Rulers

International organizations A-N

Contents of this page:
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States - African Development Bank - African Union - Andean Community - Antarctic Treaty - Arab League - Arab Maghreb Union - Asian Development Bank - Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Bank for International Settlements - Caribbean Community - Central American Parliament - Central Treaty Organization - The Commonwealth - Commonwealth of Independent States - Council of Europe - East African Community - Economic Community of West African States - European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - European Free Trade Association - European Union - Food and Agriculture Organization - La Francophonie - Gulf Cooperation Council - Ibero-American Secretariat - Inter-American Development Bank - International Atomic Energy Agency - International Civil Aviation Organization - International Court of Justice - International Criminal Court - International Criminal Police Organization - International Labour Organization - International Maritime Organization - International Monetary Fund - International Olympic Committee - International Telecommunication Union - League of Nations - Nordic Council - North Atlantic Treaty Organization

African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States

 6 Jun 1975                African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States established

Secretaries-general
       1976 -        1979  Tiéoulé Konaté (Mali)              (b. 1933 - d. 1995)
       1979 -        1984  Tom Okelo-Odongo (Kenya)           (b. 1927)
       1984 -        1989  Edwin W. Carrington
                           (Trinidad and Tobago)              (b. 1938)
       1989 -        1994  Berhane Ghebray (Ethiopia)         (b. 1938)
       1994 -        1996  Carl Greenidge (Guyana) (acting)
16 Jul 1996 - 29 Feb 2000  Ng'andu Magande (Zambia)           (b. 1947)
 1 Mar 2000 - 28 Feb 2005  Jean-Robert Goulongana (Gabon)     (b. 1953)
 1 Mar 2005 - 28 Feb 2010  Sir John Kaputin
                           (Papua New Guinea)                 (b. 1941)
 1 Mar 2010 - 31 Mar 2013  Mohamed Ibn Chambas (Ghana)        (b. 1950)
 1 Apr 2013 -              Mohammed Mumuni (Ghana)            (b. 1949)

African Development Bank

Presidents
   Nov 1964 -    Aug 1970  Mamoun Beheiry (Sudan)             (b. 1925 - d. 2002)
       1970 -    May 1976  Abdelwahab Labidi (Tunisia)        (b. ... - d. ...)
       1976 -    Jul 1979  Kwame Donkoh Fordwor (Ghana)       (b. 1933)
   Jul 1979 -        1980  Goodall Gondwe (Malawi) (interim)  (b. 1936)
 1 Sep 1980 -    May 1985  Wila Mung'omba (Zambia)            (b. 1939)
       1985 -    Aug 1995  Babacar Ndiaye (Senegal)
 1 Sep 1995 -  1 Sep 2005  Omar Kabbaj (Morocco)              (b. 1942)
 1 Sep 2005 -              Donald Kaberuka (Rwanda)           (b. 1951)

African Union

25 May 1963                Organization of African Unity
 9 Jul 2002                African Union

Secretaries-general
25 May 1963 - 21 Jul 1964  Kifle Wodajo (Ethiopia) (acting)   (b. 1936 - d. 2004)
21 Jul 1964 - 15 Jun 1972  Diallo Telli (Guinea)              (b. 1925 - d. 1977)
15 Jun 1972 - 16 Jun 1974  Nzo Ekangaki (Cameroon)            (b. 1934 - d. 2005)
16 Jun 1974 - 21 Jul 1978  William Eteki (Cameroon)           (b. 1933)
21 Jul 1978 - 12 Jun 1983  Edem Kodjo (Togo)                  (b. 1938)
12 Jun 1983 - 20 Jul 1985  Peter Onu (Nigeria) (acting)       (b. 1931 - d. 1997)
20 Jul 1985 - 19 Sep 1989  Ide Oumarou (Niger)                (b. 1937 - d. 2002)
19 Sep 1989 - 17 Sep 2001  Salim Ahmed Salim (Tanzania)       (b. 1942)
17 Sep 2001 -  9 Jul 2002  Amara Essy (Côte d'Ivoire)         (b. 1944)
Chairmen of the Commission
 9 Jul 2002 - 16 Sep 2003  Amara Essy (Côte d'Ivoire)         (s.a.)
                           (interim)
16 Sep 2003 - 28 Apr 2008  Alpha Oumar Konaré (Mali)          (b. 1946)
28 Apr 2008 - 15 Oct 2012  Jean Ping (Gabon)                  (b. 1942)
15 Oct 2012 -              Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma (f)
                           (South Africa)                     (b. 1949)

Chairmen 25 May 1963 - 17 Jul 1964 Haile Selassie (Ethiopia) (1st time) (b. 1892 - d. 1975) 17 Jul 1964 - 21 Oct 1965 Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt) (b. 1918 - d. 1970) 21 Oct 1965 - 24 Feb 1966 Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) (b. 1909 - d. 1972) 24 Feb 1966 - 5 Nov 1966 Joseph Arthur Ankrah (Ghana) (b. 1915 - d. 1992) 5 Nov 1966 - 11 Sep 1967 Haile Selassie (Ethiopia) (2nd time) (s.a.) 11 Sep 1967 - 13 Sep 1968 Joseph-Désiré Mobutu (Congo [K.]) (b. 1930 - d. 1997) 13 Sep 1968 - 6 Sep 1969 Houari Boumedienne (Algeria) (b. 1932? - d. 1978) 6 Sep 1969 - 1 Sep 1970 Ahmadou Ahidjo (Cameroon) (b. 1924 - d. 1989) 1 Sep 1970 - 21 Jun 1971 Kenneth Kaunda (Zambia) (1st time) (b. 1924) 21 Jun 1971 - 12 Jun 1972 Moktar Ould Daddah (Mauritania) (b. 1924 - d. 2003) 12 Jun 1972 - 27 May 1973 Hassan II (Morocco) (b. 1929 - d. 1999) 27 May 1973 - 12 Jun 1974 Yakubu Gowon (Nigeria) (b. 1934) 12 Jun 1974 - 28 Jul 1975 Muhammad Siad Barre (Somalia) (b. 1919? - d. 1995) 28 Jul 1975 - 2 Jul 1976 Idi Amin (Uganda) (b. 1925? - d. 2003) 2 Jul 1976 - 2 Jul 1977 Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (Mauritius) (b. 1900 - d. 1985) 2 Jul 1977 - 18 Jul 1978 Omar Bongo (Gabon) (b. 1935 - d. 2009) 18 Jul 1978 - 12 Jul 1979 Gaafar Nimeiry (The Sudan) (b. 1930 - d. 2009) 12 Jul 1979 - 12 Apr 1980 William R. Tolbert, Jr. (Liberia) (b. 1913 - d. 1980) 28 Apr 1980 - 1 Jul 1980 Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal) (b. 1906 - d. 2001) (acting) 1 Jul 1980 - 24 Jun 1981 Siaka Stevens (Sierra Leone) (b. 1905 - d. 1988) 24 Jun 1981 - 6 Jun 1983 Daniel arap Moi (Kenya) (b. 1924) 6 Jun 1983 - 12 Nov 1984 Mengistu Haile Mariam (Ethiopia) (b. 1937) 12 Nov 1984 - 18 Jul 1985 Julius Nyerere (Tanzania) (b. 1922 - d. 1999) 18 Jul 1985 - 28 Jul 1986 Abdou Diouf (Senegal) (1st time) (b. 1935) 28 Jul 1986 - 27 Jul 1987 Denis Sassou-Nguesso (Congo) (1st time) (b. 1943) 27 Jul 1987 - 25 May 1988 Kenneth Kaunda (Zambia) (2nd time) (s.a.) 25 May 1988 - 24 Jul 1989 Moussa Traoré (Mali) (b. 1936) 24 Jul 1989 - 9 Jul 1990 Hosni Mubarak (Egypt) (1st time) (b. 1928) 9 Jul 1990 - 3 Jun 1991 Yoweri Museveni (Uganda) (b. 1944?) 3 Jun 1991 - 29 Jun 1992 Ibrahim Babangida (Nigeria) (b. 1941) 29 Jun 1992 - 28 Jun 1993 Abdou Diouf (Senegal) (2nd time) (s.a.) 28 Jun 1993 - 13 Jun 1994 Hosni Mubarak (Egypt) (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Jun 1994 - 26 Jun 1995 Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (Tunisia) (b. 1936) 26 Jun 1995 - 8 Jul 1996 Meles Zenawi (Ethiopia) (b. 1955 - d. 2012) 8 Jul 1996 - 2 Jun 1997 Paul Biya (Cameroon) (b. 1933) 2 Jun 1997 - 8 Jun 1998 Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe) (b. 1924) 8 Jun 1998 - 12 Jul 1999 Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso) (b. 1951) 12 Jul 1999 - 10 Jul 2000 Abdelaziz Bouteflika (Algeria) (b. 1937) 10 Jul 2000 - 9 Jul 2001 Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo) (b. 1937 - d. 2005) 9 Jul 2001 - 2 Jan 2002 Frederick Chiluba (Zambia) (b. 1943 - d. 2011) 2 Jan 2002 - 9 Jul 2002 Levy Mwanawasa (Zambia) (b. 1948 - d. 2008) 9 Jul 2002 - 10 Jul 2003 Thabo Mbeki (South Africa) (b. 1942) 10 Jul 2003 - 6 Jul 2004 Joaquim Chissano (Mozambique) (b. 1939) 6 Jul 2004 - 24 Jan 2006 Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria) (b. 1937) 24 Jan 2006 - 29 Jan 2007 Denis Sassou-Nguesso (Congo [B.]) (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Jan 2007 - 31 Jan 2008 John Agyekum Kufuor (Ghana) (b. 1938) 31 Jan 2008 - 2 Feb 2009 Jakaya Kikwete (Tanzania) (b. 1950) 2 Feb 2009 - 31 Jan 2010 Muammar al-Qaddafi (Libya) (b. 1942 - d. 2011) 31 Jan 2010 - 30 Jan 2011 Bingu wa Mutharika (Malawi) (b. 1934 - d. 2012) 30 Jan 2011 - 29 Jan 2012 Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (Equatorial Guinea) (b. 1942) 29 Jan 2012 - 27 Jan 2013 Yayi Boni (Benin) (b. 1952) 27 Jan 2013 - 30 Jan 2014 Hailemariam Desalegn (Ethiopia) (b. 1965) 30 Jan 2014 - Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz (Mauritania) (b. 1956) Presidents of the Pan-African Parliament 18 Mar 2004 - 29 May 2009 Gertrude Ibengwe Mongella (f) (Tanzania) (b. 1955) 29 May 2009 - 28 May 2012 Idriss Ndele Moussa (Chad) (b. 1959 - d. 2013) 28 May 2012 - Bethel Nnaemeka Amadi (Nigeria) (b. 1964)

AU membership
25 May 1963Algeria, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic1, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Léopoldville)2, Dahomey3, Egypt4, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea5, Ivory Coast6, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar7, Mali8, Mauritania9, Morocco10, Niger11, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, The Sudan, Tanganyika12, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Upper Volta13, Zanzibar12
13 Dec 1963Kenya
13 Jul 1964Malawi
16 Dec 1964Zambia
   Oct 1965The Gambia
31 Oct 1966Botswana, Lesotho
   Aug 1968Mauritius
24 Sep 1968Swaziland
12 Oct 1968Equatorial Guinea
19 Nov 1973Guinea-Bissau14
11 Feb 1975Angola
18 Jul 1975Cape Verde15, Comoros, Mozambique, Săo Tomé and Príncipe
29 Jun 1976Seychelles
27 Jun 1977Djibouti
   Jun 1980Zimbabwe
22 Feb 1982Saharan Arab Democratic Republic
   Jun 1990Namibia
24 May 1993Eritrea
 6 Jun 1994South Africa
29 Jul 2011South Sudan
1Suspended 25 Mar 2013. 21966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 3From 1975 Benin. 4Suspended 5 Jul 2013. 5Suspended 29 Dec 2008 - 9 Dec 2010. 6From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire; suspended 9 Dec 2010 - 21 Apr 2011. 7Suspended Dec 2001 - 10 Jul 2003 and 20 Mar 2009 - 27 Jan 2014. 8Suspended 23 Mar - 24 Oct 2012. 9Suspended 4 Aug 2005 - 10 Apr 2007 and 9 Aug 2008 - 1 Jul 2009. 10Withdrew 12 Nov 1984. 11Suspended 19 Feb 2010 - 16 Mar 2011. 12Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged in 1964 to form Tanzania. 13From 1984 Burkina Faso. 14Suspended 17 Apr 2012. 15From 2013 Cabo Verde.


Andean Community

26 May 1969                Andean Pact established
10 Mar 1996                renamed Andean Community

Secretaries-general
 1 Aug 1997 -  7 Aug 2002  Sebastián Alegrett (Venezuela)     (b. 1942 - d. 2002)
19 Sep 2002 - 15 Jan 2004  Guillermo Fernández de Soto
                           (Colombia)                         (b. 1953)
15 Jan 2004 - 28 Jul 2006  Allan Wagner Tizón (Peru)          (b. 1942)
28 Jul 2006 -  1 Feb 2007  Alfredo Fuentes Hernández
                           (Colombia) (acting)
 1 Feb 2007 -  7 May 2010  Freddy Ehlers (Ecuador)            (b. 1945)
 7 May 2010 - 18 Feb 2013  Adalid Contreras Baspineiro
                           (Bolivia) (acting)
18 Feb 2013 -  1 Mar 2013  Ana María Tenenbaum de Reátegui
                           (f) (Peru) (acting)
 1 Mar 2013 -              Santiago Cembrano Cabrejas
                           (Colombia) (acting)

Andean Community membership
26 May 1969Bolivia, Chile1, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
13 Feb 1973Venezuela2
1Withdrew 30 Oct 1976. 2Withdrew 22 Apr 2006.


Antarctic Treaty

23 Jun 1961                Antarctic Treaty comes into effect

Executive secretaries
 1 Sep 2004 -  1 Sep 2009  Jan Huber (Netherlands)            (b. 1946?)
 1 Sep 2009 -              Manfred Reinke (Germany)           (b. 1952)

Antarctic Treaty membership
23 Jun 1961Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Soviet Union1, United Kingdom, United States
14 Jun 1962Czechoslovakia2
20 May 1965Denmark
30 Mar 1967The Netherlands
15 Sep 1971Romania
19 Nov 1974East Germany3
16 May 1975Brazil
11 Sep 1978Bulgaria
 5 Feb 1979West Germany3
11 Jan 1980Uruguay
16 Mar 1981Papua New Guinea
18 Mar 1981Italy
10 Apr 1981Peru
31 Mar 1982Spain
 8 Jun 1983China
19 Aug 1983India
27 Jan 1984Hungary
24 Apr 1984Sweden
15 May 1984Finland
16 Aug 1984Cuba
28 Nov 1986South Korea
 8 Jan 1987Greece
21 Jan 1987North Korea
25 Aug 1987Austria
15 Sep 1987Ecuador
 4 May 1988Canada
31 Jan 1989Colombia
15 Nov 1990Switzerland
31 Jul 1991Guatemala
28 Oct 1992Ukraine
25 Jan 1996Turkey
24 May 1999Venezuela
17 May 2001Estonia
27 Dec 2006Belarus
30 May 2008Monaco
29 Jan 2010Portugal
31 Oct 2011Malaysia
 1 Mar 2012Pakistan
1Dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 2From 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia. 3East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990.


Arab League

22 Mar 1945                League of Arab States (Arab League) founded

Secretaries-general
22 Mar 1945 -    Sep 1952  Abdel Rahman Azzam (from 27 Dec
                           1945, Abdel Rahman Azzam Pasha)
                           (Egypt)                            (b. 1893 - d. 1976)
   Sep 1952 -  1 Jun 1972  Abdel Khaliq Hassuna (Egypt)       (b. 1898 - d. 1992)
 1 Jun 1972 -    Mar 1979  Mahmoud Riad (Egypt)               (b. 1917 - d. 1992)
   Mar 1979 -    Sep 1990  Chedli Klibi (Tunisia)             (b. 1925)
   Sep 1990 - 15 May 1991  Assad al-Assad (Lebanon) (acting)  (b. 1920)
15 May 1991 - 15 May 2001  Esmat Abdel Meguid (Egypt)         (b. 1923 - d. 2013)
15 May 2001 -  1 Jul 2011  Amr Moussa (Egypt)                 (b. 1936)
 1 Jul 2011 -              Nabil al-Arabi (Egypt)             (b. 1935)

Arab League membership
22 Mar 1945Egypt1, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria2, Transjordan3, Yemen (Sana)4
28 Mar 1953Libya5
19 Jan 1956The Sudan
 1 Jan 1958Tunisia
 1 Oct 1958Morocco
20 Jul 1961Kuwait
16 Aug 1962Algeria
12 Dec 1967Yemen (Aden)4
11 Sep 1971Bahrain, Qatar
29 Sep 1971Oman
 6 Dec 1971United Arab Emirates
26 Nov 1973Mauritania
14 Feb 1974Somalia
 9 Sep 1976Palestine Liberation Organization
 4 Sep 1977Djibouti
20 Nov 1993Comoros
1Suspended from Mar 1979 to May 1989. 2Merged with Egypt to form United Arab Republic 22 Feb 1958; seceded from U.A.R. 28 Sep 1961 and rejoined Arab League 28 Oct 1961. Suspended from 16 Nov 2011. 3From 1949 Jordan. 4Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united in 1990. 5Libya announced its withdrawal 24 Oct 2002; this would be effective one year later; Libya canceled (16 Jan 2003), reaffirmed (3 Apr 2003), and again canceled (25 May 2003) the decision to withdraw.


Arab Maghreb Union

17 Feb 1989                Arab Maghreb Union founded

Secretaries-general
23 Oct 1991 - 26 Feb 2002  Mohamed Amamou (Tunisia)           (b. 1933 - d. 2014)
26 Feb 2002 -  1 Feb 2006  Habib Boularčs (Tunisia)           (b. 1933 - d. 2014)
 1 Feb 2006 -              Habib Ben Yahia (Tunisia)          (b. 1938)

AMU membership
17 Feb 1989Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia


Asian Development Bank

Presidents (all from Japan except as noted)
24 Nov 1966 - 24 Nov 1972  Takeshi Watanabe                   (b. 1906 - d. 2010)
25 Nov 1972 - 23 Nov 1976  Shiro Inoue                        (b. 1915 - d. 2010)
24 Nov 1976 - 23 Nov 1981  Taroichi Yoshida                   (b. 1919)
24 Nov 1981 - 23 Nov 1989  Masao Fujioka                      (b. 1924)
24 Nov 1989 - 23 Nov 1993  Kimimasa Tarumizu                  (b. 1930 - d. 2009)
24 Nov 1993 - 15 Jan 1999  Mitsuo Sato                        (b. 1933 - d. 2002)
16 Jan 1999 -  1 Feb 2005  Tadao Chino                        (b. 1934 - d. 2008)
 1 Feb 2005 - 18 Mar 2013  Haruhiko Kuroda                    (b. 1944)
18 Mar 2013 - 28 Apr 2013  Bindu N. Lohani (Nepal) (acting)   (b. 1948)
28 Apr 2013 -              Takehiko Nakao                     (b. 1956)

ADB membership
22 Aug 1966Afghanistan, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, United States, Western Samoa1
29 Aug 1966The Netherlands
30 Aug 1966Federal Republic of Germany, Laos
21 Sep 1966Singapore
22 Sep 1966Taiwan, South Vietnam2
26 Sep 1966United Kingdom
29 Sep 1966Austria, Ceylon3, New Zealand, Sweden
30 Sep 1966Cambodia, Italy
24 Nov 1966Indonesia
19 Dec 1966Australia
31 Dec 1967Switzerland
27 Mar 1969Hong Kong
 2 Apr 1970Fiji
27 Jul 1970France
 8 Apr 1971Papua New Guinea
29 Mar 1972Tonga
14 Mar 1973Bangladesh
26 Apr 1973Burma4
30 Apr 1973Solomon Islands
28 May 1974Gilbert and Ellice Islands5
20 Apr 1976Cook Islands
14 Feb 1978Maldives
15 Apr 1982Bhutan, Vanuatu
14 Feb 1986Spain
10 Mar 1986China
 4 Apr 1990Marshall Islands
26 Apr 1990Federated States of Micronesia
22 Feb 1991Mongolia
15 Apr 1991Turkey
17 Sep 1991Nauru
 3 May 1993Tuvalu
19 Jan 1994Kazakhstan
13 Apr 1994Kyrgyzstan
31 Aug 1995Uzbekistan
20 Apr 1998Tajikistan
22 Dec 1999Azerbaijan
31 Aug 2000Turkmenistan
 2 Apr 2002Portugal
23 Jul 2002Timor-Leste
25 Sep 2003Luxembourg
29 Dec 2003Palau
20 Sep 2005Armenia
27 Apr 2006Brunei
24 Jul 2006Ireland
 2 Feb 2007Georgia
1From 1997 Samoa. 2From 1976 Vietnam. 3From 1972 Sri Lanka. 4From 1989 Myanmar. 5From 1979 Kiribati.


Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Secretaries-general
 7 Jun 1976 - 18 Feb 1978  Hartono Dharsono (Indonesia)       (b. 1925 - d. 1996)
19 Feb 1978 -  1 Jul 1978  Umarjadi Njotowijono (Indonesia)   (b. 1910)
10 Jul 1978 -  1 Jul 1980  Datuk Ali bin Abdullah (Malaysia)
 1 Jul 1980 -  1 Jul 1982  Narciso G. Reyes (Philippines)     (b. 1914 - d. 1996)
18 Jul 1982 - 16 Jul 1984  Chan Kai Yau (Singapore)           (b. 1930)
16 Jul 1984 - 16 Jul 1986  Phan Wannamethee (Thailand)        (b. 1923)
16 Jul 1986 - 16 Jul 1989  Roderick Yong (Brunei)             (b. 1933?)
17 Jul 1989 -  1 Jan 1993  Rusli Noor (Indonesia)             (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 1993 -  5 Jan 1998  Datuk Ajit Singh (Malaysia)        (b. 1938)
 5 Jan 1998 -  6 Jan 2003  Rodolfo C. Severino (Philippines)  (b. 1936)
 6 Jan 2003 -  7 Jan 2008  Ong Keng Yong (Singapore)          (b. 1954)
 7 Jan 2008 -  9 Jan 2013  Surin Pitsuwan (Thailand)          (b. 1949)
 9 Jan 2013 -              Le Luong Minh (Vietnam)            (b. 1952)

ASEAN membership
 8 Aug 1967Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand
 7 Jan 1984Brunei
28 Jul 1995Vietnam
23 Jul 1997Laos, Myanmar
30 Apr 1999Cambodia


Bank for International Settlements

General managers
23 Apr 1930 -  8 Sep 1937  Pierre Quesnay (France)            (b. 1895 - d. 1937)
 1 Jan 1938 - 30 Sep 1958  Roger Auboin (France)              (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
 1 Oct 1958 - 30 Apr 1963  Guillaume Guindey (France)         (b. 1909 - d. 1989)
 1 May 1963 - 23 Dec 1970  Gabriel Ferras (France)            (b. 1913 - d. 1970)
 1 May 1971 - 28 Feb 1981  René Larre (France)                (b. 1915 - d. 1999)
 1 Mar 1981 - 30 Apr 1985  Günther Schleiminger (W. Germany)  (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
 1 May 1985 - 31 Dec 1993  Alexandre Lamfalussy (Belgium)     (b. 1929)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Mar 2003  Andrew Crockett (U.K.)             (b. 1943 - d. 2012)
 1 Apr 2003 - 30 Sep 2008  Malcolm D. Knight (Canada)         (b. 1944)
 1 Oct 2008 - 31 Mar 2009  Hervé Hannoun (France) (acting)    (b. 1950)
 1 Apr 2009 -              Jaime Caruana (Spain)              (b. 1952)

Caribbean Community

Secretaries-general
       1973 -        1974  William Demas
                           (Trinidad and Tobago)              (b. 1929 - d. 1998)
       1974 -    Aug 1977  Sir Alister McIntyre (Grenada)     (b. 1932)
   Aug 1977 -    Aug 1978  Joseph Tyndall (Guyana) (acting)   (b. 1927)
 1 Nov 1978 -    Sep 1983  Kurleigh King (Barbados)           (b. 1933 - d. 1998)
   Sep 1983 - 31 Jul 1992  Roderick Rainford (Jamaica)        (b. 1940)
 1 Aug 1992 - 31 Dec 2010  Edwin W. Carrington
                           (Trinidad and Tobago)              (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 2011 - 15 Aug 2011  Lolita Applewhaite (f) (Barbados)
                           (acting)
15 Aug 2011 -              Irwin LaRocque (Dominica)          (b. 1955?)

CARICOM membership
 1 Aug 1973Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago
 1 May 1974Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 4 Jul 1974Antigua1
26 Jul 1974Saint Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla2
 4 Jul 1983The Bahamas
 4 Jul 1995Suriname
 5 Jul 2002Haiti3
1From 1981 Antigua and Barbuda. 2From 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis. 3Suspended Mar 2004 - Jun 2006.


Central American Parliament

Presidents
28 Oct 1991 - 28 Oct 1992  Roberto Carpio Nicolle (Guatemala)
28 Oct 1992 - 28 Oct 1993  Ilsa Díaz Zelaya (f) (Honduras)    (b. 1942)
28 Oct 1993 -  4 Jul 1994  José Francisco Guerrero Munguía
                           (El Salvador)                      (b. 1937 - d. 1994)
12 Jul 1994 - 28 Oct 1994  Francisco Merino (El Salvador)
28 Oct 1994 - 28 Oct 1995  Augusto Vela Mena (Guatemala)
                           (1st time)
28 Oct 1995 -  2 Dec 1995  Roland Valenzuela Oyuela
                           (Honduras)                         (b. ... - d. 1995)
 6 Dec 1995 - 28 Oct 1996  Raúl Zaldívar Guzmán (Honduras)
28 Oct 1996 - 28 Oct 1997  Ernesto Lima Mena (El Salvador)
28 Oct 1997 - 28 Oct 1998  Marco Antonio Solares Pérez
                           (Guatemala)                        (b. 1956)
28 Oct 1998 - 28 Oct 1999  Carlos Roberto Reina (Honduras)    (b. 1926 - d. 2003)
28 Oct 1999 - 28 Oct 2000  José Ernesto Somarriba Sosa
                           (Nicaragua)                        (b. 1920? - d. 2009)
28 Oct 2000 - 28 Oct 2001  Hugo Guiraud Gargano (Panama)
28 Oct 2001 - 28 Oct 2002  Rodrigo Samayoa Rivas (El Salvador)
28 Oct 2002 - 28 Oct 2003  Augusto Vela Mena (Guatemala)
                           (2nd time)
28 Oct 2003 - 28 Oct 2004  Mario Facussé Handal (Honduras)    (b. 1946)
28 Oct 2004 - 28 Oct 2005  Fabio Gadea Mantilla (Nicaragua)   (b. 1931)
28 Oct 2005 - 30 Oct 2006  Julio Palacios (Panama)
30 Oct 2006 - 26 Oct 2007  Ciro Cruz Zepeda (El Salvador)     (b. 1946)
26 Oct 2007 - 28 Oct 2008  Julio Guillermo González Gamarra
                           (Guatemala)
28 Oct 2008 - 28 Oct 2009  Gloria Guadalupe Oquelí (f)
                           (Honduras)
28 Oct 2009 - 28 Oct 2010  Jacinto Suárez (Nicaragua)         (b. 1947)
28 Oct 2010 - 31 Oct 2011  Dorindo Cortez (Panama)
31 Oct 2011 - 28 Oct 2012  Manolo Pichardo (Dom.Rep.)
28 Oct 2012 - 25 Oct 2013  Leonel Vásquez Búcaro (El Salvador)
25 Oct 2013 -              Paula Rodríguez (f) (Guatemala)

PARLACEN membership
28 Oct 1991El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras
21 Jan 1997Nicaragua
 1 Sep 1999Panama1
30 Oct 2006Dominican Republic
1Withdrew 24 Nov 2010; opposition Panamanians (including Dorindo Cortez) remained in the parliament; rejoined 28 Jan 2013.


Central Treaty Organization

15 Apr 1955                Middle East Treaty Organization (Baghdad Pact)
19 Aug 1959                Central Treaty Organization
26 Sep 1979                dissolved

Secretaries-general
       1955 - 31 Dec 1958  Awni Khalidy (Iraq)
 1 Jan 1959 -        1961  M.O.A. Baig (Pakistan)             (b. 1904)
       1962 -        1967  Abbas Ali Khalatbari (Iran)        (b. 1912 - d. 1979)
       1967 -  1 Feb 1972  Turgut Menemencioglu (Turkey)      (b. 1914)
 1 Feb 1972 -    Jan 1975  Nassir Assar (Iran)
   Jan 1975 -  1 Aug 1977  Haluk Bayülken (Turkey)            (b. 1921 - d. 2007)
31 Mar 1978 -        1979  Kamuran Gürün (Turkey)             (b. 1924 - d. 2004)

CENTO membership
15 Apr 1955Iraq1, Turkey, United Kingdom
23 Sep 1955Pakistan2
23 Oct 1955Iran3
1Withdrew 24 Mar 1959. 2Withdrew 12 Mar 1979. 3Withdrew 13 Mar 1979.


The Commonwealth

Secretaries-general
   Jun 1965 - 30 Jun 1975  Arnold Smith (Canada)              (b. 1915 - d. 1994)
 1 Jul 1975 - 30 Jun 1990  Sir Shridath Ramphal (Guyana)      (b. 1928)
 1 Jul 1990 -  3 Apr 2000  Emeka Anyaoku (Nigeria)            (b. 1933)
 3 Apr 2000 -  1 Apr 2008  Don McKinnon (New Zealand)         (b. 1939)
 1 Apr 2008 -              Kamalesh Sharma (India)            (b. 1941)

Commonwealth membership
11 Dec 1931Australia, Canada, Ireland1, New Zealand, Newfoundland2, South Africa3, United Kingdom
15 Oct 1947India, Pakistan4
 4 Feb 1948Ceylon5
 6 Mar 1957Ghana
31 Aug 1957Malaya6
 1 Oct 1960Nigeria7
13 Mar 1961Cyprus
27 Apr 1961Sierra Leone8
 9 Dec 1961Tanganyika9
 6 Aug 1962Jamaica
31 Aug 1962Trinidad and Tobago
 9 Oct 1962Uganda
10 Dec 1963Zanzibar9
12 Dec 1963Kenya
 6 Jul 1964Malawi
21 Sep 1964Malta
24 Oct 1964Zambia
18 Feb 1965The Gambia10
15 Oct 1965Singapore
26 May 1966Guyana
30 Sep 1966Botswana
 4 Oct 1966Lesotho
30 Nov 1966Barbados
12 Mar 1968Mauritius
 6 Sep 1968Swaziland
29 Nov 1968Nauru11
 4 Jun 1970Tonga
28 Aug 1970Western Samoa12
10 Oct 1970Fiji13
18 Apr 1972Bangladesh
10 Jul 1973The Bahamas
 7 Feb 1974Grenada
16 Sep 1975Papua New Guinea
28 Jun 1976Seychelles
 7 Jul 1978Solomon Islands
 1 Oct 1978Tuvalu14
 3 Nov 1978Dominica
22 Feb 1979Saint Lucia
12 Jul 1979Kiribati
27 Oct 1979Saint Vincent and the Grenadines15
18 Apr 1980Zimbabwe16
30 Jul 1980Vanuatu
21 Sep 1981Belize
 1 Nov 1981Antigua and Barbuda
 9 Jul 1982Maldives15
19 Sep 1983Saint Kitts and Nevis
 1 Jan 1984Brunei
21 Mar 1990Namibia
 1 Nov 1995Cameroon
12 Nov 1995Mozambique
28 Nov 2009Rwanda
1Withdrew 18 Apr 1949. 2Became a colony in 1934. 3Withdrew 31 May 1961, rejoined 1 Jun 1994. 4Withdrew 30 Jan 1972, rejoined 1 Oct 1989; suspended from councils 18 Oct 1999 - 22 May 2004 and 22 Nov 2007 - 12 May 2008. 5From 1972 Sri Lanka. 6From 1963 Malaysia. 7Suspended 11 Nov 1995 - 29 May 1999. 8Suspended from councils 1997-98. 9Tanganyika and Zanzibar united in 1964 to form Tanzania. 10Withdrew 2 Oct 2013. 11Special member to 1 May 1999 and 9 Jan 2006 - Nov 2007; "member in arrears" Nov 2007 - Jun 2011. 12From 1997 Samoa. 13Withdrew 15 Oct 1987, rejoined 30 Sep 1997; suspended from councils 6 Jun 2000 - 20 Dec 2001 and from 8 Dec 2006; fully suspended 1 Sep 2009. 14Special member to 1 Sep 2000. 15Special member to Jun 1985. 16Suspended from councils 19 Mar 2002; withdrew 7 Dec 2003.


Commonwealth of Independent States

Executive secretaries
   May 1993 - 29 Apr 1998  Ivan Korotchenya (Belarus)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1948)
29 Apr 1998 -  4 Mar 1999  Boris Berezovsky (Russia)          (b. 1946 - d. 2013)
 4 Mar 1999 -  2 Apr 1999  Ivan Korotchenya (Belarus)
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 2 Apr 1999 - 14 Jun 2004  Yury Yarov (Russia)                (b. 1942)
14 Jun 2004 -  5 Oct 2007  Vladimir Rushailo (Russia)         (b. 1953)
 5 Oct 2007 -              Sergey Lebedev (Russia)            (b. 1948)

CIS membership
21 Dec 1991Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan1, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
 9 Dec 1993Georgia2
1Withdrew 26 Aug 2005; continued to participate as "associate member." 2Withdrew 18 Aug 2009.


Council of Europe

Secretaries-general
11 Aug 1949 - 17 Sep 1953  Jacques Camille Paris (France)     (b. 1902 - d. 1953)
21 Sep 1953 - 24 Sep 1956  Léon Marchal (France)              (b. 1900 - d. 1956)
15 Sep 1957 - 15 Mar 1964  Lodovico Benvenuti (Italy)         (b. 1899 - d. 1966)
16 Mar 1964 - 15 Sep 1969  Peter Smithers (U.K.)              (b. 1913 - d. 2006)
16 Sep 1969 - 16 Sep 1974  Lujo Toncic-Sorinj (Austria)       (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
17 Sep 1974 - 17 Sep 1979  Georg Kahn-Ackermann (W.Ger.)      (b. 1918 - d. 2008)
 1 Oct 1979 -  1 Oct 1984  Franz Karasek (Austria)            (b. 1924 - d. 1986)
 1 Oct 1984 -  1 Jun 1989  Marcelino Oreja Aguirre (Spain)    (b. 1935)
 1 Jun 1989 - 31 May 1994  Catherine Lalumičre (f) (France)   (b. 1935)
20 Jun 1994 -  1 Sep 1999  Daniel Tarschys (Sweden)           (b. 1943)
 1 Sep 1999 -  1 Sep 2004  Walter Schwimmer (Austria)         (b. 1942)
 1 Sep 2004 -  1 Sep 2009  Terry Davis (U.K.)                 (b. 1938)
 1 Sep 2009 -  1 Oct 2009  Maud de Boer-Buquicchio (f)
                           (Netherlands) (acting)             (b. 1944)
 1 Oct 2009 -              Thorbjřrn Jagland (Norway)         (b. 1950)

Presidents of the European Court of Human Rights
21 Jan 1959 -  3 May 1965  Arnold Duncan McNair, Baron McNair
                           (U.K.)                             (b. 1885 - d. 1975)
20 May 1965 - 15 Jun 1968  René Cassin (France)               (b. 1887 - d. 1976)
27 Sep 1968 -  5 May 1971  Henri Rolin (Belgium)              (b. 1891 - d. 1973)
 5 May 1971 - 21 Jan 1974  Sir Humphrey Waldock (U.K.)        (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
 8 May 1974 -  9 Dec 1980  Giorgio Balladore Pallieri (Italy) (b. 1905 - d. 1980)
30 Jan 1981 - 30 May 1985  Gérard J. Wiarda (Netherlands)     (b. 1906 - d. 1988)
30 May 1985 - 18 Feb 1998  Rolv Ryssdal (Norway)              (b. 1914 - d. 1998)
24 Mar 1998 - 31 Oct 1998  Rudolf Bernhardt (Germany)         (b. 1925)
 1 Nov 1998 - 18 Jan 2007  Luzius Wildhaber (Switzerland)     (b. 1937)
19 Jan 2007 -  3 Nov 2011  Jean-Paul Costa (France)           (b. 1941)
 4 Nov 2011 - 31 Oct 2012  Sir Nicolas Bratza (U.K.)          (b. 1945)
 1 Nov 2012 -              Dean Spielmann (Luxembourg)        (b. 1962)

COE membership
 5 May 1949Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
 9 Aug 1949Greece1
 9 Mar 1950Iceland
13 Apr 1950Turkey
13 Jul 1950Federal Republic of Germany
16 Apr 1956Austria
24 May 1961Cyprus
 6 May 1963Switzerland
29 Apr 1965Malta
22 Sep 1976Portugal
24 Nov 1977Spain
23 Nov 1978Liechtenstein
16 Nov 1988San Marino
 5 May 1989Finland
 6 Nov 1990Hungary
29 Nov 1991Poland
 7 May 1992Bulgaria
14 May 1993Estonia, Lithuania, Slovenia
30 Jun 1993Czech Republic, Slovakia
 7 Oct 1993Romania
10 Nov 1994Andorra
10 Feb 1995Latvia
13 Jul 1995Albania, Moldova
 9 Nov 1995Macedonia, Ukraine
28 Feb 1996Russia
 6 Nov 1996Croatia
27 Apr 1999Georgia
25 Jan 2001Armenia, Azerbaijan
24 Apr 2002Bosnia and Herzegovina
 3 Apr 2003Serbia and Montenegro2
 5 Oct 2004Monaco
11 May 2007Montenegro
1Withdrew 12 Dec 1969; rejoined 28 Nov 1974. 2From 5 Jun 2006, Serbia.


East African Community

 6 Jun 1967                East African Community established
   Jun 1977                dissolved
14 Mar 1996                East African Cooperation secretariat inaugurated
15 Jan 2001                East African Community reestablished

Secretaries-general
       1968 -        1971  Z.H.K. Bigirwenkya (Uganda)        (b. 1926?)
   Jun 1971 -    Apr 1974  Charles Maina (Kenya)
       1974 -        1977  Edwin Mtei (Tanzania)              (b. 1932)
14 Mar 1996 - 24 Apr 2001  Francis Muthaura (Kenya)           (b. 1946)
24 Apr 2001 - 24 Apr 2006  Nuwe Amanya Mushega (Uganda)       (b. 1946)
25 Apr 2006 - 24 Apr 2011  Juma Volter Mwapachu (Tanzania)    (b. 1942)
25 Apr 2011 -              Richard Sezibera (Rwanda)          (b. 1964)

Speakers of the East African Legislative Assembly
29 Nov 2001 -  5 Jun 2007  Abdulrahman Kinana (Tanzania)      (b. 1951)
 5 Jun 2007 -  5 Jun 2012  Abdirahin Haithar Abdi (Kenya)     (b. 1967?)
 5 Jun 2012 -              Margaret N. Zziwa (f) (Uganda)     (b. 1963)

EAC membership
6 Jun 1967Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda
1 Jul 2007Burundi, Rwanda


Economic Community of West African States

Executive secretaries (from 1 Jan 2007, presidents of the Commission)
   Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1984  Aboubakar Diaby Ouattara
                           (Ivory Coast)                      (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1988  Momodu Munu (Sierra Leone)         (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Jan 1993  Abass Bundu (Sierra Leone)         (b. 1948)
 1 Feb 1993 - 30 Sep 1997  Edouard Benjamin (Guinea)          (b. 1941)
 1 Oct 1997 -  6 Feb 2002  Lansana Kouyaté (Guinea)           (b. 1950)
 6 Feb 2002 - 16 Feb 2010  Mohamed Ibn Chambas (Ghana)        (b. 1950)
16 Feb 2010 -  1 Mar 2012  Victor Gbeho (Ghana)               (b. 1935)
 1 Mar 2012 -              Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo
                           (Burkina Faso)                     (b. 1953)

Chairmen 1977 - 1978
Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo) (1st time) (b. 1937 - d. 2005) 1978 - 1979 Olusegun Obasanjo (Nigeria) (b. 1937) 1979 - 1980 Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal) (b. 1906 - d. 2001) 1980 - 1981 Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1981 - 1982 Siaka Stevens (Sierra Leone) (b. 1905 - d. 1988) 1982 - 1983 Mathieu Kérékou (Benin) (b. 1933) 1983 - 1984 Ahmed Sékou Touré (Guinea) (b. 1922 - d. 1984) 1984 - 1985 Lansana Conté (Guinea) (b. 1934 - d. 2008) 1985 - 27 Aug 1985 Muhammadu Buhari (Nigeria) (b. 1942) 27 Aug 1985 - 1989 Ibrahim Babangida (Nigeria) (b. 1941) 1989 - 1990 Sir Dawda Jawara (The Gambia) (1st time) (b. 1924) 1990 - 1991 Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso) (1st time) (b. 1951) 1991 - 1992 Sir Dawda Jawara (The Gambia) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1992 - 1993 Abdou Diouf (Senegal) (b. 1935) 1993 - 1994 Nicéphore Soglo (Benin) (b. 1934) 1994 - 27 Jul 1996 Jerry John Rawlings (Ghana) (b. 1947) 27 Jul 1996 - 8 Jun 1998 Sani Abacha (Nigeria) (b. 1943 - d. 1998) 9 Jun 1998 - 1999 Abdulsalami Abubakar (Nigeria) (b. 1942) 1999 Gnassingbé Eyadéma (Togo) (3rd time) (s.a.) 1999 - 21 Dec 2001 Alpha Oumar Konaré (Mali) (b. 1946) 21 Dec 2001 - 31 Jan 2003 Abdoulaye Wade (Senegal) (b. 1926) 31 Jan 2003 - 19 Jan 2005 John Agyekum Kufuor (Ghana) (b. 1938) 19 Jan 2005 - 19 Jan 2007 Mamadou Tandja (Niger) (b. 1938) 19 Jan 2007 - 19 Dec 2008 Blaise Compaoré (Burkina Faso) (2nd time) (s.a.) 19 Dec 2008 - 16 Feb 2010 Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (Nigeria) (b. 1951 - d. 2010) 16 Feb 2010 - 17 Feb 2012 Goodluck Jonathan (Nigeria) (b. 1957) 17 Feb 2012 - 28 Mar 2014 Alassane Ouattara (Côte d'Ivoire) (b. 1942) 28 Mar 2014 - John Dramani Mahama (Ghana) (b. 1958)

ECOWAS membership
28 May 1975Benin, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea1, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast2, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania3, Niger4, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo5, Upper Volta6
       1977Cape Verde7
1Suspended 10 Jan 2009 - 24 Mar 2011. 2From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 3Withdrew Dec 1999 (effective Dec 2000). 4Suspended 20 Oct 2009 - 24 Mar 2011. 5Suspended 19-26 Feb 2005. 6From 1984 Burkina Faso. 7From 2013 Cabo Verde.


European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Presidents
15 Apr 1991 - 16 Jul 1993  Jacques Attali (France)            (b. 1943)
16 Jul 1993 - 27 Sep 1993  Ron Freeman (U.S.) (acting)        (b. 1939)
27 Sep 1993 - 31 Jan 1998  Jacques de Larosičre (France)      (b. 1929)
31 Jan 1998 -  1 Sep 1998  Charles Frank (U.S.) (1st time)    (b. 1937)
                           (acting)
 1 Sep 1998 - 18 Apr 2000  Horst Köhler (Germany)             (b. 1943)
18 Apr 2000 -  3 Jul 2000  Charles Frank (U.S.) (2nd time)    (s.a.)
                           (acting)
 3 Jul 2000 -  3 Jul 2008  Jean Lemierre (France)             (b. 1950)
 3 Jul 2008 -  3 Jul 2012  Thomas Mirow (Germany)             (b. 1953)
 3 Jul 2012 -              Sir Suma Chakrabarti (U.K.)        (b. 1969)

EBRD membership
28 Mar 1991Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia1, Denmark, Egypt, European Community, European Investment Bank, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Morocco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Soviet Union2, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia3
18 Dec 1991Albania
28 Feb 1992Estonia
 5 Mar 1992Lithuania
18 Mar 1992Latvia
 9 Apr 1992Russia
30 Apr 1992Uzbekistan
 5 May 1992Moldova
 1 Jun 1992Turkmenistan
 5 Jun 1992Kyrgyzstan
10 Jun 1992Belarus
27 Jul 1992Kazakhstan
13 Aug 1992Ukraine
 4 Sep 1992Georgia
25 Sep 1992Azerbaijan
16 Oct 1992Tajikistan
 7 Dec 1992Armenia
23 Dec 1992Slovenia
15 Apr 1993Croatia
21 Apr 1993Macedonia
17 Jun 1996Bosnia and Herzegovina
 9 Oct 2000Mongolia
 3 Jun 2006Montenegro
29 Dec 2011Jordan, Tunisia
17 Dec 2012Kosovo
1From 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia. 2Dissolved 25 Dec 1991. 3Broke up in 1992; the smaller Yugoslavia joined anew 19 Jan 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia.


European Free Trade Association

 3 May 1960                European Free Trade Association established

Secretaries-general
 1 Sep 1960 - 31 Oct 1965  Frank E. Figgures (U.K.)           (b. 1910 - d. 1990)
 1 Nov 1965 -  5 May 1972  Sir John Coulson (U.K.)            (b. 1909 - d. 1997)
 6 May 1972 - 30 Nov 1975  Bengt Rabaeus (Sweden)             (b. 1917)
 1 Dec 1975 - 31 Dec 1975  Cornelio Sommaruga (Switzerland)   (b. 1932)
                           (interim)
 1 Jan 1976 - 30 Sep 1981  Charles Müller (Switzerland)       (b. 1922)
 1 Oct 1981 - 30 Nov 1981  Magnus Vahlquist (Sweden)
                           (interim)
 1 Dec 1981 - 15 Apr 1988  Per Kleppe (Norway)                (b. 1923)
16 Apr 1988 - 31 Aug 1994  Georg Reisch (Austria)             (b. 1930)
 1 Sep 1994 - 31 Aug 2000  Kjartan Jóhannsson (Iceland)       (b. 1939)
 1 Sep 2000 - 31 Aug 2006  William Rossier (Switzerland)      (b. 1942)
 1 Sep 2006 - 31 Aug 2012  Kĺre Bryn (Norway)                 (b. 1944)
 1 Sep 2012 -              Kristinn F. Árnason (Iceland)      (b. 1954)

EFTA membership
 3 May 1960Austria1, Denmark2, Norway, Portugal3, Sweden1, Switzerland, United Kingdom2
 1 Mar 1970Iceland
 1 Jan 1986Finland1
 1 Sep 1991Liechtenstein
1Withdrew 1 Jan 1995. 2Withdrew 1 Jan 1973. Denmark's membership included Greenland from 1 Jul 1961 and the Faeroe Islands from 1 Jan 1968. 3Withdrew 1 Jan 1986.


European Union

 1 Jan 1958                European Economic Community
 1 Jul 1967                joined with European Coal and Steel Community and European
                           Atomic Community to form the European Communities (from
                           the 1980s usually known as European Community)
 1 Nov 1993                European Union

Presidency of the European Council
 1 Jul 1987 - 31 Dec 1987  Denmark
 1 Jan 1988 - 30 Jun 1988  West Germany
 1 Jul 1988 - 31 Dec 1988  Greece
 1 Jan 1989 - 30 Jun 1989  Spain
 1 Jul 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  France
 1 Jan 1990 - 30 Jun 1990  Ireland
 1 Jul 1990 - 31 Dec 1990  Italy
 1 Jan 1991 - 30 Jun 1991  Luxembourg
 1 Jul 1991 - 31 Dec 1991  Netherlands
 1 Jan 1992 - 30 Jun 1992  Portugal
 1 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992  United Kingdom
 1 Jan 1993 - 30 Jun 1993  Denmark
 1 Jul 1993 - 31 Dec 1993  Belgium
 1 Jan 1994 - 30 Jun 1994  Greece
 1 Jul 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Germany
 1 Jan 1995 - 30 Jun 1995  France
 1 Jul 1995 - 31 Dec 1995  Spain
 1 Jan 1996 - 30 Jun 1996  Italy
 1 Jul 1996 - 31 Dec 1996  Ireland
 1 Jan 1997 - 30 Jun 1997  Netherlands
 1 Jul 1997 - 31 Dec 1997  Luxembourg
 1 Jan 1998 - 30 Jun 1998  United Kingdom
 1 Jul 1998 - 31 Dec 1998  Austria
 1 Jan 1999 - 30 Jun 1999  Germany
 1 Jul 1999 - 31 Dec 1999  Finland
 1 Jan 2000 - 30 Jun 2000  Portugal
 1 Jul 2000 - 31 Dec 2000  France
 1 Jan 2001 - 30 Jun 2001  Sweden
 1 Jul 2001 - 31 Dec 2001  Belgium
 1 Jan 2002 - 30 Jun 2002  Spain
 1 Jul 2002 - 31 Dec 2002  Denmark
 1 Jan 2003 - 30 Jun 2003  Greece
 1 Jul 2003 - 31 Dec 2003  Italy
 1 Jan 2004 - 30 Jun 2004  Ireland
 1 Jul 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Netherlands
 1 Jan 2005 - 30 Jun 2005  Luxembourg
 1 Jul 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  United Kingdom
 1 Jan 2006 - 30 Jun 2006  Austria
 1 Jul 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Finland
 1 Jan 2007 - 30 Jun 2007  Germany
 1 Jul 2007 - 31 Dec 2007  Portugal
 1 Jan 2008 - 30 Jun 2008  Slovenia
 1 Jul 2008 - 31 Dec 2008  France
 1 Jan 2009 - 30 Jun 2009  Czech Republic
 1 Jul 2009 - 31 Dec 2009  Sweden
President of the European Council
 1 Dec 2009 -              Herman Van Rompuy (Belgium)        (b. 1947)

Presidents of the European Commission
31 Jan 1958 - 30 Jun 1967  Walter Hallstein (W. Germany)      (b. 1901 - d. 1982)
 1 Jul 1967 -  1 Jul 1970  Jean Rey (Belgium)                 (b. 1902 - d. 1983)
 2 Jul 1970 - 22 Mar 1972  Franco Maria Malfatti (Italy)      (b. 1927 - d. 1991)
22 Mar 1972 -  5 Jan 1973  Sicco Mansholt (Netherlands)       (b. 1908 - d. 1995)
 9 Jan 1973 -  5 Jan 1977  François-Xavier Ortoli (France)    (b. 1925 - d. 2007)
11 Jan 1977 -  5 Jan 1981  Roy Jenkins (U.K.)                 (b. 1920 - d. 2003)
12 Jan 1981 -  5 Jan 1985  Gaston Thorn (Luxembourg)          (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
15 Jan 1985 -  5 Jan 1995  Jacques Delors (France)            (b. 1925)
24 Jan 1995 - 14 Jul 1999  Jacques Santer (Luxembourg)        (b. 1937)
14 Jul 1999 - 15 Sep 1999  Manuel Marín (Spain) (acting)      (b. 1949)
15 Sep 1999 - 22 Nov 2004  Romano Prodi (Italy)               (b. 1939)
22 Nov 2004 -              José Manuel Durăo Barroso
                           (Portugal)                         (b. 1956)

Presidents of the Parliamentary Assembly (from 30 Mar 1962, European Parliament)
19 Mar 1958 - 28 Mar 1960  Robert Schuman (France)            (b. 1886 - d. 1963)
28 Mar 1960 - 27 Mar 1962  Hans Furler (W. Germany)           (b. 1904 - d. 1975)
27 Mar 1962 - 21 Mar 1964  Gaetano Martino (Italy)            (b. 1900 - d. 1967)
21 Mar 1964 - 24 Sep 1965  Jean Duvieusart (Belgium)          (b. 1900 - d. 1977)
24 Sep 1965 -  7 Mar 1966  Victor Leemans (Netherlands)       (b. 1901 - d. 1971)
 7 Mar 1966 - 11 Mar 1969  Alain Poher (France)               (b. 1909 - d. 1996)
11 Mar 1969 -  9 Mar 1971  Mario Scelba (Italy)               (b. 1901 - d. 1991)
 9 Mar 1971 - 13 Mar 1973  Walter Behrendt (W. Germany)       (b. 1914 - d. 1997)
13 Mar 1973 - 11 Mar 1975  Cornelis Berkhouwer (Netherlands)  (b. 1919 - d. 1992)
11 Mar 1975 -  8 Mar 1977  Georges Spénale (France)           (b. 1913 - d. 1983)
 8 Mar 1977 - 17 Jul 1979  Emilio Colombo (Italy)             (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
17 Jul 1979 - 19 Jan 1982  Simone Veil (f) (France)           (b. 1927)
19 Jan 1982 - 24 Jul 1984  Piet Dankert (Netherlands)         (b. 1934 - d. 2003)
24 Jul 1984 - 20 Jan 1987  Pierre Pflimlin (France)           (b. 1907 - d. 2000)
20 Jan 1987 - 25 Jul 1989  Henry Plumb, Baron Plumb (U.K.)    (b. 1925)
25 Jul 1989 - 14 Jan 1992  Enrique Barón Crespo (Spain)       (b. 1944)
14 Jan 1992 - 19 Jul 1994  Egon Klepsch (Germany)             (b. 1930 - d. 2010)
19 Jul 1994 - 14 Jan 1997  Klaus Hänsch (Germany)             (b. 1938)
14 Jan 1997 - 20 Jul 1999  José María Gil-Robles (Spain)      (b. 1935)
20 Jul 1999 - 15 Jan 2002  Nicole Fontaine (f) (France)       (b. 1942)
15 Jan 2002 - 20 Jul 2004  Pat Cox (Ireland)                  (b. 1952)
20 Jul 2004 - 16 Jan 2007  Josep Borrell (Spain)              (b. 1947)
16 Jan 2007 - 14 Jul 2009  Hans-Gert Pöttering (Germany)      (b. 1945)
14 Jul 2009 - 17 Jan 2012  Jerzy Buzek (Poland)               (b. 1940)
17 Jan 2012 - 18 Jun 2014  Martin Schulz (Germany) (1st time) (b. 1955)
18 Jun 2014 -  1 Jul 2014  Gianni Pittella (Italy) (acting)   (b. 1958)
 1 Jul 2014 -              Martin Schulz (Germany) (2nd time) (s.a.)

Presidents of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community
10 Aug 1952 -  1 Jun 1955  Jean Monnet (France)               (b. 1888 - d. 1979)
 1 Jun 1955 -  7 Jan 1958  René Mayer (France)                (b. 1895 - d. 1972)
 7 Jan 1958 - 11 Sep 1959  Paul Finet (Belgium)               (b. 1897 - d. 1965)
11 Sep 1959 -  5 Nov 1963  Piero Malvestiti (Italy)           (b. 1899 - d. 1964)
 5 Nov 1963 -  1 Mar 1967  Dino Del Bo (Italy)                (b. 1916 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1967 - 30 Jun 1967  Albert Coppé (Belgium) (acting)    (b. 1911 - d. 1999)

Presidents of the Commission of the European Atomic Community
 7 Jan 1958 -  2 Feb 1959  Louis Armand (France)              (b. 1905 - d. 1971)
 2 Feb 1959 - 10 Jan 1962  Étienne Hirsch (France)            (b. 1901 - d. 1994)
10 Jan 1962 - 30 Jun 1967  Pierre Chatenet (France)           (b. 1917 - d. 1997)

High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy
18 Oct 1999 -  1 Dec 2009  Javier Solana Madariaga (Spain)    (b. 1942)
High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
 1 Dec 2009 -              Catherine Ashton, Baroness Ashton
                           of Upholland (f) (United Kingdom)  (b. 1956)

Presidents of the European Monetary Institute
 1 Jan 1994 - 30 Jun 1997  Alexandre Lamfalussy (Belgium)     (b. 1929)
 1 Jul 1997 - 31 May 1998  Wim Duisenberg (Netherlands)       (b. 1935 - d. 2005)
Presidents of the European Central Bank
 1 Jun 1998 - 31 Oct 2003  Wim Duisenberg (Netherlands)       (s.a.)
 1 Nov 2003 - 31 Oct 2011  Jean-Claude Trichet (France)       (b. 1942)
 1 Nov 2011 -              Mario Draghi (Italy)               (b. 1947)

Presidents of the European Investment Bank
   Feb 1958 -    May 1959  Pietro Campilli (Italy)            (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
   Jun 1959 -    Sep 1970  Paride Formentini (Italy)          (b. 1899 - d. 1976)
   Sep 1970 -    Jul 1984  Yves Le Portz (France)             (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
   Aug 1984 -    Mar 1993  Ernst-Günther Bröder (Germany)     (b. 1927 - d. 2013)
   Apr 1993 - 31 Dec 1999  Sir Brian Unwin (U.K.)             (b. 1935)
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2011  Philippe Maystadt (Belgium)        (b. 1948)
 1 Jan 2012 -              Werner Hoyer (Germany)             (b. 1951)
EU membership map

EU membership
 1 Jan 1958Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands
 1 Jan 1973Denmark1, Ireland, United Kingdom
 1 Jan 1981Greece
 1 Jan 1986Portugal, Spain
 1 Jan 1995Austria, Finland, Sweden
 1 May 2004Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia
 1 Jan 2007Bulgaria, Romania
 1 Jul 2013Croatia
1Greenland, which joined as part of Denmark and was never recognized as a separate member, withdrew 1 Feb 1985.


Food and Agriculture Organization

Directors-general
   Oct 1945 - 14 Apr 1948  Sir John Boyd Orr (U.K.)           (b. 1880 - d. 1971)
14 Apr 1948 - 31 Dec 1953  Norris E. Dodd (U.S.)              (b. 1879 - d. 1968)
 1 Jan 1954 -    Apr 1956  Philip V. Cardon (U.S.)            (b. 1889 - d. 1965)
   Apr 1956 -    Nov 1956  Sir Herbert Broadley (U.K.)        (b. 1892 - d. 1983)
                           (acting)
   Nov 1956 - 31 Dec 1967  Binay Ranjan Sen (India)           (b. 1898 - d. 1993)
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1975  Addeke Hendrik Boerma (Neth.)      (b. 1912 - d. 1992)
 1 Jan 1976 - 31 Dec 1993  Édouard Saouma (Lebanon)           (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 2011  Jacques Diouf (Senegal)            (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 2012 -              José Graziano da Silva (Brazil)    (b. 1949)

La Francophonie

20 Mar 1970                Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation
       1996                Agency for the Francophonie
       1998                International Organization of the Francophonie

Secretaries-general
16 Nov 1997 - 31 Dec 2002  Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt)      (b. 1922)
 1 Jan 2003 -              Abdou Diouf (Senegal)              (b. 1935)

Francophonie membership
20 Mar 1970Belgium, Burundi, Canada, Chad, Dahomey1, France, Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast2, Luxembourg, Mali, Mauritius, Monaco, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo3, Tunisia, Upper Volta4, Vietnam
   Jun 1973Lebanon
   Oct 1973Central African Republic
   Jun 1976Seychelles
   Dec 1977Comoros, Djibouti, Zaire5
   Dec 1979Dominica, Guinea-Bissau, New Hebrides6
   Mar 1980Mauritania
   Dec 1981Congo (Brazzaville), Guinea, Morocco, Saint Lucia
   Dec 1983Egypt
   Dec 1989Equatorial Guinea, Madagascar
   Dec 1991Cameroon, Laos
   Dec 1993Bulgaria, Cambodia, Romania
   Dec 1995Săo Tomé and Príncipe
   Feb 1996Moldova, Switzerland
   Dec 1996Cape Verde7
1From 1975 Benin. 2From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 3Suspended 9 Feb - 8 Apr 2005. 4From 1984 Burkina Faso. 5From 1997 Congo (Kinshasa). 6From 1980 Vanuatu. 7From 2013 Cabo Verde.


Gulf Cooperation Council

25 May 1981                Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
                           (Gulf Cooperation Council) founded

Secretaries-general
26 May 1981 -    Apr 1993  Abdullah Bishara (Kuwait)          (b. 1936)
   Apr 1993 -    Apr 1996  Fahim ibn Sultan al-Qasimi
                           (United Arab Emirates)             (b. 1948)
   Apr 1996 - 31 Mar 2002  Jamil ibn Ibrahim al-Hujailan
                           (Saudi Arabia)
 1 Apr 2002 - 31 Mar 2011  Abdul Rahman ibn Hamad al-Attiyah
                           (Qatar)                            (b. 1950)
 1 Apr 2011 -              Abdul Latif ibn Rashid al-Zayani
                           (Bahrain)

GCC membership
25 May 1981Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates


Ibero-American Secretariat

Secretaries-general
   Oct 2005 -  1 Apr 2014  Enrique Iglesias (Uruguay)         (b. 1930)
 1 Apr 2014 -              Rebeca Grynspan (f) (Costa Rica)   (b. 1955)

SEGIB membership
Oct 2005Andorra, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Spain, Uruguay, Venezuela


Inter-American Development Bank

Presidents
 5 Feb 1960 - 28 Feb 1971  Felipe Herrera (Chile)             (b. 1922 - d. 1996)
 1 Mar 1971 - 31 Mar 1988  Antonio Ortiz Mena (Mexico)        (b. 1908 - d. 2007)
 1 Apr 1988 - 30 Sep 2005  Enrique Iglesias (Uruguay)         (b. 1930)
 1 Oct 2005 -              Luis Alberto Moreno (Colombia)     (b. 1953)

IADB membership
30 Dec 1959Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States
12 Feb 1960Uruguay
13 Feb 1960Venezuela
10 Jul 1967Trinidad and Tobago
19 Mar 1969Barbados
30 Dec 1969Jamaica
 3 May 1972Canada
 9 Jul 1976Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Japan, The Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia1
 9 Sep 1976Spain
16 Nov 1976Guyana
10 Jan 1977France
26 May 1977Italy
30 Jun 1977Finland
19 Sep 1977Sweden
15 Dec 1977The Bahamas
25 Mar 1980Portugal
12 Dec 1980Suriname
 7 Jul 1986Norway
28 Sep 1992Belize
       1993Croatia, Slovenia
16 Mar 2005South Korea
1Ceased to be a member in 1993.


International Atomic Energy Agency

Directors-general
 7 Oct 1957 -  6 Oct 1961  W. Sterling Cole (U.S.)            (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
 6 Oct 1961 - 30 Nov 1981  Sigvard Eklund (Sweden)            (b. 1911 - d. 2000)
 1 Dec 1981 - 30 Nov 1997  Hans Blix (Sweden)                 (b. 1928)
 1 Dec 1997 - 30 Nov 2009  Mohamed al-Baradei (Egypt)         (b. 1942)
 1 Dec 2009 -              Yukiya Amano (Japan)               (b. 1947)

International Civil Aviation Organization

15 Aug 1945                Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization
 4 Apr 1947                International Civil Aviation Organization

Presidents of the Council
15 Aug 1945 - 18 Apr 1957  Edward Warner (U.S.)               (b. 1894 - d. 1958)
18 Apr 1957 - 31 Jul 1976  Walter Binaghi (Argentina)         (b. 1919 - d. 2006)
 1 Aug 1976 - 31 Jul 2006  Assad Kotaite (Lebanon)            (b. 1924 - d. 2014)
 1 Aug 2006 - 31 Dec 2013  Roberto Kobeh González (Mexico)    (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 2014 -              Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu (Nigeria)    (b. 1960)

Secretaries-general 15 Aug 1945 - 31 Dec 1951 Albert Roper (France) (b. 1891 - d. 1969) 28 Mar 1952 - 31 Jul 1959 Carl Ljungberg (Sweden) (b. 1897 - d. 1982) 1 Aug 1959 - 31 Jul 1964 Ronald Macdonnell (Canada) (b. 1909 - d. 1973) 1 Aug 1964 - 31 Jul 1970 Bernardus Tieleman Twigt (Neth.) (b. 1912 - d. 1993) 1 Aug 1970 - 31 Jul 1976 Assad Kotaite (Lebanon) (s.a.) 1 Aug 1976 - 31 Jul 1988 Yves Lambert (France) (b. 1936) 1 Aug 1988 - 31 Jul 1991 Shivinder Singh Sidhu (India) (b. 1929) 1 Aug 1991 - 31 Jul 1997 Philippe Rochat (Switzerland) (b. 1942) 1 Aug 1997 - 31 Jul 2003 Renato Cláudio Costa Pereira (Brazil) (b. 1936) 1 Aug 2003 - 31 Jul 2009 Taďeb Chérif (Algeria) (b. 1941) 1 Aug 2009 - Raymond Benjamin (France) (b. 1945)

International Court of Justice

       1922                Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ)
   Apr 1946                International Court of Justice (ICJ)

Presidents
   Feb 1922 -        1924  Bernard C.J. Loder (Netherlands)   (b. 1849 - d. 1935)
       1925 -        1927  Max Huber (Switzerland)            (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
       1928 -        1930  Dionisio Anzilotti (Italy)         (b. 1867 - d. 1950)
       1931 -        1933  Mineichiro Adachi (Japan)          (b. 1869 - d. 1934)
       1934 -        1936  Cecil J.B. Hurst (U.K.)            (b. 1870 - d. 1963)
       1936 -        1949  José Gustavo Guerrero
                           (El Salvador)                      (b. 1876 - d. 1958)
       1949 -  7 May 1952  Jules Basdevant (France)           (b. 1877 - d. 1968)
 7 May 1952 -  9 Feb 1955  Sir Arnold Duncan McNair (U.K.)    (b. 1885 - d. 1975)
 9 Feb 1955 -  5 Feb 1958  Green H. Hackworth (U.S.)          (b. 1883 - d. 1973)
 5 Feb 1958 -  5 Apr 1961  Helge Klćstad (Norway)             (b. 1885 - d. 1965)
 5 Apr 1961 -  9 Mar 1964  Bohdan Winiarski (Poland)          (b. 1884 - d. 1969)
 9 Mar 1964 -  9 Apr 1967  Sir Percy Claude Spender
                           (Australia)                        (b. 1897 - d. 1985)
 9 Apr 1967 - 19 Feb 1970  José Luis Bustamante y Rivero
                           (Peru)                             (b. 1894 - d. 1989)
19 Feb 1970 -  8 Feb 1973  Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan
                           (Pakistan)                         (b. 1893 - d. 1985)
 8 Feb 1973 - 12 Feb 1976  Manfred Lachs (Poland)             (b. 1914 - d. 1993)
12 Feb 1976 - 23 Feb 1979  Eduardo Jiménez de Aréchaga
                           (Uruguay)                          (b. 1918 - d. 1994)
23 Feb 1979 - 15 Aug 1981  Sir Humphrey Waldock (U.K.)        (b. 1904 - d. 1981)
15 Aug 1981 - 14 Feb 1985  Taslim Olawale Elias (Nigeria)     (b. 1914 - d. 1991)
                           (acting to 25 Feb 1982)
14 Feb 1985 - 24 Feb 1988  Nagendra Singh (India)             (b. 1914 - d. 1988)
24 Feb 1988 -  7 Feb 1991  José María Ruda (Argentina)        (b. 1924 - d. 1994)
 7 Feb 1991 -  7 Feb 1994  Sir Robert Y. Jennings (U.K.)      (b. 1913 - d. 2004)
 7 Feb 1994 -  6 Feb 1997  Mohammed Bedjaoui (Algeria)        (b. 1929)
 6 Feb 1997 -  7 Feb 2000  Stephen M. Schwebel (U.S.)         (b. 1929)
 7 Feb 2000 -  6 Feb 2003  Gilbert Guillaume (France)         (b. 1930)
 6 Feb 2003 -  6 Feb 2006  Shi Jiuyong (China)                (b. 1926)
 6 Feb 2006 -  6 Feb 2009  Dame Rosalyn Higgins (f) (U.K.)    (b. 1937)
 6 Feb 2009 -  6 Feb 2012  Hisashi Owada (Japan)              (b. 1932)
 6 Feb 2012 -              Peter Tomka (Slovakia)             (b. 1956)

International Criminal Court

 1 Jul 2002                International Criminal Court established

Presidents
11 Mar 2003 - 11 Mar 2009  Philippe Kirsch (Canada)           (b. 1947)
11 Mar 2009 -              Sang-Hyun Song (South Korea)       (b. 1941)

International Criminal Police Organization

       1923                International Criminal Police Commission
13 Jun 1956                International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)

Secretaries-general
       1923 -        1946  Oskar Dressler
                           (Austria [1938-45 Germany])
                           (secretary to 1932)
       1946 -        1951  Louis Ducloux (France)
       1951 -        1963  Marcel Sicot (France)
       1963 -        1978  Jean Népote (France)
       1978 -        1985  André Bossard (France)             (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
       1985 -        2000  Raymond E. Kendall (U.K.)          (b. 1933)
 2 Nov 2000 -              Ronald K. Noble (U.S.)             (b. 1956)

Presidents 1923 - 1932
Johann Schober (Austria) (b. 1874 - d. 1932) 1932 - 1934 Franz Brandl (Austria) (b. 1875 - d. 19...) 1934 - 1935 Eugen Seydel (Austria) 1935 - Mar 1938 Michael Skubl (Austria) (b. 1877 - d. 19...) Mar 1938 - 1940 Otto Steinhäusl (Germany) (b. 1879 - d. 1940) 1940 - 1942 Reinhard Heydrich (Germany) (b. 1904 - d. 1942) 1942 - 1943 Arthur Nebe (Germany) (b. 1894 - d. 1945) 1943 - 1945 Ernst Kaltenbrunner (Germany) (b. 1903 - d. 1946) 1946 - 1956 Florent Louwage (Belgium) (b. 1888 - d. 1967) 1956 - 1960 Agostinho Lourenço (Portugal) (b. 1886 - d. 1964) 1960 - 1963 Richard Jackson (U.K.) (b. 1902 - d. 1975) 1963 - 1964 Fjalar Jarva (Finland) (b. 1910 - d. 1978) 1964 - 1968 Firmin Franssen (Belgium) 1968 - 1972 Paul Dickopf (W. Germany) (b. 1910 - d. 1973) 1972 - 1976 William Leonard Higgitt (Canada) (b. 1917 - d. 1989) 1976 - 1980 Carl Persson (Sweden) (b. 1919) 1980 - 1984 Jolly Bugarin (Philippines) 1984 - 1988 John Simpson (U.S.) 1988 - 1992 Ivan Barbot (France) (b. 1937) 1992 - 1994 Norman Inkster (Canada) (b. 1938) 4 Oct 1994 - 1996 Björn Eriksson (Sweden) (b. 1945) 1996 - 2000 Toshinori Kanemoto (Japan) (b. 1945) 3 Nov 2000 - 8 Oct 2004 Jesús Espigares Mira (Spain) (b. 1946) 8 Oct 2004 - 13 Feb 2008 Jackie Selebi (South Africa) (b. 1950) 13 Feb 2008 - 10 Oct 2008 Arturo Herrera Verdugo (Chile) (b. 1951) (acting) 10 Oct 2008 - 8 Nov 2012 Khoo Boon Hui (Singapore) (b. 1954) 8 Nov 2012 - Mireille Ballestrazzi (f) (France) (b. 1954)

International Labour Organization

Directors-general
       1919 -  7 May 1932  Albert Thomas (France)             (b. 1878 - d. 1932)
       1932 -        1939  Harold B. Butler (U.K.)            (b. 1883 - d. 1951)
       1939 -    Feb 1941  John G. Winant (U.S.)              (b. 1889 - d. 1947)
   Feb 1941 -        1948  Edward J. Phelan (Ireland)         (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
                           (acting to 16 Sep 1946)
       1948 -        1970  David A. Morse (U.S.)              (b. 1907 - d. 1990)
 1 Jun 1970 -  9 Oct 1973  Wilfred Jenks (U.K.)               (b. 1909 - d. 1973)
26 Feb 1974 - 27 Feb 1989  Francis Blanchard (France)         (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
27 Feb 1989 -  4 Mar 1999  Michel Hansenne (Belgium)          (b. 1940)
 4 Mar 1999 -  1 Oct 2012  Juan Somavia (Chile)               (b. 1941)
 1 Oct 2012 -              Guy Ryder (U.K.)                   (b. 1956)

International Maritime Organization

 6 Jan 1959                Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization
22 May 1982                International Maritime Organization

Secretaries-general
13 Jan 1959 - 20 Nov 1961  Ove Nielsen (Denmark)              (b. 1893? - d. 1961)
20 Nov 1961 - 10 Jan 1963  William Graham (U.K.) (acting)     (b. 1894 - d. 1981)
10 Jan 1963 - 31 Dec 1967  Jean Roullier (France)             (b. 1898 - d. ...)
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1973  Colin Goad (U.K.)                  (b. 1914 - d. 1998)
 1 Jan 1974 - 31 Dec 1989  Chandrika Prasad Srivastava
                           (India)                            (b. 1920 - d. 2013)
 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Dec 2003  William A. O'Neil (Canada)         (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2011  Efthimios E. Mitropoulos (Greece)  (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 2012 -              Koji Sekimizu (Japan)              (b. 1952)

International Monetary Fund

27 Dec 1945                Articles of Agreement (adopted by the Bretton Woods
                           Conference 22 Jul 1944) become effective
 1 Mar 1947                International Monetary Fund begins operations

Managing directors
 6 May 1946 -  6 May 1951  Camille Gutt (Belgium)             (b. 1884 - d. 1971)
 6 May 1951 -  3 Aug 1951  Andrew N. Overby (U.S.) (acting)   (b. 1909 - d. 1984)
 3 Aug 1951 -  3 Oct 1956  Ivar Rooth (Sweden)                (b. 1888 - d. 1972)
 3 Oct 1956 - 21 Nov 1956  H. Merle Cochran (U.S.) (acting)   (b. 1892 - d. 1973)
21 Nov 1956 -  5 May 1963  Per Jacobsson (Sweden)             (b. 1894 - d. 1963)
 5 May 1963 -  1 Sep 1963  Frank A. Southard, Jr. (U.S.)      (b. 1907 - d. 1989)
                           (acting)
 1 Sep 1963 -  1 Sep 1973  Pierre-Paul Schweitzer (France)    (b. 1912 - d. 1994)
 1 Sep 1973 - 17 Jun 1978  Johannes Witteveen (Netherlands)   (b. 1921)
17 Jun 1978 - 16 Jan 1987  Jacques de Larosičre (France)      (b. 1929)
16 Jan 1987 - 14 Feb 2000  Michel Camdessus (France)          (b. 1933)
14 Feb 2000 -  1 May 2000  Stanley Fischer (U.S.) (acting)    (b. 1943)
 1 May 2000 -  4 Mar 2004  Horst Köhler (Germany)             (b. 1943)
 4 Mar 2004 -  4 May 2004  Anne Krueger (f) (U.S.) (acting)   (b. 1934)
 4 May 2004 -  1 Nov 2007  Rodrigo Rato (Spain)               (b. 1949)
 1 Nov 2007 - 18 May 2011  Dominique Strauss-Kahn (France)    (b. 1949)
15 May 2011 -  5 Jul 2011  John Lipsky (U.S.)                 (b. 1946?)
                           (acting [for Strauss-Kahn to 18 May 2011])
 5 Jul 2011 -              Christine Lagarde (f) (France)     (b. 1956)

IMF membership
27 Dec 1945Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, China, Colombia, Czechoslovakia1, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, Poland2, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia3
28 Dec 1945Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay
29 Dec 1945Iran
31 Dec 1945Chile, Mexico, Peru
 8 Jan 1946Costa Rica
14 Jan 1946Brazil
11 Mar 1946Uruguay
14 Mar 1946Cuba4, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama
30 Mar 1946Denmark
30 Dec 1946Venezuela
11 Mar 1947Turkey
27 Mar 1947Italy
10 Apr 1947Syria
14 Apr 1947Lebanon
 5 Aug 1947Australia
14 Jan 1948Finland
27 Aug 1948Austria
 3 May 1949Thailand
11 Jul 1950Pakistan
29 Aug 1950Ceylon5
31 Aug 1951Sweden
 3 Jan 1952Burma6
13 Aug 1952Japan
14 Aug 1952Federal Republic of Germany
29 Aug 1952Jordan
 8 Sep 1953Haiti
12 Jul 1954Israel
14 Jul 1955Afghanistan
26 Aug 1955South Korea
20 Sep 1956Argentina
21 Sep 1956Vietnam
 8 Aug 1957Ireland
26 Aug 1957Saudi Arabia
 5 Sep 1957The Sudan
20 Sep 1957Ghana
 7 Mar 1958Malaysia
14 Apr 1958Tunisia
25 Apr 1958Morocco
15 Sep 1958Spain
17 Sep 1958Libya
29 Mar 1961Portugal
30 Mar 1961Nigeria
 5 Jul 1961Laos
31 Aug 1961New Zealand
 6 Sep 1961Nepal
21 Dec 1961Cyprus
28 Mar 1962Liberia
 1 Aug 1962Togo
31 Aug 1962Senegal, Somalia
10 Sep 1962Sierra Leone, Tanzania
13 Sep 1962Kuwait
21 Feb 1963Jamaica
11 Mar 1963Ivory Coast7
24 Apr 1963Niger
 2 May 1963Upper Volta8
10 Jul 1963Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey9
10 Sep 1963Gabon, Mauritania
16 Sep 1963Trinidad and Tobago
25 Sep 1963Madagascar
26 Sep 1963Algeria
27 Sep 1963Mali, Uganda
28 Sep 1963Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa), Guinea
30 Sep 1963Rwanda
 3 Feb 1964Kenya
19 Jul 1965Malawi
23 Sep 1965Zambia
 3 Aug 1966Singapore
26 Sep 1966Guyana
21 Feb 1967Indonesia
21 Sep 1967The Gambia
24 Jul 1968Botswana
25 Jul 1968Lesotho
11 Sep 1968Malta
23 Sep 1968Mauritius
22 Sep 1969Swaziland
22 Dec 1969Equatorial Guinea
31 Dec 1969Cambodia
29 Dec 1970Barbados
28 May 1971Fiji
23 Dec 1971Oman
28 Dec 1971Western Samoa10
17 Aug 1972Bangladesh
 7 Sep 1972Bahrain
 8 Sep 1972Qatar
22 Sep 1972United Arab Emirates
15 Dec 1972Romania
21 Aug 1973The Bahamas
27 Aug 1975Grenada
 9 Oct 1975Papua New Guinea
21 Sep 1976Comoros
24 Mar 1977Guinea-Bissau
30 Jun 1977Seychelles
30 Sep 1977Săo Tomé and Príncipe
13 Jan 1978Maldives
27 Apr 1978Suriname
22 Sep 1978Solomon Islands
20 Nov 1978Cape Verde11
12 Dec 1978Dominica
29 Dec 1978Djibouti
15 Nov 1979Saint Lucia
28 Dec 1979Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
29 Sep 1980Zimbabwe
28 Sep 1981Bhutan, Vanuatu
25 Feb 1982Antigua and Barbuda
16 Mar 1982Belize
 6 May 1982Hungary
15 Aug 1984Saint Kitts and Nevis
24 Sep 1984Mozambique
13 Sep 1985Tonga
 3 Jun 1986Kiribati
19 Sep 1989Angola
22 May 1990Yemen
25 Sep 1990Bulgaria, Namibia
14 Feb 1991Mongolia
15 Oct 1991Albania
29 Apr 1992Lithuania
 5 May 1992Georgia
 8 May 1992Kyrgyzstan
19 May 1992Latvia
21 May 1992Marshall Islands
26 May 1992Estonia
28 May 1992Armenia
29 May 1992Switzerland
 1 Jun 1992Russia
10 Jul 1992Belarus
15 Jul 1992Kazakhstan
12 Aug 1992Moldova
 3 Sep 1992Ukraine
18 Sep 1992Azerbaijan
21 Sep 1992Uzbekistan
22 Sep 1992Turkmenistan
23 Sep 1992San Marino
14 Dec 1992Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia
27 Apr 1993Tajikistan
24 Jun 1993Federated States of Micronesia
 6 Jul 1994Eritrea
10 Oct 1995Brunei
17 Dec 1997Palau
18 Jan 2007Montenegro
29 Jun 2009Kosovo
24 Jun 2010Tuvalu
18 Apr 2012South Sudan
1Withdrew 31 Dec 1954; rejoined 20 Sep 1990; from 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia. 2Withdrew 14 Mar 1950; rejoined 12 Jun 1986. 3Expelled 14 Dec 1992; readmitted 20 Dec 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 4Withdrew 2 Apr 1964. 5From 1972 Sri Lanka. 6From 1989 Myanmar. 7From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 8From 1984 Burkina Faso. 9From 1975 Benin. 10From 1997 Samoa. 11From 2013 Cabo Verde.


International Olympic Committee

Presidents
23 Jun 1894 -  8 Apr 1896  Dimitrios Vikelas (Greece)         (b. 1835 - d. 1908)
 8 Apr 1896 -        1916  Pierre, baron de Coubertin
                           (France) (1st time)                (b. 1863 - d. 1937)
       1916 -        1919  Godefroy de Blonay (Switzerland)   (b. 1869 - d. 1937)
                           (interim)
       1919 -  1 Sep 1925  Pierre, baron de Coubertin
                           (France) (2nd time)                (s.a.)
 1 Sep 1925 -  6 Jan 1942  Henri, comte de Baillet-Latour
                           (Belgium)                          (b. 1876 - d. 1942)
 6 Jan 1942 - 14 Aug 1952  J. Sigfrid Edström (Sweden)        (b. 1870 - d. 1964)
                           (acting to 4 Sep 1946)
14 Aug 1952 - 12 Sep 1972  Avery Brundage (U.S.)              (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
12 Sep 1972 -  4 Aug 1980  Michael Morris, Baron Killanin
                           (Ireland)                          (b. 1914 - d. 1999)
 4 Aug 1980 - 20 Jul 2001  Juan Antonio Samaranch (Spain)     (b. 1920 - d. 2010)
20 Jul 2001 - 17 Sep 2013  Jacques Rogge (from 21 Oct 2003,
                           Jacques, graaf Rogge) (Belgium)    (b. 1942)
17 Sep 2013 -              Thomas Bach (Germany)              (b. 1953)

International Telecommunication Union

17 May 1865                International Telegraph Union
 1 Jan 1934                International Telecommunication Union

Directors
 1 Jan 1869 - 24 May 1872  Louis Curchod (Switzerland)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1826 - d. 1889)
24 May 1872 - 12 Jan 1873  Karl Lendi (Switzerland)           (b. 1825 - d. 1873)
23 Feb 1873 - 18 Oct 1889  Louis Curchod (Switzerland)
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
25 Feb 1890 - 28 Jun 1890  August Frey (Switzerland)          (b. 1831 - d. 1890)
25 Nov 1890 - 11 Feb 1897  Timotheus Rothen (Switzerland)     (b. 1830 - d. 1897)
11 Mar 1897 -  1 Aug 1921  Emil Frey (Switzerland)            (b. 1838 - d. 1922)
 2 Aug 1921 - 16 Dec 1927  Henri Étienne (Switzerland)        (b. 1862 - d. 1927)
 1 Feb 1928 - 30 Oct 1934  Joseph Räber (Switzerland)         (b. 1872 - d. 1934)
 1 Jan 1935 - 31 Dec 1949  Franz von Ernst (Switzerland)      (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
Secretaries-general
 1 Jan 1950 - 31 Dec 1953  Léon Mulatier (France)             (b. 1887 - d. 1981)
 1 Jan 1954 - 18 Jun 1958  Marco Aurelio Andrada (Argentina)  (b. 1904 - d. 1958)
18 Jun 1958 - 29 Oct 1965  Gerald C. Gross (U.S.)             (b. 1903 - d. 1971)
                           (acting to 1 Jan 1960)
30 Oct 1965 - 19 Feb 1967  Manohar Balaji Sarwate (India)     (b. 1910 - d. 1967)
20 Feb 1967 - 31 Dec 1982  Mohamed Ezzedine Mili (Tunisia)    (b. 1917 - d. 2013)
 1 Jan 1983 - 31 Oct 1989  Richard E. Butler (Australia)      (b. 1926 - d. 2012)
 1 Nov 1989 - 31 Jan 1999  Pekka Tarjanne (Finland)           (b. 1937)
 1 Feb 1999 - 31 Dec 2006  Yoshio Utsumi (Japan)              (b. 1942)
 1 Jan 2007 -              Hamadoun Touré (Mali)              (b. 1953)

League of Nations

18 Apr 1946                League of Nations dissolved

Secretaries-general
10 Jan 1920 -  3 Jul 1933  Sir James Eric Drummond (U.K.)     (b. 1876 - d. 1951)
 3 Jul 1933 - 31 Aug 1940  Joseph Avenol (France)             (b. 1879 - d. 1952)
31 Aug 1940 - 18 Apr 1946  Seán Lester (Ireland)              (b. 1888 - d. 1959)

League of Nations membership
10 Jan 1920Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil1, Canada, Chile2, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, El Salvador3, France4, Greece, Guatemala5, Haiti6, Honduras7, India, Iran, Italy8, Japan9, Liberia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua10, Norway, Panama, Paraguay11, Peru12, Poland, Portugal, Romania13, Siam14, South Africa, Spain15, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela16, Yugoslavia
15 Dec 1920Austria17
16 Dec 1920Bulgaria, Costa Rica18, Finland, Luxembourg
17 Dec 1920Albania19
22 Sep 1921Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
18 Sep 1922Hungary20
10 Sep 1923Ireland
28 Sep 1923Ethiopia
29 Sep 1924Dominican Republic
 8 Sep 1926Germany21
23 Sep 1931Mexico
18 Jul 1932Turkey
 3 Oct 1932Iraq
18 Sep 1934Soviet Union22
27 Sep 1934Afghanistan
28 Sep 1934Ecuador
26 May 1937Egypt
1Withdrew 14 Jun 1926. 2Withdrew 14 May 1938. 3Withdrew 11 Aug 1937. 4Vichy France withdrew 19 Apr 1941. 5Withdrew 26 May 1936. 6Withdrew 8 Apr 1942. 7Withdrew 10 Jul 1936. 8Withdrew 11 Dec 1937. 9Withdrew 27 Mar 1933. 10Withdrew 27 Jun 1936. 11Withdrew 23 Feb 1935. 12Withdrew 8 Apr 1939. 13Withdrew 11 Jul 1940. 14From 1939 Thailand. 15Withdrew 9 May 1939. 16Withdrew 12 Jul 1938. 17Annexed by Germany 13 Mar 1938. 18Withdrew 22 Jan 1925. 19Withdrew 14 Apr 1939. 20Withdrew 11 Apr 1939. 21Withdrew 21 Oct 1933. 22Expelled 14 Dec 1939.
Note: The Covenant of the League of Nations provided that "Any Member of the League may, after two years' notice of its intention so to do, withdraw from the League"; the withdrawal dates given here are the dates such notice was given, though formally the withdrawals became effective only two years later.


Nordic Council

12 Feb 1953                Nordic Council inaugurated

Secretaries-general
   Jul 1971 -    Jun 1973  Emil Vindsetmo (Norway)            (b. 1916 - d. 1983)
   Dec 1973 -    Aug 1977  Helge Seip (Norway)                (b. 1919 - d. 2004)
   Aug 1977 -    Aug 1982  Gudmund Saxrud (Norway)            (b. 1920)
   Sep 1982 -    Jan 1987  Ilkka-Christian Björklund
                           (Finland)                          (b. 1947)
   Feb 1987 -    Dec 1989  Gerhard af Schultén (Finland)
   Jan 1990 -    Aug 1994  Jostein Osnes (Norway)
   Sep 1994 -    Jul 1996  Anders Wenström (Sweden)           (b. 1946)
   Aug 1996 -    Apr 1999  Berglind Ásgeirsdóttir (f)
                           (Iceland)                          (b. 1955)
   Sep 1999 -    Jul 2007  Frida Nokken (f) (Norway)          (b. 1948)
   Aug 2007 - 31 Dec 2013  Jan-Erik Enestam (Finland)         (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 2014 -              Britt Bohlin (f) (Sweden)          (b. 1956)

Presidents 12 Feb 1953 - 31 Dec 1953
Hans Hedtoft (Denmark) (b. 1903 - d. 1955) 1 Jan 1954 - 31 Dec 1954 Einar Henry Gerhardsen (Norway) (b. 1897 - d. 1987) 1 Jan 1955 - 31 Dec 1955 Nils Herlitz (Sweden) (b. 1888 - d. 1978) 1 Jan 1956 - 31 Dec 1956 Erik Eriksen (Denmark) (1st time) (b. 1902 - d. 1972) 1 Jan 1957 - 31 Dec 1957 Lennart Heljas (Finland) (b. 1896 - d. 1972) 1 Jan 1958 - 31 Dec 1958 Nils Hřnsvald (Norway) (1st time) (b. 1899 - d. 1971) 1 Jan 1959 - 31 Dec 1959 Bertil Ohlin (Sweden) (1st time) (b. 1899 - d. 1979) 1 Jan 1960 - 31 Dec 1960 Gísli Jónsson (Iceland) (b. 1889 - d. 1970) 1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1961 Erik Eriksen (Denmark) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1962 - 31 Dec 1962 Karl August Fagerholm (Finland) (b. 1901 - d. 1984) 1 Jan 1963 - 31 Dec 1963 Nils Hřnsvald (Norway) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1964 - 31 Dec 1964 Bertil Ohlin (Sweden) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1965 - 31 Dec 1965 Sigurdur Bjarnason (Iceland) (b. 1915 - d. 2012) 1 Jan 1966 - 31 Dec 1966 Harald Nielsen (Denmark) (b. 1896 - d. 1976) 1 Jan 1967 - 31 Dec 1967 Eino Sirén (Finland) (b. 1909 - d. 1981) 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1968 Svenn Thorkild Stray (Norway) (b. 1922 - d. 2012) 1 Jan 1969 - 31 Dec 1969 Leif Cassel (Sweden) (b. 1906 - d. 1988) 1 Jan 1970 - 31 Dec 1970 Matthías Á. Mathiesen (Iceland) (1st time) (b. 1931 - d. 2011) 1 Jan 1971 - 31 Dec 1971 Jens Otto Krag (Denmark) (b. 1914 - d. 1978) 1 Jan 1972 - 31 Dec 1972 Vieno Johannes Sukselainen (Finland) (1st time) (b. 1906 - d. 1995) 1 Jan 1973 - 31 Dec 1973 Kĺre Willoch (Norway) (b. 1928) 1 Jan 1974 - 31 Dec 1974 Johannes Antonsson (Sweden) (b. 1921 - d. 1995) 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1975 Ragnhildur Helgadóttir (f) (Iceland) (b. 1930) 1 Jan 1976 - 31 Dec 1976 Knud Enggaard (Denmark) (1st time) (b. 1929) 1 Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1977 Vieno Johannes Sukselainen (Finland) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1978 - 31 Dec 1978 Trygve Bratteli (Norway) (b. 1910 - d. 1984) 1 Jan 1979 - 31 Dec 1979 Olof Palme (Sweden) (b. 1927 - d. 1986) 1 Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1980 Matthías Á. Mathiesen (Iceland) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1981 - 31 Dec 1981 Knud Enggaard (Denmark) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1982 - 31 Dec 1982 Elsi Hetemäki-Olander (f) (Finland) (1st time) (b. 1927) 1 Jan 1983 - 31 Dec 1983 Jo Benkow (Norway) (b. 1924 - d. 2013) 1 Jan 1984 - 31 Dec 1984 Karin Söder (f) (Sweden) (1st time) (b. 1928) 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1985 Páll Pétursson (Iceland) (1st time) (b. 1937) 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Dec 1986 Anker Jřrgensen (Denmark) (1st time) (b. 1922) 1 Jan 1987 - 31 Dec 1987 Elsi Hetemäki-Olander (f) (Finland) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1988 - 31 Dec 1988 Jan Peder Syse (Norway) (1st time) (b. 1930 - d. 1997) 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1989 Karin Söder (f) (Sweden) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Dec 1990 Páll Pétursson (Iceland) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1991 - 31 Dec 1991 Anker Jřrgensen (Denmark) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1992 Ilkka Suominen (Finland) (b. 1939) 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1993 Jan Peder Syse (Norway) (2nd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1994 - Sep 1994 Sten Andersson (Sweden) (b. 1923 - d. 2006) Sep 1994 - 31 Dec 1994 Per Olof Hĺkansson (Sweden) (b. 1941 - d. 2000) 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995 Geir H. Haarde (Iceland) (b. 1951) 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996 Knud Enggaard (Denmark) (3rd time) (s.a.) 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997 Olof Salmén (Finland) (b. 1927) 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998 Berit Brřrby Larsen (f) (Norway) (b. 1950) 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999 Gun Hellsvik (f) (Sweden) (b. 1942) 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Dec 2000 Sigridur Anna Thórdardóttir (f) (Iceland) (b. 1946) 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001 Svend Erik Hovmand (Denmark) (b. 1945) 1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2002 Outi Ojala (Finland) (b. 1946) 1 Jan 2003 - 31 Dec 2003 Inge Lřnning (Norway) (b. 1938 - d. 2013) 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004 Gabriel Romanus (Sweden) (b. 1939) 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005 Rannveig Gudmundsdóttir (f) (Iceland) (b. 1940) 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006 Ole Stavad (Denmark) (b. 1949) 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007 Dagfinn Hřybrĺten (Norway) (b. 1957) 1 Jan 2008 - 31 Dec 2008 Erkki Tuomioja (Finland) (b. 1946) 1 Jan 2009 - 31 Dec 2009 Sinikka Bohlin (f) (Sweden) (b. 1947) 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010 Helgi Hjörvar (Iceland) (b. 1967) 1 Jan 2011 - 21 Oct 2011 Henrik Dam Kristensen (Denmark) (b. 1957) 21 Oct 2011 - 31 Dec 2011 Bertel Haarder (Denmark) (b. 1944) 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012 Kimmo Sasi (Finland) (b. 1952) 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013 Marit Nybakk (f) (Norway) (b. 1947) 1 Jan 2014 - Karin Ĺström (f) (Sweden) (b. 1953)

Nordic Council membership
12 Feb 1953Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
27 Jan 1956Finland


North Atlantic Treaty Organization

24 Aug 1949                North Atlantic Treaty Organization established

Secretaries-general
 4 Apr 1952 - 16 May 1957  Hastings Ismay, Baron Ismay (U.K.) (b. 1887 - d. 1965)
16 May 1957 -  4 Mar 1961  Paul-Henri Spaak (Belgium)         (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
 4 Mar 1961 - 21 Apr 1961  Alberico Casardi (Italy) (acting)
21 Apr 1961 -  1 Aug 1964  Dirk Uipko Stikker (Neth.)         (b. 1897 - d. 1979)
 1 Aug 1964 -  1 Oct 1971  Manlio Brosio (Italy)              (b. 1897 - d. 1980)
 1 Oct 1971 - 25 Jun 1984  Joseph Luns (Neth.)                (b. 1911 - d. 2002)
25 Jun 1984 -  1 Jul 1988  Peter Alexander Rupert Carington,
                           Baron Carrington (U.K.)            (b. 1919)
 1 Jul 1988 - 13 Aug 1994  Manfred Wörner (Germany)           (b. 1934 - d. 1994)
13 Aug 1994 - 17 Oct 1994  Sergio Balanzino (Italy)
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1934)
17 Oct 1994 - 20 Oct 1995  Willy Claes (Belgium)              (b. 1938)
20 Oct 1995 -  5 Dec 1995  Sergio Balanzino (Italy)
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
 5 Dec 1995 -  6 Oct 1999  Javier Solana Madariaga (Spain)    (b. 1942)
14 Oct 1999 - 17 Dec 2003  George Robertson, Baron Robertson
                           of Port Ellen (U.K.)               (b. 1946)
17 Dec 2003 -  5 Jan 2004  Alessandro Minuto Rizzo (Italy)    (b. 1940)
                           (acting)
 5 Jan 2004 -  1 Aug 2009  Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (Neth.)      (b. 1948)
 1 Aug 2009 -              Anders Fogh Rasmussen (Denmark)    (b. 1953)

Supreme Allied Commanders Europe (SACEUR) (all from U.S.)
 2 Apr 1951 - 30 May 1952  Dwight D. Eisenhower               (b. 1890 - d. 1969)
30 May 1952 - 11 Jul 1953  Matthew B. Ridgway                 (b. 1895 - d. 1993)
11 Jul 1953 - 20 Nov 1956  Alfred M. Gruenther                (b. 1899 - d. 1983)
20 Nov 1956 -  1 Jan 1963  Lauris Norstad                     (b. 1907 - d. 1988)
 1 Jan 1963 -  1 Jul 1969  Lyman L. Lemnitzer                 (b. 1899 - d. 1988)
 1 Jul 1969 - 15 Dec 1974  Andrew J. Goodpaster               (b. 1915 - d. 2005)
15 Dec 1974 -  1 Jul 1979  Alexander Haig                     (b. 1924 - d. 2010)
 1 Jul 1979 - 26 Jun 1987  Bernard W. Rogers                  (b. 1921 - d. 2008)
26 Jun 1987 - 23 Jun 1992  John Galvin                        (b. 1929)
23 Jun 1992 - 22 Oct 1993  John Shalikashvili                 (b. 1936 - d. 2011)
22 Oct 1993 - 11 Jul 1997  George A. Joulwan                  (b. 1939)
11 Jul 1997 -  3 May 2000  Wesley K. Clark                    (b. 1944)
 3 May 2000 - 17 Jan 2003  Joseph W. Ralston                  (b. 1943)
17 Jan 2003 -  7 Dec 2006  James L. Jones                     (b. 1943)
 7 Dec 2006 -  2 Jul 2009  Bantz J. Craddock                  (b. 1949)
 2 Jul 2009 - 13 May 2013  James G. Stavridis                 (b. 1955)
13 May 2013 -              Philip M. Breedlove                (b. 1955)

NATO membership
24 Aug 1949Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France1, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, United Kingdom, United States
18 Feb 1952Greece2, Turkey
 9 May 1955Federal Republic of Germany
30 May 1982Spain
12 Mar 1999Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland
29 Mar 2004Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
 1 Apr 2009Albania, Croatia
1Withdrew from integrated military structure 1 Jul 1966; rejoined 3 Apr 2009. 2Withdrew from integrated military structure 14 Aug 1974; rejoined 20 Oct 1980.