Rulers

Countries D

Contents of this page:
Denmark - Djibouti - Dominica - Dominican Republic

Dahomey: see Benin.
Damascus: see under Syria.
Danish West Indies: see Virgin Islands (U.S.).
Danzig: see under Poland.
Darfur: see under Sudan, The.
Demerara-Essequibo: see under Guyana.

Denmark

        899                Kingdom of Denmark
 9 Apr 1940 -  5 May 1945  German occupation

Kings/Queens¹
- Oldenborg dynasty -
 4 Sep 1699 - 12 Oct 1730  Frederik IV                        (b. 1671 - d. 1730)
12 Oct 1730 -  6 Aug 1746  Christian VI                       (b. 1699 - d. 1746)
 6 Aug 1746 - 14 Jan 1766  Frederik V                         (b. 1723 - d. 1766)
14 Jan 1766 - 13 Mar 1808  Christian VII                      (b. 1749 - d. 1808)
13 Mar 1808 -  3 Dec 1839  Frederik VI                        (b. 1768 - d. 1839)
 3 Dec 1839 - 20 Jan 1848  Christian VIII                     (b. 1786 - d. 1848)
20 Jan 1848 - 15 Nov 1863  Frederik VII                       (b. 1808 - d. 1863)
- Glücksborg (in full: Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg) dynasty -
15 Nov 1863 - 29 Jan 1906  Christian IX                       (b. 1818 - d. 1906)
29 Jan 1906 - 14 May 1912  Frederik VIII                      (b. 1843 - d. 1912)
14 May 1912 - 20 Apr 1947  Christian X                        (b. 1870 - d. 1947)
19 Oct 1942 - 15 May 1943    Crown Prince Frederik (regent)   (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
20 Apr 1947 - 14 Jan 1972  Frederik IX                        (s.a.)
14 Jan 1972 -              Margrethe II (f)                   (b. 1940)

Prime ministers 22 Mar 1848 - 27 Jan 1852 Adam Wilhelm Moltke (b. 1785 - d. 1864) 27 Jan 1852 - 21 Apr 1853 Christian Albrecht Bluhme (1st time) (b. 1794 - d. 1866) 21 Apr 1853 - 12 Dec 1854 Anders Sandøe Ørsted (b. 1778 - d. 1860) 12 Dec 1854 - 18 Oct 1856 Peder Georg Bang (b. 1797 - d. 1861) 18 Oct 1856 - 13 May 1857 Carl Christopher Georg Andræ (b. 1812 - d. 1893) 13 May 1857 - 2 Dec 1859 Carl Christian Hall (1st time) (b. 1812 - d. 1888) 2 Dec 1859 - 8 Feb 1860 Carl Edvard Rotwitt (b. 1812 - d. 1860) 8 Feb 1860 - 24 Feb 1860 Carl Axel Bror Blixen-Finecke (b. 1822 - d. 1873) (acting) 24 Feb 1860 - 31 Dec 1863 Carl Christian Hall (2nd time) (s.a.) 31 Dec 1863 - 11 Jul 1864 Ditlev Gothard Monrad (b. 1811 - d. 1887) 11 Jul 1864 - 6 Nov 1865 Christian Albrecht Bluhme (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Nov 1865 - 28 May 1870 Christian Emil Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs (b. 1817 - d. 1896) 28 May 1870 - 14 Jul 1874 Ludvig Holstein-Holsteinborg (b. 1815 - d. 1892) 14 Jul 1874 - 11 Jun 1875 Christian Andreas Fonnesbech (b. 1817 - d. 1880) 11 Jun 1875 - 7 Aug 1894 Jacob Brønnum Scavenius Estrup (b. 1825 - d. 1913) 7 Aug 1894 - 23 May 1897 Tage Reedtz-Thott (b. 1839 - d. 1923) 23 May 1897 - 27 Apr 1900 Hugo Egmont Hørring (b. 1842 - d. 1909) 27 Apr 1900 - 24 Jul 1901 Hannibal Sehested (b. 1842 - d. 1924) 24 Jul 1901 - 15 Jan 1905 Johan Henrik Deuntzer (b. 1845 - d. 1918) 15 Jan 1905 - 11 Oct 1908 Jens Christian Christensen (b. 1856 - d. 1930) 11 Oct 1908 - 16 Aug 1909 Niels Neergaard (1st time) (b. 1854 - d. 1936) 16 Aug 1909 - 28 Oct 1909 Johan Ludvig Holstein-Ledreborg (b. 1839 - d. 1912) 28 Oct 1909 - 4 Jul 1910 Carl Theodor Zahle (1st time) (b. 1866 - d. 1946) 4 Jul 1910 - 21 Jun 1913 Klaus Berntsen (b. 1844 - d. 1927) 21 Jun 1913 - 30 Mar 1920 Carl Theodor Zahle (2nd time) (s.a.) 30 Mar 1920 - 5 Apr 1920 Otto Liebe (b. 1860 - d. 1929) 5 Apr 1920 - 5 May 1920 Michael Petersen Friis (b. 1857 - d. 1944) 5 May 1920 - 23 Apr 1924 Niels Neergaard (2nd time) (s.a.) 23 Apr 1924 - 13 Dec 1926 Thorvald Stauning (1st time) (b. 1873 - d. 1942) 13 Dec 1926 - 28 Apr 1929 Thomas Madsen-Mygdal (b. 1876 - d. 1943) 28 Apr 1929 - 3 May 1942 Thorvald Stauning (2nd time) (s.a.) 4 May 1942 - 9 Nov 1942 Vilhelm Buhl (1st time) (b. 1881 - d. 1954) 9 Nov 1942 - 5 May 1945² Erik Scavenius (b. 1877 - d. 1962) 5 May 1945 - 7 Nov 1945 Vilhelm Buhl (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 Nov 1945 - 13 Nov 1947 Knud Kristensen (b. 1880 - d. 1962) 13 Nov 1947 - 27 Oct 1950 Hans Hedtoft (1st time) (b. 1903 - d. 1955) 27 Oct 1950 - 30 Sep 1953 Erik Eriksen (b. 1902 - d. 1972) 30 Sep 1953 - 29 Jan 1955 Hans Hedtoft (2nd time) (s.a.) 29 Jan 1955 - 19 Feb 1960 Hans Christian Hansen (b. 1906 - d. 1960) (acting to 1 Feb 1955) 19 Feb 1960 - 3 Sep 1962 Viggo Kampmann (b. 1910 - d. 1976) (acting to 21 Feb 1960) 3 Sep 1962 - 2 Feb 1968 Jens Otto Krag (1st time) (b. 1914 - d. 1978) 2 Feb 1968 - 11 Oct 1971 Hilmar Baunsgaard (b. 1920 - d. 1989) 11 Oct 1971 - 5 Oct 1972 Jens Otto Krag (2nd time) (s.a.) 5 Oct 1972 - 19 Dec 1973 Anker Jørgensen (1st time) (b. 1922) 19 Dec 1973 - 13 Feb 1975 Poul Hartling (b. 1914 - d. 2000) 13 Feb 1975 - 10 Sep 1982 Anker Jørgensen (2nd time) (s.a.) 10 Sep 1982 - 25 Jan 1993 Poul Schlüter (b. 1929) 25 Jan 1993 - 27 Nov 2001 Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (b. 1943) 27 Nov 2001 - 5 Apr 2009 Anders Fogh Rasmussen (b. 1953) 5 Apr 2009 - 3 Oct 2011 Lars Løkke Rasmussen (b. 1964) 3 Oct 2011 - Helle Thorning-Schmidt (f) (b. 1966) German plenipotentiaries 9 Apr 1940 - Nov 1942 Cecil von Renthe-Fink (b. 1885 - d. 1964) Nov 1942 - 5 May 1945 Werner Best (b. 1903 - d. 1989)
¹The royal style to 15 Jan 1972 was Af Guds Naade, Konge/Dronning til Danmark, de Venders og Goters ("by the Grace of God, King/Queen of Denmark, the Wends and the Goths"); from 15 Jan 1972 simply Danmarks Dronning.
²Prime Minister Scavenius and his government laid down their functions 29 Aug 1943. From then the Germans governed Denmark alone. However, Scavenius and his government constitutionally still were Denmark's government until 1945.

Djibouti

11 Mar 1862                France acquires Obock
       1884                Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura
       1888                French Somaliland
27 Oct 1946                status changed from colony to overseas territory
 5 Jul 1967                French Territory of the Afars and Issas
27 Jun 1977                independence (Republic of Djibouti)

Governors (from 3 Jul 1967, high commissioners)
29 Dec 1883 -    Mar 1899  Léonce Lagarde, vicomte de
                           Rouffeyroux                        (b. 1860 - d. 1936)
                           (commissioner to 24 Jun 1884, then commandant to
                           5 Sep 1887)
20 Apr 1899 - 13 Apr 1900  Alfred Martineau                   (b. 1859 - d. 1945)
13 Apr 1900 -  6 Dec 1900  Gabriel Angoulvant (acting)        (b. 1872 - d. 1932)
 6 Dec 1900 -  2 Apr 1904  Adrien Bonhoure                    (b. 1860 - d. 19...)
 2 Apr 1904 -  5 Aug 1904  Albert Dubarry (acting)
 5 Aug 1904 -        1915  Pierre Pascal
 5 Oct 1905 - 19 May 1906    Louis Auguste Bertrand Ormières  (b. 1851 - d. 19...)
                             (acting for Pascal)
       1915 -        1916  Paul Simoni
       1916 -        1918  Victor Marie Fillon
       1918 -        1924  Jules Gérard Auguste Lauret        (b. 1866 - d. 19...)
       1924 -        1932  Pierre Aimable Chapon-Baissac
       1932 -        1934  Louis Placide Blacher              (b. 1883 - d. 1960)
 6 Aug 1934 - 18 Jul 1935  Marcel de Coppet                   (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
18 Jul 1935 - 20 Dec 1935  Achille Silvestre
20 Dec 1935 -  1 May 1937  Armand Annet                       (b. 1888 - d. 1973)
 1 May 1937 - 27 Apr 1938  François Pierre-Alype              (b. 1886 - d. 1956)
                           (acting to 19 Mar 1938)
27 Apr 1938 - 25 Jul 1940  Hubert Deschamps                   (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
                           (acting to 2 May 1939)
25 Jul 1940 -  2 Sep 1940  Gaëtan Loïc Elie Ernest Germain    (b. 1904 - d. 1956)
 2 Sep 1940 -    Sep 1942  Louis Nouailhetas                  (b. 1894 - d. 1985)
21 Oct 1942 -  4 Dec 1942  Truffert
 4 Dec 1942 - 26 Dec 1942  Edmond Gustave Dupont              (b. 1888 - d. 1957)
30 Dec 1942 - 22 Jun 1943  André Bayardelle                   (b. 1896 - d. 1947)
22 Jun 1943 -  1 May 1944  Raphaël Saller                     (b. 1899 - d. 1976)
                           (acting to 7 Jan 1944)
 1 May 1944 - 30 Apr 1946  Jean Chalvet                       (b. 1893 - d. 1975)
30 Apr 1946 -  1 Mar 1950  Paul Henri Siriex                  (b. 1908)
 1 Mar 1950 -  6 Apr 1954  Numa Sadoul                        (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
 6 Apr 1954 - 13 Aug 1954  Roland Pré                         (b. 1907 - d. 1980)
13 Aug 1954 -  7 Aug 1957  René Petitbon                      (b. 1902 - d. 19...)
 7 Aug 1957 -        1958  Maurice Méker                      (b. 1913 - d. 1987)
21 Oct 1958 - 16 Nov 1962  Jacques Compain                    (b. 1912 - d. 1984)
16 Nov 1962 - 15 Sep 1966  René Tirant                        (b. 1907)
15 Sep 1966 -  5 Feb 1969  Louis Saget                        (b. 1915)
 5 Feb 1969 - 21 Aug 1971  Dominique Ponchardier              (b. 1917 - d. 1986)
21 Aug 1971 -  1 Aug 1974  Georges Thiercy                    (b. 1915)
 1 Aug 1974 -  9 Feb 1976  Christian Dablanc                  (b. 1931 - d. 1989)
 9 Feb 1976 - 27 Jun 1977  Camille d'Ornano                   (b. 1917 - d. 1989)
Presidents
27 Jun 1977 -  8 May 1999  Hassan Gouled Aptidon              (b. 1916 - d. 2006)
 8 May 1999 -              Ismail Omar Guelleh                (b. 1947)

Vice presidents of the Government Council 1957 - Dec 1958 Mahamoud Harbi Farah (b. 1921 - d. 1960) Dec 1958 - Apr 1959 Hassan Gouled Aptidon (s.a.) Apr 1959 - Jun 1960 Ahmed Dini Ahmed (b. 1932 - d. 2004) Jun 1960 - 1966 Ali Aref Bourhan (b. 1934) 1966 - 1967 Abdallah Mohamed Kamil (b. 1936) Presidents of the Government Council 7 Jul 1967 - 29 Jul 1976 Ali Aref Bourhan (s.a.) 29 Jul 1976 - 18 May 1977 Abdallah Mohamed Kamil (s.a.) Prime ministers 18 May 1977 - 12 Jul 1977 Hassan Gouled Aptidon (s.a.) 12 Jul 1977 - 5 Feb 1978 Ahmed Dini Ahmed (s.a.) 5 Feb 1978 - 2 Oct 1978 Abdallah Mohamed Kamil (s.a.) 2 Oct 1978 - 7 Mar 2001 Barkat Gourad Hamadou (b. 1930) 7 Mar 2001 - 1 Apr 2013 Dileita Mohamed Dileita (b. 1958) 1 Apr 2013 - Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed (b. 1951)

Dniester Republic: see under Moldova.
Dodecanese Islands: see under Greece.

Dominica

       1761                British rule
 7 Sep 1778 -        1784  French rule
       1833 -  1 Jan 1940  part of the Leeward Islands (see under Antigua and Barbuda)
 1 Jan 1940 -  1 Jan 1960  part of the Windward Islands (see under Grenada)
 3 Jan 1958 - 31 May 1962  part of the Federation of the West Indies
                           (see under Trinidad and Tobago)
 1 Mar 1967                associated state
 3 Nov 1978                independence (Commonwealth of Dominica)

Governors
       1761 -        1768  ...
 8 Mar 1768 -        1771  William Young (1st time)           (b. ... - d. 1788)
       1771                William Stewart
       1771 -        1774  William Young (2nd time)           (s.a.)
 5 Feb 1774 -        1778  Thomas Shirley                     (b. 1727 - d. 1800)
       1778 -        1780  Marie Charles, marquis du Chilleau (b. 1734 - d. 1794)
       1780 -        1784  de Fagan
   Jan 1784 -        1789  John Orde                          (b. 1751 - d. 1824)
       1789 -        1794  Thomas Bruce                       (b. 1738 - d. 1797)
       1794 -        1796  Henry Hamilton                     (b. 1734 - d. 1796)
       1796 -        1797  Matson (acting)
       1797 -        1802  Andrew James Cochrane Johnstone    (b. 1767 - d. 1833)
27 Sep 1802 -        1805  George Prevost                     (b. 1767 - d. 1816)
       1805 -        1808  George Metcalfe
27 May 1808 -        1809  James Montgomery
       1809 -        1812  Edward Barnes
       1812 -        1813  John Corlet (acting)
       1813 -    Jun 1814  George Robert Ainslie              (b. 1776 - d. 1839)
   Jun 1814 -        1815  B. Lucas (acting)
       1815 -        1816  R. Reid (1st time) (acting)
       1816 -        1819  Charles William Maxwell            (b. ... - d. 1848)
       1819 -        1820  R. Reid (2nd time) (acting)
       1820 -        1821  Samuel Ford Whittingham            (b. 1772 - d. 1841)
       1821 -        1822  R. Reid (3rd time) (acting)
       1822 -        1824  Hans Francis Hastings, Earl of
                           Huntingdon                         (b. 1779 - d. 1828)
       1824 -        1831  William Nicolay                    (b. 1771 - d. 1842)
       1831 -        1833  J.P. Lockhart (acting)
Lieutenant governors
       1833 -        1834  Charles Marsh Schomberg            (b. 1779 - d. 1835)
       1834 -        1837  J.P. Lockhart (acting)
       1837 -        1838  Henry Light                        (b. 1783 - d. 1870)
       1838                John Longley
       1839 -        1843  John Macphail
       1843 -        1845  D.S. Laidlaw (acting)
       1845 -        1851  George McDonald
       1851 -        1857  Samuel Wensley Blackall            (b. 1809 - d. 1871)
       1857 -        1860  Harry St. George Ord               (b. 1819 - d. 1885)
       1860 -        1861  G. Berkeley (acting)
       1861 -        1864  Thomas Price
       1865                W. Robinson (acting)
       1865 -        1867  James Robert Longden               (b. 1827 - d. 1891)
       1867 -        1869  Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer       (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
                           (acting)
       1869 -        1871  Sanford Freeling                   (b. 1828 - d. 1894)
       1871 -        1872  Neale Porter (acting)
Presidents
       1872 -        1873  Alexander Wilson Moir              (b. 1825 - d. 1897)
       1873 -        1882  Charles Monroe Eldridge            (b. 1825 - d. 1888)
       1882 -        1887  James Meade
       1887 -        1894  George Ruthven Le Hunte            (b. 1852 - d. 1925)
Administrators
       1895 -        1899  Philip Arthur Templer              (b. ... - d. 1899)
       1899 -        1905  Hesketh Bell                       (b. 1864 - d. 1952)
       1905 -        1913  William Douglas Young              (b. 1859 - d. 1943)
       1914                Edward Rawle Drayton               (b. 1859 - d. 1927)
       1915 -        1919  Arthur William Mahaffy             (b. 1869 - d. 1919)
       1919 -        1923  Robert Walter                      (b. 1873? - d. 1959)
   Nov 1923 -        1924  Wilfred Bennett Davidson-Houston   (b. 1870 - d. 1960)
                           (acting)
   Jul 1924 -        1930  Edward Carlyon Eliot               (b. 1870 - d. 1940)
       1931 -        1933  Walter Andrew Bowring              (b. 1875 - d. 1950)
       1933 -        1937  Henry Bradshaw Popham              (b. 1881 - d. 1947)
       1938 -        1945  James Scott Neill                  (b. 1889 - d. 1958)
       1946 -        1952  Edwin Porter Arrowsmith            (b. 1909 - d. 1992)
       1952 -        1959  Henry Laurence Lindo               (b. 1911 - d. 1980)
       1960 -    Dec 1964  Alec Lovelace                      (b. 1907 - d. 1981)
       1965 -  1 Mar 1967  Geoffrey Colin Guy                 (b. 1921 - d. 2006)
Governors
 1 Mar 1967 -    Nov 1967  Geoffrey Colin Guy                 (s.a.)
   Nov 1967 -  3 Nov 1978  Louis Cools-Lartigue (from 1968,
                           Sir Louis Cools-Lartigue)          (b. 1905 - d. 1993)
Presidents
 3 Nov 1978 - 19 Jan 1979  Sir Louis Cools-Lartigue           (s.a.)
                           (interim)
19 Jan 1979 - 29 Jan 1980  Fred Degazon                       (b. 1913)
                           (left Dominica 11 Jun 1979)
15 Jun 1979 - 16 Jun 1979    Sir Louis Cools-Lartigue         (s.a.)
                             (acting for Degazon)
21 Jun 1979 - 15 Feb 1980  Jenner Armour                      (b. 1936? - d. 2001)
                           (acting [for Degazon to 29 Jan 1980])
26 Feb 1980 - 20 Dec 1983  Aurelius Marie                     (b. 1903 - d. 1995)
23 May 1983 - 24 Oct 1993  Clarence Augustus Seignoret
                           (from 25 Oct 1985, Sir Clarence
                           Augustus Seignoret)                (b. 1919 - d. 2002)
                           (acting for Marie to 20 Dec 1983)
25 Oct 1993 -  5 Oct 1998  Crispin Sorhaindo                  (b. 1931 - d. 2010)
 6 Oct 1998 -  1 Oct 2003  Vernon Shaw                        (b. 1930 - d. 2013)
 2 Oct 2003 - 17 Sep 2012  Nicholas Liverpool                 (b. 1934)
17 Sep 2012 -  2 Oct 2013  Eliud Williams                     (b. 1948)
 2 Oct 2013 -              Charles Savarin                    (b. 1943)

Chief ministers 1 Jan 1960 - Jan 1961 Frank Baron (b. 1923) Jan 1961 - 1 Mar 1967 Edward Oliver LeBlanc (b. 1923 - d. 2004) Premiers 1 Mar 1967 - 27 Jul 1974 Edward Oliver LeBlanc (s.a.) 27 Jul 1974 - 3 Nov 1978 Patrick R. John (b. 1938) Prime ministers 3 Nov 1978 - 21 Jun 1979 Patrick R. John (s.a.) 21 Jun 1979 - 21 Jul 1980 Oliver Seraphine (interim) (b. 1943) 21 Jul 1980 - 14 Jun 1995 Eugenia Charles (from 1991, Dame Eugenia Charles) (f) (b. 1919 - d. 2005) 14 Jun 1995 - 3 Feb 2000 Edison James (b. 1943) 3 Feb 2000 - 1 Oct 2000 Rosie Douglas (b. 1941 - d. 2000) 1 Oct 2000 - 6 Jan 2004 Pierre Charles (b. 1954 - d. 2004) (acting to 3 Oct 2000) 6 Jan 2004 - 8 Jan 2004 Osborne Riviere (acting) (b. 1932?) 8 Jan 2004 - Roosevelt Skerrit (b. 1972)

Dominican Republic

   Dec 1492                Spanish colony (Hispaniola)
20 Sep 1697                Spain recognizes French claim to western Hispaniola;
                           island divided into French Saint-Domingue (see Haiti)
                           and Spanish Santo Domingo
22 Jul 1795                Spain cedes Santo Domingo to France
                           (Spanish administration continues until 1801)
13 Dec 1808                Santo Domingo reverts to Spain
 1 Dec 1821                independence (Independent State of the Spanish Part
                           of Haiti in Colombia)
 9 Feb 1822                incorporated into Haiti
27 Feb 1844                independence (Dominican Republic)
18 Mar 1861                reincorporated into Spain
14 Sep 1863                independence (Dominican Republic) (recognized 11 Jul 1865)
29 Nov 1916 - 12 Jul 1924  U.S. military occupation

De facto ruler
16 Aug 1930 - 30 May 1961  Rafael Trujillo                    (b. 1891 - d. 1961)

Governors 1699 - 1702 Severino de Manzaneda Salinas y Rozas 1702 - 1706 Ignacio Pérez Caro (2nd time) 1706 - 1707 Sebastián de Cerezada y Girón 1707 - 1713 Guillermo Morfi 1713 - 1714 Pedro de Niela y Torres 1714 - 1715 Antonio Landeche 1715 - 1723 Fernando Constanzo y Ramírez, caballero de Santiago 1723 - 1732 Francisco de la Rocha y Ferrer 1732 - 1739 Alfonso de Castro y Mazo 1739 - 1750 Pedro Zorilla de San Martín, marqués de la Gándara Real 1750 Juan José Colomo 1750 - 1751 José de Zunnier de Basteros 1751 - 1759 Francisco Rubio y Peñaranda 1759 - 1771 Manuel de Azlor y Urriez 1771 - 1779 José Solano y Bote 1779 - 1785 Isidoro de Peralta y Rojas 1785 - 1786 Joaquín García y Moreno (1st time) 1786 - 1788 Manuel González de Torres 1788 - 1801 Joaquín García y Moreno (2nd time) 13 Dec 1808 - 1811 Juan Sánchez Ramírez (b. 17... - d. 1811) 1811 - 1813 Manuel Caballero y Masot 1813 - 1818 Carlos de Urrutia y Montoya (b. 1750 - d. 1825) 1818 - 1821 Sebastián Kindelán y Oregón 1821 Pascual Leal Governor and State President 1 Dec 1821 - 9 Feb 1822 José Núñez de Cáceres (b. 1772 - d. 1846) President of the Provisional Governing Junta 27 Feb 1844 - 1 Mar 1844 Francisco del Rosario Sánchez (b. 1817 - d. 1861) Presidents of the Central Governing Junta 1 Mar 1844 - 5 Jun 1844 Tomás Bobadilla (b. 1785 - d. 1871) 5 Jun 1844 - 9 Jun 1844 José María Caminero (b. 1782 - d. 1852) 9 Jun 1844 - 16 Jul 1844 Francisco del Rosario Sánchez (s.a.) 16 Jul 1844 - 13 Nov 1844 Pedro Santana (b. 1801 - d. 1864) (concurrently Supreme Chief of the Republic) Presidents 13 Nov 1844 - 4 Aug 1848 Pedro Santana (1st time) (s.a.) 4 Aug 1848 - 8 Sep 1848 Council of Secretaries of State - Félix Mercenario (b. 1789 - d. 1861) - Domingo de la Rocha (b. 1797 - d. 1883) - José María Caminero (s.a.) - Manuel Jimenes (b. 1808 - d. 1854) 8 Sep 1848 - 29 May 1849 Manuel Jimenes (s.a.) 30 May 1849 - 23 Sep 1849 Pedro Santana (2nd time) (s.a.) (Supreme Chief of the Republic) 24 Sep 1849 - 15 Feb 1853 Buenaventura Báez (1st time) (b. 1812 - d. 1884) 15 Feb 1853 - 26 May 1856 Pedro Santana (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 May 1856 - 8 Oct 1856 Manuel de Regla Mota (b. 1795 - d. 1864) 8 Oct 1856 - 13 Jun 1858 Buenaventura Báez (2nd time) (s.a.) 13 Jun 1858 - 28 Jul 1858 José Desiderio Valverde (b. c.1822 - d. 1904) (in rebellion from 7 Jul 1857 [as President of the Provisional Government to 1 Mar 1858] and then to 28 Aug 1858) 28 Jul 1858 - 18 Mar 1861 Pedro Santana (4th time) (s.a.) (acting to 31 Jan 1859) Governors-general 18 Mar 1861 - 20 Jul 1862 Pedro Santana (s.a.) 20 Jul 1862 - 22 Oct 1863 Felipe Ribero y Lemoine 23 Oct 1863 - 30 Mar 1864 Carlos de Vargas y Cerveto (b. 1817 - d. 1876) 31 Mar 1864 - 11 Jul 1865 José de la Gándara y Navarro (b. 1820 - d. 1885) Presidents 14 Sep 1863 - 10 Oct 1864 José Antonio Salcedo (b. 1816 - d. 1864) (President of the Government [provisional to 24 Aug 1864]) 10 Oct 1864 - 23 Jan 1865 Gaspar Polanco (b. 1816 - d. 1867) (President of the Provisional Government) 23 Jan 1865 - 24 Jan 1865 Generals-in-Chief - Pedro Antonio Pimentel (b. 1830 - d. 1874) - Benito Monción (b. 1826 - d. 1898) - Federico de Jesús García (b. c.1835 - d. 1873) 24 Jan 1865 - 24 Mar 1865 Benigno Filomeno de Rojas (b. 1811 - d. 1865) (President of the Superior Governing Junta to 28 Feb 1865, then President of the Executive Commission of the National Convention) 25 Mar 1865 - 4 Aug 1865 Pedro Antonio Pimentel (s.a.) 4 Aug 1865 - 15 Nov 1865 José María Cabral (1st time) (b. 1819 - d. 1899) (Protector) 15 Nov 1865 - 8 Dec 1865 Pedro Guillermo (b. 1814 - d. 1867) (President of the Provisional Government; in rebellion as President of the Central Governing Junta from earlier in 1865) 8 Dec 1865 - 29 May 1866 Buenaventura Báez (3rd time) (s.a.) 29 May 1866 - 22 Aug 1866 Triumvirate (in rebellion from 1 May 1866) - Pedro Antonio Pimentel (s.a.) - Gregorio Luperón (b. 1839 - d. 1897) - Federico de Jesús García 22 Aug 1866 - 31 Jan 1868 José María Cabral (2nd time) (s.a.) (Provisional Chief to 29 Sep 1866) 22 Dec 1867 - 13 Feb 1868 José Hungría (in rebellion) (b. 1819 - d. 1872) 31 Jan 1868 - 13 Feb 1868 Manuel Altagracia Cáceres (acting) (b. 1838 - d. 1878) 13 Feb 1868 - 2 May 1868 Junta of Generals - José Hungría (s.a.) - Francisco Antonio Gómez (b. ... - d. 1883) - José Ramón Luciano (b. ... - d. 1890?) 2 May 1868 - 2 Jan 1874 Buenaventura Báez (4th time) (s.a.) 2 Jan 1874 - 22 Jan 1874 Ignacio María González (1st time) (b. 1840 - d. 1915) (Supreme Chief; in rebellion from 25 Nov 1873) 22 Jan 1874 - 6 Apr 1874 Generals-in-Chief - Ignacio María González (s.a.) - Manuel Altagracia Cáceres (s.a.) 6 Apr 1874 - 23 Feb 1876 Ignacio María González (2nd time) (s.a.) (Supreme Chief 10 Sep 1874 - 12 Apr 1875) 7 Feb 1876 - Feb 1876 Constitutional Executive Junta (in rebellion) - Esteban Díaz - Máximo Grullón (b. 1826 - d. 1877) - Manuel de Jesús de Peña (b. 1834 - d. 1915) - Alfredo Deetjen (b. 1836 - d. 1897) - Isidro Pereyra (b. 1839 - d. 1893) 23 Feb 1876 - 29 Apr 1876 Council of Secretaries of State - Pedro Tomás Garrido (b. 1827 - d. 1895) - José de Jesús de Castro - Pedro Pablo de Bonilla (b. 1807 - d. 1881?) - Juan Bautista Zafra (b. 1840 - d. 1886) - Pablo López Villanueva (to 1876) (b. ... - d. 1902) - Jacinto Peynado (from 1876) (b. 1826 - d. 1897) 29 Apr 1876 - 5 Oct 1876 Ulises Francisco Espaillat (b. 1823 - d. 1878) 5 Oct 1876 - 11 Nov 1876 Superior Governing Junta - Pablo López Villanueva (s.a.) - José Caminero (b. ... - d. 1892) - Juan Ariza (b. 1820 - d. 1882) - Fidel Rodríguez Urdaneta - José de Jesús de Castro - Juan Bautista Zafra (s.a.) - Pedro Tomás Garrido (s.a.) 11 Nov 1876 - 9 Dec 1876 Ignacio María González (3rd time) (s.a.) (Supreme Chief) 10 Dec 1876 - 26 Dec 1876 Marcos Antonio Cabral (b. 1843 - d. 1903) (President of Provisional Governing Junta) 26 Dec 1876 - 2 Mar 1878 Buenaventura Báez (5th time) (s.a.) (provisional to 21 Mar 1877) 1 Mar 1878 - 3 May 1878 Ignacio María González (4th time) (s.a.) (President of the Provisional Government, in rebellion) 2 Mar 1878 - 5 Mar 1878 Council of Secretaries of State - José María Cabral (s.a.) - Joaquín Montolío (b. 1821 - d. 1911) 5 Mar 1878 - 6 Jul 1878 Cesáreo Guillermo (1st time) (b. 1847 - d. 1885) (President of the Central Government) 6 Jul 1878 - 2 Sep 1878 Ignacio María González (5th time) (s.a.) 2 Sep 1878 - 6 Sep 1878 People's Military Chiefs - Ulises Heureaux (b. 1845 - d. 1899) - Cesáreo Guillermo (s.a.) 7 Sep 1878 - 29 Sep 1878 Jacinto del Rosario de Castro (b. 1811 - d. 1896) (acting) 30 Sep 1878 - 27 Feb 1879 Council of Secretaries of State - Cesáreo Guillermo (s.a.) - Alejandro Angulo Guridi (b. 1823 - d. 1906) - Pedro Ramón Aristy 27 Feb 1879 - 6 Dec 1879 Cesáreo Guillermo (2nd time) (s.a.) 6 Dec 1879 - 1 Sep 1880 Gregorio Luperón (s.a.) (in rebellion from 7 Oct 1879) 1 Sep 1880 - 1 Sep 1882 Fernando Arturo de Meriño (b. 1833 - d. 1906) 1 Sep 1882 - 1 Sep 1884 Ulises Heureaux (1st time) (s.a.) 1 Sep 1884 - 16 May 1885 Francisco Gregorio Billini (b. 1844 - d. 1898) 16 May 1885 - 6 Jan 1887 Alejandro Woss y Gil (1st time) (b. 1856 - d. 1932) 6 Jan 1887 - 27 Feb 1889 Ulises Heureaux (2nd time) (s.a.) 27 Feb 1889 - 30 Apr 1889 Manuel María Gautier (acting) (b. 1830 - d. 1897) 30 Apr 1889 - 26 Jul 1899 Ulises Heureaux (3rd time) (s.a.) 26 Jul 1899 - 30 Aug 1899 Wenceslao Figuereo (b. 1834 - d. 1910) 30 Aug 1899 - 31 Aug 1899 Council of Secretaries of State - Tomás Demetrio Morales (b. 18... - d. 1906) - Arístides Patiño (b. 1856 - d. 1928) - Enrique Henríquez y Alfau (b. 1859 - d. 1940) - Jaime R. Vidal - Braulio Álvarez (Undersecretary) (b. 1841 - d. 1927) 31 Aug 1899 - 4 Sep 1899 People's Revolutionary Governing Junta - Mariano Cestero (b. 1838 - d. 1909) - Álvaro Logroño - Arístides Patiño (s.a.) - Pedro María Mejía 4 Sep 1899 - 15 Nov 1899 Horacio Vásquez (1st time) (b. 1860 - d. 1936) (President of the Provisional Government; in rebellion from 1 Aug 1899) 15 Nov 1899 - 2 May 1902 Juan Isidro Jimenes (1st time) (b. 1846 - d. 1919) 26 Apr 1902 - 23 Apr 1903 Horacio Vásquez (2nd time) (s.a.) (President of the Provisional Government) 23 Apr 1903 - 24 Nov 1903 Alejandro Woss y Gil (2nd time) (s.a.) (President of the Provisional Government to 1 Aug 1903) 24 Oct 1903 - 12 Jan 1906 Carlos Felipe Morales (b. 1867 - d. 1914) (President of the Provisional Government to 19 Apr 1904; left the country 25 Dec 1905) 25 Dec 1905 - 29 Dec 1905 Council of Secretaries of State (acting for Morales) - Manuel Lamarche García - Emiliano Tejera (b. 1841 - d. 1923) - Andrés Julio Montolío (b. 1821 - d. 1911) - Francisco Leonte Vásquez Lajara (b. 1856 - d. 1923) - Carlos Ginebra - Eladio Victoria (b. 1864 - d. 1939) - Federico Velásquez y Hernández (b. 1867 - d. 1934) 29 Dec 1905 - 19 Nov 1911 Ramón Cáceres (b. 1866 - d. 1911) (acting for Morales to 12 Jan 1906) 19 Nov 1911 - 5 Dec 1911 Council of Secretaries - Miguel Antonio Román (b. 1834 - d. 1920) - José María Cabral (b. 1864 - d. 1937) - Manuel de Jesús Troncoso de la Concha (b. 1878 - d. 1955) - Federico Velásquez y Hernández (1st time) (s.a.) - Manuel Lamarche García - Emilio Tejera (b. 1880 - d. 19...) - Rafael Díaz 5 Dec 1911 - 30 Nov 1912 Eladio Victoria (s.a.) (provisional to 27 Feb 1912) 1 Dec 1912 - 13 Apr 1913 Adolfo Alejandro Nouel (b. 1862 - d. 1937) (provisional) 14 Apr 1913 - 27 Aug 1914 José Bordas Valdés (provisional) (b. 1874 - d. 1968) 28 Aug 1914 - 5 Dec 1914 Ramón Báez (provisional) (b. 1858 - d. 1929) 5 Dec 1914 - 7 May 1916 Juan Isidro Jimenes (2nd time) (s.a.) 7 May 1916 - 31 Jul 1916 Council of Secretaries - Jaime Mota (b. 1860 - d. 19...) - Bernardo Pichardo (b. 1877 - d. 1924) - José Manuel Jimenes (to 1916) - Federico Velásquez y Hernández (2nd time) (from 1916) (s.a.) 31 Jul 1916 - 29 Nov 1916 Francisco Henríquez y Carvajal (b. 1859 - d. 1935) (provisional) Governors 29 Nov 1916 - 18 Nov 1918 Harry Shepard Knapp (b. 1856 - d. 1923) 18 Nov 1918 - 25 Feb 1919 Ben Hebard Fuller (b. 1870 - d. 1937) 25 Feb 1919 - 3 Jun 1921 Thomas Snowden (b. 1857 - d. 1930) 3 Jun 1921 - 21 Oct 1922 Samuel S. Robison (b. 1867 - d. 1952) Presidents 21 Oct 1922 - 12 Jul 1924 Juan Bautista Vicini Burgos (b. 1871 - d. 1935) (provisional) 12 Jul 1924 - 3 Mar 1930 Horacio Vásquez (3rd time) (s.a.) 3 Mar 1930 - 16 Aug 1930 Rafael Estrella Ureña (acting) (b. 1889 - d. 1945) 16 Aug 1930 - 16 Aug 1938 Rafael Trujillo (1st time) (s.a.) 16 Aug 1938 - 7 Mar 1940 Jacinto Bienvenido Peynado (b. 1878 - d. 1940) 7 Mar 1940 - 18 May 1942 Manuel de Jesús Troncoso de la Concha (s.a.) 18 May 1942 - 16 Aug 1952 Rafael Trujillo (2nd time) (s.a.) (acting to 16 Aug 1942) 16 Aug 1952 - 3 Aug 1960 Héctor Trujillo (b. 1908 - d. 2002) 3 Aug 1960 - 16 Jan 1962 Joaquín Balaguer (1st time) (b. 1906/07 - d. 2002) 16 Jan 1962 - 18 Jan 1962 Civic-Military Council - Armando Óscar Pacheco - Luis Amiama Tió (b. 1914 - d. 1980) - Antonio Imbert Barrera (b. 1920) - Enrique Valdez Vidaurre - Wilfredo Medina Natalio - Huberto Bogaert (from 17 Jan 1962) (chairman) (b. 1901 - d. 1962) 18 Jan 1962 - 27 Feb 1963 Rafael Filiberto Bonnelly (b. 1904 - d. 1979) 27 Feb 1963 - 25 Sep 1963 Juan Bosch (b. 1909 - d. 2001) 25 Sep 1963 - 26 Sep 1963 Víctor Elby Viñas Román (b. 1925? - d. 2004) (chairman Provisional Junta) 26 Sep 1963 - 25 Apr 1965 Triumvirate - Emilio de los Santos (b. 1903 - d. 1986) (to 22 Dec 1963) (chairman) - Ramón Tapia Espinal (b. 1926 - d. 2002) (to 8 Apr 1964) - Manuel Enrique Tavares Espaillat (to 27 Jun 1964) (b. 1924 - d. 1984) - Donald Reid Cabral (b. 1923 - d. 2006) (from 29 Dec 1963) (chairman) - Ramón Cáceres Troncoso (b. 1930) (from 18 Apr 1964) 13 Oct 1963 - 4 Nov 1963 Juan Casasnovas Garrido (provisional; in rebellion) 25 Apr 1965 (hours) Revolutionary Committee - Vinicio Fernández Pérez - Giovanni Gutiérrez Ramírez - Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó (b. 1932 - d. 1973) - Eladio Ramírez Sánchez - Pedro Bartolomé Benoit (b. 1921 - d. 2012) 25 Apr 1965 - 27 Apr 1965 José Rafael Molina Ureña (b. 1921 - d. 2000) (provisional) 1 May 1965 - 7 May 1965 Pedro Bartolomé Benoit (s.a.) (chairman military junta) 7 May 1965 - 30 Aug 1965 Antonio Imbert Barrera (s.a.) 4 May 1965 - 3 Sep 1965 Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó (s.a.) (in opposition) 3 Sep 1965 - 1 Jul 1966 Héctor García Godoy (provisional) (b. 1921 - d. 1970) 1 Jul 1966 - 16 Aug 1978 Joaquín Balaguer (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Apr 1970 - 22 May 1970 Ramón Ruiz Tejada (b. 1907 - d. 1995) (acting for Balaguer) 16 Aug 1978 - 4 Jul 1982 Antonio Guzmán Fernández (b. 1911 - d. 1982) 4 Jul 1982 - 16 Aug 1982 Jacobo Majluta Azar (b. 1934 - d. 1996) 16 Aug 1982 - 16 Aug 1986 Salvador Jorge Blanco (b. 1926 - d. 2010) 16 Aug 1986 - 16 Aug 1996 Joaquín Balaguer (3rd time) (s.a.) 16 Aug 1996 - 16 Aug 2000 Leonel Fernández (1st time) (b. 1953) 16 Aug 2000 - 16 Aug 2004 Hipólito Mejía (b. 1941) 16 Aug 2004 - 16 Aug 2012 Leonel Fernández (2nd time) (s.a.) 16 Aug 2012 - Danilo Medina (b. 1951)

Dubai: see under United Arab Emirates.
Dutch Guiana: see Suriname.