Rulers

Countries Ca-Ce

Contents of this page:
Cabo Verde - Cambodia - Cameroon - Canada - Cayman Islands - Central African Republic

Cabo Verde

       1462                first Portuguese settlement
 5 Jul 1975                independence (Republic of Cape Verde)
25 Oct 2013                Republic of Cabo Verde (Portuguese name no longer translated)

Governors
 4 Nov 1698 -        1702  António Salgado
10 Feb 1702 -        1702  Jorge Cotrim de Mello
12 Apr 1702 -        1707  Gonçalo de Lemos Mascarenhas
11 May 1707 -        1710  Rodrigo de Oliveira da Fonseca
12 Feb 1710 -        1715  José Pinheiro da Câmara
27 Mar 1715 - 20 Jun 1715  Manuel Pereira Calheiros e Araújo  (b. ... - d. 1715)
16 Dec 1715 -        1719  Serafim Teixeira Sarmento de Sá
 9 Apr 1719 -        1720  Balthasar de Sousa Coutinho
11 Mar 1720 -  4 Jan 1725  António Vieira                     (b. ... - d. 1725)
24 Jan 1726 -        1728  Francisco Miguel da Nóbrega
                           Vasconcelos
10 Jul 1728 -        1733  Francisco de Oliveira Grans
       1733 -        1737  Bento Gomes Coelho
 1 May 1736 -  7 Aug 1738  José da Fonseca Barbosa            (b. ... - d. 1738)
       1738 -        1741  Chamber Senate
10 Jun 1741 -        1751  João Zuzarte de Santa Maria
 6 Mar 1751 -        1751  António José d'Eça e Faria         (b. ... - d. 1751)
       1752 -        1756  Luís António da Cunha d'Eça
       1756 -        1761  Manuel António de Sousa e Meneses
 5 Mar 1761 -        1761  Marcelino Pereira de Ávila
       1761 -        1764  António de Barros Bezerra
       1764 -        1766  Bartolomeu de Sousa de Brito Tigre
       1766 -        1767  João Jácome de Brito Barena
                           Henriques                          (b. ... - d. 1767)
25 Nov 1768 -        1777  Joaquim Salema Saldanha Lôbo       (b. ... - d. 1777)
       1777 -        1781  António do Vale de Sousa e Meneses
19 Feb 1781 -        1782  Duarte de Melo da Silva Castro de
                           Almeida
       1782 -        1783  Francisco de São Simão (acting)
23 Aug 1784 -        1789  António Machado de Faria e Maia
 2 Apr 1789 -        1793  Francisco José Teixeira Carneiro
27 Sep 1793 - 10 Sep 1795  José da Silva Maldonado d'Eça      (b. ... - d. 1795)
 3 Aug 1796 - 29 Nov 1802  Marcelino António Bastos           (b. ... - d. 1802)
12 May 1803 -        1818  António Coutinho de Lencastre
 6 Feb 1818 -        1822  António Pussich
 9 May 1822 -        1826  João da Matta Chapuzet
 7 Sep 1826 -        1830  Caetano Procópio Godinho de
                           Vasconcelos
       1830 -        1831  Duarte da Costa e Sousa de Macedo
       1831 -        1834  José Coutinho de Lencastre
       1834 -        1835  Manuel António Martins             (b. ... - d. 1835)
       1835 -        1836  Joaquim Pereira Marinho (1st time)
       1836 -        1837  Domingos Correia Arouca
       1837 -        1839  Joaquim Pereira Marinho (2nd time)
       1839 -        1842  António Maria de Fontes Pereira de
                           Melo (1st time)                    (b. 1819 - d. 1887)
 5 Apr 1842 -        1845  Francisco de Paula Bastos
26 Jun 1845 -        1847  José Miguel de Noronha
28 Jul 1847 -        1851  António Maria de Fontes Pereira de
                           Melo (2nd time)                    (s.a.)
25 Jun 1851 -        1854  Fortunato José Barreiros
 6 Apr 1854 -        1857  António Maria Barreiros Arrobas
25 Nov 1857 -        1860  Sebastião Lopes de Calheiros e
                           Meneses                            (b. 1816 - d. 1899)
       1860                Januário Correia de Almeida        (b. 1829 - d. 1901)
 6 Sep 1860 -        1863  Carlos Joaquim Franco
       1863 -        1869  José Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses
11 Feb 1869 -        1876  Caetano Alexandre de Almeida e
                           Albuquerque                        (b. 1824 - d. 1916)
       1877                G.C. Lopes de Macedo
       1878                Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
       1879 -        1881  António de Nascimento Pereira de
                           Sampaio
       1882 -        1886  João Paes de Vasconcellos
       1887 -        1889  João Cesário de Lacerda (1st time)
       1890                Augusto Cesário Carlos de
                           Carvalho
       1891 -        1896  José Guedes Brandão de Melo        (b. 1846 - d. ...)
       1897                Alexandre Alberto da Rocha de
                           Serpa Pinto                        (b. 1846 - d. 1900)
       1898 -        1900  João Cesário de Lacerda (2nd time)
       1901 -        1902  Arnaldo de Novalis Guedes
                           de Rebêlo
       1902 -        1903  Francisco de Paula Cid
       1903 -        1904  António Alfredo Barjona de
                           Freitas
       1905 -        1907  Amâncio Alpoim de Cerqueira
                           Borges Cabral
       1907 -        1909  Bernardo António da Costa de Sousa
                           de Macedo                          (b. 1863 - d. 1947)
       1909 -        1910  Martinho Pinto de Queiros
                           Montenegro
       1910 -        1911  António de Macedo Ramalho Ortigão  (b. 1876 - d. 1963)
       1911                Artur Marinha de Campos
       1911 -        1915  Joaquím Pedro Vieira Indice
                           Bicker
       1915 -        1918  Abel Fontoura da Costa             (b. 1896 - d. 1940)
       1918 -        1919  Teófilo Duarte                     (b. 1898 - d. 1958)
       1919 -        1921  Manuel Firmino de Almeida
                           da Maia Magalhães
       1921 -        1922  Filipe Carlos Días de Carvalho     (b. 1868 - d. 1934)
       1924 -        1926  Julio Henríques d'Abreu
       1927                João de Almeida                    (b. 1873 - d. 1953)
       1927 -        1931  António Alvares Guedes Vaz         (b. 1875 - d. 19...)
       1931 -        1941  Amadeu Gomes de Figueiredo
       1941 -        1943  José Diogo Ferreira Martins
       1943 -        1949  João de Figueiredo
       1950 -        1953  Carlos Alberto García Alves
                           Roçadas
       1953 -        1957  Manuel Marques de Abrantes Amaral
       1957 -        1958  António Augusto Peixoto Correia    (b. 1913)
                           (acting)
       1958 -        1962  Silvino Silvério Marques           (b. 1918 - d. 2013)
       1963 -        1969  Leão do Sacramento Monteiro        (b. 1920 - d. 2006)
13 Mar 1969 -        1974  António Adriano Faria Lopes dos
                           Santos                             (b. 1919 - d. 2009)
 6 Aug 1974 - 21 Sep 1974  Henrique Afonso da Silva Horta     (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
21 Sep 1974 -  5 Jul 1975  Vicente Almeida d'Eça              (b. 1918)
                           (high commissioner from 30 Dec 1974)
Presidents
 8 Jul 1975 - 22 Mar 1991  Aristides Pereira                  (b. 1923 - d. 2011)
22 Mar 1991 - 22 Mar 2001  António Mascarenhas Monteiro       (b. 1944)
22 Mar 2001 -  9 Sep 2011  Pedro Pires                        (b. 1934)
 9 Sep 2011 -              Jorge Carlos Fonseca               (b. 1950)

Prime ministers 8 Jul 1975 - 4 Apr 1991 Pedro Pires (s.a.) 4 Apr 1991 - 5 Oct 2000 Carlos Veiga (b. 1949) 29 Jul 2000 - 1 Feb 2001 Gualberto do Rosário (b. 1950) (acting for Veiga to 5 Oct 2000) 1 Feb 2001 - José Maria Neves (b. 1960)

Cakaudrove: see under Fiji.

Cambodia

     c.1340                Kingdom of Cambodia
11 Aug 1863                French protectorate
17 Oct 1887                part of French Indochina (see under Vietnam)
12 Mar 1945 - 16 Oct 1945  independent under Japanese occupation
 8 Nov 1949                French associated state
 9 Nov 1953                independence
 9 Oct 1970                Khmer Republic
 5 Jan 1976                Democratic Kampuchea
 7 Jan 1979                People's Republic of Kampuchea
 1 May 1989                State of Cambodia
24 Sep 1993                Kingdom of Cambodia

Secretaries-general of the People's Revolutionary (Communist) Party of Kampuchea
29 May 1981 -  5 Dec 1981  Pen Sovan                          (b. 1936)
 5 Dec 1981 -    Oct 1991  Heng Samrin                        (b. 1934)

Kings/Queens - Varman dynasty - 1699 - 1701 Ang Em (1st time) (b. 1674 - d. 1731) 1701 - 1702 Chettha IV (3rd time) (b. c.1650 - d. 1725) 1702 - 1703 Thommo Reachea II (1st time) (b. 1690 - d. 1747) 1703 - 1706 Chettha IV (4th time) (s.a.) 1706 - 1710 Thommo Reachea II (2nd time) (s.a.) 1710 - 1722 Ang Em (2nd time) (s.a.) 1722 - 1738 Satha II (b. ... - d. 1749) 1738 - 1747 Thommo Reachea II (3rd time) (s.a.) 1747 Thommo Reachea III (b. 1705 - d. 1747) 1747 - 1749 Ang Tong (1st time) (b. 1693 - d. 1757) 1749 - 1755 Chettha V (b. 1709 - d. 1755) 1755 - 1757 Ang Tong (2nd time) (s.a.) 1758 - 1775 Outey II (b. 1739 - d. 1777) 1775 - Aug 1779 Ang Non II (b. 1739 - d. 1779) 1779 - 5 May 1796 Ang Eng (b. 1773 - d. 1796) 1796 - 1806 Pok (regent) 1806 - 1811 Ang Chan II (1st time) (b. 1791 - d. 1835) 1811 - 1812 Ang Em (regent) (b. 1794 - d. 1844) 1812 - 13 May 1813 Ang Snguon (regent) (b. 1794 - d. 1822) 13 May 1813 - Dec 1834 Ang Chan II (2nd time) (s.a.) 1835 - Aug 1840 Ang Mey (f) (1st time) (b. 1815 - d. 1874) 1841 - 1844 Ang Duong (1st time) (b. 1796 - d. 1860) 1844 - 1845 Ang Mey (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1845 - 19 Oct 1860 Ang Duong (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Oct 1860 - 24 Apr 1904 Norodom (b. 1834 - d. 1904) 24 Apr 1904 - 9 Aug 1927 Sisowath (b. 1840 - d. 1927) 9 Aug 1927 - 23 Apr 1941 Sisowath Monivong (b. 1875 - d. 1941) 24 Apr 1941 - 3 Mar 1955 Norodom Sihanouk (1st time) (b. 1922 - d. 2012) 3 Mar 1955 - 3 Apr 1960 Norodom Suramarit (b. 1896 - d. 1960) Heads of state 3 Apr 1960 - 6 Apr 1960 Chuop Hell (1st time) (acting) (b. 1909 - d. 19...) 6 Apr 1960 - 13 Jun 1960 Prince Sisowath Monireth (b. 1909 - d. 1975) (chairman Regency Council) 13 Jun 1960 - 20 Jun 1960 Chuop Hell (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 20 Jun 1960 - 18 Mar 1970 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (1st time) (s.a.) (continues in exile in Beijing, China) 18 Mar 1970 - 10 Mar 1972 Cheng Heng (b. 1910 - d. 1996) (acting to 9 Oct 1970) 10 Mar 1972 - 14 Mar 1972 Lon Nol (b. 1913 - d. 1985) Presidents 14 Mar 1972 - 12 Apr 1975 Lon Nol (s.a.) 1 Apr 1975 - 12 Apr 1975 Saukham Khoy (b. 1915 - d. 2008) (acting for Lon Nol) 12 Apr 1975 - 17 Apr 1975 Sak Sutsakhan (b. 1928 - d. 1994) (chairman Supreme Committee) Head of state 17 Apr 1975 - 11 Apr 1976 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (2nd time) (s.a.) Chairman of the State Presidium 11 Apr 1976 - 7 Jan 1979 Khieu Samphan (b. 1931) President of the People's Revolutionary Council 7 Jan 1979 - 27 Jun 1981 Heng Samrin (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of State 27 Jun 1981 - 6 Apr 1992 Heng Samrin (s.a.) 6 Apr 1992 - 14 Jun 1993 Chea Sim (b. 1932) Chairman of the Supreme National Council 20 Nov 1991 - 14 Jun 1993 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (s.a.) Head of state 14 Jun 1993 - 24 Sep 1993 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (3rd time) (s.a.) Kings 24 Sep 1993 - 6 Oct 2004 Norodom Sihanouk (2nd time) (s.a.) (in self-imposed exile from 10 Apr 2004) Acting heads of state: 6 Oct 1993 - 8 Apr 1994 Samdech Chea Sim (1st time) (s.a.) 18 May 1994 - 4 Jan 1995 Samdech Chea Sim (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Apr 2004 - 13 Jul 2004 Samdech Chea Sim (3rd time) (s.a.) 13 Jul 2004 - 22 Jul 2004 Nhek Bun Chhay (b. 1956) 22 Jul 2004 - 20 Oct 2004 Samdech Chea Sim (4th time) (s.a.) 14 Oct 2004 - Norodom Sihamoni (b. 1953)
Prime ministers 18 Mar 1945 - 13 Aug 1945 Norodom Sihanouk (1st time) (s.a.) 14 Aug 1945 - 16 Oct 1945 Son Ngoc Thanh (1st time) (b. 1908 - d. 1977) 17 Oct 1945 - 15 Dec 1946 Prince Sisowath Monireth (s.a.) 15 Dec 1946 - 17 Jul 1947 Prince Sisowath Youtevong (b. 1913 - d. 1947) 25 Jul 1947 - 20 Feb 1948 Sisowath Watchayavong (b. 1891 - d. 1972) 20 Feb 1948 - 14 Aug 1948 Chhean Vam (b. 1916 - d. 2000) 15 Aug 1948 - 21 Jan 1949 Samdech Penn Nouth (1st time) (b. 1906 - d. 1985) 12 Feb 1949 - 20 Sep 1949 Yem Sambaur (1st time) (b. 1913 - d. 1989) 20 Sep 1949 - 29 Sep 1949 Ieu Koeus (b. 1905 - d. 1950) 29 Sep 1949 - 28 Apr 1950 Yem Sambaur (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Apr 1950 - 30 May 1950 Norodom Sihanouk (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 May 1950 - 3 Mar 1951 Samdech Krom Luong Sisowath Monipong (b. 1912 - d. 1956) 3 Mar 1951 - 12 Oct 1951 Oum Chheang Sun (1st time) (b. 1900 - d. 19...) 13 Oct 1951 - 16 Jun 1952 Huy Kanthoul (b. 1909 - d. 1991) 16 Jun 1952 - 24 Jan 1953 Norodom Sihanouk (3rd time) (s.a.) 24 Jan 1953 - 22 Nov 1953 Samdech Penn Nouth (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Nov 1953 - 7 Apr 1954 Chan Nak (b. 1892 - d. 1954) 7 Apr 1954 - 18 Apr 1954 Norodom Sihanouk (4th time) (s.a.) 18 Apr 1954 - 25 Jan 1955 Samdech Penn Nouth (3rd time) (s.a.) 25 Jan 1955 - 3 Oct 1955 Leng Ngeth (b. 1900 - d. 19...) 3 Oct 1955 - 4 Jan 1956 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (5th time) (s.a.) 4 Jan 1956 - 1 Mar 1956 Oum Chheang Sun (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Mar 1956 - 3 Apr 1956 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (6th time) (s.a.) 3 Apr 1956 - 15 Sep 1956 Khim Tit (b. 1896 - d. 19...) 15 Sep 1956 - 25 Oct 1956 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (7th time) (s.a.) 25 Oct 1956 - 9 Apr 1957 San Yun (b. 1905 - d. 1974) 9 Apr 1957 - 27 Jul 1957 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (8th time) (s.a.) 27 Jul 1957 - 11 Jan 1958 Sim Var (1st time) (b. 1906 - d. 1989) 11 Jan 1958 - 17 Jan 1958 Ek Yi Oun (b. 1910) 17 Jan 1958 - 24 Apr 1958 Samdech Penn Nouth (4th time) (s.a.) 24 Apr 1958 - 10 Jul 1958 Sim Var (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Jul 1958 - 18 Apr 1960 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (9th time) (s.a.) 18 Apr 1960 - 28 Jan 1961 Pho Proeung (b. 1903 - d. 19...) 28 Jan 1961 - 17 Nov 1961 Samdech Penn Nouth (5th time) (s.a.) 17 Nov 1961 - 6 Aug 1962 Prince Norodom Sihanouk (10th time) (s.a.) 13 Feb 1962 - 6 Aug 1962 Nhiek Tioulong (b. 1908 - d. 1996) (acting for Sihanouk) 6 Aug 1962 - 6 Oct 1962 Chau Sen Cocsal Chhum (b. 1905 - d. 2009) 6 Oct 1962 - 22 Oct 1966 Prince Norodom Kantol (b. 1920 - d. 1976) 22 Oct 1966 - 2 May 1967 Lon Nol (1st time) (s.a.) 2 May 1967 - 30 Jan 1968 Son Sann (b. 1911 - d. 2000) 30 Jan 1968 - 14 Aug 1969 Samdech Penn Nouth (6th time) (s.a.) 14 Aug 1969 - 10 Mar 1972 Lon Nol (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 May 1971 - 12 Mar 1972 Sisowath Sirik Matak (b. 1914 - d. 1975) ("prime minister-delegate" acting for Lon Nol to 10 Mar 1972) 18 Mar 1972 - 14 Oct 1972 Son Ngoc Thanh (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Oct 1972 - 16 May 1973 Hang Thun Hak (b. 1926 - d. 1975) 16 May 1973 - 26 Dec 1973 In Tam (b. 1922 - d. 2006) 26 Dec 1973 - 17 Apr 1975 Long Boret (b. 1933 - d. 1975) 17 Apr 1975 - 4 Apr 1976 Samdech Penn Nouth (7th time) (s.a.) (in exile [Sihanoukist government] from 5 May 1970) 4 Apr 1976 - 13 May 1976 Khieu Samphan (s.a.) 13 May 1976 - 7 Jan 1979 Pol Pot (b. 1925 - d. 1998) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers) 27 Jun 1981 - 5 Dec 1981 Pen Sovan (s.a.) 5 Dec 1981 - 26 Dec 1984 Chan Sy (b. 1932 - d. 1984) (acting to 9 Feb 1982) 14 Jan 1985 - 2 Jul 1993 Hun Sen (b. 1952) Coequal prime ministers 2 Jul 1993 - 21 Sep 1993 Hun Sen (s.a.) + Prince Norodom Ranariddh (b. 1944) First prime ministers 21 Sep 1993 - 6 Jul 1997 Prince Norodom Ranariddh (s.a.) 16 Jul 1997 - 30 Nov 1998 Ung Huot (b. 1945) Second prime minister 21 Sep 1993 - 30 Nov 1998 Samdech Hun Sen (s.a.) Prime minister 30 Nov 1998 - Samdech Hun Sen (s.a.) French representatives Apr 1863 - Jul 1866 Ernest Doudart de Lagrée (b. 1823 - d. 1868) Jul 1866 - 20 Feb 1868 Armand Pottier (1st time) 20 Feb 1868 - 10 Mar 1870 Jean Moura (1st time) (b. 1827 - d. 1885) 10 Mar 1870 - 11 Nov 1870 Armand Pottier (2nd time) (acting) 11 Nov 1870 - 1 Jan 1871 Jules Brossard de Corbigny (b. 1841 - d. 1934) (acting) 1 Jan 1871 - 6 Jan 1879 Jean Moura (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Jan 1879 - 10 May 1881 Étienne Aymonier (acting) (b. 1844 - d. 1929) 10 May 1881 - 12 Aug 1885 Augustin Julien Fourès (acting) (b. 1853 - d. 19...) Residents-general 12 Aug 1885 - 18 Oct 1885 Jules Victor Renaud (acting) 18 Oct 1885 - 17 May 1886 Pierre de Badens (provisional) (b. 1847 - d. 1897) 17 May 1886 - 4 Nov 1887 Jules Georges Piquet (b. 1839 - d. 1923) 4 Nov 1887 - 10 Mar 1889 Louis Eugène Palasne de Champeaux (b. 1840 - d. 1889) (acting) 10 Mar 1889 - 16 May 1889 Orsini (acting) Residents-superior 16 May 1889 - 24 Jan 1894 Louis Albert Huyn de Vernéville (1st time) (b. 1845 - d. 1909) 24 Jan 1894 - 4 Aug 1894 Félix Léonce Marquant (acting) 4 Aug 1894 - 14 May 1897 Louis Albert Huyn de Vernéville (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 May 1897 - 16 Jan 1900 Alexandre Ducos (b. 1851 - d. 1908) 16 Jan 1900 - 3 Jun 1901 Paul Louis Luce (1st time) (b. 1856 - d. 19...) (acting) 3 Jun 1901 - 17 Jul 1902 Léon Jules Pol Boulloche (b. 1855 - d. 19...) 17 Jul 1902 - 26 Oct 1902 Charles Pallier (acting) 26 Oct 1902 - 25 Sep 1904 Henri de Lamothe (b. 1843 - d. 1926) 25 Sep 1904 - 16 Oct 1905 Louis Jules Morel (b. 1853 - d. 19...) 16 Oct 1905 - 29 Dec 1905 Olivier Charles Arthur de Lalande de Calan (acting) 29 Dec 1905 - 26 Jul 1911 Paul Louis Luce (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Jul 1911 - 26 Mar 1914 Ernest Outrey (b. 1863 - d. 1941) (acting to 8 Oct 1911) 26 Mar 1914 - 25 Jul 1914 Xavier Tessarech (acting) 25 Jul 1914 - 22 Oct 1914 Maurice Le Gallen (acting) 22 Oct 1914 - 20 Jan 1927 François Marius Baudouin Acting for Baudouin: 15 Apr 1920 - 6 Dec 1920 Georges Maspéro (b. 1872 - d. 1942) 6 Dec 1920 - 21 Feb 1921 Joseph Létang 10 Apr 1922 - 8 May 1924 Victor L'Helgoualc'h (b. 1870 - d. 1968) 20 Jan 1927 - 1 Jan 1929 Aristide Eugène Le Fol 1 Jan 1929 - 12 Jan 1929 Achille Silvestre (1st time) (acting) 12 Jan 1929 - 4 Mar 1932 Fernand Lavit 4 Mar 1932 - 15 Jan 1935 Achille Silvestre (2nd time) (acting to 7 Dec 1932) 15 Jan 1935 - 12 Dec 1936 Henri Louis Marie Richomme (b. 1880 - d. 1945) (acting) 12 Dec 1936 - 29 Dec 1941 Léon Emmanuel Thibaudeau (b. 1883 - d. 1946) (acting to 16 Jun 1937) 29 Dec 1941 - 2 Mar 1943 Jean de Lens (acting) 2 Mar 1943 - Nov 1944 Georges Armand Léon Gautier (b. 1901 - d. 1987) Nov 1944 - 15 Oct 1945 André Joseph Berjoan (acting) (b. 1903 - d. 1990) Commissioners 15 Oct 1945 - 10 Apr 1946 Paul Huard (b. 1903 - d. 1994) 10 Apr 1946 - 20 May 1947 Romain Victor Pénavaire (b. 1904 - d. 1968) (acting to 25 Jul 1946) 20 May 1947 - 20 Oct 1948 Léon Pignon (b. 1908 - d. 1976) 20 Oct 1948 - 26 Feb 1949 Lucien Vincent Loubet (acting) (b. 1905) 26 Feb 1949 - 29 Oct 1951 Jean de Raymond (b. 1907 - d. 1951) 30 Oct 1951 - 16 May 1952 Yves Digo (b. 1897 - d. 1974) 16 May 1952 - 9 Nov 1953 Jean Risterucci (b. 1911 - d. 1982)

Cameroon

14 Jul 1884                German protectorate (from 1 Jan 1901 named Cameroon)
20 Feb 1916                French and British occupation
28 Jun 1919                division into French and British Cameroons, the latter
                           administered from Nigeria until 1 Oct 1960
20 Jul 1922                League of Nations mandates
13 Dec 1946                United Nations trust territories
 1 Jan 1960                French Cameroons independent as Republic of Cameroon
 1 Oct 1961                Federal Republic of Cameroon after unification with
                           southern part of British Cameroons (northern part
                           united with Nigeria 1 Jun 1961)
 2 Jun 1972                United Republic of Cameroon
 4 Feb 1984                Republic of Cameroon

German Cameroon

Commissioners
14 Jul 1884 - 19 Jul 1884  Gustav Nachtigal                   (b. 1834 - d. 1885)
19 Jul 1884 -  1 Apr 1885  Maximilian Buchner (acting)        (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
 1 Apr 1885 -  4 Jul 1885  Eduard von Knorr (acting)          (b. 1840 - d. 1920)
Governors
 4 Jul 1885 - 14 Feb 1891  Julius Freiherr von Soden          (b. 1846 - d. 1921)
15 Apr 1891 - 13 Aug 1895  Eugen von Zimmerer                 (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
13 Aug 1895 -  9 May 1907  Jesco von Puttkamer                (b. 1855 - d. 1917)
 9 May 1907 - 27 Aug 1910  Theodor Seitz                      (b. 1863 - d. 1949)
28 Aug 1910 - 29 Jan 1912  Otto Gleim                         (b. 1836 - d. 1929)
29 Jan 1912 -  4 Mar 1916  Karl Ebermaier                     (b. 1862 - d. 1943)

British Cameroons

Residents
       1919 -        19..  ...
      *1947 -        1949  Frank Bridges                      (b. 1895 - d. 1994)
       1949 -  1 Oct 1954  Edward John Gibbons                (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
Commissioners
 1 Oct 1954 -        1956  Edward John Gibbons                (s.a.)
       1956 -  1 Oct 1961  John Osbaldiston Field             (b. 1913 - d. 1985)

Premiers 1 Oct 1954 - 1 Feb 1959 Emmanuel Endeley (b. 1916 - d. 1988) 1 Feb 1959 - 1 Oct 1961 John Ngu Foncha (b. 1916 - d. 1999) Administrator of Northern Cameroons 1 Oct 1960 - 1 Jun 1961 Sir Percy Wyn-Harris (b. 1903 - d. 1979)

French Cameroons

25 May 1921                Occupied Territories of Former Cameroon renamed Cameroon
                           Territories

Commissioners
 7 Apr 1916 -  8 Oct 1916  Joseph Gauderique Aymerich         (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
 8 Oct 1916 -        1919  Lucien Fourneau                    (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
 6 Mar 1919 -    Mar 1923  Jules Carde                        (b. 1874 - d. 1949)
                           (acting to 7 Dec 1919)
   Sep 1920 -    Jun 1921    Auguste François Bonnecarrère    (b. 1875 - d. 1966)
                             (acting for Carde)
   Mar 1923 - 29 Apr 1923  Albéric Fournier (acting)
29 Apr 1923 -    Jun 1932  Théodore Paul Marchand
31 Aug 1932 -  7 Jul 1934  Auguste François Bonnecarrère      (s.a.)
                           (acting to 22 Sep 1932)
 7 Jul 1934 -        1936  Jules Repiquet                     (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
       1936 -    Jan 1937  Gaston Camille Guibet (acting)     (b. 1881 - d. 1973)
   Jan 1937 - 16 Nov 1938  Pierre Boisson                     (b. 1894 - d. 1948)
16 Nov 1938 - 27 Aug 1940  Richard Brunot                     (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
Governors
27 Aug 1940 - 20 Nov 1940  Jacques Philippe Leclerc           (b. 1902 - d. 1947)
20 Nov 1940 - 20 Jul 1943  Pierre Charles Cournarie           (b. 1895 - d. 1968)
20 Jul 1943 - 15 Nov 1944  Hubert Eugène Paul Carras          (b. 1890 - d. 1947)
15 Nov 1944 - 16 Jan 1946  Henri Pierre Nicolas               (b. 1896 - d. 1986)
16 Jan 1946 - 16 Mar 1946  Adrien Léger (acting)              (b. 1899 - d. 1948)
High commissioners
16 Mar 1946 - 25 Mar 1947  Robert Delavignette                (b. 1897 - d. 1976)
25 Mar 1947 -    Apr 1947  Robert Casimir (1st time) (acting)
   Apr 1947 -  7 Jul 1949  René Hoffherr                      (b. 1893 - d. 1982)
 7 Jul 1949 - 10 Jan 1950  Robert Casimir (2nd time) (acting)
10 Jan 1950 -  2 Dec 1954  André Soucadaux                    (b. 1904 - d. 2001)
 2 Dec 1954 - 17 Apr 1956  Roland Pré                         (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
17 Apr 1956 - 29 Jan 1958  Pierre Messmer                     (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
29 Jan 1958 - 19 Feb 1958  Jean Ramadier                      (b. 1913 - d. 1968)
19 Feb 1958 -  1 Jan 1960  Xavier Torre                       (b. 1910 - d. 2003)

Prime ministers 16 May 1957 - 18 Feb 1958 André-Marie Mbida (b. 1917 - d. 1980) 18 Feb 1958 - 1 Jan 1960 Ahmadou Ahidjo (b. 1924 - d. 1989)

Cameroon

Presidents
 1 Jan 1960 -  6 Nov 1982  Ahmadou Ahidjo                     (s.a.)
                           (Head of State to 5 May 1960)
 6 Nov 1982 -              Paul Biya                          (b. 1933)

Prime ministers 1 Jan 1960 - 5 May 1960 Ahmadou Ahidjo (s.a.) 15 May 1960 - 1 Oct 1961 Charles Assalé (b. 1911 - d. 1999) Prime ministers of East Cameroon 1 Oct 1961 - 19 Jun 1965 Charles Assalé (s.a.) 19 Jun 1965 - 20 Nov 1965 Vincent de Paul Ahanda (b. 1918 - d. 1975) 20 Nov 1965 - 2 Jun 1972 Simon Pierre Tchoungui (b. 1916 - d. 1997) Prime ministers of West Cameroon 1 Oct 1961 - 13 May 1965 John Ngu Foncha (s.a.) 13 May 1965 - 11 Jan 1968 Augustine Ngom Jua (b. 1929 - d. 1977) 11 Jan 1968 - 2 Jun 1972 Salomon Tandeng Muna (b. 1912 - d. 2002) Prime ministers 30 Jun 1975 - 6 Nov 1982 Paul Biya (s.a.) 6 Nov 1982 - 22 Aug 1983 Bello Bouba Maigari (b. 1947) 22 Aug 1983 - 25 Jan 1984 Luc Ayang (b. 1947) 26 Apr 1991 - 9 Apr 1992 Sadou Hayatou (b. 1942) 9 Apr 1992 - 19 Sep 1996 Simon Achidi Achu (b. 1934) 19 Sep 1996 - 8 Dec 2004 Peter Mafany Musonge (b. 1942) 8 Dec 2004 - 30 Jun 2009 Ephraïm Inoni (b. 1947) 30 Jun 2009 - Philemon Yang (b. 1947)

Canada

 5 Feb 1841                Upper and Lower Canada (present Ontario and Quebec)
                           united as Province of Canada
 1 Jul 1867                the British colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and
                           Canada are united as Dominion of Canada; other parts of
                           British North America accede at later dates
11 Dec 1931                Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty to the
                           British dominions
       1949                term "Dominion" is dropped from official use

Governors
 5 Feb 1841 - 19 Sep 1841  Charles Edward Poulett Thomson,
                           Baron Sydenham                     (b. 1799 - d. 1841)
19 Sep 1841 - 12 Jan 1842  Sir Richards Downes Jackson        (b. 1777 - d. 1845)
                           (acting)
12 Jan 1842 - 19 May 1843  Sir Charles Bagot                  (b. 1781 - d. 1843)
30 May 1843 - 26 Nov 1845  Charles Theophilus Metcalfe,
                           Baron Metcalfe                     (b. 1785 - d. 1846)
26 Nov 1845 - 30 Jan 1847  Charles Murray Cathcart, Earl of
                           Cathcart (acting to 24 Apr 1846)   (b. 1783 - d. 1859)
30 Jan 1847 - 19 Dec 1854  James Bruce, Earl of Elgin and
                           Kincardine                         (b. 1811 - d. 1863)
19 Dec 1854 - 25 Oct 1861  Sir Edmund Walker Head             (b. 1805 - d. 1868)
25 Oct 1861 - 30 Jun 1867  Charles Stanley Monck, Viscount
                           Monck (acting to 28 Nov 1861)      (b. 1819 - d. 1894)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state)
 1 Jul 1867 - 14 Nov 1868  Charles Stanley Monck, Viscount
                           Monck                              (s.a.)
14 Nov 1868 -  2 Feb 1869  Sir Charles Windham (acting)       (b. 1810 - d. 1870)
 2 Feb 1869 - 22 Jun 1872  Sir John Young (from 2 Nov 1870,
                           John Young, Baron Lisgar)          (b. 1807 - d. 1876)
22 Jun 1872 - 25 Jun 1872  Sir Charles Hastings Doyle         (b. 1804 - d. 1883)
                           (acting)
25 Jun 1872 - 25 Nov 1878  Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-
                           Blackwood, Earl of Dufferin        (b. 1826 - d. 1902)
25 Nov 1878 - 23 Oct 1883  John Douglas Sutherland-Campbell,
                           Marquess of Lorne                  (b. 1845 - d. 1914)
23 Oct 1883 - 11 Jun 1888  Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice,
                           Marquess of Lansdowne              (b. 1845 - d. 1927)
11 Jun 1888 - 18 Sep 1893  Frederick Arthur Stanley, Baron
                           Stanley of Preston                 (b. 1841 - d. 1908)
18 Sep 1893 - 12 Nov 1898  John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon,
                           Earl of Aberdeen                   (b. 1847 - d. 1934)
12 Nov 1898 - 10 Dec 1904  Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-
                           Kynynmound, Earl of Minto          (b. 1845 - d. 1914)
10 Dec 1904 - 13 Oct 1911  Albert Henry George Grey, Earl
                           Grey                               (b. 1851 - d. 1917)
13 Oct 1911 - 11 Nov 1916  Arthur William Patrick Albert,
                           Duke of Connaught and Strathearn   (b. 1850 - d. 1942)
11 Nov 1916 - 11 Aug 1921  Victor Christian William
                           Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire      (b. 1868 - d. 1938)
11 Aug 1921 -  2 Oct 1926  Julian Hedworth George Byng,
                           Baron Byng of Vimy                 (b. 1862 - d. 1935)
 2 Oct 1926 - 14 Jan 1931  George Freeman Freeman-Thomas,
                           Viscount Willingdon                (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
14 Jan 1931 -  4 Apr 1931  Lyman Poore Duff (1st time)        (b. 1865 - d. 1955)
                           (acting)
 4 Apr 1931 - 28 Sep 1935  Vere Brabazon Ponsonby, Earl of
                           Bessborough                        (b. 1880 - d. 1956)
28 Sep 1935 -  2 Nov 1935  Sir Lyman Poore Duff (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 2 Nov 1935 - 11 Feb 1940  John Buchan, Baron Tweedsmuir
                           of Elsfield                        (b. 1875 - d. 1940)
11 Feb 1940 - 21 Jun 1940  Sir Lyman Poore Duff (3rd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
21 Jun 1940 - 12 Apr 1946  Augustus Alexander George
                           Cambridge, Earl of Athlone         (b. 1874 - d. 1957)
12 Apr 1946 - 28 Feb 1952  Harold Alexander, Viscount
                           Alexander of Tunis                 (b. 1891 - d. 1969)
28 Feb 1952 - 15 Sep 1959  Vincent Massey                     (b. 1887 - d. 1967)
15 Sep 1959 -  5 Mar 1967  Georges Philias Vanier             (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
 5 Mar 1967 - 17 Apr 1967  Robert Taschereau (acting)         (b. 1896 - d. 1970)
17 Apr 1967 - 14 Jan 1974  Roland Michener                    (b. 1900 - d. 1991)
14 Jan 1974 - 22 Jan 1979  Jules Léger                        (b. 1913 - d. 1980)
22 Jan 1979 - 14 May 1984  Edward R. Schreyer                 (b. 1935)
14 May 1984 - 29 Jan 1990  Jeanne Sauvé (f)                   (b. 1922 - d. 1993)
29 Jan 1990 -  8 Feb 1995  Ramon Hnatyshyn                    (b. 1934 - d. 2002)
 8 Feb 1995 -  7 Oct 1999  Roméo LeBlanc                      (b. 1927 - d. 2009)
 7 Oct 1999 - 27 Sep 2005  Adrienne Clarkson (f)              (b. 1939)
27 Sep 2005 -  1 Oct 2010  Michaëlle Jean (f)                 (b. 1957)
 1 Oct 2010 -              David Johnston                     (b. 1941)

Joint premiers 5 Feb 1841 - 14 Jun 1841 Robert Baldwin (1st time) R (b. 1804 - d. 1858) + William Draper (1st time) C (b. 1801 - d. 1877) 14 Jun 1841 - 14 Sep 1842 Charles Richard Ogden + William Draper (2nd time) C (s.a.) 26 Sep 1842 - 27 Nov 1843 Robert Baldwin (2nd time) R (s.a.) + Louis Hippolyte Lafontaine (1st time) R (b. 1807 - d. 1864) 27 Nov 1843 - 12 Dec 1843 Dominick Daly (acting) (b. 1798 - d. 1868) 12 Dec 1843 - 17 Jun 1846 William Draper (3rd time) C (s.a.) + Denis Benjamin Viger C (b. 1774 - d. 1861) 17 Jun 1846 - 28 May 1847 William Draper (4th time) C (s.a.) + Denis Benjamin Papineau (1st time) R (b. 1789 - d. 1854) 28 May 1847 - 11 Mar 1848 Henry Sherwood C (b. 1807 - d. 1855) + Denis Benjamin Papineau (2nd time) R (s.a.) 11 Mar 1848 - 28 Oct 1851 Robert Baldwin (3rd time) R (s.a.) + Louis Hippolyte Lafontaine (2nd time) R (s.a.) 28 Oct 1851 - 11 Sep 1854 Francis Hincks R (b. 1807 - d. 1885) + Augustin Norbert Morin (1st time) R (b. 1803 - d. 1865) 11 Sep 1854 - 27 Jan 1855 Sir Allan Napier MacNab (1st time) L (b. 1798 - d. 1862) + Augustin Norbert Morin (2nd time) L (s.a.) 27 Jan 1855 - 24 May 1856 Sir Allan Napier MacNab (2nd time) L (s.a.) + Étienne Paschal Taché (1st time) LC (b. 1795 - d. 1865) 24 May 1856 - 26 Nov 1857 Étienne Paschal Taché (2nd time) LC (s.a.) + John A. Macdonald (1st time) LC (b. 1815 - d. 1891) 26 Nov 1857 - 2 Aug 1858 John A. Macdonald (2nd time) LC (s.a.) + George Étienne Cartier (1st time) LC (b. 1814 - d. 1873) 2 Aug 1858 - 6 Aug 1858 George Brown L (b. 1818 - d. 1880) + Antoine Aimé Dorion (1st time) L (b. 1818 - d. 1891) 6 Aug 1858 - 24 May 1862 George Étienne Cartier (2nd time) LC (s.a.) + John A. Macdonald (3rd time) LC (s.a.) 24 May 1862 - 15 May 1863 John Sandfield Macdonald (1st time) L (b. 1812 - d. 1872) + Louis Sicotte L (b. 1812 - d. 1889) 15 May 1863 - 30 May 1864 John Sandfield Macdonald (2nd time) L (s.a.) + Antoine Aimé Dorion (2nd time) L (s.a.) 30 May 1864 - 30 Jul 1865 Sir Étienne Paschal Taché (3rd time) LC (s.a.) + John A. Macdonald (4th time) LC (s.a.) 30 Jul 1865 - 30 Jun 1867 John A. Macdonald (5th time) LC (s.a.) + Sir Narcisse Fortunat Belleau LC (b. 1808 - d. 1894) Prime ministers 1 Jul 1867 - 7 Nov 1873 Sir John A. Macdonald (1st time) LC (s.a.) 7 Nov 1873 - 17 Oct 1878 Alexander Mackenzie L (b. 1822 - d. 1892) 17 Oct 1878 - 6 Jun 1891 Sir John A. Macdonald (2nd time) LC (s.a.) 16 Jun 1891 - 5 Dec 1892 John Abbott (from 1892, Sir John Abbott) LC (b. 1821 - d. 1893) 5 Dec 1892 - 12 Dec 1894 Sir John Thompson LC (b. 1844 - d. 1894) 21 Dec 1894 - 1 May 1896 Mackenzie Bowell (from 1895, Sir Mackenzie Bowell) LC (b. 1823 - d. 1917) 1 May 1896 - 11 Jul 1896 Sir Charles Tupper LC (b. 1821 - d. 1915) 11 Jul 1896 - 10 Oct 1911 Wilfrid Laurier (from 1897, Sir Wilfrid Laurier) L (b. 1841 - d. 1919) 10 Oct 1911 - 10 Jul 1920 Robert Laird Borden (from 1914, Sir Robert Laird Borden) C (b. 1854 - d. 1937) 10 Jul 1920 - 29 Dec 1921 Arthur Meighen (1st time) C (b. 1874 - d. 1960) 29 Dec 1921 - 28 Jun 1926 W.L. Mackenzie King (1st time) L (b. 1874 - d. 1950) 28 Jun 1926 - 25 Sep 1926 Arthur Meighen (2nd time) C (s.a.) 25 Sep 1926 - 7 Aug 1930 W.L. Mackenzie King (2nd time) L (s.a.) 7 Aug 1930 - 23 Oct 1935 Richard Bedford Bennett C (b. 1870 - d. 1947) 23 Oct 1935 - 15 Nov 1948 W.L. Mackenzie King (3rd time) L (s.a.) 15 Nov 1948 - 21 Jun 1957 Louis Saint Laurent L (b. 1882 - d. 1973) 21 Jun 1957 - 22 Apr 1963 John G. Diefenbaker PC (b. 1895 - d. 1979) 22 Apr 1963 - 20 Apr 1968 Lester B. Pearson L (b. 1897 - d. 1972) 20 Apr 1968 - 4 Jun 1979 Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1st time) L (b. 1919 - d. 2000) 4 Jun 1979 - 3 Mar 1980 Joe Clark PC (b. 1939) 3 Mar 1980 - 30 Jun 1984 Pierre Elliott Trudeau (2nd time) L (s.a.) 30 Jun 1984 - 17 Sep 1984 John Turner L (b. 1929) 17 Sep 1984 - 25 Jun 1993 Brian Mulroney PC (b. 1939) 25 Jun 1993 - 4 Nov 1993 Kim Campbell (f) PC (b. 1947) 4 Nov 1993 - 12 Dec 2003 Jean Chrétien L (b. 1934) 12 Dec 2003 - 6 Feb 2006 Paul Martin L (b. 1938) 6 Feb 2006 - Stephen Harper C (b. 1959)
Party abbreviations: C=Conservative, L=Liberal, LC=Liberal Conservative, PC=Progressive Conservative, R=Reform
Cape Colony: see under South Africa.
Cape Verde: see Cabo Verde.
Carpatho-Ukraine: see under Ukraine.
Cartagena: see under Colombia.

Cayman Islands

       1670                part of Jamaica
 4 Jul 1959                separate colony; part of the Federation of the West Indies
                           (see under Trinidad and Tobago) to 31 May 1962

Chief magistrates
       1750 -        1776  William Cartwright
       1776 -        1823  William Bodden                     (b. 17... - d. 1823)
       1823 -        1829  James Coe the Elder
       1829 -        1842  John Drayton
       1842 -        1855  James Coe the Younger
       1855 -        1879  William Eden
       1879 -        1888  William Bodden Webster
       1888 -        1898  Edmund Parsons                     (b. 1850 - d. ...)
Commissioners
       1898 -    Aug 1906  Frederick Shedden Sanguinetti      (b. 1847 - d. 1906)
       1906 -        1907  Charles Henry Yorke Slader
       1907 -        1912  George Stephenson Shirt Hirst      (b. 1871 - d. 1912)
       1912 -        1913  Hugh Houston Hutchings (1st time)  (b. 1869 - d. 1937)
                           (acting)
       1913 -        1916  Aubrey Charles Robinson
       1916 -        1919  Cecil Everard Mellish
       1919 -        1929  Hugh Houston Hutchings (2nd time)  (s.a.)
       1929 -        1931  Geoffrey Hammond Frith
       1931 -        1934  Ernest Arthur Weston               (b. 1880 - d. 1940)
       1934 -        1940  Allan Wolsey Cardinall             (b. 1887 - d. 1956)
       1940 -        1941  Albert Colinridge Panton, Sr.
                           (acting)
       1941 -        1946  John Penry Jones                   (b. 1886? - d. 1974)
       1946 -        1952  Ivor Otterbein Smith               (b. 1907 - d. 2003)
       1952 -        1956  Andrew Morris Gerrard
       1956 -  4 Jul 1959  Alan Hilliard Donald               (b. 1917)
Administrators
 4 Jul 1959 -        1960  Alan Hilliard Donald               (s.a.)
       1960 -        1963  Jack Rose                          (b. 1917 - d. 2009)
       1964 -        1968  John Alfred Cumber                 (b. 1920 - d. 1991)
       1968 -  3 Nov 1971  Athelstan Charles Ethelwulf Long   (b. 1919)
Governors
 3 Nov 1971 - 12 Nov 1971  Athelstan Charles Ethelwulf Long   (s.a.)
12 Nov 1971 - 30 Nov 1971  Desmond Vere Watler (acting)       (b. 1914 - d. 1994)
30 Nov 1971 -    Jul 1974  Kenneth Roy Crook                  (b. 1920 - d. 2012)
28 Aug 1974 -        1981  Thomas Russell                     (b. 1920)
14 Jan 1982 -        1987  Peter Lloyd                        (b. 1926 - d. 2007)
10 Jun 1987 -        1992  Alan James Scott                   (b. 1934)
14 Sep 1992 -        1995  Michael Edward John Gore           (b. 1935)
16 Oct 1995 -        1999  John Wynne Owen                    (b. 1939)
 5 May 1999 -  9 May 2002  Peter Smith                        (b. 1942)
 9 May 2002 - 29 May 2002  James Ryan (acting)                (b. 1944)
29 May 2002 - 28 Oct 2005  Bruce Dinwiddy                     (b. 1946)
28 Oct 2005 - 23 Nov 2005  George McCarthy (acting)
23 Nov 2005 -  2 Dec 2009  Stuart Jack                        (b. 1949)
 2 Dec 2009 - 15 Jan 2010  Donovan Ebanks (acting)
15 Jan 2010 -  7 Aug 2013  Duncan Taylor                      (b. 1958)
 7 Aug 2013 -  6 Sep 2013  Franz Manderson (acting)
 6 Sep 2013 -              Helen Kilpatrick (f)

Leaders of government business (official post from 30 Jun 2003) 25 Nov 1992 - 1995 Thomas C. Jefferson (b. 1941 - d. 2006) 1995 - 15 Nov 2000 Truman Bodden (b. 1945) 15 Nov 2000 - 8 Nov 2001 Kurt Tibbetts (1st time) (b. 1954) 8 Nov 2001 - 18 May 2005 McKeeva Bush (1st time) (b. 1955) 18 May 2005 - 27 May 2009 Kurt Tibbetts (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 May 2009 - 6 Nov 2009 McKeeva Bush (2nd time) (s.a.) Premiers 6 Nov 2009 - 19 Dec 2012 McKeeva Bush (s.a.) 19 Dec 2012 - 29 May 2013 Juliana O'Connor-Connolly (f) (b. 1961?) 29 May 2013 - Alden McLaughlin (b. 1961)

Central African Republic

13 Jul 1894                Haut-Oubangui
29 Dec 1903                Oubangui-Chari
11 Feb 1906                Oubangui-Chari-Tchad
15 Jan 1910                part of French Equatorial Africa (AEF);
                           see under Congo (Brazzaville)
12 Apr 1916                Oubangui-Chari
30 Jun 1934 - 31 Dec 1937  region within unitary AEF colony
27 Oct 1946                French overseas territory
 1 Dec 1958                autonomy (Central African Republic)
13 Aug 1960                independence
 4 Dec 1976 - 20 Sep 1979  Central African Empire

Commissioners (from 1897, lieutenant governors; from 1904, governors-delegate)
10 Feb 1894 - 20 Oct 1894  Eugène Decazes                     (b. 1844 - d. 1913)
                           (director to 13 Jul 1894)
20 Oct 1894 -        1900  Victor Liotard                     (b. 1858 - d. 1916)
       1900 -    May 1904  Adolphe Cureau                     (b. 1864 - d. 1913)
   May 1904 - 22 Aug 1905  Alphonse Iaeck (acting)
22 Aug 1905 - 16 Feb 1906  Victor Merlet (acting)
16 Feb 1906 -  4 Apr 1906  Louis Paul Émile Lamy
Lieutenant governors (from 17 Aug 1934, governors-delegate; from 31 Dec 1937,
governors; from 4 Feb 1957, high commissioners)
 4 Apr 1906 - 28 Feb 1909  Émile Merwart                      (b. 1869 - d. 1960)
28 Feb 1909 -  5 Aug 1910  Lucien Fourneau (acting)           (b. 1867 - d. 1930)
 5 Aug 1910 - 10 Jun 1911  Pascal Pierre Marie Georges Adam
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1865 - d. 1916)
10 Jun 1911 - 24 Nov 1913  Frédéric Estèbe                    (b. 1863 - d. 1936)
24 Nov 1913 -        1916  Pascal Pierre Marie Georges Adam
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
12 Oct 1916 - 17 Jul 1917  Victor Merlet
17 Jul 1917 - 26 Sep 1929  Auguste Lamblin                    (b. 1870 - d. 1946)
                           (acting to 16 May 1919)
                             Acting for Lamblin:
31 Aug 1920 -    Dec 1921    Alphonse Diret                   (b. 1872 - d. 1973)
 7 Aug 1923 -    Nov 1924    Pierre François                  (b. 1869 - d. 1933)
 1 Jul 1926 -    Jul 1928    Georges Prouteaux
22 Oct 1929 - 30 Oct 1930  Georges Prouteaux (acting)
30 Oct 1930 - 21 May 1935  Adolphe Deitte                     (b. 1879 - d. 1949)
 8 Mar 1933 -    Feb 1934    Pierre Bonnefont
                             (acting for Deitte)
21 May 1935 - 30 May 1936  Richard Brunot                     (b. 1883 - d. 1958)
30 May 1936 - 23 Oct 1936  Pierre Bonnefont (acting)
23 Oct 1936 - 24 Oct 1936  Émile Buhot-Launay (acting)        (b. 1881 - d. 1970)
24 Oct 1936 - 28 Mar 1939  Max de Masson de Saint-Félix       (b. ... - d. 1939)
28 Mar 1939 - 30 May 1942  Pierre de Saint-Mart               (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
                           (acting to 15 Jul 1941)
30 May 1942 - 30 Jul 1942  André Latrille                     (b. 1894 - d. 1987)
30 Jul 1942 -  3 Apr 1946  Henri Sautot                       (b. 1885 - d. 1963)
 3 Apr 1946 - 25 Apr 1948  Jean Chalvet                       (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
24 May 1946 -    Oct 1946    Henri Lacour                     (b. 1897 - d. 1960)
                             (acting for Chalvet)
25 Apr 1948 -  1 Dec 1948  Jean Mauberna (acting)             (b. 1904 - d. 1983)
 1 Dec 1948 - 27 Jan 1949  Auguste Even (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
27 Jan 1949 -  4 Jan 1950  Pierre Delteil                     (b. 1907 - d. 2002)
 4 Jan 1950 -  1 Mar 1950  Auguste Even (2nd time) (acting)   (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1950 -  9 Jul 1951  Ignace Colombani                   (b. 1908 - d. 1988)
 9 Jul 1951 - 19 Oct 1951  Pierre Jean Raynier (acting)       (b. 1904 - d. 1979)
19 Oct 1951 - 31 Mar 1954  Aimé Grimald                       (b. 1903 - d. 2000)
31 Mar 1954 - 29 Jan 1958  Louis Sanmarco                     (b. 1912 - d. 2009)
                           (acting to 2 Dec 1954)
29 Jan 1958 - 14 Aug 1960  Paul Bordier                       (b. 1921 - d. 2003)
Presidents
14 Aug 1960 -  1 Jan 1966  David Dacko (1st time)             (b. 1930 - d. 2003)
                           (acting to 12 Nov 1960)
 1 Jan 1966 -  4 Dec 1976  Jean-Bédel Bokassa (from 18 Oct
                           1976, Salah Eddine Ahmed Bokassa)  (b. 1921 - d. 1996)
Emperor
 4 Dec 1976 - 20 Sep 1979  Bokassa I                          (s.a.)
Presidents (from 18 Jul 2013 transitional heads of state)
20 Sep 1979 -  1 Sep 1981  David Dacko (2nd time)             (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1981 - 22 Oct 1993  André Kolingba                     (b. 1936 - d. 2010)
                           (chairman Military Committee of National Recovery to
                           21 Sep 1985)
22 Oct 1993 - 15 Mar 2003  Ange-Félix Patassé                 (b. 1937 - d. 2011)
15 Mar 2003 - 24 Mar 2013  François Bozizé                    (b. 1946)
24 Mar 2013 - 10 Jan 2014  Michel Djotodia                    (b. 1949?)
10 Jan 2014 - 23 Jan 2014  Alexandre Ferdinand Nguendet       (b. 1972)
                           (acting)
23 Jan 2014 -              Catherine Samba-Panza (f)          (b. 1956)

Prime ministers 14 May 1957 - 8 Dec 1958 Abel Goumba (1st time) (b. 1926 - d. 2009) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, then president of the Government Council) 8 Dec 1958 - 29 Mar 1959 Barthélemy Boganda (b. 1910 - d. 1959) 2 Apr 1959 - 30 Apr 1959 Abel Goumba (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 30 Apr 1959 - 12 Nov 1960 David Dacko (s.a.) 2 Jan 1975 - 4 Apr 1976 Elisabeth Domitien (f) (b. 1925 - d. 2005) 5 Sep 1976 - 14 Jul 1978 Ange-Félix Patassé (s.a.) 14 Jul 1978 - 26 Sep 1979 Henri Maïdou (b. 1936) 26 Sep 1979 - 22 Aug 1980 Bernard Ayandho (b. 1930 - d. 1993) 12 Nov 1980 - 4 Apr 1981 Jean-Pierre Lebouder (b. 1944) 4 Apr 1981 - 1 Sep 1981 Simon Narcisse Bozanga (b. 1942 - d. 2010) 15 Mar 1991 - 4 Dec 1992 Edouard Frank 4 Dec 1992 - 26 Feb 1993 Timothée Malendoma (b. 1935 - d. 2010) 26 Feb 1993 - 25 Oct 1993 Enoch Dérant Lakoué (b. 1945) 25 Oct 1993 - 12 Apr 1995 Jean-Luc Mandaba (b. 1943 - d. 2000) 12 Apr 1995 - 11 Jun 1996 Gabriel Koyambounou (b. 1947) 11 Jun 1996 - 30 Jan 1997 Jean-Paul Ngoupandé (b. 1948 - d. 2014) 30 Jan 1997 - 1 Feb 1999 Michel Gbezera-Bria (b. 1946) 1 Feb 1999 - 1 Apr 2001 Anicet Georges Dologuélé (b. 1957) 1 Apr 2001 - 15 Mar 2003 Martin Ziguélé (b. 1957) 23 Mar 2003 - 12 Dec 2003 Abel Goumba (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Dec 2003 - 13 Jun 2005 Célestin Gaombalet (b. 1942) 13 Jun 2005 - 22 Jan 2008 Élie Doté (b. 1948) 22 Jan 2008 - 17 Jan 2013 Faustin Archange Touadéra (b. 1957) 17 Jan 2013 - 10 Jan 2014 Nicolas Tiangaye (b. 1956) 25 Jan 2014 - 10 Aug 2014 André Nzapayéké (b. 1951) 10 Aug 2014 - Mahamat Kamoun (b. 1961?)

Ceylon: see Sri Lanka.