Rulers

Countries L

Contents of this page:
Laos - Latvia - Lebanon - Lesotho - Liberia - Libya - Liechtenstein - Lithuania - Luxembourg

Ladakh: see under India.
Lagos: see under Nigeria.
Lakeba: see under Fiji.

Laos

Wiang Chhan

       1707                Kingdom of Wiang Chhan resulting from the split of the
                           Kingdom of Lan Xang
       1779 -        1782  Thai occupation
       1828                annexation by Thailand
       1887                French colony
       1941                incorporation into Kingdom of Luang Phra Bang

Kings
       1707 -        1735  Setthathirath                      (b. c.1685 - d. 1735)
       1735 -        1760  Ong Long
       1760 -        1779  Ong Bun                            (b. 1730 - d. 1781)
       1782 -        1795  Nanthasen                          (b. ... - d. 1795)
       1795 -        1803  Intharavong                        (b. ... - d. 1805)
       1803 -        1828  Anuvong                            (b. 1767 - d. 1829)

Luang Phra Bang

       1707                Kingdom of Luang Phra Bang (officially Lan Xang Hom Khao)
       1788 -        1792  Thai rule
       179. -  2 Jun 1794  Thai rule
 3 Oct 1893                French protectorate of Laos; part of French Indochina (see
                           under Vietnam)
 7 Apr 1945 - 27 Aug 1945  Japanese occupation
 8 Apr 1945                royal proclamation ends French protectorate
15 Sep 1945                part of Kingdom of Laos

Kings
       1707 -        1713  Kingkitsarad                       (b. ... - d. 1713)
       1713 -        1723  Ong Kham                           (b. ... - d. 1731)
       1723 -        1749  Thao Ang                           (b. ... - d. 1749)
       1749                Inthaphom                          (b. ... - d. 1776)
       1749 -        1768  Sotika-Kuman                       (b. bf.1734 - d. 1771)
       1768 -        1788  Suryavong                          (b. ... - d. 1791)
       1792 -        179.  Anurutha (1st time)                (b. 1735 - d. 1819)
 2 Jun 1794 - 31 Dec 1819  Anurutha (2nd time)                (s.a.)
31 Dec 1819 -  7 Mar 1837  Manthaturad                        (b. 1772 - d. 1837)
                           (regent for Anurutha 1817 - 31 Dec 1819; lives as a
                           monk in Bangkok 1825-26, leaving Luang Phra Bang to be
                           administered by Siamese officials)
       1837 -        1838  Unkeo (regent)                     (b. ... - d. 1850)
       1838 - 23 Sep 1850  Sukha-Söm                          (b. 1797 - d. 1850)
23 Sep 1850 -  1 Oct 1868  Chantha-Kuman                      (b. 1799 - d. 1868)
 1 Oct 1868 - 15 Dec 1895  Unkham                             (b. 1811 - d. 1895)
15 Dec 1895 - 25 Mar 1904  Sakkarin                           (b. 1840 - d. 1904)
                           (regent for Unkham Apr 1888 - 15 Dec 1895)
26 Mar 1904 - 15 Sep 1945  Sisavang Vong                      (b. 1885 - d. 1959)

Prime minister 1941 - 10 Oct 1945 Prince Phetsarath (b. 1890 - d. 1959) French commissioner-general 5 Jun 1894 - Apr 1895 Auguste Pavie (b. 1847 - d. 1925) Commandant-superior of Bas-Laos (in Khong, Champasak) May 1895 - Apr 1899 Marie Auguste Armand Tournier Commandants-superior of Haut-Laos (in Luang Prabang) 1 Jun 1895 - 9 Mar 1897 Joseph Vacle (1st time) (acting) (b. 1857 - d. 1907) 10 Mar 1897 - Oct 1898 Paul Louis Luce (acting) (b. 1856 - d. 19...) Oct 1898 - Apr 1899 Joseph Vacle (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) Residents-superior Sep 1895 - Mar 1896 Léon Jules Pol Boulloche (b. 1855 - d. 19...) 30 Apr 1899 - Apr 1903 Marie Auguste Armand Tournier (acting to 10 May 1899) Aug 1903 - May 1906 Georges Mahé (1st time) (acting) (b. 1860 - d. 19...) May 1906 - Apr 1907 Louis Saturnin Laffont (acting) Apr 1907 - Jan 1912 Georges Mahé (2nd time) (s.a.) Aug 1910 - Jul 1911 Ernest Outrey (acting) (b. 1863 - d. 1941) Jan 1912 - Jul 1913 Louis Antoine Aubry de la Noé (acting) Jul 1913 - Oct 1913 Claude Léon Garnier (1st time) (acting) Oct 1913 - Feb 1914 Jean Édouard Bourcier Saint-Chaffray (acting) (b. 1870 - d. 19...) May 1914 - May 1918 Claude Léon Garnier (2nd time) (acting) Jun 1918 - Mar 1931 Jules Bosc (b. 1871 - d. 1959) Apr 1921 - Jan 1923 Joël Darrousin (acting) May 1925 - Jan 1926 Jean-Jacques Dauplay (acting) (b. 1878 - d. 19...) May 1928 - Dec 1928 Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger (acting) Mar 1931 Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger (1st time) (acting) Mar 1931 Pierre André Michel Pagès (b. 1893 - d. 1980) Mar 1931 - Jun 1931 Yves Chatel (b. 1885 - d. 1944) Jun 1931 - Oct 1931 Paul Raimond Octane Le Boulanger (2nd time) (acting) Oct 1931 - Feb 1932 Jules Nicolas Thiebaut (acting) (b. 1884 - d. 1935) Feb 1932 - Oct 1933 Aristide Eugène Le Fol Oct 1933 - Jan 1934 Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques (1st time) (acting) (b. 1891 - d. 1977) Jan 1934 - Jul 1934 Louis Frédéric Eckert (acting) Jul 1934 - Aug 1934 Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) Aug 1934 - Apr 1938 Eugène Henri Roger Eutrope (b. 1881 - d. 1953) Nov 1934 - Oct 1935 Louis Frédéric Claire Guillaume Marty (acting) Apr 1938 - Nov 1940 André Touzet Nov 1940 - Dec 1941 Adrien Anthony Maurice Roques (3rd time) (acting) Dec 1941 - Mar 1945 Louis Antoine Marie Brasey (b. 1891 - d. 19...)

Champasak

       161.                Kingdom of Nakhon Kala Champaknaburisi founded
       1714                name changed to Nakhon Champa Nakhaburisi
       1791                name changed to Nakhon Champasak
       1811 -        1813  Thai occupation
       1819 -        1821  Thai occupation
       1851 -        1856  Thai occupation
       1860 -        1863  Thai occupation
22 Nov 1904                principality under French protectorate
15 Sep 1945                part of Kingdom of Laos
27 Aug 1946                principality extinguished

Kings (from 22 Nov 1904, princes)
       1714 -        1738  Nokasat                            (b. c.1690 - d. 1738)
       1738 -        1791  Saya Kuman                         (b. 1710 - d. 1791)
                           (regent for Nokasat 1725-38)
       1791                Xiang Keo
       1791 -        1811  Fai Na                             (b. ... - d. 1811)
       1811 -        1813  Cha Nou                            (b. ... - d. 1813)
       1813 -        1819  Ma Noi                             (b. ... - d. 1821)
       1821 -        1827  Rajabud Yo
       1827 -        1840  Hui                                (b. 1780 - d. 1840)
       1840 -        1850  Nak (regent to 1841)               (b. 1774 - d. 1850)
       1850 -        1851  Süa (regent)
       1856 -        1858  Kham Ñai                           (b. 1830 - d. 1858)
       1858 -        1860  Chu (regent)
       1863 - 28 Jul 1900  Kham Suk                           (b. 1838 - d. 1900)
28 Jul 1900 -    Jun 1946  Bua Laphan                         (b. 1874 - d. 1946)
   Jun 1946 - 27 Aug 1946  Boun Oum                           (b. 1912 - d. 1980)

Xiang Khuang

        698                Müang Maharatanaburirom Phommachakkhati
                           Simahanakkharatakkasela Nakhon Xiang Khuang Rajathani
                           state founded
       1835                annexed by Thailand
       18..                annexed by Vietnam
       1848                restored as a vassal state of Vietnam
       1851                sovereignty restored
       1875                annexed by Thailand
       1876                sovereignty restored
       1887                made a vassal state of Thailand
       1888                annexed by Thailand
       1893                made a French colonial possession as part of Laos

Kings (titles rath, chao xiwit)
       1687 -         ...  Chao Kham Lan
        ... -         ...  Chao Kham Phuttha
        ... -         ...  Chao Kham Sattha
        ... -         ...  Chao Bun Lang Thai
        ... -         ...  Chao Bun Lot
        ... -         ...  Chao Kham Bun Khong
        ... -         ...  Phraña Kham Thewo
                           = Phraña Thammatewo (regent)
        ... -         ...  Chao Bun Chan
        ... -        1751  Chao Kham Un Müang
       1751 -        1753  Chao Ong Lo (1st time)
       1753                Chao Ong Bun
       1753 -        1779  Chao Ong Lo (2nd time)
       1779 -        1781  Chao Ong Si Phom
       1781 -        1782  Chao No Müang
       1782 -        1802  Chao Som Phu
       1802 -        1803  Chao Xiang
       1803 -        1831  Chao Suthakasuvannakuman
       1831 -        1835  Chao San (regent)
       1848 -        1865  Phra Chao Issarasettha
       1865 -        1874  Chao Üng
       1876 -        1887  Chao Khanti
       1887 -        1888  Thao Xiang Phet (regent)

Laos

15 Sep 1945                united Kingdom of Laos proclaimed
23 Apr 1946                France reestablishes protectorate
27 Aug 1946                France recognizes unification of Laos
19 Jul 1949                French associated state
22 Oct 1953                independence
 2 Dec 1975                Lao People's Democratic Republic

General secretaries (29 Mar 1991 - 21 Mar 2006, presidents) of the Lao People's Party
(from Feb 1972, Lao People's Revolutionary Party)
22 Mar 1955 - 21 Nov 1992  Kaysone Phomvihane                 (b. 1920 - d. 1992)
24 Nov 1992 - 21 Mar 2006  Khamtai Siphandon                  (b. 1924)
21 Mar 2006 -              Choummaly Sayasone                 (b. 1936)

Kings 15 Sep 1945 - 20 Oct 1945 Sisavang Vong (1st time) (s.a.) 20 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946 Prince Phetsarath (s.a.) (head of state) 23 Apr 1946 - 29 Oct 1959 Sisavang Vong (2nd time) (s.a.) (king of Luang Phra Bang 15 May - 27 Aug 1946) 21 Aug 1959 - 2 Dec 1975 Savang Vatthana (b. 1907 - d. 1978?) (regent to 4 Nov 1959) Presidents 3 Dec 1975 - 15 Aug 1991 Prince Souphanouvong (b. 1912 - d. 1995) 31 Oct 1986 - 15 Aug 1991 Phoumi Vongvichit (b. 1909 - d. 1994) (acting for Souphanouvong) 15 Aug 1991 - 21 Nov 1992 Kaysone Phomvihane (s.a.) 25 Nov 1992 - 24 Feb 1998 Nouhak Phoumsavan (b. 1914 - d. 2008) 24 Feb 1998 - 8 Jun 2006 Khamtai Siphandon (s.a.) 8 Jun 2006 - Choummaly Sayasone (s.a.)
Prime ministers 20 Oct 1945 - 23 Apr 1946 Prince Phaya Khammao (b. 1911 - d. 1984) (chairman Provisional Government) 23 Apr 1946 - 15 Mar 1947 Prince Kindavong (b. 1900 - d. 1951) 15 Mar 1947 - 25 Mar 1948 Prince Souvannarath (b. 1893 - d. 1960) 25 Mar 1948 - 24 Feb 1950 Prince Boun Oum (1st time) (s.a.) 24 Feb 1950 - 15 Oct 1951 Phoui Sananikone (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1983) 21 Nov 1951 - 20 Oct 1954 Prince Souvanna Phouma (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1984) 25 Nov 1954 - 21 Mar 1956 Katay Don Sasorith (b. 1904 - d. 1959) 21 Mar 1956 - 17 Aug 1958 Prince Souvanna Phouma (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Aug 1958 - 31 Dec 1959 Phoui Sananikone (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Dec 1959 - 7 Jan 1960 Sounthone Pathammavong (b. 1911) (Army Chief of Staff) 7 Jan 1960 - 3 Jun 1960 Kou Abhay (b. 1892 - d. 1964) 3 Jun 1960 - 2 Sep 1960 Prince Somsanith (b. 1913 - d. 1975) 2 Sep 1960 - 13 Dec 1960 Prince Souvanna Phouma (3rd time) (s.a.) (continues in Cambodia exile and at Ban Khangkhai, recognized by the Communist states) 13 Dec 1960 - 23 Jun 1962 Prince Boun Oum (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Jun 1962 - 2 Dec 1975 Prince Souvanna Phouma (4th time) (s.a.) Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (prime ministers) 8 Dec 1975 - 15 Aug 1991 Kaysone Phomvihane (s.a.) 15 Aug 1991 - 24 Feb 1998 Khamtai Siphandon (s.a.) 24 Feb 1998 - 27 Mar 2001 Sisavath Keobounphanh (b. 1928) 27 Mar 2001 - 8 Jun 2006 Boungnang Vorachith (b. 1937) 8 Jun 2006 - 23 Dec 2010 Bouasone Bouphavanh (b. 1954) 23 Dec 2010 - Thongsing Thammavong (b. 1944) French commissioners 25 Aug 1945 - Apr 1946 Hans Imfeld (b. 1902 - d. 1947) Apr 1946 - Jul 1947 Jean de Raymond (b. 1907 - d. 1951) Jul 1947 - Mar 1948 Maurice Marie Auguste Michaudel (b. 1901 - d. 1975) (acting) Mar 1948 - Dec 1949 Alfred Valmary (acting) (b. 1901 - d. 1970) Dec 1949 - Apr 1953 Robert Regnier Apr 1953 - Jan 1954 Miguel de Pereyra

Latvia

Note: Present-day Latvia originates in the combination of the following entities (Latvian and German names in parentheses): Livonia (Vidzeme/Livland), Lettgallia (Latgale/Lettgallen), Courland (Kurzeme/Kurland), and Semigallia (Zemgale/Semgallen). Vidzeme, Latgale, Kurzeme, and Zemgale are the names of pre-Christian "kingdoms." The name Livland/Livonia refers to the Livs, a people closely related to the Ests; this name is often (early and late) used for the whole "Baltic provinces," covering present-day Latvia and Estonia. During much of the country's history, from c.1209 to 1918, the dominant elite, under all regimes, consists of German merchants and landholders, who provide much of the administration; Riga was a Hanseatic city.
       1209                the bishop of Riga (archbishop from 20 Jan 1255) takes the
                           style of prince of Livonia (Fürst von Livland); Livonia is
                           within the Holy Roman Empire
       1520                rule is shared between the archbishop and the Livonian
                           Land-Master of the Teutonic Order (Landmeister des Ordens
                           der Brüder des Hospitals Sankt Marien des Deutschen Hauses
                           zu Jerusalem in Livland)
28 Nov 1561                Gotthard Kettler, the Land-Master, having become Protestant,
                           a massive reorganization takes place; Livonia (proper) and
                           Lettgallia are taken over as an appendage to the Polish-
                           Lithuanian Commonwealth (and collectively called Inflanty);
                           Courland and Semigallia are erected into a Duchy under the
                           Polish-Lithuanian crown, with Kettler as the first duke
       1561 -        1660  constant conflict among Poland-Lithuania, Russia, and Sweden
                           over Livonia; in 1570-80 Ivan IV installs a puppet as king
                           of Livonia
26 Feb 1621                Sweden occupies Livonia, and annexes it de jure 3 May 1660
10 Sep 1721                Livonia is annexed by the Russian Empire
30 Sep 1773                in the Second Partition of Poland-Lithuania, Lettgallia is
                           annexed by the Russian Empire
26 Apr 1795                in the Third Partition of Poland, Courland-Semigallia is
                           annexed by the Russian Empire
21 Dec 1917 - 22 Feb 1918  brief attempt at forming a national (Bolshevik) government
 3 Mar 1918                in the Treaty of Brzecz-Litewski (Brest-Litovsk) Russia
                           cedes the Baltic Provinces (Estonia, Livonia, Courland) to
                           the German Empire
12 Apr 1918                the Joint Council of Livonia, Estonia, Riga, and Ösel
                           (Vereinigter Landesrat von Livland, Estland, Riga und Ösel),
                           set up by the local German elite, proclaims the independent
                           Baltic State (Baltischer Staat), and resolves to make it
                           into a duchy in personal union with the Kingdom of Prussia;
                           the king (the German emperor Wilhelm II) expresses his
                           gratitude to the delegation offering him the ducal title
                           and defers an answer (which never comes)
 8 Nov 1918                a regency council for the Baltic State is set up; by 17 Nov
                           1918 the state collapses on the eve of the Latvian
                           declaration of independence
18 Nov 1918                independence (Republic of Latvia)
22 Dec 1918                  Latvian Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic
13 Jan 1919 - 22 May 1919    Latvian Socialist Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic
17 Jun 1940                occupied by Soviet Union
21 Jul 1940                Latvian Conciliar ("Soviet") Socialist Republic
 5 Aug 1940                incorporation into the Soviet Union (see Soviet republics)
 4 May 1990                Republic of Latvia
21 Aug 1991                independence declared
 6 Sep 1991                independence recognized by U.S.S.R.

Dukes (title Herzog in Livland zu Kurland und Semgallen - Duke of Livonia in Courland
and Semigallia)
- Kettler dynasty -
 5 Mar 1562 - 17 May 1587  Gotthard                           (b. 1517 - d. 1587)
17 May 1587 - 16 Aug 1642  Friedrich                          (b. 1569 - d. 1642)
                           jointly with
21 May 1596 -  4 May 1616  Wilhelm                            (b. 1574 - d. 1640)
16 Aug 1642 - 31 Dec 1681  Jakob                              (b. 1610 - d. 1681)
31 Dec 1681 - 22 Jan 1698  Friedrich Kasimir                  (b. 1650 - d. 1698)
22 Jan 1698 - 21 Jan 1711  Friedrich Wilhelm                  (b. 1692 - d. 1711)
21 Jan 1711 -  4 May 1737  Ferdinand                          (b. 1655 - d. 1737)
       1726 -        1727    Moritz Graf von Sachsen          (b. 1696 - d. 1750)
                             (- Wettin dynasty -) (in competition)
 4 May 1737 - 13 Jul 1737  Christoph Friedrich von Sacken-
                           Appricken (1st time)
                           (Landhofmeister, in the name of the Kollegium der
                           Oberräte, regents)
- Biron (Bühren) dynasty -
13 Jul 1737 - 20 Nov 1740  Ernst Johann (1st time)            (b. 1690 - d. 1772)
20 Nov 1740 - 16 Nov 1758  Christoph Friedrich von Sacken-
                           Appricken (2nd time)
                           (Landhofmeister, in the name of the Kollegium der
                           Oberräte, regents)
- Wettin dynasty -
16 Nov 1758 - 23 Jan 1763  Karl Christian Herzog von Sachsen  (b. 1731 - d. 1796)
23 Jan 1763 - 21 Feb 1763  Heinrich Christian von Offenberg?  (b. 1696 - d. 1781)
                           (Landhofmeister, in the name of the
                           Kollegium der Oberräte, regents)
- Biron (Bühren) dynasty -
21 Feb 1763 - 25 Nov 1769  Ernst Johann (2nd time)            (s.a.)
25 Nov 1769 - 28 Mar 1795  Peter                              (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
28 Mar 1795 - 26 Apr 1795  Carl Ferdinand von Orgies gen.
                           Rutenberg                          (b. 1741 - d. 1801)
                           (Landhofmeister, in the name of the
                           Kollegium der Oberräte, regents)
Presidents
21 Dec 1917 - 22 Feb 1918  Fricis Rozins                      (b. 1870 - d. 1919)
                           (chairman Central Executive Committee of the Councils
                           ["Soviets"] of Latvia)
12 Apr 1918 - 17 Nov 1918  Adolph Konstantin Jakob Baron
                           Pilar von Pilchau-Audern           (b. 1851 - d. 1925)
                           (chairman of the Joint Council of Livonia, Estonia, Riga,
                           and Ösel; from 8 Nov 1918 chairman of the Baltic Council
                           of Regency)
18 Nov 1918 -  3 Nov 1925  Janis Cakste (1st time)            (b. 1859 - d. 1927)
                           (chairman Latvian People's Council to 1 May 1920, then
                           president of Constitutional Assembly to 18 Nov 1922)
 4 Dec 1918 - 22 May 1919    Peteris Stucka                   (b. 1865 - d. 1932)
                             (chairman Conciliar Government [in Russia to 22 Dec 1918]
                             to 13 Jan 1919, then chairman Central Executive Committee)
 3 Nov 1925 - 10 Nov 1925  Pauls Kalnins (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
10 Nov 1925 - 14 Mar 1927  Janis Cakste (2nd time)            (s.a.)
14 Mar 1927 -  8 Apr 1927  Pauls Kalnins (2nd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
 8 Apr 1927 -  8 Apr 1930  Gustavs Zemgals                    (b. 1871 - d. 1939)
 8 Apr 1930 - 11 Apr 1930  Pauls Kalnins (3rd time) (acting)  (s.a.)
11 Apr 1930 - 11 Apr 1936  Alberts Kviesis                    (b. 1881 - d. 1944)
11 Apr 1936 - 21 Jul 1940  Karlis Ulmanis                     (b. 1877 - d. 1942)
21 Jul 1940 - 25 Aug 1940  Augusts Kirhensteins               (b. 1872 - d. 1963)
 3 May 1990 -  8 Jul 1993  Anatolijs Gorbunovs                (b. 1942)
                           (chairman Supreme Council to 6 Jul 1993 [this office is
                           declared to be that of the head of state 15 Sep 1992],
                           then acting president)
 8 Jul 1993 -  8 Jul 1999  Guntis Ulmanis                     (b. 1939)
 8 Jul 1999 -  8 Jul 2007  Vaira Vike-Freiberga (f)           (b. 1937)
 8 Jul 2007 -  8 Jul 2011  Valdis Zatlers                     (b. 1955)
 8 Jul 2011 -              Andris Berzins                     (b. 1944)

Prime ministers 17 Nov 1918 - 16 Apr 1919 Karlis Ulmanis (1st time) (s.a.) 13 Jan 1919 - 22 May 1919 Peteris Stucka (s.a.) 21 Apr 1919 - 26 Apr 1919 Oskars Borkovskis (acting) (b. 1872 - d. 1945) 26 Apr 1919 - 28 Jun 1919 Andrievs Niedra (b. 1871 - d. 1942) 14 Jul 1919 - 17 Jun 1921 Karlis Ulmanis (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Jun 1921 - 25 Jan 1923 Zigfrids Meierovics (1st time) (b. 1887 - d. 1925) 25 Jan 1923 - 26 Jun 1923 Janis Pauluks (b. 1865 - d. 1937) 26 Jun 1923 - 25 Jan 1924 Zigfrids Meierovics (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Jan 1924 - 16 Dec 1924 Voldemars Zamuels (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1948) 16 Dec 1924 - 23 Dec 1925 Hugo Celmins (1st time) (b. 1877 - d. 1941) 23 Dec 1925 - 4 May 1926 Karlis Ulmanis (3rd time) (s.a.) 4 May 1926 - 17 Dec 1926 Artur Alberings (b. 1876 - d. 1934) 17 Dec 1926 - 21 Jan 1928 Margers Skujenieks (1st time) (b. 1886 - d. 1941) 21 Jan 1928 - 1 Dec 1928 Peteris Jurasevskis (b. 1872 - d. 1945) 1 Dec 1928 - 24 Mar 1931 Hugo Celmins (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Mar 1931 - 5 Dec 1931 Karlis Ulmanis (4th time) (s.a.) 5 Dec 1931 - 23 Mar 1933 Margers Skujenieks (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Mar 1933 - 17 Mar 1934 Adolfs Blodnieks (b. 1889 - d. 1962) 17 Mar 1934 - 19 Jun 1940 Karlis Ulmanis (5th time) (s.a.) 20 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940 Augusts Kirhensteins (s.a.) 7 May 1990 - 3 Aug 1993 Ivars Godmanis (1st time) (b. 1951) 3 Aug 1993 - 15 Sep 1994 Valdis Birkavs (b. 1942) 15 Sep 1994 - 21 Dec 1995 Maris Gailis (b. 1951) 21 Dec 1995 - 7 Aug 1997 Andris Skele (1st time) (b. 1958) 7 Aug 1997 - 26 Nov 1998 Guntars Krasts (b. 1957) 26 Nov 1998 - 16 Jul 1999 Vilis Kristopans (b. 1954) 16 Jul 1999 - 5 May 2000 Andris Skele (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 May 2000 - 7 Nov 2002 Andris Berzins (b. 1951) 7 Nov 2002 - 9 Mar 2004 Einars Repse (b. 1961) 9 Mar 2004 - 2 Dec 2004 Indulis Emsis (b. 1952) 2 Dec 2004 - 20 Dec 2007 Aigars Kalvitis (b. 1966) 20 Dec 2007 - 12 Mar 2009 Ivars Godmanis (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Mar 2009 - 22 Jan 2014 Valdis Dombrovskis (b. 1971) 22 Jan 2014 - Laimdota Straujuma (f) (b. 1951)

Republic of Latvia in exile

Heads of the Diplomatic Service
17 Jun 1940 - 29 Apr 1963  Karlis Zarins (in London)          (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
29 Apr 1963 -  1 Oct 1970  Arnolds Spekke (in Washington)     (b. 1887 - d. 1972)
 1 Oct 1970 - 21 Aug 1991  Anatols Dinbergs (in Washington)   (b. 1911 - d. 1993)

Lau: see under Fiji.

Lebanon

       1118                emirs of the Banu Ma`n replace the (somewhat legendary)
                           Al Tanukh emirs
       1698                Banu Shihab replace Banu Ma`n
16 Jan 1842                Mount Lebanon emirate ended by the Ottoman Empire
       1861                special status of Mount Lebanon within Ottoman Empire
 1 Sep 1920                State of Great Lebanon (under French mandate [see Syria])
 1 Sep 1926                Lebanese Republic
26 Nov 1941                independence (French troops remain until 31 Dec 1946)

Emirs (title al-Amir al-Hakim - ruling emir)
- Banu Shihab dynasty -
       1698 -        1706  Bashir ibn al-Husayn
       1706 -        1732  Haydar ibn Musa                    (b. ... - d. 1781)
       1732 -        1758  Malham ibn Haydar
       1758 -        1770  al-Mansur ibn Haydar               (b. ... - d. 1774)
                           + Ahmad ibn Haydar (to 1763)
       1760                  al-Qasim ibn `Umar (in rebellion)
       1770 -        1778  Yusuf ibn Malham (1st time)
       1778 -        1780  Ahmad ibn Malham
                           + Afandi ibn Malham
       1780 -        1789  Yusuf ibn Malham (2nd time)
       1789 -        1790  Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1767 - d. 1850)
       1790                Yusuf ibn Malham (3rd time)
       1790                Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1790 -        1793  Haydar ibn Malham
                           + Qa`dan ibn Muhammad (1st time)
       1793                al-Husayn ibn Yusuf (1st time)
                           + Salim ibn Yusuf (1st time)
                           + Sa`d ad-Din ibn Yusuf (1st time)
       1793 -        1795  Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
       1795                al-Husayn ibn Yusuf (2nd time)
                           + Salim ibn Yusuf (2nd time)
                           + Sa`d ad-Din ibn Yusuf (2nd time)
       1795 -        1799  Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
       1799 -        1800  al-Husayn ibn Yusuf (3rd time)
                           + Salim ibn Yusuf (3rd time)
                           + Sa`d ad-Din ibn Yusuf (3rd time)
       1800 -        1801  Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
       1801                al-`Abbas ibn Asad (1st time)
       1801                Qa`dan ibn Muhammad (2nd time)
                           + Salman ibn Ahmad (1st time)
       1801 -        1821  Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar
                           (6th time)                         (s.a.)
       1821                al-Hasan ibn `Ali (1st time)
                           + Salman ibn Ahmad (2nd time)
       1821 -        1822  Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar
                           (7th time)                         (s.a.)
       1822                al-Hasan ibn `Ali (2nd time)
                           + Salman ibn Ahmad (3rd time)
       1822                al-`Abbas ibn Asad (2nd time)
       1822 -        1840  Bashir ibn al-Qasim ibn `Umar
                           (8th time)                         (s.a.)
 8 Oct 1840 - 16 Jan 1842  Bashir ibn al-Qasim                (b. ... - d. 1851)
Governors (mutassarifs)
       1861 -        1868  Davud Pasha                        (b. c.1816 - d. 1873)
       1868 -  2 Feb 1873  Franko Pasha                       (b. 1814 - d. 1873)
       1873 -        1883  Rüstem Pasha                       (b. 1810 - d. 1885)
   May 1883 - 26 Jun 1892  Vasa Pasha                         (b. 1824 - d. 1892)
   Aug 1892 -        1902  Naum Pasha                         (b. 1846 - d. 1911)
       1902 - 28 Jun 1907  Muzaffer Pasha                     (b. 1837/40 - d. 1907)
   Jul 1907 -        1912  Yusuf Pasha                        (b. 1856 - d. 19...)
       1912 -        1915  Ohannes Pasha                      (b. 1852 - d. 19...)
25 Sep 1915 - 15 May 1916  Ali Münif Bey
   May 1916 -    Aug 1918  Ismail Haqqi
15 Aug 1918 - 30 Sep 1918  Mümtaz Bey
Governors
 1 Sep 1920 -    Apr 1923  Georges Trabaud
   Apr 1923 - 27 Jun 1924  Antoine Privat-Aubouard            (b. 1874 - d. 1934)
27 Jun 1924 - 13 Jan 1925  Charles Alexis Vandenberg          (b. 1858 - d. 1942)
13 Jan 1925 - 26 May 1926  Léon Cayla                         (b. 1881 - d. 1965)
                           (provisional to 16 Jul 1925)
26 May 1926 -  1 Sep 1926  Charles Debbas                     (b. 1884 - d. 1935)
                           (with honorary title of President)
Presidents
 1 Sep 1926 -  2 Jan 1934  Charles Debbas                     (s.a.)
 2 Jan 1934 - 30 Jan 1934  Antoine Privat-Aubouard (acting)   (s.a.)
30 Jan 1934 - 20 Jan 1936  Habib Pacha Es-Saad                (b. 1867 - d. 1942)
20 Jan 1936 -  4 Apr 1941  Émile Eddé (1st time)              (b. 1886 - d. 1949)
 4 Apr 1941 -  9 Apr 1941  Pierre Georges Arlabosse (acting)  (b. 1891 - d. 1950)
 9 Apr 1941 - 18 Mar 1943  Alfred Naccache                    (b. 1887 - d. 1978)
                           (acting to 1 Dec 1941)
19 Mar 1943 - 21 Jul 1943  Ayoub Tabet (acting)               (b. 1884 - d. 1951)
22 Jul 1943 - 20 Sep 1943  Petro Trad                         (b. 1886 - d. 1947)
21 Sep 1943 - 11 Nov 1943  Béchara El-Khoury (1st time)       (b. 1892 - d. 1964)
11 Nov 1943 - 22 Nov 1943  Émile Eddé (2nd time)              (s.a.)
22 Nov 1943 - 18 Sep 1952  Béchara El-Khoury (2nd time)       (s.a.)
18 Sep 1952 - 22 Sep 1952  Fouad Chehab (1st time) (acting)   (b. 1902 - d. 1973)
23 Sep 1952 - 22 Sep 1958  Camille Chamoun                    (b. 1900 - d. 1987)
23 Sep 1958 - 22 Sep 1964  Fouad Chehab (2nd time)            (s.a.)
23 Sep 1964 - 22 Sep 1970  Charles Hélou                      (b. 1912 - d. 2001)
23 Sep 1970 - 22 Sep 1976  Suleiman Franjieh                  (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
23 Sep 1976 - 22 Sep 1982  Elias Sarkis                       (b. 1924 - d. 1985)
23 Sep 1982 - 22 Sep 1988  Amin Gemayel                       (b. 1942)
23 Sep 1988 -  5 Nov 1989  Salim Hoss (1st time) (acting)     (b. 1929)
 5 Nov 1989 - 22 Nov 1989  René Moawad                        (b. 1925 - d. 1989)
22 Nov 1989 - 24 Nov 1989  Salim Hoss (2nd time) (acting)     (s.a.)
24 Nov 1989 - 23 Nov 1998  Elias Hrawi                        (b. 1926 - d. 2006)
24 Nov 1998 - 23 Nov 2007  Émile Lahoud                       (b. 1936)
24 Nov 2007 - 25 May 2008  Fouad Siniora (acting)             (b. 1943)
25 May 2008 -              Michel Suleiman                    (b. 1948)

Prime ministers 31 May 1926 - 5 May 1927 Auguste Adib Pacha (1st time) (b. 1860 - d. 1936) 5 May 1927 - 10 Aug 1928 Béchara El-Khoury (1st time) (s.a.) 10 Aug 1928 - 9 May 1929 Habib Pacha Es-Saad (s.a.) 9 May 1929 - 11 Oct 1929 Béchara El-Khoury (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Oct 1929 - 25 Mar 1930 Émile Eddé (s.a.) 25 Mar 1930 - 9 Mar 1932 Auguste Adib Pacha (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Mar 1932 - 29 Jan 1934 Charles Debbas (s.a.) 29 Jan 1934 - 30 Jan 1936 Abdullah Bayhum (1st time) (acting) 30 Jan 1936 - 5 Jan 1937 Ayoub Tabet (1st time) (acting) (s.a.) 5 Jan 1937 - 18 Mar 1938 Khayreddin al-Ahdab 18 Mar 1938 - 24 Oct 1938 Khaled Chehab (1st time) (b. 1892 - d. 1978) 24 Oct 1938 - 21 Sep 1939 Abdullah Yafi (1st time) (b. 1901 - d. 1986) 21 Sep 1939 - 4 Apr 1941 Abdullah Bayhum (2nd time) 7 Apr 1941 - 26 Nov 1941 Alfred Naccache (s.a.) 1 Dec 1941 - 26 Jul 1942 Ahmed Daouk (1st time) (b. 1892 - d. 1979) 26 Jul 1942 - 22 Mar 1943 Sami Bey al-Solh (1st time) (b. 1890 - d. 1968) 22 Mar 1943 - 21 Jul 1943 Ayoub Tabet (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 1 Aug 1943 - 25 Sep 1943 Petro Trad (s.a.) 25 Sep 1943 - 10 Jan 1945 Riad Bey al-Solh (1st time) (b. 1894 - d. 1951) 10 Jan 1945 - 20 Aug 1945 Abdul Hamid Karami (b. 1890 - d. 1950) 23 Aug 1945 - 22 May 1946 Sami Bey al-Solh (2nd time) (s.a.) 22 May 1946 - 14 Dec 1946 Saadi al-Munla (b. 1897 - d. 1972) 14 Dec 1946 - 14 Feb 1951 Riad Bey al-Solh (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Feb 1951 - 7 Jun 1951 Hussein al-Oweini (1st time) (b. 1900 - d. 1971) 7 Jun 1951 - 11 Feb 1952 Abdullah Yafi (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Feb 1952 - 10 Sep 1952 Sami Bey al-Solh (3rd time) (s.a.) 10 Sep 1952 - 14 Sep 1952 Nazem Akkari (b. 1902 - d. 1985) 14 Sep 1952 - 18 Sep 1952 Saeb Salam (1st time) (b. 1905 - d. 2000) 18 Sep 1952 - 1 Oct 1952 Fouad Chehab (s.a.) 1 Oct 1952 - 1 May 1953 Khaled Chehab (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 May 1953 - 16 Aug 1953 Saeb Salam (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Aug 1953 - 17 Sep 1954 Abdullah Yafi (3rd time) (s.a.) 17 Sep 1954 - 19 Sep 1955 Sami al-Solh (4th time) (s.a.) 19 Sep 1955 - 20 Mar 1956 Rashid Karami (1st time) (b. 1921 - d. 1987) 20 Mar 1956 - 18 Nov 1956 Abdullah Yafi (4th time) (s.a.) 18 Nov 1956 - 20 Sep 1958 Sami al-Solh (5th time) (s.a.) 20 Sep 1958 - 24 Sep 1958 Khalil al-Hibri (acting) (b. 1905) 24 Sep 1958 - 14 May 1960 Rashid Karami (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 May 1960 - 1 Aug 1960 Ahmed Daouk (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Aug 1960 - 31 Oct 1961 Saeb Salam (3rd time) (s.a.) 31 Oct 1961 - 20 Feb 1964 Rashid Karami (3rd time) (s.a.) 20 Feb 1964 - 25 Jul 1965 Hussein al-Oweini (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Jul 1965 - 9 Apr 1966 Rashid Karami (4th time) (s.a.) 9 Apr 1966 - 7 Dec 1966 Abdullah Yafi (5th time) (s.a.) 7 Dec 1966 - 8 Feb 1968 Rashid Karami (5th time) (s.a.) 8 Feb 1968 - 15 Jan 1969 Abdullah Yafi (6th time) (s.a.) 15 Jan 1969 - 13 Oct 1970 Rashid Karami (6th time) (s.a.) 13 Oct 1970 - 25 Apr 1973 Saeb Salam (4th time) (s.a.) 25 Apr 1973 - 8 Jul 1973 Amin Hafez (b. 1926 - d. 2009) 8 Jul 1973 - 31 Oct 1974 Takieddin al-Solh (1st time) (b. 1909 - d. 1988) 31 Oct 1974 - 23 May 1975 Rashid al-Solh (1st time) (b. 1926) 23 May 1975 - 1 Jul 1975 Nureddin Rifai (b. 1899 - d. ...) 1 Jul 1975 - 9 Dec 1976 Rashid Karami (7th time) (s.a.) 9 Dec 1976 - 20 Jul 1980 Salim Hoss (1st time) (s.a.) 20 Jul 1980 - 25 Oct 1980 Takieddin al-Solh (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Oct 1980 - 30 Apr 1984 Shafiq Wazzan (b. 1925 - d. 1999) 30 Apr 1984 - 1 Jun 1987 Rashid Karami (8th time) (s.a.) 1 Jun 1987 - 24 Dec 1990 Salim Hoss (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Sep 1988 - 13 Oct 1990 Michel Aoun (b. 1935) (military government) 24 Dec 1990 - 13 May 1992 Omar Karami (1st time) (b. 1934) 13 May 1992 - 31 Oct 1992 Rashid al-Solh (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Oct 1992 - 2 Dec 1998 Rafiq Hariri (1st time) (b. 1944 - d. 2005) 2 Dec 1998 - 23 Oct 2000 Salim Hoss (3rd time) (s.a.) 23 Oct 2000 - 21 Oct 2004 Rafiq Hariri (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Oct 2004 - 19 Apr 2005 Omar Karami (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Apr 2005 - 19 Jul 2005 Najib Mikati (1st time) (b. 1955) 19 Jul 2005 - 9 Nov 2009 Fouad Siniora (s.a.) 9 Nov 2009 - 13 Jun 2011 Saad Hariri (b. 1970) 13 Jun 2011 - 15 Feb 2014 Najib Mikati (2nd time) (s.a.) 15 Feb 2014 - Tammam Salam (b. 1945)

Leeward Islands: see under Antigua and Barbuda.
León: see under Nicaragua.

Lesotho

       1822                Lesotho emerges as a polity
12 Mar 1868                British protectorate (Basutoland)
       1871 -    Mar 1884  annexed to Cape Colony
30 Apr 1965                autonomy
 4 Oct 1966                independence (Kingdom of Lesotho)

Paramount chiefs
       1822 - 18 Jan 1870  Moshoeshoe I                       (b. c.1786 - d. 1870)
18 Jan 1870 - 20 Nov 1891  Letsie I Moshoeshoe                (b. c.1811 - d. 1891)
20 Nov 1891 - 19 Aug 1905  Lerotholi Letsie                   (b. c.1836 - d. 1905)
21 Aug 1905 - 28 Jan 1913  Letsie II Lerotholi                (b. c.1869 - d. 1913)
11 Apr 1913 -    Jul 1939  Nathaniel Griffith Lerotholi       (b. c.1871 - d. 1939)
 3 Aug 1939 - 26 Dec 1940  Simon Seeiso Griffith              (b. 1905 - d. 1940)
26 Dec 1940 - 28 Jan 1941  Gabasane Masopha (acting)          (b. ... - d. 1949)
28 Jan 1941 - 12 Mar 1960  'Mantsebo Amelia 'Matsaba Sempe
                           (f) (acting)                       (b. 1902 - d. 1964)
12 Mar 1960 - 30 Apr 1965  Moshoeshoe II                      (b. 1938 - d. 1996)
Kings
30 Apr 1965 - 10 Feb 1970  Moshoeshoe II (1st time)           (s.a.)
10 Feb 1970 -  5 Jun 1970  Leabua Jonathan (Tona-Kholo)       (b. 1914 - d. 1987)
 5 Jun 1970 -  5 Dec 1970  Queen 'MaMohato (f) (1st time)     (b. 1941 - d. 2003)
                           (regent)
 5 Dec 1970 - 12 Nov 1990  Moshoeshoe II (2nd time)           (s.a.)
10 Mar 1990 - 12 Nov 1990    Queen 'MaMohato (f) (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                             (regent for exiled Moshoeshoe)
12 Nov 1990 - 25 Jan 1995  Letsie III (1st time)              (b. 1963)
25 Jan 1995 - 15 Jan 1996  Moshoeshoe II (3rd time)           (s.a.)
15 Jan 1996 -  7 Feb 1996  Queen 'MaMohato (f) (3rd time)     (s.a.)
                           (regent)
 7 Feb 1996 -              Letsie III (2nd time)              (s.a.)

Prime ministers 6 May 1965 - 7 Jul 1965 Sekhonyana Nehemia Maseribane (b. 1918 - d. 1986) 7 Jul 1965 - 20 Jan 1986 Leabua Jonathan (s.a.) Chairmen of the Military Council 24 Jan 1986 - 2 May 1991 Justin Metsing Lekhanya (b. 1938) 2 May 1991 - 2 Apr 1993 Elias Phisoana Ramaema (b. 1933) Prime ministers 2 Apr 1993 - 17 Aug 1994 Ntsu Mokhehle (1st time) (b. 1918 - d. 1999) 19 Aug 1994 - 14 Sep 1994 Hae Phoofolo (interim) (b. 1946?) 14 Sep 1994 - 29 May 1998 Ntsu Mokhehle (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 May 1998 - 8 Jun 2012 Pakalitha Mosisili (b. 1945) 8 Jun 2012 - Tom Thabane (b. 1939) Government Agents 1868 Walter Currie 1869 - 1871 James Henry Bowker (b. 1822 - d. 1900) 1871 - 1881 Charles Duncan Griffith (b. 1830 - d. 1906) 1881 - 1883 Joseph Millerd Orpen 1883 - 1884 Matthew Smith Beyth Resident commissioners (subordinated to the High Commissioner for Southern Africa to 31 Jul 1964) 18 Mar 1884 - 1893 Marshal James Clarke (from 1886, Sir Marshal James Clarke) (b. 1841 - d. 1909) 18 Sep 1894 - 1901 Godfrey Yeatman Lagden (from 1897, Sir Godfrey Yeatman Lagden) (b. 1851 - d. 1934) 1902 - 1916 Sir Herbert Cecil Sloley (b. 1855 - d. 1937) 1916 - 1917 Robert Thorne Coryndon (b. 1870 - d. 1925) 1917 - 1926 Edward Charles Frederick Garraway (b. 1865 - d. 1932) Apr 1926 - 1935 John Christian Ramsay Sturrock (b. 1875 - d. 1937) Mar 1935 - 1942 Sir Edmund Charles Smith Richards (b. 1889 - d. 1955) Aug 1942 - 1946 Charles Noble Arden-Clarke (b. 1898 - d. 1962) Nov 1946 - 1951 Aubrey Denzil Forsyth-Thompson (b. 1897 - d. 1982) 1952 - 1956 Edwin Porter Arrowsmith (b. 1909 - d. 1992) Sep 1956 - 1961 Alan Geoffrey Tunstal Chaplin (b. 1908 - d. 1967) 1961 - 1966 Alexander Falconer Giles (b. 1915 - d. 1989) (from 30 Apr 1965 British government representative)

Liberia

15 Dec 1821                Cape Mesurado Colony created by American Colonization Society
15 Aug 1824                Cape Mesurado expanded into Colony of Liberia
 5 Apr 1839                Commonwealth of Liberia
26 Jul 1847                independence (Republic of Liberia)

Colonial Agents
15 Dec 1821 - 25 Apr 1822  Eli Ayres                          (b. 1778 - d. 18...)
25 Apr 1822 -  4 Jun 1822  Frederick James (acting)
 4 Jun 1822 -  8 Aug 1822  Elijah Johnson (1st time) (acting) (b. 1787 - d. 1849)
 8 Aug 1822 -  2 Apr 1823  Jehudi Ashmun (1st time) (acting)  (b. 1794 - d. 1828)
 2 Apr 1823 - 14 Aug 1823  Elijah Johnson (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.)
14 Aug 1823 - 26 Mar 1828  Jehudi Ashmun (2nd time)           (s.a.)
                           (acting to 22 Aug 1823)
26 Mar 1828 -  8 Nov 1828  Lott Carey (acting)                (b. c.1780 - d. 1828)
 8 Nov 1828 - 22 Dec 1828  Colston Waring (acting)
22 Dec 1828 - 19 Apr 1829  Richard Randall                    (b. 1796 - d. 1829)
19 Apr 1829 - 27 Feb 1830  Joseph Mechlin, Jr. (1st time)
                           (acting to 14 Sep 1829)
27 Feb 1830 - 12 Apr 1830  John Anderson (acting)
13 Apr 1830 -  4 Dec 1830  Anthony Williams (1st time)        (b. ... - d. 1861)
                           (acting)
 4 Dec 1830 - 24 Sep 1833  Joseph Mechlin, Jr. (2nd time)
24 Sep 1833 -  1 Jan 1834  George McGill (acting)             (b. 1787 - d. 18...)
 1 Jan 1834 - 10 May 1835  John Piney                         (b. 1806 - d. 1882)
10 May 1835 - 12 Aug 1835  Nathaniel Brander (acting)
12 Aug 1835 - 25 Sep 1836  Ezekiel Skinner                    (b. 1777 - d. 1855)
25 Sep 1836 -  1 Apr 1839  Anthony Williams (2nd time)        (s.a.)
Governors
 5 Apr 1839 -  3 Sep 1841  Thomas Buchanan                    (b. 1808 - d. 1841)
 3 Sep 1841 -  3 Jan 1848  Joseph Jenkins Roberts             (b. 1809 - d. 1876)
                           (acting to 20 Jan 1842)
Presidents
 3 Jan 1848 -  7 Jan 1856  Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1st time)  (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1856 -  4 Jan 1864  Stephen Allen Benson               (b. 1816 - d. 1865)
 4 Jan 1864 -  6 Jan 1868  Daniel Bashiel Warner              (b. 1815 - d. 1880)
 6 Jan 1868 -  3 Jan 1870  James Spriggs Payne (1st time)     (b. 1819 - d. 1882)
 3 Jan 1870 - 26 Oct 1871  Edward James Roye                  (b. 1815 - d. 1872)
26 Oct 1871 -  4 Nov 1871  Chief Executive Committee
                           - Charles Benedict Dunbar          (b. c.1831 - d. 1878)
                           - Reginald A. Sherman              (b. 1838 - d. 1894)
                           - Amos Herring                     (b. c.1794 - d. ...)
 4 Nov 1871 -  1 Jan 1872  James Skivring Smith               (b. 1825 - d. ...)
 1 Jan 1872 -  3 Jan 1876  Joseph Jenkins Roberts (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 3 Jan 1876 -  7 Jan 1878  James Spriggs Payne (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1878 - 20 Jan 1883  Anthony William Gardner            (b. 1820 - d. 1885)
20 Jan 1883 -  7 Jan 1884  Alfred Francis Russell             (b. 1817 - d. 1884)
 7 Jan 1884 -  4 Jan 1892  Hilary Richard Wright Johnson      (b. 1837 - d. 1901)
 4 Jan 1892 - 12 Nov 1896  Joseph James Cheeseman             (b. 1843 - d. 1896)
12 Nov 1896 - 11 Dec 1900  William David Coleman              (b. 1842 - d. 1908)
11 Dec 1900 -  4 Jan 1904  Garretson Wilmot Gibson            (b. 1832 - d. 1910)
                           (acting to 6 Jan 1902)
 4 Jan 1904 -  1 Jan 1912  Arthur Barclay                     (b. 1854 - d. 1938)
 1 Jan 1912 -  5 Jan 1920  Daniel E. Howard                   (b. 1861 - d. 1935)
 5 Jan 1920 -  3 Dec 1930  Charles D.B. King                  (b. 1871 - d. 1961)
 3 Dec 1930 -  3 Jan 1944  Edwin J. Barclay                   (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
                           (acting to 4 Jan 1932)
 3 Jan 1944 - 23 Jul 1971  William V.S. Tubman                (b. 1895 - d. 1971)
23 Jul 1971 - 12 Apr 1980  William R. Tolbert, Jr.            (b. 1913 - d. 1980)
12 Apr 1980 -  9 Sep 1990  Samuel K. Doe                      (b. 1951 - d. 1990)
                           (chairman People's Redemption Council to 25 Jul 1984)
 9 Sep 1990 - 22 Nov 1990  Conflicting claims
                           - Prince Johnson                   (b. 1952)
                           - Charles Taylor                   (b. 1948)
                           - David Nimley
                           - Amos Sawyer                      (b. 1945)
President of the Interim Government of National Unity
22 Nov 1990 -  7 Mar 1994  Amos Sawyer                        (s.a.)
Chairmen of the Council of State
 7 Mar 1994 -  1 Sep 1995  David Kpomakpor                    (b. 1935 - d. 2010)
 1 Sep 1995 -  3 Sep 1996  Wilton Sankawulo                   (b. 1937 - d. 2009)
 3 Sep 1996 -  2 Aug 1997  Ruth Perry (f)                     (b. 1939)
Presidents
 2 Aug 1997 - 11 Aug 2003  Charles Taylor                     (s.a.)
11 Aug 2003 - 14 Oct 2003  Moses Blah                         (b. 1947 - d. 2013)
Chairman of the National Transitional Government
14 Oct 2003 - 16 Jan 2006  Gyude Bryant                       (b. 1949 - d. 2014)
President
16 Jan 2006 -              Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf (f)          (b. 1938)

Maryland

12 Feb 1834                Maryland-in-Africa colony of the Maryland State
                           Colonization Society
 2 Feb 1841                State of Maryland in Liberia
29 May 1854                independence (Independent State of Maryland in Liberia)
18 Mar 1857                incorporation into Liberia

Governors
12 Feb 1834 -    Feb 1836  James Hall                         (b. 1802 - d. 1889)
   Feb 1836 -  1 Jul 1836  Oliver Holmes, Jr.
 1 Jul 1836 - 28 Sep 1836  Three-Man Committee
28 Sep 1836 -  9 Jun 1851  John Brown Russwurm                (b. 1799 - d. 1851)
 9 Jun 1851 -  8 Jun 1854  Samuel Ford McGill                 (b. 1818 - d. 1871)
                           (acting to 1852)
 8 Jun 1854 -    Apr 1856  William A. Prout
   Apr 1856 - 18 Mar 1857  Boston Jenkins Drayton             (b. c.1821 - d. 1864)

Mississippi-in-Africa

       1835                Mississippi-in-Africa colony of the Mississippi and
                           Louisiana State Colonization societies
       1842                incorporation into Liberia

Governor
   Jun 1837 - 10 Sep 1838  Josiah Finley                      (b. ... - d. 1838)

Port Cresson/Bassa Cove

   Dec 1832                Port Cresson colony of the Black Quakers of the New York
                           and Pennsylvania Colonization Societies
   Jun 1835                colony destroyed by Bassa natives
   Jul 1835                Bassa Cove colony
 1 Apr 1839                incorporation into Liberia

Chief magistrates
   Dec 1832 -    Jun 1835  Edward Hankinson (1st time)
   Jul 1835 -    Jan 1836  Edward Hankinson (2nd time)
   Jan 1836 -  4 Aug 1837  Thomas Buchanan                    (s.a.)
 4 Aug 1837 -    Jun 1838  John Matthias
   Jun 1838 -  1 Apr 1839  Wesley Johnson

Libya

Tripolitania

       1911                independent government (in rebellion against Ottoman
                           sovereignty)
 3 Oct 1911                Italian occupation
16 Nov 1918                Tripolitanian Republic
12 Nov 1922                annexed to Italy (nominally 18 May 1919)
 1 Jan 1934                part of Libya
   Dec 1942                British administration (Tripoli taken 23 Jan 1943)
       1946                UN administration
24 Dec 1951                part of Libya

Ruler
       1911 -    Mar 1913  Sulayman ibn `Abd Allah al-Baruni  (b. c.1870 - d. 1940)
Chairman of the Council of the Republic
16 Nov 1918 -    Nov 1920  Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid
Chairman of the Central Reform Board
   Nov 1920 -        1923  Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid
Governors
   Oct 1911                Raffaele Borea Ricci d'Olmo        (b. 1857 - d. 1942)
11 Oct 1911 -        1912  Carlo Francesco Giovanni Battista
                           Caneva                             (b. 1845 - d. 1922)
       1912 -        1913  Ottavio Ragni                      (b. 1852 - d. 1919)
 2 Jun 1913 -        1914  Vincenzo Garioni                   (b. 1856 - d. 1929)
       1914 -        1915  Luigi Druetti                      (b. 1853 - d. c.1919)
       1915                Iulio Cesare Tassoni               (b. 1859 - d. 1942)
       1915 -        1918  Giovanni Battista Ameglio          (b. 1854 - d. 1921)
 6 Jul 1920 -    Jul 1921  Luigi Mercatelli                   (b. 18... - d. 1922)
   Jul 1921 -    Jul 1925  Giuseppe Volpi, conte di Misurata  (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
   Jul 1925 - 24 Jan 1929  Emilio De Bono                     (b. 1866 - d. 1944)
24 Jan 1929 - 31 Dec 1933  Pietro Badoglio                    (b. 1871 - d. 1956)
   Dec 1942 - 26 Jan 1943  Maurice Stanley Lush               (b. 1896 - d. 1990)
Administrator (from Apr 1949, resident)
       1943 -        1951  Travers Robert Blackley            (b. 1899 - d. 1982)

Cyrenaica

       1843                Sanusiya Order founded
       1920                Italy claims sovereignty
       1929                Italy derecognizes the Order
 1 Jan 1934                part of Libya
   Feb 1941                British administration (but again controlled by Axis forces
                           for much of 1941 and 1942)
   Oct 1946                Sanusi emir recognized by U.K. (administering the territory
                           for the UN)
 1 Jun 1949                Emirate of Cyrenaica recognized
24 Dec 1951                part of Libya

Sheikhs
- Awlad Sayyidi `Abd Allah dynasty, al-Khattabi al-Mujahiri al-Hasani al-Idrisi lineage -
       1843 -  7 Sep 1859  Sayyid Muhammad ibn `Ali as-Sanusi (b. 1787 - d. 1859)
 7 Sep 1859 -  2 Jun 1902  Sayyid Muhammad ibn Sayyid
                           Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Sanusi        (b. 1844 - d. 1902)
 2 Jun 1902 - 21 Aug 1918  Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Muhammad
                           ash-Sharif as-Sanusi               (b. 1873 - d. 1933)
21 Aug 1918 - 25 Oct 1920  Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi    (b. 1890 - d. 1983)
Emir
25 Oct 1920 -        1929  Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
Governors
       1911 -        1913  Ottavio Briccola                   (b. 1853 - d. 1924)
   Oct 1913 -        1918  Giovanni Battista Ameglio          (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1918 -        1919  Vincenzo Garioni                   (s.a.)
 5 Aug 1919 - 23 Nov 1921  Giacomo De Martino                 (b. 1849 - d. 1921)
23 Nov 1921 -    Oct 1922  Luigi Pintor                       (b. 1882 - d. 1925)
   Oct 1922 -    Dec 1922  Eduardo Baccari                    (b. 1871 - d. 1952)
 7 Jan 1923 -        1924  Luigi Bongiovanni                  (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
       1924 -  2 Dec 1926  Ernesto Mombelli                   (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
 2 Dec 1926 -        1928  Attilio Teruzzi                    (b. 1882 - d. 1950)
   Jan 1929 -    Mar 1930  Domenico Siciliani                 (b. 1879 - d. 1938)
   Mar 1930 -    May 1934  Rodolfo Graziani, marchese
                           di Neghelli                        (b. 1882 - d. 1955)
   Jun 1934 -    Apr 1935  Guglielmo Nasi                     (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
Military governors
10 Feb 1941 -        1941  Sir Henry Maitland Wilson          (b. 1881 - d. 1964)
       1941                Philip Neame                       (b. 1888 - d. 1978)
       1943                Angus Lyell Collier                (b. 1893 - d. 1971)
Administrators
       1943 -        1945  Duncan Cameron Cumming             (b. 1903 - d. 1979)
30 Oct 1945 -        1946  Peter Bevil Edward Acland          (b. 1902 - d. 1993)
       1946 -        1948  James William Norris Haugh         (b. 1894 - d. 1969)
       1948 -        1951  Eric Armar Vully de Candole        (b. 1901 - d. 1989)
                           (resident from 17 Sep 1949)
Emir
   Oct 1946 - 24 Dec 1951  Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)

Prime ministers 9 Nov 1949 - 18 Mar 1950 Umar Mansur Kikhia (b. 1880 - d. 1962) 18 Mar 1950 - 24 Dec 1951 Muhammad Sakizli (b. ... - d. ...)

Fezzan

        918                Sultanate of Fezzan founded
       1212                annexed by Borno
       13..                independence recovered
       1580 -        1582  incorporated into Ottoman Empire
       1612 -        1614  incorporated into Ottoman Empire
       1623 -        1626  incorporated into Ottoman Empire
       1689 -        1689  incorporated into Ottoman Empire
       1843                incorporated into Ottoman Empire
       1911                annexed by Italy
 1 Jan 1934                part of Libya
       1946                UN administration
24 Dec 1951                part of Libya

Sultans
- Awlad Muhammad dynasty -
       1789 -        1804  Sharif Muhammad ibn al-Mansur
                           al-Hakim
       1804 -        1811  Sharif Muhammad ibn al-Mansur
                           al-Muntasir
       1811 -        1831  Yusuf al-Mukkani (usurper)
- Banu Sulayman dynasty -
       1831 -        1842  Sayf an-Nasr `Abd al-Jalil ibn Rad
Hakim (from 12 Feb 1950, Wali [Chef du territoire])
       1946 - 24 Dec 1951  Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr                 (b. c.1876 - d. 1954)

Libya

 1 Jan 1934                Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan united as
                           colony of Libya
13 May 1943                end of Italian rule
24 Dec 1951                independence as United Libyan Kingdom
25 Apr 1963                Libyan Kingdom
 1 Sep 1969                Libyan Arab Republic
 2 Mar 1977                Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
   Apr 1986                Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
23 Aug 2011                Libya
 8 Jan 2013                State of Libya

De facto chief of state ("Leader of the Revolution")
 1 Sep 1969 - 23 Aug 2011  Muammar al-Qaddafi                 (b. 1942 - d. 2011)

Governors-general 1 Jan 1934 - 28 Jun 1940 Italo Balbo (b. 1896 - d. 1940) 1 Jul 1940 - 25 Mar 1941 Rodolfo Graziani, marchese di Neghelli (s.a.) 25 Mar 1941 - 19 Jul 1941 Italo Gariboldi (b. 1879 - d. 1970) 19 Jul 1941 - 2 Feb 1943 Ettore Bastico (b. 1876 - d. 1972) 2 Feb 1943 - 13 May 1943 Giovanni Messe (acting) (b. 1883 - d. 1968) UN commissioner 10 Dec 1949 - 24 Dec 1951 Adrian Pelt (Netherlands) (b. 1892 - d. 1981) (arrived in Tripoli 18 Jan 1950) King 24 Dec 1951 - 1 Sep 1969 Idris I (s.a.) (= Sayyid Muhammad Idris as-Sanusi) Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council 8 Sep 1969 - 1 Mar 1979 Muammar al-Qaddafi (s.a.) Secretaries of the General People's Congress (nominal chiefs of state) 2 Mar 1977 - 1 Mar 1979 Muammar al-Qaddafi (s.a.) 1 Mar 1979 - 7 Jan 1981 Abdul Ati al-Obeidi (b. 1939) 7 Jan 1981 - 15 Feb 1984 Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab (b. 1940) 15 Feb 1984 - 7 Oct 1990 Mifta al-Usta Umar (b. 1935) 7 Oct 1990 - 18 Nov 1992 Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa 18 Nov 1992 - 3 Mar 2008 Zentani Muhammad az-Zentani 3 Mar 2008 - 5 Mar 2009 Muftah Muhammad Kaiba 5 Mar 2009 - 26 Jan 2010 Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh (b. 1950) 26 Jan 2010 - 23 Aug 2011 Muhammad Abul-Qasim al-Zwai Chairman of the National Transitional Council 5 Mar 2011 - 9 Aug 2012 Mustafa Abdul Jalil (b. 1952) (in rebellion to 23 Aug 2011) Chairmen of the General National Congress 9 Aug 2012 - 10 Aug 2012 Muhammad Ali Salim (acting) (b. 1935) 10 Aug 2012 - 28 May 2013 Muhammad al-Megarif (b. 1940) 28 May 2013 - 25 Jun 2013 Giuma Attaiga (acting) 25 Jun 2013 - Nouri Abusahmain
Prime ministers 29 Mar 1951 - 19 Feb 1954 Mahmud al-Muntasir (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1970) 19 Feb 1954 - 12 Apr 1954 Muhammad Sakizli (s.a.) 12 Apr 1954 - 26 May 1957 Mustafa Ben Halim (b. 1921) 26 May 1957 - 17 Oct 1960 Abdul Majid Kubar (b. 1909 - d. ...) 17 Oct 1960 - 19 Mar 1963 Muhammad Osman Said (b. 1922 - d. 2007) 19 Mar 1963 - 22 Jan 1964 Mohieddin Fikini (b. 1926 - d. ...) 22 Jan 1964 - 20 Mar 1965 Mahmud al-Muntasir (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Mar 1965 - 1 Jul 1967 Hussein Maziq (b. 1918 - d. 2006) 1 Jul 1967 - 25 Oct 1967 Abdul Qadir al-Badri (b. ... - d. 2003) 25 Oct 1967 - 4 Sep 1968 Abdul Hamid al-Bakkoush (b. 1933 - d. 2007) 4 Sep 1968 - 31 Aug 1969 Wanis al-Qaddafi (b. 1924 - d. 1986) 8 Sep 1969 - 16 Jan 1970 Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi (b. 1935 - d. 2009) 16 Jan 1970 - 16 Jul 1972 Muammar al-Qaddafi (s.a.) 16 Jul 1972 - 2 Mar 1977 Abdul Salam Jalloud (b. 1944) Secretaries of the General People's Committee 2 Mar 1977 - 2 Mar 1979 Abdul Ati al-Obeidi (s.a.) 2 Mar 1979 - 16 Feb 1984 Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (1st time) 16 Feb 1984 - 3 Mar 1986 Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab (s.a.) 3 Mar 1986 - 1 Mar 1987 Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (2nd time) 1 Mar 1987 - 7 Oct 1990 Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir (b. 1939 - d. 2001) 7 Oct 1990 - 29 Jan 1994 Abuzed Omar Dorda (b. 1944) 29 Jan 1994 - 29 Dec 1997 Abdul Majid al-Qa`ud (b. 1943) 29 Dec 1997 - 1 Mar 2000 Muhammad Ahmad al-Mangoush 1 Mar 2000 - 14 Jun 2003 Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh (s.a.) 14 Jun 2003 - 5 Mar 2006 Shukri Ghanem (b. 1942 - d. 2012) 5 Mar 2006 - 23 Aug 2011 Al-Baghdadi Ali al-Mahmudi (b. 1945?) Interim prime ministers 23 Mar 2011 - 23 Oct 2011 Mahmoud Jibril (b. 1952) (in rebellion to 23 Aug 2011) 23 Oct 2011 - 24 Nov 2011 Ali Tarhouni (acting) (b. 1951) 24 Nov 2011 - 14 Nov 2012 Abdel Rahim al-Kib (b. 1950) Prime ministers 14 Nov 2012 - 11 Mar 2014 Ali Zidan (b. 1950) 11 Mar 2014 - Abdullah al-Thani (b. 1954) (acting to 8 Apr 2014)

Liechtenstein

23 Jan 1719¹               County of Vaduz and Lordship of Schellenberg united as
                           Principality of Liechtenstein

Counts of Vaduz and lords of Schellenberg
- Hohenems dynasty -
18 Feb 1686 - 22 Feb 1712  Jakob Hannibal III Friedrich       (b. 1653 - d. 1730)
                           (from 18 Jan 1699 count of Vaduz only)
- Liechtenstein dynasty -
18 Jan 1699 - 16 Jun 1712  Johann Adam I Andreas              (b. 1662 - d. 1712)
                           (to 22 Feb 1712 lord of Schellenberg only)
17 Jun 1712 - 12 Mar 1718  Joseph Wenzel Lorenz               (b. 1696 - d. 1772)
12 Mar 1718 - 23 Jan 1719  Anton Florian                      (b. 1656 - d. 1721)
Sovereign princes
- Liechtenstein dynasty -
23 Jan 1719 - 11 Oct 1721  Anton Florian                      (s.a.)
11 Oct 1721 - 17 Dec 1732  Joseph Johann Adam                 (b. 1690 - d. 1732)
17 Dec 1732 - 22 Dec 1748  Johann Nepomuk Karl                (b. 1724 - d. 1748)
17 Dec 1732 -  8 Jul 1745    Joseph Wenzel Lorenz (regent)    (s.a.)
22 Dec 1748 - 10 Feb 1772  Joseph Wenzel Lorenz               (s.a.)
10 Feb 1772 - 18 Aug 1781  Franz Joseph I                     (b. 1726 - d. 1781)
18 Aug 1781 - 24 Mar 1805  Aloys I                            (b. 1759 - d. 1805)
24 Mar 1805 - 25 Jul 1806  Johann I (1st time)                (b. 1760 - d. 1836)
25 Jul 1806 - 19 Oct 1813  Karl                               (b. 1803 - d. 1871)
19 Oct 1813 - 20 Apr 1836  Johann I (2nd time)                (s.a.)
                           (regent [for Karl from 25 Jul 1806] to 7 Dec 1813)
20 Apr 1836 - 12 Nov 1858  Aloys II                           (b. 1796 - d. 1858)
12 Nov 1858 - 11 Feb 1929  Johann II                          (b. 1840 - d. 1929)
11 Feb 1929 - 25 Jul 1938  Franz I                            (b. 1853 - d. 1938)
30 Mar 1938 - 25 Jul 1938    Prince Franz Josef (regent)      (b. 1906 - d. 1989)
25 Jul 1938 - 13 Nov 1989  Franz Josef II                     (s.a.)
26 Aug 1984 - 13 Nov 1989    Prince Hans-Adam (regent)        (b. 1945)
13 Nov 1989 -              Hans-Adam II                       (s.a.)
15 Aug 2004 -                Prince Alois (regent)            (b. 1968)

Landvögte 1699 - 1712* Johann Franz Bauer *1718 - 1719 Joseph von Graenzing zu Strassberg 23 Apr 1720 - 20 Apr 1727 Johann Christoph von Benz (1st time) 20 Apr 1727 - 1 Oct 1730 Johann Erwin von Keil 1 Oct 1730 - 12 Mar 1734 Franz Anton Keller 12 Mar 1734 - 11 Aug 1735 Johann Christoph von Benz (2nd time) (Consulent) 11 Aug 1735 - 4 Feb 1747 Anton Bauer (Verwalter) 4 Feb 1747 - 1751 Johann Kaspar Laaba 1751 - 1770 Franz Karl von Grillot 24 Oct 1771 - 1775 Ferdinand Johann Funkner von Funkenberg (b. ... - d. 1775) 1775 - 1787 Franz Michael Gilm von Rosenegg 1788 - 1 Oct 1808 Franz Xaver Menzinger (b. 1740 - d. 1809) 1 Oct 1808 - 1827 Joseph Schuppler (b. 1776 - d. 1833) 1827 - 1833 Peter Pokorny (b. 1795 - d. 1866) 1833 - 7 Apr 1848 Johann Michael Menzinger (b. 1792 - d. 1877) Landesverweser 7 Apr 1848 - 1860 Johann Michael Menzinger (s.a.) 1860 - 1884 Karl Haus von Hausen (b. 1823 - d. 1889) 1884 - 1892 Karl von In der Maur auf Strehlburg und zu Treifeld (1st time) (b. 1852 - d. 1913) 1892 - 24 Oct 1896 Friedrich Stellwag von Carion (b. 1852 - d. 1896) 1896 - 11 Dec 1913 Karl von In der Maur auf Strehlburg und zu Treifeld (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Mar 1914 - 7 Nov 1918 Leopold Freiherr von Imhof (b. 1869 - d. 1922) 7 Nov 1918 - 13 Dec 1918 Martin Ritter (b. 1872 - d. 1947) (president of Provisional Executive Committee) 13 Dec 1918 - 15 Sep 1920 Prince Karl Alois (b. 1878 - d. 1955) 15 Sep 1920 - 2 Mar 1921 Joseph Peer (b. 1864 - d. 1925) Heads of government 2 Mar 1921 - 4 May 1922 Joseph Ospelt (b. 1881 - d. 1962) 4 May 1922 - 1 Jun 1922 Alfons Feger (acting) (b. 1856 - d. 1933) 1 Jun 1922 - 6 Jun 1922 Felix Gubelmann (acting) (b. 1880 - d. 1929) 6 Jun 1922 - 28 Jun 1928 Gustav Schädler (b. 1883 - d. 1961) 28 Jun 1928 - 4 Aug 1928 Prince Alfred (acting) (b. 1875 - d. 1930) 4 Aug 1928 - 3 Sep 1945 Josef Hoop (b. 1895 - d. 1959) 3 Sep 1945 - 16 Jul 1962 Alexander Frick (b. 1910 - d. 1991) 16 Jul 1962 - 18 Mar 1970 Gerard Batliner (b. 1928 - d. 2008) 18 Mar 1970 - 27 Mar 1974 Alfred Hilbe (b. 1928 - d. 2011) 27 Mar 1974 - 26 Apr 1978 Walter Kieber (b. 1931) 26 Apr 1978 - 26 May 1993 Hans Brunhart (b. 1945) 26 May 1993 - 15 Dec 1993 Markus Büchel (b. 1959 - d. 2013) 15 Dec 1993 - 5 Apr 2001 Mario Frick (b. 1965) 5 Apr 2001 - 25 Mar 2009 Otmar Hasler (b. 1953) 25 Mar 2009 - 27 Mar 2013 Klaus Tschütscher (b. 1967) 27 Mar 2013 - Adrian Hasler (b. 1964)
¹Date on which the territorial Principality of Liechtenstein received imperial recognition. The title Prince of Liechtenstein (derived not from the territory but from Liechtenstein Castle near Vienna) was granted earlier, but only as a personal distinction. It is from one of those earlier princes, Johann Adam I Andreas, that the current prince derives his "II." The rulers of the Liechtenstein dynasty lived mainly in Lower Austria and Moravia until moving permanently to Liechtenstein in 1938.
Liège: see under
Belgium.

Lithuania

    bf.1203                semi-legendary Grand Principality of Lithuania, ruled by a
                           grand prince of Lithuania
       1253 -        1263  Grand Prince Mindaugas adopts style of Lithuanian and
                           Russian King, etc.
 2 Feb 1386                by marriage with the Polish regnant queen Jadwiga, the
                           grand prince Jogaila/Jagiello becomes Polish king
                           (Wladyslaw II after baptism), and his successors frequently
                           occupy both thrones
   Jan 1401 -  1 Jun 1434  Jogaila oversees the successive grand princes of Lithuania
                           with the style "supreme prince of Lithuania"
 4 Jul 1569                Accord of Lublin, colloquially known as "Union of Lublin,"
                           joining Poland and Lithuania officially, but not
                           constitutionally, into United Commonwealth of the Two
                           Nations, in short, The Commonwealth
 6 Jul 1572                last hereditary Polish king dies; kingship becomes elective;
                           election as Polish king and grand prince of Lithuania is
                           carried out jointly, but conduct of interregnum is separate
 3 May 1791                constitution gives formal sanction to the union
 7 Jan 1795                Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: the
                           Grand Principality of Lithuania is incorporated into Russia,
                           the emperor adopting the additional style of Grand Prince
                           of Lithuania; this incorporation is (partially) interrupted
                           in 1812, during Napoléon's invasion, and again in 1863 in
                           conjunction with the "Second Insurrection" in Poland
11 Dec 1917                independence declared by Lithuanian National Council; on
                           9 Jul 1918 it proclaims Wilhelm Herzog von Urach, Graf
                           von Württemberg, as King Mindaugas II
 2 Nov 1918                independence (Republic of Lithuania)
15 Jun 1940                occupied by Soviet Union
21 Jul 1940                Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
 3 Aug 1940                incorporation into the Soviet Union (see Soviet republics)
11 Mar 1990                independence declared (Republic of Lithuania)
 6 Sep 1991                independence recognized by U.S.S.R.

Grand princes¹
15 Sep 1697 - 16 Feb 1704  Augustas II "Stiprusis" (1st time) (b. 1670 - d. 1733)
                           (election proclaimed 17 Jun 1697)
                           (continues in opposition to 24 Sep 1706)
16 Feb 1704 -  4 Oct 1705  Marcijonas Dominykas Vollovicius   (b. 16... - d. 1712)
                           (Grand Marshal)
 4 Oct 1705 -  8 Aug 1709  Stanislovas I Lescinskis
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1677 - d. 1766)
                           (election proclaimed 12 Jul 1704)
 8 Aug 1709 -  1 Feb 1733  Augustas II "Stiprusis" (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1733 - 12 Sep 1733  Aleksandras Povilas Sapiega        (b. 1672 - d. 1734)
                           (Grand Marshal)
12 Sep 1733 - 30 Jun 1734  Stanislovas I Lescinskis
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
                           (abdicates 27 Jan 1736)
30 Jun 1734 -  5 Oct 1763  Augustas III                       (b. 1696 - d. 1763)
                           (election proclaimed 5 Oct 1733)
                           (in opposition from 17 Jan 1734)
 5 Oct 1763 - 25 Nov 1764  Ignotas Oginskis (Grand Marshal)   (b. 1698 - d. 1775)
25 Nov 1764 -  7 Jan 1795  Stanislovas II Augustas
                           Poniatovskis                       (b. 1732 - d. 1798)
                           (election proclaimed 8 Sep 1764)
Chairmen of the Lithuanian Provisional Government Commission
 1 Jul 1812 - 24 Aug 1812  Stanislaw Soltan                   (b. 1758 - d. 1816)
24 Aug 1812 -  8 Dec 1812  Dirk, graaf van Hogendorp          (b. 1761 - d. 1822)
       1863 - 31 Jul 1863  Jakub Gieystor                     (b. 1827 - d. 1897)
King
 9 Jul 1918 -  2 Nov 1918  Mindaugas II                       (b. 1864 - d. 1928)
Presidents
 2 Nov 1918 - 19 Jun 1920  Antanas Smetona (1st time)         (b. 1874 - d. 1944)
                           (chairman Lithuanian National Council Presidium to
                           4 Apr 1919)
19 Jun 1920 -  7 Jun 1926  Aleksandras Stulginskis (1st time) (b. 1885 - d. 1969)
                           (acting to 21 Dec 1922)
 7 Jun 1926 - 18 Dec 1926  Kazys Grinius                      (b. 1866 - d. 1950)
18 Dec 1926 - 19 Dec 1926  Jonas Staugaitis (acting)          (b. 1868 - d. 1952)
19 Dec 1926     (hours)    Aleksandras Stulginskis (2nd time) (s.a.)
                           (acting)
19 Dec 1926 - 15 Jun 1940  Antanas Smetona (2nd time)         (s.a.)
15 Jun 1940 - 17 Jun 1940  Antanas Merkys (acting)            (b. 1887 - d. 1955)
17 Jun 1940 -  3 Aug 1940  Justas Paleckis                    (b. 1899 - d. 1980)
11 Mar 1990 - 25 Nov 1992  Vytautas Landsbergis               (b. 1932)
                           (chairman Supreme Assembly)
25 Nov 1992 - 25 Feb 1998  Algirdas Brazauskas                (b. 1932 - d. 2010)
                           (acting to 25 Feb 1993)
26 Feb 1998 - 25 Feb 2003  Valdas Adamkus (1st time)          (b. 1926)
26 Feb 2003 -  6 Apr 2004  Rolandas Paksas                    (b. 1956)
 6 Apr 2004 - 12 Jul 2004  Arturas Paulauskas (acting)        (b. 1953)
12 Jul 2004 - 12 Jul 2009  Valdas Adamkus (2nd time)          (s.a.)
12 Jul 2009 -              Dalia Grybauskaite (f)             (b. 1956)

Grand marshals (chief ministers) 14 Jul 1698 - Nov 1703 Aleksandras Povilas Sapiega (1st time) (s.a.) (recognized by Grand Prince Stanislovas Lescinskis to 9 May 1708) 27 Nov 1703 - 4 Feb 1704 Mykolas Servacas Visnioveckis (b. 1680 - d. 1744) (grand hetman) 4 Feb 1704 - 5 Aug 1712 Marcijonas Dominykas Vollovicius (s.a.) 5 Aug 1712 - 10 Apr 1713 Juozas Vandalinas Mnisekas (b. 1670 - d. 1747) (acting) 10 Apr 1713 - 4 Jan 1734 Aleksandras Povilas Sapiega (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Jan 1734 - 15 Apr 1750 Povilas Karolis Sanguska (b. 1682 - d. 1750) (acting to 4 Feb 1734) 15 Apr 1750 - 22 Feb 1768 Ignotas Oginskis (s.a.) (acting to 21 Aug 1750) 22 Feb 1768 - 12 May 1781 Juozas Paulinas Sanguska (b. 1740 - d. 1781) (acting to 7 Mar 1768) 12 May 1781 - 23 May 1790 Vladyslovas Rokas Gurovskis (b. 1717 - d. 1790) (acting to 23 May 1781) 23 May 1790 - 3 May 1791 Grafas Romanas Ignacas Potockis (b. 1750 - d. 1809) (acting to 16 Apr 1791) 19 May 1791 - 7 May 1793 Stanislovas Soltanas (acting) (b. 1758 - d. 1836) 7 May 1793 - 24 Apr 1794 Grafas Liudvikas Skuminas Tiskevicius (b. 17... - d. 1808) Chairman of the Supreme Lithuanian Council 24 Apr 1794 - 12 Jun 1794 Jokubas Jasinskis (b. 1761 - d. 1794) 12 Jun 1794 - Oct 1794 Central Deputacy (chair rotating) - Juozas Neselauskas (b. 1728 - d. 1814) - A. Tizenhauzas - J. Belapetravicius - Stanislovas Mirskis (b. 1756 - d. 1805) - B. Marikonis - D. Pilchauskas (b. 1735 - d. 1803) Prime ministers 4 Nov 1918 - 26 Dec 1918 Augustinas Voldemaras (1st time) (b. 1883 - d. 1942) 26 Dec 1918 - 12 Mar 1919 Mykolas Slezevicius (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1939) 12 Mar 1919 - 12 Apr 1919 Pranas Dovydaitis (b. 1886 - d. 1942) 12 Apr 1919 - 6 Oct 1919 Mykolas Slezevicius (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Oct 1919 - 19 Jun 1920 Ernestas Galvanauskas (1st time) (b. 1882 - d. 1967) 19 Jun 1920 - 2 Feb 1922 Kazys Grinius (s.a.) 2 Feb 1922 - 18 Jun 1924 Ernestas Galvanauskas (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Jun 1924 - 4 Feb 1925 Antanas Tumenas (b. 1880 - d. 1946) 4 Feb 1925 - 19 Sep 1925 Vytautas Petrulis (b. 1890 - d. 1942) 25 Sep 1925 - 15 Jun 1926 Leonas Bistras (b. 1890 - d. 1971) 15 Jun 1926 - 17 Dec 1926 Mykolas Slezevicius (3rd time) (s.a.) 17 Dec 1926 - 23 Sep 1929 Augustinas Voldemaras (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Sep 1929 - 24 Mar 1938 Juozas Tubelis (b. 1882 - d. 1939) 24 Mar 1938 - 28 Mar 1939 Vladas Mironas (b. 1880 - d. 1954) 28 Mar 1939 - 21 Nov 1939 Jonas Cernius (b. 1898 - d. 1977) 21 Nov 1939 - 17 Jun 1940 Antanas Merkys (s.a.) 17 Jun 1940 - 24 Jun 1940 Justas Paleckis (s.a.) 24 Jun 1940 - 25 Aug 1940 Vincas Kreve-Mickevicius (acting) (b. 1882 - d. 1954) 17 Mar 1990 - 10 Jan 1991 Kazimiera Prunskiene (f) (b. 1943) 10 Jan 1991 - 13 Jan 1991 Albertas Simenas (b. 1950) 13 Jan 1991 - 21 Jul 1992 Gediminas Vagnorius (1st time) (b. 1957) 21 Jul 1992 - 2 Dec 1992 Aleksandras Abisala (b. 1955) 2 Dec 1992 - 10 Mar 1993 Bronislovas Lubys (b. 1938 - d. 2011) 10 Mar 1993 - 15 Feb 1996 Adolfas Slezevicius (b. 1948) 15 Feb 1996 - 27 Nov 1996 Laurynas Mindaugas Stankevicius (b. 1935) 27 Nov 1996 - 4 May 1999 Gediminas Vagnorius (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 May 1999 - 18 May 1999 Irena Degutiene (f) (1st time) (b. 1949) (acting) 18 May 1999 - 27 Oct 1999 Rolandas Paksas (1st time) (s.a.) 27 Oct 1999 - 3 Nov 1999 Irena Degutiene (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 3 Nov 1999 - 26 Oct 2000 Andrius Kubilius (1st time) (b. 1956) 26 Oct 2000 - 20 Jun 2001 Rolandas Paksas (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Jun 2001 - 3 Jul 2001 Eugenijus Gentvilas (acting) (b. 1960) 3 Jul 2001 - 1 Jun 2006 Algirdas Brazauskas (s.a.) 1 Jun 2006 - 4 Jul 2006 Zigmantas Balcytis (acting) (b. 1953) 4 Jul 2006 - 9 Dec 2008 Gediminas Kirkilas (b. 1951) 9 Dec 2008 - 13 Dec 2012 Andrius Kubilius (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Dec 2012 - Algirdas Butkevicius (b. 1958)

Alternative Communist government

16 Dec 1918                Lithuanian Conciliar ("Soviet") Republic
27 Feb 1919                "Litbel" (Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic)

Chairman of the Revolutionary Government
16 Dec 1918 - 20 Feb 1919  Vincas Kapsukas                    (b. 1880 - d. 1935)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
20 Feb 1919 -  1 Sep 1919  Kazimieras Cihovskis (Lithuanian)
                           = Kazimir Genrykhavich Tsykhouski
                           (Belorussian)                      (b. 1887 - d. 1940)

Polish irregular occupation of Vilnius

12 Oct 1920                Central Lithuania
18 Apr 1922                annexation to Poland

Head of State
12 Oct 1920 - 30 Nov 1921  Lucjan Zeligowski                  (b. 1865 - d. 1947)
Chairman of the Provisional Commission of Government
30 Nov 1921 - 18 Apr 1922  Aleksander Michal Marian
                           Meysztowicz                        (b. 1864 - d. 1943)

Republic of Lithuania in exile

Heads of the Diplomatic Service
15 Jun 1940 - 24 Dec 1983  Stasys Lozoraitis (in Rome)        (b. 1898 - d. 1983)
24 Dec 1983 - 15 Nov 1987  Stasys Backis (in Washington)      (b. 1906 - d. 1999)
15 Nov 1987 -  6 Sep 1991  Stasys Lozoraitis (in Washington)  (b. 1924 - d. 1994)
¹Under the elective monarchy, a grand prince assumed office upon his coronation at the Coronation Diet. The record also includes the date of proclamation of the election at the Election Diet. The head of the United Commonwealth of Two Nations was both king of Poland and Grand Prince of Lithuania, and the two countries were governed together and were represented on the Diets. During an interregnum supreme authority in Lithuania was officially exercised by the Lithuanian Council of State, chaired by the Grand Marshal.

Samogitia

       1413 -        1795  autonomous entity within Lithuania

Elders
23 Jun 1698 - 17 Oct 1709  Kunigaikstis Grigalius Antanas
                           Oginskis                           (b. 16... - d. 1709)
31 Oct 1709 - 26 Oct 1710  Aleksandras Juozas Unikovskis      (b. 16... - d. 1722)
                           (palatine)
26 Oct 1710 -        1729  Kazimieras Zaranekas-Horbovskis    (b. ... - d. 1729)
       1729 -        1736  Jurgis Jeronimas
                           Kryspinas-Kirsensteinas (palatine) (b. c.1673 - d. 1736)
 8 Jul 1737 -    Jan 1754  Grafas Juozas Tiskevicius          (b. c.1694 - d. 1754)
                           (palatine to 21 May 1742)
       1754 -        1765  Grafas Juozas Pacas                (b. ... - d. 1765)
19 Aug 1765 -        1781  Grafas Jonas Mikalojus Katkevicius (b. 1738 - d. 1781)
                           (palatine to 2 Oct 1765)
       1781 -        1795  Antanas Gelgudas
                           (palatine to 25 Sep 1783)

Memel Territory

       1328                part of Prussia/Germany
10 Jan 1920                Treaty of Versailles goes into effect; Memel Territory is
                           detached from Germany and put under the administration of
                           the Principal Allied and Associated Powers (through the
                           Conference of Ambassadors)
10 Jan 1923 - 16 Jan 1923  Lithuanian "irregulars" invade and occupy the territory
                           and set up alternative government
16 Feb 1923                Conference of Ambassadors acquiesces conditionally to
                           putting Memel Territory under Lithuanian sovereignty;
                           Lithuanian reply is regarded on 13 Mar 1923 as acceptance
30 Jul 1924                Memel Convention is ratified by Lithuanian Diet and goes
                           into effect de facto
25 Aug 1925                with deposit of last ratifications Memel Convention goes
                           into effect de jure; its provisions are never fully adhered
                           to by Lithuania
23 Mar 1939                Lithuania cedes Memel Territory to Germany with
                           retroactive effect to 22 Mar 1939 (ratified by Lithuanian
                           Diet 30 Mar 1939)
10 Oct 1944                conquered by U.S.S.R.
   Nov 1944                reconquered by Germany
28 Jan 1945                reconquered by U.S.S.R.
 7 Apr 1948                part of Lithuanian S.S.R.

Imperial and (Prussian) State Commissioner for the Memel Territory
10 Jan 1920 - 15 Feb 1920  Georg Graf Lambsdorff              (b. 1863 - d. 1935)
General Commissioners
15 Feb 1920 -  1 May 1921  Dominique Odry                     (b. 1865 - d. 1962)
 1 May 1921 - 19 Feb 1923  Gabriel Petisné                    (b. 1881 - d. 1931)
19 Feb 1923 - 24 Feb 1923  Jonas Budrys                       (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
24 Feb 1923 - 27 Oct 1924  Antanas Smetona                    (s.a.)
Governors
27 Oct 1924 -  8 Nov 1925  Jonas Budrys                       (s.a.)
 8 Nov 1925 -  1 Aug 1926  Jonas Zilius                       (b. 1870 - d. 1932)
 1 Aug 1926 -  1 Nov 1927  Karolis Zalkauskas                 (b. 1892 - d. 1961)
 1 Nov 1927 - 19 May 1932  Antanas Merkys                     (s.a.)
19 May 1932 - 25 Nov 1933  Vytautas Gylys                     (b. 1886 - d. 1959)
25 Nov 1933 -  5 Feb 1935  Jonas Navakas                      (b. 1896 - d. 1955?)
 5 Feb 1935 - 15 Oct 1936  Vladas Kurkauskas                  (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
15 Oct 1936 - 12 Dec 1938  Jurgis Kubilius                    (b. 1875 - d. 1961)
12 Dec 1938 - 23 Mar 1939  Viktoras Gailius                   (b. 1893 - d. 1956)

Presidents of the Directory (German and Lithuanian names) 17 Feb 1920 - 6 Aug 1921 Arthur Altenberg = Arturas Altenbergas 6 Aug 1921 - 15 Jan 1923 Wilhelm Stepputat = Vilius Steputaitis (b. 1868 - d. 1941) 9 Jan 1923 - 15 Jan 1923 Martinas Jankus (b. 1858 - d. 1946) (chairman Supreme Lithuania Minor Liberation Committee, in opposition) 15 Jan 1923 - 14 Feb 1923 Erdmann Simonaitis = Erdmonas Simonaitis (1st time) (b. 1888 - d. 1969) 15 Feb 1923 - 4 Feb 1925 Viktor Gailius = Viktoras Gailius (s.a.) 5 Feb 1925 - 15 Jan 1926 Andreas Borchert = Endrius Borchertas (b. 1891 - d. 1957) 16 Jan 1926 - 24 Nov 1926 Erdmann Simonaitis = Erdmonas Simonaitis (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Nov 1926 - 4 Jan 1927 William Falk = Vilius Falkas (b. 1885 - d. 1970) 5 Jan 1927 - 2 Dec 1927 Viktor Schwellnus = Viktoras Svelnius 2 Dec 1927 - 15 Aug 1930 Otto Kadgiehn = Otonas Kadgienas 16 Aug 1930 - 12 Jan 1931 Martin Reisgys = Martinas Reizgys (1st time) (b. 1886 - d. 1942) 13 Jan 1931 - 23 Feb 1932 Otto Böttcher = Otonas Betcheris (b. 1872 - d. 1932) (deposed illegally 6 Feb 1932 and replaced on that date by the following) 23 Feb 1932 - 1 Mar 1932 J. Tolischus = J. Tolisius (acting) 2 Mar 1932 - 6 Jun 1932 Eduard Simaitis = Eduardas Simaitis (b. 1897 - d. 1942) 6 Jun 1932 - 28 Jun 1934 Ottomar Schreiber = Otomaras Sreiberis (b. 1889 - d. 1955) 28 Jun 1934 - 3 Dec 1934 Martin Reisgys = Martinas Reizgys (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 Dec 1934 - 27 Nov 1935 Georg Bruvelaitis = Jurgis Bruvelaitis (b. 1900 - d. 1995) 28 Nov 1935 - 20 Jan 1939 August Baldschus = Augustas Baldzius (b. 1883 - d. 1952) 20 Jan 1939 - 23 Mar 1939 Willy Bertuleit = Vilius Bertulaitas (b. 1900 - d. 1941)

Lombardy: see under Italian states.
Los Altos: see under Guatemala.
Luang Phra Bang: see under Laos.
Lucca: see under Italian states.

Luxembourg

 6 Jul 1083                title of Count of Luxembourg adopted (Graf von Lützelburg)
13 Mar 1354                Duchy of Luxembourg
26 Feb 1388                the duchy is pledged by Wenceslas II to Josse (Jobst), and
                           from this date to 23 Nov 1457 there are side by side the
                           hereditary duke (duc héréditaire) and the actually governing
                           "duke by pledge" (duc par engagère)
23 Nov 1457                upon the death of hereditary duke Ladislas Postumus of
                           Austria, the ducal lines are reunited in the Burgundy
                           branch of the house of Valois and its heirs the kings of
                           the Spanish kingdoms
 8 May 1713                as a consequence of the War of the Spanish Succession,
                           Luxembourg becomes part of the Austrian Netherlands
15 Dec 1792 - 28 Apr 1793  annexation by France
 1 Oct 1795 -  1 Feb 1814  annexation by France; becomes Département des Forêts
15 Feb 1814 -  9 Mar 1814  under Gouvernement-général de la Belgique (see Belgium)
10 Mar 1814 - 12 May 1815  under Gouvernement-général du Rhin Moyen (from 10 Jun 1814
                           Bas-Rhin et Rhin Moyen)
16 Mar 1815                style of duke restored for Willem I of the Netherlands
 9 Jun 1815                Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
       1831                upon separation of Belgium from the Kingdom of the
                           Netherlands, the already diminished territory of Luxembourg
                           is divided into the (larger) Belgian province of Luxembourg
                           and the (smaller) surviving Grand Duchy; division acquiesced
                           by the king/grand-duke in 1839
 2 Aug 1914 - 11 Nov 1918  German occupation
10 May 1940 - 11 Sep 1944  German occupation

Dukes
- Bourbon dynasty -
16 Nov 1700 - 25 May 1711  Philippe                           (b. 1683 - d. 1746)
                           (= Felipe V of Spain)
- Wittelsbach dynasty -
25 May 1711 -  8 May 1713  Maximilien                         (b. 1662 - d. 1726)
- Habsbourg (from 29 Nov 1780 Habsbourg-Lorraine) dynasty -
 8 May 1713 -  1 Oct 1795  the archdukes of Austria
                           (interrupted by French annexation, s.a.)
10 Mar 1814 - 12 May 1815  Johann August Sack                 (b. 1764 - d. 1831)
                           (governor-general, on behalf of the Allied powers)
- Orange-Nassau dynasty -
16 Mar 1815 -  9 Jun 1815  Guillaume I                        (b. 1772 - d. 1843)
Grand dukes/Grand duchesses
- Orange-Nassau dynasty -
 9 Jun 1815 -  7 Oct 1840  Guillaume I                        (s.a.)
 7 Oct 1840 - 17 Mar 1849  Guillaume II                       (b. 1792 - d. 1849)
17 Mar 1849 - 23 Nov 1890  Guillaume III                      (b. 1817 - d. 1890)
 5 Feb 1850 - 13 Jan 1879    Henri (regent)                   (b. 1820 - d. 1879)
- Nassau-Weilburg dynasty -
23 Nov 1890 - 17 Nov 1905  Adolphe                            (b. 1817 - d. 1905)
 4 Apr 1902 - 17 Nov 1905    Guillaume (regent)               (b. 1852 - d. 1912)
17 Nov 1905 - 25 Feb 1912  Guillaume IV                       (s.a.)
19 Mar 1908 - 25 Feb 1912    Marie Anne de Bragance (f)       (b. 1861 - d. 1942)
                             (regent)
25 Feb 1912 - 15 Jan 1919  Marie-Adélaïde (f)                 (b. 1894 - d. 1924)
15 Jan 1919 - 12 Nov 1964  Charlotte (f)                      (b. 1896 - d. 1985)
                           (10 May 1940 - 14 Apr 1945 in exile [France; from Aug
                           1940, London; from 4 Oct 1940, New York; from Nov 1940,
                           Montreal])
 7 Aug 1940 - 11 Sep 1944    Gustav Simon                     (b. 1900 - d. 1945)
                             (chief of civil administration)
 4 May 1961 - 12 Nov 1964    Jean (regent)                    (b. 1921)
12 Nov 1964 -  7 Oct 2000  Jean                               (s.a.)
 3 Mar 1998 -  7 Oct 2000    Henri (regent)                   (b. 1955)
 7 Oct 2000 -              Henri                              (s.a.)

Governor 21 Dec 1841 - 1 Aug 1848 Théodore-Ignace de la Fontaine (b. 1787 - d. 1871) (acting to 6 Jun 1842) Prime ministers 1 Aug 1848 - 2 Dec 1848 Théodore-Ignace de la Fontaine (s.a.) 2 Dec 1848 - 23 Sep 1853 Jean-Jacques Madelaine Willmar (b. 1792 - d. 1866) 23 Sep 1853 - 26 Sep 1860 Mathias Simons (b. 1802 - d. 1874) 26 Sep 1860 - 3 Dec 1867 Baron Victor de Tornaco (b. 1805 - d. 1875) 3 Dec 1867 - 26 Dec 1874 Emmanuel Servais (b. 1811 - d. 1890) 26 Dec 1874 - 20 Feb 1885 Félix de Blochausen (b. 1834 - d. 1915) 20 Feb 1885 - 22 Sep 1888 Édouard Thilges (b. 1817 - d. 1904) 22 Sep 1888 - 12 Oct 1915 Paul Eyschen (b. 1841 - d. 1915) 12 Oct 1915 - 6 Nov 1915 Mathias Mongenast (acting) (b. 1843 - d. 1926) 6 Nov 1915 - 24 Feb 1916 Hubert Loutsch (b. 1878 - d. 1946) 24 Feb 1916 - 19 Jun 1917 Victor Thorn (b. 1844 - d. 1930) 19 Jun 1917 - 28 Sep 1918 Léon Kauffman (b. 1869 - d. 1952) 28 Sep 1918 - 20 Mar 1925 Émile Reuter (b. 1874 - d. 1973) 20 Mar 1925 - 16 Jul 1926 Pierre Prüm (b. 1886 - d. 1950) 16 Jul 1926 - 5 Nov 1937 Joseph Bech (1st time) (b. 1887 - d. 1975) 5 Nov 1937 - 22 Dec 1953 Pierre Dupong (b. 1885 - d. 1953) (10 May 1940 - 23 Sep 1944 in London exile) 10 May 1940 - 22 Oct 1940 Albert Wehrer (b. 1895 - d. 1967) (head of the Government Commission) 29 Dec 1953 - 29 Mar 1958 Joseph Bech (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Mar 1958 - 23 Feb 1959 Pierre Frieden (b. 1892 - d. 1959) 2 Mar 1959 - 15 Jun 1974
Pierre Werner (1st time) (b. 1913 - d. 2002) 15 Jun 1974 - 16 Jul 1979 Gaston Thorn (b. 1928 - d. 2007) 16 Jul 1979 - 20 Jul 1984 Pierre Werner (2nd time) (s.a.) 20 Jul 1984 - 20 Jan 1995 Jacques Santer (b. 1937) 20 Jan 1995 - 4 Dec 2013 Jean-Claude Juncker (b. 1954) 4 Dec 2013 - Xavier Bettel (b. 1973)