Rulers

International organizations O-W

Contents of this page:
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe - Organization of American States - Organization of Eastern Caribbean States - Organization of Islamic Cooperation - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - Pacific Community - Pacific Islands Forum - Red Cross and Red Crescent - Shanghai Cooperation Organization - Socialist International - South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation - Southeast Asia Treaty Organization - Southern African Development Community - Union of South American Nations - United Nations - United Nations Children's Fund - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - Universal Postal Union - Warsaw Treaty Organization - Western European Union - World Bank - World Health Organization - World Tourism Organization - World Trade Organization

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

16 Apr 1948                Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
30 Sep 1961                Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Secretaries-general
16 Apr 1948 -  1 Apr 1955  Robert Marjolin (France)           (b. 1911 - d. 1986)
 1 Apr 1955 -  1 Sep 1960  René Sergent (France)              (b. 1904 - d. 1984)
 1 Sep 1960 - 29 Sep 1969  Thorkil Kristensen (Denmark)       (b. 1899 - d. 1989)
30 Sep 1969 - 29 Sep 1984  Emile van Lennep (Netherlands)     (b. 1915 - d. 1996)
30 Sep 1984 - 29 Sep 1994  Jean-Claude Paye (France)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1934)
30 Sep 1994 - 29 Nov 1994  Staffan Sohlman (Sweden) (interim)
30 Nov 1994 - 31 May 1996  Jean-Claude Paye (France)
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jun 1996 - 31 May 2006  Donald J. Johnston (Canada)        (b. 1936)
 1 Jun 2006 -              José Ángel Gurría Treviño (Mexico) (b. 1950)

OECD membership
16 Apr 1948Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany1, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Trieste2, Turkey, United Kingdom
20 Jul 1959Spain
30 Sep 1961Canada, United States
28 Apr 1964Japan
28 Jan 1969Finland
 7 Jun 1971Australia
29 May 1973New Zealand
18 May 1994Mexico
21 Dec 1995Czech Republic
 7 May 1996Hungary
22 Nov 1996Poland
12 Dec 1996South Korea
 7 May 2010Chile
21 Jul 2010Slovenia
 7 Sep 2010Israel
 9 Dec 2010Estonia
 1 Jul 2016Latvia
1Anglo-U.S. "bizone" to 1949, then Federal Republic of Germany. 2Anglo-U.S. zone only; became part of Italy 1954.


Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

25 Jun 1973                Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
 1 Jan 1995                Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

Secretaries-general
15 Jun 1993 - 15 Jun 1996  Wilhelm Höynck (Germany)           (b. 1933)
15 Jun 1996 - 15 Jun 1999  Giancarlo Aragona (Italy)          (b. 1942)
15 Jun 1999 - 21 Jun 2005  Ján Kubis (Slovakia)               (b. 1952)
21 Jun 2005 -  1 Jul 2011  Marc Perrin de Brichambaut
                           (France)                           (b. 1948)
 1 Jul 2011 - 30 Jun 2017  Lamberto Zannier (Italy)           (b. 1954)
18 Jul 2017 -              Thomas Greminger (Switzerland)     (b. 1961)

Chairmen-in-office Jun 1991 - 31 Dec 1991
Hans-Dietrich Genscher (Germany) (b. 1927 - d. 2016) 1 Jan 1992 - 2 Jul 1992 Jirí Dienstbier (Czechoslovakia) (b. 1937 - d. 2011) 2 Jul 1992 - 31 Dec 1992 Jozef Moravcík (Czechoslovakia) (b. 1945) 1 Jan 1993 - 31 Dec 1993 Margaretha af Ugglas (f) (Sweden) (b. 1939) 1 Jan 1994 - 11 May 1994 Beniamino Andreatta (Italy) (b. 1928 - d. 2007) 11 May 1994 - 31 Dec 1994 Antonio Martino (Italy) (b. 1942) 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 1995 László Kovács (Hungary) (b. 1939) 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1996 Flavio Cotti (Switzerland) (b. 1939) 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 1997 Niels Helveg Petersen (Denmark) (b. 1939 - d. 2017) 1 Jan 1998 - 31 Dec 1998 Bronislaw Geremek (Poland) (b. 1932 - d. 2008) 1 Jan 1999 - 31 Dec 1999 Knut Vollebæk (Norway) (b. 1946) 1 Jan 2000 - 4 Feb 2000 Wolfgang Schüssel (Austria) (b. 1945) 4 Feb 2000 - 31 Dec 2000 Benita Ferrero-Waldner (f) (Austria) (b. 1948) 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2001 Mircea Geoana (Romania) (b. 1958) 1 Jan 2002 - 6 Apr 2002 Jaime Gama (Portugal) (b. 1947) 6 Apr 2002 - 31 Dec 2002 António Martins da Cruz (Portugal) (b. 1946) 1 Jan 2003 - 3 Dec 2003 Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (Neth.) (b. 1948) 3 Dec 2003 - 31 Dec 2003 Ben Bot (Neth.) (b. 1937) 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004 Solomon Passy (Bulgaria) (b. 1956) 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005 Dimitrij Rupel (Slovenia) (b. 1946) 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006 Karel De Gucht (Belgium) (b. 1954) 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2007 Miguel Ángel Moratinos (Spain) (b. 1951) 1 Jan 2008 - 4 Apr 2008 Ilkka Kanerva (Finland) (b. 1948) 4 Apr 2008 - 31 Dec 2008 Alexander Stubb (Finland) (b. 1968) 1 Jan 2009 - 7 Oct 2009 Dora Bakoyannis (f) (Greece) (b. 1954) 7 Oct 2009 - 31 Dec 2009 Georgios Papandreou (Greece) (b. 1952) 1 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2010 Kanat Saudabayev (Kazakhstan) (b. 1946) 1 Jan 2011 - 31 Dec 2011 Audronius Azubalis (Lithuania) (b. 1958) 1 Jan 2012 - 31 Dec 2012 Eamon Gilmore (Ireland) (b. 1955) 1 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2013 Leonid Kozhara (Ukraine) (b. 1963) 1 Jan 2014 - 31 Dec 2014 Didier Burkhalter (Switzerland) (b. 1960) 1 Jan 2015 - 31 Dec 2015 Ivica Dacic (Serbia) (b. 1966) 1 Jan 2016 - 31 Dec 2016 Frank-Walter Steinmeier (Germany) (b. 1956) 1 Jan 2017 - Sebastian Kurz (Austria) (b. 1986)

OSCE membership
25 Jun 1973Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia1, Denmark, Finland, France, East Germany2, West Germany2, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Soviet Union3, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Vatican City, Yugoslavia4
19 Jun 1991Albania
10 Sep 1991Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
30 Jan 1992Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
24 Mar 1992Croatia, Georgia, Slovenia
30 Apr 1992Bosnia and Herzegovina
12 Oct 1995Macedonia
25 Apr 1996Andorra
22 Jun 2006Montenegro
21 Nov 2012Mongolia
1From 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia. 2East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 3Broke up 25 Dec 1991; succeeded by Russia. 4Suspended 8 Jul 1992 - 10 Nov 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia.


Organization of African Unity: see African Union.

Organization of American States

       1890                Commercial Bureau of the American Republics
       1902                International Bureau of the American Republics
       1910                Pan-American Union
30 Apr 1948                Organization of American States

Directors-general
       1906 -  1 Sep 1920  John Barrett (U.S.)                (b. 1866 - d. 1938)
 1 Sep 1920 -  5 Dec 1946  Leo S. Rowe (U.S.)                 (b. 1871 - d. 1946)
 5 Dec 1946 - 27 May 1947  Pedro de Alba (Mexico) (acting)    (b. 1887 - d. 1960)
27 May 1947 - 30 Apr 1948  Alberto Lleras Camargo (Colombia)  (b. 1906 - d. 1990)
Secretaries-general
30 Apr 1948 - 31 Jul 1954  Alberto Lleras Camargo (Colombia)  (s.a.)
31 Jul 1954 - 19 Oct 1955  Carlos Dávila Espinoza (Chile)     (b. 1887 - d. 1955)
19 Oct 1955 - 16 Jan 1956  William Manger (U.S.) (acting)     (b. 1899 - d. 1994)
16 Jan 1956 - 18 May 1968  José A. Mora Otero (Uruguay)       (b. 1897 - d. 1975)
18 May 1968 - 18 May 1975  Galo Plaza Lasso (Ecuador)         (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
18 May 1975 - 31 Mar 1984  Alejandro Orfila (Argentina)       (b. 1925)
31 Mar 1984 - 20 Jun 1984  Val McComie (Barbados) (acting)    (b. 1920 - d. 2007)
20 Jun 1984 - 20 Jun 1994  João Baena Soares (Brazil)         (b. 1931)
20 Jun 1994 - 15 Sep 1994  Christopher R. Thomas (Trinidad
                           and Tobago) (acting)
15 Sep 1994 - 15 Sep 2004  César Gaviria Trujillo (Colombia)  (b. 1947)
15 Sep 2004 - 15 Oct 2004  Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Echeverría
                           (Costa Rica)                       (b. 1940)
15 Oct 2004 - 26 May 2005  Luigi R. Einaudi (U.S.) (acting)   (b. 1936)
26 May 2005 - 26 May 2015  José Miguel Insulza (Chile)        (b. 1943)
26 May 2015 -              Luis Almagro (Uruguay)             (b. 1963)

OAS membership
30 Apr 1948Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba1, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras2, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela3
28 Feb 1967Trinidad and Tobago
       1967Barbados
25 Jun 1969Jamaica
 8 May 1975Grenada
 8 Jun 1977Suriname
22 May 1979Dominica, Saint Lucia
 5 Dec 1981Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
   Mar 1982The Bahamas
12 Mar 1984Saint Kitts and Nevis
 8 Jan 1990Canada
 8 Jan 1991Belize, Guyana
1Suspended 14 Feb 1962 - 3 Jun 2009. 2Suspended 4 Jul 2009 - 1 Jun 2011. 3Withdrawal initiated 28 Apr 2017.


Organization of Eastern Caribbean States

 4 Jul 1981                Organization of Eastern Caribbean States founded

Directors-general
   Jul 1982 -  1 Dec 1995  Vaughan Lewis (Saint Lucia)        (b. 1940)
   Jun 1996 - 31 Jul 2001  Swinburne Lestrade (Dominica)
31 Jul 2001 - 12 May 2003  George Goodwin (Antigua and
                           Barbuda) (acting)                  (b. 194... - d. 2009)
12 May 2003 - 31 Dec 2013  Len Ishmael (f) (Saint Lucia)
 1 Jan 2014 - 30 Apr 2014  Bentley Browne (Saint Vincent and
                           the Grenadines) (acting)
 1 May 2014 -              Didacus Jules (Saint Lucia)

OECS membership
4 Jul 1981Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines


Organization of Islamic Cooperation

22 Sep 1969                first Islamic Conference opened
 4 Mar 1972                charter of the Organization of the Islamic Conference signed
28 Jun 2011                renamed Organization of Islamic Cooperation

Secretaries-general
   Dec 1970 - 31 Dec 1973  Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Alhaj
                           (Malaysia)                         (b. 1903 - d. 1990)
 1 Jan 1974 -    Dec 1975  Hassan al-Touhami (Egypt)          (b. 1924 - d. 2009)
   Dec 1975 -    Jan 1980  Amadou Karim Gaye (Senegal)        (b. 1913 - d. 2000)
   Jan 1980 - 31 Dec 1984  Habib Chatty (Tunisia)             (b. 1916 - d. 1991)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1988  Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada
                           (Pakistan)                         (b. 1923 - d. 2017)
 1 Jan 1989 - 31 Dec 1996  Hamid Algabid (Niger)              (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 2000  Azzedine Laraki (Morocco)          (b. 1929 - d. 2010)
 1 Jan 2001 - 31 Dec 2004  Abdelouahed Belkeziz (Morocco)     (b. 1939)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2013  Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu (Turkey)      (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 2014 - 31 Oct 2016  Iyad Madani (Saudi Arabia)         (b. 1946)
 1 Nov 2016 - 17 Nov 2016  Abdullah Alim (Saudi Arabia)
                           (acting)
17 Nov 2016 -              Yusuf al-Othaimeen (Saudi Arabia)

OIC membership
22 Sep 1969Afghanistan1, Algeria, Chad, Egypt2, Guinea, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, The Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey, Yemen (Aden)3, Yemen (Sana)3
29 Feb 1972Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Sierra Leone, Syria4, United Arab Emirates
       1974Bangladesh, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Palestine, Uganda
       1975Upper Volta5, Cameroon
       1976Comoros, Iraq, Maldives
       1978Djibouti
       1982Benin
       1984Brunei
       1986Nigeria
       1991Azerbaijan
   Jun 1992Turkmenistan
   Dec 1992Albania, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Zanzibar6
10 Dec 1994Mozambique
12 Dec 1995Kazakhstan
 2 Oct 1996Uzbekistan
   Dec 1996Suriname
 2 Oct 1997Togo
 1 Oct 1998Guyana
27 Jun 2001Côte d'Ivoire
1Suspended 28 Jan 1980 - 13 Mar 1989 (seat then given to rebels). 2Suspended 9 May 1979 - 30 Jan 1984. 3Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990. 4Suspended 16 Aug 2012. 5From 1984 Burkina Faso. 6Withdrew Aug 1993.


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

Secretaries-general
21 Jan 1961 - 30 Apr 1964  Fuad Rouhani (Iran)                (b. 1907 - d. 2004)
 1 May 1964 - 30 Apr 1965  Abdul Rahman al-Bazzaz (Iraq)      (b. 1913 - d. 1973)
 1 May 1965 - 31 Dec 1966  Ashraf Lutfi (Kuwait)              (b. 1919 - d. 1974)
 1 Jan 1967 - 31 Dec 1967  Muhammad Saleh Joukhdar
                           (Saudi Arabia)                     (b. 1932)
 1 Jan 1968 - 31 Dec 1968  Francisco R. Parra (Venezuela)     (b. 1929)
 1 Jan 1969 - 31 Dec 1969  Elrich Sanger (Indonesia)          (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 1970 - 31 Dec 1970  Omar el-Badri (Libya)              (b. 1937)
 1 Jan 1971 - 31 Dec 1972  Nadim Pachachi (Iraq)              (b. 1914 - d. 1976)
 1 Jan 1973 - 31 Dec 1974  Abderrahman Khène (Algeria)        (b. 1931)
 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1976  M.O. Feyide (Nigeria)              (b. 1926 - d. 1997)
 1 Jan 1977 - 31 Dec 1978  Ali M. Jaidah (Qatar)              (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 1979 - 30 Jun 1981  René G. Ortiz (Ecuador)            (b. 1941)
 1 Jul 1981 - 30 Jun 1983  Marc Saturnin Nan Nguema (Gabon)   (b. 1934 - d. 2012)
 1 Jul 1983 - 30 Jun 1988  Fadhil J. al-Chalabi (Iraq)        (b. 1929)
                           (acting)
 1 Jul 1988 - 30 Jun 1994  Subroto (Indonesia)                (b. 1928)
 1 Jul 1994 - 31 Dec 1994  Abdallah Salem el-Badri (Libya)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1940)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 2000  Rilwanu Lukman (Nigeria)           (b. 1938 - d. 2014)
 1 Jan 2001 - 30 Jun 2002  Alí Rodríguez Araque (Venezuela)   (b. 1937)
 1 Jul 2002 - 31 Dec 2003  Álvaro Silva Calderón (Venezuela)  (b. 1929)
 1 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2004  Purnomo Yusgiantoro (Indonesia)    (b. 1951)
                           (acting)
 1 Jan 2004 -    Feb 2004    Iin Arifin Takhyan (Indonesia)   (b. 1952)
                             (acting for Yusgiantoro)
   Feb 2004 - 31 Dec 2004    Maizar Rahman (Indonesia)        (b. 1948)
                             (acting for Yusgiantoro)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005  Sheikh Ahmad Fahad Al Ahmad Al
                           Sabah (Kuwait) (acting)            (b. 1963)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2005    Adnan Shihab-Eldin (Kuwait)      (b. 1943)
                             (acting for Al Sabah)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006  Edmund Daukoru (Nigeria) (acting)  (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 2006 - 31 Dec 2006    Mohammed S. Barkindo (Nigeria)   (b. 1959)
                             (acting for Daukoru)
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Jul 2016  Abdallah Salem el-Badri (Libya)
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Aug 2016 -              Mohammed S. Barkindo (Nigeria)     (s.a.)

OPEC membership
14 Sep 1960Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela
15 Jan 1961Qatar
 4 Jun 1962Indonesia1, Libya
27 Nov 1967Abu Dhabi2
 8 Jul 1969Algeria
12 Jul 1971Nigeria
19 Nov 1973Ecuador3
 9 Jun 1975Gabon4
 1 Jan 2007Angola
25 May 2017Equatorial Guinea
1Membership suspended at its own request 1 Jan 2009 - 1 Jan 2016 and from 30 Nov 2016. 2Membership transferred to United Arab Emirates 9 Jan 1974. 3Membership suspended at its own request 31 Dec 1992 - 23 Oct 2007. 4Withdrew 31 Dec 1994; rejoined 1 Jul 2016.


Pacific Community

 6 Feb 1947                South Pacific Commission
 6 Feb 1998                Pacific Community

Secretaries-general
 1 Nov 1948 -  3 Jun 1951  William Forsyth (Australia)
                           (1st time)                         (b. 1909 - d. 1993)
12 Nov 1951 - 12 Nov 1954  Sir Leslie Brian Freeston (U.K.)   (b. 1892 - d. 1958)
 1 Mar 1955 - 28 Feb 1958  Ralph Clairon Bedell (U.S.)        (b. 1904 - d. 1991)
 1 Mar 1958 -  2 Mar 1963  Thomas R. Smith (New Zealand)      (b. 1904 - d. 1979)
24 Mar 1963 - 31 Dec 1966  William Forsyth (Australia)
                           (2nd time)                         (s.a.)
 1 Jan 1967 - 11 Dec 1969  Sir Gawain Westray Bell (U.K.)     (b. 1909 - d. 1995)
 1 Jan 1970 - 18 Feb 1971  Afioga Afoafouvale Misimoa
                           (Western Samoa)                    (b. 1900 - d. 1971)
18 Feb 1971 - 31 Oct 1971  John E. de Young (U.S.) (acting)
 1 Nov 1971 - 30 Nov 1975  Gustav F.D. Betham (Western Samoa) (b. 1915 - d. 1984)
 9 Dec 1975 - 30 Jun 1979  E. Macu Salato (Fiji)              (b. 1915 - d. 1990)
 1 Jul 1979 -  3 Jun 1982  Young Vivian (Niue)                (b. 1935)
 1 Jul 1982 - 30 Nov 1986  Francis Bugotu (Solomon Islands)   (b. 1937 - d. 1992)
 9 Dec 1986 - 31 Dec 1988  Palauni M. Tuiasosopo
                           (American Samoa)                   (b. c.1937)
 1 Jan 1989 - 15 Jun 1989  Jon Jonassen (Cook Islands)        (b. 1949)
                           (acting)
16 Jun 1989 -  5 Jan 1993  Atanraoi Baiteke (Kiribati)
 6 Jan 1993 -  7 Jan 1996  Ati George Sokomanu (Vanuatu)      (b. 1937)
 8 Jan 1996 -  6 Feb 1997  Robert B. Dun (Australia)          (b. 1930)
Directors-general
 6 Feb 1997 -  5 Jan 2000  Robert B. Dun (Australia)          (s.a.)
 6 Jan 2000 - 23 Jan 2006  Lourdes Pangelinan (f) (Guam)      (b. 1954)
23 Jan 2006 - 23 Jan 2014  Jimmie Rodgers (Solomon Islands)
23 Jan 2014 -              Colin Tukuitonga (Niue)

Pacific Community membership
 6 Feb 1947Australia, France, The Netherlands1, New Zealand, United Kingdom2, United States
17 Jul 1965Western Samoa3
24 Jul 1969Nauru
 5 May 1971Fiji
16 Sep 1975Papua New Guinea
17 Nov 1978Tuvalu
21 Nov 1978Solomon Islands
13 Oct 1980Niue
14 Oct 1980Cook Islands
   Oct 1983American Samoa, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Island, Tokelau, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna
1Withdrew 31 Dec 1962. 2Withdrew 1 Jan 1996, rejoined Jan 1998, withdrew again 1 Jan 2005. 3From 1997 Samoa.


Pacific Islands Forum

 5 Aug 1971                South Pacific Forum
27 Oct 2000                Pacific Islands Forum

Directors of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Cooperation
   Nov 1972 -        1980  Mahe Tupouniua (Tonga) (1st time)  (b. 1927 - d. 2007)
       1980 - 12 Mar 1982  Gabriel Gris (Papua New Guinea)    (b. 1941 - d. 1982)
       1982 -    Jan 1983  John Sheppard (Australia) (acting)
   Jan 1983 -    Feb 1986  Mahe Tupouniua (Tonga) (2nd time)  (s.a.)
   Feb 1986 -    Sep 1988  Henry Naisali (Tuvalu)             (b. 1928 - d. 2004)
Secretaries-general
   Sep 1988 -    Jan 1992  Henry Naisali (Tuvalu)             (s.a.)
   Jan 1992 -    Jan 1998  Ieremia Tabai (Kiribati)           (b. 1950)
   Feb 1998 - 16 Jan 2004  Noel Levi (Papua New Guinea)       (b. 1942)
16 Jan 2004 -    Jul 2008  Greg Urwin (Australia)             (b. 1946 - d. 2008)
   Jul 2008 -    Aug 2008  Feleti Teo (Tuvalu) (acting)
   Aug 2008 -  4 Dec 2014  Tuiloma Neroni Slade (Samoa)       (b. 1941)
 4 Dec 2014 -              Dame Meg Taylor (f) (Papua New
                           Guinea)

Pacific Islands Forum membership
 5 Aug 1971Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji1, Nauru, New Zealand, Tonga, Western Samoa2
20 Mar 1974Papua New Guinea
 1 Jul 1975Niue
29 Aug 1979Kiribati
14 Jul 1980Vanuatu
16 Sep 1980Solomon Islands, Tuvalu
29 May 1987Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia
 3 Sep 1995Palau
10 Sep 2016French Polynesia, New Caledonia
1Suspended 2 May 2009 - 24 Oct 2014. 2From 1997 Samoa.


Red Cross and Red Crescent

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

       1919                League of Red Cross Societies
   Oct 1983                League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
   Nov 1991                International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent
                           Societies

Chairmen
       1919 -        1922  Henry P. Davison (U.S.)            (b. 1867 - d. 1922)
       1922 -        1935  John Barton Payne (U.S.)           (b. 1855 - d. 1935)
       1935 -        1938  Cary T. Grayson (U.S.)             (b. 1878 - d. 1938)
       1938 -        1944  Norman Davis (U.S.)                (b. 1878 - d. 1944)
       1944 -        1945  Johannes von Muralt (Switzerland)  (b. 1877 - d. 1947)
                           (acting)
       1945 -        1950  Basil O'Connor (U.S.)              (b. 1892 - d. 1972)
       1950 -        1959  Emil Sandström (Sweden)            (b. 1886 - d. 1962)
       1959 -        1965  John MacAulay (Canada)             (b. 1895 - d. 1978)
       1965 -        1977  José Barroso (Mexico)              (b. 1925 - d. 2008)
Presidents
       1977 -        1981  Adetunji Adefarasin (Nigeria)      (b. 1921 - d. 1989)
       1981 -        1987  Enrique de la Mata (Spain)         (b. 1933 - d. 1987)
       1987 -        1997  Mario Enrique Villarroel Lander
                           (Venezuela)                        (b. 1947)
   Nov 1997 - 10 Nov 2001  Astrid N. Heiberg (f) (Norway)     (b. 1936)
10 Nov 2001 - 19 Nov 2009  Juan Manuel Suárez del Toro Rivero
                           (Spain)                            (b. 1952)
19 Nov 2009 -              Tadateru Konoe (Japan)             (b. 1939)

International Committee of the Red Cross

Presidents (all from Switzerland)
       1863 -        1864  Henri Dufour                       (b. 1787 - d. 1875)
       1864 - 21 Aug 1910  Gustave Moynier                    (b. 1826 - d. 1910)
       1910 - 31 Mar 1928  Gustave Ador                       (b. 1845 - d. 1928)
       1917 -        1920    Édouard Naville                  (b. 1844 - d. 1926)
                             (acting for Ador)
12 May 1928 -    Dec 1944  Max Huber                          (b. 1874 - d. 1960)
   Jan 1945 -    May 1948  Carl Burckhardt                    (b. 1891 - d. 1974)
   Feb 1945 -    Feb 1947    Max Huber                        (s.a.)
                             (acting for Burckhardt)
   Feb 1947 -    May 1948    Ernest Gloor                     (b. 1893 - d. 1964)
                             + Martin Bodmer                  (b. 1899 - d. 1971)
                             (acting for Burckhardt)
   May 1948 - 31 Aug 1955  Paul Ruegger                       (b. 1897 - d. 1988)
 1 Sep 1955 -        1964  Léopold Boissier                   (b. 1893 - d. 1968)
       1964 -        1969  Samuel Gonard                      (b. 1896 - d. 1975)
       1969 -        1973  Marcel Naville                     (b. 1919 - d. 2003)
       1973 -        1976  Eric Martin                        (b. 1900 - d. 1980)
       1976 -  6 May 1987  Alexandre Hay                      (b. 1919 - d. 1991)
 7 May 1987 - 31 Dec 1999  Cornelio Sommaruga                 (b. 1932)
 1 Jan 2000 - 30 Jun 2012  Jakob Kellenberger                 (b. 1944)
 1 Jul 2012 -              Peter Maurer                       (b. 1956)

Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Secretaries-general
15 Jan 2004 - 31 Dec 2006  Zhang Deguang (China)              (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 2007 - 21 Jan 2010  Bolat Nurgaliyev (Kazakhstan)      (b. 1951)
21 Jan 2010 - 31 Dec 2012  Muratbek Imanaliyev (Kyrgyzstan)   (b. 1956)
 1 Jan 2013 - 12 Jan 2016  Dmitry Mezentsev (Russia)          (b. 1959)
12 Jan 2016 -              Rashid Alimov (Tajikistan)         (b. 1953)

SCO membership
15 Jun 2001China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
 9 Jun 2017India, Pakistan


Socialist International

Presidents
   Jul 1951 -    Jul 1957  Morgan Phillips (U.K.)             (b. 1902 - d. 1963)
   Jul 1957 -  5 Dec 1962  Alsing Andersen (Denmark)          (b. 1893 - d. 1962)
   Sep 1963 - 14 Dec 1963  Erich Ollenhauer (W. Germany)      (b. 1901 - d. 1963)
   Sep 1964 -    Nov 1976  Bruno Pittermann (Austria)         (b. 1905 - d. 1983)
   Nov 1976 -    Sep 1992  Willy Brandt ([W.] Germany)        (b. 1913 - d. 1992)
   Sep 1992 -    Nov 1999  Pierre Mauroy (France)             (b. 1928 - d. 2013)
   Nov 1999 -    Jan 2006  António Guterres (Portugal)        (b. 1949)
   Jan 2006 -              Georgios Papandreou (Greece)       (b. 1952)

Secretaries-general Jul 1951 - 1 May 1956 Julius Braunthal (Austria) (b. 1891 - d. 1972) 1 May 1956 - 15 Mar 1957 Bjarne Braatoy (Norway) (b. 1900 - d. 1957) 2 Jul 1957 - Apr 1969 Albert Carthy (U.K.) (b. 1907 - d. 1987) Apr 1969 - Nov 1976 Hans Janitschek (Austria) (b. 1934 - d. 2008) Nov 1976 - Apr 1983 Bernt Carlsson (Sweden) (b. 1938 - d. 1988) Apr 1983 - Jun 1989 Pentti Väänänen (Finland) (b. 1945) Jun 1989 - Luis Ayala (Chile)

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

Secretaries-general
16 Jan 1987 - 15 Oct 1989  Abul Ahsan (Bangladesh)            (b. 1936 - d. 2008)
17 Oct 1989 - 31 Dec 1991  Kant Kishore Bhargava (India)      (b. 1934)
 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1993  Ibrahim Hussain Zaki (Maldives)    (b. 1947)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1995  Yadav Kant Silwal (Nepal)          (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 1996 - 31 Dec 1998  Naeem U. Hasan (Pakistan)          (b. 1941)
 1 Jan 1999 - 10 Jan 2002  Nihal Rodrigo (Sri Lanka)          (b. c.1945)
11 Jan 2002 - 28 Feb 2005  Q.A.M.A. Rahim (Bangladesh)        (b. 1942)
 1 Mar 2005 - 29 Feb 2008  Lyonpo Chenkyab Dorji (Bhutan)     (b. 1943)
 1 Mar 2008 - 28 Feb 2011  Sheel Kanta Sharma (India)         (b. 1950)
 1 Mar 2011 - 22 Jan 2012  Fathimath Dhiyana Saeed (f)
                           (Maldives)                         (b. 1974?)
22 Jan 2012 - 12 Mar 2012  Damayanthi Rajapakse (f)
                           (Sri Lanka) (acting)
12 Mar 2012 -  1 Mar 2014  Ahmed Saleem (Maldives)            (b. 1949)
 1 Mar 2014 -              Arjun Bahadur Thapa (Nepal)        (b. 1956)

SAARC membership
8 Dec 1985Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka
3 Apr 2007Afghanistan


Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

19 Feb 1955                Southeast Asia Treaty Organization established
30 Jun 1977                dissolved

Secretaries-general
 5 Sep 1957 - 22 Sep 1957  Pote Sarasin (Thailand) (1st time) (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
22 Sep 1957 - 10 Jan 1958  William Worth (Australia)
                           (1st time) (acting)                (b. 1912)
10 Jan 1958 - 13 Dec 1963  Pote Sarasin (Thailand) (2nd time) (s.a.)
13 Dec 1963 - 19 Feb 1964  William Worth (Australia)
                           (2nd time) (acting)                (s.a.)
19 Feb 1964 -  1 Jul 1965  Konthi Suphamongkhon (Thailand)    (b. 1916 - d. 2011)
 1 Jul 1965 -  5 Sep 1972  Jesus Vargas (Philippines)         (b. 1905 - d. 1994)
 5 Sep 1972 - 30 Jun 1977  Sunthorn Hongladarom (Thailand)    (b. 1912 - d. 2005)

SEATO membership
19 Feb 1955Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan1, Philippines, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States
1Withdrew 7 Nov 1973.


Southern African Development Community

 1 Apr 1980                Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC)
17 Aug 1992                Southern African Development Community (SADC)

Executive secretaries
       1982 -        1984  Arthur Blumeris (Zimbabwe)         (b. ... - d. 1984)
       1984                Lebang Mpotokwane (Botswana)       (b. 1944)
                           (acting)
       1984 - 31 Dec 1993  Simba Makoni (Zimbabwe)            (b. 1950)
 1 Jan 1994 - 31 Dec 1999  Kaire Mbuende (Namibia)            (b. 1953)
 1 Jan 2000 - 31 Aug 2005  Prega Ramsamy (Mauritius)          (b. 1950)
                           (acting to 9 Mar 2001)
 1 Sep 2005 - 31 Aug 2013  Tomaz Salomão (Mozambique)         (b. 1954)
 1 Sep 2013 -              Stergomena Lawrence Tax (f)
                           (Tanzania)                         (b. 1960)

SADC membership
 1 Apr 1980Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
31 Mar 1990Namibia
30 Aug 1994South Africa
28 Aug 1995Mauritius
 8 Sep 1997Congo (Kinshasa), Seychelles1
18 Aug 2005Madagascar2
1Withdrew 1 Jul 2004; rejoined 16 Aug 2008. 2Suspended 30 Mar 2009 - 30 Jan 2014.


Union of South American Nations

23 May 2008                Constitutive Treaty of Union of South American Nations signed
11 Mar 2011                treaty formally takes effect

Secretaries-general
 4 May 2010 - 27 Oct 2010  Néstor Kirchner (Argentina)        (b. 1950 - d. 2010)
 1 Apr 2011 - 11 Jun 2012  María Emma Mejía (f) (Colombia)    (b. 1953)
11 Jun 2012 - 11 Sep 2014  Alí Rodríguez Araque (Venezuela)   (b. 1937)
11 Sep 2014 -              Ernesto Samper Pizano (Colombia)   (b. 1950)

UNASUR membership
23 May 2008Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay1, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela
1Suspended 29 Jun 2012 - 15 Aug 2013.


United Nations

Secretaries-general
24 Oct 1945 - 29 Jan 1946  Sir Gladwyn Jebb (U.K.) (acting)   (b. 1900 - d. 1996)
 2 Feb 1946 - 10 Apr 1953  Trygve Lie (Norway)                (b. 1896 - d. 1968)
10 Apr 1953 - 18 Sep 1961  Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden)          (b. 1905 - d. 1961)
 3 Nov 1961 - 31 Dec 1971  Thant (Burma)                      (b. 1909 - d. 1974)
                           (acting to 30 Nov 1962)
 1 Jan 1972 - 31 Dec 1981  Kurt Waldheim (Austria)            (b. 1918 - d. 2007)
 1 Jan 1982 - 31 Dec 1991  Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (Peru)     (b. 1920)
 1 Jan 1992 - 31 Dec 1996  Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt)      (b. 1922 - d. 2016)
 1 Jan 1997 - 31 Dec 2006  Kofi Annan (Ghana)                 (b. 1938)
 1 Jan 2007 - 31 Dec 2016  Ban Ki Moon (South Korea)          (b. 1944)
 1 Jan 2017 -              António Guterres (Portugal)        (b. 1949)

Presidents of the General Assembly
10 Jan 1946 - 16 Sep 1947  Paul-Henri Spaak (Belgium)         (b. 1899 - d. 1972)
16 Sep 1947 - 16 Apr 1948  Oswaldo Aranha (Brazil)            (b. 1894 - d. 1960)
16 Apr 1948 - 21 Sep 1948  José Arce (Argentina)              (b. 1881 - d. 1968)
21 Sep 1948 - 20 Sep 1949  Herbert Vere Evatt (Australia)     (b. 1894 - d. 1965)
20 Sep 1949 - 19 Sep 1950  Carlos Peña Romulo (Philippines)   (b. 1899 - d. 1985)
19 Sep 1950 -  6 Nov 1951  Nasrollah Entezam (Iran)           (b. 1900 - d. 1980)
 6 Nov 1951 - 14 Oct 1952  Luis Padilla Nervo (Mexico)        (b. 1894 - d. 1985)
14 Oct 1952 - 15 Sep 1953  Lester B. Pearson (Canada)         (b. 1897 - d. 1972)
15 Sep 1953 - 21 Sep 1954  Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit (f) (India)  (b. 1900 - d. 1990)
21 Sep 1954 - 20 Sep 1955  Eelco van Kleffens (Netherlands)   (b. 1894 - d. 1983)
20 Sep 1955 -  1 Nov 1956  José Maza (Chile)                  (b. 1889 - d. 1964)
 1 Nov 1956 - 12 Nov 1956  Rudecindo Ortega Masson (Chile)    (b. 1899 - d. 1962)
12 Nov 1956 - 17 Sep 1957  Prince Wan Waithayakon (Thailand)  (b. 1891 - d. 1976)
17 Sep 1957 - 16 Sep 1958  Sir Leslie Munro (New Zealand)     (b. 1901 - d. 1974)
16 Sep 1958 - 15 Sep 1959  Charles Habib Malik (Lebanon)      (b. 1906 - d. 1987)
15 Sep 1959 - 20 Sep 1960  Víctor Andrés Belaúnde (Peru)      (b. 1883 - d. 1966)
20 Sep 1960 - 20 Sep 1961  Frederick H. Boland (Ireland)      (b. 1904 - d. 1985)
20 Sep 1961 - 18 Sep 1962  Mongi Slim (Tunisia)               (b. 1908 - d. 1969)
18 Sep 1962 - 17 Sep 1963  Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan
                           (Pakistan)                         (b. 1893 - d. 1985)
17 Sep 1963 -  1 Dec 1964  Carlos Sosa Rodríguez (Venezuela)  (b. 1912 - d. 1997)
 1 Dec 1964 - 21 Sep 1965  Alex Quaison-Sackey (Ghana)        (b. 1924 - d. 1992)
21 Sep 1965 - 20 Sep 1966  Amintore Fanfani (Italy)           (b. 1908 - d. 1999)
20 Sep 1966 - 19 Sep 1967  Abdul Rahman Pazhwak (Afghanistan) (b. 1919 - d. 1995)
19 Sep 1967 - 24 Sep 1968  Corneliu Manescu (Romania)         (b. 1916 - d. 2000)
24 Sep 1968 - 17 Apr 1969  Emilio Arenales Catalán
                           (Guatemala)                        (b. 1922 - d. 1969)
16 Sep 1969 - 15 Sep 1970  Angie Brooks (from 27 Apr 1970,
                           Angie Brooks-Randolph) (f)
                           (Liberia)                          (b. 1916 - d. 2007)
15 Sep 1970 - 21 Sep 1971  Edvard Hambro (Norway)             (b. 1911 - d. 1977)
21 Sep 1971 - 19 Sep 1972  Adam Malik (Indonesia)             (b. 1917 - d. 1984)
19 Sep 1972 - 18 Sep 1973  Stanislaw Trepczynski (Poland)     (b. 1924 - d. 2002)
18 Sep 1973 - 17 Sep 1974  Leopoldo Benites Vinueza (Ecuador) (b. 1905 - d. 1995)
17 Sep 1974 - 16 Sep 1975  Abdelaziz Bouteflika (Algeria)     (b. 1937)
16 Sep 1975 - 21 Sep 1976  Gaston Thorn (Luxembourg)          (b. 1928 - d. 2007)
21 Sep 1976 - 20 Sep 1977  Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe
                           (Sri Lanka)                        (b. 1913 - d. 1980)
20 Sep 1977 - 19 Sep 1978  Lazar Mojsov (Yugoslavia)          (b. 1920 - d. 2011)
19 Sep 1978 - 18 Sep 1979  Indalecio Liévano Aguirre
                           (Colombia)                         (b. 1917 - d. 1982)
18 Sep 1979 - 16 Sep 1980  Salim Ahmed Salim (Tanzania)       (b. 1942)
16 Sep 1980 - 15 Sep 1981  Rüdiger von Wechmar (W. Germany)   (b. 1923 - d. 2007)
15 Sep 1981 - 21 Sep 1982  Ismat T. Kittani (Iraq)            (b. 1929 - d. 2001)
21 Sep 1982 - 20 Sep 1983  Imre Hollai (Hungary)              (b. 1925)
20 Sep 1983 - 18 Sep 1984  Jorge Illueca (Panama)             (b. 1918 - d. 2012)
18 Sep 1984 - 17 Sep 1985  Paul J.F. Lusaka (Zambia)          (b. 1935 - d. 1996)
17 Sep 1985 - 16 Sep 1986  Jaime de Piniés (Spain)            (b. 1917 - d. 2003)
16 Sep 1986 - 15 Sep 1987  Humayun Rasheed Chowdhury
                           (Bangladesh)                       (b. 1928 - d. 2001)
15 Sep 1987 - 20 Sep 1988  Peter Florin (E. Germany)          (b. 1921 - d. 2014)
20 Sep 1988 - 19 Sep 1989  Dante Caputo (Argentina)           (b. 1943)
19 Sep 1989 - 18 Sep 1990  Joseph Nanven Garba (Nigeria)      (b. 1943 - d. 2002)
18 Sep 1990 - 17 Sep 1991  Guido de Marco (Malta)             (b. 1931 - d. 2010)
17 Sep 1991 - 15 Sep 1992  Samir S. Shihabi (Saudi Arabia)    (b. 1925 - d. 2010)
15 Sep 1992 - 21 Sep 1993  Stoyan Ganev (Bulgaria)            (b. 1955 - d. 2013)
21 Sep 1993 - 20 Sep 1994  Samuel R. Insanally (Guyana)       (b. 1936)
20 Sep 1994 - 19 Sep 1995  Amara Essy (Côte d'Ivoire)         (b. 1944)
19 Sep 1995 - 17 Sep 1996  Diogo Freitas do Amaral (Portugal) (b. 1941)
17 Sep 1996 - 16 Sep 1997  Razali Ismail (Malaysia)           (b. 1939)
16 Sep 1997 -  9 Sep 1998  Hennadiy Udovenko (Ukraine)        (b. 1931 - d. 2013)
 9 Sep 1998 - 14 Sep 1999  Didier Opertti (Uruguay)           (b. 1937)
14 Sep 1999 -  5 Sep 2000  Theo-Ben Gurirab (Namibia)         (b. 1939)
 5 Sep 2000 - 12 Sep 2001  Harri Holkeri (Finland)            (b. 1937 - d. 2011)
12 Sep 2001 - 10 Sep 2002  Han Seung Soo (South Korea)        (b. 1936)
10 Sep 2002 - 16 Sep 2003  Jan Kavan (Czech Republic)         (b. 1946)
16 Sep 2003 - 14 Sep 2004  Julian Hunte (Saint Lucia)         (b. 1940)
14 Sep 2004 - 13 Sep 2005  Jean Ping (Gabon)                  (b. 1942)
13 Sep 2005 - 12 Sep 2006  Jan Eliasson (Sweden)              (b. 1940)
12 Sep 2006 - 18 Sep 2007  Haya Rashed Al Khalifah (f)
                           (Bahrain)                          (b. 1952)
18 Sep 2007 - 16 Sep 2008  Srgjan Kerim (Macedonia)           (b. 1948)
16 Sep 2008 - 15 Sep 2009  Miguel D'Escoto Brockmann
                           (Nicaragua)                        (b. 1933 - d. 2017)
15 Sep 2009 - 14 Sep 2010  Ali Triki (Libya)                  (b. 1938 - d. 2015)
14 Sep 2010 - 13 Sep 2011  Joseph Deiss (Switzerland)         (b. 1946)
13 Sep 2011 - 18 Sep 2012  Nasser Abdulaziz al-Nasser (Qatar) (b. 1953)
18 Sep 2012 - 17 Sep 2013  Vuk Jeremic (Serbia)               (b. 1975)
17 Sep 2013 - 16 Sep 2014  John W. Ashe (Antigua and Barbuda) (b. 1954 - d. 2016)
16 Sep 2014 - 15 Sep 2015  Sam Kutesa (Uganda)                (b. 1949)
15 Sep 2015 - 13 Sep 2016  Mogens Lykketoft (Denmark)         (b. 1946)
13 Sep 2016 - 12 Sep 2017  Peter Thomson (Fiji)               (b. 1948)
12 Sep 2017 -              Miroslav Lajcák (Slovakia)         (b. 1963)

United Nations High Commissioners for Refugees
 1 Jan 1951 -  8 Jul 1956  Gerrit J. van Heuven Goedhart
                           (Netherlands)                      (b. 1901 - d. 1956)
 8 Jul 1956 - 31 Dec 1956  James M. Read (U.S.) (acting)      (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
 1 Jan 1957 - 31 Dec 1960  Auguste R. Lindt (Switzerland)     (b. 1905 - d. 2000)
 1 Jan 1961 - 31 Dec 1965  Felix Schnyder (Switzerland)       (b. 1910 - d. 1992)
 1 Jan 1966 - 31 Dec 1977  Sadruddin Aga Khan (Iran)          (b. 1933 - d. 2003)
 1 Jan 1978 - 31 Dec 1985  Poul Hartling (Denmark)            (b. 1914 - d. 2000)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Oct 1989  Jean-Pierre Hocké (Switzerland)    (b. 1938)
 1 Nov 1989 - 31 Dec 1989  Gerald Hinteregger (Austria)       (b. 1928 - d. 2013)
                           (acting)
 1 Jan 1990 -  2 Nov 1990  Thorvald Stoltenberg (Norway)      (b. 1931)
 2 Nov 1990 - 18 Feb 1991  Douglas Stafford (U.S.) (acting)
18 Feb 1991 - 31 Dec 2000  Sadako Ogata (f) (Japan)           (b. 1927)
 1 Jan 2001 - 24 Feb 2005  Ruud Lubbers (Netherlands)         (b. 1939)
24 Feb 2005 - 15 Jun 2005  Wendy Chamberlin (f) (U.S.)        (b. 1948)
                           (acting)
15 Jun 2005 - 31 Dec 2015  António Guterres (Portugal)        (b. 1949)
 1 Jan 2016 -              Filippo Grandi (Italy)             (b. 1957)

United Nations High Commissioners for Human Rights
 5 Apr 1994 - 15 Mar 1997  José Ayala Lasso (Ecuador)         (b. 1932)
15 Mar 1997 - 12 Sep 1997  Ralph Zacklin (U.K.) (interim)     (b. 1937)
12 Sep 1997 - 12 Sep 2002  Mary Robinson (f) (Ireland)        (b. 1944)
12 Sep 2002 - 19 Aug 2003  Sérgio Vieira de Mello (Brazil)    (b. 1948 - d. 2003)
 2 Jun 2003 -  1 Jul 2004  Bertrand Ramcharan (Guyana)        (b. 1943)
                           (acting [for Mello to 19 Aug 2003])
 1 Jul 2004 - 30 Jun 2008  Louise Arbour (f) (Canada)         (b. 1947)
 1 Jul 2008 - 31 Aug 2008  Kyung-wha Kang (f) (South Korea)   (b. 1955)
                           (acting)
 1 Sep 2008 - 31 Aug 2014  Navanethem Pillay (f)
                           (South Africa)                     (b. 1941)
 1 Sep 2014 -              Prince Zeid al-Hussein (Jordan)    (b. 1964)

UN membership
24 Oct 1945Argentina, Belorussian S.S.R.1, Brazil, Chile, China2, Cuba, Czechoslovakia3, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Haiti, Iran, Lebanon, Luxembourg, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Soviet Union4, Syria5, Turkey, Ukrainian S.S.R.6, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia7
25 Oct 1945Greece
30 Oct 1945India
31 Oct 1945Peru
 1 Nov 1945Australia
 2 Nov 1945Costa Rica, Liberia
 5 Nov 1945Colombia
 7 Nov 1945Mexico, South Africa
 9 Nov 1945Canada
13 Nov 1945Ethiopia, Panama
14 Nov 1945Bolivia
15 Nov 1945Venezuela
21 Nov 1945Guatemala
27 Nov 1945Norway
10 Dec 1945The Netherlands
17 Dec 1945Honduras
18 Dec 1945Uruguay
21 Dec 1945Ecuador, Iraq
27 Dec 1945Belgium
19 Nov 1946Afghanistan, Iceland, Sweden
16 Dec 1946Thailand
30 Sep 1947Pakistan, Yemen (Sana)8
19 Apr 1948Burma9
11 May 1949Israel
28 Sep 1950Indonesia10
14 Dec 1955Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Ceylon11, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Libya, Nepal, Portugal, Romania, Spain
12 Nov 1956Morocco, The Sudan, Tunisia
18 Dec 1956Japan
 8 Mar 1957Ghana
17 Sep 1957Malaya12
12 Dec 1958Guinea
20 Sep 1960Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Léopoldville)13, Cyprus, Dahomey14, Gabon, Ivory Coast15, Madagascar, Niger, Somalia, Togo, Upper Volta16
28 Sep 1960Mali, Senegal
 7 Oct 1960Nigeria
27 Sep 1961Sierra Leone
27 Oct 1961Mauritania, Mongolia
14 Dec 1961Tanganyika17
18 Sep 1962Burundi, Jamaica, Rwanda, Trinidad and Tobago
 8 Oct 1962Algeria
25 Oct 1962Uganda
14 May 1963Kuwait
16 Dec 1963Kenya, Zanzibar17
 1 Dec 1964Malawi, Malta, Zambia
21 Sep 1965The Gambia, Maldives, Singapore
20 Sep 1966Guyana
17 Oct 1966Botswana, Lesotho
 9 Dec 1966Barbados
14 Dec 1967Yemen (Aden)8
24 Apr 1968Mauritius
24 Sep 1968Swaziland
12 Nov 1968Equatorial Guinea
13 Oct 1970Fiji
21 Sep 1971Bahrain, Bhutan, Qatar
 7 Oct 1971Oman
 9 Dec 1971United Arab Emirates
18 Sep 1973The Bahamas, East Germany18, West Germany18
17 Sep 1974Bangladesh, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau
16 Sep 1975Cape Verde19, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe
10 Oct 1975Papua New Guinea
12 Nov 1975Comoros
 4 Dec 1975Suriname
21 Sep 1976Seychelles
 1 Dec 1976Angola
15 Dec 1976Western Samoa20
20 Sep 1977Djibouti, Vietnam
19 Sep 1978Solomon Islands
18 Dec 1978Dominica
18 Sep 1979Saint Lucia
25 Aug 1980Zimbabwe
16 Sep 1980Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
15 Sep 1981Vanuatu
25 Sep 1981Belize
11 Nov 1981Antigua and Barbuda
23 Sep 1983Saint Kitts and Nevis
21 Sep 1984Brunei
23 Apr 1990Namibia
18 Sep 1990Liechtenstein
17 Sep 1991Estonia, North Korea, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia
 2 Mar 1992Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, San Marino, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
 9 Mar 1992Azerbaijan
22 May 1992Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia
31 Jul 1992Georgia
19 Jan 1993Czech Republic, Slovakia
 8 Apr 1993Macedonia
28 May 1993Eritrea, Monaco
28 Jul 1993Andorra
15 Dec 1994Palau
14 Sep 1999Kiribati, Nauru, Tonga
 5 Sep 2000Tuvalu
10 Sep 2002Switzerland
27 Sep 2002Timor-Leste
28 Jun 2006Montenegro
14 Jul 2011South Sudan
1From 19 Sep 1991 Belarus. 2The Republic of China (Taiwan) represented China until 15 Nov 1971, when the UN voted to have China represented by the People's Republic of China. 3Dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 4Dissolved 25 Dec 1991; Russia succeeded to Soviet seat. 5Merged with Egypt to form United Arab Republic 22 Feb 1958; seceded from U.A.R. 28 Sep 1961 and rejoined UN 13 Oct 1961. 6From 1991 Ukraine. 7Broke up in 1992; the UN did not recognize the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as its successor and ruled that it had to apply anew for membership, which it did in 2000 (admitted 1 Nov 2000); from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 8Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990. 9From 1989 Myanmar. 10Withdrew 20 Jan 1965; rejoined 28 Sep 1966. 11From 1972 Sri Lanka. 12From 1963 Malaysia. 131966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 14From 1975 Benin. 15From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 16From 1984 Burkina Faso. 17Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged 26 Apr 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which was renamed Tanzania 1 Nov 1964. 18East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 19From 2013 Cabo Verde. 20From 1997 Samoa.
Note: The only non-member among undisputed states is Vatican City.


United Nations Children's Fund

 6 Oct 1953                United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
                           renamed United Nations Children's Fund

Executive directors
11 Dec 1946 - 19 Jan 1965  Maurice Pate (U.S.)                (b. 1894 - d. 1965)
   Mar 1965 - 31 Dec 1979  Henry Labouisse (U.S.)             (b. 1904 - d. 1987)
 1 Jan 1980 - 28 Jan 1995  James Grant (U.S.)                 (b. 1922 - d. 1995)
 1 May 1995 - 30 Apr 2005  Carol Bellamy (f) (U.S.)           (b. 1942)
 1 May 2005 - 30 Apr 2010  Ann Veneman (f) (U.S.)             (b. 1949)
 1 May 2010 -              Anthony Lake (U.S.)                (b. 1939)

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Directors-general
 6 Dec 1946 -  9 Dec 1948  Julian Huxley (U.K.)               (b. 1887 - d. 1975)
10 Dec 1948 -  1 Dec 1952  Jaime Torres Bodet (Mexico)        (b. 1902 - d. 1974)
 2 Dec 1952 -  3 Jul 1953  John W. Taylor (U.S.) (interim)    (b. 1906 - d. 2001)
 4 Jul 1953 -  4 Dec 1958  Luther H. Evans (U.S.)             (b. 1902 - d. 1981)
 5 Dec 1958 -  2 Nov 1961  Vittorino Veronese (Italy)         (b. 1910 - d. 1986)
 2 Nov 1961 - 14 Nov 1974  René Maheu (France)                (b. 1905 - d. 1975)
                           (interim to 14 Nov 1962)
15 Nov 1974 - 14 Nov 1987  Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow (Senegal)      (b. 1921)
15 Nov 1987 - 14 Nov 1999  Federico Mayor (Spain)             (b. 1934)
15 Nov 1999 - 14 Nov 2009  Koichiro Matsuura (Japan)          (b. 1937)
15 Nov 2009 - 14 Nov 2017  Irina Bokova (f) (Bulgaria)        (b. 1952)
15 Nov 2017 -              Audrey Azoulay (f) (France)        (b. 1972)

UNESCO membership
 4 Nov 1946Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia1, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, India, Lebanon, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Saudi Arabia, South Africa2, Turkey, United Kingdom3, United States4
 6 Nov 1946Poland
13 Nov 1946Bolivia
16 Nov 1946Syria
18 Nov 1946Haiti
21 Nov 1946Peru, Philippines
25 Nov 1946Venezuela
29 Nov 1946Belgium
 1 Jan 1947The Netherlands
22 Jan 1947Ecuador
 6 Mar 1947Liberia
29 Aug 1947Cuba
27 Oct 1947Luxembourg
31 Oct 1947Colombia
 8 Nov 1947Uruguay
16 Dec 1947Honduras
27 Jan 1948Italy
28 Apr 1948El Salvador
 4 May 1948Afghanistan
13 Aug 1948Austria
 6 Sep 1948Iran
14 Sep 1948Hungary
15 Sep 1948Argentina
21 Oct 1948Iraq
 1 Jan 1949Thailand
28 Jan 1949Switzerland
27 Jun 1949Burma5
 6 Jul 1949Monaco
14 Sep 1949Pakistan
16 Sep 1949Israel
14 Nov 1949Ceylon6
 2 Jan 1950Guatemala
10 Jan 1950Panama
23 Jan 1950Sweden
31 Mar 1950Yugoslavia7
19 May 1950Costa Rica
27 May 1950Indonesia
14 Jun 1950Jordan, South Korea
 2 Jul 1951Japan
 3 Jul 1951Cambodia
 6 Jul 1951Vietnam
 9 Jul 1951Laos
11 Jul 1951West Germany8
22 Feb 1952Nicaragua
30 Jan 1953Spain
 1 May 1953Nepal
27 Jun 1953Libya
 7 Jul 1953Chile
21 Apr 1954Soviet Union9
12 May 1954Belorussian S.S.R.10, Ukrainian S.S.R.11
20 Jun 1955Paraguay
 1 Jul 1955Ethiopia
17 May 1956Bulgaria
27 Jul 1956Romania
10 Oct 1956Finland
 7 Nov 1956Morocco
 8 Nov 1956Tunisia
26 Nov 1956The Sudan
11 Apr 1958Ghana
16 Jun 1958Malaya12
16 Oct 1958Albania
 2 Feb 1960Guinea
18 Oct 1960Dahomey13
24 Oct 1960Congo (Brazzaville)
27 Oct 1960Ivory Coast14
 7 Nov 1960Mali
10 Nov 1960Madagascar, Niger, Senegal
11 Nov 1960Cameroon, Central African Republic
14 Nov 1960Nigeria, Upper Volta15
15 Nov 1960Somalia
16 Nov 1960Gabon
17 Nov 1960Togo
18 Nov 1960Kuwait
25 Nov 1960Congo (Léopoldville)16
19 Dec 1960Chad
 6 Feb 1961Cyprus
 3 Oct 1961Ireland
10 Oct 1962Mauritania
 6 Mar 1962Tanganyika17
28 Mar 1962Sierra Leone
 2 Apr 1962Yemen (Sana)18
15 Oct 1962Algeria
 1 Nov 1962Mongolia
 2 Nov 1962Trinidad and Tobago
 7 Nov 1962Jamaica, Rwanda
 9 Nov 1962Uganda
16 Nov 1962Burundi
 7 Apr 1964Kenya
 8 Jun 1964Iceland
27 Oct 1964Malawi
 9 Nov 1964Zambia
10 Feb 1965Malta
11 Mar 1965Portugal19
28 Oct 1965Singapore20
21 Mar 1967Guyana
29 Sep 1967Lesotho
24 Oct 1968Barbados
25 Oct 1968Mauritius
18 Jan 1972Bahrain
27 Jan 1972Qatar
10 Feb 1972Oman
20 Apr 1972United Arab Emirates
27 Oct 1972Bangladesh
21 Nov 1972East Germany8
 1 Aug 1973The Gambia
18 Oct 1974North Korea
 1 Nov 1974Guinea-Bissau
12 Nov 1974San Marino
17 Feb 1975Grenada
16 Jul 1976Suriname
 4 Oct 1976Papua New Guinea
11 Oct 1976Mozambique
18 Oct 1976Seychelles
11 Mar 1977Angola
22 Mar 1977Comoros
25 Jan 1978Swaziland
15 Feb 1978Cape Verde21
 2 Nov 1978Namibia
 9 Jan 1979Dominica
29 Nov 1979Equatorial Guinea
16 Jan 1980Botswana
22 Jan 1980São Tomé and Príncipe
 6 Mar 1980Saint Lucia
18 Jul 1980Maldives
22 Sep 1980Zimbabwe
29 Sep 1980Tonga
 3 Apr 1981Western Samoa22
23 Apr 1981The Bahamas
13 Apr 1982Bhutan
10 May 1982Belize
15 Jul 1982Antigua and Barbuda
15 Feb 1983Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
14 Jul 1983Fiji
26 Oct 1983Saint Kitts and Nevis
31 Aug 1989Djibouti
24 Oct 1989Kiribati
25 Oct 1989Cook Islands
 7 Oct 1991Lithuania
14 Oct 1991Estonia, Latvia
21 Oct 1991Tuvalu
22 May 1992Kazakhstan
27 May 1992Moldova, Slovenia
 1 Jun 1992Croatia
 2 Jun 1992Kyrgyzstan
 3 Jun 1992Azerbaijan
 9 Jun 1992Armenia
 7 Oct 1992Georgia
 9 Feb 1993Slovakia
22 Feb 1993Czech Republic
 6 Apr 1993Tajikistan
 2 Jun 1993Bosnia and Herzegovina
28 Jun 1993Macedonia
17 Aug 1993Turkmenistan
 2 Sep 1993Eritrea
 7 Sep 1993Solomon Islands
20 Oct 1993Andorra
26 Oct 1993Niue, Uzbekistan
10 Feb 1994Vanuatu
30 Jun 1995Marshall Islands
17 Oct 1996Nauru
20 Sep 1999Palau
19 Oct 1999Federated States of Micronesia
 5 Jun 2003Timor-Leste
27 Oct 2011South Sudan
23 Nov 2011Palestine
1Dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 2Withdrew 31 Dec 1956, rejoined 12 Dec 1994. 3Withdrew 31 Dec 1985, rejoined 1 Jul 1997. 4Withdrew 31 Dec 1984, rejoined 1 Oct 2003. 5From 1989 Myanmar. 6From 1972 Sri Lanka. 7Expelled 22 Sep 1992, readmitted 20 Dec 2000; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 8East and West Germany united 3 Oct 1990. 9Dissolved 25 Dec 1991, succeeded by Russia. 10From 1991 Belarus. 11From 1991 Ukraine. 12From 1963 Malaysia. 13From 1975 Benin. 14From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 15From 1984 Burkina Faso. 161966-71 and from 1997 Congo (Kinshasa); 1971-97 Zaire. 17From 1964 Tanzania. 18From 1990 Yemen. 19Withdrew 31 Dec 1972, rejoined 11 Sep 1974. 20Withdrew 31 Dec 1985; rejoined 8 Oct 2007. 21From 2013 Cabo Verde. 22From 1997 Samoa.


Universal Postal Union

Directors (from 7 Jul 1964, directors-general)
       1875 - 14 Jun 1892  Eugène Borel (Switzerland)         (b. 1835 - d. 1892)
       1893 - 30 Jan 1899  Edmond Höhn (Switzerland)          (b. 1838 - d. 1899)
       1899 - 25 Oct 1919  Eugène Ruffy (Switzerland)         (b. 1854 - d. 1919)
       1920 - 14 Jan 1925  Camille Decoppet (Switzerland)     (b. 1862 - d. 1925)
       1925 -        1937  Evaristo Garbani-Nerini
                           (Switzerland)                      (b. 1867 - d. 1944)
       1938 - 18 Nov 1944  Reinhold Furrer (Switzerland)      (b. 1875 - d. 1944)
       1945 -        1949  Alois Muri (Switzerland)           (b. 1879 - d. 1971)
       1950 -        1960  Fritz Hess (Switzerland)           (b. 1895 - d. 1970)
       1961 -        1966  Edouard Weber (Switzerland)        (b. 1901 - d. 1970)
       1967 - 20 Jan 1973  Michel Rahi (Egypt)                (b. 1912 - d. 1973)
18 May 1973 - 31 Dec 1974  Anthony H. Ridge (U.K.)            (b. 1913 - d. 2010)
 1 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1984  Muhammad Ibrahim Sobhi (Egypt)     (b. 1925)
 1 Jan 1985 - 31 Dec 1994  Adwaldo Cardoso Botto de Barros
                           (Brazil)                           (b. 1925 - d. 2015)
 1 Jan 1995 - 31 Dec 2004  Thomas E. Leavey (U.S.)            (b. 1934)
 1 Jan 2005 - 31 Dec 2012  Édouard Dayan (France)             (b. 1943)
 1 Jan 2013 -              Bishar Abdirahman Hussein (Kenya)

Warsaw Treaty Organization

14 May 1955                Warsaw Treaty Organization ("Warsaw Pact") founded
 1 Jul 1991                dissolved

Commanders-in-chief (all from the Soviet Union)
14 May 1955 - 23 Jul 1960  Ivan Konev                         (b. 1897 - d. 1973)
23 Jul 1960 -  7 Jul 1967  Andrey Grechko                     (b. 1903 - d. 1976)
 7 Jul 1967 - 30 Nov 1976  Ivan Yakubovsky                    (b. 1912 - d. 1976)
 8 Jan 1977 -  2 Feb 1989  Viktor Kulikov                     (b. 1921 - d. 2013)
 2 Feb 1989 - 26 Apr 1991  Pyotr Lushev                       (b. 1923 - d. 1997)

Warsaw Pact membership
14 May 1955Albania1, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany2, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union
1Withdrew 12 Sep 1968. 2Withdrew 24 Sep 1990.


Western European Union

30 Jun 2011                dissolved

Secretaries-general
 7 May 1955 - 14 Dec 1962  Louis Goffin (Belgium)             (b. 1904 - d. 1975)
15 Dec 1962 - 31 Dec 1970  Maurice Iweins d'Eeckhoutte
                           (Belgium)                          (b. 1904 - d. 1976)
 1 Jan 1971 - 30 Sep 1974  Georges Heisbourg (Luxembourg)     (b. 1918 - d. 2008)
20 Oct 1974 - 24 Feb 1977  Friedrich-Karl von Plehwe (W.Ger.) (b. 1912 - d. 1989)
                           (acting)
 1 Mar 1977 - 31 May 1985  Edouard Longerstaey (Belgium)      (b. 1919 - d. 1986)
17 Jun 1985 - 11 May 1989  Alfred Cahen (Belgium)             (b. 1929 - d. 2000)
15 May 1989 - 15 Nov 1994  Wim van Eekelen (Netherlands)      (b. 1931)
16 Nov 1994 - 24 Nov 1999  José Cutileiro (Portugal)          (b. 1934)
25 Nov 1999 - 24 Nov 2009  Javier Solana Madariaga (Spain)    (b. 1942)
25 Nov 2009 - 30 Jun 2011  Arnaud Jacomet (France)            (b. 1946 - d. 2011)

WEU membership
23 Oct 1954Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, United Kingdom
27 Mar 1990Portugal, Spain
 6 Mar 1995Greece


World Bank

27 Dec 1945                Articles of Agreement (adopted by the Bretton Woods
                           Conference 22 Jul 1944) become effective
25 Jun 1946                International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
                           (World Bank) begins operations

Presidents (all from U.S.)
18 Jun 1946 - 17 Mar 1947  Eugene Meyer                       (b. 1875 - d. 1959)
17 Mar 1947 -  1 Jul 1949  John J. McCloy                     (b. 1895 - d. 1989)
 1 Jul 1949 -  1 Jan 1963  Eugene R. Black                    (b. 1898 - d. 1992)
 1 Jan 1963 -  1 Apr 1968  George Woods                       (b. 1901 - d. 1982)
 1 Apr 1968 -  1 Jul 1981  Robert S. McNamara                 (b. 1916 - d. 2009)
 1 Jul 1981 -  1 Jul 1986  A.W. Clausen                       (b. 1923 - d. 2013)
 1 Jul 1986 -  1 Sep 1991  Barber B. Conable, Jr.             (b. 1922 - d. 2003)
 1 Sep 1991 -  4 May 1995  Lewis T. Preston                   (b. 1926 - d. 1995)
 4 May 1995 -  1 Jun 1995  Richard Frank (acting)
 1 Jun 1995 -  1 Jun 2005  James D. Wolfensohn                (b. 1933)
 1 Jun 2005 -  1 Jul 2007  Paul Wolfowitz                     (b. 1943)
 1 Jul 2007 -  1 Jul 2012  Robert B. Zoellick                 (b. 1953)
 1 Jul 2012 -              Jim Yong Kim                       (b. 1959)

World Bank membership
27 Dec 1945Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia1, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Honduras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia2
28 Dec 1945Dominican Republic3, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay
29 Dec 1945Iran
31 Dec 1945Chile, Mexico, Peru
 8 Jan 1946Costa Rica
10 Jan 1946Poland4
14 Jan 1946Brazil
11 Mar 1946Uruguay
14 Mar 1946Cuba5, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama
30 Mar 1946Denmark
24 Dec 1946Colombia
30 Dec 1946Venezuela
11 Mar 1947Turkey
27 Mar 1947Italy
10 Apr 1947Syria
14 Apr 1947Lebanon
 5 Aug 1947Australia
14 Jan 1948Finland
27 Aug 1948Austria
 3 May 1949Thailand
11 Jul 1950Pakistan
29 Aug 1950Ceylon6
31 Aug 1951Sweden
 3 Jan 1952Burma7
13 Aug 1952Japan
14 Aug 1952Federal Republic of Germany
29 Aug 1952Jordan
 8 Sep 1953Haiti
15 Apr 1954Indonesia
12 Jul 1954Israel
14 Jul 1955Afghanistan
26 Aug 1955South Korea
20 Sep 1956Argentina
21 Sep 1956Vietnam
 8 Aug 1957Ireland
26 Aug 1957Saudi Arabia
 5 Sep 1957The Sudan
20 Sep 1957Ghana
 7 Mar 1958Malaysia
14 Apr 1958Tunisia
25 Apr 1958Morocco
15 Sep 1958Spain
17 Sep 1958Libya
29 Mar 1961Portugal
30 Mar 1961Nigeria
 5 Jul 1961Laos
31 Aug 1961New Zealand
 6 Sep 1961Nepal
21 Dec 1961Cyprus
28 Mar 1962Liberia
 1 Aug 1962Togo
31 Aug 1962Senegal, Somalia
10 Sep 1962Sierra Leone, Tanzania
13 Sep 1962Kuwait
21 Feb 1963Jamaica
11 Mar 1963Ivory Coast8
24 Apr 1963Niger
 2 May 1963Upper Volta9
10 Jul 1963Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey10
10 Sep 1963Gabon, Mauritania
16 Sep 1963Trinidad and Tobago
25 Sep 1963Madagascar
26 Sep 1963Algeria
27 Sep 1963Mali, Uganda
28 Sep 1963Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa), Guinea
30 Sep 1963Rwanda
 3 Feb 1964Kenya
19 Jul 1965Malawi
23 Sep 1965Zambia
 3 Aug 1966Singapore
26 Sep 1966Guyana
18 Oct 1967The Gambia
24 Jul 1968Botswana
25 Jul 1968Lesotho
23 Sep 1968Mauritius
22 Sep 1969Swaziland
 3 Oct 1969Yemen (Aden)11
22 May 1970Yemen (Sana)11
 1 Jul 1970Equatorial Guinea
22 Jul 1970Cambodia
28 May 1971Fiji
23 Dec 1971Oman
17 Aug 1972Bangladesh
15 Sep 1972Bahrain
22 Sep 1972United Arab Emirates
25 Sep 1972Qatar
15 Dec 1972Romania
21 Aug 1973The Bahamas
28 Jun 1974Western Samoa12
12 Sep 1974Barbados
27 Aug 1975Grenada
 9 Oct 1975Papua New Guinea
28 Oct 1976Comoros
24 Mar 1977Guinea-Bissau
30 Sep 1977São Tomé and Príncipe
13 Jan 1978Maldives
27 Jun 1978Suriname
22 Sep 1978Solomon Islands
20 Nov 1978Cape Verde13
27 Jun 1980Saint Lucia
29 Sep 1980Dominica, Seychelles, Zimbabwe
 1 Oct 1980Djibouti
28 Sep 1981Bhutan, Vanuatu
19 Mar 1982Belize
 7 Jul 1982Hungary
31 Aug 1982Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
22 Sep 1983Antigua and Barbuda
26 Sep 1983Malta
15 Aug 1984Saint Kitts and Nevis
24 Sep 1984Mozambique
13 Sep 1985Tonga
29 Sep 1986Kiribati
19 Sep 1989Angola
25 Sep 1990Bulgaria, Namibia
14 Feb 1991Mongolia
15 Oct 1991Albania
21 May 1992Marshall Islands
29 May 1992Switzerland
16 Jun 1992Russia
23 Jun 1992Estonia
 6 Jul 1992Lithuania
10 Jul 1992Belarus
23 Jul 1992Kazakhstan
 7 Aug 1992Georgia
11 Aug 1992Latvia
12 Aug 1992Moldova
 3 Sep 1992Ukraine
16 Sep 1992Armenia
18 Sep 1992Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan
21 Sep 1992Uzbekistan
22 Sep 1992Turkmenistan
25 Feb 1993Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia
 4 Jun 1993Tajikistan
24 Jun 1993Federated States of Micronesia
 6 Jul 1994Eritrea
10 Oct 1995Brunei
16 Dec 1997Palau
18 Jan 2007Montenegro
29 Jun 2009Kosovo
24 Jun 2010Tuvalu
18 Apr 2012South Sudan
12 Apr 2016Nauru
1Expelled 5 Jan 1955; rejoined 20 Sep 1990; from 1 Jan 1993 Czech Republic and Slovakia. 2Expelled 25 Feb 1993; readmitted 8 May 2001; from 4 Feb 2003 called Serbia and Montenegro; on 5 Jun 2006 succeeded by Serbia. 3Withdrew 1 Dec 1960; rejoined 18 Sep 1961. 4Withdrew 14 Mar 1950; rejoined 27 Jun 1986. 5Withdrew 14 Nov 1960. 6From 1972 Sri Lanka. 7From 1989 Myanmar. 8From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire. 9From 1984 Burkina Faso. 10From 1975 Benin. 11Yemen (Aden) and Yemen (Sana) united 22 May 1990. 12From 1997 Samoa. 13From 2013 Cabo Verde.


World Health Organization

Directors-general
21 Jul 1948 - 21 Jul 1953  Brock Chisholm (Canada)            (b. 1896 - d. 1971)
21 Jul 1953 - 21 Jul 1973  Marcolino Gomes Candau (Brazil)    (b. 1911 - d. 1983)
21 Jul 1973 - 21 Jul 1988  Halfdan T. Mahler (Denmark)        (b. 1923 - d. 2016)
21 Jul 1988 - 21 Jul 1998  Hiroshi Nakajima (Japan)           (b. 1928 - d. 2013)
21 Jul 1998 - 21 Jul 2003  Gro Harlem Brundtland (f) (Norway) (b. 1939)
21 Jul 2003 - 22 May 2006  Lee Jong Wook (South Korea)        (b. 1945 - d. 2006)
22 May 2006 -  4 Jan 2007  Anders Nordström (Sweden) (acting)
 4 Jan 2007 -  1 Jul 2017  Margaret Chan (f) (China)          (b. 1947)
 1 Jul 2017 -              Tedros Adhanom (Ethiopia)          (b. 1965)

World Tourism Organization

Secretaries-general
 2 Jan 1975 - 31 Dec 1985  Robert Lonati (France)             (b. 1918 - d. 1985)
 1 Jan 1986 - 31 Dec 1989  Willibald Pahr (Austria)           (b. 1930)
 1 Jan 1990 - 31 Aug 1996  Antonio Enríquez Savignac (Mexico) (b. 1931 - d. 2007)
 1 Sep 1996 - 28 Feb 2009  Francesco Frangialli (France)      (b. 1947)
                           (acting to 31 Dec 1997)
 1 Mar 2009 -              Taleb Rifai (Jordan)               (b. 1949)
                           (acting to 31 Dec 2009)

World Trade Organization

 1 Jan 1948                General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
 1 Jan 1995                World Trade Organization (WTO)

Directors-general
       1948 -  6 May 1968  Eric Wyndham White (U.K.)          (b. 1913 - d. 1980)
                           (executive secretary to 23 Mar 1965)
 6 May 1968 -  1 Oct 1980  Olivier Long (Switzerland)         (b. 1915 - d. 2003)
 1 Oct 1980 -  1 Jul 1993  Arthur Dunkel (Switzerland)        (b. 1932 - d. 2005)
 1 Jul 1993 -  1 May 1995  Peter Sutherland (Ireland)         (b. 1946)
 1 May 1995 -  1 Sep 1999  Renato Ruggiero (Italy)            (b. 1930 - d. 2013)
 1 Sep 1999 -  1 Sep 2002  Mike Moore (New Zealand)           (b. 1949)
 1 Sep 2002 -  1 Sep 2005  Supachai Panitchpakdi (Thailand)   (b. 1946)
 1 Sep 2005 -  1 Sep 2013  Pascal Lamy (France)               (b. 1947)
 1 Sep 2013 -              Roberto Carvalho de Azevedo
                           (Brazil)                           (b. 1957)

GATT membership
 1 Jan 1948Australia, Belgium, Canada, China1, Cuba, Czechoslovakia2, France, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States
13 Jun 1948South Africa
 8 Jul 1948India
10 Jul 1948Norway
11 Jul 1948Southern Rhodesia3
29 Jul 1948Burma4, Ceylon5
30 Jul 1948Brazil, New Zealand, Pakistan
16 Mar 1949Chile
 1 Jan 1950Haiti
24 Feb 1950Indonesia
 1 Mar 1950Greece
30 Apr 1950Sweden
19 May 1950Dominican Republic
25 May 1950Finland
28 May 1950Denmark, Nicaragua
30 May 1950Italy
 1 Oct 1951Federal Republic of Germany
 7 Oct 1951Peru
17 Oct 1951Turkey
19 Oct 1951Austria
 6 Dec 1953Uruguay
10 Sep 1955Japan
17 Oct 1957Ghana
24 Oct 1957Malaya6
18 Nov 1960Nigeria
19 May 1961Sierra Leone
 9 Dec 1961Tanganyika7
 6 May 1962Portugal
 5 Jul 1962Israel
23 Oct 1962Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda
 3 May 1963Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, Kuwait, Upper Volta8
12 Jul 1963Chad
15 Jul 1963Cyprus
29 Aug 1963Spain
12 Sep 1963Dahomey9
27 Sep 1963Senegal
30 Sep 1963Madagascar, Mauritania
31 Dec 1963Ivory Coast10, Jamaica, Niger
 5 Feb 1964Kenya
20 Mar 1964Togo
28 Aug 1964Malawi
17 Nov 1964Malta
22 Feb 1965The Gambia
13 Mar 1965Burundi
 1 Jan 1966Rwanda
 5 Jul 1966Guyana
 1 Aug 1966Switzerland
25 Aug 1966Yugoslavia
15 Feb 1967Barbados
14 Apr 1967South Korea
11 Oct 1967Argentina
18 Oct 1967Poland
22 Dec 1967Ireland
21 Apr 1968Iceland
 9 May 1970Egypt
 2 Sep 1970Mauritius
11 Sep 1971Zaire
14 Nov 1971Romania
16 Dec 1972Bangladesh
20 Aug 1973Singapore
 9 Sep 1973Hungary
22 Mar 1978Suriname
27 Dec 1979Philippines
 3 Oct 1981Colombia
10 Feb 1982Zambia
20 Nov 1982Thailand
19 Apr 1983Maldives
 7 Oct 1983Belize
23 Apr 1986Hong Kong
24 Aug 1986Mexico
30 Mar 1987Antigua and Barbuda
17 Jun 1987Morocco
28 Aug 1987Botswana
 8 Jan 1988Lesotho
29 Aug 1990Tunisia
31 Aug 1990Venezuela
 8 Sep 1990Bolivia
24 Nov 1990Costa Rica
11 Jan 1991Macau
22 May 1991El Salvador
10 Oct 1991Guatemala
27 Jul 1992Mozambique
15 Sep 1992Namibia
11 Jan 1993Mali
 8 Feb 1993Swaziland
13 Apr 1993Saint Lucia
15 Apr 1993Czech Republic, Slovakia
20 Apr 1993Dominica
18 May 1993Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
16 Nov 1993Fiji
 9 Dec 1993Brunei
13 Dec 1993Bahrain
 6 Jan 1994Paraguay
 9 Feb 1994Grenada
 8 Mar 1994United Arab Emirates
17 Mar 1994Guinea-Bissau
24 Mar 1994Saint Kitts and Nevis
29 Mar 1994Liechtenstein
 7 Apr 1994Qatar
 8 Apr 1994Angola
10 Apr 1994Honduras
30 Oct 1994Slovenia
 8 Dec 1994Guinea
16 Dec 1994Djibouti, Papua New Guinea
28 Dec 1994Solomon Islands
1Withdrew 5 May 1950. 2Dissolved 31 Dec 1992. 3From 1980 Zimbabwe. 4From 1989 Myanmar. 5From 1972 Sri Lanka. 6From 1963 Malaysia. 7From 1964 Tanzania. 8From 1984 Burkina Faso. 9From 1975 Benin. 10From 1985 Côte d'Ivoire.

WTO membership
 1 Jan 1995Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, European Union, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
 1 Mar 1995Trinidad and Tobago
 5 Mar 1995Zimbabwe
 9 Mar 1995Dominican Republic, Jamaica
26 Mar 1995Turkey
29 Mar 1995Tunisia
20 Apr 1995Cuba
21 Apr 1995Israel
30 Apr 1995Colombia
 7 May 1995El Salvador
31 May 1995Botswana, Central African Republic, Djibouti, Guinea-Bissau, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Togo
 3 Jun 1995Burkina Faso
30 Jun 1995Egypt
 1 Jul 1995Poland, Switzerland
21 Jul 1995Guatemala
23 Jul 1995Burundi, Sierra Leone
30 Jul 1995Cyprus, Slovenia
26 Aug 1995Mozambique
 1 Sep 1995Liechtenstein
 3 Sep 1995Nicaragua
12 Sep 1995Bolivia
25 Oct 1995Guinea
17 Nov 1995Madagascar
13 Dec 1995Cameroon
13 Jan 1996Qatar
14 Jan 1996Fiji
21 Jan 1996Ecuador
30 Jan 1996Haiti
21 Feb 1996Saint Kitts and Nevis
22 Feb 1996Benin, Grenada
10 Apr 1996United Arab Emirates
22 May 1996Rwanda
 9 Jun 1996Papua New Guinea
26 Jul 1996Solomon Islands
19 Oct 1996Chad
23 Oct 1996The Gambia
23 Nov 1996Angola
 1 Dec 1996Bulgaria
13 Dec 1996Niger
 1 Jan 1997Congo (Kinshasa)
29 Jan 1997Mongolia
27 Mar 1997Congo (Brazzaville)
 6 Sep 1997Panama
20 Dec 1998Kyrgyzstan
10 Feb 1999Latvia
13 Nov 1999Estonia
11 Apr 2000Jordan
14 Jun 2000Georgia
 8 Sep 2000Albania
 9 Nov 2000Oman
30 Nov 2000Croatia
31 May 2001Lithuania
26 Jul 2001Moldova
11 Dec 2001China
 1 Jan 2002Taiwan
 5 Feb 2003Armenia
 4 Apr 2003Macedonia
23 Apr 2004Nepal
13 Oct 2004Cambodia
11 Dec 2005Saudi Arabia
11 Jan 2007Vietnam
27 Jul 2007Tonga
16 May 2008Ukraine
23 Jul 2008Cape Verde1
29 Apr 2012Montenegro
10 May 2012Samoa
22 Aug 2012Russia
24 Aug 2012Vanuatu
 2 Feb 2013Laos
 2 Mar 2013Tajikistan
26 Jun 2014Yemen
26 Apr 2015Seychelles
30 Nov 2015Kazakhstan
14 Jul 2016Liberia
29 Jul 2016Afghanistan
1From 2013 Cabo Verde.