Rulers

Countries JK

Contents of this page:
Jamaica - Japan - Jersey - Jordan - Kazakhstan - Kenya - Kiribati - Korea - Kosovo - Kuwait - Kyrgyzstan

Jamaica

       1510                Spanish colony
       1655                British colony
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  part of the Federation of the West Indies
                           (see under Trinidad and Tobago)
 6 Aug 1962                independence

Governors
   Mar 1693 -    Jan 1702  Sir William Beeston                (b. 1636 - d. 17...)
                           (acting to 1700)
       1702                William Selwyn                     (b. 16... - d. 1702)
       1702                Peter Beckford (acting)
       1702 -        1711  Thomas Handasyde (acting to 1704)  (b. 16... - d. 1712)
       1711 -        1716  Lord Archibald Hamilton            (b. 1673 - d. 1754)
       1716 -        1718  Peter Heywood
       1718 -        1722  Sir Nicholas Lawes
       1722 -  4 Jul 1726  Henry Bentinck, Duke of Portland   (b. 1682 - d. 1726)
       1726 -        1728  John Ayscough (1st time) (acting)
       1728 -    Mar 1734  Robert Hunter                      (b. c.1675 - d. 1734)
       1734 -        1735  John Ayscough (2nd time) (acting)
       1735                John Gregory (1st time) (acting)
       1735 -        1736  Henry Cunninghame
       1736 -        1738  John Gregory (2nd time) (acting)
30 Apr 1738 -        1752  Edward Trelawny                    (b. 1699 - d. 1754)
       1752 -    Jan 1756  Charles Knowles                    (b. ... - d. 1777)
   Feb 1756 -    Apr 1759  Sir Henry Moore (1st time)         (b. 1713 - d. 1769)
                           (acting)
   Apr 1759 -    Nov 1759  George Haldane                     (b. 1722 - d. 1759)
   Nov 1759 -        1762  Sir Henry Moore (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
       1762 -        1766  William Henry Lyttleton            (b. 1724 - d. 1808)
       1766 -        1767  Roger Hope Elletson                (b. ... - d. 1775)
       1767 -    Dec 1772  Sir William Trelawny               (b. ... - d. 1772)
   Dec 1772 -        1774  John Dalling (1st time) (acting)   (b. ... - d. 1798)
       1774 -        1777  Sir Basil Keith
       1777 -        1781  John Dalling (2nd time)            (s.a.)
       1781 -        1784  Archibald Campbell                 (b. 1739 - d. 1791)
                           (acting to 1783)
       1784 -        1790  Alured Clarke                      (b. 1745 - d. 1832)
       1790 - 19 Nov 1791  Thomas Howard, Earl of Effingham   (b. 1746 - d. 1791)
       1791 -        1795  Adam Williamson (from 18 Nov 1794,
                           Sir Adam Williamson) (acting)      (b. 1736 - d. 1798)
       1795 -        1801  Alexander Lindsay, Earl of
                           Balcares                           (b. 1752 - d. 1825)
       1801 -        1805  Sir George Nugent                  (b. 1757 - d. 1849)
       1806 -        1808  Sir Eyre Coote                     (b. 1762 - d. 1823)
       1808 -        1827  William Montague, Duke of
                           Manchester                         (b. 1771 - d. 1843)
       1827 -        1829  Sir John Keane (acting)            (b. 1781 - d. 1844)
       1829 -        1832  Somerset Lowry-Corry, Earl of
                           Belmore                            (b. 1774 - d. 1841)
       1832                George Cuthbert (1st time)
                           (acting)
       1832 -        1834  Constantine Henry Phipps,
                           Earl of Mulgrave                   (b. 1797 - d. 1863)
       1834                Sir Amos Norcot (acting)
       1834                George Cuthbert (2nd time)
                           (acting)
       1834 -        1836  Howe Peter Browne, Marquess of
                           Sligo                              (b. 1788 - d. 1845)
       1836 -        1839  Sir Lionel Smith                   (b. 1778 - d. 1842)
       1839 -        1842  Sir Charles Theophilus Metcalfe    (b. 1785 - d. 1846)
       1842 -        1846  James Bruce, Earl of Elgin and
                           Kincardine                         (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
       1846 -        1847  George Henry Frederick Berkeley    (b. 1785 - d. 1857)
                           (acting)
       1847 -        1853  Sir Charles Edward Grey            (b. 1785 - d. 1865)
       1853 -        1856  Sir Henry Barkly                   (b. 1815 - d. 1898)
       1856 -        1857  Edward Wells Bell (acting)
       1857 -        1862  Charles Henry Darling              (b. 1809 - d. 1870)
       1862 -        1865  Edward John Eyre (acting to 1864)  (b. 1815 - d. 1901)
12 Dec 1865 - 16 Jul 1866  Sir Henry Knight Storks            (b. 1811 - d. 1874)
       1866 -        1874  Sir John Peter Grant               (b. 1807 - d. 1893)
       1874                W.A. Young (acting)                (b. 1818 - d. 1878)
       1874 -    Jan 1877  Sir William Grey                   (b. 1818 - d. 1878)
   Jan 1877 - 10 Aug 1877  Edward Everard Rushworth (acting)  (b. 1818 - d. 1877)
   Aug 1877                James Robert Mann (acting)         (b. 1823 - d. 1915)
24 Aug 1877 -        1883  Sir Anthony Musgrave (1st time)    (b. 1828 - d. 1888)
       1883                Somerset M. Wiseman Clarke
                           (acting)
       1883                D.J. Gamble (acting)
       1883 -        1889  Sir Henry Wylie Norman             (b. 1826 - d. 1904)
       1889                William Clive Justice (acting)
       1889 -        1898  Sir Henry Arthur Blake             (b. 1840 - d. 1918)
       1898                Hallowes (acting)
       1898 -        1904  Sir Augustus William Lawson
                           Hemming                            (b. 1842 - d. 1907)
       1904                Sydney Haldane Olivier (1st time)  (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
                           (acting)
       1904                Hugh Clarence Bourne (1st time)
                           (acting)
30 Sep 1904 -        1907  Sir James Alexander Swettenham     (b. 1846 - d. 1933)
       1907                Hugh Clarence Bourne (2nd time)
                           (acting)
16 May 1907 -    Jan 1913  Sydney Haldane Olivier (2nd time)  (s.a.)
   Jan 1913 -  7 Mar 1913  Philip Clark Cork (acting)         (b. 1854 - d. 1936)
 7 Mar 1913 - 11 May 1918  Sir William Henry Manning          (b. 1863 - d. 1932)
11 May 1918 - 11 Jun 1918  Robert Johnstone (acting)          (b. 1861 - d. 1944)
11 Jun 1918 -        1924  Sir Leslie Probyn                  (b. 1862 - d. 1938)
       1924                Herbert Bryan (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1865 - d. 1950)
29 Sep 1924 -    Jun 1925  Sir Samuel Herbert Wilson          (b. 1873 - d. 1950)
       1925                Sir Herbert Bryan (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
   Oct 1925 - 26 Apr 1926  A.S. Jeef (1st time) (acting)
26 Apr 1926 -  9 Nov 1932  Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs         (b. 1876 - d. 1947)
 9 Nov 1932 - 21 Nov 1932  A.S. Jeef (2nd time) (acting)
21 Nov 1932 -    Apr 1934  Sir Alexander Ransford Slater      (b. 1874 - d. 1940)
   Apr 1934 - 24 Oct 1934  A.S. Jeef (3rd time) (acting)
24 Oct 1934 -  2 Jun 1938  Sir Edward Brandis Denham          (b. 1876 - d. 1938)
 2 Jun 1938 - 19 Aug 1938  Charles Campbell Woolley (acting)  (b. 1893 - d. 1981)
19 Aug 1938 -    Jul 1943  Sir Arthur Frederick Richards      (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
   Jul 1943 - 29 Sep 1943  William Henry Flinn (acting)       (b. 1895 - d. 1973)
29 Sep 1943 -  7 Apr 1951  Sir John Huggins                   (b. 1891 - d. 1971)
 7 Apr 1951 - 18 Nov 1957  Sir Hugh Mackintosh Foot           (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
18 Dec 1957 -  6 Aug 1962  Sir Kenneth Blackburne             (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 6 Aug 1962 - 30 Nov 1962  Sir Kenneth Blackburne             (s.a.)
 1 Dec 1962 - 28 Feb 1973  Sir Clifford Campbell              (b. 1892 - d. 1991)
28 Feb 1973 - 27 Jun 1973  Sir Herbert Duffus (acting)        (b. 1908 - d. 2002)
27 Jun 1973 - 31 Mar 1991  Florizel Glasspole (from 17 Apr
                           1981, Sir Florizel Glasspole)      (b. 1909 - d. 2000)
31 Mar 1991 -  1 Aug 1991  Edward Zacca (interim)             (b. 1931)
 1 Aug 1991 - 15 Feb 2006  Sir Howard Cooke                   (b. 1915)
15 Feb 2006 - 26 Feb 2009  Kenneth Hall (from 5 Nov 2007,
                           Sir Kenneth Hall)                  (b. 1941)
26 Feb 2009 -              Patrick Allen (from 12 May 2009,
                           Sir Patrick Allen)                 (b. 1951)

Chief ministers 5 May 1953 - 2 Feb 1955 Alexander Bustamante (b. 1884 - d. 1977) 2 Feb 1955 - 4 Jul 1959 Norman Manley (b. 1893 - d. 1969) Prime ministers 4 Jul 1959 - 24 Apr 1962 Norman Manley (s.a.) 24 Apr 1962 - 22 Feb 1967 Sir Alexander Bustamante (s.a.) Feb 1964 - 22 Feb 1967 Donald Sangster (b. 1911 - d. 1967) (acting for Bustamante) 22 Feb 1967 - 11 Apr 1967 Donald Sangster (from 6 Apr 1967, Sir Donald Sangster) (s.a.) 11 Apr 1967 - 2 Mar 1972 Hugh Lawson Shearer (b. 1923 - d. 2004) 2 Mar 1972 - 1 Nov 1980 Michael Manley (1st time) (b. 1924 - d. 1997) 1 Nov 1980 - 10 Feb 1989 Edward Seaga (b. 1930) 10 Feb 1989 - 30 Mar 1992 Michael Manley (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Mar 1992 - 30 Mar 2006 P.J. Patterson (b. 1935) 30 Mar 2006 - 11 Sep 2007 Portia Simpson Miller (f) (1st time) (b. 1945) 11 Sep 2007 - 23 Oct 2011 Bruce Golding (b. 1947) 23 Oct 2011 - 5 Jan 2012 Andrew Holness (b. 1972) 5 Jan 2012 - Portia Simpson Miller (f) (2nd time) (s.a.)

Jammu and Kashmir: see under India and Pakistani states.

Japan

        660 BCE            empire founded according to tradition

Era names (nengo)
23 Oct 1688 - 16 Apr 1704  Genroku
16 Apr 1704 - 11 Jun 1711  Hoei
11 Jun 1711 -  9 Aug 1716  Shotoku
 9 Aug 1716 -  7 Jun 1736  Kyoho
 7 Jun 1736 - 12 Apr 1741  Genbun
12 Apr 1741 -  3 Apr 1744  Kanpo
 3 Apr 1744 -  5 Aug 1748  Enkyo
 5 Aug 1748 - 14 Dec 1751  Kan-en
14 Dec 1751 - 30 Jun 1764  Horeki (or Horyaku)
30 Jun 1764 - 10 Dec 1772  Meiwa
10 Dec 1772 - 25 Apr 1781  An-ei
25 Apr 1781 - 19 Feb 1789  Tenmei
10 Feb 1789 - 19 Mar 1801  Kansei
19 Mar 1801 - 22 Mar 1804  Kyowa
22 Mar 1804 - 26 May 1818  Bunka
26 May 1818 - 23 Jan 1831  Bunsei
23 Jan 1831 -  9 Jan 1845  Tenpo
 9 Jan 1845 -  1 Apr 1848  Koka
 1 Apr 1848 - 15 Jan 1855  Kaei
15 Jan 1855 -  8 Apr 1860  Ansei
 8 Apr 1860 - 29 Mar 1861  Man-en
29 Mar 1861 - 27 Mar 1864  Bunkyu
27 Mar 1864 -  1 May 1865  Genji (or Ganji)
 1 May 1865 - 23 Oct 1868  Keio
23 Oct 1868 - 30 Jul 1912  Meiji
30 Jul 1912 - 25 Dec 1926  Taisho
25 Dec 1926 -  8 Jan 1989  Showa
 8 Jan 1989 -              Heisei

Shoguns¹
       1680 - 19 Feb 1709  Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (Joken-in)     (b. 1646 - d. 1709)
       1709 - 12 Nov 1712  Tokugawa Ienobu (Bunsho-in)        (b. 1662 - d. 1712)
       1713 - 19 Jun 1716  Tokugawa Ietsugu (Yusho-in)        (b. 1709 - d. 1716)
       1716 -        1745  Tokugawa Yoshimune (Yutoku-in)     (b. 1677 - d. 1751)
       1745 -        1760  Tokugawa Ieshige (Junshin-in)      (b. 1712 - d. 1761)
       1760 - 17 Sep 1786  Tokugawa Ieharu (Shinmei-in)       (b. 1737 - d. 1786)
15 Apr 1787 -        1837  Tokugawa Ienari (Bunkyo-in)        (b. 1773 - d. 1841)
 2 Apr 1837 - 22 Jun 1853  Tokugawa Ieyoshi (Shintoku-in)     (b. 1792 - d. 1853)
23 Oct 1853 -  6 Jul 1858  Tokugawa Iesada (Onkyo-in)         (b. 1824 - d. 1858)
 1 Dec 1858 - 29 Aug 1866  Tokugawa Iemochi (Shotoku-in)      (b. 1846 - d. 1866)
10 Jan 1867 -  4 Jan 1868  Tokugawa Yoshinobu                 (b. 1837 - d. 1913)
Emperors/Empresses¹
- Yamato dynasty -
 2 May 1687 - 27 Jul 1709  Asahito (Higashiyama-tenno)        (b. 1675 - d. 1710)
27 Jul 1709 - 13 Apr 1735  Yasuhito (Nakamikado-tenno)        (b. 1702 - d. 1737)
13 Apr 1735 -  9 Jun 1747  Teruhito (Sakuramachi-tenno)       (b. 1720 - d. 1750)
 9 Jun 1747 - 31 Aug 1762  Tohito (Momozono-tenno)            (b. 1741 - d. 1762)
15 Sep 1762 -  9 Jan 1771  Toshi-ko (Go-Sakuramachi-tenno)
                           (f)                                (b. 1740 - d. 1813)
 9 Jan 1771 -  6 Dec 1779  Hidehito (Go-Momozono-tenno)       (b. 1758 - d. 1779)
 1 Jan 1780 -  7 May 1817  Tomohito (Kokaku-tenno)            (b. 1771 - d. 1840)
 7 May 1817 - 21 Feb 1846  Ayahito (Ninko-tenno)              (b. 1800 - d. 1846)
10 Mar 1846 - 30 Jan 1867  Osahito (Komei-tenno)              (b. 1831 - d. 1867)
13 Feb 1867 - 30 Jul 1912  Mutsuhito (Meiji-tenno)            (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
30 Jul 1912 - 25 Dec 1926  Yoshihito (Taisho-tenno)           (b. 1879 - d. 1926)
25 Nov 1921 - 25 Dec 1926    Prince Hirohito (regent)         (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
25 Dec 1926 -  7 Jan 1989  Hirohito (Showa-tenno)             (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1989 -              Akihito                            (b. 1933)

Prime ministers² 22 Dec 1885 - 30 Apr 1888 Count Hirobumi Ito (1st time) (b. 1841 - d. 1909) 30 Apr 1888 - 24 Dec 1889 Count Kiyotaka Kuroda (b. 1840 - d. 1900) 24 Dec 1889 - 6 May 1891 Count Aritomo Yamagata (1st time) (b. 1838 - d. 1922) 6 May 1891 - 8 Aug 1892 Count Masayoshi Matsukata (1st time) (b. 1835 - d. 1924) 8 Aug 1892 - 18 Sep 1896 Count (from 1895, Marquess) Hirobumi Ito (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Sep 1896 - 12 Jan 1898 Count Masayoshi Matsukata (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Jan 1898 - 30 Jun 1898 Marquess Hirobumi Ito (3rd time) (s.a.) 30 Jun 1898 - 8 Nov 1898 Count Shigenobu Okuma (1st time) C (b. 1838 - d. 1922) 8 Nov 1898 - 10 Oct 1900 Marquess Aritomo Yamagata (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Oct 1900 - 2 Jun 1901 Marquess Hirobumi Ito (4th time) FC (s.a.) 2 Jun 1901 - 7 Jan 1906 Viscount (from 1902, Count) Taro Katsura (1st time) (b. 1848 - d. 1913) 7 Jan 1906 - 14 Jul 1908 Marquess Kimmochi Saionji (1st time) FC (b. 1849 - d. 1940) 14 Jul 1908 - 30 Aug 1911 Marquess Taro Katsura (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Aug 1911 - 19 Dec 1912 Marquess Kimmochi Saionji (2nd time) FC (s.a.) 19 Dec 1912 - 12 Feb 1913 Duke Taro Katsura (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Feb 1913 - 15 Apr 1914 Count Gonnohyoe Yamamoto (1st time) (b. 1852 - d. 1933) 15 Apr 1914 - 9 Oct 1916 Count Shigenobu Okuma (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Oct 1916 - 29 Sep 1918 Count Masatake Terauchi (b. 1852 - d. 1919) 29 Sep 1918 - 4 Nov 1921 Takashi Hara FC (b. 1856 - d. 1921) 4 Nov 1921 - 13 Nov 1921 Count Yasuya Uchida (1st time) (b. 1865 - d. 1936) (acting) 13 Nov 1921 - 12 Jun 1922 Viscount Korekiyo Takahashi (1st time) FC (b. 1854 - d. 1936) 12 Jun 1922 - 24 Aug 1923 Baron Tomosaburo Kato (b. 1859 - d. 1923) 26 Aug 1923 - 12 Sep 1923 Count Yasuya Uchida (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 12 Sep 1923 - 5 Jan 1924 Count Gonnohyoe Yamamoto (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Jan 1924 - 11 Jun 1924 Viscount Keigo Kiyoura (b. 1850 - d. 1942) 11 Jun 1924 - 28 Jan 1926 Viscount Takaaki Kato C (b. 1860 - d. 1926) 28 Jan 1926 - 19 Apr 1927 Reijiro Wakatsuki (1st time) C (b. 1866 - d. 1949) (acting to 30 Jan 1926) 19 Apr 1927 - 2 Jul 1929 Baron Giichi Tanaka FC (b. 1863 - d. 1929) 2 Jul 1929 - 14 Apr 1931 Osachi Hamaguchi CD (b. 1870 - d. 1931) 14 Apr 1931 - 13 Dec 1931 Reijiro Wakatsuki (2nd time) CD (s.a.) 13 Dec 1931 - 15 May 1932 Tsuyoshi Inukai FC (b. 1855 - d. 1932) 16 May 1932 - 26 May 1932 Viscount Korekiyo Takahashi (2nd time) (acting) FC (s.a.) 26 May 1932 - 8 Jul 1934 Viscount Makoto Saito (b. 1858 - d. 1936) 8 Jul 1934 - 9 Mar 1936 Keisuke Okada (b. 1862 - d. 1952) 9 Mar 1936 - 2 Feb 1937 Koki Hirota (b. 1878 - d. 1948) 2 Feb 1937 - 2 Jun 1937 Senjuro Hayashi (b. 1876 - d. 1943) 2 Jun 1937 - 4 Jan 1939 Duke Fumimaro Konoe (1st time) (b. 1891 - d. 1945) 4 Jan 1939 - 29 Aug 1939 Baron Kiichiro Hiranuma (b. 1867 - d. 1952) 29 Aug 1939 - 15 Jan 1940 Nobuyuki Abe (b. 1875 - d. 1953) 15 Jan 1940 - 22 Jul 1940 Mitsumasa Yonai (b. 1880 - d. 1948) 22 Jul 1940 - 18 Oct 1941 Duke Fumimaro Konoe (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Oct 1941 - 22 Jul 1944 Hideki Tojo (b. 1884 - d. 1948) 22 Jul 1944 - 7 Apr 1945 Kuniaki Koiso (b. 1880 - d. 1950) 7 Apr 1945 - 16 Aug 1945 Baron Kantaro Suzuki (b. 1867 - d. 1948) 16 Aug 1945 - 8 Oct 1945 Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni (b. 1887 - d. 1990) 8 Oct 1945 - 22 May 1946 Baron Kijuro Shidehara (b. 1872 - d. 1951) 22 May 1946 - 24 May 1947 Shigeru Yoshida (1st time) L (b. 1878 - d. 1967) 24 May 1947 - 23 Feb 1948 Tetsu Katayama S (b. 1887 - d. 1978) 23 Feb 1948 - 15 Oct 1948 Hitoshi Ashida D (b. 1887 - d. 1959) 15 Oct 1948 - 10 Dec 1954 Shigeru Yoshida (2nd time) L (s.a.) 10 Dec 1954 - 23 Dec 1956 Ichiro Hatoyama JD; 1955: LD (b. 1883 - d. 1959) 23 Dec 1956 - 25 Feb 1957 Tanzan Ishibashi LD (b. 1884 - d. 1973) 25 Feb 1957 - 18 Jul 1960 Nobusuke Kishi LD (b. 1896 - d. 1987) 18 Jul 1960 - 9 Nov 1964 Hayato Ikeda LD (b. 1899 - d. 1965) 9 Nov 1964 - 6 Jul 1972 Eisaku Sato LD (b. 1901 - d. 1975) 6 Jul 1972 - 9 Dec 1974 Kakuei Tanaka LD (b. 1918 - d. 1993) 9 Dec 1974 - 24 Dec 1976 Takeo Miki LD (b. 1907 - d. 1988) 24 Dec 1976 - 7 Dec 1978 Takeo Fukuda LD (b. 1905 - d. 1995) 7 Dec 1978 - 12 Jun 1980 Masayoshi Ohira LD (b. 1910 - d. 1980) 12 Jun 1980 - 17 Jul 1980 Masayoshi Ito (acting) LD (b. 1915 - d. 1994) 17 Jul 1980 - 26 Nov 1982 Zenko Suzuki LD (b. 1911 - d. 2004) 26 Nov 1982 - 6 Nov 1987 Yasuhiro Nakasone LD (b. 1918) 6 Nov 1987 - 2 Jun 1989 Noboru Takeshita LD (b. 1924 - d. 2000) 2 Jun 1989 - 9 Aug 1989 Sosuke Uno LD (b. 1922 - d. 1998) 9 Aug 1989 - 6 Nov 1991 Toshiki Kaifu LD (b. 1931) 6 Nov 1991 - 9 Aug 1993 Kiichi Miyazawa LD (b. 1919 - d. 2007) 9 Aug 1993 - 25 Apr 1994 Morihiro Hosokawa JN (b. 1938) 25 Apr 1994 - 29 Jun 1994 Tsutomu Hata JR (b. 1935) 29 Jun 1994 - 11 Jan 1996 Tomiichi Murayama SD (b. 1924) 11 Jan 1996 - 30 Jul 1998 Ryutaro Hashimoto LD (b. 1937 - d. 2006) 30 Jul 1998 - 5 Apr 2000 Keizo Obuchi LD (b. 1937 - d. 2000) 3 Apr 2000 - 5 Apr 2000 Mikio Aoki LD (b. 1934) (acting for incapacitated Obuchi) 5 Apr 2000 - 26 Apr 2001 Yoshiro Mori LD (b. 1937) 26 Apr 2001 - 26 Sep 2006 Junichiro Koizumi LD (b. 1942) 26 Sep 2006 - 26 Sep 2007 Shinzo Abe (1st time) LD (b. 1954) 26 Sep 2007 - 24 Sep 2008 Yasuo Fukuda LD (b. 1936) 24 Sep 2008 - 16 Sep 2009 Taro Aso LD (b. 1940) 16 Sep 2009 - 8 Jun 2010 Yukio Hatoyama DPJ (b. 1947) 8 Jun 2010 - 2 Sep 2011 Naoto Kan DPJ (b. 1946) 2 Sep 2011 - 26 Dec 2012 Yoshihiko Noda DPJ (b. 1957) 26 Dec 2012 - Shinzo Abe (2nd time) LD (s.a.)
Party abbreviations: C=Constitutional, FC=Friends of Constitutional Government, CD=Constitutional Democratic, L=Liberal, S=Socialist, D=Democratic, JD=Japan Democratic, LD=Liberal-Democratic, JN=Japan New, JR=Japan Renewal, SD=Social Democratic, DPJ=Democratic Party of Japan
¹Personal name followed by posthumous style (okurina) in parentheses.
²The Japanese titles of nobility are sometimes translated differently. Translations used here are "prince" for shinno, "duke" for koshaku, "marquess" for koshaku (written with a different character), "count" for hakushaku, "viscount" for shishaku, "baron" for danshaku.

Allied occupation

Supreme Commanders
 2 Sep 1945 - 11 Apr 1951  Douglas MacArthur                  (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
11 Apr 1951 - 28 Apr 1952  Matthew B. Ridgway                 (b. 1895 - d. 1993)

Republic of Ezo

27 Jan 1869 - 27 Jun 1869  in ambiguous secession during war of restoration

President (sosai)
27 Jan 1869 - 27 Jun 1869  Takeaki Enomoto                    (b. 1836 - d. 1908)

Ryukyu

Note: Since the kingdom was in ambiguous relations with China and with Japan, the names are given in their Japanese and their Chinese form.
       1429                Kingdom of Chuzan/Zhongshan
   Oct 1872                Ryukyu han, an autonomous polity associated with Japan
11 Mar 1879                annexed by Japan
       1946                four units (Okinawa gun, Amami gun, Miyako gun, Yaeyama
                           gun), under U.S. administration
 1 Apr 1951                Ryukyu, nominally part of Japan, under U.S. administration
25 Dec 1953                Amami Oshima island group returned to Japan
21 Nov 1967                Ryukyu Islands (except Okinawa) returned to Japan
26 Jun 1968                Bonin Islands returned to Japan
15 May 1972                Okinawa reverts to Japanese sovereignty as a prefecture

Kings
- Sho En-o-to/Shang Yuan Wangtong dynasty -
       1669 -        1709  Sho Tei/Shang Jing                 (b. ... - d. 1709)
       1710 -        1712  Sho Eki/Shang Ben                  (b. ... - d. 1712)
       1713 -        1751  Sho Kei/Shang Jing
       1751 -        1752  Sai On (regent)                    (b. 1682 - d. 1761)
       1752 -        1795  Sho Boku/Shang Mu
       1796 -        1802  Sho On/Shang Wen                   (b. 1784 - d. 1802)
       1803 -        1804  Sho Sei/Shang Cheng                (b. 1783 - d. 1804)
       1804 -        1828  Sho Ko/Shang Hao                   (b. 1787 - d. 1839)
       1828 -        1847  Sho Iku/Shang Yu                   (b. 1813 - d. 1847)
       1848 - 11 Mar 1879  Sho Tai/Shang Tai                  (b. 1841/43 - d. 1901)
                           (from Oct 1872 "han-chief")
Military governors
 1 Apr 1945 - 18 Jun 1945  Simon B. Buckner, Jr.              (b. 1886 - d. 1945)
18 Jun 1945 - 23 Jun 1945  Roy S. Geiger                      (b. 1885 - d. 1947)
23 Jun 1945 - 16 Oct 1945  Joseph W. Stilwell                 (b. 1883 - d. 1946)
17 Oct 1945 - 29 Dec 1945  Lawrence A. Lawson
30 Dec 1945 - 26 Feb 1946  Fremont B. Hodson                  (b. 1894 - d. 1974)
27 Feb 1946 - 21 May 1946  Leo Donovan                        (b. 1895 - d. 1950)
24 May 1946 - 11 May 1948  Frederic L. Hayden                 (b. 1901 - d. 1969)
12 May 1948 - 30 Sep 1949  William W. Eagles                  (b. 1895 - d. 1988)
 1 Oct 1949 - 21 Jul 1950  Josef R. Sheetz                    (b. 1895 - d. 1992)
28 Jul 1950 -  6 Dec 1950  Robert B. McClure                  (b. 1896 - d. 1973)
 6 Dec 1950 -  9 Dec 1950  Harry B. Sherman (acting)          (b. 1894 - d. 1974)
 9 Dec 1950 - 15 Dec 1950  Robert S. Beightler                (b. 1892 - d. 1978)
Deputy governors
15 Dec 1950 - 10 May 1951  Robert S. Beightler (1st time)     (s.a.)
10 May 1951 -  7 Aug 1951  Harry B. Sherman (acting)          (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1951 - 16 Dec 1952  Robert S. Beightler (2nd time)     (s.a.)
18 Dec 1952 -  2 Jan 1953  James Malcolm Lewis                (b. 1898 - d. 1954)
 3 Jan 1953 -  4 Mar 1955  David A.D. Ogden                   (b. 1897 - d. 1969)
 5 Mar 1955 -  3 Jul 1957  James E. Moore                     (b. 1902 - d. 1986)
High commissioners
 4 Jul 1957 - 30 Apr 1958  James E. Moore                     (s.a.)
 1 May 1958 - 12 Feb 1961  Donald P. Booth                    (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
16 Feb 1961 - 31 Jul 1964  Paul W. Caraway                    (b. 1905 - d. 1984)
 1 Aug 1964 - 31 Oct 1966  Albert Watson II                   (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
 2 Nov 1966 - 17 Jan 1969  Ferdinand T. Unger                 (b. 1913 - d. 1999)
28 Jan 1969 - 14 May 1972  James B. Lampert                   (b. 1914 - d. 1978)
Civil administrators
   Jun 1955 - 20 Jun 1959  Vonna F. Burger                    (b. 1902 - d. 1999)
 1 Jul 1959 -    May 1962  John G. Ondrick                    (b. 1906 - d. 1974)
18 Jul 1962 -  8 Feb 1964  Shannon McCune                     (b. 1913 - d. 1993)
11 Feb 1964 - 10 Jul 1967  Gerald Warner
15 Jul 1967 - 15 Aug 1969  Stanley S. Carpenter               (b. 1917)
21 Aug 1969 - 12 May 1972  Robert A. Fearey                   (b. 1918 - d. 2004)

Chiefs of the Okinawa Civilian Administration 24 Apr 1946 - 4 Nov 1950 Koshin Shikiya (b. 1884 - d. 1955) 4 Nov 1950 - 1 Apr 1951 Tatsuo Taira (b. 1892 - d. 1969) Chief Executives of the Government 1 Apr 1951 - 25 Oct 1956 Shuhei Higa (b. 1902 - d. 1956) (provisional to 1 Apr 1952) 1 Nov 1956 - 10 Nov 1959 Jugo Toma (b. 1895 - d. 1971) 10 Nov 1959 - 31 Oct 1964 Seisaku Ota (b. 1904 - d. 1999) 31 Oct 1964 - 1 Dec 1968 Seiho Matsuoka (b. 1897 - d. 1989) 1 Dec 1968 - 14 May 1972 Chobyo Yara (b. 1902 - d. 1997) Governors 15 May 1972 - 24 Jun 1976 Chobyo Yara (s.a.) 25 Jun 1976 - 23 Nov 1978 Koichi Taira (b. 1909 - d. 1982) 23 Nov 1978 - 13 Dec 1978 Takemori Nojima (acting) 13 Dec 1978 - 9 Dec 1990 Junji Nishime (b. 1921 - d. 2001) 10 Dec 1990 - 9 Dec 1998 Masahide Ota (b. 1925) 10 Dec 1998 - 9 Dec 2006 Keiichi Inamine (b. 1933) 10 Dec 2006 - Hirokazu Nakaima (b. 1939)

Jebel Druze: see under
Syria.
Jebel Shammar: see under Saudi Arabia.

Jersey

       12..                English fiefdom (Bailiwick of Jersey)
 1 Jul 1940 -  9 May 1945  German occupation

Governors
       1688 -        1703  John Legge
       1703 -        1723  Henry Lumley
       1723 -        1749  Richard Temple                     (b. 1669 - d. 1749)
       1749 -        1761  John Huske                         (b. 1692? - d. 1761)
       1761 -        1772  George Keppel, Earl of Albemarle   (b. 1724 - d. 1772)
       1772 -        1795  Henry Seymour Conway               (b. 1721 - d. 1795)
       1795 -        1796  Sir George Howard                  (b. 1718 - d. 1796)
       1796 -        1807  George Townshend, Marquess of
                           Townshend                          (b. 1724 - d. 1807)
       1807 -        1820  John Pitt, Earl of Chatham         (b. 1756 - d. 1835)
       1820 -  8 Jan 1854  William Carr Beresford, Baron
                           Beresford (from 28 Mar 1823,
                           William Carr Beresford, Viscount
                           Beresford)                         (b. 1768 - d. 1854)
Lieutenant governors
      *1723*               Magnus Kempenfelt
       17.. -        17..  George Howard
       17.. -        17..  William Hargrave
       17.. -        17..  Peter Betsweorth
       17.. -        17..  Edmund Fielding
       1738 - 17 May 1740  Jean Cavalier                      (b. 1681 - d. 1740)
       17.. -        17..  Jean Charlton
       17.. -        17..  Francis Best
       17.. -        17..  Gregory Beake
       17.. -        1770  ...
       1770 -        1771  Rudolph Bentinck
       1771 -        1781  Moses Corbet
       1781 -        1797  Francis Pierson                    (b. ... - d. 1797)
       1797 -        1806  Andrew Gordon
       1806 -        1814  Sir George Don                     (b. 1754 - d. 1832)
 8 Oct 1814 -        1816  Sir Hilgrove Turner                (b. 1764 - d. 1843)
       1816 -        1821  Sir Hugh M. Gordon
       1821 -        1830  Sir Colin Halkett                  (b. 1774 - d. 1856)
       1830 -        1835  Sir William Thornton               (b. 1779 - d. 1840)
       1835 -        1838  Sir Archibald Campbell             (b. c.1763 - d. 1838)
       1838 -        1846  Sir Edward Gibbs                   (b. ... - d. 1847)
       1847 -        1852  Sir James Reynett
       1852 -        1857  Sir James Love                     (b. 1789 - d. 1866)
       1857 - 10 Jul 1860  Godfrey Charles Mundy              (b. 1804 - d. 1860)
       1860 -        1862  Sir Robert Percy Douglas           (b. 1804 - d. 1891)
       1862 -        1864  B. Loch
       1864 -        1869  Burke Cuppage                      (b. 1794 - d. 1877)
       1869 -        1873  Philip Melmoth Nelson Guy          (b. 1804 - d. 1878)
       1873 -        1878  Sir William Sherbrooke Ramsay
                           Norcott                            (b. 1804 - d. 1886)
       1878 -        1883  Lothian Nicholson                  (b. 1827 - d. 1893)
       1883 -        1887  Henry Wray                         (b. 1826 - d. 1900)
       1887 -        1892  Charles Brisbane Ewart             (b. 1827 - d. 1903)
       1892 -        1895  Edwin Markham                      (b. 1833 - d. 1918)
       1895 -        1900  Sir Edward Hopton                  (b. 1837 - d. 1912)
       1900 -        1904  Henry Richard Abadie               (b. 1841 - d. 1915)
       1904 -        1910  Hugh Sutlej Gough                  (b. 1848 - d. 1920)
       1910 -  5 Dec 1916  Sir Alexander Nelson Rochefort     (b. 1850 - d. 1916)
 5 Dec 1916 - 29 Oct 1920  Sir Alexander Wilson               (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
29 Oct 1920 -        1924  Sir William Douglas Smith          (b. 1865 - d. 1939)
       1924 -        1929  Sir Francis Richard Bingham        (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
       1929 -        1934  Walter Patrick Hore-Ruthven,
                           Baron Ruthven                      (b. 1870 - d. 1956)
       1934 -        1939  Horace de Courcy Martelli
                           (from 1937, Sir Horace
                           de Courcy Martelli)                (b. 1877 - d. 1959)
       1939 - 21 Jun 1940  James Murray Robert Harrison       (b. 1880 - d. 1957)
21 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1945  Alexander Coutanche                (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
                           (acting to 24 Jun 1940, then president of the
                           Superior Council)
Provisional military administrator
 1 Jul 1940 -        1940  Erich Gussek
Chief administrators
       1940 -    Aug 1941  Gottfried von Stein
   Aug 1941 - 10 Nov 1943  Wilhelm Casper
10 Nov 1943 -        1945  Hans Max Freiherr von Aufsess      (b. 1906 - d. 1993)
Head of the British military government
12 May 1945 - 25 Aug 1945  L.A. Freeman
Lieutenant governors
25 Aug 1945 -        1953  Sir Arthur Edward Grasett          (b. 1888 - d. 1971)
       1953 -        1958  Sir Gresham Nicholson              (b. 1892 - d. 1975)
       1958 -        1963  Sir George Erskine                 (b. 1899 - d. 1965)
       1964 -        1969  Sir Michael Villiers               (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
       1969 -        1974  Sir John Davis                     (b. 1911 - d. 1989)
       1974 -        1979  Sir Desmond Fitzpatrick            (b. 1912 - d. 2002)
       1979 -        1984  Sir Peter Whiteley                 (b. 1920)
       1985 -        1990  Sir William Pillar                 (b. 1924 - d. 1999)
       1990 -        1995  Sir John Sutton                    (b. 1932)
   Sep 1995 - 12 Oct 2000  Sir Michael Wilkes                 (b. 1940 - d. 2013)
24 Jan 2001 -  7 Apr 2006  Sir John Cheshire                  (b. 1942)
14 Jun 2006 - 30 Jun 2011  Andrew Ridgway (from 11 Jun 2011,
                           Sir Andrew Ridgway)                (b. 1950)
26 Sep 2011 -              Sir John McColl                    (b. 1952)

Bailiffs 1694 - 1703 Édouard de Carteret 1703 - 1715 Charles de Carteret (b. 1679 - d. 1715) 1715 - 2 Jan 1763 John Carteret, Baron Carteret, (from 1744) Earl Granville (b. 1690 - d. 1763) 1763 - 13 Sep 1776 Robert Carteret, Earl Granville (b. 1721 - d. 1776) 1776 - 1826 Henry Frederick Carteret, (from 1784) Baron Carteret (b. 1735 - d. 1826) 1826 - 1831 Thomas Le Breton (b. 1763 - d. 1838) 1831 - 1848 Sir Jean de Veulle (b. 1799 - d. 1848) 1848 - 1857 Sir Thomas Le Breton (b. 1791 - d. 1857) 1858 - 1880 John Hammond (b. 1801 - d. 1880) 1880 - 10 Nov 1884 Sir Robert Pipon Marett (b. 1820 - d. 1884) 1884 - 1899 Sir George Clement Bertram (b. 1841 - d. 1915) 1899 - 1931 Sir William Henry Venables-Vernon (b. 1852 - d. 1934) 20 May 1931 - 15 Jul 1935 Charles Edward Malet de Carteret (b. 1869 - d. 1946) 16 Jul 1935 - 27 Aug 1935 Philip de Carteret Le Cornu (b. ... - d. 1944) (acting) 27 Aug 1935 - 17 Nov 1961 Alexander Coutanche (from 1945, Sir Alexander Coutanche; from Jul 1961, Alexander Coutanche, Baron Coutanche) (s.a.) 17 Nov 1961 - 14 Apr 1962 Cecil Stanley Harrison (b. 1902 - d. 1962) (acting to 19 Jan 1962) 14 Apr 1962 - 31 Dec 1974 Robert Hugh Le Masurier (from 1966, Sir Robert Hugh Le Masurier) (b. 1913 - d. 1996) (acting to 6 Jul 1962) 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1985 Frank Ereaut (from 1976, Sir Frank Ereaut) (b. 1919 - d. 1998) 1 Jan 1986 - 2 Feb 1995 Peter Crill (from 1987, Sir Peter Crill) (b. 1925 - d. 2005) 2 Feb 1995 - 9 Jul 2009 Philip Bailhache (from 1996, Sir Philip Bailhache) (b. 1946) 9 Jul 2009 - Michael Birt (from 16 Jun 2012, Sir Michael Birt) (b. 1948)
Chief ministers 8 Dec 2005 - 12 Dec 2008 Frank Walker (b. 1943) 12 Dec 2008 - 18 Nov 2011 Terry Le Sueur (b. 1942?) 18 Nov 2011 - Ian Gorst (b. 1969?)

Channel Islands under German occupation

Commanders
27 Sep 1940 -    May 1941  Rudolf Graf von Schmettow
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1891 - d. 19...)
   May 1941 -  4 Sep 1943  Erich Müller                       (b. 1889 - d. 19...)
 4 Sep 1943 - 27 Feb 1945  Rudolf Graf von Schmettow
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
27 Feb 1945 -  9 May 1945  Friedrich Hüffmeier                (b. 1898 - d. 1972)
British military administrator
12 May 1945 - 25 Aug 1945  Alfred Snow                        (b. 1898 - d. ...)

Heads of the civil administration (Feldkommandanten to May 1944, then Platzkommandanten) 9 Aug 1940 - 19 Sep 1941 Friedrich Schumacher 19 Sep 1941 - Jan 1944 Friedrich Knackfuss (b. 1887 - d. 1945) Jan 1944 - 19 May 1944 Wilhelm Kratzer (acting) 19 May 1944 - 1 Mar 1945 Willi Heider 1 Mar 1945 - May 1945 Kurt von Cleve

Jordan

11 Apr 1921                Emirate of Transjordan (under British mandate)
25 May 1946                Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan
 3 Apr 1949                Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
14 Feb 1958 - 14 Jul 1958  federation with Iraq (Arab Union)

Emir
11 Apr 1921 - 25 May 1946  Abdullah I                         (b. 1882 - d. 1951)
Kings
25 May 1946 - 20 Jul 1951  Abdullah I                         (s.a.)
20 Jul 1951 -  5 Sep 1951  Naif (regent)                      (b. 1914 - d. 1983)
 5 Sep 1951 - 11 Aug 1952  Talal                              (b. 1909 - d. 1972)
 4 Jun 1952 -  2 May 1953    Regency Council
                             - Ibrahim Hashim                 (b. 1888 - d. 1958)
                             - Suleiman Toukan                (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
                             - Abdul Rahman Rusheidat
11 Aug 1952 -  7 Feb 1999  Hussein                            (b. 1935 - d. 1999)
14 Jul 1998 - 19 Jan 1999    Hassan (regent)                  (b. 1947)
 7 Feb 1999 -              Abdullah II                        (b. 1962)

Prime ministers 11 Apr 1921 - 15 Aug 1921 Rashid Tali 15 Aug 1921 - 10 Mar 1922 Mazhar al-Raslan (1st time) 10 Mar 1922 - 1 Feb 1923 Ali Rida al-Rikabi (1st time) (b. 1864 - d. 1943) 1 Feb 1923 - 5 Sep 1923 Mazhar al-Raslan (2nd time) (acting) 5 Sep 1923 - 3 May 1924 Hassan Khalid Abul-Huda (1st time) (b. 1871 - d. 1936) 3 May 1924 - 26 Jun 1926 Ali Rida al-Rikabi (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jun 1926 - 22 Feb 1931 Hassan Khalid Abul-Huda (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 Feb 1931 - 18 Oct 1933 Abdullah as-Sarraj (b. 1863 - d. 19...) 18 Oct 1933 - 28 Sep 1938 Ibrahim Pasha Hashim (1st time) (s.a.) 28 Sep 1938 - 15 Oct 1944 Tawfiq Pasha Abul-Huda (1st time) (b. 1894 - d. 1956) 15 Oct 1944 - 19 May 1945 Samir Pasha al-Rifai (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1965) 19 May 1945 - 4 Feb 1947 Ibrahim Pasha Hashim (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Feb 1947 - 28 Dec 1947 Samir Pasha al-Rifai (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Dec 1947 - 12 Apr 1950 Tawfiq Pasha Abul-Huda (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Apr 1950 - 4 Dec 1950 Sa`id Pasha al-Mufti (1st time) (b. 1898 - d. 1989) 4 Dec 1950 - 25 Jul 1951 Samir Pasha al-Rifai (3rd time) (s.a.) 25 Jul 1951 - 5 May 1953 Tawfiq Pasha Abul-Huda (from 4 Aug 1952, Tawfiq Abul-Huda) (3rd time) (s.a.) 5 May 1953 - 4 May 1954 Fawzi al-Mulqi (b. 1910 - d. 1962) 4 May 1954 - 30 May 1955 Tawfiq Abul-Huda (4th time) (s.a.) 30 May 1955 - 15 Dec 1955 Sa`id al-Mufti (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Dec 1955 - 21 Dec 1955 Hazza` al-Majali (1st time) (b. 1916 - d. 1960) 21 Dec 1955 - 9 Jan 1956 Ibrahim Hashim (3rd time) (acting) (s.a.) 9 Jan 1956 - 22 May 1956 Samir al-Rifai (4th time) (s.a.) 22 May 1956 - 1 Jul 1956 Sa`id al-Mufti (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jul 1956 - 29 Oct 1956 Ibrahim Hashim (4th time) (s.a.) 29 Oct 1956 - 13 Apr 1957 Suleiman an-Nabulsi (b. 1908 - d. 1976) 13 Apr 1957 - 15 Apr 1957 Abdul Halim an-Nimr 15 Apr 1957 - 24 Apr 1957 Hussein Khalidi (b. 1895 - d. 1962) 24 Apr 1957 - 18 May 1958 Ibrahim Hashim (5th time) (s.a.) 18 May 1958 - 6 May 1959 Samir al-Rifai (5th time) (s.a.) 6 May 1959 - 29 Aug 1960 Hazza` al-Majali (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Aug 1960 - 28 Jan 1962 Bahjat al-Talhouni (1st time) (b. 1913 - d. 1994) 28 Jan 1962 - 28 Mar 1963 Wasfi al-Tall (1st time) (b. 1920 - d. 1971) 28 Mar 1963 - 21 Apr 1963 Samir al-Rifai (6th time) (s.a.) 21 Apr 1963 - 6 Jul 1964 Sharif Hussein ibn Nasir (1st time) (b. 1902 - d. 1982) 6 Jul 1964 - 13 Feb 1965 Bahjat al-Talhouni (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Feb 1965 - 4 Mar 1967 Wasfi al-Tall (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Mar 1967 - 23 Apr 1967 Sharif Hussein ibn Nasir (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Apr 1967 - 7 Oct 1967 Saad Jumaa ibn Muhammad (b. 1915 - d. 1979) 7 Oct 1967 - 24 Mar 1969 Bahjat al-Talhouni (3rd time) (s.a.) 24 Mar 1969 - 12 Aug 1969 Abdul Munim al-Rifai (1st time) (b. 1917 - d. 1985) 12 Aug 1969 - 27 Jun 1970 Bahjat al-Talhouni (4th time) (s.a.) 27 Jun 1970 - 16 Sep 1970 Abdul Munim al-Rifai (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Sep 1970 - 26 Sep 1970 Muhammad Daoud (b. 1913 - d. 1972) 26 Sep 1970 - 28 Oct 1970 Ahmad Toukan (b. 1903 - d. 1981) 28 Oct 1970 - 28 Nov 1971 Wasfi al-Tall (3rd time) (s.a.) 29 Nov 1971 - 26 May 1973 Ahmad al-Lawzi (b. 1925) 26 May 1973 - 13 Jul 1976 Zaid al-Rifai (1st time) (b. 1936) 13 Jul 1976 - 19 Dec 1979 Mudar Badran (1st time) (b. 1934) 19 Dec 1979 - 3 Jul 1980 Sharif Abdul Hamid Sharaf (b. 1939 - d. 1980) 3 Jul 1980 - 28 Aug 1980 Qassim ar-Rimawi (b. 1918 - d. 1982) 28 Aug 1980 - 10 Jan 1984 Mudar Badran (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Jan 1984 - 4 Apr 1985 Ahmad Abdel Obeidat (b. 1938) 4 Apr 1985 - 27 Apr 1989 Zaid al-Rifai (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Apr 1989 - 4 Dec 1989 Sharif Zaid ibn Shaker (1st time) (b. 1934 - d. 2002) 4 Dec 1989 - 19 Jun 1991 Mudar Badran (3rd time) (s.a.) 19 Jun 1991 - 21 Nov 1991 Taher al-Masri (b. 1942) 21 Nov 1991 - 29 May 1993 Sharif Zaid ibn Shaker (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 May 1993 - 7 Jan 1995 Abdul Salam al-Majali (1st time) (b. 1925) 7 Jan 1995 - 4 Feb 1996 Sharif Zaid ibn Shaker (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 Feb 1996 - 19 Mar 1997 Abdul Karim al-Kabariti (b. 1949) 19 Mar 1997 - 20 Aug 1998 Abdul Salam al-Majali (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Aug 1998 - 4 Mar 1999 Fayez Tarawneh (1st time) (b. 1949) 4 Mar 1999 - 19 Jun 2000 Abdul Rauf al-Rawabdeh (b. 1939) 19 Jun 2000 - 25 Oct 2003 Ali Abu al-Ragheb (b. 1946) 25 Oct 2003 - 7 Apr 2005 Faisal al-Fayez (b. 1952) 7 Apr 2005 - 27 Nov 2005 Adnan Badran (b. 1935) 27 Nov 2005 - 25 Nov 2007 Marouf al-Bakhit (1st time) (b. 1947) 25 Nov 2007 - 14 Dec 2009 Nader Dahabi (b. 1946) 14 Dec 2009 - 9 Feb 2011 Samir al-Rifai (b. 1966) 9 Feb 2011 - 24 Oct 2011 Marouf al-Bakhit (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Oct 2011 - 2 May 2012 Awn Khasawneh (b. 1950) 2 May 2012 - 11 Oct 2012 Fayez Tarawneh (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Oct 2012 - Abdullah Ensour (b. 1939) British residents 1921 - 1924 Harry St. John Bridger Philby (b. 1885 - d. 1960) 1924 - 1939 Henry Cox (from 1937, Sir Henry Cox) (b. 1880 - d. 1953) 1939 - 1946 Alec Seath Kirkbride (b. 1897 - d. 1978)

Jubaland: see under Somalia.
Kakhet`i: see under Georgia.
Kalba: see under United Arab Emirates.
Kampuchea: see Cambodia.
K`artl`i: see under Georgia.
Kashghar: see under China.
Kashmir: see under India and Pakistani states.
Katanga: see under Congo (Kinshasa) provinces.

Kazakhstan

 5 Dec 1936                Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (see Soviet republics)
10 Dec 1991                Republic of Kazakhstan
16 Dec 1991                independence declared
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)

President
24 Apr 1990 -              Nursultan Nazarbayev               (b. 1940)

Prime ministers 14 Oct 1991 - 12 Oct 1994 Sergey Tereshchenko (b. 1961) 12 Oct 1994 - 10 Oct 1997 Akezhan Kazhegeldin (b. 1952) 10 Oct 1997 - 1 Oct 1999 Nurlan Balgimbayev (b. 1947) 1 Oct 1999 - 28 Jan 2002 Kasymzhomart Tokayev (b. 1953) (acting to 12 Oct 1999) 28 Jan 2002 - 13 Jun 2003 Imangali Tasmagambetov (b. 1956) 13 Jun 2003 - 10 Jan 2007 Daniyal Akhmetov (b. 1954) 10 Jan 2007 - 24 Sep 2012 Karim Masimov (1st time) (b. 1965) 24 Sep 2012 - 2 Apr 2014 Serik Akhmetov (b. 1958) 2 Apr 2014 - Karim Masimov (2nd time) (s.a.)

Kenya

25 May 1887                sultan of Zanzibar grants coastal areas to the
                           British East Africa Association
 1 Jul 1895                British East Africa Protectorate
       1920                Kenya Colony and Protectorate
12 Dec 1963                independence (Kenya)
12 Dec 1964                Republic of Kenya

President of the British East Africa Association
(from 3 Sep 1888, British East Africa Company)
25 May 1887 -        1889  Sir William Mackinnon              (b. 1823 - d. 1893)
Administrators
       1889 -        1890  George Sutherland Mackenzie        (b. 1844 - d. 1910)
   May 1890 -    Feb 1891  Francis Walter de Winton           (b. 1835 - d. 1901)
   Sep 1891 -        1892  Lloyd Williams Matthews            (b. 1851 - d. 1901)
   Feb 1892 -        1893  Sir Gerald Herbert Portal          (b. 1858 - d. 1897)
Commissioners (from 31 Dec 1905, governors)
 1 Jul 1895 -  7 Oct 1900  Arthur Henry Hardinge (from 1897,
                           Sir Arthur Henry Hardinge)         (b. 1859 - d. 1933)
 7 Oct 1900 - 30 Dec 1900  C.H. Craufurd (acting)
30 Dec 1900 - 20 May 1904  Sir Charles Eliot                  (b. 1862 - d. 1931)
20 May 1904 -  1 Aug 1904  Frederick Jackson (1st time)       (b. 1859 - d. 1929)
                           (acting)
 1 Aug 1904 -  1 Oct 1905  Sir Donald William Stewart         (b. 1860 - d. 1905)
 1 Oct 1905 - 12 Dec 1905  Frederick Jackson (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting)
12 Dec 1905 - 12 Apr 1909  Sir James Hayes Sadler             (b. 1851 - d. 1922)
12 Apr 1909 - 16 Sep 1909  Charles Bowring (1st time)         (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
                           (acting)
16 Sep 1909 - 17 Jul 1912  Sir Edouard Percy Cranwill
                           Girouard                           (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
17 Jul 1912 -  4 Oct 1912  Charles Bowring (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 4 Oct 1912 - 14 Apr 1917  Sir Henry Conway Belfield          (b. 1855 - d. 1923)
14 Apr 1917 -  1 Feb 1919  Charles Bowring (3rd time)         (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 1 Feb 1919 - 28 Aug 1922  Sir Edward Northey                 (b. 1868 - d. 1953)
31 Aug 1922 - 10 Feb 1925  Sir Robert Thorne Coryndon         (b. 1870 - d. 1925)
10 Feb 1925 -  3 Oct 1925  Edward Denham (acting)             (b. 1876 - d. 1938)
 3 Oct 1925 - 27 Sep 1930  Sir Edward William Macleay Grigg   (b. 1879 - d. 1955)
27 Sep 1930 - 13 Feb 1931  Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1887 - d. 1964)
13 Feb 1931 - 22 Dec 1936  Sir Joseph Aloysius Byrne          (b. 1874 - d. 1942)
22 Dec 1936 -  6 Apr 1937  Armigel de Vins Wade (acting)      (b. 1880 - d. 1966)
 6 Apr 1937 - 30 Sep 1939  Sir Robert Brooke-Popham           (b. 1878 - d. 1953)
30 Sep 1939 -  9 Jan 1940  Walter Harragin (acting)           (b. 1890 - d. 1966)
 9 Jan 1940 - 25 Oct 1944  Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
25 Oct 1944 - 12 Dec 1944  Gilbert McCall Rennie (acting)     (b. 1895 - d. 1981)
12 Dec 1944 - 21 Jun 1952  Sir Philip Euen Mitchell           (b. 1890 - d. 1964)
21 Jun 1952 - 29 Sep 1952  Henry S. Potter (acting)           (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
29 Sep 1952 - 14 Oct 1959  Sir Evelyn Baring                  (b. 1903 - d. 1973)
14 Oct 1959 - 23 Oct 1959  Walter Fleming Coutts (acting)     (b. 1912 - d. 1988)
23 Oct 1959 - 17 Nov 1962  Sir Patrick Muir Renison           (b. 1911 - d. 1965)
17 Nov 1962 -  4 Jan 1963  Sir Eric Griffith-Jones (acting)   (b. 1913 - d. 1979)
 4 Jan 1963 - 12 Dec 1963  Malcolm John MacDonald             (b. 1901 - d. 1981)
Governor-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
12 Dec 1963 - 12 Dec 1964  Malcolm John MacDonald             (s.a.)
Presidents
12 Dec 1964 - 22 Aug 1978  Jomo Kenyatta                      (b. 1891 - d. 1978)
22 Aug 1978 - 30 Dec 2002  Daniel arap Moi                    (b. 1924)
                           (acting to 14 Oct 1978)
30 Dec 2002 -  9 Apr 2013  Mwai Kibaki                        (b. 1931)
 9 Apr 2013 -              Uhuru Kenyatta                     (b. 1961)

Prime ministers 1 Jun 1963 - 12 Dec 1964 Jomo Kenyatta (s.a.) 17 Apr 2008 - 9 Apr 2013 Raila Odinga (b. 1945)

Khorazm: see under Uzbekistan.
Kiaochow: see under China.

Kiribati

   Oct 1892                Gilbert and Ellice Islands (British protectorate)
12 Jan 1916                British colony
   Dec 1941 -    Nov 1943    Japanese occupation
 1 Oct 1975                separation of the Ellice Islands as Tuvalu
12 Jul 1979                independence of the Gilbert Islands as Republic of Kiribati

Resident commissioners
       1892 -        1901  Charles Richard Swayne             (b. 1843 - d. 1921)
       1901 -        1909  W. Telfer Campbell                 (b. 1863 - d. 19...)
       1909 -        1913  John Quayle Dickson                (b. 1860 - d. 19...)
       1913 -        1921  Edward Carlyon Eliot               (b. 1870 - d. 1940)
       1921 -  1 Jan 1926  Herbert Reginald McClure           (b. 1883 - d. 1926)
       1926 -        1933  Arthur Grimble                     (b. 1888 - d. 1956)
 3 Dec 1933 - 19 Dec 1941  Jack Charles Barley                (b. 1887 - d. 19...)
       1941 -        1946  Vivian Fox-Strangways              (b. 1898 - d. 1974)
       1946 -        1949  Henry Evans Maude                  (b. 1906 - d. 2006)
       1949 -        1951  John Peel                          (b. 1912 - d. 2004)
       1952 -        1961  Michael Louis Bernacchi            (b. 1911 - d. 1983)
   May 1962 -        1970  Valdemar Jens Andersen             (b. 1919)
       1970 -        1971  Sir John Osbaldiston Field         (b. 1913 - d. 1985)
Governors
 1 Jan 1972 -        1973  Sir John Osbaldiston Field         (s.a.)
       1973 -        1978  John Hilary Smith                  (b. 1928)
       1978 - 12 Jul 1979  Reginald James Wallace             (b. 1919 - d. 2012)
Presidents (beretitenti)
12 Jul 1979 - 10 Dec 1982  Ieremia Tabai (1st time)           (b. 1950)
10 Dec 1982 - 18 Feb 1983  Rota Onorio                        (b. 1919)
                           (chairman Council of State)
18 Feb 1983 -  4 Jul 1991  Ieremia Tabai (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 4 Jul 1991 - 24 May 1994  Teatao Teannaki                    (b. 1939)
24 May 1994 - 28 May 1994  Tekiree Tamuera                    (b. 1940)
                           (chairman Council of State)
28 May 1994 -  1 Oct 1994  Ata Teaotai
                           (chairman Council of State)
 1 Oct 1994 - 28 Mar 2003  Teburoro Tito                      (b. 1953)
28 Mar 2003 - 10 Jul 2003  Tion Otang
                           (chairman Council of State)
10 Jul 2003 -              Anote Tong                         (b. 1952)

Leader of government business Apr 1971 - May 1974 Reuben K. Uatioa (b. 1924 - d. 1977) Chief ministers May 1974 - Mar 1978 Naboua Ratieta (b. 1938 - d. 1986) Mar 1978 - 12 Jul 1979 Ieremia Tabai (s.a.)

Korea

27 Mar 1393                Great Choson Realm
12 Oct 1897                Great Han Empire
17 Nov 1905                Japanese protectorate
29 Aug 1910 - 15 Aug 1945  annexed by Japan
   Sep 1945                occupied by U.S.S.R. (north) and U.S. (south)
15 Aug 1948                Republic of Korea (South Korea)
 3 Sep 1948                Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)
Note: Emperors are listed with their personal name followed by their temple name (myoho, by which rulers are generally referred to), posthumous style (si), and era name (nyonho). Era names, the adoption of which was a very strong indication of sovereignty vis-à-vis Imperial China, were not adopted before 1 Jan 1896.
Kings (title Chonha, from 7 Jan 1895 Taegunju P'yeha)
- Choson dynasty -
18 Sep 1674 - 12 Jul 1720  Yi Sun                             (b. 1660 - d. 1720)
                           myoho: Sukchong / si: Hyon-ui taewang
12 Jul 1720 - 11 Oct 1724  Yi Kyon                            (b. 1688 - d. 1724)
                           myoho: Kyongjong / si: Tokmun taewang
11 Oct 1724 - 22 Apr 1776  Yi Kum                             (b. 1694 - d. 1776)
                           myoho: Yongjong, later Yongjo
                           si: Hyonhyo taewang, Chihyong taewang
22 Apr 1776 - 18 Aug 1800  Yi Sun                             (b. 1752 - d. 1800)
                           myoho: Chongjong, later Chongjo
                           si: Changhyo taewang, Munsong taewang
18 Aug 1800 - 13 Dec 1834  Yi Kwang                           (b. 1790 - d. 1834)
                           myoho: Sunjo / si: Songhyo taewang, Yondok taewang
13 Dec 1834 - 25 Jul 1849  Yi Hwan                            (b. 1827 - d. 1849)
                           myoho: Honjong / si: Chulhyo taewang, Ch'egon taewang
28 Jul 1849 - 16 Jan 1864  Yi Chung                           (b. 1831 - d. 1864)
                           myoho: Ch'oljong / si: Yonghyo taewang, Huilyun taewang
21 Jan 1864 - 12 Oct 1897  Yi Hyong                           (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
                           myoho: Kojong
                           nyonho 1 Jan 1896 - 14 Oct 1897: Konyang
21 Jan 1864 - 22 Dec 1873    Taewon-gun (regent)              (b. 1820 - d. 1898)
Emperors (title Taehan Hwangje)
- Choson dynasty -
12 Oct 1897 - 20 Jul 1907  Yi Hyong                           (s.a.)
                           myoho: Kojong
                           nyonho 14 Oct 1897 - 20 Jul 1907: Kwangmu
20 Jul 1907 - 29 Aug 1910  Yi Ch'ok                           (b. 1874 - d. 1926)
                           myoho: Sunjong
                           nyonho 20 Jul 1907 - 29 Aug 1910: Lyunghui
Residents-general
21 Dec 1905 - 14 Jun 1909  Marquess Hirobumi Ito (from 21
                           Sep 1907, Duke Hirobumi Ito)       (b. 1841 - d. 1909)
14 Jun 1909 - 30 May 1910  Viscount Arasuke Sone              (b. 1849 - d. 1910)
30 May 1910 -  1 Oct 1910  Viscount Masatake Terauchi         (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
Governors-general
 1 Oct 1910 -  9 Oct 1916  Count Masatake Terauchi            (s.a.)
16 Oct 1916 - 12 Aug 1919  Count Yoshimichi Hasegawa          (b. 1850 - d. 1924)
12 Aug 1919 - 10 Dec 1927  Baron (from 1925, Viscount)
                           Makoto Saito (1st time)            (b. 1858 - d. 1936)
14 Apr 1927 -  1 Dec 1927    Kazushige Ugaki (1st time)       (b. 1868 - d. 1956)
                             (acting for Saito)
10 Dec 1927 - 17 Aug 1929  Hanzo Yamanashi                    (b. 1865 - d. 1944)
17 Aug 1929 - 17 Jun 1931  Viscount Makoto Saito (2nd time)   (s.a.)
17 Jun 1931 -  5 Aug 1936  Kazushige Ugaki (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1936 - 15 Jun 1942  Jiro Minami                        (b. 1874 - d. 1955)
15 Jun 1942 - 22 Jul 1944  Kuniaki Koiso                      (b. 1880 - d. 1950)
25 Jul 1944 - 12 Sep 1945  Nobuyuki Abe                       (b. 1875 - d. 1953)

North Korea

Chairman (from Oct 1966, general secretaries of the Central Committee) of the Workers'
(Communist) Party of Korea (until Jun 1949, North Korean Workers' Party)
   Jul 1946 -  8 Jul 1994  Kim Il Sung                        (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
 8 Jul 1994 -  8 Oct 1997  vacant
 8 Oct 1997 - 17 Dec 2011  Kim Jong Il                        (b. 1942 - d. 2011)
17 Dec 2011 - 11 Apr 2012  vacant
First secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea
11 Apr 2012 -              Kim Jong Un                        (b. 1983?)

Soviet commanders-in-chief Sep 1945 - Apr 1947 Ivan Chistyakov (b. 1900 - d. 1979) Apr 1947 - Sep 1948 Gennady Korotkov (b. 1898 - d. 1982) Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly 3 Sep 1948 - 20 Sep 1957 Kim Du Bong (b. 1886 - d. 1958?) 20 Sep 1957 - 28 Dec 1972 Choi Yong Kun (b. 1900 - d. 1976) Presidents 28 Dec 1972 - 8 Jul 1994 Kim Il Sung (s.a.) 8 Jul 1994 - 5 Sep 1998 vacant¹ Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly² 5 Sep 1998 - Kim Yong Nam (b. 1928)
Chairman of the North Korean Provisional People's Committee 8 Feb 1946 - 9 Sep 1948 Kim Il Sung (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (premiers) 9 Sep 1948 - 28 Dec 1972 Kim Il Sung (s.a.) 28 Dec 1972 - 29 Apr 1976 Kim Il (b. 1910 - d. 1984) 29 Apr 1976 - 15 Dec 1977 Pak Song Chol (b. 1913 - d. 2008) 15 Dec 1977 - 27 Jan 1984 Li Jong Ok (b. 1916 - d. 1999) 27 Jan 1984 - 29 Dec 1986 Kang Song San (1st time) (b. 1931) 29 Dec 1986 - 12 Dec 1988 Li Gun Mo (b. 1924) 12 Dec 1988 - 11 Dec 1992 Yon Hyong Muk (b. 1931 - d. 2005) 11 Dec 1992 - 21 Feb 1997 Kang Song San (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Feb 1997 - 3 Sep 2003 Hong Song Nam (b. 1929 - d. 2009) (acting to 5 Sep 1998) 3 Sep 2003 - 11 Apr 2007 Pak Pong Ju (1st time) (b. 1939) 11 Apr 2007 - 7 Jun 2010 Kim Yong Il (b. 1944) 7 Jun 2010 - 1 Apr 2013 Choe Yong Rim (b. 1930) 1 Apr 2013 - Pak Pong Ju (2nd time) (s.a.)
¹Vice-presidents during the vacancy: Pak Song Chol (s.a.), Li Jong Ok (s.a.), Kim Yong Chu (b. 1922), Kim Pyong Sik (b. 1919 - d. 1999).
²Performing ceremonial head of state functions only. Kim Jong Il (s.a.), in his capacity as chairman of the National Defense Commission (declared "the highest post of the state" 5 Sep 1998), was de facto ruler until his death 17 Dec 2011, followed by Kim Jong Un (s.a.) who was named first chairman of the NDC 13 Apr 2012.

South Korea

U.S. commander-in-chief
 9 Sep 1945 -    Aug 1948  John R. Hodge                      (b. 1893 - d. 1963)
U.S. military governors
12 Sep 1945 -    Dec 1945  Archibald V. Arnold                (b. 1889 - d. 1973)
   Dec 1945 - 11 Sep 1947  Archer L. Lerch                    (b. 1894 - d. 1947)
   Oct 1947 -    Aug 1948  William F. Dean                    (b. 1899 - d. 1981)
Presidents
15 Aug 1948 -  3 May 1960  Syngman Rhee                       (b. 1875 - d. 1965)
 3 May 1960 - 15 Jun 1960  Ho Chong (1st time) (acting)       (b. 1896 - d. 1988)
15 Jun 1960 - 26 Jun 1960  Kwak Sang Hoon (acting)            (b. 1896 - d. 1979)
26 Jun 1960 - 13 Aug 1960  Ho Chong (2nd time) (acting)       (s.a.)
13 Aug 1960 - 24 Mar 1962  Yun Po Sun                         (b. 1897 - d. 1990)
24 Mar 1962 - 26 Oct 1979  Park Chung Hee                     (b. 1917 - d. 1979)
                           (acting to 17 Dec 1963; de facto leader as chairman of the
                           Supreme Council for National Reconstruction from 3 Jul 1961)
26 Oct 1979 - 16 Aug 1980  Choi Kyu Hah                       (b. 1919 - d. 2006)
                           (acting to 6 Dec 1979)
16 Aug 1980 -  1 Sep 1980  Park Choong Hoon (acting)          (b. 1919 - d. 2001)
 1 Sep 1980 - 25 Feb 1988  Chun Doo Hwan                      (b. 1931)
25 Feb 1988 - 25 Feb 1993  Roh Tae Woo                        (b. 1932)
25 Feb 1993 - 25 Feb 1998  Kim Young Sam                      (b. 1927)
25 Feb 1998 - 25 Feb 2003  Kim Dae Jung                       (b. 1925 - d. 2009)
25 Feb 2003 - 25 Feb 2008  Roh Moo Hyun                       (b. 1946 - d. 2009)
12 Mar 2004 - 14 May 2004    Goh Kun                          (b. 1938)
                             (acting for suspended Roh)
25 Feb 2008 - 25 Feb 2013  Lee Myung Bak                      (b. 1941)
25 Feb 2013 -              Park Geun Hye (f)                  (b. 1952)

Prime ministers 1 Aug 1948 - 21 Apr 1950 Lee Bum Suk (b. 1900 - d. 1972) 21 Apr 1950 - 23 Nov 1950 Shin Sung Mo (acting) (b. 1898 - d. 1960) 23 Nov 1950 - 24 Apr 1952 Chang Myon (1st time) (b. 1899 - d. 1966) 24 Apr 1952 - 6 May 1952 Yi Yun Yong (acting) (b. 1890 - d. 1975) 6 May 1952 - 6 Oct 1952 Chang Taek Sang (b. 1893 - d. 1969) 9 Oct 1952 - 28 Jun 1954 Paik Too Chin (1st time) (b. 1908 - d. 1993) (acting to 24 Apr 1953) 28 Jun 1954 - 28 Nov 1954 Pyun Yung Tai (b. 1892 - d. 1969) 15 Jun 1960 - 18 Aug 1960 Ho Chong (s.a.) 18 Aug 1960 - 18 May 1961 Chang Myon (2nd time) (s.a.) Chief cabinet ministers 21 May 1961 - 3 Jul 1961 Chang Do Yung (b. 1923 - d. 2012) 3 Jul 1961 - 16 Jun 1962 Song Yo Chan (b. 1918 - d. 1980) 18 Jun 1962 - 10 Jul 1962 Park Chung Hee (s.a.) 10 Jul 1962 - 17 Dec 1963 Kim Hyun Chul (b. 1901 - d. 1989) Prime ministers 17 Dec 1963 - 11 May 1964 Choi Doo Sun (b. 1894 - d. 1974) 11 May 1964 - 19 Dec 1970 Chung Il Kwon (b. 1917 - d. 1994) 19 Dec 1970 - 3 Jun 1971 Paik Too Chin (2nd time) (s.a.) 3 Jun 1971 - 19 Dec 1975 Kim Jong Pil (1st time) (b. 1926) 19 Dec 1975 - 6 Dec 1979 Choi Kyu Hah (s.a.) (acting to 13 Mar 1976) 12 Dec 1979 - 22 May 1980 Shin Hyon Hwak (b. 1920 - d. 2007) 22 May 1980 - 2 Sep 1980 Park Choong Hoon (acting) (s.a.) 2 Sep 1980 - 4 Jan 1982 Nam Duck Woo (b. 1924 - d. 2013) (acting to 22 Sep 1980) 4 Jan 1982 - 25 Jun 1982 Yoo Chang Soon (b. 1918 - d. 2010) (acting to 23 Jan 1982) 25 Jun 1982 - 14 Oct 1983 Kim Sang Hyup (b. 1920 - d. 1995) (acting to 21 Sep 1982) 15 Oct 1983 - 19 Feb 1985 Chin Iee Chong (b. 1921 - d. 1995) (acting to 17 Oct 1983) 8 Nov 1984 - 19 Feb 1985 Shin Byong Hyun (b. 1921 - d. 1999) (acting for Chin) 19 Feb 1985 - 26 May 1987 Lho Shin Yong (b. 1930) (acting to 16 May 1985) 26 May 1987 - 14 Jul 1987 Lee Han Key (acting) (b. 1917 - d. 1995) 14 Jul 1987 - 25 Feb 1988 Kim Chung Yul (b. 1917 - d. 1992) (acting to 7 Aug 1987) 25 Feb 1988 - 5 Dec 1988 Lee Hyun Jae (b. 1929) (acting to 2 Mar 1988) 5 Dec 1988 - 27 Dec 1990 Kang Young Hoon (b. 1922) (acting to 16 Dec 1988) 27 Dec 1990 - 24 May 1991 Ro Jai Bong (b. 1936) 24 May 1991 - 8 Oct 1992 Chung Won Shik (b. 1928) (acting to 8 Jul 1991) 8 Oct 1992 - 25 Feb 1993 Hyun Soong Jong (b. 1919) 25 Feb 1993 - 17 Dec 1993 Hwang In Sung (b. 1926 - d. 2010) 17 Dec 1993 - 22 Apr 1994 Lee Hoi Chang (b. 1935) 29 Apr 1994 - 17 Dec 1994 Lee Yung Duk (b. 1926 - d. 2010) 17 Dec 1994 - 18 Dec 1995 Lee Hong Koo (b. 1934) 18 Dec 1995 - 4 Mar 1997 Lee Soo Sung (b. 1939) 4 Mar 1997 - 3 Mar 1998 Goh Kun (1st time) (s.a.) 3 Mar 1998 - 13 Jan 2000 Kim Jong Pil (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 17 Aug 1998) 13 Jan 2000 - 19 May 2000 Park Tae Joon (b. 1927 - d. 2011) 19 May 2000 - 22 May 2000 Lee Hun Jai (1st time) (acting) (b. 1944) 22 May 2000 - 11 Jul 2002 Lee Han Dong (b. 1934) (acting to 29 Jun 2000) 11 Jul 2002 - 31 Jul 2002 Chang Sang (f) (acting) (b. 1939) 31 Jul 2002 - 9 Aug 2002 Jeon Yun Churl (acting) (b. 1939) 9 Aug 2002 - 10 Sep 2002 Chang Dae Whan (acting) (b. 1952) 10 Sep 2002 - 26 Feb 2003 Kim Suk Soo (b. 1932) (acting to 5 Oct 2002) 26 Feb 2003 - 25 May 2004 Goh Kun (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 May 2004 - 30 Jun 2004 Lee Hun Jai (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 30 Jun 2004 - 14 Mar 2006 Lee Hae Chan (b. 1952) 14 Mar 2006 - 19 Apr 2006 Han Duck Soo (1st time) (acting) (b. 1949) 19 Apr 2006 - 7 Mar 2007 Han Myung Sook (f) (b. 1944) 7 Mar 2007 - 2 Apr 2007 Kwon O Kyu (acting) (b. 1952) 2 Apr 2007 - 29 Feb 2008 Han Duck Soo (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Feb 2008 - 29 Sep 2009 Han Seung Soo (b. 1936) 29 Sep 2009 - 11 Aug 2010 Chung Un Chan (b. 1946) 11 Aug 2010 - 1 Oct 2010 Yoon Jeung Hyun (acting) (b. 1946) 1 Oct 2010 - 26 Feb 2013 Kim Hwang Sik (b. 1948) 26 Feb 2013 - Chung Hong Won (b. 1944)

Jeju

 1 Jul 2006                special autonomous province

Governors
   Jun 2004 - 30 Jun 2010  Kim Tae Hwan
 1 Jul 2010 -              Woo Keun Min

Kosovo

       1396                Kosovo begins to come under Ottoman administration
                           (completed 1455)
       1912                conquered by Serbia
 7 Sep 1913                annexed by Serbia
       1945                Autonomous Kosovo-Metohija District
       1963                Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija
       1968                Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo
28 Sep 1990                Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija
12 Jun 1999                foreign occupation
17 Feb 2008                independence declared (Republic of Kosovo), winning partial
                           international recognition (including most Western countries)

Kosovo within Serbia

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party
(from 1952, League of Communists)
   Sep 1944 -    Mar 1945  Miladin Popovic                    (b. 1910 - d. 1945)
   Mar 1945 -    Feb 1956  Djoka Pajkovic                     (b. 1917 - d. 1980)
   Feb 1956 -        1965  Dusan Mugosa                       (b. 1914 - d. 1973)
       1965 - 28 Jun 1971  Velli Deva (1st time)              (b. 1923)
28 Jun 1971 -  6 May 1981  Mahmut Bakalli                     (b. 1936 - d. 2006)
 6 May 1981 -    Jun 1982  Velli Deva (2nd time)              (s.a.)
   Jun 1982 -    May 1983  Sinan Hasani                       (b. 1922 - d. 2010)
   May 1983 -        1984  Ilaz Kurteshi                      (b. 1927)
       1984 -        1985  Svetislav Dolasevic
       1985 -    May 1986  Kolë Shiroka                       (b. 1922 - d. 1994)
   May 1986 -        1988  Azem Vllasi                        (b. 1948)
       1988 - 17 Nov 1988  Kaqusha Jashari (f)                (b. 1946)
17 Nov 1988 - 27 Jan 1989  Remzi Kolgeci (acting)             (b. 1947 - d. 2011)
27 Jan 1989 - 12 Oct 1990  Rahman Morina                      (b. 1943 - d. 1990)

Chairman of the People's Liberation Committee 1 Jan 1944 - 11 Jul 1945 Mehmet Hoxha (b. 1908 - d. 1987) Presidents of the Assembly 11 Jul 1945 - 20 Feb 1953 Fadil Hoxha (1st time) (b. 1916 - d. 2001) 20 Feb 1953 - 12 Dec 1953 Ismet Shaqiri (b. 1918 - d. 1986) 12 Dec 1953 - 5 May 1956 Djoka Pajkovic (s.a.) 5 May 1956 - 4 Apr 1960 Pavle Jovicevic (b. 1910 - d. 1985) 4 Apr 1960 - 18 Jun 1963 Dusan Mugosa (s.a.) 18 Jun 1963 - 24 Jun 1967 Stanoje Aksic (b. 1921 - d. 1970) 24 Jun 1967 - 7 May 1969 Fadil Hoxha (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 May 1969 - May 1974 Ilaz Kurteshi (s.a.) Presidents of the Presidency May 1974 - 5 Aug 1981 Xhavid Nimani (b. 1919 - d. 2000) 5 Aug 1981 - May 1982 Ali Shukri (b. 1919 - d. 2005) May 1982 - May 1983 Kolë Shiroka (s.a.) May 1983 - May 1985 Shefqet Nebih Gashi (b. 1927) May 1985 - May 1986 Branislav Skembarevic (b. 1920 - d. 2003) May 1986 - May 1988 Bajram Selani May 1988 - 5 Apr 1989 Remzi Kolgeci (s.a.) 27 Jun 1989 - 11 Apr 1990 Hysen Kajdomçaj (b. 1943) Provincial Coordinator 11 Apr 1990 - 1991 Momcilo Trajkovic (b. 1950) Mayors of Pristina 1991 - 1992 Zivojin Mitrovic (b. 1950) 1992 Novica Sojevic (b. 1940) Prefects of Kosovo district 1992 - 1994 Milos Simovic 1994 - 1996 Aleksa Jokic (b. 1950) 1996 - 1998 Milos Nesovic 1998 - 1999 Veljko Odalovic (1st time) (b. 1956) 1999 - 2000 Andreja Milosavljevic (b. 1936) 2000 - 2001 Veljko Odalovic (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Apr 2001 - 6 Dec 2001 Jovica Filipovic (b. 1963) 6 Dec 2001 - 28 Sep 2004 Dragan Velic (b. 1958) 28 Sep 2004 - 8 Dec 2007 Srdjan Vasic (b. 1960) 13 Dec 2007 - 4 Feb 2013 Goran Arsic 4 Feb 2013 - Vladeta Kostic (b. 1972)
Chairman of the Executive Council of the People's Committee 1945 - 1953 Fadil Hoxha (s.a.) Chairmen of the Executive Council 1953 - 1963 Fadil Hoxha (s.a.) 1963 - May 1967 Ali Shukri (s.a.) May 1967 - May 1974 Ilija Vakic (b. 1932) May 1974 - May 1978 Bogoljub Nedeljkovic (b. 1920 - d. 1986) May 1978 - Sep 1981 Bahri Oruçi (b. 1931 - d. 2011) Sep 1981 - May 1982 Riza Sapunxhiu (b. 1925 - d. 2008) May 1982 - 5 May 1984 Imer Pula (b. 1921 - d. 2010) 5 May 1984 - May 1986 Ljubomir Nedjo Borkovic (b. 1926) May 1986 - 1987 Nazmi Mustafa (b. 1941) 1987 - May 1989 Kaqusha Jashari (f) (s.a.) May 1989 - 1989 Nikolla Shkreli 1989 Daut Jashanica (b. 1948) 4 Dec 1989 - 5 Jul 1990 Jusuf Zejnullahu (b. 1944) Chairman of the Temporary Executive Council 28 Sep 1998 - 7 Mar 2002 Zoran Andjelkovic (b. 1958)
Alternative government
19 Oct 1991                independence declared (Republic of Kosovo)
 1 Feb 2000                international administration recognized

President
25 May 1992 -  1 Feb 2000  Ibrahim Rugova                     (b. 1944 - d. 2006)
                           (5 May - 30 Jul 1999 in Italian exile)

Prime ministers 19 Oct 1991 - 1 Feb 2000 Bujar Bukoshi (b. 1947) (1993 - Jun 1999 in Bonn [Germany] exile) 2 Apr 1999 - 1 Feb 2000 Hashim Thaçi (in opposition) (b. 1968)

International and independent administration

Administrators (heads of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo)
13 Jun 1999 - 15 Jul 1999  Sérgio Vieira de Mello (Brazil)    (b. 1948 - d. 2003)
                           (acting)
15 Jul 1999 - 15 Jan 2001  Bernard Kouchner (France)          (b. 1939)
15 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Hans Hækkerup (Denmark)            (b. 1945 - d. 2013)
 1 Jan 2002 - 14 Feb 2002  Charles H. Brayshaw (U.S.)
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1942)
14 Feb 2002 -  8 Jul 2003  Michael Steiner (Germany)          (b. 1949)
 8 Jul 2003 - 25 Aug 2003  Charles H. Brayshaw (U.S.)
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
25 Aug 2003 - 11 Jun 2004  Harri Holkeri (Finland)            (b. 1937 - d. 2011)
11 Jun 2004 - 16 Aug 2004  Charles H. Brayshaw (U.S.)
                           (3rd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
16 Aug 2004 - 30 Jun 2006  Søren Jessen-Petersen (Denmark)    (b. 1944)
30 Jun 2006 - 31 Aug 2006  Steven Schook (U.S.) (acting)      (b. 1953)
 1 Sep 2006 - 20 Jun 2008  Joachim Rücker (Germany)           (b. 1951)
20 Jun 2008 - 30 Jun 2011  Lamberto Zannier (Italy)           (b. 1954)
 1 Jul 2011 -  3 Aug 2011  Robert E. Sorenson (U.S.) (acting)
 3 Aug 2011 -              Farid Zarif (Afghanistan)          (b. 1951)
                           (acting to 11 Oct 2011)

Presidents 4 Mar 2002 - 21 Jan 2006 Ibrahim Rugova (s.a.) 21 Jan 2006 - 10 Feb 2006 Nexhat Daci (acting) (b. 1944) 10 Feb 2006 - 27 Sep 2010 Fatmir Sejdiu (b. 1951) 27 Sep 2010 - 22 Feb 2011 Jakup Krasniqi (1st time) (acting) (b. 1951) 22 Feb 2011 - 30 Mar 2011 Behgjet Pacolli (b. 1951) 30 Mar 2011 - 7 Apr 2011 Jakup Krasniqi (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 7 Apr 2011 - Atifete Jahjaga (f) (b. 1975)
Prime ministers 4 Mar 2002 - 3 Dec 2004 Bajram Rexhepi (b. 1954) 3 Dec 2004 - 8 Mar 2005 Ramush Haradinaj (b. 1968) 8 Mar 2005 - 23 Mar 2005 Adem Salihaj (acting) (b. 1950) 23 Mar 2005 - 10 Mar 2006 Bajram Kosumi (b. 1960) 10 Mar 2006 - 9 Jan 2008 Agim Çeku (b. 1960) 9 Jan 2008 - Hashim Thaçi (s.a.)

Krajina: see under Croatia.
Kurdistan: see under Iran and Iraq.

Kuwait

       1752                Al Sabah lineage founds Kuwait
 3 Nov 1914                British protectorate (informally since 23 Nov 1899)
19 Jun 1961                State of Kuwait
 8 Aug 1990 - 27 Feb 1991    annexed by Iraq

Rulers (from 1961, emirs)
- Banu `Utub dynasty -
       1752 -        1762  Sheikh Abu Abdullah Sabah
                           ibn Jabir Al Sabah                 (b. 16... - d. 1762)
       1762 -  3 May 1814  Sheikh Abdullah ibn Sabah Al Sabah (b. c.1740 - d. 1814)
 3 May 1814 -        1859  Sheikh Jabir ibn Abdullah Al Sabah (b. c.1770 - d. 1859)
       1859 -    Nov 1866  Sheikh Sabah ibn Jabir Al Sabah    (b. ... - d. 1866)
   Nov 1866 -    May 1892  Sheikh Abdullah ibn Sabah Al Sabah (b. 1814 - d. 1892)
   May 1892 - 17 May 1896  Sheikh Muhammad ibn Sabah Al Sabah (b. 1831 - d. 1896)
18 May 1896 - 28 Nov 1915  Sheikh Mubarak al-Lahab ibn Sabah
                           Al Sabah                           (b. 1837 - d. 1915)
28 Nov 1915 -  5 Feb 1917  Sheikh Jabir Al Mubarak Al Sabah   (b. 1860 - d. 1917)
 5 Feb 1917 - 22 Feb 1921  Sheikh Salim Al Mubarak Al Sabah   (b. 1864 - d. 1921)
22 Feb 1921 - 29 Jan 1950  Sheikh Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah     (b. 1885 - d. 1950)
29 Jan 1950 - 24 Nov 1965  Sheikh Abdullah Al Salim Al Sabah  (b. 1895 - d. 1965)
24 Nov 1965 - 31 Dec 1977  Sheikh Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah     (b. 1913 - d. 1977)
31 Dec 1977 - 15 Jan 2006  Sheikh Jabir Al Ahmad Al Jabir
                           Al Sabah                           (b. 1926 - d. 2006)
                           (2 Aug 1990 - 14 Mar 1991 in at-Ta´if [Saudi Arabia] exile)
 4 Aug 1990 -  8 Aug 1990    Alaa Hussein Ali                 (b. 1948?)
                             (Iraqi-installed head of state)
   Aug 1990 -    Nov 1990    Ali Hassan al-Majid              (b. 194... - d. 2010)
                             (Iraqi governor)
   Nov 1990 -    Feb 1991    Aziz Salih al-Numan              (b. 194...)
                             (Iraqi governor)
15 Jan 2006 - 24 Jan 2006  Sheikh Saad Al Abdullah Al Salim
                           Al Sabah                           (b. 1929 - d. 2008)
29 Jan 2006 -              Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Jabir
                           Al Sabah                           (b. 1929)

Prime ministers 17 Jan 1962 - 2 Feb 1963 Sheikh Jabir Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah (1st time) (s.a.) 2 Feb 1963 - 30 Nov 1965 Sheikh Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah (s.a.) 30 Nov 1965 - 8 Feb 1978 Sheikh Jabir Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Feb 1978 - 15 Jul 2003 Sheikh Saad Al Abdullah Al Salim Al Sabah (s.a.) (2 Aug 1990 - 4 Mar 1991 in at-Ta´if [Saudi Arabia] exile) 15 Jul 2003 - 11 Feb 2006 Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah (s.a.) 11 Feb 2006 - 4 Dec 2011 Sheikh Nasser Muhammad Al Ahmad Al Sabah (b. 1941) 4 Dec 2011 - Sheikh Jabir Mubarak Al Hamad Al Sabah (b. 1942) British political agents (subordinated to the chief political residents of the Persian Gulf; see under Bahrain) 1904 - 1909 Stuart George Knox (b. 1869 - d. 1956) 1909 - 1914 William Henry Irvine Shakespear (b. 1878 - d. 1915) 1914 - 1916 William George Grey (b. 1866 - d. 1953) 1916 - 1918 Robert Edward Archibald Hamilton (b. 1871 - d. 1950) 1918 Percy Gordon Loch (b. 1887 - d. 1953) 1918 - 1920 Daniel Vincent McCollum 1920 - 1929 James Carmichael More (b. 1883 - d. 1959) 1929 - 1936 Harold Richard Patrick Dickson (1st time) (b. 1881 - d. 1959) 1936 - 1939 Gerald Simpson de Gaury (b. 1897 - d. 1984) 1939 - 1941 Arnold Crawshaw Galloway (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1988) 1941 Harold Richard Patrick Dickson (2nd time) (s.a.) 1941 - 1943 Tom Hickinbotham (b. 1903 - d. 1983) 1943 - 1944 Cornelius James Pelly (1st time) (b. 1908 - d. 1985) 1944 - 1945 Gordon Noel Jackson (b. 1913 - d. 1999) 1945 - 1946 Maurice Patrick Tandy (b. 1912 - d. 1986) 1946 - 1947 Arnold Crawshaw Galloway (2nd time) (s.a.) 1947 - 1951 Herbert George Jakins (b. 1897 - d. ...) 1951 - 1955 Cornelius James Pelly (2nd time) (s.a.) 1955 - 1957 Gawain Westray Bell (b. 1909 - d. 1995) 1957 - 1959 Aubrey Seymour Halford-MacLeod (b. 1914 - d. 2000) 1959 - 1961 John Christopher Blake Richmond (b. 1909 - d. 1990)

Kwangchowan: see under China.
Kwantung: see under China.

Kyrgyzstan

 5 Dec 1936                Kirgiz Soviet Socialist Republic (see Soviet republics)
15 Dec 1990                Kyrgyz Republic (semi-officially Republic of Kyrgyzstan
                           until 5 May 1993)
31 Aug 1991                independence declared
25 Dec 1991                final independence (dissolution of the U.S.S.R.)

Presidents
27 Oct 1990 - 11 Apr 2005  Askar Akayev                       (b. 1944)
                           (de facto deposed 24 Mar 2005)
24 Mar 2005 - 25 Mar 2005    Ishenbay Kadyrbekov (acting)     (b. 1949)
25 Mar 2005 - 16 Apr 2010  Kurmanbek Bakiyev                  (b. 1949)
                           (acting to 14 Aug 2005; de facto deposed 7 Apr 2010)
 7 Apr 2010 -  1 Dec 2011  Roza Otunbayeva (f)                (b. 1950)
                           (chairman of provisional government to 19 May 2010)
 1 Dec 2011 -              Almazbek Atambayev                 (b. 1956)

Prime ministers 21 Jan 1991 - 29 Nov 1991 Nasirdin Isanov (b. 1943 - d. 1991) 29 Nov 1991 - 10 Feb 1992 Andrey Iordan (acting) (b. 1934 - d. 2006) 10 Feb 1992 - 13 Dec 1993 Tursunbek Chyngyshev (b. 1942) (acting to 26 Feb 1992) 13 Dec 1993 - 14 Dec 1993 Almanbet Matubraimov (acting) (b. 1952) 14 Dec 1993 - 24 Mar 1998 Apas Jumagulov (b. 1934) 24 Mar 1998 - 23 Dec 1998 Kubanychbek Jumaliyev (b. 1956) (acting to 25 Mar 1998) 23 Dec 1998 - 25 Dec 1998 Boris Silayev (1st time) (acting) (b. 1946) 25 Dec 1998 - 4 Apr 1999 Jumabek Ibraimov (b. 1944 - d. 1999) 4 Apr 1999 - 12 Apr 1999 Boris Silayev (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 12 Apr 1999 - 21 Dec 2000 Amangeldy Muraliyev (b. 1947) (acting to 21 Apr 1999) 21 Dec 2000 - 22 May 2002 Kurmanbek Bakiyev (1st time) (s.a.) 22 May 2002 - 25 Mar 2005 Nikolay Tanayev (b. 1945) (acting to 30 May 2002) 25 Mar 2005 - 15 Aug 2005 Kurmanbek Bakiyev (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 28 Mar 2005) 20 Jun 2005 - 10 Jul 2005 Medetbek Kerimkulov (b. 1949) (acting for Bakiyev) 15 Aug 2005 - 29 Jan 2007 Feliks Kulov (b. 1948) (acting to 1 Sep 2005) 29 Jan 2007 - 29 Mar 2007 Azim Isabekov (b. 1960) 29 Mar 2007 - 28 Nov 2007 Almazbek Atambayev (1st time) (s.a.) (acting to 30 Mar 2007) 28 Nov 2007 - 24 Dec 2007 Iskenderbek Aidaraliyev (acting) (b. 1955) 24 Dec 2007 - 21 Oct 2009 Igor Chudinov (b. 1961) 21 Oct 2009 - 7 Apr 2010 Daniyar Usenov (b. 1960) 17 Dec 2010 - 1 Dec 2011 Almazbek Atambayev (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Sep 2011 - 14 Nov 2011 Omurbek Babanov (b. 1970) (acting for Atambayev) 1 Dec 2011 - 1 Sep 2012 Omurbek Babanov (s.a.) (acting to 23 Dec 2011) 1 Sep 2012 - 5 Sep 2012 Aaly Karashev (acting) (b. 1968) 5 Sep 2012 - 26 Mar 2014 Zhantoro Satybaldiyev (b. 1956) 26 Mar 2014 - Joomart Otorbayev (b. 1955) (acting to 3 Apr 2014)