Rulers

Countries Ni-O

Contents of this page:
Nicaragua - Niger - Nigeria - Niue - Norfolk Island - Northern Mariana Islands - Norway - Oman

Nicaragua

15 Sep 1821                declaration of independence from Spain of the Kingdom
                           of Guatemala (encompassing all present Central America
                           plus Chiapas)

León

28 Sep 1821                León, while awaiting developments with regard to Spain,
                           proclaims its secession from the Kingdom of Guatemala
                           (Acta de los Nublados)
12 Oct 1821                incorporated into Mexico (ratified 5 Jan 1822)
17 Apr 1823                León declares itself an "orphan" and thus sovereign
 1 Jul 1823                the Central American Federation (see under Guatemala)
                           proclaims independence from Mexico and invites those
                           provinces that had left the Kingdom of Guatemala to join
 2 Jul 1823                León accedes to invitation

Superior Political Chief and Intendant
15 Sep 1821 - 12 Oct 1821  Miguel González Saravia            (b. 1788 - d. 1848)
17 Apr 1823 -  4 Jan 1825  Provisional Governing Junta
                           - Pedro Solís (primer vocal)
                           - José del Carmen Salazar Lacayo
                           - Francisco Quiñónez
                           - Domingo Nicolás Galarza y
                             Briceño de Coca
                           - Basilio Carrillo
                           - José Valentín Fernández Gallegos
                           - Juan Modesto Hernández
                           (some sources list the last two as alternates)

Granada

 4 Oct 1821                Granada reaffirms its being part of the Kingdom of
                           Guatemala, independent from Spain
22 Nov 1821                at the instigation of the government of Guatemala, a
                           Governing Junta is established
 4 Feb 1822 - 16 Jan 1823  incorporated into Mexico (de jure situation ambiguous)
20 Apr 1823                Cleto Ordóñez is proclaimed General en Jefe del Ejército
                           Protector y Libertador de Granada; he acts as head of state
                           (e.g. in a treaty with León), but sets up a Governing Junta
 2 Jul 1823                part of Central American Federation (see under Guatemala)

22 Nov 1821 -  4 Feb 1822  Governing Junta
                           - Pío José Domitilo Bolaños Thomeu
                             Santeliz
                           - Rafael Briceño
                           - Felipe Argüello
                           - Dionisio del Castillo
20 Apr 1823 -    Jan 1825  Two conflicting versions
                           Version 1:
                           Governing Junta
                           - José Antonio Velázquez
                           - Bernabé Montiel
                           - Venancio Fernández
                           - Nicolás de la Rocha Zapata
                           Version 2:
                           Revolutionary Junta
                           - Cleto Ordóñez                    (b. 1778 - d. 18...)
                           - Raimundo Tiffer
                           - Ignacio Marenco
                           - Solano Castrillo
                           - Nicolás de la Rocha Zapata
                           - Manuel Sandoval

Managua

President of the Governing Junta
   Jul 1824 - 22 Jan 1825  Policarpo Irigoyen

El Viejo

President of the Governing Junta
 9 Aug 1824 - 27 Dec 1824  Juan Bautista Salazar

Nicaragua

22 Apr 1825                State of Nicaragua (constituent state of Central American
                           Federation; see under Guatemala)
30 Apr 1838                separation from the Federation sanctioned; promulgated
                           2 May 1838
30 Apr 1854                Republic of Nicaragua

Superior Political Chief and Intendant
11 Feb 1824 -  4 May 1824  José Justo Milla                   (b. 1794 - d. 1838)
Intendant
10 Oct 1824 - 22 Apr 1825  Manuel Arzú
                           (12 Nov - 26 Dec 1824 also president of the General
                           Governing Junta)
Chiefs (often styled Supreme Chiefs, a term not mentioned in the constitution)
22 Apr 1825 - 22 Apr 1826  Manuel Antonio de la Cerda
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1780 - d. 1828)
22 Apr 1826 - 14 Sep 1827  Juan Argüello (1st time)           (b. 1778 - d. 1830)
                           (acting [for suspended Cerda from Nov 1825] to 13 Aug 1826)
17 Sep 1826 - 26 Feb 1827    Pedro Benito Pineda              (b. ... - d. 1827)
                             (acting; in rebellion at Granada)
27 Feb 1827 -  7 Nov 1828    Manuel Antonio de la Cerda
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)
                             (in rebellion outside León and Granada)
14 Sep 1827 -    Dec 1827  Pedro Oviedo (provisional)
                           under the authority of
                           Cleto Ordóñez (Commandant-General) (s.a.)
   Dec 1827 -    Aug 1828  chaos in León and Granada; sources mention
                           governing juntas, but no detail is available
 5 Aug 1828 -    Apr 1829  Juan Argüello (2nd time)           (s.a.)
   Apr 1829 - 12 May 1830  Juan Espinosa (acting)
12 May 1830 -    Nov 1833  Dionisio Herrera                   (b. 1781 - d. 1850)
   Dec 1833 - 10 Mar 1834  Benito Rosales (acting)
10 Mar 1834 - 23 Apr 1835  José Núñez (1st time) (acting)
23 Apr 1835 - 25 Jan 1837  José Zepeda                        (b. 17... - d. 1837)
25 Jan 1837 -    Jan 1838  José Núñez (2nd time) (acting)
   Jan 1838 - 13 Mar 1838  Francisco Jiménez Rubio (acting)
13 Mar 1838 - 17 Nov 1838  José Núñez (3rd time)
Directors (often styled Supreme Directors, a term not mentioned in constitution)
17 Nov 1838 -        1839  José Núñez
       1839                Evaristo Rocha (acting)
   Jun 1839 -    Jul 1839  Patricio Rivas (1st time) (acting)
   Jul 1839 -    Oct 1839  Joaquín del Cossío (acting)
   Oct 1839 -    Nov 1839  Hilario Ulloa (acting)
   Nov 1839 -    Sep 1840  Tomás Valladares (acting)
   Sep 1840 -    Mar 1841  Patricio Rivas (2nd time) (acting)
 4 Mar 1841 -  1 Apr 1843  Pablo Buitrago                     (b. 1807 - d. 1882)
 1 Apr 1843 - 31 May 1843  Juan de Dios Orozco (acting)
31 May 1843 -  4 Nov 1844  Manuel Pérez
 4 Nov 1844 - 24 Jan 1845  Emiliano Madriz (acting)
16 Dec 1844 - 20 Jan 1845    Silvestre Selva
                             (acting, in dissidence)
20 Jan 1845 -  4 Apr 1845  Manuel Antonio Blas Sáenz
                           (acting, in dissidence to 24 Jan 1845)
 4 Apr 1845 - 12 Mar 1847  José León Sandoval                 (b. 1789 - d. 1847)
12 Mar 1847 -  6 Apr 1847  Miguel Ramón Morales (acting)
 6 Apr 1847 -  1 Jan 1849  José María Guerrero                (b. ... - d. af.1852)
 1 Jan 1849 -    Mar 1849  Toribio Terán (acting)
   Mar 1849 -  1 Apr 1849  Benito Rosales (acting)
 1 Apr 1849 -  1 Apr 1851  Norberto Ramírez                   (b. 1800 - d. 1856)
 1 Apr 1851 -  5 May 1851  Justo Abaúnza (1st time) (acting)
 5 May 1851 -  4 Aug 1851  Laureano Pineda (1st time)         (b. 1802 - d. 1853)
 4 Aug 1851 - 11 Nov 1851  Justo Abaúnza (2nd time) (acting)
 5 Aug 1851 - 11 Aug 1851    José Francisco del Montenegro
                             (acting) (in rebellion)
11 Aug 1851 -  2 Nov 1851    José de Jesús Alfaro
                             (acting) (in rebellion)
11 Nov 1851 -  1 Apr 1853  Laureano Pineda (2nd time)         (s.a.)
                           (in rebellion from 2 Nov 1851)
 1 Apr 1853 - 30 Apr 1854  Fruto Chamorro                     (b. 1804 - d. 1855)
Presidents
30 Apr 1854 - 12 Mar 1855  Fruto Chamorro                     (s.a.)
                           (provisional to 1854, then acting to 1 Mar 1855)
12 Mar 1855 - 20 Mar 1855  Ponciano Corral (de facto)         (b. 17... - d. 1855)
20 Mar 1855 - 25 Oct 1855  José María Estrada (acting)        (b. 1802 - d. 1856)
25 Oct 1855 - 24 Jun 1857  Patricio Rivas (provisional)
24 Jun 1857 - 19 Oct 1857  Government Junta
                           - Máximo Jerez                     (b. 1818 - d. 1881)
                           - Tomás Martínez                   (b. 1820 - d. 1873)
19 Oct 1857 - 15 Nov 1857  Government Junta
                           - Gregorio Juárez
                           - Rosalío Cortés
15 Nov 1857 -  1 Mar 1867  Tomás Martínez                     (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1867 -  1 Mar 1871  Fernando Guzmán                    (b. 1812 - d. 1891)
26 Jun 1869 -        1869    Francisco Baca
                             (provisional; in dissidence)
 1 Mar 1871 -  1 Mar 1875  Vicente Quadra                     (b. 1812 - d. 1894)
 1 Mar 1875 -  1 Mar 1879  Pedro Joaquín Chamorro             (b. 1818 - d. 1890)
 1 Mar 1879 -  1 Mar 1883  Joaquín Zavala (1st time)          (b. 1835 - d. 1906)
 1 Mar 1883 -  1 Mar 1887  Adán Cárdenas                      (b. 1836 - d. 1916)
 1 Mar 1887 -  1 Aug 1889  Evaristo Carazo                    (b. 1821 - d. 1889)
 1 Aug 1889 -  5 Aug 1889  David Osorno (acting)
 5 Aug 1889 -  1 Jan 1891  Roberto Sacasa (1st time) (acting) (b. 1840 - d. 1896)
 1 Jan 1891 -  1 Mar 1891  Ignacio Chávez (acting)
 1 Mar 1891 -  1 Jun 1893  Roberto Sacasa (2nd time)          (s.a.)
30 Apr 1893 - 20 May 1893    Eduardo Montiel
                             (commandant of the Army Restoring Order, in dissidence)
20 May 1893 -  1 Jun 1893    Revolutionary Government Junta
                             (in dissidence)
                             - Eduardo Montiel
                             - José Santos Zelaya             (b. 1853 - d. 1919)
 1 Jun 1893 - 15 Jul 1893  Salvador Machado (acting)
16 Jul 1893 - 31 Jul 1893  Joaquín Zavala (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (provisional)
31 Jul 1893 - 21 Dec 1909  José Santos Zelaya                 (s.a.)
                           (president of Government Junta [in dissidence from 12 Jul
                           1893] to 15 Sep 1893; provisional 16 Sep 1893 - 1 Feb 1894)
24 Feb 1896 -    May 1896    Francisco Baca hijo
                             (acting; in dissidence)
 3 Feb 1899 - 26 Feb 1899    Juan Pablo Reyes
                             (provisional; in dissidence)
21 Dec 1909 - 20 Aug 1910  José Madriz (acting)               (b. 1867 - d. 1911)
20 Aug 1910 - 27 Aug 1910  José Dolores Estrada (acting)      (b. 18... - d. 1911)
27 Aug 1910 - 30 Aug 1910  Luis Mena (acting)
30 Aug 1910 -  9 May 1911  Juan José Estrada                  (b. 1872 - d. 1967)
                           (provisional [in dissidence from 10 Oct 1909] to 1 Jan 1911,
                           then president pro témpore)
 9 May 1911 -  1 Jan 1917  Adolfo Díaz (1st time)             (b. 1875 - d. 1964)
                           (acting to 1 Jan 1913)
29 Jul 1912 - 23 Sep 1912    Luis Mena (acting; in dissidence)
23 Sep 1912 -  4 Oct 1912    Benjamín Francisco Zeledón
                             Rodríguez                        (b. 1879 - d. 1912)
                             (supreme chief of government; in dissidence)
 1 Jan 1917 -  1 Jan 1921  Emiliano Chamorro Vargas
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1871 - d. 1966)
 1 Jan 1921 - 12 Oct 1923  Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños      (b. 1861 - d. 1923)
12 Oct 1923 -    Oct 1923  Rosendo Chamorro (acting)          (b. ... - d. 1947)
   Oct 1923 -  1 Jan 1925  Bartolomé Martínez (acting)        (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
 1 Jan 1925 - 14 Mar 1926  Carlos José Solórzano              (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
14 Mar 1926 - 11 Nov 1926  Emiliano Chamorro Vargas
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
11 Nov 1926 - 14 Nov 1926  Sebastián Uriza (acting)
14 Nov 1926 -  1 Jan 1929  Adolfo Díaz (2nd time)             (s.a.)
14 Nov 1926 -  1 Jan 1929    Juan Bautista Sacasa             (b. 1874 - d. 1946)
                             (acting; in dissidence)
 1 Jan 1929 -  1 Jan 1933  José María Moncada Tapia           (b. 1870 - d. 1945)
 1 Jan 1933 -  9 Jun 1936  Juan Bautista Sacasa               (s.a.)
 9 Jun 1936                Guillermo Sevilla Sacasa (acting)  (b. 1908 - d. 1997)
 9 Jun 1936 -  1 Jan 1937  Carlos Alberto Brenes Jarquín      (b. 1884 - d. 1942)
                           (acting)
 1 Jan 1937 -  1 May 1947  Anastasio Somoza García (1st time) (b. 1896 - d. 1956)
 1 May 1947 - 26 May 1947  Leonardo Argüello                  (b. 1875 - d. 1947)
26 May 1947 - 15 Aug 1947  Benjamín Lacayo Sacasa (acting)    (b. 1893 - d. 1959)
15 Aug 1947 -  6 May 1950  Víctor Manuel Román y Reyes        (b. 1873 - d. 1950)
 6 May 1950 -  7 May 1950  Manuel Fernando Zurita (acting)
 7 May 1950 - 29 Sep 1956  Anastasio Somoza García (2nd time) (s.a.)
28 Sep 1956 -  1 May 1963  Luis Somoza Debayle                (b. 1922 - d. 1967)
                           (acting [for Anastasio Somoza García to 29 Sep 1956] to 29 Sep 1956)
 1 May 1963 -  3 Aug 1966  René Schick Gutiérrez              (b. 1909 - d. 1966)
 3 Aug 1966 -  4 Aug 1966  Orlando Montenegro Medrano         (b. 1922 - d. 1988)
                           (acting)
 4 Aug 1966 -  1 May 1967  Lorenzo Guerrero Gutiérrez         (b. 1900 - d. 1981)
 1 May 1967 -  1 May 1972  Anastasio Somoza Debayle
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1925 - d. 1980)
 1 May 1972 -  1 Dec 1974  National Government Junta
                           - Roberto Martínez Lacayo          (b. 1899 - d. 1984)
                           - Fernando Agüero Rocha            (b. 1920 - d. 2011)
                             (to 1 Mar 1973)
                           - Edmundo Paguaga Irías            (b. 1923 - d. 2008)
                             (from 1 Mar 1973)
                           - Alfonso Lovo Cordero             (b. 1927)
 1 Dec 1974 - 17 Jul 1979  Anastasio Somoza Debayle
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Jul 1979 - 18 Jul 1979  Francisco Urcuyo Maliaño (acting)  (b. 1915 - d. 2001)
18 Jul 1979 - 10 Jan 1985  Government Junta of National Reconstruction
                           - Daniel Ortega                    (b. 1945)
                             (coordinator from 4 Mar 1981)
                           - Sergio Ramírez Mercado           (b. 1942)
                           - Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (f)  (b. 1929)
                             (to 19 Apr 1980)
                           - Luis Adolfo Robelo Callejas      (b. 1939)
                             (to 22 Apr 1980)
                           - Moisés Hassan Morales            (b. 1942)
                             (to 4 Mar 1981)
                           - Rafael Córdova Rivas             (b. 1923 - d. 2009)
                             (from 18 May 1980)
                           - Arturo José Cruz Porras          (b. 1923 - d. 2013)
                             (18 May 1980 - 4 Mar 1981)
10 Jan 1985 - 25 Apr 1990  Daniel Ortega (1st time)           (s.a.)
25 Apr 1990 - 10 Jan 1997  Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (f)    (s.a.)
10 Jan 1997 - 10 Jan 2002  Arnoldo Alemán                     (b. 1946)
10 Jan 2002 - 10 Jan 2007  Enrique Bolaños                    (b. 1928)
10 Jan 2007 -              Daniel Ortega (2nd time)           (s.a.)

Rival government (State of Nicaragua)

Directors
11 Jun 1854 -  2 Sep 1855  Francisco Castellón                (b. 1815 - d. 1855)
                           (provisional to 1 Apr 1855)
 2 Sep 1855 - 30 Oct 1855  Nazario Escoto (acting)

Rival government (Republic of Nicaragua)

Presidents
20 Jun 1856 - 12 Jul 1856  Fermín Ferrer (provisional)
12 Jul 1856 -  1 May 1857  William Walker                     (b. 1824 - d. 1860)

Rival government (Republic of Nicaragua)

Presidents
29 Jun 1856 - 13 Aug 1856  José María Estrada (acting)        (s.a.)
13 Aug 1856 - 12 Sep 1856  Nicasio del Castillo (acting)

North Atlantic Autonomous Region

Coordinators of the Regional Government ("governors")
 4 May 1990 -        1992  Leonel Panting Wilson              (b. 1950)
       1992 -  4 May 1994  Alfonso Smith Warman
 4 May 1994 -    May 1996  Marcos Hoppington Scott
   May 1996 -  4 May 1998  Steadman Fagoth Muller             (b. 1949)
 4 May 1998 -  4 May 2002  Alba Rivera de Vallejos (f)
 4 May 2002 -  4 May 2006  Hurtado García Becker
 4 May 2006 -  4 May 2010  Reynaldo Francis Watson
 4 May 2010 -  4 May 2012  Mara Rivas Williams (f)
 4 May 2012 -  4 May 2014  Evelyn Taylor Irías (f)
 4 May 2014 -              Carlos José Alemán Cunningham

South Atlantic Autonomous Region

Coordinators of the Regional Government ("governors")
 4 May 1990 -  4 May 1994  Alvin Guthrie Rivers
 4 May 1994 -  4 May 1998  Rayfield Wayne Hodgson Bobb
 4 May 1998 -    Apr 2001  Randolph Noel Hodgson Jullit
   Apr 2001 -  4 May 2002  Rendell Hebbert López
 4 May 2002 - 24 Aug 2002  Raúl Martínez Medina
24 Aug 2002 -    Sep 2004  Guy Crosby Cox Wallace
   Sep 2004 -  4 May 2006  Alejandro Mejía Gaitán
 4 May 2006 -  4 May 2008  Paulo Santos Avendaño Zapata
 4 May 2008 -  4 May 2012  Yadira Esperanza Flores Reyes (f)
 4 May 2012 -              Domingo José Truesdale Hodgson     (b. 1956?)

Mosquito

       1661                Mosquitian Nation established as a kingdom
12 Sep 1861                kingdom transformed into Mosquito Reservation under
                           Nicaraguan sovereignty
 7 Aug 1894                (ratified 28 Feb 1895) reservation abolished, with full
                           incorporation into Nicaragua

Kings
       1661 -        1677  Oldman I
       1677 -        1686  Oldman II                          (b. ... - d. 1686)
       1686 -        1720  Jeremy I                           (b. c.1639 - d. 1720)
       1720 -        1729  Jeremy II                          (b. ... - d. 1729)
       1729 -        1739  Peter
       1739 -    Jan 1755  Edward                             (b. af.1719 - d. 1755)
       1755 -        1776  George I Samuel Roderick Kandler   (b. ... - d. 1776)
       1777 -    Oct 1801  George II Augustus                 (b. ... - d. 1801)
   Oct 1801 - 14 Nov 1815  Stephen (king-regent)
14 Nov 1815 -  9 Mar 1824  George III Frederick Augustus      (b. 1798 - d. 1824)
 9 Mar 1824 -    Oct 1842  Robert Charles Frederick           (b. ... - d. 1842)
   Oct 1842 -  4 May 1843  Archibald Alexander Macdonald
                           (chairman Regency Commission)
 4 May 1843 - 17 Apr 1845  Regency
                           - Prince Wellington
                           - Lowry Robinson
                           - Johnson (to 1843)
17 Apr 1845 - 12 Sep 1861  George IV Augustus Frederick       (b. 1832 - d. 1865)
Hereditary Chiefs
12 Sep 1861 - 27 Nov 1865  George IV Augustus Frederick       (s.a.)
27 Nov 1865 - 23 May 1866  Henry Patterson
                           (vice-president of the Council)
23 May 1866 -  5 May 1879  William Henry Clarence             (b. 1856 - d. 1879)
 5 May 1879 - 17 Jun 1879  Charles Patterson (1st time)
                           (vice-president of the Council)
17 Jun 1879 -  8 Nov 1888  George V William Albert Hendy      (b. ... - d. 1888)
 8 Nov 1888 -  8 Mar 1889  Charles Patterson (2nd time)
                           (vice-president of the Council)
 8 Mar 1889 - 11 Nov 1890  Jonathan Charles Frederick         (b. ... - d. 1890)
11 Nov 1890 - 30 Jan 1891  Charles Patterson (3rd time)
                           (vice-president of the Council)
30 Jan 1891 -  7 Aug 1894  Robert Henry Clarence              (b. 1873 - d. 1908)

Niger

23 Jul 1900                French military territory
                           (part of French West Africa; see under Senegal)
26 Dec 1922                French colony
19 Dec 1958                autonomy (Republic of Niger)
 3 Aug 1960                independence

Commandants (from 24 Feb 1913, commissioners)
23 Jul 1900 -        1901  Étienne Péroz                      (b. 1857 - d. 1910)
13 Nov 1901 -        1902  Henri Gouraud                      (b. 1867 - d. 1946)
 3 Nov 1902 -        1903  Noël
   Nov 1903 -    Sep 1905  Joseph Gauderique Aymerich         (b. 1858 - d. 1937)
       1906 -        1907  Lamolle
       1907 -        1908  Cristofari
       1908 -        1911  Paul Célestin Marie Joseph Venel
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1864 - d. 1920)
27 Sep 1911 -        1912  Hocquart
       1912 -        1913  Charles Camille Thierry de Maugras
                           (acting)
 4 Dec 1913 -        1915  Paul Célestin Marie Joseph Venel
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
15 Nov 1915 -    Jan 1918  Charles Henri Mourin
24 Jan 1918 -        1919  Marie Joseph Félix Méchet          (b. 1870 - d. 19...)
   Aug 1919 -        1920  Claude Paul Émile Lefebvre
       1920                Maurice Gustave Fernand Renauld
 5 Jul 1920 -        1921  Lucien Émile Rueff
       1921 - 26 Dec 1922  Jules Brévié                       (b. 1880 - d. 1964)
Lieutenant governors
26 Dec 1922 -  9 Oct 1929  Jules Brévié                       (s.a.)
23 Mar 1923 -    Sep 1925    Léonce Jore (acting for Brévié)  (b. 1882 - d. 1975)
 9 Oct 1929 - 21 Nov 1929  Jean Baptiste Robert Fayout
                           (acting)
21 Nov 1929 - 30 Oct 1930  Alphonse Choteau                   (b. ... - d. 1936)
30 Oct 1930 -  9 Sep 1931  Louis Placide Blacher              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
 9 Sep 1931 - 25 May 1933  Théophile Antoine Pascal Tellier   (b. 1872 - d. 1955)
25 May 1933 -    May 1934  Maurice Bourgine                   (b. 1879 - d. 1963)
   May 1934 - 16 Mar 1935  Léon Charles Alphonse Pêtre
16 Mar 1935 - 29 Apr 1938  Joseph Court                       (b. 1881 - d. 1948)
29 Apr 1938 - 18 Feb 1939  Jean-Baptiste Victor Chazelas
                           (acting)
18 Feb 1939 -  7 Nov 1940  Jean Rapenne                       (b. 1901 - d. 1952)
 7 Nov 1940 -  8 Dec 1940  Léon Solomiac (acting)             (b. 1873 - d. 1960)
 8 Dec 1940 -  4 Mar 1942  Maurice Falvy                      (b. 1888 - d. 1970)
 4 Mar 1942 -    May 1954  Jean Toby (acting to Dec 1942)     (b. 1900 - d. 1964)
11 Feb 1952 - 23 Feb 1953    Fernand Georges Gaston Casimir   (b. 1896 - d. 19...)
                             (acting for Toby)
21 Dec 1954 -  3 Nov 1956  Jean Ramadier                      (b. 1913 - d. 1968)
 3 Nov 1956 - 29 Jan 1958  Paul Bordier                       (b. 1921 - d. 2003)
29 Jan 1958 - 25 Aug 1958  Louis Félix Rollet (acting)        (b. 1915 - d. 2001)
High commissioner
25 Aug 1958 -  2 Aug 1960  Jean Colombani                     (b. 1903 - d. 1977)
President
 3 Aug 1960 - 15 Apr 1974  Hamani Diori                       (b. 1916 - d. 1989)
                           (acting head of state to 9 Nov 1960)
Presidents of the Supreme Military Council
17 Apr 1974 - 10 Nov 1987  Seyni Kountché                     (b. 1931 - d. 1987)
10 Nov 1987 - 17 May 1989  Ali Saibou                         (b. 1940 - d. 2011)
                           (interim to 14 Nov 1987)
President of the Supreme Council of National Orientation
17 May 1989 - 20 Dec 1989  Ali Saibou                         (s.a.)
Presidents
20 Dec 1989 - 16 Apr 1993  Ali Saibou                         (s.a.)
16 Apr 1993 - 27 Jan 1996  Mahamane Ousmane                   (b. 1950)
Chairman of the National Salvation Council
27 Jan 1996 -  7 Aug 1996  Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara            (b. 1949 - d. 1999)
President
 7 Aug 1996 -  9 Apr 1999  Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara            (s.a.)
Chairman of the National Reconciliation Council
11 Apr 1999 - 22 Dec 1999  Daouda Malam Wanké                 (b. 1954 - d. 2004)
President
22 Dec 1999 - 18 Feb 2010  Mamadou Tandja                     (b. 1938)
Chairman of the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy
19 Feb 2010 -  7 Apr 2011  Salou Djibo                        (b. 1965)
President
 7 Apr 2011 -              Mahamadou Issoufou                 (b. 1952)

Prime ministers 20 May 1957 - 10 Oct 1958 Djibo Bakary (b. 1922 - d. 1998) (vice president of the Government Council to 26 Jul 1958, then president of the Government Council) 18 Dec 1958 - 9 Nov 1960 Hamani Diori (s.a.) (president of the provisional government to 25 Feb 1959) 24 Jan 1983 - 14 Nov 1983 Mamane Oumarou (1st time) (b. 1945) 14 Nov 1983 - 15 Jul 1988 Hamid Algabid (b. 1941) 15 Jul 1988 - 20 Dec 1989 Mamane Oumarou (2nd time) (s.a.) 2 Mar 1990 - 27 Oct 1991 Aliou Mahamidou (b. 1936 - d. 1996) 27 Oct 1991 - 17 Apr 1993 Amadou Cheiffou (b. 1942) 17 Apr 1993 - 28 Sep 1994 Mahamadou Issoufou (s.a.) 28 Sep 1994 - 8 Feb 1995 Souley Abdoulaye (b. 1965) 8 Feb 1995 - 21 Feb 1995 Amadou Cissé (1st time) (b. 1948) 21 Feb 1995 - 27 Jan 1996 Hama Amadou (1st time) (b. 1950) 30 Jan 1996 - 21 Dec 1996 Boukary Adji (b. 1939) 21 Dec 1996 - 27 Nov 1997 Amadou Cissé (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Nov 1997 - 3 Jan 2000 Ibrahim Hassane Mayaki (b. 1951) 3 Jan 2000 - 7 Jun 2007 Hama Amadou (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Jun 2007 - 23 Sep 2009 Seyni Oumarou (b. 1950) 23 Sep 2009 - 2 Oct 2009 Albadé Abouba (acting) 2 Oct 2009 - 18 Feb 2010 Ali Badjo Gamatié 23 Feb 2010 - 7 Apr 2011 Mahamadou Danda (b. 1951) 7 Apr 2011 - Brigi Rafini (b. 1953)

Nigeria

Lagos

       1861                British colony (subordinated to Sierra Leone 1866-74
                           and to the Gold Coast 1874-86)
       1906                part of Southern Nigeria

Administrators
       1862 -        1863  Henry Stanhope Freeman
       1863 -        1864  W.R. Mulliner
       1864 -        1866  John Hawley Glover (1st time)      (b. 1829 - d. 1885)
       1866                Charles George Edward Patey        (b. 1813 - d. 1881)
                           (acting)
   Feb 1866 -        1871  John Hawley Glover (2nd time)      (s.a.)
       1871 -        1872  J. Gerrard
       1872                Henry Fowley
       1872 -        1873  George Berkeley                    (b. 1819 - d. 1905)
       1873                Charles Cameron Lees (1st time)    (b. 1831 - d. 1898)
                           (acting)
       1873 -        1874  George Cumine Strahan              (b. 1838 - d. 1889)
       1874                John Shaw (acting)
       1874 -        1875  Charles Cameron Lees (2nd time)    (s.a.)
       1875 -        1878  John d'Arcy Dumaresq
       1878                F. Simpson (acting)
       1878                Malcolm Brown (acting)
       1878 -        1880  Cornelius Alfred Moloney           (b. 1848 - d. 1913)
       1880                William Brandford Griffith         (b. 1821 - d. 1897)
       1880 -        1883  C.D. Turton
Lieutenant governors
       1883                Cornelius Alfred Moloney (acting)  (s.a.)
       1883                Fred Evans (acting)
       1883 -        1884  William Brandford Griffith         (s.a.)
       1884                R. Murray Ramsey
       1884 -        1885  R. Knapp Barrow
       1885 -        1886  C. Pike
Governors
       1886 -        1891  Cornelius Alfred Moloney           (s.a.)
       1891 -        1899  Sir Gilbert Thomas Carter          (b. 1848 - d. 1927)
       1899 -        1904  Sir William MacGregor              (b. 1846 - d. 1919)
       1904 -        1906  Walter Egerton (from 1905,
                           Sir Walter Egerton)                (b. 1858 - d. 1947)

Niger Territories

   Jul 1886                ruled by Royal Niger Company
 1 Jan 1900                split between Northern and Southern Nigeria

Presidents of the Royal Niger Company
   Jul 1886 - 25 Feb 1895  Henry Austin Bruce, Baron Aberdare (b. 1815 - d. 1895)
   Mar 1895 -  1 Jan 1900  Sir George Taubman Goldie          (b. 1846 - d. 1925)

Northern Nigeria

 1 Jan 1900                Protectorate of Northern Nigeria formed from part of Niger
                           Territories
 1 Jan 1914                united with Southern Nigeria

High commissioners
 1 Jan 1900 -    Nov 1906  Frederick Lugard
                           (from 1901, Sir Frederick Lugard)  (b. 1858 - d. 1945)
       1907 -        1908  Edouard Percy Cranwill Girouard    (b. 1867 - d. 1932)
Governors
       1908 -        1909  Edouard Percy Cranwill Girouard    (s.a.)
       1909 -        1912  Sir Hesketh Bell                   (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
       1912 -  1 Jan 1914  Sir Frederick Lugard               (s.a.)

Southern Nigeria

       1891                Oil Rivers Protectorate
13 May 1893                Niger Coast Protectorate
 1 Jan 1900                united with parts of the Niger Territories to form
                           Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
28 Feb 1906                Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
 1 Jan 1914                united with Northern Nigeria

Commissioners
       1891 -        1896  Claude Maxwell Macdonald
                           (from 1892, Sir Claude Maxwell
                           Macdonald)                         (b. 1852 - d. 1915)
       1896 -  1 Jan 1900  Ralph Denham Rayment Moor
                           (from 1897, Sir Ralph Denham
                           Rayment Moor)                      (b. 1860 - d. 1909)
High commissioners
 1 Jan 1900 -        1903  Sir Ralph Denham Rayment Moor      (s.a.)
       1904 - 28 Feb 1906  Walter Egerton (from 1905,
                           Sir Walter Egerton)                (s.a.)
Governors
28 Feb 1906 -        1912  Sir Walter Egerton                 (s.a.)
       1912 -  1 Jan 1914  Sir Frederick Lugard               (s.a.)

Nigeria

 1 Jan 1914                Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
 1 Oct 1954                Federation of Nigeria
 1 Oct 1960                independence
 1 Oct 1963                Federal Republic of Nigeria
24 May 1966                Republic of Nigeria
31 Aug 1966                Federal Republic of Nigeria

Governor-general
 1 Jan 1914 -  8 Aug 1919  Sir Frederick Lugard               (s.a.)
Governors
 8 Aug 1919 - 13 Nov 1925  Sir Hugh Clifford                  (b. 1866 - d. 1941)
13 Nov 1925 - 17 Jun 1931  Sir Graeme Thomson                 (b. 1875 - d. 1933)
17 Jun 1931 -  1 Nov 1935  Sir Donald Charles Cameron         (b. 1872 - d. 1948)
 1 Nov 1935 -  1 Jul 1940  Sir Bernard Henry Bourdillon       (b. 1883 - d. 1948)
 1 Jul 1940 -        1942  Sir John Evelyn Shuckburgh         (b. 1877 - d. 1953)
       1942 - 18 Dec 1943  Sir Alan Cuthbert Maxwell Burns    (b. 1887 - d. 1980)
18 Dec 1943 - 14 Oct 1947  Sir Arthur Frederick Richards      (b. 1885 - d. 1978)
       1947 -        1948  George Beresford-Stooke (acting)   (b. 1897 - d. 1983)
15 Apr 1948 -  1 Oct 1954  Sir John Stuart Macpherson         (b. 1898 - d. 1971)
Governors-general (representing the British monarch as head of state from 1 Oct 1960)
 1 Oct 1954 - 15 Jun 1955  Sir John Stuart Macpherson         (s.a.)
15 Jun 1955 - 16 Nov 1960  Sir James Wilson Robertson         (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
16 Nov 1960 -  1 Oct 1963  Nnamdi Azikiwe                     (b. 1904 - d. 1996)
President
 1 Oct 1963 - 16 Jan 1966  Nnamdi Azikiwe                     (s.a.)
Heads of the Federal Military Government
(from 24 May to 31 Aug 1966, National Military Government)
16 Jan 1966 - 29 Jul 1966  Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi              (b. 1924 - d. 1966)
 1 Aug 1966 - 29 Jul 1975  Yakubu Gowon                       (b. 1934)
29 Jul 1975 - 13 Feb 1976  Murtala Mohammed                   (b. 1938 - d. 1976)
14 Feb 1976 -  1 Oct 1979  Olusegun Obasanjo                  (b. 1937)
President
 1 Oct 1979 - 31 Dec 1983  Alhaji Shehu Shagari               (b. 1925)
Chairman of the Supreme Military Council
31 Dec 1983 - 27 Aug 1985  Muhammadu Buhari                   (b. 1942)
President and chairman of the Armed Forces Ruling Council
(from 4 Jan 1993, president of the National Defense and Security Council)
27 Aug 1985 - 26 Aug 1993  Ibrahim Babangida                  (b. 1941)
Interim president
26 Aug 1993 - 17 Nov 1993  Ernest Shonekan                    (b. 1936)
Chairmen of the Provisional Ruling Council
17 Nov 1993 -  8 Jun 1998  Sani Abacha                        (b. 1943 - d. 1998)
 9 Jun 1998 - 29 May 1999  Abdulsalami Abubakar               (b. 1942)
Presidents
29 May 1999 - 29 May 2007  Olusegun Obasanjo                  (s.a.)
29 May 2007 -  5 May 2010  Umaru Musa Yar'Adua                (b. 1951 - d. 2010)
 9 Feb 2010 -              Goodluck Jonathan                  (b. 1957)
                           (acting for Yar'Adua to 5 May 2010)

Prime minister 30 Aug 1957 - 15 Jan 1966 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (from 1 Jan 1960, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa) (b. 1912 - d. 1966) Chairman of the Transitional Council 4 Jan 1993 - 26 Aug 1993 Ernest Shonekan (s.a.)

Biafra

30 May 1967                secession of Eastern Region as Republic of Biafra
                           (not widely recognized internationally)
12 Jan 1970                reintegration into Nigeria

Presidents
30 May 1967 -  8 Jan 1970  Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu        (b. 1933 - d. 2011)
 8 Jan 1970 - 12 Jan 1970  Philip Effiong (acting)            (b. 1924 - d. 2003)

Niue

       17.. -        1917  kingdom of Niue-Fekai
20 Apr 1900                British protectorate
11 Jun 1901                annexed to New Zealand as part of the Cook Islands
       1904                separated from Cook Islands
19 Oct 1974                associated state

Kings (title Patuiki)
        ... -         ...  Tihamau
        ... -         ...  Tepunua Mutalau
        ... -         ...  Leivalu
        ... -         ...  Hetalangi
        ... -         ...  Fakahinaiki
        ... -         ...  Punimata
        ... -         ...  Ihunga
        ... -         ...  Patuavalu
        ... -         ...  Ngaliangaaiki
        ... -         ...  Fokimata
        ... -         ...  Pakieto
        ... -  2 Mar 1876  interregnum
 2 Mar 1876 - 13 Jul 1887  Mataio Tuitonga                    (b. ... - d. 1887)
21 Nov 1888 - 15 Dec 1896  Fataaiki                           (b. ... - d. 1896)
30 Jun 1898 -        1917  Tongia Puluteaki                   (b. 18... - d. 1917)
Resident commissioners
       1901 -        1902  Stephenson Percy Smith             (b. 1840 - d. 1922)
       1902 -        1907  Christopher Freke Maxwell
       1907 -        1918  Henry Greyshott Cornwall
       1918 -        1920  Guy Norman Morris (1st time)       (b. 1886 - d. 19...)
       1920 -        1922  John Crouchley Murray Enson
       1922 -        1926  Guy Norman Morris (2nd time)       (s.a.)
       1926 -        1931  Albert Arthur Luckham              (b. 1883 - d. 1957)
       1931 -        1942  William Moody Bell
       1942 -        1943  Joseph Patrick McMahon-Box
       1943 - 16 Aug 1953  Cecil Hector Watson Larsen         (b. 1908 - d. 1953)
       1953 -        1956  Jock McEwen                        (b. 1915 - d. 2010)
       1956 -        1958  Albert Oliver Dare                 (b. 1917)
       1958 -        1962  David Walter Reginald Heatley      (b. 1905 - d. 1997)
       1962 -        1968  Lyle Allen Shanks                  (b. 1924 - d. 2009)
       1968 -        197.  Selwyn Digby Wilson                (b. 1933)
       1973 -        1974  C.A. Roberts
New Zealand Representatives
 1 Nov 1974 -        1977  W.J. Ashwell
 2 Apr 1977 -        1979  Ian McGregor
31 Aug 1979 -        1982  Terry Baker
31 Mar 1982 -        1984  Malcolm McNamara
22 Sep 1984 -        1986  John Springford
 5 Dec 1986 -        1991  Mel Taylor
17 Mar 1991 -  2 Aug 1993  Kurt Meyer
High commissioners
 2 Aug 1993 -        1994  Kurt Meyer (1st time)
16 May 1994 -        1997  Warren Searell
27 May 1997 -    May 2000  Mike Pointer
   May 2000 -    Feb 2003  John Bryan (1st time)
14 Feb 2003 - 26 Sep 2005  Sandra Lee (f)                     (b. 1952)
 3 Oct 2005 -    Feb 2006  Kurt Meyer (2nd time) (acting)
   Feb 2006 -    Jan 2008  Anton Ojala
15 Jan 2008 -        2010  Brian Smythe
       2010 -    Sep 2010  John Bryan (2nd time) (acting)
   Sep 2010 -    Oct 2010  Tauaasa Taafaki (acting)
   Oct 2010 -    Dec 2013  Mark Blumsky                       (b. 1957)
   Feb 2014 -              Ross Ardern

Premiers 19 Oct 1974 - 12 Dec 1992 Robert Rex (from 1984, Sir Robert Rex) (b. 1909 - d. 1992) 12 Dec 1992 - 9 Mar 1993 Young Vivian (1st time) (b. 1935) 9 Mar 1993 - 26 Mar 1999 Frank F. Lui (b. 1935) 26 Mar 1999 - 1 May 2002 Sani Lakatani (b. 1936) 1 May 2002 - 18 Jun 2008 Young Vivian (2nd time) (s.a.) 18 Jun 2008 - Toke Talagi

Norfolk Island

 6 Mar 1788                first settlement; part of New South Wales
29 Sep 1844                part of Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania)
 1 Nov 1856                separate territory; subordinated to New South Wales
 1 Jul 1914                Australian territory

Administrators
 6 Mar 1788 - 17 Mar 1790  Philip Gidley King (1st time)      (b. 1758 - d. 1808)
   Mar 1790 -    Nov 1791  Robert Ross                        (b. c.1740 - d. 1794)
   Nov 1791 -        1796  Philip Gidley King (2nd time)      (s.a.)
       1796 -        1799  John Townson                       (b. 1760 - d. 1835)
       1799 -        1800  Thomas Rowley
   Jun 1800 -    Sep 1804  Joseph Foveaux                     (b. 1767 - d. 1846)
   Sep 1804 -    Jan 1810  John Piper
   Jan 1810 -    Feb 1814  Tankerville Alexander Crane
   Feb 1814 -  6 Jun 1825  abandoned
 6 Jun 1825 -        1826  Richard Turton
       1826 -        1827  Vance Young Donaldson
       1827 -        1828  Thomas Edward Wright
       1828 -        1829  Robert Hunt
       1829                Joseph Wakefield
       1829 -        1834  John Thomas Morisset
       1834                Foster Fyans                       (b. 1790 - d. 1870)
       1834 -        1839  Joseph Anderson                    (b. 1790 - d. 1877)
       1839                Thomas Bunbury
       1839 -        1840  Thomas Ryan
       1840 -        1844  Alexander Maconochie               (b. 1787 - d. 1860)
       1844 -        1846  Joseph Childs
       1846 -        1853  John Giles Price                   (b. 1808 - d. 1857)
       1853 -        1854  Rupert Deering
       1854 -        1855  H. Day
   May 1855 -  8 Jun 1856  Thomas Samuel Stewart (caretaker)
Chief magistrates
 8 Jun 1856 -        1857  George Martin Frederick Young
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1822 - d. 1899)
       1858                Isaac Christian                    (b. 1825 - d. 1877)
       1859                George Martin Frederick Young
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
       1860 -        1861  Thomas Buffett                     (b. 1825 - d. 1900)
       1862 -        1865  Arthur Quintal II (1st time)       (b. 1816 - d. 1902)
       1866                William Quintal (1st time)         (b. 1817 - d. 1905)
       1867 -        1870  John Buffett (1st time)            (b. 1826 - d. 1906)
       1871                David Buffett                      (b. 1827 - d. 1924)
       1872 -        1873  William Quintal (2nd time)         (s.a.)
       1874 -        1875  Fletcher Christian Nobbs           (b. 1833 - d. 1912)
       1876 -        1880  Francis Mason Nobbs (1st time)     (b. 1835 - d. 1909)
       1881 -        1882  John Buffett (2nd time)            (s.a.)
       1883 -        1884  Francis Mason Nobbs (2nd time)     (s.a.)
       1885                Arthur Quintal II (2nd time)       (s.a.)
       1886 -        1887  Stephen Christian (1st time)       (b. 1843 - d. 1918)
       1888                Henry Seymour Buffett              (b. 1847 - d. 1931)
       1889 -        1890  Stephen Christian (2nd time)       (s.a.)
       1891 -        1892  Byron Stanley Mitchell Adams
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1847 - d. 1902)
       1893                Stephen Christian (3rd time)       (s.a.)
       1894                Francis Mason Nobbs (3rd time)     (s.a.)
       1895 -        1896  Byron Stanley Mitchell Adams
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
Administrators
       1896 -        1898  Warner Wright Spalding             (b. 1844 - d. 1920)
       1898 -        1903  Charles McArthur King              (b. 1824 - d. 1903)
       1903 -        1907  Walton Drake                       (b. 1850 - d. 19...)
       1907 -        1913  Charles Sinclair Elliot
21 Aug 1913 - 30 Aug 1920  Michael Vincent Murphy (1st time)
 1 Sep 1920 - 30 Jun 1924  John William Parnell               (b. 1860 - d. 1931)
 1 Jul 1924 - 16 Oct 1926  Edwin Thomas Leane                 (b. 1867 - d. 1928)
       1926 -        1927  Michael Vincent Murphy (2nd time)
                           (acting)
 1 Feb 1927 - 25 Jan 1928  Victor Conradsdorf Morisset
                           Sellheim                           (b. 1866 - d. 1928)
       1928                Henry Stephenson Edgar (1st time)
                           (acting)
 6 Jun 1928 - 21 Jan 1929  Charles Edward Herbert             (b. 1860 - d. 1929)
       1929                Henry Stephenson Edgar (2nd time)
                           (acting)
 1 May 1929 - 30 Jun 1932  Alfred Joshua Bennett              (b. 1865 - d. 1946)
 1 Jul 1932 -  3 Dec 1937  Charles Robert Pinney              (b. 1883 - d. 1945)
 4 Dec 1937 - 31 Dec 1945  Sir Charles Rosenthal              (b. 1875 - d. 1954)
 1 Jan 1946 - 31 Dec 1952  Alexander Wilson                   (b. 1880 - d. 1954)
 1 Jan 1953 - 30 Apr 1958  Colin Hugh Boyd Norman             (b. 1904)
 1 May 1958 -        1962  Reginald Sylvester Leydin          (b. 1905)
   Jun 1962 -    Aug 1964  Robert Hurley Wordsworth           (b. 1894 - d. 1984)
   Aug 1964 -    Oct 1964  James Francis Donovan (acting)
   Oct 1964 -    Jun 1966  Roger Bede Nott                    (b. 1908 - d. 2000)
   Jun 1966 -    Jun 1968  Reginald Marsh                     (b. 1906 - d. 2005)
   Jun 1968 -    Jul 1968  John Geoffrey Cowap (acting)
   Jul 1968 -    Aug 1972  Robert Nixon Dalkin                (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
14 Aug 1972 - 31 Aug 1975  Edward Thomas Pickerd (1st time)   (b. 1917 - d. 2012)
 1 Sep 1975 - 31 May 1976  Charles Ivens Buffett (acting)     (b. 1914 - d. 1995)
 1 Jun 1976 -  4 Sep 1976  Edward Thomas Pickerd (2nd time)   (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 4 Sep 1976 -  4 Sep 1979  Desmond Vincent O'Leary            (b. ... - d. 1996)
 5 Sep 1979 - 19 Mar 1981  Peter Coleman                      (b. 1928)
19 Mar 1981 - 10 May 1981  Ian Hutchinson (acting)
11 May 1981 - 27 Jan 1982  Thomas Ferguson Paterson (acting)
28 Jan 1982 - 28 Apr 1985  Raymond Edward Trebilco            (b. 1926 - d. 1998)
29 Apr 1985 - 31 Dec 1988  John Alexander Matthew
31 Dec 1988 - 12 Apr 1989  William McFadyen Campbell (acting)
13 Apr 1989 - 12 Apr 1992  Bruce MacDonald
13 Apr 1992 - 30 Jun 1997  Alan Gardner Kerr
 1 Jul 1997 -  3 Aug 1997  Ralph Alexander Condon (acting)
 4 Aug 1997 - 30 Jul 2003  Tony Messner                       (b. 1939)
30 Jul 2003 -  1 Nov 2003  Michael Stephens (acting)
 1 Nov 2003 -  8 Aug 2007  Grant Tambling                     (b. 1943)
 8 Aug 2007 - 31 Mar 2012  Owen Walsh (acting to 2 Oct 2008)  (b. 1963?)
 1 Apr 2012 -              Neil Pope                          (b. 1949)

Chief minister 10 Aug 1979 - 21 May 1986 David Ernest Buffett (1st time) (b. 1942) Presidents of the Legislative Assembly 21 May 1986 - 22 May 1989 John Terence Brown (b. 1948) 22 May 1989 - 20 May 1992 David Ernest Buffett (s.a.) Heads of government 20 May 1992 - 4 May 1994 John Terence Brown (s.a.) 4 May 1994 - 5 May 1997 Michael William King (b. 1948) Chief ministers 5 May 1997 - 28 Feb 2000 George Charles Smith (b. 1948) 28 Feb 2000 - 5 Dec 2001 Ronald Coane Nobbs (b. 1938) 5 Dec 2001 - 2 Jun 2006 Geoffrey Robert Gardner (b. 1960?) 2 Jun 2006 - 28 Mar 2007 David Ernest Buffett (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Mar 2007 - 24 Mar 2010 Andre Neville Nobbs 24 Mar 2010 - 20 Mar 2013 David Ernest Buffett (3rd time) (s.a.) 20 Mar 2013 - Lisle Denis Snell

North Borneo: see under Malaysian states.
Northern Epirus: see under Greece.

Northern Mariana Islands

12 Feb 1899                sold to Germany by Spain; part of German New Guinea
                           (see under Papua New Guinea)
   Oct 1914                Japanese occupation
17 Dec 1920                League of Nations mandate
                           (see under Micronesia, Federated States of)
   Jun 1944                U.S. occupation
18 Jul 1947                part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
                           (see under Micronesia, Federated States of)
 9 Jan 1978                autonomy
 4 Nov 1986                commonwealth status
10 Jul 1987                trust territory effectively dissolved
22 Dec 1990                Security Council ratifies termination of trusteeship

Resident commissioner
 1 Apr 1976 -  9 Jan 1978  Erwin D. Canham                    (b. 1904 - d. 1982)
Governors
 9 Jan 1978 - 11 Jan 1982  Carlos S. Camacho                  (b. 1937)
11 Jan 1982 -  8 Jan 1990  Pedro P. Tenorio (1st time)        (b. 1934)
 8 Jan 1990 - 10 Jan 1994  Lorenzo I. De Leon Guerrero        (b. 1935 - d. 2006)
10 Jan 1994 - 12 Jan 1998  Froilan C. Tenorio                 (b. 1939)
12 Jan 1998 - 14 Jan 2002  Pedro P. Tenorio (2nd time)        (s.a.)
14 Jan 2002 -  9 Jan 2006  Juan N. Babauta                    (b. 1953)
 9 Jan 2006 - 20 Feb 2013  Benigno R. Fitial                  (b. 1945)
 4 Oct 2006 - 23 Dec 2006    Timothy P. Villagomez            (b. 1962)
                             (acting for Fitial)
20 Feb 2013 -              Eloy S. Inos                       (b. 1949)

Northern Rhodesia: see Zambia.

Norway

        872                Kingdom of Norway
   May 1380                personal union with Denmark
       1536                Danish province
24 Jan 1814                end of union with Denmark
 4 Nov 1814 -  7 Jun 1905  personal union with Sweden
 9 Apr 1940 -  8 May 1945    German occupation (completed 7 Jun 1940; kingship
                             abolished by the Storting 28 Sep 1940, the name of
                             the polity then being simply Norway)

Kings (title Norges Konge)
- Oldenborg dynasty -
16 Feb 1814 -  3 Nov 1814  Christian Frederik                 (b. 1786 - d. 1848)
                           (regent to 19 May 1814)
12 Oct 1814 -  4 Nov 1814  Regency
                           - Marcus Gjøe Rosenkrantz          (b. 1762 - d. 1838)
                           - Mathias Otto Leth Sommerhielm    (b. 1764 - d. 1827)
                           - Jonas Collett                    (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
                           - Niels Aall                       (b. 1769 - d. 1854)
                           - Diderich Hegermann               (b. 1763 - d. 1835)
                           - Thomas Fasting                   (b. 1769 - d. 1841)
- Holsten-Gottorp dynasty -
 4 Nov 1814 -  5 Feb 1818  Karl II                            (b. 1748 - d. 1818)
- Bernadotte dynasty -
 5 Feb 1818 -  8 Mar 1844  Karl III Johan                     (b. 1763 - d. 1844)
 8 Mar 1844 -  8 Jul 1859  Oscar I                            (b. 1799 - d. 1859)
 8 Jul 1859 - 18 Sep 1872  Karl IV                            (b. 1826 - d. 1872)
18 Sep 1872 -  7 Jun 1905  Oscar II                           (b. 1829 - d. 1907)
 7 Jun 1905 - 25 Nov 1905  Christian Michelsen                (b. 1857 - d. 1925)
                           (prime minister exercising royal authority)
- Glücksborg (in full Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg) dynasty -
25 Nov 1905 - 21 Sep 1957  Haakon VII                         (b. 1872 - d. 1957)
                           (on flight in Norway 9 Apr - 7 Jun 1940;
                           in London exile 7 Jun 1940 - 7 Jun 1945)
25 Apr 1940 -  7 May 1945    Josef Terboven                   (b. 1898 - d. 1945)
                             (Reichskommissar)
 7 May 1945 -  8 May 1945    Franz Böhme                      (b. 1894 - d. 1947)
                             (acting Reichskommissar)
 8 May 1945 - 14 May 1945    Paal Berg (acting for Haakon)    (b. 1873 - d. 1968)
14 May 1945 -  7 Jun 1945    Crown Prince Olav (regent)       (b. 1903 - d. 1991)
19 Jun 1955 - 21 Sep 1957    Crown Prince Olav (regent)       (s.a.)
21 Sep 1957 - 17 Jan 1991  Olav V                             (s.a.)
   Jun 1990 - 17 Jan 1991    Crown Prince Harald (regent)     (b. 1937)
17 Jan 1991 -              Harald V                           (s.a.)
25 Nov 2003 - 13 Apr 2004    Crown Prince Haakon (regent)     (b. 1973)
29 Mar 2005 -  7 Jun 2005    Crown Prince Haakon (regent)     (s.a.)

Governors-general (stattholder) 11 Nov 1814 - 21 Jun 1816 Greve Hans Henrik von Essen (b. 1755 - d. 1824) 21 Jun 1816 - 5 Aug 1816 Crown Prince Karl Johan (viceroy) (s.a.) 5 Aug 1816 - 10 Oct 1818 Greve Carl Carlsson Mörner (b. 1755 - d. 1821) 10 Oct 1818 - 12 Feb 1824 Greve Johan August Sandels (1st time) (b. 1764 - d. 1831) 12 Feb 1824 - 21 Oct 1824 Crown Prince Oscar (1st time) (s.a.) (viceroy) 21 Oct 1824 - 26 Nov 1827 Greve Johan August Sandels (2nd time) (s.a.) 26 Nov 1827 - 6 Dec 1829 Greve Baltzar Bogislaus von Platen (b. 1766 - d. 1829) 6 Dec 1829 - 20 Jul 1833 Jonas Collett (1st time) (s.a.) 20 Jul 1833 - 3 Sep 1833 Crown Prince Oscar (2nd time) (s.a.) (viceroy) 3 Sep 1833 - 19 Sep 1836 Jonas Collett (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Sep 1836 - 27 Aug 1840 Greve Johan Caspar Herman Wedel Jarlsberg (b. 1779 - d. 1840) 27 Aug 1840 - 27 Feb 1841 Nicolay Johan Lohmann Krog (b. 1787 - d. 1856) 27 Feb 1841 - 17 May 1856 Severin Lövenskiold (b. 1777 - d. 1856) 21 May 1856 - 11 Nov 1856 Crown Prince Karl (1st time) (s.a.) (viceroy) 11 Nov 1856 - 12 Jan 1857 Jørgen Herman Vogt (1st time) (b. 1784 - d. 1862) 12 Jan 1857 - 30 May 1857 Crown Prince Karl (2nd time) (s.a.) (viceroy) 30 May 1857 - 8 Dec 1858 Jørgen Herman Vogt (2nd time) (s.a.) 8 Dec 1858 - 17 Dec 1861 Hans Christian Petersen (b. 1793 - d. 1862) 17 Dec 1861 - 21 Jul 1873 Frederik Stang (b. 1808 - d. 1884) Prime ministers 21 Jul 1873 - 1 Nov 1880 Frederik Stang (s.a.) 1 Nov 1880 - 3 Apr 1884 Christian August Selmer (b. 1816 - d. 1889) 3 Apr 1884 - 26 Jun 1884 Christian Homann Schweigaard (b. 1838 - d. 1899) 26 Jun 1884 - 13 Jul 1889 Johan Sverdrup (b. 1816 - d. 1892) 13 Jul 1889 - 6 Mar 1891 Emil Stang (1st time) (b. 1834 - d. 1912) 6 Mar 1891 - 2 May 1893 Johannes Wilhelm Christian Steen (1st time) (b. 1827 - d. 1906) 2 May 1893 - 14 Oct 1895 Emil Stang (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Oct 1895 - 17 Feb 1898 Georg Francis Hagerup (1st time) (b. 1853 - d. 1921) 17 Feb 1898 - 21 Apr 1902 Johannes Wilhelm Christian Steen (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Apr 1902 - 22 Oct 1903 Otto Albert Blehr (1st time) (b. 1847 - d. 1927) 22 Oct 1903 - 11 Mar 1905 Georg Francis Hagerup (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Mar 1905 - 23 Oct 1907 Christian Michelsen (s.a.) 23 Oct 1907 - 19 Mar 1908 Jørgen Gunnarson Løvland (b. 1848 - d. 1922) 19 Mar 1908 - 2 Feb 1910 Gunnar Knudsen (1st time) (b. 1848 - d. 1928) 2 Feb 1910 - 20 Feb 1912 Wollert Konow (b. 1847 - d. 1932) 20 Feb 1912 - 31 Jan 1913 Jens Kristian Meinich Bratlie (b. 1856 - d. 1939) 31 Jan 1913 - 21 Jun 1920 Gunnar Knudsen (2nd time) (s.a.) 21 Jun 1920 - 22 Jun 1921 Otto Bahr Halvorsen (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1923) 22 Jun 1921 - 6 Mar 1923 Otto Albert Blehr (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Mar 1923 - 23 May 1923 Otto Bahr Halvorsen (2nd time) (s.a.) 24 Mar 1923 - 30 May 1923 Christian Fredrik Michelet (b. 1863 - d. 1927) (acting [for Halvorsen to 23 May 1923]) 30 May 1923 - 25 Jul 1924 Abraham Theodor Berge (b. 1851 - d. 1936) 25 Jul 1924 - 5 Mar 1926 Johan Ludwig Mowinckel (1st time) (b. 1870 - d. 1943) 5 Mar 1926 - 28 Jan 1928 Ivar Lykke (b. 1872 - d. 1949) 28 Jan 1928 - 15 Feb 1928 Christopher Hornsrud (b. 1859 - d. 1960) 15 Feb 1928 - 12 May 1931 Johan Ludwig Mowinckel (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 May 1931 - 5 Mar 1932 Peder Ludvik Kolstad (b. 1878 - d. 1932) 1 Feb 1932 - 29 Feb 1932 Birger Braadland (b. 1879 - d. 1966) (acting for Kolstad) 29 Feb 1932 - 10 Mar 1932 Nils Trædal (b. 1879 - d. 1948) (acting [for Kolstad to 5 Mar 1932]) 10 Mar 1932 - 14 Mar 1932 Birger Braadland (acting) (s.a.) 14 Mar 1932 - 3 Mar 1933 Jens Hundseid (b. 1883 - d. 1965) 3 Mar 1933 - 20 Mar 1935 Johan Ludwig Mowinckel (3rd time) (s.a.) 20 Mar 1935 - 25 Jun 1945 Johan Nygaardsvold (b. 1879 - d. 1952) (on flight in Norway 9 Apr - 7 Jun 1940; in London exile 7 Jun 1940 - 31 May 1945) 9 Apr 1940 - 15 Apr 1940 Vidkun Quisling (1st time) (b. 1887 - d. 1945) (in rebellion) 15 Apr 1940 - 25 Sep 1940 Ingolf E. Christensen (b. 1872 - d. 1943) (chairman Administration Council) 25 Sep 1940 - 1 Feb 1942 Acting councillors of state (from 25 Sep 1941, ministers) - Kjeld Irgens (b. 1879 - d. 1963) - Ragnar Skancke (b. 1890 - d. 1948) - Erling Sandberg (b. 1879 - d. 1956) - Sigurd Johannessen (b. 1881 - d. 1964) - Albert Viljam Hagelin (b. 1882 - d. 1946) - Tormod Hustad (b. 1889 - d. 1973) - Thorstein Fretheim (b. 1886 - d. 1971) - Jonas Lie (b. 1899 - d. 1945) - Gulbrand Lunde (b. 1901 - d. 1942) - Axel Stang (b. 1904 - d. 1974) - Øystein Ravner (b. 1893 - d. 1975) - Birger Meidell (b. 1882 - d. 1958) (to 25 Sep 1941) - Johan Lippestad (b. 1902 - d. 1961) (from 25 Sep 1941) - Sverre Riisnæs (b. 1897 - d. 1988) 1 Feb 1942 - 9 May 1945 Vidkun Quisling (2nd time) (s.a.) (minister-president) 9 May 1945 - 14 May 1945 Rådmenn ("civil servants") (acting for Nygaardsvold) - Alv Helland (b. 1908 - d. 1976) - Carl Platou (b. 1885 - d. 1956) - Sverre Iversen (b. 1879 - d. 1967) - Per Preben Prebensen (b. 1896 - d. 1961) - Reidar Tønnesson (b. 1895 - d. 1963) - Halvdan E. Stokke (b. 1900 - d. 1977) - Egil Sundt (b. 1903 - d. 1950) - Nikolai Schei (b. 1901 - d. 1985) 14 May 1945 - 31 May 1945 Oscar Fredrik Torp (b. 1893 - d. 1958) (acting for Nygaardsvold) 25 Jun 1945 - 19 Nov 1951 Einar Henry Gerhardsen (1st time) (b. 1897 - d. 1987) 19 Nov 1951 - 22 Jan 1955 Oscar Fredrik Torp (s.a.) 22 Jan 1955 - 28 Aug 1963 Einar Henry Gerhardsen (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Aug 1963 - 25 Sep 1963 John Lyng (b. 1905 - d. 1978) 25 Sep 1963 - 12 Oct 1965 Einar Henry Gerhardsen (3rd time) (s.a.) 12 Oct 1965 - 17 Mar 1971 Per Borten (b. 1913 - d. 2005) 17 Mar 1971 - 18 Oct 1972 Trygve Bratteli (1st time) (b. 1910 - d. 1984) 18 Oct 1972 - 16 Oct 1973 Lars Korvald (b. 1916 - d. 2006) 16 Oct 1973 - 12 Jan 1976 Trygve Bratteli (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Jan 1976 - 4 Feb 1981 Odvar Nordli (b. 1927) 4 Feb 1981 - 14 Oct 1981 Gro Harlem Brundtland (f) (1st time) (b. 1939) 14 Oct 1981 - 9 May 1986 Kåre Willoch (b. 1928) 17 Apr 1984 - Jun 1984 Svenn Thorkild Stray (b. 1922 - d. 2012) (acting for Willoch) 9 May 1986 - 16 Oct 1989 Gro Harlem Brundtland (f) (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Oct 1989 - 3 Nov 1990 Jan Peder Syse (b. 1930 - d. 1997) 3 Nov 1990 - 25 Oct 1996 Gro Harlem Brundtland (f) (3rd time) (s.a.) 25 Oct 1996 - 17 Oct 1997 Thorbjørn Jagland (b. 1950) 17 Oct 1997 - 17 Mar 2000 Kjell Magne Bondevik (1st time) (b. 1947) 30 Aug 1998 - 23 Sep 1998 Anne Enger Lahnstein (f) (b. 1949) (acting for Bondevik) 17 Mar 2000 - 19 Oct 2001 Jens Stoltenberg (1st time) (b. 1959) 19 Oct 2001 - 17 Oct 2005 Kjell Magne Bondevik (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Oct 2005 - 16 Oct 2013 Jens Stoltenberg (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Oct 2013 - Erna Solberg (f) (b. 1961)

Svalbard

 9 Feb 1920                sovereignty awarded to Norway
14 Aug 1925                formal assumption of sovereignty by Norway
       1941 - 14 May 1942  German occupation

Governors (sysselmenn)
       1925 -        1935  Johannes Gerckens Bassøe           (b. 1878 - d. 1962)
       1935 -        1941  Wolmer Tycho Marlow                (b. 1881 - d. 1963)
Military governors
       1942                Ernst Ullring (1st time)           (b. 1894 - d. 1953)
       1942                Albert Tornerud (acting)           (b. 1891 - d. 1968)
       1942 -        1943  Ernst Ullring (2nd time)           (s.a.)
       1943 -        1944  Ove Roll Lund                      (b. 1910 - d. 1946)
       1944 -        1945  Johannes Etterlid
Governors (sysselmenn)
       1945 -        1956  Håkon Balstad                      (b. 1904 - d. 1964)
       1956 -        1960  Odd Birketvedt                     (b. 1916)
       1960 -        1963  Finn Backer Midbøe                 (b. 1918 - d. 1999)
       1963 -        1967  Tollef Landsverk                   (b. 1920)
       1967 -        1970  Stephen Stephensen                 (b. 1917)
       1970 -        1974  Fredrik Beichmann                  (b. 1924)
       1974 -        1978  Leif T. Eldring (1st time)         (b. 1933 - d. 1994)
       1978 -        1982  Jan S. Grøndahl                    (b. 1934)
       1982 -        1986  Carl Alexander Wendt               (b. 1923 - d. 2006)
       1986 -        1991  Leif T. Eldring (2nd time)         (s.a.)
       1991 -        1995  Odd Emil Blomdal                   (b. 1927)
       1995 -        1998  Ann-Kristin Olsen (f)              (b. 1945)
       1998 -        2001  Morten Ruud                        (b. 1950)
       2001 -    Feb 2005  Odd Olsen Ingerø (1st time)        (b. 1950)
   Feb 2005 -  1 Oct 2005  Sven Ole Fagernæs (acting)         (b. 1945)
 1 Oct 2005 - 15 Sep 2009  Per Sefland                        (b. 1949)
15 Sep 2009 -              Odd Olsen Ingerø (2nd time)        (s.a.)

Jan Mayen

27 Feb 1930                formal annexation by Norway; administered by the governor
                           of Svalbard (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1995                administered by the governor of Nordland county

Nyasaland: see Malawi.

Oman

       1624                Imami rule restored
10 Jun 1749                Al ´Bu Sa`id lineage accedes to Imamate
       1784                while Imami rule continues, Muscat and Oman becomes a de
                           facto sovereign state under a secular Al ´Bu Sa`idi ruler
 6 Apr 1861                Zanzibar separated from Oman and style Sultan recognized
                           (though not immediately in domestic use) by U.K. mediation
 3 Oct 1868                Imami rule briefly restored
   Jan 1871                Sultanate of Muscat and Oman restored
20 Mar 1891 -        1971  informal British protectorate (under the chief political
                           resident of the Persian Gulf; see under Bahrain)
       1913 -        1957    Imami government in the interior of Oman,
                             usually in opposition to the sultan's rule
 9 Aug 1970                Sultanate of Oman

Imams
- Ya`ariba dynasty -
       1692 - 15 Oct 1711  Sayf I ibn Sultan "Qayd al-Ard"
15 Oct 1711 -        1719  Sultan II ibn Sayf
       1719 -    Sep 1724  Sayf II ibn Sultan (1st time)
       1719 -        1720    al-Muhanna ibn Sultan ibn Majid
                             (in dissidence)
14 Jun 1722 - 16 Mar 1723    Ya`rub ibn Bal`arab
                             (in dissidence)
- Banu Ghafir dynasty -
 2 Oct 1724 -    Mar 1728  Muhammad ibn Nasir
- Ya`ariba dynasty -
11 Apr 1728 -        1743  Sayf II ibn Sultan (2nd time)
       1732 -        1738    Bal`arab ibn Himyar ibn Sultan
                             (1st time) (in dissidence)
   Feb 1742 - 20 Jun 1743  Sultan III ibn Murshid ibn `Adi
                           (together with Sayf II)
       1744 -        1748  Bal`arab ibn Himyar ibn Sultan
                           (2nd time)
- Al ´Bu Sa`id dynasty -
10 Jun 1749 - 14 Dec 1783  Abu Hilal Ahmad ibn Sa`id          (b. 1710 - d. 1783)
15 Dec 1783 -        1811  Sa`id ibn Ahmad                    (b. 17... - d. 1811)
Hamis (informally, from 1861, sultans)
- Al ´Bu Sa`id dynasty -
       1784 - 13 Mar 1792  Hamad ibn Sa`id                    (b. ... - d. 1792)
   Mar 1792 - 14 Nov 1804  Sultan ibn Ahmad                   (b. 1745 - d. 1804)
20 Nov 1804 - 14 Sep 1806  Salim ibn Sultan                   (b. 1789 - d. 1821)
                           (jointly with following)
20 Nov 1804 - 19 Oct 1856  Sa`id ibn Sultan                   (b. 1790 - d. 1856)
       1804 - 31 Jul 1806    Badr ibn Sayf (regent)           (b. ... - d. 1806)
19 Oct 1856 - 11 Feb 1866  Thuwayni ibn Sa`id                 (b. c.1821 - d. 1866)
11 Feb 1866 -  1 Oct 1868  Salim ibn Thuwayni                 (b. 18... - d. 1876)
Imam
- Al ´Bu Sa`id dynasty -
 3 Oct 1868 - 30 Jan 1871  `Azzan ibn Qays                    (b. ... - d. 1871)
Sultans
- Al ´Bu Sa`id dynasty -
30 Jan 1871 -  4 Jun 1888  Turki ibn Sa`id                    (b. 1832 - d. 1888)
 4 Jun 1888 -  5 Oct 1913  Faysal ibn Turki                   (b. 1864 - d. 1913)
 9 Oct 1913 - 10 Feb 1932  Taimur ibn Faysal                  (b. 1886 - d. 1965)
10 Feb 1932 - 23 Jul 1970  Sa`id ibn Taimur                   (b. 1910 - d. 1972)
23 Jul 1970 -              Qabus ibn Sa`id                    (b. 1940)
Imams
24 May 1913 - 23 Jul 1920    Salim ibn Rashid al-Kharusi      (b. ... - d. 1920)
30 Jul 1920 -    May 1954    Abu `Abd Allah Muhammad ibn
                             `Abd Allah al-Khalili al-Kharusi (b. 1885? - d. 1954)
   May 1954 - 26 Sep 1955    Ghalib ibn `Ali al-Hinai
                             (1st time)                       (b. 1919? - d. 2009)
   Jul 1957 - 11 Aug 1957    Ghalib ibn `Ali al-Hinai
                             (2nd time)                       (s.a.)

Prime ministers 14 Aug 1970 - 2 Jan 1972 Tariq ibn Taimur (b. 1921 - d. 1980) 2 Jan 1972 - Qabus ibn Sa`id (s.a.) British political agents May 1861 - Feb 1862 William M. Pengelley (b. 1812 - d. 1894) Feb 1862 - Oct 1862 M. Green Jan 1863 - Feb 1867 Herbert Disbrowe (1st time) Mar 1867 - Feb 1869 G.A. Atkinson (acting) Feb 1869 - 8 Jan 1870 Herbert Disbrowe (2nd time) 8 Jan 1870 - 1 May 1871 A. Cotton Way (b. ... - d. 1871) 8 May 1871 - 14 Dec 1872 Edward Charles Ross (b. 1836 - d. 1912) 30 Dec 1872 - 7 Jun 1877 Samuel Barret Miles (1st time) 7 Jun 1877 - 4 Jan 1878 P.J.C. Robertson (acting) 4 Jan 1878 - 14 Jun 1879 Samuel Barret Miles (2nd time) 16 Jul 1879 - 2 Jan 1880 Charles Bean Euan-Smith (b. 1841 - d. 1910) 16 Aug 1881 - 22 Mar 1883 Charles Grant (b. 1836 - d. 1903) 20 Apr 1883 - 17 Sep 1883 Edward Mockler (1st time) 20 Sep 1883 - 2 Apr 1886 Samuel Barret Miles (3rd time) 2 Apr 1886 - 25 Oct 1886 Edward Mockler (2nd time) 1 Nov 1886 - 16 Apr 1887 Samuel Barret Miles (4th time) 16 Apr 1887 - 2 Mar 1889 Edward Mockler (3rd time) 2 Mar 1889 - 30 Mar 1889 A.S. Jayakar (1st time) (acting) 31 Mar 1889 - 15 Dec 1889 Wallace Christopher Ramsay Stratton (acting) (b. 1862 - d. 1942) 16 Dec 1889 - 29 Mar 1890 Charles Edward Yate (b. 1849 - d. 1940) 29 Mar 1890 - 30 Nov 1890 A.S. Jayakar (2nd time) (acting) 1 Dec 1890 - 20 Mar 1891 Edward Mockler (4th time) Consuls 20 Mar 1891 - 14 Oct 1891 Edward Mockler 14 Oct 1891 - 27 Nov 1892 A.S. Jayakar (1st time) (acting) 27 Nov 1892 - 19 Apr 1895 James Hayes Sadler (1st time) (b. 1851 - d. 1922) 19 Apr 1895 - 22 May 1895 A.S. Jayakar (2nd time) (acting) 23 May 1895 - 23 Nov 1895 John Frederick Whyte 24 Nov 1895 - 17 Apr 1896 James Hayes Sadler (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Apr 1896 - 12 Jun 1897 F.A. Beville 12 Jun 1897 - 15 Sep 1897 A.S. Jayakar (3rd time) (acting) 16 Sep 1897 - 1 Oct 1899 Christopher George Forbes Fagan 1 Oct 1899 - 2 Jan 1904 Percy Cox (b. 1864 - d. 1937) 11 Jan 1904 - Jul 1906 William George Grey (1st time) (b. 1866 - d. 1953) Jul 1906 - Nov 1906 William Henry Irvine Shakespear (b. 1878 - d. 1915) (acting) Nov 1906 - Apr 1908 William George Grey (2nd time) (s.a.) Apr 1908 - Jul 1908 N. Scott (acting) Jul 1908 - Nov 1908 Frank McConaghy Nov 1908 - Apr 1910 Robert Erskine Holland (b. 1873 - d. 1965) Apr 1910 - Apr 1911 Arthur Prescott Trevor (b. 1872 - d. 1930) Apr 1911 - Mar 1914 Stuart George Knox (b. 1869 - d. 1956) Mar 1914 - Oct 1915 Robert Arthur Edward Benn Oct 1915 - 16 Jan 1916 Hugh Stewart (1st time) (b. 1872 - d. 1931) 16 Jan 1916 - 16 Feb 1916 Claude Tulloch Ducat (1st time) 17 Feb 1916 - 8 Mar 1916 Hugh Stewart (2nd time) (s.a.) 9 Mar 1916 - 14 Jun 1916 Claude Tulloch Ducat (2nd time) 15 Jun 1916 - 22 Jun 1916 A.R. Burton (acting) 23 Jun 1916 - 9 Oct 1916 Evelyn Berkeley Howell (b. 1877 - d. 1971) 10 Oct 1916 - 7 Nov 1916 A. King-Mason (acting) 8 Nov 1916 - 12 Oct 1917 Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1951) 12 Oct 1917 - 30 Nov 1917 J.M. Brickman (acting) 1 Dec 1917 - 17 Oct 1919 Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth (2nd time) (s.a.) 17 Oct 1919 - 3 Mar 1920 Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate (1st time) (b. 1889 - d. 1978) 3 Mar 1920 - 10 Apr 1920 M.J. Gazdar (acting) 11 Apr 1920 - Oct 1921 Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate (2nd time) (s.a.) Oct 1921 - Feb 1923 Maitland Easten Rae (b. 1880 - d. 19...) Feb 1923 - Sep 1923 Ronald Evelyn Leslie Wingate (3rd time) (s.a.) Sep 1923 - 31 Oct 1924 Reginald Graham Hinde (b. 1887 - d. 1971) 31 Oct 1924 - 24 May 1925 Charles Gilbert Crosthwaite (1st time) (b. 1878 - d. 1940) 24 May 1925 - 7 Oct 1925 Reginald George Evelyn William Alban (1st time) (acting) (b. 1899 - d. 1983) 8 Oct 1925 - 12 Feb 1926 Charles Gilbert Crosthwaite (2nd time) (s.a.) 12 Feb 1926 - 9 Sep 1926 Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett (b. 1884 - d. 1933) 10 Sep 1926 - 22 Sep 1926 G.A. Richardson (acting) 23 Sep 1926 - 15 Jun 1930 George Patterson Murphy (b. 1883 - d. 1938) 15 Jun 1930 - 30 May 1931 Trenchard Craven William Fowle (1st time) (b. 1884 - d. 1940) 30 May 1931 - 31 Oct 1931 Reginald George Evelyn William Alban (2nd time) (acting) (s.a.) 1 Nov 1931 - 25 Jul 1932 Trenchard Craven William Fowle (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 Jul 1932 - 13 Nov 1932 Reginald George Evelyn William Alban (3rd time) (acting) (s.a.) 14 Nov 1932 - 23 Mar 1933 Claude Edward Urquhart Bremner (1st time) (b. 1891 - d. 1965) 23 Mar 1933 - 16 Jun 1933 Reginald George Evelyn William Alban (4th time) (acting) (s.a.) 17 Jun 1933 - 6 Jun 1935 Claude Edward Urquhart Bremner (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Jun 1935 - 26 Apr 1939 Ralph Ponsonby Watts (b. 1892 - d. 19...) 26 Apr 1939 - 3 Apr 1940 Tom Hickinbotham (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1983) 3 Apr 1940 - 26 Jul 1940 John Baron Howes (1st time) (b. 1907) (acting) 27 Jul 1940 - 14 Aug 1941 Tom Hickinbotham (2nd time) (s.a.) 14 Aug 1941 - 22 Jan 1942 John Baron Howes (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting) 22 Jan 1942 - 22 May 1942 Reginald George Evelyn William Alban (5th time) (acting) (s.a.) 23 May 1942 - 21 Sep 1943 Cornelius James Pelly (b. 1908 - d. 1985) 21 Sep 1943 - 31 Oct 1943 Richard Ernest Rowland Bird (b. 1912 - d. 1986) 1 Nov 1943 - 1 Nov 1944 Roy Douglas Metcalfe (b. 1909) 1 Nov 1944 - 22 Apr 1945 Arnold Crawshaw Galloway (b. 1901 - d. 1988) 22 Apr 1945 - 29 Nov 1945 Ralph Ingram Hallows (b. 1915) 1 Dec 1945 - 13 Jun 1947 Andrew Charles Stewart (1st time) (b. 1907 - d. 1979) 13 Jun 1947 - Aug 1947 J.E.H. Hudson Aug 1947 - Aug 1948 Andrew Charles Stewart (2nd time) (s.a.) Aug 1948 - Sep 1949 Randall Erskine Ellison (b. 1904 - d. 1984) Consuls-general Sep 1949 - Oct 1958 Frederick Charles Leslie Chauncy (b. 1904 - d. 1986) Oct 1958 - May 1960 William Neve Monteith (b. 1915 - d. 2004) May 1960 - May 1963 John Fleetwood Stewart Phillips (b. 1917 - d. 1998) May 1963 - Oct 1965 John Spenser Ritchie Duncan (b. 1921 - d. 2006) Oct 1965 - Sep 1969 Derrick Charles Carden (b. 1921 - d. 2006) Sep 1969 - 1971 David Gordon Crawford (b. 1928 - d. 1981)

Orange Free State: see under South Africa.
Ottoman Empire: see Turkey.
Oubangui-Chari: see Central African Republic.