. 1907 - d. 1992)
       1959 -    Jun 1961  Thruston B. Morton                 (b. 1907 - d. 1982)
   Jun 1961 -        1964  William E. Miller                  (b. 1914 - d. 1983)
       1964 -  1 Apr 1965  Dean Burch                         (b. 1927 - d. 1991)
 1 Apr 1965 -        1969  Ray Charles Bliss                  (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
       1969 -        1971  Rogers C.B. Morton                 (b. 1914 - d. 1979)
       1971 -        1973  Bob Dole                           (b. 1923)
       1973 -        1974  George Bush                        (b. 1924)
       1974 - 14 Jan 1977  Mary Louise Smith (f)              (b. 1914 - d. 1997)
14 Jan 1977 - 17 Jan 1981  William E. Brock                   (b. 1930)
17 Jan 1981 - 27 Jan 1983  Richard Richards                   (b. 1932)
27 Jan 1983 - 18 Jan 1989  Frank J. Fahrenkopf, Jr.           (b. 1939)
27 Jan 1983 - 23 Jan 1987  Paul Laxalt (general chairman)     (b. 1922)
18 Jan 1989 - 25 Jan 1991  Lee Atwater                        (b. 1951 - d. 1991)
25 Jan 1991 -  1 Feb 1992  Clayton K. Yeutter                 (b. 1930)
 1 Feb 1992 - 30 Jan 1993  Richard N. Bond                    (b. 1950)
30 Jan 1993 - 17 Jan 1997  Haley Barbour                      (b. 1947)
17 Jan 1997 - 18 Jan 2001  Jim Nicholson                      (b. 1938)
18 Jan 2001 - 18 Jan 2002  Jim Gilmore                        (b. 1949)
18 Jan 2002 - 25 Jul 2003  Marc Racicot                       (b. 1948)
25 Jul 2003 - 19 Jan 2005  Ed Gillespie                       (b. 1962)
19 Jan 2005 - 19 Jan 2007  Ken Mehlman                        (b. 1967)
19 Jan 2007 - 30 Jan 2009  Mike Duncan                        (b. 1951)
19 Jan 2007 - 19 Oct 2007  Mel Martinez (general chairman)    (b. 1946)
30 Jan 2009 - 14 Jan 2011  Michael Steele                     (b. 1958)
14 Jan 2011 -              Reince Priebus                     (b. 1972)

Labour unions

Knights of Labor

General master workmen
       1878 -    Sep 1879  Uriah S. Stephens                  (b. 1821 - d. 1882)
   Sep 1879 -  1 Dec 1893  Terence V. Powderly                (b. 1849 - d. 1924)
 1 Dec 1893 - 12 Nov 1897  James R. Sovereign                 (b. 1854 - d. 19...)
12 Nov 1897 - 19 Nov 1898  Henry A. Hicks                     (b. 1852? - d. 19...)
19 Nov 1898 -        1901  John N. Parsons                    (b. 1856? - d. 1930)
       1902 -        1917  John W. Hayes                      (b. 1854 - d. 1942)

American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations

 8 Dec 1886                American Federation of Labor (AFL) founded
 9 Nov 1935                Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) founded
16 Nov 1938                CIO renamed Congress of Industrial Organizations
 5 Dec 1955                AFL and CIO united as AFL-CIO

AFL

Presidents
 8 Dec 1886 - 17 Dec 1894  Samuel Gompers (1st time)          (b. 1850 - d. 1924)
17 Dec 1894 - 14 Dec 1895  John McBride                       (b. 1854 - d. 1917)
14 Dec 1895 - 13 Dec 1924  Samuel Gompers (2nd time)          (s.a.)
19 Dec 1924 - 21 Nov 1952  William Green                      (b. 1873 - d. 1952)
25 Nov 1952 -  5 Dec 1955  George Meany                       (b. 1894 - d. 1980)

CIO

Presidents
 9 Nov 1935 - 22 Nov 1940  John L. Lewis                      (b. 1880 - d. 1969)
22 Nov 1940 -  9 Nov 1952  Philip Murray                      (b. 1886 - d. 1952)
 4 Dec 1952 -  5 Dec 1955  Walter P. Reuther                  (b. 1907 - d. 1970)

AFL-CIO

Presidents
 5 Dec 1955 - 15 Nov 1979  George Meany                       (s.a.)
19 Nov 1979 -  1 Aug 1995  Lane Kirkland                      (b. 1922 - d. 1999)
 1 Aug 1995 - 25 Oct 1995  Thomas R. Donahue                  (b. 1928)
25 Oct 1995 - 16 Sep 2009  John Sweeney                       (b. 1934)
16 Sep 2009 -              Richard L. Trumka                  (b. 1949)

Change to Win

Chairs
27 Sep 2005 - 30 Sep 2010  Anna Burger (f)                    (b. 1950)
30 Sep 2010 -    Aug 2013  Joseph T. Hansen
   Aug 2013 -              James P. Hoffa                     (b. 1941)

United Mine Workers of America

Presidents
       1890 -        1891  John B. Rae
       1892 -        1894  John McBride
       1895 -        1896  Phil Penna
       1897 -        1898  Michael Ratchford
       1898 -        1907  John Mitchell
       1908 -        1910  T.L. Lewis
       1911 -        1917  John P. White                      (b. 1870? - d. 1934)
       1917 -        1919  Frank J. Hayes                     (b. 1882 - d. 1948)
       1920 - 14 Jan 1960  John L. Lewis                      (b. 1880 - d. 1969)
14 Jan 1960 - 19 Jan 1963  Thomas Kennedy                     (b. 1887 - d. 1963)
19 Jan 1963 - 18 Dec 1972  Tony Boyle                         (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
18 Dec 1972 - 22 Dec 1972  Leonard J. Pnakovich (acting)
22 Dec 1972 - 16 Nov 1979  Arnold R. Miller                   (b. 1923 - d. 1985)
16 Nov 1979 - 22 Dec 1982  Samuel Church                      (b. 1936 - d. 2009)
22 Dec 1982 - 22 Dec 1995  Richard L. Trumka                  (b. 1949)
22 Dec 1995 -              Cecil E. Roberts                   (b. 1946)

United Automobile Workers

26 Aug 1935                United Automobile Workers of America (UAW) founded
       1941                renamed United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural
                           Implement Workers of America
       1962                renamed United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural
                           Implement Workers of America: International Union

Presidents
26 Aug 1935 -    Jul 1936  Francis Dillon
   Jul 1936 -        1939  Homer Martin
       1939 -        1946  R.J. Thomas
       1946 -  9 May 1970  Walter P. Reuther                  (b. 1907 - d. 1970)
       1970 -        1977  Leonard Woodcock                   (b. 1911 - d. 2001)
       1977 -        1983  Douglas Fraser                     (b. 1916 - d. 2008)
       1983 -        1995  Owen Bieber                        (b. 1929)
   Jun 1995 -  6 Jun 2002  Stephen P. Yokich                  (b. 1935 - d. 2002)
 6 Jun 2002 - 16 Jun 2010  Ron Gettelfinger                   (b. 1944)
16 Jun 2010 -              Bob King                           (b. 1946)

United Steelworkers

14 Apr 2005                United Steel Workers of America (USWA) merge with Paper,
                           Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International
                           Union (PACE) to form United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber,
                           Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers
                           International Union (USW)

Presidents
       1942 -  9 Nov 1952  Philip Murray                      (b. 1886 - d. 1952)
       1952 -        1965  David J. McDonald                  (b. 1902 - d. 1979)
       1965 -        1977  I.W. Abel                          (b. 1908 - d. 1987)
       1977 -  6 Nov 1983  Lloyd McBride                      (b. 1916 - d. 1983)
17 Nov 1983 -        1994  Lynn R. Williams                   (b. 1924 - d. 2014)
                           (acting to 29 Mar 1984)
 1 Mar 1994 - 28 Feb 2001  George F. Becker                   (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
28 Feb 2001 -              Leo W. Gerard                      (b. 1947)

Teamsters

       1903                International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs,
                           Stablemen and Helpers of America founded
       1940                renamed International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs,
                           Warehousemen and Helpers of America

Presidents
       1903 -        1907  Cornelius Shea
       1907 -        1952  Daniel J. Tobin                    (b. 1875 - d. 1955)
       1952 -  4 Oct 1957  Dave Beck                          (b. 1894 - d. 1993)
 4 Oct 1957 -        1971  Jimmy Hoffa                        (b. 1913 - d. 1975?)
       1971 -        1981  Frank Fitzsimmons                  (b. 1908 - d. 1981)
       1981 -        1983  Roy Williams                       (b. 1915 - d. 1989)
       1983 -        1988  Jackie Presser                     (b. 1926 - d. 1988)
       1988 -        1992  Bill McCarthy                      (b. 1919 - d. 1998)
 1 Feb 1992 -        1998  Ron Carey                          (b. 1936 - d. 2008)
19 Mar 1999 -              James P. Hoffa                     (b. 1941)

American Federation of Musicians

Presidents
       1896 -        1900  Owen Miller
       1900 -        1914  Joseph N. Weber (1st time)
       1914 -        1915  Frank Carothers
       1915 - 15 Jun 1940  Joseph N. Weber (2nd time)
15 Jun 1940 -        1958  James C. Petrillo                  (b. 1892 - d. 1984)
       1958 -        1970  Herman Kenin
       1970 -        1978  Hal Davis
       1978 -        1987  Victor Fuentealba                  (b. 1922)
       1987 -        1991  J. Martin Emerson
       1991 -        1995  Mark Massagli
       1995 -        2001  Steve Young
       2001 -    Jun 2010  Tom Lee
   Jun 2010 -              Ray Hair

International Longshore and Warehouse Union

       1937                International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union
       1997                International Longshore and Warehouse Union

Presidents
       1937 -        1977  Harry Bridges                      (b. 1901 - d. 1990)
       1977 -        1991  Jimmy Herman
       1991 -        1994  David Arian
       1994 -        2000  Brian McWilliams
   Jul 2000 -        2006  James Spinosa                      (b. 1940)
       2006 -              Robert McEllrath                   (b. 1951)

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

Presidents
   Nov 1891 -    Nov 1893  Henry Miller                       (b. 1858 - d. 1896)
   Nov 1893 -        1894  Queren Jansen
       1894 -        1897  H.W. Sherman
       1897 -        1899  J.H. Maloney
       1899 -        1901  Thomas Wheeler
       1901 -        1903  W.A. Jackson
       1903 -        1919  F.J. McNulty
       1919 -        1929  J.P. Noonan
       1929 -        1933  H.H. Broach
       1933 -        1940  Dan Tracy (1st time)               (b. 1886? - d. 1955)
       1940 -        1947  Ed J. Brown
       1947 - 15 Apr 1954  Dan Tracy (2nd time)               (s.a.)
15 Apr 1954 - 20 Jul 1955  J. Scott Milne                     (b. 1898? - d. 1955)
       1955 -        1968  Gordon M. Freeman
       1968 -        1986  Charles H. Pillard                 (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
25 Aug 1986 - 29 Jan 2001  John J. Barry                      (b. 1924 - d. 2005)
29 Jan 2001 -              Edwin D. Hill                      (b. 1937)

UNITE HERE

       1891                Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees International Union
                           (HERE) founded
       1900                International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU) founded
26 Dec 1914                Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA) founded
25 May 1939                Textile Workers Union of America (TWUA) founded
       1976                ACWA and TWUA united as Amalgamated Clothing and
                           Textile Workers Union (ACTWU)
   Jul 1995                ILGWU and ACTWU united as Union of Needletrades, Industrial
                           and Textile Employees (UNITE)
 9 Jul 2004                UNITE and HERE merged to form UNITE HERE

ILGWU

Presidents
       1901 -        1903  Herman Grossman (1st time)
       1903 -        1904  Benjamin Schlesinger (1st time)    (b. 1876 - d. 1932)
       1904 -        1905  James McCauley
       1905 -        1907  Herman Grossman (2nd time)
       1907 -        1908  Mortimer Julian
       1908                Charles Jacobson (acting)
       1908 -        1914  Abraham Rosenberg
       1914 -        1923  Benjamin Schlesinger (2nd time)    (s.a.)
       1923                Salvatore Ninfo (acting)           (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
       1923 -        1928  Morris Sigman                      (b. 1880 - d. 1931)
       1928 -        1932  Benjamin Schlesinger (3rd time)    (s.a.)
       1932 -        1966  David Dubinsky                     (b. 1892 - d. 1982)
       1966 -        1975  Louis Stulberg                     (b. 1901 - d. 1977)
       1975 -        1986  Sol C. Chaikin                     (b. 1918 - d. 1991)
       1986 -    Jul 1995  Jay Mazur                          (b. 1932)

ACWA

Presidents
26 Dec 1914 -        1946  Sidney Hillman                     (b. 1887 - d. 1946)
       1946 -        1972  Jacob Potofsky                     (b. 1894 - d. 1979)
       1972 -        1976  Murray Finley                      (b. 1922 - d. 1995)

TWUA

Presidents
25 May 1939 -        1956  Emil Rieve                         (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
       1956 -        1972  William Pollock                    (b. 1899 - d. 1982)
       1972 -        1976  Sol Stetin                         (b. 1910 - d. 2005)

ACTWU

Presidents
       1976 -        1987  Murray Finley                      (s.a.)
       1987 -        1995  Jack Sheinkman                     (b. 1926 - d. 2004)

UNITE

Presidents
   Jul 1995 -  1 Jul 2001  Jay Mazur                          (s.a.)
 1 Jul 2001 -  9 Jul 2004  Bruce Raynor                       (b. 1950)

HERE

Secretary
       1899 -        1928  Jere L. Sullivan
Presidents
       1911 -        1945  Edward Flore                       (b. 1877 - d. 1945)
       1945 -        1954  Hugo Ernst
       1954 -        1973  Ed S. Miller
       1973 - 31 Jul 1998  Edward T. Hanley                   (b. 1932 - d. 2000)
 1 Aug 1998 -  9 Jul 2004  John W. Wilhelm                    (b. 1945?)

UNITE HERE

General president
 9 Jul 2004 -        2009  Bruce Raynor                       (s.a.)
Presidents
30 Jun 2009 - 29 Nov 2012  John W. Wilhelm                    (s.a.)
29 Nov 2012 -              D. Taylor

Communications Workers of America

   Nov 1938                National Federation of Telephone Workers founded
   Jun 1947                renamed Communications Workers of America (CWA)

Presidents
       1938 -        1942  Paul E. Griffith
       1942 -    Jul 1974  Joseph A. Beirne                   (b. 1911 - d. 1974)
   Jul 1974 - 16 Jul 1985  Glenn E. Watts                     (b. 1920 - d. 2002)
16 Jul 1985 - 30 Aug 2005  Morton Bahr                        (b. 1926)
30 Aug 2005 -              Larry Cohen                        (b. 1949?)

United Farm Workers

       1962                National Farm Workers Association
       1966                united with Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee
                           as United Farm Workers

Presidents
       1962 - 23 Apr 1993  Cesar Chavez                       (b. 1927 - d. 1993)
 3 May 1993 -              Arturo Rodriguez                   (b. 1949)

Service Employees International Union

Presidents
       1921 - 16 Feb 1927  William Quesse                     (b. 1878 - d. 1927)
   Feb 1927 -        1928  Oscar Nelson
       1928 - 27 Apr 1937  Jerry Horan                        (b. ... - d. 1937)
       1937 -        1940  George Scalise
       1940 -        1960  William McFetridge                 (b. 1893 - d. 1969)
       1960 -        1971  David Sullivan                     (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
       1971 -        1980  George Hardy                       (b. 1911 - d. 1990)
       1980 - 12 Dec 1995  John Sweeney                       (b. 1934)
12 Dec 1995 -    Apr 1996  Richard Cordtz                     (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
   Apr 1996 -  8 May 2010  Andy Stern                         (b. 1950)
 8 May 2010 -              Mary Kay Henry (f)                 (b. 1957?)