Rulers: Mozambique

Traditional polities


Note: This record is in three parts. (A) The last gasps of the Karanga empire (the "Empire of the Monomotapa"), with its spin-off Manyika (which is located in part in present-day Zimbabwe). (B) Coastal states. (C) The "Gaza State," amaGaza.

Karanga

    bf.1420                Karanga state founded
       1902                remnants of state extinguished by the Portuguese
                           colonial government

Rulers¹
- Nzou-Samanyanga dynasty -
       1803 -        1804  Cangara II
       1804 -        1806  Mutiwapangome
       1806                Mutiwaora
       1806 -        1807  Cipfumba
       1807 -        1828? Nyasoro
       1828 -        1830  Cimininyambo = Kandeya II
       1830 -        1849? Dzeka
       1849 -        1868  Kataruza
       1868 -        1870  Kandeya III
       1870 -        1887  Dzuda
       1887 -        1902  Cioko Dambamupute
¹The style of the ruler is Mambo, the usual one in this ethnic group; but he has had from 1420 an epithet, rendered Monomotapa by the Portuguese; there has been controversy concerning the "native" form; it is often read Mwene Mutapa, but the most critical sources give it as Munhu Mutapa.

Manyika

    bf.1494                Manyika state established, originally subject to Karanga
       1695                conquered by Cangamire; Nguruve lineage replaced by
                           Tembo-shumba lineage

Rulers (title Mambo)
- Cikanga dynasty, Tembo-shumba lineage -
       1796 -        1807  Cikanga Nyarumwe II (1st time)
       1807 -        1813  Cikanga Nyangombe
       1813 -        1818  Cikanga Nyamandoto II
       1818 -        1822  Cikanga Nyarumwe II (2nd time)
       1822                Cikanga Juru or Mutasa Juru
       1822?-        1845  Mutasa Mutemberwa
       1845 -        1865  Mutasa Matidya Dasi
       1865 -        1870  Mutasa Mvumbi
       1870 -        1902  Mutasa Tendayi Katsatso "Cifambausiku"
       1902 -        1911  Mutasa Cakanyuka
       1911 -        1943  Mutasa Kadzima
       1943 -        1957  Mutasa Cimuriwo
       1957 -        1959  Mutasa Mashita Mukukudzi
       1959 -        1965  Mutasa Makanda Gomwe
       1965 -              Mutasa Pafiwa

Coastal states

Angoshe

       1485                Angoshe sultanate established
       1910                state extinguished by Portuguese colonial government

Sultans
       1795 -        1817  `Alawi ibn Muhsini
       1817 -        1821  Hasan Camakama
       1821 -        18..  `Alawi Mugosirima
       18.. -        1849  Ahmadi ibn Sulayman "Bari Bwana Mkuu"
       1849 -        1861  Hasani Usufu
       1861 -        1877  Musa Muhammad Sahib "Musa Quanto"
       1877 -        1884  Sulayman ibn Raja
       1884 -        1889  Husayn Ibrahimu
       1889 -        1910  Ibrahimu ibn Sulayman

Kitangonya

    bf.1750                Kitangonya sheikhdom established
    af.1906                state extinguished by Portuguese colonial government

Sheikhs
      *1775 -        1804  Twakali Hija
       1804 -        1817  Janfar Salim
       1817 -        1850  Sulayman Bwana Hajj
       1850 -        1873  `Ali Amisi Heri
       1873 -        1875  `Abd al-Rahman Sa`id `Ali
       1875 -        1878  vacant
       1878 -        1884  Ahmadi `Abd Allah
       1884 -        1906  Mahmud Bwana Ahmadi
       1906 -        19..  Sa`id ibn Amisi

Sankul

       1753                Sankul sheikhdom established
       1910                state extinguished by Portuguese colonial government

Sheikhs
       1797 -        1800  Mukusedi Muhammad Raja
       1800 -        1804  Mutirua Muhammad
       1804 -        1810  Hasan Raja
       1810 -        1822  Molidi `Uthman
       1822 -        1832  Mukusedi `Ali Muhammad Raja
       1832 -        1841  Burehimu Usufu (regent to 1834)
       1842 -        1862  Hasan Musa Mukusedi
       1863 -        1874  Camakama Molidi
       1875 -        1886  `Abd Allah Usufu ibn Hasan "Umkubu Muntu"
       1886 -        1898  Hasan Molidi
       1898 -        1910  Suali ibn `Ali Ibrahimu "Marave"

amaGaza

       1825                Sotshangane Nxumalo, grandson of Gaza Nxumalo, establishes
                           a polity and calls it amaGaza
28 Dec 1895                state extinguished by Portuguese colonial government;
                           rebellion continued to 20 Jul 1897

Rulers (title Nkosi)
- Ndwandwe dynasty, Nxumalo lineage -
       1825 - 11 Oct 1858  Manukozi Sotshangane Nxumalo
11 Oct 1858 -        18..  Mawewe Nxumalo (1st time)
       18.. -        18..  Mzila Nxumalo (1st time)
       18.. -        1862  Mawewe Nxumalo (2nd time)
       1862 -    Aug 1884  Mzila Nxumalo (2nd time)
   Aug 1884 - 28 Dec 1895  Mdungazwe Nggunggunyana Nxumalo
       1896 - 20 Jul 1897    Magigane Nxumalo (in rebellion)