Rulers

Index X

Xanthopoulos-Palamas, Christos (b. November 1902, Missolonghi, Greece - d. January 1977), foreign minister of Greece (1964, 1973). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1954-60).


Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping (b. June 1953, Beijing, China [though by Chinese convention "native" of Fuping county, Shaanxi]), governor of Fujian (1999-2002), secretary of the Provincial Committee of the Communist Party (2002-07) and acting governor (2002-03) of Zhejiang, secretary of the Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of Shanghai (2007), vice president (2008-13) and president (2013- ) of China, and general secretary of the Communist Party of China (2012- ); son of Xi Zhongxun.

Xi Zhongxun (b. Oct. 15, 1913, Fuping county, Shaanxi, China - d. May 24, 2002, Beijing, China), governor of Guangdong (1979-81).

Xia Chao (b. 1882, Qingtian, Zhejiang, China - d. Oct. 22, 1926, Zhejiang), civil governor of Zhejiang (1924-26). A graduate of Zhejiang Military College, he joined the United League of China and upon the founding of the republic was named head of the Security Bureau of Zhejiang. In 1926, the Northern Expedition army entered Zhejiang province and, persuaded by former governor Lu Gongwang, he declared the independence of Zhejiang from the Beijing government and was subsequently made the commander of the 18th Army in the Northern Expedition. He led his troops to Shanghai, where he was soon defeated by Gen. Song Meicun, representing Sun Chuanfang. He was captured and killed on his retreat to Hangzhou.

Xia Douyin (b. Jan. 14, 1884, Macheng, Hubei, China - d. June 23, 1951, Hong Kong), chairman of the government of Hubei (1932-33).

Xia Shoukang (b. 1871, Huanggang, Hubei, China - d. Nov. 14, 1923, Beijing, China), civil governor of Hubei (1912-13, 1920-21). He began his political career when he took the post of vice-president of the provincial council of Hubei in 1909. He supported Yuan Shikai's imperial attempts during the unstable times of 1915-16 and was rewarded with the honour of "Senior Officer" by Yuan. He became secretary of the president's office after Yuan's death.


Xiang
Xiang Huaicheng (b. February 1939, Wujiang, Jiangsu, China), finance minister of China (1998-2003).

Xiao Yaonan (b. 1875, Huanggang, Hubei, China - d. Feb. 14, 1926, Wuchang [now part of Wuhan], Hubei, China), military (1921-26) and civil (1924-26) governor of Hubei. A graduate of the famous Beiyang Military College, he was sent to Yuan Shikai's army in the late Qing period, being commander of a brigade, then a division. He was a participant in the First Zhili-Fengtian War, siding with Wu Peifu. He was involved in suppressing the strike launched by Beijing-Hankou Railway workers Feb. 1-9, 1923, killing 52 workers, including Lin Xiangqian, the leader of the action (a Communist Party member), and leaving several hundreds injured; thousands lost their jobs. He betrayed his protector Cao Kun, who was defeated in the second war against Zhang Zuolin, and turned to Duan Qirui, then the following year back to Wu Peifu. He died as governor.

Xie Ruyi (b. 1882, Xinxing, Yunnan, China - d. [assassinated] May 3, 1914, Yiliang, Yunnan) acting military governor of Yunnan (1913). He graduated from the College of Army Officers in Japan and served in the army after returning to China. He became president of the Army College of Yunnan and then chief of the staff bureau of Yunnan. He was also the commander of the 2nd Division of the Yunnan local army. He was assassinated while on his way to Beijing.

Xiong Bin (b. March 12, 1894, Hongan, Hubei, China - d. Nov. 30, 1964, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Shaanxi (1941-44). He was also mayor of Beiping (1945-46).

Xiong Bingqi (b. Feb. 5, 1884, Jining, Shandong, China - d. Jan. 19, 1959), civil governor of Shandong (1922-24) and Henan (1926-27).

Xiong Kewu (b. Dec. 26, 1885, Sichuan province, China - d. Sept. 2, 1970, Beijing, China), military (1918-19) and civil (1920-21) governor of Sichuan.


Xiong Xiling
Xiong Xiling (b. July 23, 1870, Fenghuang, Hunan, China - d. Dec. 25, 1937, Hong Kong), governor of Rehe (1912-13).

Xu Chongqing (b. Jan. 14, 1888, Fanyu, Guangdong, China - d. March 14, 1969, Guangzhou, Guangdong), chairman of the government of Guangdong (1931); brother of Xu Chongzhi; son of Xu Yinggui.


Xu Chongzhi
Xu Chongzhi (b. Oct. 14, 1887, Fanyu, Guangdong, China - d. Jan. 25, 1965), military (1923) and civil (1925) governor of Guangdong; son of Xu Yinggui.

Xu Lanzhou (b. June 10, 1872, Nangong, Hebei, China - d. Jan. 14, 1951, Beijing, China), military governor of Heilongjiang (1917).

Xu Nailin (b. 1867, Jilin, Jilin, China - d. 1940, Beijing, China), civil governor of Heilongjiang (1912-13) and Jilin (1919-20).

Xu Shichang (b. Oct. 20, 1855, Tianjin, China - d. June 5, 1939, Tianjin), secretary of state (1914-15, 1916), premier (1917), and president (1918-22) of China.

Xu Shiying (b. Sept. 10, 1873, Guichi, Anhui, China - d. Oct. 13, 1964, Taipei, Taiwan), justice minister (1912-13, 1922-23), interior minister (1916), transportation minister (1916-17), premier (1925-26), and acting finance minister (1926) of China.

Xu Xiaogang (b. 1880, Huayang, Sichuan, China - d. 1956), acting civil governor of Sichuan (1924-25).

Xu Yinggui (b. 18... - d. 1903), governor of Zhejiang (1898-1903).


Xu Yongchang
Xu Yongchang (b. Dec. 15, 1887, Shanxi province, China - d. July 12, 1959, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Suiyuan (1928-29), Hebei (1929-30), and Shanxi (1930-36).


Xuan
Xuan Thuy, original name Nguyen Trong Nhan (b. Sept. 2, 1912, Tu Liem commune, near Hanoi, French Indochina - d. June 18, 1985, Hanoi, Vietnam), Vietnamese politician. He joined (1926) the League of Young Revolutionaries founded by Nguyen Ai Quoc (afterward Ho Chi Minh) and was twice arrested (1928, 1929). As a member of the Indochinese Communist Party he was imprisoned (1939-45) throughout the period of Japanese occupation and Vichy French rule. On his release (March 1945) he became editor in chief of the Viet Minh's official newspaper, Cuu Quoc ("National Salvation"). When the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) was formed (1946), he was elected as a deputy to its National Assembly and became a member of the governing Central Committee. He represented North Vietnam at the Geneva conference that ended (1954) the French Indochina war and in 1962 was deputy chairman of a North Vietnamese delegation to a conference on Laos. He was the North Vietnamese foreign minister in 1963-65 and in 1965 became head of the foreign relations department of the Workers' Party Central Committee. He was his country's chief delegate (with Le Duc Tho, who negotiated separately with Henry Kissinger) at the 1968-73 Paris peace talks that ended U.S. involvement in Vietnam. He also served as vice-speaker and secretary-general of Vietnam's National Assembly.

Xue Dubi (b. 1892, Xie county, Shanxi, China - d. July 9, 1973, Shanghai, China), acting justice minister (1924) and acting interior minister (1924) of China, mayor of Beijing (1924-25), and civil governor of Gansu (1925-27). He was also minister of interior, civil affairs, health, and water conservancy under the Kuomintang.


Xuereb
Xuereb, Paul (b. July 21, 1923, Rabat, Malta - d. Sept. 6, 1994), acting president of Malta (1987-89). A member of the Malta Labour Party, he entered into politics in 1962, and successfully contested the general election of that year. He kept his parliamentary seat in the elections of 1966, 1971, 1976, and 1981. In August 1971 he was appointed parliamentary secretary at the office of the prime minister, and in October 1971 was made minister of trade, industry, agriculture and tourism. Xuereb resigned from his seat at the House of Representatives on April 27, 1983, thus vacating a seat into which was co-opted Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici, the designated leader of the Malta Labour Party. Xuereb also served as speaker of the House of Representatives (1986-87), chairman of the Trade Licensing Board, chairman of the Malta Development Corporation, and member of the disciplinary board of the Malta Labour Party. He was appointed by the prime minister as the acting president of the republic following the end of the term of office of the third president, Agatha Barbara.