Rulers: France

Ministries 1700-1870


Second consul
25 Dec 1799 - 18 May 1804  Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès   (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
Third consul
25 Dec 1799 - 18 May 1804  Charles François Lebrun            (b. 1739 - d. 1824)

Vice president
20 Jan 1849 - 14 Jan 1852  Georges Henri Boulay de la Meurthe (b. 1797 - d. 1858)

Foreign Affairs

Ministers (to about 1789, secretaries of state)
28 Jul 1696 - 22 Sep 1715  Jean-Baptiste Colbert, marquis
                           de Torcy                           (b. 1665 - d. 1743)
23 Sep 1715 -  1 Sep 1718  Nicolas du Blé, marquis d'Huxelles (b. 1652 - d. 1730)
                           (president of Foreign Affairs Council)
24 Sep 1718 - 10 Aug 1723  Guillaume Dubois                   (b. 1656 - d. 1723)
16 Aug 1723 - 19 Aug 1727  Charles Jean-Baptiste Fleuriau,
                           comte de Morville                  (b. 1686 - d. 1732)
23 Aug 1727 - 20 Feb 1737  Germain Louis Chauvelin            (b. 1685 - d. 1762)
22 Feb 1737 - 26 Apr 1744  Jean-Jacques Amelot de Chaillou    (b. 1689 - d. 1749)
26 Apr 1744 - 19 Nov 1744  Adrien Maurice, duc de Noailles    (b. 1678 - d. 1766)
19 Nov 1744 - 10 Jan 1747  René de Voyer de Paulmy, marquis
                           d'Argenson                         (b. 1694 - d. 1757)
27 Jan 1747 -  9 Sep 1751  Louis Philogène Brûlart, vicomte
                           de Puisieulx                       (b. 1702 - d. 1771)
11 Sep 1751 - 24 Jul 1754  François Dominique de Barberie de
                           Saint-Contest                      (b. 1701 - d. 1754)
24 Jul 1754 - 28 Jun 1757  Antoine Louis Rouillé              (b. 1689 - d. 1761)
28 Jun 1757 -  9 Oct 1758  François Joachim de Pierre de
                           Bernis                             (b. 1715 - d. 1794)
 3 Dec 1758 - 13 Oct 1761  Étienne François, duc de Choiseul
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1719 - d. 1785)
13 Oct 1761 - 10 Apr 1766  César Gabriel de Choiseul-
                           Chevigny, comte de Choiseul-
                           Praslin (from 2 Nov 1762, César
                           Gabriel de Choiseul-Chevigny,
                           duc de Praslin)                    (b. 1712 - d. 1785)
10 Apr 1766 - 24 Dec 1770  Étienne François, duc de Choiseul
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Dec 1770 -  6 Jun 1771  Louis Phélypeaux, duc de
                           La Vrillère                        (b. 1705 - d. 1777)
 6 Jun 1771 -  2 Jun 1774  Emmanuel Armand de Vignerot du
                           Plessis de Richelieu, duc
                           d'Aiguillon                        (b. 1720 - d. 1798)
 2 Jun 1774 - 21 Jul 1774  Henri Léonard Jean Baptiste Bertin (b. 1719 - d. 1792)
21 Jul 1774 - 13 Feb 1787  Charles Gravier, comte de
                           Vergennes                          (b. 1719 - d. 1787)
14 Feb 1787 - 13 Jul 1789  Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin
                           Saint-Hérem (1st time)             (b. 1746 - d. 1792)
13 Jul 1789 - 16 Jul 1789  Paul François de Quelen,
                           duc de la Vauguyon                 (b. 1746 - d. 1828)
16 Jul 1789 - 29 Nov 1791  Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin
                           Saint-Hérem (2nd time)             (s.a.)
29 Nov 1791 - 15 Mar 1792  Claude Antoine Valdec de Lessart   (b. 1741 - d. 1792)
15 Mar 1792 - 13 Jun 1792  Charles du Perier, dit Dumouriez   (b. 1739 - d. 1823)
13 Jun 1792 - 18 Jun 1792  Pierre Paul de Méredieu,
                           baron de Naillac                   (b. 1737 - d. ...)
18 Jun 1792 - 23 Jul 1792  Scipion Victor, marquis de
                           Chambonas                          (b. 1750 - d. 1830)
23 Jul 1792 -  1 Aug 1792  François Joseph de Gratet,
                           vicomte Dubouchage (interim)       (b. 1749 - d. 1821)
 1 Aug 1792 - 10 Aug 1792  Claude Bigot de Sainte-Croix       (b. 1743 - d. 1803)
10 Aug 1792 - 21 Jun 1793  Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu,
                           dit Lebrun-Tondu                   (b. 1754 - d. 1794)
21 Jun 1793 -  2 Apr 1794  François Louis Michel Chemin des
                           Forgues, dit Deforgues             (b. 1759 - d. 1840)
 5 Apr 1794 -  8 Apr 1794  Jean Marie Claude Alexandre Goujon (b. 1766 - d. 1795)
                           (interim)
 8 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794  Martial Joseph Armand Herman       (b. 1759 - d. 1795)
                           (interim)
Commissioners
- External Relations -
20 Apr 1794 -  3 Nov 1794  Philibert Buchot                   (b. 1751 - d. 1813)
 3 Nov 1794 - 21 Nov 1794  Bernard Mangourit du Champ-Duguet  (b. 1752 - d. 1829)
21 Nov 1794 - 19 Feb 1795  André François Miot                (b. 1762 - d. 1841)
19 Feb 1795 -  3 Nov 1795  Jean-Victor Colchen                (b. 1751 - d. 1830)
Ministers
- External Relations -
 3 Nov 1795 - 15 Jul 1797  Charles Delacroix de Constant      (b. 1741 - d. 1805)
15 Jul 1797 - 20 Jul 1799  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
                           Périgord (1st time)                (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
20 Jul 1799 - 22 Nov 1799  Karl Reinhard                      (b. 1761 - d. 1837)
22 Nov 1799 -  9 Aug 1807  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
                           Périgord, (from 5 Jun 1806)
                           prince de Bénévent (2nd time)      (s.a.)
 9 Aug 1807 - 17 Apr 1811  Jean-Baptiste Nompère de
                           Champagny (from 1808, Jean-
                           Baptiste, comte Nompère de
                           Champagny; from 15 Aug 1809,
                           Jean-Baptiste Nompère de
                           Champagny, duc de Cadore)          (b. 1756 - d. 1834)
17 Apr 1811 - 20 Nov 1813  Hugues Bernard Maret, duc de
                           Bassano                            (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
20 Nov 1813 -  1 Apr 1814  Armand Augustin Louis
                           Caulaincourt, duc de Vicence
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1773 - d. 1827)
- Foreign Affairs -
 3 Apr 1814 - 13 May 1814  Antoine René Charles Mathurin,
                           comte de Laforest                  (b. 1756 - d. 1846)
13 May 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
                           Périgord, prince de Bénévent
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Armand Augustin Louis
                           Caulaincourt, duc de Vicence
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Louis, baron Bignon (1st time)     (b. 1771 - d. 1841)
 9 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
                           Périgord, prince de Bénévent
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
26 Sep 1815 - 29 Dec 1818  Armand Emmanuel du Plessis,
                           duc de Richelieu                   (b. 1766 - d. 1822)
29 Dec 1818 - 19 Nov 1819  Jean Joseph Paul Augustin,
                           marquis Dessolles                  (b. 1767 - d. 1828)
19 Nov 1819 - 14 Dec 1821  Étienne Denis, baron Pasquier      (b. 1767 - d. 1862)
14 Dec 1821 - 28 Dec 1822  Mathieu Jean Félicité,
                           duc de Montmorency-Laval           (b. 1766 - d. 1826)
28 Dec 1822 -  4 Aug 1824  François René,
                           vicomte de Chateaubriand           (b. 1768 - d. 1848)
 4 Aug 1824 -  4 Jan 1828  Ange Hyacinthe Maxence,
                           baron de Damas                     (b. 1785 - d. 1862)
 4 Jan 1828 - 24 Apr 1829  Auguste, comte de La Ferronays     (b. 1777 - d. 1842)
24 Apr 1829 - 14 May 1829  Anne Pierre Adrien,
                           duc de Montmorency-Laval           (b. 1768 - d. 1837)
14 May 1829 -  8 Aug 1829  Joseph-Marie, comte Portalis       (b. 1778 - d. 1858)
 8 Aug 1829 - 29 Jul 1830  Jules Armand Auguste Marie,
                           prince de Polignac                 (b. 1780 - d. 1847)
29 Jul 1830                Victor Louis Victurnien, duc
                           de Mortemart                       (b. 1783 - d. 1834)
31 Jul 1830 -  1 Aug 1830  Louis, baron Bignon (2nd time)     (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1830 - 11 Aug 1830  Jean-Baptiste, comte Jourdan       (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
11 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Mathieu Louis, comte Molé
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1781 - d. 1855)
 2 Nov 1830 - 17 Nov 1830  Nicolas Joseph, marquis Maison     (b. 1771 - d. 1840)
17 Nov 1830 - 11 Oct 1832  Horace François Bastien,
                           baron Sébastiani                   (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
11 Oct 1832 -  4 Apr 1834  Achille Charles Léonce Victor,
                           duc de Broglie (1st time)          (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
 4 Apr 1834 - 10 Nov 1834  Henri Gauthier, comte de Rigny
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1782 - d. 1835)
10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834  Charles Joseph, comte Bresson      (b. 1798 - d. 1847)
18 Nov 1834 - 12 Mar 1835  Henri Gauthier, comte de Rigny
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
12 Mar 1835 - 22 Feb 1836  Achille Charles Léonce Victor,
                           duc de Broglie (2nd time)          (s.a.)
22 Feb 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Adolphe Thiers (1st time)          (b. 1797 - d. 1877)
 6 Sep 1836 - 31 Mar 1839  Mathieu Louis, comte Molé
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Napoléon Auguste Lannes,
                           duc de Montebello                  (b. 1801 - d. 1874)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult,
                           duc de Dalmatie                    (b. 1769 - d. 1851)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Adolphe Thiers (2nd time)          (s.a.)
29 Oct 1840 - 23 Feb 1848  François Guizot                    (b. 1787 - d. 1874)
24 Feb 1848 - 11 May 1848  Alphonse de Lamartine              (b. 1790 - d. 1869)
11 May 1848 - 29 Jun 1848  Jules Bastide (1st time)           (b. 1800 - d. 1879)
29 Jun 1848 - 17 Jul 1848  Marie-Alphonse Bedeau              (b. 1804 - d. 1863)
17 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Jules Bastide (2nd time)           (s.a.)
20 Dec 1848 -  2 Jun 1849  Édouard Drouyn de Lhuys (1st time) (b. 1805 - d. 1881)
 2 Jun 1849 - 31 Oct 1849  Alexis de Tocqueville              (b. 1805 - d. 1859)
31 Oct 1849 - 17 Nov 1849  Alphonse de Rayneval
17 Nov 1849 -  9 Jan 1851  Jean-Ernest Ducos, vicomte de
                           La Hitte                           (b. 1789 - d. 1878)
 9 Jan 1851 - 24 Jan 1851  Édouard Drouyn de Lhuys (2nd time) (s.a.)
24 Jan 1851 - 10 Apr 1851  Anatole, baron Brénier
                           de Renaudière                      (b. 1807 - d. 1885)
10 Apr 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Pierre Jules Baroche (1st time)    (b. 1802 - d. 1870)
26 Oct 1851 - 28 Jul 1852  Louis Félix Étienne, marquis de
                           Turgot                             (b. 1796 - d. 1866)
28 Jul 1852 -  7 May 1855  Édouard Drouyn de Lhuys (3rd time) (s.a.)
 7 May 1855 -  4 Jan 1860  Alexandre Colonna, comte Walewski  (b. 1810 - d. 1868)
 4 Jan 1860 - 24 Jan 1860  Pierre Jules Baroche (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (interim)
24 Jan 1860 - 15 Oct 1862  Édouard Thouvenel                  (b. 1818 - d. 1868)
15 Oct 1862 -  1 Sep 1866  Édouard Drouyn de Lhuys (4th time) (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1866 -  2 Oct 1866  Charles, marquis de La Valette
                           (1st time) (interim)               (b. 1806 - d. 1881)
 2 Oct 1866 - 17 Dec 1868  Lionel, marquis de Moustier        (b. 1817 - d. 1869)
17 Dec 1868 - 17 Jul 1869  Charles, marquis de La Valette
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Jul 1869 -  2 Jan 1870  Henri, prince de La Tour
                           d'Auvergne (1st time)              (b. 1823 - d. 1871)
 2 Jan 1870 - 14 Apr 1870  Napoléon, comte Daru               (b. 1807 - d. 1881)
14 Apr 1870 - 15 May 1870  Émile Ollivier (interim)           (b. 1825 - d. 1913)
15 May 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Antoine, comte de Gramont          (b. 1819 - d. 1880)
10 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Henri, prince de La Tour
                           d'Auvergne (2nd time)              (s.a.)

War

Ministers (to about 1789, secretaries of state)
16 Jul 1691 -  5 Jan 1701  Louis François Le Tellier de
                           Louvois, marquis de Barbezieux     (b. 1668 - d. 1701)
 5 Jan 1701 -  9 Jun 1709  Michel de Chamillart               (b. 1652 - d. 1721)
 9 Jun 1709 - 14 Sep 1715  Daniel Voysin de La Noiraye        (b. 1654 - d. 1717)
 1 Oct 1715 - 24 Sep 1718  Louis Hector, duc de Villars       (b. 1653 - d. 1734)
                           (president of War Council)
24 Sep 1718 -  1 Jul 1723  Claude Le Blanc (1st time)         (b. 1669 - d. 1728)
 1 Jul 1723 - 19 Jun 1726  François Victor Le Tonnelier de
                           Breteuil (1st time)                (b. 1686 - d. 1743)
19 Jun 1726 - 19 May 1728  Claude Le Blanc (2nd time)         (s.a.)
   Jul 1728 -    Feb 1740  Nicolas Prosper Bauyn
                           d'Angervilliers                    (b. 1675 - d. 1740)
   Feb 1740 -  7 Jan 1743  François Victor Le Tonnelier de
                           Breteuil (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 7 Jan 1743 -  1 Feb 1757  Marc Pierre de Voyer de Paulmy,
                           comte d'Argenson                   (b. 1696 - d. 1764)
 1 Feb 1757 -  3 Mar 1758  Antoine René de Voyer, marquis de
                           Paulmy                             (b. 1722 - d. 1787)
 3 Mar 1758 - 27 Jan 1761  Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet de
                           Belle-Isle                         (b. 1684 - d. 1761)
 3 Feb 1761 - 24 Dec 1770  Étienne François, duc de Choiseul  (b. 1719 - d. 1785)
26 Jan 1771 - 27 Jan 1774  Louis François, marquis de
                           Monteynard                         (b. 1713 - d. 1791)
27 Jan 1774 -  2 Jun 1774  Emmanuel Armand de Vignerot du
                           Plessis de Richelieu, duc
                           d'Aiguillon                        (b. 1720 - d. 1798)
 5 Jun 1774 - 10 Oct 1775  Louis Nicolas Victor de Félix
                           d'Ollières, comte du Muy           (b. 1711 - d. 1775)
27 Oct 1775 - 27 Sep 1777  Claude Louis, comte de
                           Saint-Germain                      (b. 1707 - d. 1778)
27 Sep 1777 - 19 Dec 1780  Alexandre Marie Léonor de
                           Saint-Mauris de Montbarrey         (b. 1732 - d. 1796)
23 Dec 1780 - 29 Aug 1787  Philippe Henri, marquis de Ségur   (b. 1724 - d. 1801)
29 Aug 1787 - 23 Sep 1787  Louis Charles-Auguste
                           Le Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil    (b. 1730 - d. 1807)
                           (interim)
23 Sep 1787 - 30 Nov 1788  Athanase Louis Marie de Loménie,
                           comte de Brienne                   (b. 1730 - d. 1794)
30 Nov 1788 - 13 Jul 1789  Louis Pierre de Chastenet,
                           comte de Puységur                  (b. 1726 - d. 1807)
13 Jul 1789 - 16 Jul 1789  Victor François, duc de Broglie    (b. 1718 - d. 1804)
 4 Aug 1789 - 16 Nov 1790  Jean-Frédéric de La Tour du
                           Pin-Gouvernet                      (b. 1727 - d. 1794)
16 Nov 1790 -  7 Dec 1791  Louis Le Bègue Duportail           (b. 1743 - d. 1802)
 7 Dec 1791 -  9 Mar 1792  Louis, comte de Narbonne-Lara      (b. 1755 - d. 1813)
 9 Mar 1792 -  9 May 1792  Pierre Marie de Grave              (b. 1755 - d. 1823)
 9 May 1792 - 13 Jun 1792  Joseph Marie Servan, dit Servan
                           de Gerbey (1st time)               (b. 1741 - d. 1808)
13 Jun 1792 - 18 Jun 1792  Charles du Perier, dit Dumouriez   (b. 1739 - d. 1823)
18 Jun 1792 - 23 Jul 1792  Pierre Auguste Lajard              (b. 1757 - d. 1837)
23 Jul 1792 - 10 Aug 1792  Charles Franqueville d'Abancourt   (b. 1758 - d. 1792)
10 Aug 1792 -  3 Oct 1792  Joseph Marie Servan, dit Servan
                           de Gerbey (2nd time)               (s.a.)
 3 Oct 1792 - 18 Oct 1792  Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu,
                           dit Lebrun-Tondu (1st time)        (b. 1754 - d. 1794)
                           (interim)
18 Oct 1792 -  4 Feb 1793  Jean-Nicolas Pache                 (b. 1746 - d. 1823)
 4 Feb 1793 -  1 Apr 1793  Pierre Riel de Beurnonville        (b. 1752 - d. 1821)
 1 Apr 1793 -  4 Apr 1793  Pierre Henri Hélène Marie Tondu,
                           dit Lebrun-Tondu (2nd time)        (s.a.)
                           (interim)
 4 Apr 1793 - 22 Jun 1793  Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1754 - d. 1840)
22 Jun 1793     (hours)    Charles Alexis Alexandre           (b. 1754 - d. 1825)
22 Jun 1793 - 20 Apr 1794  Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 3 Nov 1795 -  8 Feb 1796  Jean-Baptiste Aubert-Dubayet       (b. 1757 - d. 1797)
 8 Feb 1796 - 15 Jul 1797  Claude Louis Petiet                (b. 1749 - d. 1806)
15 Jul 1797 - 22 Jul 1797  Lazare Hoche                       (b. 1768 - d. 1797)
22 Jul 1797 - 21 Feb 1799  Barthélemy Louis Joseph Scherer    (b. 1747 - d. 1804)
21 Feb 1799 -  2 Jul 1799  Louis Marie de Milet de Mureau     (b. 1751 - d. 1825)
 2 Jul 1799 - 14 Sep 1799  Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte           (b. 1763 - d. 1844)
14 Sep 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois de
                           Crancé, dit Dubois-Crancé          (b. 1747 - d. 1814)
11 Nov 1799 -  2 Apr 1800  Louis-Alexandre Berthier
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1753 - d. 1815)
 2 Apr 1800 -  8 Oct 1800  Lazare Carnot                      (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
 8 Oct 1800 - 19 Aug 1807  Louis-Alexandre Berthier, (from
                           1 Apr 1806) prince de Neuchâtel
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Aug 1807 -  1 Apr 1814  Henry Clarke, (from 10 Mar 1808)
                           comte de Hunebourg (from 15 Aug
                           1809, Henry Clarke, duc de Feltre)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1765 - d. 1818)
 3 Apr 1814 -  3 Dec 1814  Pierre-Antoine, comte Dupont
                           de l'Étang                         (b. 1765 - d. 1840)
 3 Dec 1814 - 11 Mar 1815  Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult,
                           duc de Dalmatie (1st time)         (b. 1769 - d. 1851)
11 Mar 1815 - 20 Mar 1815  Henry Clarke, duc de Feltre
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
20 Mar 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Louis Nicolas Davout, duc
                           d'Auerstadt et prince d'Eckmühl    (b. 1770 - d. 1823)
 7 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815  Laurent, comte de Gouvion
                           Saint-Cyr (1st time)               (b. 1764 - d. 1830)
26 Sep 1815 - 12 Sep 1817  Henry Clarke, duc de Feltre
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
12 Sep 1817 - 19 Nov 1819  Laurent, marquis de Gouvion
                           Saint-Cyr (2nd time)               (s.a.)
19 Nov 1819 - 14 Dec 1821  Marie Victor Nicolas de Fay,
                           marquis de La Tour-Maubourg        (b. 1757 - d. 1831)
14 Dec 1821 - 23 Mar 1823  Claude Victor, duc de Bellune
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1764 - d. 1841)
23 Mar 1823 - 15 Apr 1823  Alexandre, vicomte Digeon          (b. 1771 - d. 1826)
                           (interim)
15 Apr 1823 - 19 Oct 1823  Claude Victor, duc de Bellune
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Oct 1823 -  4 Aug 1824  Ange Hyacinthe Maxence,
                           baron de Damas                     (b. 1785 - d. 1862)
19 Oct 1823 - 28 Oct 1823    Charles Yves César Cyr, comte du
                             Coetlosquet (acting for Damas)   (b. 1783 - d. 1836)
 4 Aug 1824 -  4 Jan 1828  Aimé, duc de Clermont-Tonnerre     (b. 1779 - d. 1865)
 4 Jan 1828 -  8 Aug 1829  Louis Victor de Blacquetot de Caux (b. 1775 - d. 1845)
 8 Aug 1829 - 31 Jul 1830  Louis de Bourmont                  (b. 1773 - d. 1846)
31 Jul 1830 - 17 Nov 1830  Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1773 - d. 1852)
17 Nov 1830 - 18 Jul 1834  Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult,
                           duc de Dalmatie (2nd time)         (s.a.)
18 Jul 1834 - 10 Nov 1834  Étienne Maurice, comte Gérard
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834  Simon Bernard (1st time)           (b. 1779 - d. 1839)
18 Nov 1834 - 12 Mar 1835  Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph
                           Mortier, duc de Trévise            (b. 1768 - d. 1835)
12 Mar 1835 - 30 Apr 1835  Henri Gauthier, comte de Rigny     (b. 1782 - d. 1835)
                           (interim)
30 Apr 1835 -  6 Sep 1836  Nicolas Joseph, marquis Maison     (b. 1771 - d. 1840)
 6 Sep 1836 - 31 Mar 1839  Simon Bernard (2nd time)           (s.a.)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Amédée Louis Despans-Cubières
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1786 - d. 1853)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Antoine Virgile Schneider          (b. 1780 - d. 1847)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Amédée Louis Despans-Cubières
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
29 Oct 1840 - 10 Nov 1845  Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult,
                           duc de Dalmatie (3rd time)         (s.a.)
10 Nov 1845 -  9 May 1847  Alexandre Pierre Chevalier Moline
                           de Saint-Yon                       (b. 1786 - d. 1870)
 9 May 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  Camille Alphonse Trézel            (b. 1780 - d. 1860)
24 Feb 1848 - 25 Feb 1848  Marie Alphonse Bedeau              (b. 1804 - d. 1863)
25 Feb 1848 - 20 Mar 1848  Jacques Gervais, baron Subervie    (b. 1776 - d. 1856)
20 Mar 1848 -  5 Apr 1848  Louis Eugène Cavaignac (1st time)  (b. 1802 - d. 1857)
 5 Apr 1848 - 11 May 1848  François Arago                     (b. 1786 - d. 1853)
11 May 1848 - 17 May 1848  Jean-Baptiste Adolphe Charras      (b. 1810 - d. 1865)
                           (interim)
17 May 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Louis-Eugène Cavaignac (2nd time)  (s.a.)
28 Jun 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Louis Juchault de Lamoricière      (b. 1806 - d. 1865)
20 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849  Joseph Marcelin Rulhières          (b. 1787 - d. 1862)
31 Oct 1849 - 22 Oct 1850  Alphonse Henri, comte d'Hautpoul   (b. 1789 - d. 1865)
22 Oct 1850 -  9 Jan 1851  Jean-Paul, comte de Schramm        (b. 1789 - d. 1884)
 9 Jan 1851 - 24 Jan 1851  Auguste Étienne, comte Régnault de
                           Saint-Jean d'Angély                (b. 1794 - d. 1870)
24 Jan 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Jacques Louis César Alexandre,
                           comte de Randon (1st time)         (b. 1795 - d. 1871)
26 Oct 1851 - 11 Mar 1854  Achille de Saint-Arnaud            (b. 1798 - d. 1854)
11 Mar 1854 -  5 May 1859  Jean-Baptiste Philibert Vaillant   (b. 1790 - d. 1872)
 5 May 1859 - 20 Jan 1867  Jacques Louis César Alexandre,
                           comte de Randon (2nd time)         (s.a.)
20 Jan 1867 - 13 Aug 1869  Adolphe Niel                       (b. 1802 - d. 1869)
 7 Aug 1869 - 21 Aug 1869  Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (b. 1807 - d. 1873)
                           (acting for Niel to 13 Aug 1869;
                           then interim)
21 Aug 1869 - 20 Jul 1870  Edmond Leboeuf                     (b. 1809 - d. 1888)
20 Jul 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Pierre Charles Dejean              (b. 1807 - d. 1872)
10 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Charles Guillaume Cousin-
                           Montauban, comte de Palikao        (b. 1796 - d. 1878)

Administration of the War

Ministers
12 Mar 1803 -  3 Jan 1810  Jean-François Dejean (from 1 Jun
                           1808, Jean-François, comte Dejean) (b. 1749 - d. 1824)
 3 Jan 1810 - 20 Nov 1813  Jean-Gérard Lacuée, comte de
                           Cessac                             (b. 1752 - d. 1841)
20 Nov 1813 -  1 Apr 1814  Pierre Bruno, comte Daru           (b. 1767 - d. 1829)
 3 Apr 1814 - 13 May 1814  Pierre Antoine, comte Dupont
                           de l'Étang                         (b. 1765 - d. 1840)

Interior

Ministers
 7 Aug 1790 - 25 Jan 1791  François Emmanuel Guignard,
                           comte de Saint-Priest              (b. 1735 - d. 1821)
25 Jan 1791 - 29 Nov 1791  Claude Antoine Valdec de Lessart   (b. 1741 - d. 1792)
29 Nov 1791 - 24 Mar 1792  Bon-Claude Cahier de Gerville      (b. 1751 - d. 1796)
24 Mar 1792 - 13 Jun 1792  Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1734 - d. 1793)
13 Jun 1792 - 18 Jun 1792  Jacques Augustin Mourgue           (b. 1734 - d. 1818)
18 Jun 1792 - 17 Jul 1792  Antoine René, marquis de Terrier
                           de Monciel                         (b. 1757 - d. 1831)
17 Jul 1792 - 21 Jul 1792  Étienne Louis Hector Dejoly        (b. 1756 - d. 1837)
                           (interim)
21 Jul 1792 - 10 Aug 1792  Clément Félix Champion de
                           Villeneuve                         (b. 1748 - d. 1844)
10 Aug 1792 - 23 Jan 1793  Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
23 Jan 1792 - 20 Aug 1793  Dominique Joseph Garat             (b. 1749 - d. 1833)
                           (interim to 15 Mar 1793)
20 Aug 1793 -  5 Apr 1794  Jules François Paré                (b. 1755 - d. 1819)
 5 Apr 1794 -  8 Apr 1794  Jean Marie Claude Alexandre Goujon (b. 1766 - d. 1795)
                           (interim)
 8 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794  Martial Joseph Armand Herman       (b. 1759 - d. 1795)
                           (interim)
 3 Nov 1795 - 15 Jul 1797  Pierre Bénézech                    (b. 1749 - d. 1802)
15 Jul 1797 - 13 Sep 1797  Nicolas-Louis François de
                           Neufchâteau (1st time)             (b. 1750 - d. 1828)
13 Sep 1797 - 17 Jun 1798  François Sébastien Letourneux      (b. 1752 - d. 1814)
17 Jun 1797 - 22 Jun 1799  Nicolas-Louis François de
                           Neufchâteau (2nd time)             (s.a.)
22 Jun 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Nicolas Marie Quinette             (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
12 Nov 1799 - 25 Dec 1799  Pierre Simon de Laplace            (b. 1749 - d. 1827)
25 Dec 1799 -  7 Nov 1800  Lucien Bonaparte                   (b. 1775 - d. 1840)
 7 Nov 1800 -  7 Aug 1804  Jean-Antoine Chaptal               (b. 1756 - d. 1832)
                           (interim to 21 Jan 1801)
 7 Aug 1804 -  9 Aug 1807  Jean-Baptiste Nompère de Champagny (b. 1756 - d. 1834)
 8 Aug 1804 -  4 Nov 1804    Jean Étienne Marie Portalis      (b. 1746 - d. 1807)
                             (acting for Champagny)
 9 Aug 1807 - 29 Jun 1809  Emmanuel Crétet, (from 26 Apr
                           1808) comte de Champmol            (b. 1747 - d. 1809)
29 Jun 1809 -  1 Oct 1809  Joseph, comte Fouché (from 15 Aug
                           1809, Joseph Fouché, duc
                           d'Otrante) (interim)               (b. 1759 - d. 1820)
 1 Oct 1809 -  1 Apr 1814  Jean-Pierre Bachasson, comte de
                           Montalivet                         (b. 1766 - d. 1823)
 3 Apr 1814 - 13 May 1814  Jacques, comte Beugnot             (b. 1761 - d. 1835)
13 May 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  François-Xavier de Montesquiou-
                           Fezensac                           (b. 1756 - d. 1832)
20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Lazare, comte Carnot               (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
22 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Claude Carnot, dit Carnot-Feulin   (b. 1755 - d. 1836)
 7 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815  Étienne Denis, baron Pasquier      (b. 1767 - d. 1862)
26 Sep 1815 -  7 May 1816  Vincent-Marie Viénot, comte de
                           Vaublanc                           (b. 1756 - d. 1845)
 7 May 1816 - 29 Dec 1818  Joseph, vicomte Lainé              (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
29 Dec 1818 - 20 Feb 1820  Élie, comte Decazes                (b. 1780 - d. 1860)
20 Feb 1820 - 14 Dec 1821  Joseph-Jérôme, comte Siméon        (b. 1749 - d. 1842)
14 Dec 1821 -  4 Jan 1828  Jacques Joseph Guillaume Pierre,
                           comte de Corbière                  (b. 1767 - d. 1853)
 4 Jan 1828 -  8 Aug 1829  Jean-Baptiste Gay, vicomte
                           de Martignac                       (b. 1778 - d. 1832)
 8 Aug 1829 - 18 Nov 1829  François Régis de La Bourdonnaye,
                           comte de La Bretèche               (b. 1767 - d. 1839)
18 Nov 1829 - 19 May 1830  Guillaume Isidore, comte de
                           Montbel                            (b. 1787 - d. 1861)
19 May 1830 - 31 Jul 1830  Charles Ignace, comte de Peyronnet (b. 1778 - d. 1854)
31 Jul 1830 -  1 Aug 1830  Achille Charles Léonce Victor,
                           duc de Broglie                     (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
 1 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  François Guizot                    (b. 1787 - d. 1874)
 2 Nov 1830 - 13 Mar 1831  Marthe Camille Bachasson, comte de
                           Montalivet (1st time)              (b. 1801 - d. 1881)
13 Mar 1831 - 27 Apr 1832  Casimir Perier                     (b. 1777 - d. 1832)
27 Apr 1832 - 11 Oct 1832  Marthe Camille Bachasson, comte de
                           Montalivet (2nd time)              (s.a.)
11 Oct 1832 - 31 Dec 1832  Adolphe Thiers (1st time)          (b. 1797 - d. 1877)
31 Dec 1832 -  4 Apr 1834  Antoine, comte d'Argout            (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
 4 Apr 1834 - 10 Nov 1834  Adolphe Thiers (2nd time)          (s.a.)
10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834  Hugues Bernard Maret, duc de
                           Bassano                            (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
18 Nov 1834 - 22 Feb 1836  Adolphe Thiers (3rd time)          (s.a.)
22 Feb 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Marthe Camille Bachasson, comte de
                           Montalivet (3rd time)              (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1836 - 15 Apr 1837  Adrien de Gasparin (1st time)      (b. 1783 - d. 1862)
15 Apr 1837 - 31 Mar 1839  Marthe Camille Bachasson, comte de
                           Montalivet (4th time)              (s.a.)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Adrien de Gasparin (2nd time)      (s.a.)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Charles Marie Tanneguy Duchâtel
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1803 - d. 1867)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Charles, comte de Rémusat          (b. 1797 - d. 1875)
29 Oct 1840 - 24 Feb 1848  Charles Marie Tanneguy Duchâtel
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Feb 1848 - 11 May 1848  Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin     (b. 1807 - d. 1874)
11 May 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Adrien Recurt                      (b. 1797 - d. 1872)
28 Jun 1848 - 13 Oct 1848  Antoine Sénard                     (b. 1800 - d. 1885)
13 Oct 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Jules Armand Dufaure (1st time)    (b. 1798 - d. 1881)
20 Dec 1848 - 29 Dec 1848  Léon de Malleville                 (b. 1803 - d. 1879)
29 Dec 1848 -  2 Jun 1849  Léon Faucher (1st time)            (b. 1803 - d. 1854)
 2 Jun 1849 - 31 Oct 1849  Jules Armand Dufaure (2nd time)    (s.a.)
31 Oct 1849 - 15 Mar 1850  Ferdinand Barrot                   (b. 1806 - d. 1883)
15 Mar 1850 - 24 Jan 1851  Pierre Jules Baroche               (b. 1802 - d. 1870)
24 Jan 1851 - 10 Apr 1851  Marc Antoine Henri Marius Vaïsse   (b. 1805 - d. 1874)
10 Apr 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Léon Faucher (2nd time)            (s.a.)
26 Oct 1851 -  2 Dec 1851  René de Thorigny                   (b. 1798 - d. 1864)
 2 Dec 1851 - 22 Jan 1852  Charles Auguste, duc de Morny      (b. 1811 - d. 1865)
22 Jan 1852 - 23 Jun 1854  Victor Fialin, vicomte de Persigny
                           (from 1852, Victor Fialin, comte
                           de Persigny) (1st time)            (b. 1808 - d. 1872)
23 Jun 1854 -  7 Feb 1858  Adolphe Billault (1st time)        (b. 1805 - d. 1863)
- Interior and General Security -
 7 Feb 1858 - 14 Jun 1858  Charles Esprit Espinasse           (b. 1815 - d. 1859)
- Interior -
14 Jun 1858 -  5 May 1859  Claude Alphonse Delangle           (b. 1797 - d. 1869)
 5 May 1859 -  1 Nov 1859  Louis Arrighi de Casanova, duc
                           de Padoue                          (b. 1814 - d. 1888)
 1 Nov 1859 -  5 Dec 1860  Adolphe Billault (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 5 Dec 1860 - 23 Jun 1863  Victor Fialin, comte de Persigny
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
23 Jun 1863 - 28 Mar 1865  Paul Boudet                        (b. 1800 - d. 1877)
28 Mar 1865 - 13 Nov 1867  Charles, marquis de La Valette     (b. 1806 - d. 1881)
13 Nov 1867 - 17 Dec 1868  Ernest Pinard                      (b. 1822 - d. 1909)
17 Dec 1868 -  2 Jan 1870  Adolphe Forcade La Roquette        (b. 1820 - d. 1874)
 2 Jan 1870 - 18 Aug 1870  Jean-Pierre Napoléon Eugène
                           Chevandier de Valdrôme             (b. 1810 - d. 1878)
18 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Henri Chevreau                     (b. 1823 - d. 1903)

Police

13 Sep 1802 - 10 Jul 1804  ministry abolished, duties divided between Ministry of
                           Interior and Ministry of Justice

Ministers
- General Police -
 4 Jan 1796 -  4 Apr 1796  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai                    (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
 4 Apr 1796 - 15 Jul 1797  Charles Cochon de Lapparent        (b. 1750 - d. 1825)
15 Jul 1797 - 25 Jul 1797  Jean-Jacques Lenoir-Laroche        (b. 1749 - d. 1825)
25 Jul 1797 - 13 Feb 1798  Jean-Marie Sotin de la Coindière   (b. 1764 - d. 1810)
13 Feb 1798 - 16 May 1798  Nicolas Dondeau                    (b. 1752 - d. 1834)
16 May 1798 - 29 Oct 1798  Marie Jean François Philibert
                           Lecarlier d'Ardon                  (b. 1752 - d. 1799)
29 Oct 1798 - 23 Jun 1799  Jean-Pierre Duval                  (b. 1753 - d. 1817)
23 Jun 1799 - 20 Jul 1799  Claude Sébastien Bourguignon, dit
                           Bourguignon-Dumolard               (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
20 Jul 1799 - 13 Sep 1802  Joseph Fouché (1st time)           (b. 1759 - d. 1820)
10 Jul 1804 -  3 Jun 1810  Joseph Fouché (from 24 Apr 1808,
                           Joseph, comte Fouché; from 15 Aug
                           1809, Joseph Fouché, duc
                           d'Otrante) (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 3 Jun 1810 -  1 Apr 1814  René Savary, duc de Rovigo         (b. 1774 - d. 1833)
 3 Apr 1814 - 13 May 1814  Jules Anglès                       (b. 1778 - d. 1828)
20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Joseph Fouché, duc d'Otrante
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Jean, comte Pelet, dit Pelet de
                           la Lozère                          (b. 1759 - d. 1842)
- Police -
 7 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815  Joseph Fouché, duc d'Otrante
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
26 Sep 1815 - 29 Dec 1818  Élie Decazes (from 7 Jan 1816,
                           Élie, comte Decazes)               (b. 1780 - d. 1860)
22 Jan 1852 - 21 Jun 1853  Charlemagne de Maupas              (b. 1818 - d. 1888)

Secretariat of State

Secretaries of State
25 Dec 1799 - 14 Apr 1811  Hugues Bernard Maret (from 3 May
                           1809, Hugues Bernard, comte Maret;
                           from 15 Aug 1809, Hugues Bernard
                           Maret, duc de Bassano) (1st time)  (b. 1763 - d. 1839)
14 Apr 1811 - 20 Nov 1813  Pierre Bruno, comte Daru           (b. 1767 - d. 1829)
20 Nov 1813 -  1 Apr 1814  Hugues Bernard Maret, duc de
                           Bassano (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
20 Apr 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Hugues Bernard Maret, duc de
                           Bassano (3rd time)                 (s.a.)

Finances

Controllers-General of Finances
 5 Sep 1699 - 20 Feb 1708  Michel de Chamillart               (b. 1652 - d. 1721)
20 Feb 1708 - 15 Sep 1715  Nicolas Desmarets                  (b. 1648 - d. 1721)
 1 Oct 1715 - 28 Jan 1718  Adrien Maurice, duc de Noailles    (b. 1678 - d. 1766)
                           (president of Finances Council)
28 Jan 1718 -  5 Jan 1720  Henri Jacques Nompar de Caumont,
                           duc de La Force                    (b. 1675 - d. 1726)
                           (president of Finances Council)
 5 Jan 1720 - 28 May 1720  John Law                           (b. 1671 - d. 1729)
28 May 1720 - 11 Dec 1720  Michel Robert Le Peletier des
                           Forts (1st time) (commissioner)    (b. 1675 - d. 1740)
11 Dec 1720 - 21 Apr 1722  Félix Le Pelletier de La Houssaye  (b. 1663 - d. 1723)
21 Apr 1722 - 14 Jun 1726  Charles Gaspard Dodun              (b. 1676 - d. 1736)
15 Jun 1726 - 19 Mar 1730  Michel Robert Le Peletier des
                           Forts (2nd time)                   (s.a.)
19 Mar 1730 -  5 Dec 1745  Philibert Orry                     (b. 1689 - d. 1747)
 6 Dec 1745 - 30 Jul 1754  Jean-Baptiste de Machault
                           d'Arnouville                       (b. 1701 - d. 1794)
30 Jul 1754 - 24 Apr 1756  Jean Moreau de Séchelles           (b. 1690 - d. 1760)
24 Apr 1756 - 25 Aug 1757  François Marie Peyrenc de Moras    (b. 1718 - d. 1771)
25 Aug 1757 -  4 Mar 1759  Jean de Boullongnes                (b. 1690 - d. 1769)
 4 Mar 1759 - 21 Nov 1759  Étienne de Silhouette              (b. 1709 - d. 1767)
23 Nov 1759 - 14 Dec 1763  Henri Léonard Jean Baptiste Bertin (b. 1719 - d. 1792)
14 Dec 1763 - 20 Sep 1768  Clément Charles François de
                           Laverdy                            (b. 1723 - d. 1793)
22 Sep 1768 - 19 Dec 1769  Étienne Maynon d'Invault           (b. 1721 - d. 1801)
22 Dec 1769 - 24 Aug 1774  Joseph Marie Terray                (b. 1715 - d. 1778)
24 Aug 1774 - 12 May 1776  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot         (b. 1721 - d. 1787)
21 May 1776 - 18 Oct 1776  Jean Étienne Bernard Ogier de
                           Clugny                             (b. 1729 - d. 1776)
21 Oct 1776 - 29 Jun 1777  Louis-Gabriel Taboureau des Réaux  (b. 1718 - d. 1782)
29 Jun 1777 - 19 May 1781  Jacques Necker (1st time)          (b. 1732 - d. 1804)
                           (general director of finances)
21 May 1781 - 29 Mar 1783  Jean-François Joly de Fleury       (b. 1718 - d. 1802)
29 Mar 1783 -  1 Nov 1783  Henri François de Paule Lefèvre
                           d'Ormesson                         (b. 1751 - d. 1808)
 3 Nov 1783 -  9 Apr 1787  Charles Alexandre de Calonne       (b. 1734 - d. 1802)
10 Apr 1787 -  2 May 1787  Michel Bouvard de Fourqueux        (b. 1719 - d. 1789)
 1 May 1787 - 25 Aug 1788  Étienne Charles de Loménie de
                           Brienne                            (b. 1727 - d. 1794)
                           (head of the Royal Council of Finances)
 3 May 1787 - 31 Aug 1787  Pierre-Charles Laurent de
                           Villedeuil                         (b. 1742 - d. 1828)
31 Aug 1787 - 26 Aug 1788  Charles Claude Guillaume Lambert
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1726 - d. 1794)
26 Aug 1788 - 13 Jul 1789  Jacques Necker (2nd time)          (s.a.)
                           (general director of finances)
13 Jul 1789 - 16 Jul 1789  Joseph Foullon de Doué             (b. 1715 - d. 1789)
13 Jul 1789 - 16 Jul 1789  Louis Charles Auguste
                           Le Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil    (b. 1730 - d. 1807)
                           (president of the Royal Council of Finances)
16 Jul 1789 -  4 Sep 1790  Jacques Necker (3rd time)          (s.a.)
                           (general director of finances)
 4 Sep 1790 -  4 Dec 1790  Charles Claude Guillaume Lambert
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 4 Dec 1790 - 27 Apr 1791  Claude Antoine Valdec de Lessart   (b. 1741 - d. 1792)
Ministers
- Public Contributions and Revenues -
27 Apr 1791 - 29 May 1791  Claude Antoine Valdec de Lessart   (s.a.)
29 May 1791 - 24 Mar 1792  Louis Hardouin Tarbé               (b. 1753 - d. 1806)
24 Mar 1792 - 13 Jun 1792  Étienne Clavière (1st time)        (b. 1735 - d. 1793)
13 Jun 1792 - 18 Jun 1792  Antoine Duranthon (interim)        (b. 1736 - d. 1793)
18 Jun 1792 - 29 Jul 1792  Jules Émile François Hervé
                           de Beaulieu                        (b. 1752 - d. 1807)
29 Jul 1792 - 10 Aug 1792  Joseph Delaville-Leroulx           (b. 1742 - d. 1803)
10 Aug 1792 - 13 Jun 1793  Étienne Clavière (2nd time)        (s.a.)
13 Jun 1793 - 20 Apr 1794  Louis Grégoire Des Champs
                           des Tournelles                     (b. 1744 - d. 1795)
- Finances -
 8 Nov 1795 - 14 Feb 1796  Guillaume-Charles Faipoult         (b. 1752 - d. 1817)
14 Feb 1796 - 20 Jul 1799  Jacques Ramel de Nogaret           (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
20 Jul 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Robert Lindet                      (b. 1746 - d. 1825)
10 Nov 1799 -  1 Apr 1814  Martin Michel Charles Gaudin
                           (from 26 Apr 1808, Martin Michel
                           Charles, comte Gaudin, from 15 Aug
                           1809, Martin Michel Charles
                           Gaudin, duc de Gaète) (1st time)   (b. 1756 - d. 1841)
 3 Apr 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Joseph Dominique, baron Louis
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1755 - d. 1837)
20 Mar 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Martin Michel Charles Gaudin,
                           duc de Gaète (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815  Joseph Dominique, baron Louis
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
26 Sep 1815 -  7 Dec 1818  Louis Emmanuel, comte Corvetto     (b. 1756 - d. 1821)
 7 Dec 1818 - 29 Dec 1818  Antoine Roy (1st time)             (b. 1764 - d. 1847)
29 Dec 1818 - 19 Nov 1819  Joseph Dominique, baron Louis
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Nov 1819 - 14 Dec 1821  Antoine Roy (2nd time)             (s.a.)
14 Dec 1821 -  4 Jan 1828  Joseph, comte de Villèle           (b. 1773 - d. 1854)
 4 Jan 1828 -  8 Aug 1829  Antoine, comte Roy (3rd time)      (s.a.)
 8 Aug 1829 - 19 May 1830  Christophe, comte de Chabrol de
                           Crouzol                            (b. 1771 - d. 1836)
19 May 1830 - 31 Jul 1830  Guillaume Isidore, comte de
                           Montbel                            (b. 1787 - d. 1861)
31 Jul 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Joseph Dominique, baron Louis
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 2 Nov 1830 - 13 Mar 1831  Jacques Laffitte                   (b. 1767 - d. 1844)
13 Mar 1831 - 11 Oct 1832  Joseph Dominique, baron Louis
                           (5th time)                         (s.a.)
11 Oct 1832 - 10 Nov 1834  Jean-Georges Humann (1st time)     (b. 1780 - d. 1842)
10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834  Hippolyte Passy (1st time)         (b. 1793 - d. 1880)
18 Nov 1834 - 18 Jan 1836  Jean-Georges Humann (2nd time)     (s.a)
18 Jan 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Antoine, comte d'Argout            (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
 6 Sep 1836 - 15 Apr 1837  Charles Marie Tanneguy Duchâtel    (b. 1803 - d. 1867)
15 Apr 1837 - 31 Mar 1839  Jean Pierre Joseph Lacave-Laplagne
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1795 - d. 1849)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Jean-Élie Gautier                  (b. 1781 - d. 1858)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Hippolyte Passy (2nd time)         (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Privat Joseph Claramont,
                           comte Pelet de la Lozère           (b. 1759 - d. 1842)
29 Oct 1840 - 25 Apr 1842  Jean-Georges Humann (3rd time)     (s.a.)
25 Apr 1842 -  9 May 1847  Jean Pierre Joseph Lacave-Laplagne
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 9 May 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  Pierre Sylvain Dumon               (b. 1797 - d. 1870)
24 Feb 1848 -  5 Mar 1848  Michel Goudchaux (1st time)        (b. 1797 - d. 1862)
 5 Mar 1848 - 11 May 1848  Louis Antoine Garnier-Pagès        (b. 1803 - d. 1878)
11 May 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Charles Duclerc                    (b. 1812 - d. 1888)
28 Jun 1848 - 25 Oct 1848  Michel Goudchaux (2nd time)        (s.a.)
25 Oct 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Ariste Jacques Trouvé-Chauvel      (b. 1805 - d. 1883)
20 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849  Hippolyte Passy (3rd time)         (s.a.)
31 Oct 1849 - 24 Jan 1851  Achille Fould (1st time)           (b. 1800 - d. 1867)
24 Jan 1851 - 10 Apr 1851  Charles Lebègue, comte de Germiny  (b. 1799 - d. 1871)
10 Apr 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Achille Fould (2nd time)           (s.a.)
26 Oct 1851 - 23 Nov 1851  Antoine Blondel                    (b. 1795 - d. 1886)
23 Nov 1851 -  3 Dec 1851  François, comte de Casabianca      (b. 1796 - d. 1881)
 3 Dec 1851 - 22 Jan 1852  Achille Fould (3rd time)           (s.a.)
22 Jan 1852 -  3 Feb 1855  Jean Bineau                        (b. 1805 - d. 1855)
 3 Feb 1855 - 26 Nov 1860  Pierre Magne (1st time)            (b. 1806 - d. 1879)
26 Nov 1860 - 14 Nov 1861  Adolphe Forcade La Roquette        (b. 1820 - d. 1874)
14 Nov 1861 - 20 Jan 1867  Achille Fould (4th time)           (s.a.)
20 Jan 1867 - 13 Nov 1867  Eugène Rouher                      (b. 1814 - d. 1884)
13 Nov 1867 -  2 Jan 1870  Pierre Magne (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 2 Jan 1870 - 14 Apr 1870  Louis Joseph Buffet (1st time)     (b. 1818 - d. 1898)
14 Apr 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Émile Alexis Segris                (b. 1811 - d. 1880)
10 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Pierre Magne (3rd time)            (s.a.)

Treasury

Ministers
- Public Treasury -
27 Sep 1801 - 27 Jan 1806  François de Barbé-Marbois          (b. 1745 - d. 1837)
27 Jan 1806 -  1 Apr 1814  Nicolas François Mollien (from 26
                           Apr 1808, Nicolas François,
                           comte Mollien (1st time)           (b. 1758 - d. 1850)
- Imperial Treasury -
20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Nicolas François, comte Mollien
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)

Justice

Chancellors of France
 5 Sep 1699 -  1 Jul 1714  Louis Phélypeaux, comte de
                           Pontchartrain                      (b. 1643 - d. 1727)
 2 Jul 1714 -  2 Feb 1717  Daniel Voysin de La Noiraye        (b. 1654 - d. 1717)
 3 Feb 1717 - 27 Oct 1750  Henri François d'Aguesseau         (b. 1668 - d. 1751)
10 Dec 1750 - 14 Sep 1768  Guillaume de Lamoignon de
                           Blancmesnil                        (b. 1683 - d. 1772)
15 Sep 1768 - 16 Sep 1768  René Charles de Maupeou (interim)  (b. 1688 - d. 1775)
16 Sep 1768 -  1 Jul 1790  René Nicolas de Maupeou            (b. 1714 - d. 1792)
Keepers of the Seals
 5 Sep 1699 -  1 Jul 1714  Louis Phélypeaux, comte de
                           Pontchartrain                      (s.a.)
 2 Jul 1714 -  2 Feb 1717  Daniel Voysin de La Noiraye        (s.a.)
 3 Feb 1717 - 28 Jan 1718  Henri François d'Aguesseau
                           (1st time)                         (s.a.)
28 Jan 1718 -  7 Jun 1720  Marc René de Voyer de Paulmy,
                           marquis d'Argenson                 (b. 1652 - d. 1721)
 8 Jun 1720 - 28 Feb 1722  Henri François d'Aguesseau
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
28 Feb 1722 - 17 Aug 1727  Joseph Jean Baptiste Fleuriau
                           d'Armenonville                     (b. 1661 - d. 1728)
23 Aug 1727 - 20 Feb 1737  Germain Louis Chauvelin            (b. 1685 - d. 1762)
20 Feb 1737 - 27 Nov 1750  Henri François d'Aguesseau
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
29 Nov 1750 -  1 Feb 1757  Jean-Baptiste de Machault
                           d'Arnouville                       (b. 1701 - d. 1794)
 1 Feb 1757 - 13 Oct 1761  vacant
13 Oct 1761 - 15 Sep 1762  Nicolas René Berryer               (b. 1703 - d. 1762)
27 Sep 1762 -  3 Oct 1763  Paul Esprit Feydeau de Brou        (b. 1683 - d. 1767)
 3 Oct 1763 - 18 Sep 1768  René Charles de Maupeou            (s.a.)
18 Sep 1768 - 24 Aug 1774  René Nicolas de Maupeou            (s.a.)
24 Aug 1774 -  8 Apr 1787  Armand Thomas Hue de Miromesnil    (b. 1723 - d. 1796)
 8 Apr 1787 - 14 Sep 1788  Chrétien François de Lamoignon de
                           Basville                           (b. 1735 - d. 1789)
17 Sep 1788 -  3 Aug 1789  Charles Louis François de Paule
                           de Barentin                        (b. 1738 - d. 1819)
 4 Aug 1789 - 21 Nov 1790  Jérôme Champion de Cicé            (b. 1735 - d. 1810)
Ministers
- Justice -
21 Nov 1790 - 23 Mar 1792  Marguerite Louis François
                           Duport-Dutertre                    (b. 1754 - d. 1793)
23 Mar 1792 - 14 Apr 1792  Jean-Marie Roland de La Platière   (b. 1734 - d. 1793)
                           (interim)
14 Apr 1792 -  4 Jul 1792  Antoine Duranthon                  (b. 1736 - d. 1793)
 4 Jul 1792 - 10 Aug 1792  Étienne Louis Hector Dejoly        (b. 1756 - d. 1837)
10 Aug 1792 -  9 Oct 1792  Georges Jacques Danton             (b. 1759 - d. 1794)
 9 Oct 1792 - 20 Mar 1793  Dominique Joseph Garat             (b. 1749 - d. 1833)
20 Mar 1793 - 20 Apr 1794  Louis Jérôme Gohier                (b. 1746 - d. 1830)
 3 Nov 1795 -  5 Jan 1796  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai (1st time)         (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
 5 Jan 1796 -  4 Apr 1796  Charles François Jean Joseph
                           Victor Génissieu                   (b. 1751 - d. 1804)
 4 Apr 1796 - 24 Sep 1797  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai (2nd time)         (s.a.)
24 Sep 1797 - 20 Jul 1799  Charles Joseph Mathieu Lambrechts  (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
20 Jul 1799 - 25 Dec 1799  Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
25 Dec 1799 - 14 Sep 1802  André Joseph Abrial                (b. 1750 - d. 1828)
14 Sep 1802 - 20 Nov 1813  Claude Régnier (from 21 Aug 1808,
                           Claude, comte Régnier; from 15 Aug
                           1809 Claude Régnier, duc de Massa) (b. 1736 - d. 1814)
20 Nov 1813 -  1 Apr 1814  Mathieu Louis Molé                 (b. 1781 - d. 1855)
 3 Apr 1814 - 13 May 1814  Pierre Paul Nicolas, baron Henrion
                           de Pansey                          (b. 1742 - d. 1829)
13 May 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Charles, chevalier Dambray
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
20 Mar 1815 - 22 Jun 1815  Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès,
                           duc de Parme (2nd time)            (s.a.)
22 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Antoine, comte Boulay de la
                           Meurthe                            (b. 1761 - d. 1840)
 9 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815  Étienne Denis, baron Pasquier
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1767 - d. 1862)
26 Sep 1815 -  7 May 1816  François, comte de Barbé-Marbois   (b. 1745 - d. 1837)
 7 May 1816 - 19 Jan 1817  Charles, chevalier Dambray
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Jan 1817 - 29 Dec 1818  Étienne Denis, baron Pasquier
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
29 Dec 1818 - 14 Dec 1821  Pierre François Hercule,
                           comte de Serre                     (b. 1776 - d. 1824)
14 Dec 1821 -  4 Jan 1828  Charles Ignace de Peyronnet
                           (from 17 Aug 1822, Charles Ignace,
                           comte de Peyronnet)                (b. 1778 - d. 1854)
 4 Jan 1828 - 14 May 1829  Joseph Marie, comte Portalis       (b. 1778 - d. 1858)
14 May 1829 -  8 Aug 1829  Pierre Alpinien Bertrand Bourdeau  (b. 1770 - d. 1845)
 8 Aug 1829 - 19 May 1830  Jean Joseph Antoine de Courvoisier (b. 1775 - d. 1835)
19 May 1830 - 31 Jul 1830  Jean de Chantelauze                (b. 1787 - d. 1859)
31 Jul 1830 - 27 Dec 1830  Jacques Charles Dupont de l'Eure   (b. 1767 - d. 1855)
27 Dec 1830 - 13 Mar 1831  Joseph Mérilhou                    (b. 1788 - d. 1856)
13 Mar 1831 -  4 Apr 1834  Félix Barthe (1st time)            (b. 1795 - d. 1863)
 4 Apr 1834 - 22 Feb 1836  Jean-Charles Persil (1st time)     (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
22 Feb 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Paul Sauzet                        (b. 1800 - d. 1876)
 6 Sep 1836 - 15 Apr 1837  Jean Persil (2nd time)             (s.a.)
15 Apr 1837 - 31 Mar 1839  Félix Barthe (2nd time)            (s.a.)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Louis Gaspard Amédée, baron Girod
                           de l'Ain                           (b. 1781 - d. 1847)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Jean-Baptiste Teste                (b. 1780 - d. 1852)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Alexandre François Vivien          (b. 1799 - d. 1854)
29 Oct 1840 - 12 Mar 1847  Nicolas Martin du Nord             (b. 1790 - d. 1847)
14 Mar 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  Michel Pierre Alexis Hébert        (b. 1799 - d. 1887)
24 Feb 1848 -  7 Jun 1848  Adolphe Crémieux (1st time)        (b. 1796 - d. 1880)
 7 Jun 1848 - 17 Jul 1848  Eugène Bethmont                    (b. 1804 - d. 1860)
17 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Alexandre Marie                    (b. 1795 - d. 1870)
20 Dec 1848 - 26 Oct 1851  Eugène Rouher (1st time)           (b. 1814 - d. 1884)
26 Oct 1851 -  1 Nov 1851  Joseph Corbin
 1 Nov 1851 -  3 Dec 1851  Alfred Daviel                      (b. 1800 - d. 1856)
 3 Dec 1851 - 22 Jan 1852  Eugène Rouher (2nd time)           (s.a.)
22 Jan 1852 - 11 Nov 1857  Jacques Abbatucci                  (b. 1792 - d. 1857)
16 Nov 1857 -  5 May 1859  Paul de Royer                      (b. 1808 - d. 1877)
 5 May 1859 - 23 Jun 1863  Claude Alphonse Delangle           (b. 1797 - d. 1869)
23 Jun 1863 - 17 Jul 1869  Pierre Jules Baroche               (b. 1802 - d. 1870)
17 Jul 1869 -  2 Jan 1870  Jean-Baptiste Duvergier            (b. 1792 - d. 1877)
 2 Jan 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Émile Ollivier                     (b. 1825 - d. 1913)
10 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Michel Grandperret                 (b. 1818 - d. 1890)

Marine and Colonies

Ministers (to about 1789, secretaries of state)
 6 Sep 1699 -  1 Oct 1715  Jérôme de Pontchartrain            (b. 1674 - d. 1747)
 1 Oct 1715 - 24 Sep 1718  Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, comte
                           de Toulouse                        (b. 1678 - d. 1737)
                           + Victor Marie d'Estrées           (b. 1660 - d. 1737)
                           (presidents of Council of Marine)
24 Sep 1718 - 28 Feb 1722  Joseph Jean Baptiste Fleuriau
                           d'Armenonville                     (b. 1661 - d. 1728)
28 Feb 1722 - 16 Aug 1723  Charles Jean Baptiste Fleuriau,
                           comte de Morville                  (b. 1686 - d. 1732)
16 Aug 1723 - 23 Apr 1749  Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte
                           de Maurepas                        (b. 1701 - d. 1781)
30 Apr 1749 - 24 Jul 1754  Antoine Louis Rouillé              (b. 1689 - d. 1761)
24 Jul 1754 -  1 Feb 1757  Jean-Baptiste de Machault
                           d'Arnouville                       (b. 1701 - d. 1794)
 1 Feb 1757 - 31 May 1758  François Marie Peyrenc de Moras    (b. 1718 - d. 1771)
31 May 1758 - 31 Oct 1758  Claude Louis d'Espinchal, marquis
                           de Massiac                         (b. 1686 - d. 1770)
31 Oct 1758 - 13 Oct 1761  Nicolas René Berryer               (b. 1703 - d. 1762)
15 Oct 1761 - 10 Apr 1766  Étienne François, duc de Choiseul  (b. 1719 - d. 1785)
10 Apr 1766 - 24 Dec 1770  César Gabriel de Choiseul-
                           Chevigny, duc de Praslin           (b. 1712 - d. 1785)
24 Dec 1770 -  9 Apr 1771  Joseph Marie Terray (interim)      (b. 1715 - d. 1778)
 9 Apr 1771 - 20 Jul 1774  Pierre Étienne Bourgeois de Boynes (b. 1718 - d. 1783)
20 Jul 1774 - 24 Aug 1774  Anne Robert Jacques Turgot         (b. 1721 - d. 1787)
24 Aug 1774 - 13 Oct 1780  Gabriel de Sartine                 (b. 1729 - d. 1801)
13 Oct 1780 - 24 Aug 1787  Charles Eugène de La Croix,
                           marquis de Castries                (b. 1727 - d. 1801)
25 Aug 1787 - 24 Dec 1787  Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin
                           Saint-Hérem                        (b. 1746 - d. 1792)
24 Dec 1787 - 13 Jul 1789  César Henri, comte de La Luzerne
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1737 - d. 1799)
13 Jul 1789 - 16 Jul 1789  Arnaud de Laporte                  (b. 1737 - d. 1793)
16 Jul 1789 - 26 Oct 1790  César Henri, comte de La Luzerne
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
26 Oct 1790 - 17 May 1791  Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu  (b. 1738 - d. 1810)
17 May 1791 - 18 Sep 1791  Antoine Jean Marie Thévenard       (b. 1733 - d. 1815)
18 Sep 1791 -  7 Oct 1791  Claude Antoine Valdec de Lessart   (b. 1741 - d. 1792)
                           (interim)
 7 Oct 1791 - 16 Mar 1792  Antoine François, comte Bertrand
                           de Molleville                      (b. 1744 - d. 1818)
16 Mar 1792 - 21 Jul 1792  Jean de Lacoste                    (b. 1730 - d. 1820)
21 Jul 1792 - 10 Aug 1792  François Joseph de Gratet,
                           vicomte Dubouchage (1st time)      (b. 1749 - d. 1821)
10 Aug 1792 - 10 Apr 1793  Gaspard Monge                      (b. 1746 - d. 1818)
10 Apr 1793 - 20 Apr 1794  Jean Dalbarade                     (b. 1743 - d. 1819)
Commissioners
20 Apr 1794 -  2 Jul 1795  Jean Dalbarade                     (s.a.)
 2 Jul 1795 -  4 Nov 1795  Jean-Claude Redon de Beaupréau     (b. 1738 - d. 1815)
Ministers
 4 Nov 1795 - 15 Jul 1797  Laurent Jean François Truguet      (b. 1752 - d. 1839)
13 Dec 1796 - 30 Dec 1796    Pierre Bénézech
                             (acting for Truguet)             (b. 1749 - d. 1802)
15 Jul 1797 - 27 Apr 1798  Georges René Le Peley de Pléville  (b. 1726 - d. 1805)
27 Apr 1798 -  4 Mar 1799  Eustache Bruix                     (b. 1759 - d. 1805)
 4 Mar 1799 -  7 Mar 1799  Charles Joseph Mathieu Lambrechts  (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
                           (interim)
 7 Mar 1799 -  2 Jul 1799  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
                           Périgord (interim)                 (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
 2 Jul 1799 - 22 Nov 1799  Marc Antoine Bourdon de Vatry      (b. 1761 - d. 1828)
22 Nov 1799 -  3 Oct 1801  Pierre Alexandre Forfait           (b. 1752 - d. 1807)
 3 Oct 1801 -  1 Apr 1814  Denis Decrès (from 4 Jul 1808,
                           Denis, comte Decrès; from 28 Apr
                           1810, Denis, duc Decrès)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1761 - d. 1820)
- Marine -
 3 Apr 1814 -  7 Sep 1814  Pierre Victor, baron Malouet       (b. 1740 - d. 1814)
 7 Sep 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Jacques, comte Beugnot             (b. 1761 - d. 1835)
- Marine and Colonies -
20 Mar 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Denis, duc Decrès (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 9 Jul 1815 - 26 Sep 1815  François Arnail, comte de Jaucourt (b. 1757 - d. 1852)
26 Sep 1815 - 23 Jun 1817  François Joseph de Gratet,
                           vicomte Dubouchage (2nd time)      (s.a.)
23 Jun 1817 - 12 Sep 1817  Laurent, marquis de Gouvion
                           Saint-Cyr                          (b. 1764 - d. 1830)
12 Sep 1817 - 29 Dec 1818  Mathieu Louis, comte Molé          (b. 1781 - d. 1855)
29 Dec 1818 - 14 Dec 1821  Pierre Barthélemy, baron Portal    (b. 1765 - d. 1845)
14 Dec 1821 -  4 Aug 1824  Aimé, duc de Clermont-Tonnerre     (b. 1779 - d. 1865)
 4 Aug 1824 -  3 Mar 1828  Christophe, comte de Chabrol de
                           Crouzol                            (b. 1771 - d. 1836)
 3 Mar 1828 -  8 Aug 1829  Jean-Guillaume, baron Hyde de
                           Neuville                           (b. 1776 - d. 1857)
 8 Aug 1829 - 23 Aug 1829  Henri Gauthier, comte de Rigny
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1782 - d. 1835)
23 Aug 1829 - 31 Jul 1830  Charles Lemercier de Longpré,
                           baron d'Haussez                    (b. 1778 - d. 1851)
- Marine -
31 Jul 1830 -  1 Aug 1830  Henri Gauthier, comte de Rigny
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
- Marine and Colonies -
 1 Aug 1830 - 11 Aug 1830  Henri Gauthier, comte de Rigny     (s.a.)
11 Aug 1830 - 17 Nov 1830  Horace François Bastien,
                           baron Sébastiani                   (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
17 Nov 1830 - 13 Mar 1831  Antoine, comte d'Argout            (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
13 Mar 1831 -  4 Apr 1834  Henri Gauthier, comte de Rigny
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1834 - 19 May 1834  Albin Reine, baron Roussin
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1781 - d. 1854)
19 May 1834 - 10 Nov 1834  Louis Léon, comte Jacob            (b. 1768 - d. 1854)
10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834  Charles, baron Dupin               (b. 1784 - d. 1873)
18 Nov 1834 -  6 Sep 1836  Victor Guy, baron Duperré
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1775 - d. 1846)
 6 Sep 1836 - 31 Mar 1839  Claude Charles Marie du Campe
                           de Rosamel                         (b. 1774 - d. 1848)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Jean Marguerite Tupinier           (b. 1779 - d. 1850)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Victor Guy, baron Duperré
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Albin Reine, baron Roussin
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
29 Oct 1840 -  7 Feb 1843  Victor Guy, baron Duperré
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 7 Feb 1843 - 24 Jul 1843  Albin Reine, baron Roussin
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Jul 1843 -  9 May 1847  Ange René Armand, baron de Mackau  (b. 1788 - d. 1855)
 9 May 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  Napoléon Auguste Lannes,
                           duc de Montebello                  (b. 1801 - d. 1874)
24 Feb 1848 - 11 May 1848  François Arago                     (b. 1786 - d. 1853)
11 May 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Joseph Grégoire Cazy               (b. 1787 - d. 1862)
28 Jun 1848 - 17 Jul 1848  Jules Bastide                      (b. 1800 - d. 1879)
17 Jul 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Raymond Verninac de Saint-Maur     (b. 1794 - d. 1873)
20 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849  Alexandre César Victor Charles
                           Destutt de Tracy                   (b. 1781 - d. 1864)
31 Oct 1849 -  9 Jan 1851  Joseph Romain-Desfossés            (b. 1798 - d. 1864)
 9 Jan 1851 - 24 Jan 1851  Théodore Ducos (1st time)          (b. 1801 - d. 1855)
24 Jan 1851 - 10 Apr 1851  Auguste Nicolas Vaillant           (b. 1793 - d. 1858)
10 Apr 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Justin de Chasseloup-Laubat
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1805 - d. 1873)
26 Oct 1851 -  3 Dec 1851  Hippolyte Fortoul                  (b. 1811 - d. 1856)
 3 Dec 1851 - 17 Apr 1855  Théodore Ducos (2nd time)          (s.a.)
27 Mar 1855 - 19 Apr 1855  Jacques Abbatucci
                           (acting for Ducos to 17 Apr 1855;
                           then interim)                      (b. 1792 - d. 1857)
19 Apr 1855 - 24 Jun 1858  Ferdinand Hamelin                  (b. 1796 - d. 1864)
- Marine -
24 Jun 1858 - 24 Nov 1860  Ferdinand Hamelin                  (s.a.)
- Marine and Colonies -
24 Nov 1860 - 20 Jan 1867  Justin de Chasseloup-Laubat
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
20 Jan 1867 -  4 Sep 1870  Charles Rigault de Genouilly       (b. 1807 - d. 1873)

Public Instruction

Ministers
10 Feb 1828 -  8 Aug 1829  Antoine François Henri Lefebvre
                           de Vatimesnil                      (b. 1789 - d. 1860)
 8 Aug 1829 - 18 Nov 1829  Guillaume Isidore, comte de
                           Montbel                            (b. 1787 - d. 1861)
18 Nov 1829 - 31 Jul 1830  Martial, comte de Guernon-Ranville (b. 1787 - d. 1866)
31 Jul 1830 -  1 Aug 1830  François Guizot (1st time)         (b. 1787 - d. 1874)
 1 Aug 1830 - 11 Aug 1830  Louis, baron Bignon                (b. 1771 - d. 1841)
11 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Achille Charles Léonce Victor,
                           duc de Broglie                     (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
 2 Nov 1830 - 27 Nov 1830  Joseph Mérilhou                    (b. 1788 - d. 1856)
27 Nov 1830 - 13 Mar 1831  Félix Barthe                       (b. 1795 - d. 1863)
13 Mar 1831 - 30 Apr 1832  Marthe Camille Bachasson, comte de
                           Montalivet                         (b. 1801 - d. 1881)
30 Apr 1832 - 11 Oct 1832  Louis Gaspard Amédée, baron Girod
                           de l'Ain                           (b. 1781 - d. 1847)
11 Oct 1832 - 10 Nov 1834  François Guizot (2nd time)         (s.a.)
10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834  Jean-Baptiste Teste                (b. 1780 - d. 1852)
18 Nov 1834 - 22 Feb 1836  François Guizot (3rd time)         (s.a.)
22 Feb 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Privat Joseph Claramont,
                           comte Pelet de la Lozère           (b. 1759 - d. 1842)
 6 Sep 1836 - 15 Apr 1837  François Guizot (4th time)         (s.a.)
15 Apr 1837 - 31 Mar 1839  Narcisse Achille de Salvandy
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1795 - d. 1856)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Narcisse Parant                    (b. 1794 - d. 1842)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Abel-François Villemain (1st time) (b. 1790 - d. 1870)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Victor Cousin                      (b. 1792 - d. 1867)
29 Oct 1840 -  1 Feb 1845  Abel-François Villemain (2nd time) (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1845 - 24 Feb 1848  Narcisse Achille de Salvandy
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Feb 1848 -  5 Jul 1848  Hippolyte Carnot                   (b. 1801 - d. 1888)
 5 Jul 1848 - 13 Oct 1848  Achille Tenaille de Vaulabelle     (b. 1799 - d. 1869)
13 Oct 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Alexandre Pierre Freslon           (b. 1808 - d. 1867)
20 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849  Alfred Frédéric, comte de Falloux  (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
31 Oct 1849 - 24 Jan 1851  Marie Louis Pierre Félix Esquirou
                           de Parieu                          (b. 1815 - d. 1893)
24 Jan 1851 - 10 Apr 1851  Charles Giraud (1st time)          (b. 1802 - d. 1881)
10 Apr 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Marie Jean Pierre Pie Frédéric
                           Dombidau de Crouseilhes            (b. 1792 - d. 1861)
26 Oct 1851 -  3 Dec 1851  Charles Giraud (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1851 -  7 Jun 1856  Hippolyte Fortoul                  (b. 1811 - d. 1856)
13 Aug 1856 - 23 Jun 1863  Gustave Rouland                    (b. 1806 - d. 1878)
23 Jun 1863 - 17 Jul 1869  Victor Duruy                       (b. 1811 - d. 1894)
17 Jul 1869 -  2 Jan 1870  Louis Olivier Bourbeau             (b. 1811 - d. 1877)
 2 Jan 1870 - 14 Apr 1870  Émile Alexis Segris                (b. 1811 - d. 1880)
14 Apr 1870 - 15 May 1870  Maurice Richard (interim)          (b. 1832 - d. 1888)
15 May 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Jacques Philippe Mège              (b. 1817 - d. 1878)
10 Aug 1870 - 23 Aug 1870  Jules Louis Joseph Brame           (b. 1808 - d. 1878)
- Public Instruction and Fine Arts -
23 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Jules Louis Joseph Brame           (s.a.)

Arts

Ministers
- Fine Arts -
23 Jun 1863 -  2 Jan 1870  Jean Baptiste Philibert Vaillant   (b. 1790 - d. 1872)
 2 Jan 1870 - 15 May 1870  Maurice Richard                    (b. 1832 - d. 1888)
- Letters, Sciences, and Arts -
15 May 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Maurice Richard                    (s.a.)

King's House

Secretaries of state
 5 Sep 1699 -  7 Nov 1715  Jérôme de Pontchartrain            (b. 1674 - d. 1747)
 7 Nov 1715 -        1718  Louis Phélypeaux, marquis de
                           La Vrillière                       (b. 1672 - d. 1725)
       1718 - 23 Apr 1749  Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte
                           de Maurepas                        (b. 1701 - d. 1781)
23 Apr 1749 - 21 Jul 1775  Louis Phélypeaux de La Vrillière,
                           comte de Saint-Florentin           (b. 1705 - d. 1777)
21 Jul 1775 - 12 May 1776  Chrétien-Guillaume de Lamoignon
                           de Malesherbes                     (b. 1721 - d. 1794)
12 May 1776 - 18 Nov 1783  Antoine-Jean Amelot de Chaillou    (b. 1732 - d. 1795)
18 Nov 1783 - 27 Jul 1788  Louis-Charles-Auguste
                           Le Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil    (b. 1730 - d. 1807)
27 Jul 1788 - 13 Jul 1789  Pierre-Charles Laurent de
                           Villedeuil                         (b. 1742 - d. 1828)
Ministers
19 Jul 1789 - 25 Jan 1791  François-Emmanuel Guignard,
                           comte de Saint-Priest              (b. 1735 - d. 1821)
29 May 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Pierre Jean Casimir, duc de Blacas
                           d'Aulps                            (b. 1771 - d. 1839)
 1 Nov 1820 -  4 Aug 1824  Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law,
                           marquis de Lauriston               (b. 1768 - d. 1828)
 4 Aug 1824 -  4 Jan 1828  Ambroise Polycarpe de La
                           Rochefoucauld, duc de Doudeauville (b. 1765 - d. 1841)
- Emperor's House -
14 Dec 1852 - 23 Nov 1860  Achille Fould                      (b. 1800 - d. 1867)
 4 Dec 1860 - 10 Aug 1870  Jean Baptiste Philibert Vaillant   (b. 1790 - d. 1872)

Ministry of State

Ministers of State
22 Jan 1852 - 28 Jul 1852  François, comte de Casabianca      (b. 1796 - d. 1881)
28 Jul 1852 - 23 Nov 1860  Achille Fould                      (b. 1800 - d. 1867)
23 Nov 1860 - 23 Jun 1863  Alexandre Colonna, comte Walewski  (b. 1810 - d. 1868)
23 Jun 1863 - 13 Oct 1863  Adolphe Billault                   (b. 1805 - d. 1863)
13 Oct 1863 - 17 Jul 1869  Eugène Rouher                      (b. 1814 - d. 1884)

Council of State

Ministers presidents
11 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Achille Charles Léonce Victor,
                           duc de Broglie                     (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
 2 Nov 1830 - 27 Nov 1830  Joseph Mérilhou                    (b. 1788 - d. 1856)
27 Nov 1830 - 11 Oct 1832  Félix Barthe                       (b. 1795 - d. 1863)
30 Dec 1852 - 23 Jun 1863  Pierre Jules Baroche               (b. 1802 - d. 1870)
23 Jun 1863 - 18 Oct 1863  Eugène Rouher                      (b. 1814 - d. 1884)
18 Oct 1863 - 28 Sep 1864  Gustave Rouland                    (b. 1806 - d. 1878)
28 Sep 1864 - 17 Jul 1869  Adolphe Vuitry                     (b. 1813 - d. 1885)
17 Jul 1869 -  2 Jan 1870  Justin de Chasseloup-Laubat        (b. 1805 - d. 1873)
 2 Jan 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Marie Louis Pierre Félix Esquirou
                           de Parieu                          (b. 1815 - d. 1893)
10 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Jules Henry Busson-Billault        (b. 1823 - d. 1888)

Worship

Ministers
11 Jul 1804 - 25 Aug 1807  Jean Étienne Marie Portalis        (b. 1746 - d. 1807)
 4 Jan 1808 -  1 Apr 1814  Félix, comte Bigot de Préameneu    (b. 1747 - d. 1825)
- Ecclesiastical Affairs -
26 Aug 1824 -  3 Mar 1828  Denis Luc Antoine, comte
                           Frayssinous                        (b. 1765 - d. 1841)
 3 Mar 1828 -  8 Aug 1829  François Jean Hyacinthe Feutrier   (b. 1785 - d. 1830)
 8 Aug 1829 - 18 Nov 1829  Guillaume Isidore, comte de
                           Montbel                            (b. 1787 - d. 1861)
18 Nov 1829 - 31 Jul 1830  Martial, comte de Guernon-Ranville (b. 1787 - d. 1866)
- Worship -
11 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Achille Charles Léonce Victor,
                           duc de Broglie                     (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
 2 Nov 1830 - 27 Nov 1830  Joseph Mérilhou                    (b. 1788 - d. 1856)
27 Nov 1830 - 13 Mar 1831  Félix Barthe (1st time)            (b. 1795 - d. 1863)
13 Mar 1831 - 30 Apr 1832  Marthe Camille Bachasson, comte de
                           Montalivet                         (b. 1801 - d. 1881)
30 Apr 1832 - 11 Oct 1832  Louis Gaspard Amédée, baron Girod
                           de l'Ain (1st time)                (b. 1781 - d. 1847)
31 Dec 1832 -  4 Apr 1834  Antoine, comte d'Argout            (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
 4 Apr 1834 - 22 Feb 1836  Jean-Charles Persil (1st time)     (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
22 Feb 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Paul Sauzet                        (b. 1800 - d. 1876)
 6 Sep 1836 - 15 Apr 1837  Jean Persil (2nd time)             (s.a.)
15 Apr 1837 - 31 Mar 1839  Félix Barthe (2nd time)            (s.a.)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Louis Gaspard Amédée, baron Girod
                           de l'Ain (2nd time)                (s.a.)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Jean-Baptiste Teste                (b. 1780 - d. 1852)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Alexandre François Vivien          (b. 1799 - d. 1854)
29 Oct 1840 - 12 Mar 1847  Nicolas Martin du Nord             (b. 1790 - d. 1847)
14 Mar 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  Michel Pierre Alexis Hébert        (b. 1799 - d. 1887)
24 Feb 1848 - 11 May 1848  Hippolyte Carnot (1st time)        (b. 1801 - d. 1888)
11 May 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Eugène Bethmont                    (b. 1804 - d. 1860)
28 Jun 1848 -  5 Jul 1848  Hippolyte Carnot (2nd time)        (s.a.)
 5 Jul 1848 - 13 Oct 1848  Achille Tenaille de Vaulabelle     (b. 1799 - d. 1869)
13 Oct 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Alexandre Pierre Freslon           (b. 1808 - d. 1867)
20 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849  Alfred Frédéric, comte de Falloux  (b. 1811 - d. 1886)
31 Oct 1849 - 24 Jan 1851  Marie Louis Pierre Félix Esquirou
                           de Parieu                          (b. 1815 - d. 1893)
24 Jan 1851 - 10 Apr 1851  Charles Giraud (1st time)          (b. 1802 - d. 1881)
10 Apr 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Marie Jean Pierre Pie Frédéric
                           Dombidau de Crouseilhes            (b. 1792 - d. 1861)
26 Oct 1851 -  3 Dec 1851  Charles Giraud (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1851 -  7 Jun 1856  Hippolyte Fortoul                  (b. 1811 - d. 1856)
13 Aug 1856 - 23 Jun 1863  Gustave Rouland                    (b. 1806 - d. 1878)
23 Jun 1863 - 17 Jul 1869  Pierre Jules Baroche               (b. 1802 - d. 1870)
17 Jul 1869 -  2 Jan 1870  Jean-Baptiste Duvergier            (b. 1792 - d. 1877)
 2 Jan 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Émile Ollivier                     (b. 1825 - d. 1913)
10 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Michel Grandperret                 (b. 1818 - d. 1890)

Public Works

Ministers
19 May 1830 - 31 Jul 1830  Guillaume Antoine Benoît,
                           baron Cappelle                     (b. 1775 - d. 1843)
31 Jul 1830 -  1 Aug 1830  Achille Charles Léonce Victor,
                           duc de Broglie                     (b. 1785 - d. 1870)
13 Mar 1831 - 31 Dec 1832  Antoine, comte d'Argout            (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
31 Dec 1832 -  4 Apr 1834  Adolphe Thiers                     (b. 1797 - d. 1877)
22 Feb 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Hippolyte Passy                    (b. 1793 - d. 1880)
19 Sep 1836 - 31 Mar 1839  Nicolas Martin du Nord             (b. 1790 - d. 1847)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Adrien de Gasparin                 (b. 1783 - d. 1862)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Jules Armand Dufaure               (b. 1798 - d. 1881)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Hippolyte François Jaubert         (b. 1798 - d. 1874)
29 Oct 1840 - 16 Dec 1840  Jean-Baptiste Teste                (b. 1780 - d. 1852)
16 Dec 1840 -  9 May 1847  Pierre Sylvain Dumon               (b. 1797 - d. 1870)
 9 May 1847 - 24 Feb 1848  Hippolyte Paul Jayr                (b. 1801 - d. ...)
24 Feb 1848 - 11 May 1848  Alexandre Marie                    (b. 1795 - d. 1870)
11 May 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Ulysse Trélat                      (b. 1798 - d. 1879)
28 Jun 1848 - 13 Oct 1848  Adrien Recurt                      (b. 1797 - d. 1872)
13 Oct 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Alexandre François Vivien          (b. 1799 - d. 1854)
20 Dec 1848 - 29 Dec 1848  Léon Faucher                       (b. 1803 - d. 1854)
29 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849  Théobald de Lacrosse (1st time)    (b. 1796 - d. 1865)
31 Oct 1849 -  9 Jan 1851  Jean Bineau                        (b. 1805 - d. 1855)
 9 Jan 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Pierre Magne (1st time)            (b. 1806 - d. 1879)
26 Oct 1851 -  3 Dec 1851  Théobald de Lacrosse (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 3 Dec 1851 - 25 Jan 1852  Pierre Magne (2nd time)            (s.a.)
25 Jan 1852 - 28 Jul 1852  Noël Jacques Lefebvre-Duruflé      (b. 1792 - d. 1877)
28 Jul 1852 -  3 Feb 1855  Pierre Magne (3rd time)            (s.a.)
 3 Feb 1855 - 23 Jun 1863  Eugène Rouher                      (b. 1814 - d. 1884)
23 Jun 1863 - 20 Jan 1867  Armand Béhic                       (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
20 Jan 1867 - 17 Dec 1868  Adolphe Forcade La Roquette        (b. 1820 - d. 1874)
17 Dec 1868 -  2 Jan 1870  Edmond Valléry Gressier            (b. 1813 - d. 1892)
 2 Jan 1870 - 15 May 1870  Auguste Élisabeth Joseph Bonamour,
                           marquis de Talhouët                (b. 1819 - d. 1884)
15 May 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Charles Ignace Plichon             (b. 1814 - d. 1888)
10 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Jérôme Frédéric Paul, baron David  (b. 1823 - d. 1882)

Commerce

Ministers
- Commerce and Factories -
16 Jan 1812 -  1 Apr 1814  Jean-Baptiste Collin, comte
                           de Sussy                           (b. 1750 - d. 1826)
- Commerce and Colonies -
29 Jan 1828 -  8 Aug 1829  Pierre Laurent Barthélemy, comte
                           de Saint-Cricq                     (b. 1772 - d. 1854)
- Commerce -
13 Mar 1831 - 31 Dec 1832  Antoine, comte d'Argout            (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
31 Dec 1832 -  4 Apr 1834  Adolphe Thiers                     (b. 1797 - d. 1877)
 4 Apr 1834 - 10 Nov 1834  Charles Marie Tanneguy Duchâtel
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1803 - d. 1867)
10 Nov 1834 - 18 Nov 1834  Jean-Baptiste Teste                (b. 1780 - d. 1852)
18 Nov 1834 - 22 Feb 1836  Charles Marie Tanneguy Duchâtel
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Feb 1836 -  6 Sep 1836  Hippolyte Passy                    (b. 1793 - d. 1880)
- Agriculture and Commerce -
19 Sep 1836 - 31 Mar 1839  Nicolas Martin du Nord             (b. 1790 - d. 1847)
31 Mar 1839 - 12 May 1839  Adrien de Gasparin                 (b. 1783 - d. 1862)
12 May 1839 -  1 Mar 1840  Laurent Cunin-Gridaine (1st time)  (b. 1778 - d. 1859)
 1 Mar 1840 - 29 Oct 1840  Alexandre Gouin                    (b. 1792 - d. 1872)
29 Oct 1840 - 24 Feb 1848  Laurent Cunin-Gridaine (2nd time)  (s.a.)
24 Feb 1848 - 11 May 1848  Eugène Bethmont                    (b. 1804 - d. 1860)
11 May 1848 - 28 Jun 1848  Ferdinand Flocon                   (b. 1800 - d. 1866)
28 Jun 1848 - 20 Dec 1848  Charles Gilbert Tourret            (b. 1795 - d. 1858)
20 Dec 1848 - 29 Dec 1848  Jacques Alexandre Bixio            (b. 1808 - d. 1865)
29 Dec 1848 -  2 Jun 1849  Louis Joseph Buffet (1st time)     (b. 1818 - d. 1898)
 2 Jun 1849 - 31 Oct 1849  Victor Ambroise Lanjuinais         (b. 1802 - d. 1869)
31 Oct 1849 -  9 Jan 1851  Jean-Baptiste Dumas                (b. 1800 - d. 1884)
 9 Jan 1851 - 24 Jan 1851  Louis Bernard Bonjean              (b. 1804 - d. 1871)
24 Jan 1851 - 10 Apr 1851  Eugène Schneider                   (b. 1805 - d. 1875)
10 Apr 1851 - 26 Oct 1851  Louis Joseph Buffet (2nd time)     (s.a.)
26 Oct 1851 - 26 Nov 1851  François, comte de Casabianca      (b. 1796 - d. 1881)
26 Nov 1851 - 25 Jan 1852  Noël-Jacques Lefebvre-Duruflé      (b. 1792 - d. 1877)
25 Jan 1852 - 14 Feb 1853  Victor Fialin, comte de Persigny   (b. 1808 - d. 1872)
23 Jun 1853 -  3 Feb 1855  Pierre Magne                       (b. 1806 - d. 1879)
 3 Feb 1855 - 23 Jun 1863  Eugène Rouher                      (b. 1814 - d. 1884)
23 Jun 1863 - 20 Jan 1867  Armand Béhic                       (b. 1809 - d. 1891)
20 Jan 1867 - 17 Dec 1868  Adolphe Forcade La Roquette        (b. 1820 - d. 1874)
17 Dec 1868 - 17 Jul 1869  Edmond Valléry Gressier            (b. 1813 - d. 1892)
17 Jul 1869 -  2 Jan 1870  Alfred Leroux                      (b. 1815 - d. 1880)
 2 Jan 1870 - 10 Aug 1870  Charles Louvet de Couvray          (b. 1806 - d. 1882)
10 Aug 1870 -  4 Sep 1870  Clément Aimé Jean Duvernois        (b. 1836 - d. 1879)

Executive Directory

Directors
 2 Nov 1795 -  4 Sep 1797  Lazare Carnot                      (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
 2 Nov 1795 - 26 May 1797  Étienne François Louis Honoré
                           Letourneur (or Charles François
                           Louis Honoré Letourneur)           (b. 1751 - d. 1817)
 2 Nov 1795 - 18 Jun 1799  Louis Marie La Révellière, dit
                           La Révellière-Lépeaux              (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
 2 Nov 1795 - 16 May 1799  Jean-François Reubell              (b. 1747 - d. 1807)
 2 Nov 1795 - 10 Nov 1799  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras  (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
26 May 1797 -  4 Sep 1797  François-Marie de Barthélemy       (b. 1747 - d. 1830)
 4 Sep 1797 - 15 May 1799  Nicolas-Louis François de
                           Neufchâteau                        (b. 1750 - d. 1828)
 4 Sep 1797 - 18 Jun 1799  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai                    (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
15 May 1799 - 18 Jun 1799  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard            (b. 1742 - d. 1810)
16 May 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès             (b. 1748 - d. 1836)
18 Jun 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Louis Jérôme Gohier                (b. 1746 - d. 1830)
18 Jun 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Pierre Roger Ducos, dit
                           Roger-Ducos                        (b. 1747 - d. 1816)
18 Jun 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Jean François Auguste Moulin       (b. 1752 - d. 1810)

Without Portfolio

Ministers
20 Feb 1820 - 14 Dec 1821  Jacques Joseph Guillaume Pierre,
                           comte de Corbière                  (b. 1767 - d. 1853)
20 Feb 1820 - 14 Dec 1821  Joseph, vicomte Lainé              (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
21 Dec 1820 - 14 Dec 1821  Joseph, comte de Villèle           (b. 1773 - d. 1854)
11 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Casimir Perier                     (b. 1777 - d. 1832)
11 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  André Marie Dupin                  (b. 1783 - d. 1865)
11 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Louis, baron Bignon                (b. 1771 - d. 1841)
11 Aug 1830 -  2 Nov 1830  Jacques Laffitte                   (b. 1767 - d. 1844)
22 Mar 1833 -  1 Apr 1834  Horace François Bastien,
                           baron Sébastiani                   (b. 1772 - d. 1851)
12 Mar 1835 -  6 Nov 1835  Henri Gauthier, comte de Rigny     (b. 1782 - d. 1835)
26 Nov 1860 - 30 Mar 1863  Pierre Magne                       (b. 1806 - d. 1879)
 5 Dec 1860 - 23 Jun 1863  Adolphe Billault                   (b. 1805 - d. 1863)

Independent agencies


Banque de France

Governors
25 Apr 1806 -  9 Aug 1807  Emmanuel Crétet                    (b. 1747 - d. 1809)
 9 Aug 1807 -  6 Apr 1814  François Jaubert (from 22 Nov
                           1808, François, comte Jaubert)     (b. 1758 - d. 1822)
   Apr 1814 -        1819  Jacques Laffitte                   (b. 1767 - d. 1844)
       1820 -        1834  Martin Michel Charles Gaudin,
                           duc de Gaète                       (b. 1756 - d. 1841)
       1834 -  9 Jun 1857  Antoine, comte d'Argout            (b. 1782 - d. 1858)
 9 Jun 1857 -  7 May 1863  Charles Lebègue, comte de Germiny  (b. 1799 - d. 1871)
       1863 -        1864  Adolphe Vuitry                     (b. 1813 - d. 1885)
28 Sep 1864 -  2 Dec 1878  Gustave Rouland                    (b. 1806 - d. 1878)

Court of Accounts

First presidents
18 Sep 1807 - 24 Mar 1815  François de Barbé-Marbois
                           (from 1813, François, comte
                           de Barbé-Marbois) (1st time)       (b. 1745 - d. 1837)
       1815                Jean-Baptiste Collin,
                           comte de Sussy                     (b. 1750 - d. 1826)
 7 Jul 1815 -        1834  François, comte de Barbé-Marbois
                           (from 1817, François, marquis de
                           Barbé-Marbois) (2nd time)          (s.a.)
       1834 - 15 Apr 1837  Félix Barthe (1st time)            (b. 1795 - d. 1863)
27 May 1837 - 31 Mar 1839  Joseph Jérôme, comte Siméon        (b. 1749 - d. 1842)
31 Mar 1839 -  1 Feb 1863  Félix Barthe (2nd time)            (s.a.)
 1 Feb 1863 - 29 Jun 1876  Paul de Royer                      (b. 1808 - d. 1877)

Parliament


National Assembly

 6 May 1789                Estates General divided into three estates
17 Jun 1789                Third Estate Chamber renamed National Constituent Assembly

Nobility Chamber

11 Jul 1789                merged into National Constituent Assembly

Presidents
 6 May 1789 - 12 Jun 1789  Philippe Claude, comte de
                           Montboissier-Beaufort              (b. 1712 - d. 1797)
                           (provisional)
12 Jun 1789 - 11 Jul 1789  Anne Charles, duc de
                           Montmorency-Luxembourg             (b. 1737 - d. 1803)

Clergy Chamber

27 Jun 1789                merged into National Constituent Assembly

President
 6 May 1789 - 27 Jun 1789  Dominique de La Rochefoucauld      (b. 1712 - d. 1800)
                           (provisional to 24 Jun 1789)

Third Estate Chamber

17 Jun 1789                Third Estate Chamber and some Clergy deputies form the
                           National Constituent Assembly

Presidents
 6 May 1789 - 22 May 1789  Charles Florimond Le Roux          (b. 1716 - d. 1793)
                           (provisional)
22 May 1789 -  1 Jun 1789  Jean-Étienne Menu de Chomorceau    (b. 1724 - d. 1802)
 1 Jun 1789 -  3 Jun 1789  Michel François d'Ailly            (b. 1724 - d. 1800)
 3 Jun 1789 - 17 Jun 1789  Jean-Sylvain Bailly                (b. 1736 - d. 1793)

National Assembly

17 Jun 1789                National Assembly (often referred to as National Constituent Assembly)
 1 Oct 1791                National Assembly (often referred to as Legislative Assembly)
20 Sep 1792                National Convention
28 Oct 1795                Council of Five Hundred
 1 Jan 1800                Legislative Corps
 4 Jun 1814                Chamber of Départements' Deputies
 3 Jun 1815                Chamber of Representatives
12 Oct 1815                Chamber of Départements' Deputies
 6 Aug 1830                Chamber of Deputies
 4 May 1848                National Constituent Assembly
28 May 1849                National Legislative Assembly
29 Feb 1852                Legislative Corps

Presidents
17 Jun 1789 -  3 Jul 1789  Jean-Sylvain Bailly                (b. 1736 - d. 1793)
 3 Jul 1789                Philippe, duc d'Orléans            (b. 1747 - d. 1793)
 3 Jul 1789 - 18 Jul 1789  Jean-Georges Lefranc de Pompignan  (b. 1715 - d. 1790)
18 Jul 1789 -  3 Aug 1789  François Alexandre Frédéric, duc
                           de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt      (b. 1747 - d. 1827)
 3 Aug 1789                Jacques Guillaume Thouret
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1746 - d. 1794)
 3 Aug 1789 - 17 Aug 1789  Isaac René Guy Le Chapelier        (b. 1754 - d. 1794)
17 Aug 1789 - 31 Aug 1789  Stanislas, comte de
                           Clermont-Tonnerre (1st time)       (b. 1757 - d. 1792)
31 Aug 1789 - 14 Sep 1789  César Guillaume de La Luzerne      (b. 1738 - d. 1921)
 9 Sep 1789 - 28 Sep 1789  Stanislas, comte de
                           Clermont-Tonnerre (2nd time)       (s.a.)
                           (acting for La Luzerne to 14 Sep 1789)
28 Sep 1789 - 10 Oct 1789  Jean-Joseph Mounier                (b. 1758 - d. 1806)
10 Oct 1789 - 28 Oct 1789  Emmanuel Marie Michel Philippe
                           Fréteau de Saint-Just (1st time)   (b. 1745 - d. 1794)
28 Oct 1789 - 12 Nov 1789  Armand Gaston Camus (1st time)     (b. 1740 - d. 1804)
12 Nov 1789 - 23 Nov 1789  Jacques Guillaume Thouret
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
23 Nov 1789 -  5 Dec 1789  Raymond de Boisgelin de Cucé       (b. 1732 - d. 1804)
 5 Dec 1789 - 22 Dec 1789  Emmanuel Marie Michel Philippe
                           Fréteau de Saint-Just (2nd time)   (s.a.)
22 Dec 1789 -  4 Jan 1790  Jean-Nicolas Démeunier             (b. 1751 - d. 1804)
 4 Jan 1790 - 18 Jan 1790  François Xavier de
                           Montesquiou-Fezensac (1st time)    (b. 1756 - d. 1832)
18 Jan 1790 -  2 Feb 1790  Guy Jean Baptiste Target           (b. 1733 - d. 1806)
 2 Feb 1790 - 16 Feb 1790  Jean Xavier Bureaux de Puzy
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1750 - d. 1805)
16 Feb 1790 - 28 Feb 1790  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-
                           Périgord                           (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
28 Feb 1790 - 15 Mar 1790  François Xavier de
                           Montesquiou-Fezensac (2nd time)    (s.a.)
15 Mar 1790 - 27 Mar 1790  Jean-Paul Rabaut, dit Rabaut
                           Saint-Étienne (1st time)           (b. 1743 - d. 1793)
27 Mar 1790 - 12 Apr 1790  Jacques François, baron de Menou   (b. 1756 - d. 1810)
12 Apr 1790 - 27 Apr 1790  Charles François, marquis de
                           Bonnay (1st time)                  (b. 1750 - d. 1825)
27 Apr 1790 - 29 Apr 1790  François Henri, comte de Virieu    (b. 1754 - d. 1793)
29 Apr 1790 -  8 May 1790  Jean-Louis Gouttes                 (b. 1739 - d. 1794)
 8 May 1790 - 27 May 1790  Jacques Guillaume Thouret
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
27 May 1790 -  8 Jun 1790  Bon-Albert Briois de Beaumetz      (b. 1759 - d. 1801)
 8 Jun 1790 - 21 Jun 1790  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1st time)  (b. 1748 - d. 1836)
21 Jun 1790 -  5 Jul 1790  Louis Michel Le Peletier de
                           Saint-Fargeau                      (b. 1760 - d. 1793)
 5 Jul 1790 - 20 Jul 1790  Charles François, marquis de
                           Bonnay (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
20 Jul 1790 - 31 Jul 1790  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (1st time) (b. 1742 - d. 1810)
31 Jul 1790 - 16 Aug 1790  Antoine Balthazar Joseph d'André
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1759 - d. 1825)
16 Aug 1790 - 30 Aug 1790  Pierre Samuel Dupont de Nemours    (b. 1739 - d. 1817)
30 Aug 1790 - 11 Sep 1790  Henri Joseph, baron de Jessé       (b. 1755 - d. 1794)
11 Sep 1790 - 25 Sep 1790  Jean-Xavier Bureaux de Puzy
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
25 Sep 1790 -  9 Oct 1790  Jean-Louis Emmery (1st time)       (b. 1742 - d. 1823)
 9 Oct 1790 - 25 Oct 1790  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai (1st time)         (b. 1754 - d. 1838)
25 Oct 1790 -  8 Nov 1790  Antoine Barnave                    (b. 1761 - d. 1793)
 8 Nov 1790 - 20 Nov 1790  Charles Antoine Chasset (1st time) (b. 1745 - d. 1824)
20 Nov 1790 -  4 Dec 1790  Alexandre de Lameth                (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
 4 Dec 1790 - 20 Dec 1790  Jérôme Pétion, dit Pétion
                           de Villeneuve (1st time)           (b. 1756 - d. 1794)
21 Dec 1790 -  4 Jan 1791  Antoine Balthazar Joseph d'André
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 4 Jan 1791 - 18 Jan 1791  Jean-Louis Emmery (2nd time)       (s.a.)
18 Jan 1791 - 29 Jan 1791  Henri Baptiste Grégoire (1st time) (b. 1750 - d. 1831)
29 Jan 1791 - 14 Feb 1791  Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de
                           Mirabeau                           (b. 1749 - d. 1791)
14 Feb 1791 - 26 Feb 1791  Adrien Duport                      (b. 1759 - d. 1798)
26 Feb 1791 - 14 Mar 1791  Louis Marie, vicomte de Noailles   (b. 1756 - d. 1804)
14 Mar 1791 - 29 Mar 1791  Anne Pierre, marquis de
                           Montesquiou-Fezensac               (b. 1741 - d. 1798)
29 Mar 1791 -  9 Apr 1791  François Denis Tronchet            (b. 1726 - d. 1806)
 9 Apr 1791 - 23 Apr 1791  Jean Baptiste Charles Chabroud     (b. 1750 - d. 1816)
23 Apr 1791 -  9 May 1791  Jean-François Reubell (1st time)   (b. 1747 - d. 1807)
 9 May 1791 - 24 May 1791  Antoine Balthazar Joseph d'André
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
24 May 1791 -  6 Jun 1791  Jean-Xavier Bureaux de Puzy
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
 6 Jun 1791 - 18 Jun 1791  Luc Dauchy                         (b. 1757 - d. 1817)
18 Jun 1791 -  2 Jul 1791  Alexandre François Marie, vicomte
                           de Beauharnais (1st time)          (b. 1760 - d. 1794)
 2 Jul 1791 - 19 Jul 1791  Charles Malo François, comte
                           de Lameth                          (b. 1757 - d. 1832)
19 Jul 1791 - 30 Jul 1791  Joseph Jacques Defermon, dit
                           Defermon des Chapelières
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1752 - d. 1831)
30 Jul 1791 - 13 Aug 1791  Alexandre François Marie, vicomte
                           de Beauharnais (2nd time)          (s.a.)
13 Aug 1791 - 27 Aug 1791  Charles Louis Victor, prince
                           de Broglie                         (b. 1756 - d. 1794)
27 Aug 1791 - 10 Sep 1791  Théodore Vernier (1st time)        (b. 1731 - d. 1818)
10 Sep 1791 - 30 Sep 1791  Jacques Guillaume Thouret
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Oct 1791 -  3 Oct 1791  Claude Batault (doyen d'âge)       (b. 1716 - d. 1793)
 3 Oct 1791 - 17 Oct 1791  Emmanuel Pastoret (1st time)       (b. 1755 - d. 1840)
17 Oct 1791 - 30 Oct 1791  Jean-Baptiste Ducastel             (b. 1740 - d. 1799)
30 Oct 1791 - 15 Nov 1791  Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1753 - d. 1793)
15 Nov 1791 - 28 Nov 1791  Vincent Marie Viénot de Vaublanc
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1756 - d. 1845)
28 Nov 1791 - 10 Dec 1791  Étienne de La Ville de Lacépède    (b. 1756 - d. 1825)
10 Dec 1791 - 26 Dec 1791  Pierre Édouard Lemontey            (b. 1762 - d. 1826)
26 Dec 1791 -  8 Jan 1792  Nicolas Louis François de
                           Neufchâteau                        (b. 1750 - d. 1828)
 8 Jan 1792 - 22 Jan 1792  Jean-Antoine d'Averhoult           (b. 1756 - d. 1792)
22 Jan 1792 -  5 Feb 1792  Marguerite Élie Guadet (1st time)  (b. 1758 - d. 1794)
 5 Feb 1792 - 19 Feb 1792  Jean-Antoine de Caritat de
                           Condorcet                          (b. 1743 - d. 1794)
19 Feb 1792 -  4 Mar 1792  Mathieu Dumas                      (b. 1753 - d. 1837)
 4 Mar 1792 - 18 Mar 1792  Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau,
                           dit Guyton-Morveau                 (b. 1737 - d. 1816)
18 Mar 1792 -  2 Apr 1792  Arnaud Gensonné (1st time)         (b. 1758 - d. 1793)
 2 Apr 1792 - 15 Apr 1792  Claude Dorizy                      (b. 1741 - d. ...)
15 Apr 1792 - 29 Apr 1792  Félix Bigot de Préameneu           (b. 1747 - d. 1825)
29 Apr 1792 - 13 May 1792  Jean-Gérard Lacuée                 (b. 1752 - d. 1841)
13 May 1792 - 27 May 1792  Honoré Muraire                     (b. 1750 - d. 1837)
27 May 1792 - 10 Jun 1792  François Alexandre Tardiveau       (b. 17... - d. af.1800)
10 Jun 1792 - 24 Jun 1792  Antoine Français de Nantes         (b. 1756 - d. 1836)
24 Jun 1792 -  8 Jul 1792  Stanislas de Girardin              (b. 1762 - d. 1827)
 8 Jul 1792 - 23 Jul 1792  Jean-Baptiste Aubert du Bayet      (b. 1759 - d. 1797)
23 Jul 1792 -  7 Aug 1792  André Daniel Laffon de Ladébat,
                           dit Laffon-Ladébat                 (b. 1746 - d. 1829)
 7 Aug 1792 - 19 Aug 1792  Jean François Honoré Merlet        (b. 1761 - d. 1830)
19 Aug 1792 -  2 Sep 1792  Jean-François Delacroix, dit
                           Lacroix (1st time)                 (b. 1753 - d. 1794)
 2 Sep 1792 - 16 Sep 1792  Marie Jean Hérault de Séchelles
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1759 - d. 1794)
16 Sep 1792 - 21 Sep 1792  Pierre Joseph Cambon (1st time)    (b. 1756 - d. 1820)
20 Sep 1792                Philippe Jacques Rühl (1st time)   (b. 1737 - d. 1795)
                           (interim)
20 Sep 1792 -  4 Oct 1792  Jérôme Pétion, dit Pétion de
                           Villeneuve (2nd time)              (s.a.)
 4 Oct 1792 - 18 Oct 1792  Jean-François Delacroix, dit
                           Lacroix (2nd time)                 (s.a.)
18 Oct 1792 -  1 Nov 1792  Marguerite Élie Guadet (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 1 Nov 1792 - 15 Nov 1792  Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
15 Nov 1792 - 29 Nov 1792  Henri Baptiste Grégoire (2nd time) (s.a.)
29 Nov 1792 - 13 Dec 1792  Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac         (b. 1755 - d. 1841)
13 Dec 1792 - 27 Dec 1792  Joseph Jacques Defermon, dit
                           Defermon des Chapelières
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
27 Dec 1792 - 10 Jan 1793  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (2nd time) (s.a.)
10 Jan 1793 - 24 Jan 1793  Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Jan 1793 -  7 Feb 1793  Jean-Paul Rabaut, dit Rabaut
                           Saint-Étienne (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 7 Feb 1793 - 21 Feb 1793  Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit
                           Bréard-Duplessis (1st time)        (b. 1751 - d. 1840)
21 Feb 1793 -  7 Mar 1793  Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois de
                           Crancé, dit Dubois-Crancé          (b. 1747 - d. 1814)
 7 Mar 1793 - 21 Mar 1793  Arnaud Gensonné (2nd time)         (s.a.)
21 Mar 1793 -  4 Apr 1793  Jean Antoine Joseph Debry
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1760 - d. 1834)
 4 Apr 1793 - 18 Apr 1793  Jean François Bertrand Delmas      (b. 1751 - d. 1798)
18 Apr 1793 -  2 May 1793  Marc David Alba, dit Alba-Lasource (b. 1763 - d. 1793)
 2 May 1793 - 16 May 1793  Jean-Baptiste Boyer-Fonfrède       (b. 1765 - d. 1793)
16 May 1793 - 30 May 1793  Maximin Isnard                     (b. 1758 - d. 1825)
30 May 1793 - 13 Jun 1793  François René Auguste Mallarmé     (b. 1755 - d. 1831)
13 Jun 1793 - 27 Jun 1793  Jean-Marie Collot, dit Collot
                           d'Herbois (1st time)               (b. 1749 - d. 1796)
27 Jun 1793 - 11 Jul 1793  Jacques Alexis Thuriot de la
                           Rosière                            (b. 1753 - d. 1829)
11 Jul 1793 - 25 Jul 1793  André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon
                           Saint-André                        (b. 1749 - d. 1813)
25 Jul 1793 -  8 Aug 1793  Georges Jacques Danton             (b. 1759 - d. 1794)
 8 Aug 1793 - 22 Aug 1793  Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Aug 1793 -  5 Sep 1793  Maximilien Robespierre (1st time)  (b. 1758 - d. 1794)
 5 Sep 1793 - 19 Sep 1793  Jacques Nicolas Billaud, dit
                           Billaud-Varenne                    (b. 1756 - d. 1819)
19 Sep 1793 -  3 Oct 1793  Pierre Joseph Cambon (2nd time)    (s.a.)
 3 Oct 1793 - 22 Oct 1793  Charles Louis Joseph Charlier      (b. 1754 - d. 1797)
22 Oct 1793 -  6 Nov 1793  Moïse Antoine Pierre Jean Bayle    (b. 1755 - d. 1811?)
 6 Nov 1793 - 21 Nov 1793  Pierre Antoine Laloy (1st time)    (b. 1749 - d. 1846)
21 Nov 1793 -  6 Dec 1793  Charles Gilbert Romme              (b. 1750 - d. 1795)
 6 Dec 1793 - 21 Dec 1793  Jean-Henri Voulland                (b. 1751 - d. 1801)
21 Dec 1793 -  5 Jan 1794  Georges Auguste Couthon            (b. 1755 - d. 1794)
 5 Jan 1794 - 20 Jan 1794  Jacques Louis David                (b. 1748 - d. 1825)
20 Jan 1794 -  4 Feb 1794  Marc Guillaume Alexis Vadier       (b. 1736 - d. 1828)
 4 Feb 1794 - 19 Feb 1794  Joseph Nicolas Barbeau du Barran,
                           dit Dubarran                       (b. 1761 - d. 1816)
19 Feb 1794 -  6 Mar 1794  Louis de Saint-Just                (b. 1767 - d. 1794)
 6 Mar 1794 - 21 Mar 1794  Philippe Jacques Rühl (2nd time)   (s.a.)
21 Mar 1794 -  5 Apr 1794  Jean-Lambert Tallien               (b. 1767 - d. 1820)
 5 Apr 1794 - 20 Apr 1794  Jean Baptiste André Amar           (b. 1755 - d. 1816)
20 Apr 1794 -  5 May 1794  Robert Lindet                      (b. 1746 - d. 1825)
 5 May 1794 - 20 May 1794  Lazare Carnot                      (b. 1753 - d. 1823)
20 May 1794 -  4 Jun 1794  Claude Antoine Prieur-Duvernois,
                           dit Prieur de la Côte d'Or         (b. 1763 - d. 1832)
 4 Jun 1794 - 19 Jun 1794  Maximilien Robespierre (2nd time)  (s.a.)
19 Jun 1794 -  5 Jul 1794  Élie Lacoste                       (b. 1745 - d. 1806)
 5 Jul 1794 - 19 Jul 1794  Jean-Antoine Louis, dit Louis
                           du Bas-Rhin                        (b. 1742 - d. 1796)
19 Jul 1794 -  3 Aug 1794  Jean-Marie Collot, dit Collot
                           d'Herbois (2nd time)               (s.a.)
 3 Aug 1794 - 18 Aug 1794  Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Douai (2nd time)         (s.a.)
18 Aug 1794 -  2 Sep 1794  Antoine Christophe Merlin, dit
                           Merlin de Thionville               (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
 2 Sep 1794 - 22 Sep 1794  André Antoine Bernard des
                           Jeuzines, dit Bernard de Saintes
                           (or Adrien-Antoine...)             (b. 1751 - d. 1818)
22 Sep 1794 -  7 Oct 1794  André Dumont                       (b. 1765 - d. 1836)
 7 Oct 1794 - 22 Oct 1794  Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
22 Oct 1794 -  6 Nov 1794  Pierre Louis Prieur, dit Prieur
                           de la Marne                        (b. 1756 - d. 1827)
 6 Nov 1794 - 24 Nov 1794  Louis Legendre                     (b. 1752 - d. 1797)
24 Nov 1794 -  6 Dec 1794  Jean-Baptiste Clauzel              (b. 1746 - d. 1803)
 6 Dec 1794 - 21 Dec 1794  Jean-François Reubell (2nd time)   (s.a.)
21 Dec 1794 -  6 Jan 1795  Pierre Louis Bentabole             (b. 1756 - d. 1798)
 6 Jan 1795 - 20 Jan 1795  Étienne François Louis Honoré
                           Letourneur (or Charles François
                           Louis Honoré Letourneur)           (b. 1751 - d. 1817)
20 Jan 1795 -  4 Feb 1795  Joseph Stanislas François Xavier
                           Alexis Rovère                      (b. 1748 - d. 1798)
 4 Feb 1795 - 19 Feb 1795  Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras  (b. 1755 - d. 1829)
19 Feb 1795 -  6 Mar 1795  François Louis Bourdon, dit
                           Bourdon de l'Oise                  (b. 1758 - d. 1798)
 6 Mar 1795 - 24 Mar 1795  Antoine Claire Thibaudeau
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1765 - d. 1854)
24 Mar 1795 -  5 Apr 1795  Jean Pelet, dit Pelet de la Lozère
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1759 - d. 1842)
 5 Apr 1795 - 20 Apr 1795  François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1756 - d. 1826)
20 Apr 1795 -  5 May 1795  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (2nd time)  (s.a.)
 5 May 1795 - 26 May 1795  Théodore Vernier (2nd time)        (s.a.)
26 May 1795 -  4 Jun 1795  Jean Baptiste Charles Mathieu,
                           dit Mathieu-Mirampal               (b. 1763 - d. 1833)
 4 Jun 1795 - 19 Jun 1795  Jean-Denis Lanjuinais (1st time)   (b. 1753 - d. 1827)
19 Jun 1795 -  4 Jul 1795  Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray    (b. 1760 - d. 1797)
 4 Jul 1795 - 19 Jul 1795  Louis Gustave Le Doulcet de
                           Pontécoulant (1st time)            (b. 1764 - d. 1853)
19 Jul 1795 -  3 Aug 1795  Louis Marie La Revellière, dit
                           La Revellière-Lépeaux              (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
 3 Aug 1795 - 19 Aug 1795  Pierre Claude François Daunou
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1761 - d. 1840)
19 Aug 1795 -  2 Sep 1795  Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1764 - d. 1811)
 2 Sep 1795 - 23 Sep 1795  Théophile Berlier (1st time)       (b. 1761 - d. 1844)
23 Sep 1795 -  8 Oct 1795  Pierre Charles Louis Baudin, dit
                           Baudin des Ardennes                (b. 1748 - d. 1799)
 8 Oct 1795 - 26 Oct 1795  Charles François Jean Joseph
                           Victor Génissieu (1st time)        (b. 1749 - d. 1804)
28 Oct 1795                Nicolas Raffron de Trouillet       (b. 1723 - d. 1801)
                           (doyen d'âge)
28 Oct 1795 - 22 Nov 1795  Pierre Claude François Daunou
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Nov 1795 - 22 Dec 1795  Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier
                           (2nd time) (interim)               (s.a.)
22 Dec 1795 - 23 Jan 1796  Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (3rd time) (s.a.)
23 Jan 1796 - 21 Feb 1796  Armand Gaston Camus (2nd time)     (s.a.)
21 Feb 1796 - 21 Mar 1796  Antoine Claire Thibaudeau
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
21 Mar 1796 - 20 Apr 1796  Louis Gustave Le Doulcet de
                           Pontécoulant (2nd time)            (s.a.)
20 Apr 1796 - 21 May 1796  Aaron Jean François Crassous       (b. 1746 - d. 1801)
21 May 1796 - 19 Jun 1796  Joseph Jacques Defermon, dit
                           Defermon des Chapelières
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Jun 1796 - 19 Jul 1796  Jean Pelet, dit Pelet de la Lozère
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Jul 1796 - 19 Aug 1796  François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Aug 1796 - 23 Sep 1796  Emmanuel Pastoret (2nd time)       (s.a.)
23 Sep 1796 - 22 Oct 1796  Charles Antoine Chasset (2nd time) (s.a.)
22 Oct 1796 - 21 Nov 1796  Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
21 Nov 1796 - 21 Dec 1796  Nicolas Marie Quinette             (b. 1762 - d. 1821)
21 Dec 1796 - 20 Jan 1797  Jean Antoine Joseph Debry
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
20 Jan 1797 - 19 Feb 1796  François Riou de Kersalaun         (b. 1765 - d. 1811)
19 Feb 1797 - 21 Mar 1797  Pierre Antoine Laloy (2nd time)    (s.a.)
21 Mar 1797 - 20 Apr 1797  Michel Lecointe-Puyraveau
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1764 - d. 1827)
20 Apr 1797 - 20 May 1797  François Lamarque (1st time)       (b. 1753 - d. 1839)
20 May 1797 - 19 Jun 1797  Charles Pichegru                   (b. 1761 - d. 1804)
19 Jun 1797 - 19 Jul 1797  Pierre François Henry La Rivière   (b. 1761 - d. 1838)
19 Jul 1797 - 18 Aug 1797  Joseph Vincent Dumolard            (b. 1766 - d. 1819)
18 Aug 1797 - 23 Sep 1797  Joseph Jérôme Siméon
                           (arrested from 5 Sep 1797)         (b. 1749 - d. 1842)
 5 Sep?1797 - 23 Sep 1797    François Lamarque (2nd time)
                             (acting for Siméon)              (s.a.)
23 Sep 1797 - 22 Oct 1797  Jean-Baptiste Jourdan (1st time)   (b. 1762 - d. 1833)
22 Oct 1797 - 21 Nov 1797  François Toussaint Villers         (b. 1749 - d. 1807)
21 Nov 1797 - 21 Dec 1797  Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3rd time)  (s.a.)
21 Dec 1797 - 20 Jan 1798  Antoine Boulay de la Meurthe
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1761 - d. 1840)
20 Jan 1798 - 19 Feb 1798  Jacques Charles Bailleul           (b. 1762 - d. 1843)
19 Feb 1798 - 21 Mar 1798  Antoine François Hardy             (b. 1748 - d. 1823)
21 Mar 1798 - 20 Apr 1798  Alexis Pison du Galland (1st time) (b. 1747 - d. 1826)
20 Apr 1798 - 20 May 1798  Joseph Clément Poullain de
                           Grandprey                          (b. 1744 - d. 1826)
20 May 1798 - 20 Jun 1798  Jacques Antoine Creuzé-Latouche    (b. 1749 - d. 1800)
20 Jun 1798 - 19 Jul 1798  Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Jul 1798 - 19 Aug 1798  Michel Lecointe-Puyraveau
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Aug 1798 - 23 Sep 1798  Pierre Claude François Daunou
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
23 Sep 1798 - 22 Oct 1798  Jean-Baptiste Jourdan (2nd time)   (s.a.)
22 Oct 1798 - 21 Nov 1798  Dieudonné Dubois                   (b. 1759 - d. 1804)
21 Nov 1798 - 21 Dec 1798  Julien Savary                      (b. 1753 - d. 1839)
21 Dec 1798 - 20 Jan 1799  Théophile Berlier (2nd time)       (s.a.)
20 Jan 1799 - 19 Feb 1799  Jean-Baptiste Leclerc, dit
                           Leclerc du Maine et Loire
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1756 - d. 1826)
19 Feb 1799 - 21 Mar 1799  Gabriel Malès                      (b. 1755 - d. 1837)
21 Mar 1799 - 20 Apr 1799  Philippe Laurent Pons              (b. 1759 - d. 1844)
20 Apr 1799 - 20 May 1799  Jean-Marie Heurtault de la
                           Merville                           (b. 1740 - d. 1810)
20 May 1799 - 19 Jun 1799  Jean Antoine Joseph Debry
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
19 Jun 1799 - 19 Jul 1799  Charles François Jean Joseph
                           Victor Génissieu (2nd time)        (s.a.)
19 Jul 1799 - 18 Aug 1799  Jean-Baptiste Quirot               (b. 1757 - d. 1820)
18 Aug 1799 - 24 Sep 1799  Antoine Boulay de la Meurthe
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
24 Sep 1799 - 24 Oct 1799  Jean-Pierre Chazal                 (b. 1766 - d. 1840)
24 Oct 1799 - 12 Nov 1799  Lucien Bonaparte                   (b. 1775 - d. 1840)
22 Nov 1799 - 21 Dec 1799  Antoine Boulay de la Meurthe
                           (3rd time)                         (s.a.)
22 Dec 1799 - 26 Dec 1799  Pierre Claude François Daunou
                           (4th time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1800 - 21 Jan 1800  Jean-Baptiste Perrin des Vosges    (b. 1754 - d. 1815)
21 Jan 1800 -  5 Feb 1800  Jean-Pierre Duval                  (b. 1754 - d. 1817)
 5 Feb 1800 - 20 Feb 1800  Henri Baptiste Grégoire (3rd time) (s.a.)
20 Feb 1800 -  7 Mar 1800  Jean-Baptiste Girot-Pouzol         (b. 1753 - d. 1822)
 7 Mar 1800 - 22 Mar 1800  Claude Pierre Dellay d'Agier       (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
22 Mar 1800 - 31 Mar 1800  Isaac Tarteyron                    (b. 1769 - d. 1813)
22 Nov 1800 -  7 Dec 1800  Pierre Jacques Chatry-Lafosse      (b. 1737 - d. 1814)
 7 Dec 1800 - 22 Dec 1800  Alexis Pison du Galland (2nd time) (s.a.)
22 Dec 1800 -  6 Jan 1801  Antoine Bourg-Laprade              (b. 1736 - d. 1816)
 6 Jan 1801 - 21 Jan 1801  Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit
                           Bréard-Duplessis (2nd time)        (s.a.)
21 Jan 1801 -  5 Feb 1801  Jean-François Rossée               (b. 1745 - d. 1832)
 5 Feb 1801 - 20 Feb 1801  Jacques Poisson de Coudreville     (b. 1746 - d. 1821)
20 Feb 1801 -  7 Mar 1801  Jean-Baptiste Leclerc, dit
                           Leclerc du Maine et Loire
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 7 Mar 1801 - 21 Mar 1801  François Joseph Lefebvre-Cayet     (b. 1748 - d. 1811)
22 Nov 1801 -  7 Dec 1801  Charles François Dupuis            (b. 1742 - d. 1809)
 7 Dec 1801 - 22 Dec 1801  Jean-François Baraillon            (b. 1743 - d. 1816)
22 Dec 1801 -  6 Jan 1802  Pierre Louis Lefebvre-Laroche      (b. 1748 - d. 1806)
 6 Jan 1802 - 21 Jan 1802  Nicolas Bernard Belzais-Courménil  (b. 1747 - d. 1804)
21 Jan 1802 -  5 Feb 1802  Joseph Pemartin                    (b. 1754 - d. 1842)
 5 Feb 1802 - 20 Feb 1802  Denis Couzard                      (b. 1746 - d. 1818)
20 Feb 1802 -  7 Mar 1802  Louis Ramond de Carbonnières       (b. 1755 - d. 1827)
 7 Mar 1802 - 22 Mar 1802  Jacques Devismes                   (b. 1749 - d. 1830)
 5 Apr 1802 - 21 Apr 1802  Jean François Joseph Marcorelle    (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
21 Apr 1802 -  6 May 1802  François Lobjoy                    (b. 1743 - d. 1807)
 6 May 1802 - 20 May 1802  Pierre Antoine Rabaut-Dupuis       (b. 1746 - d. 1808)
21 Feb 1803 -  7 Mar 1803  François Delattre                  (b. 1749 - d. 1834)
 7 Mar 1803 - 22 Mar 1803  Jean-François Méric                (b. 1756 - d. 1816)
22 Mar 1803 -  6 Apr 1803  Jean-Louis Girod de l'Ain          (b. 1753 - d. 1839)
 6 Apr 1803 - 21 Apr 1803  Marie Félix Faulcon                (b. 1758 - d. 1843)
21 Apr 1803 -  7 May 1803  Vincent Marie Viénot de Vaublanc
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 7 May 1803 - 21 May 1803  François Lagrange                  (b. 1754 - d. 1816)
21 May 1803 - 28 May 1803  Jérôme Reynaud de Bologne, baron
                           de Lascours                        (b. 1761 - d. 1835)
10 Jan 1804 - 24 Jan 1810  Louis de Fontanes (from 3 Jun
                           1808, Louis, comte de Fontanes)    (b. 1757 - d. 1821)
24 Jan 1810 - 23 Nov 1813  Élisabeth Pierre, comte de
                           Montesquiou-Fezensac               (b. 1764 - d. 1834)
23 Nov 1813 -  4 Jun 1814  Claude Régnier, duc de Massa       (b. 1746 - d. 1814)
11 Jun 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Joseph, vicomte Lainé (1st time)   (b. 1767 - d. 1835)
 4 Jun 1815 - 13 Jul 1815  Jean-Denis, comte Lanjuinais
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
12 Oct 1815 -  5 Sep 1816  Joseph, vicomte Lainé (2nd time)   (s.a.)
12 Nov 1816 - 13 Nov 1817  Étienne, duc Pasquier              (b. 1767 - d. 1862)
13 Nov 1817 - 11 Dec 1818  Pierre François Hercule,
                           comte de Serre                     (b. 1776 - d. 1824)
11 Dec 1818 -  5 Nov 1827  Auguste Ravez                      (b. 1770 - d. 1849)
25 Feb 1828 - 16 May 1830  Pierre Paul Royer-Collard          (b. 1763 - d. 1845)
 6 Aug 1830 - 21 Aug 1830  Casimir Perier (1st time)          (b. 1777 - d. 1832)
21 Aug 1830 - 11 Nov 1830  Jacques Laffitte                   (b. 1767 - d. 1844)
11 Nov 1830 - 31 May 1831  Casimir Perier (2nd time)          (s.a.)
 1 Aug 1831 - 28 Apr 1832  Louis Gaspard Amédée, baron Girod
                           de l'Ain                           (b. 1781 - d. 1847)
29 Apr 1832 -  2 Feb 1839  André Marie Dupin (1st time)       (b. 1783 - d. 1865)
16 Apr 1839 - 12 May 1839  Hippolyte Passy                    (b. 1793 - d. 1880)
24 Dec 1839 - 24 Feb 1848  Paul Sauzet                        (b. 1800 - d. 1876)
 5 May 1848 -  5 Jun 1848  Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez    (b. 1796 - d. 1865)
 5 Jun 1848 - 29 Jun 1848  Antoine Marie Jules Sénard         (b. 1800 - d. 1885)
29 Jun 1848 - 19 Jul 1848  Alexandre Marie                    (b. 1795 - d. 1870)
19 Jul 1848 - 26 May 1849  Armand Marrast                     (b. 1801 - d. 1852)
 1 Jun 1849 -  2 Dec 1851  André Marie Dupin (2nd time)       (s.a.)
 9 Mar 1852 - 12 Nov 1854  Adolphe Billault                   (b. 1805 - d. 1863)
12 Nov 1854 - 10 Mar 1865  Charles Auguste, duc de Morny      (b. 1811 - d. 1865)
 1 Sep 1865 - 29 Mar 1867  Alexandre Colonna, comte Walewski  (b. 1810 - d. 1868)
 2 Apr 1867 -  4 Sep 1870  Eugène Schneider                   (b. 1805 - d. 1875)

Senate

28 Oct 1795 - 10 Nov 1799  Council of Ancients
 4 Jun 1814                Chamber of Peers
28 Jan 1852                Senate

Presidents
28 Oct 1795                Claude Antoine Rudel Du Miral      (b. 1719 - d. 1807)
                           (doyen d'âge)
28 Oct 1795 -  2 Nov 1795  Louis Marie La Révellière, dit
                           La Révellière-Lépeaux              (s.a.)
 2 Nov 1795 - 23 Nov 1795  Pierre Charles Louis Baudin, dit
                           Baudin des Ardennes (1st time)     (s.a.)
23 Nov 1795 - 22 Dec 1795  François Denis Tronchet            (s.a.)
22 Dec 1795 - 22 Jan 1796  Théodore Vernier                   (s.a.)
22 Jan 1796 - 20 Feb 1796  Guillaume François Charles Goupil
                           de Préfelne                        (b. 1727 - d. 1801)
20 Feb 1796 - 21 Mar 1796  Claude Ambroise Régnier (1st time) (b. 1746 - d. 1814)
21 Mar 1796 - 20 Apr 1796  Jacques Antoine Creuzé-Latouche    (s.a.)
20 Apr 1796 - 20 May 1796  Jean-Barthélemy Lecouteulx de
                           Canteleu                           (b. 1746 - d. 1818)
20 May 1796 - 19 Jun 1796  Charles François Lebrun            (b. 1739 - d. 1824)
19 Jun 1796 - 19 Jul 1796  Jean Étienne Marie Portalis        (b. 1746 - d. 1807)
19 Jul 1796 - 18 Aug 1796  Jean Dussaulx                      (b. 1728 - d. 1799)
18 Aug 1796 - 23 Sep 1796  Honoré Muraire                     (s.a.)
23 Sep 1796 - 22 Oct 1796  Pierre Roger Ducos, dit
                           Roger-Ducos                        (b. 1747 - d. 1816)
22 Oct 1796 - 21 Nov 1796  Jean-Gérard Lacuée                 (b. 1752 - d. 1841)
21 Nov 1796 - 21 Dec 1796  Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit
                           Bréard-Duplessis                   (s.a.)
21 Dec 1796 - 20 Jan 1797  Boniface Paradis                   (b. 1751 - d. 1823)
20 Jan 1797 - 19 Feb 1797  Sébastien Ligeret de Beauvais      (b. 1756 - d. 1797)
19 Feb 1797 - 21 Mar 1797  Joseph Clément Poullain de
                           Grandprey                          (s.a.)
21 Mar 1797 - 20 Apr 1797  Jean François Bertrand Delmas      (s.a.)
20 Apr 1797 - 20 May 1797  Edme Bonaventure Courtois          (b. 1750 - d. 1816)
20 May 1797 - 19 Jun 1797  François Barbé-Marbois             (b. 1745 - d. 1837)
19 Jun 1797 - 19 Jul 1797  Louis Bernard de Saint-Affrique    (b. 1744 - d. 1825)
19 Jul 1797 - 18 Aug 1797  Pierre Samuel Dupont de Nemours    (s.a.)
18 Aug 1797 -  4 Sep 1797  André Daniel Laffon de Ladébat,
                           dit Laffon-Ladébat                 (s.a.)
 6 Sep 1797 - 23 Sep 1797  Jean-Antoine Marbot (1st time)     (b. 1754 - d. 1800)
23 Sep 1797 - 22 Oct 1797  Emmanuel Crétet                    (b. 1747 - d. 1809)
22 Oct 1797 - 21 Nov 1797  Jean-Pierre Lacombe-Saint-Michel   (b. 1751 - d. 1812)
21 Nov 1797 - 21 Dec 1797  Jean-François Rossée               (b. 1745 - d. 1832)
21 Dec 1797 - 20 Jan 1798  Jean-Baptiste Marragon             (b. 1741 - d. 1829)
20 Jan 1798 - 19 Feb 1798  Jean Rousseau                      (b. 1738 - d. 1813)
19 Feb 1798 - 21 Mar 1798  Pardoux Bordas                     (b. 1748 - d. 1842)
21 Mar 1798 - 20 Apr 1798  Étienne Mollevaut                  (b. 1744 - d. 1816)
20 Apr 1798 - 20 May 1798  Jacques Poisson de Coudreville     (s.a.)
20 May 1798 - 19 Jun 1798  Claude Ambroise Régnier (2nd time) (s.a.)
19 Jun 1798 - 19 Jul 1798  Jean-Antoine Marbot (2nd time)     (s.a.)
19 Jul 1798 - 18 Aug 1798  Étienne Maynaud Bizefranc de
                           Lavaux                             (b. 1751 - d. 1828)
18 Aug 1798 - 23 Sep 1798  Pierre Antoine Laloy               (s.a.)
23 Sep 1798 - 22 Oct 1798  Benoît Michel Decomberousse        (b. 1754 - d. 1841)
22 Oct 1798 - 21 Nov 1798  Emmanuel Pérès de Lagesse          (b. 1752 - d. 1833)
21 Nov 1798 - 21 Dec 1798  Jacob-Augustin Moreau de Vormes    (b. 1750 - d. 1805)
21 Dec 1798 - 20 Jan 1799  Jean-Baptiste Perrin des Vosges    (s.a.)
20 Jan 1799 - 19 Feb 1799  Dominique Joseph Garat             (b. 1749 - d. 1833)
19 Feb 1799 - 21 Mar 1799  Jean-Aimé Delacoste                (b. 1740 - d. 1815)
21 Mar 1799 - 20 Apr 1799  Mathieu Depère                     (b. 1746 - d. 1825)
20 Apr 1799 - 20 May 1799  Claude Pierre Dédelay-d'Agier      (b. 1750 - d. 1827)
20 May 1799 - 19 Jun 1799  Charles Claude Christophe Gourdan  (b. 1744 - d. 1804)
19 Jun 1799 - 19 Jul 1799  Pierre Charles Louis Baudin, dit
                           Baudin des Ardennes (2nd time)     (s.a.)
19 Jul 1799 - 18 Aug 1799  Louis Thibaut Dubois-Dubais        (b. 1743 - d. 1834)
18 Aug 1799 - 24 Sep 1799  Mathieu Augustin Cornet            (b. 1750 - d. 1832)
24 Sep 1799 - 23 Oct 1799  Joseph Cornudet des Chaumettes     (b. 1755 - d. 1834)
23 Oct 1799 - 10 Nov 1799  Louis Nicolas Lemercier            (b. 1755 - d. 1849)
 4 Jun 1814 - 20 Mar 1815  Charles, chevalier Dambray
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1760 - d. 1829)
 2 Jun 1815 -  7 Jul 1815  Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès,
                           duc de Parme                       (b. 1753 - d. 1824)
12 Oct 1815 - 12 Dec 1829  Charles, chevalier Dambray
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
17 Dec 1829 -  3 Aug 1830  Emmanuel, marquis de Pastoret      (b. 1755 - d. 1840)
 3 Aug 1830 - 24 Feb 1848  Étienne Denis, baron Pasquier
                           (from 14 Dec 1844, Étienne Denis,
                           duc Pasquier)                      (b. 1767 - d. 1862)
28 Jan 1852 - 30 Nov 1852  Jérôme, prince Bonaparte           (b. 1784 - d. 1860)
30 Dec 1852 -  1 Mar 1869  Raymond Troplong                   (b. 1795 - d. 1869)
 3 Mar 1869 - 20 Jul 1869  Adrien Marie Devienne              (b. 1802 - d. 1883)
20 Jul 1869 -  4 Sep 1870  Eugène Rouher                      (b. 1814 - d. 1884)