Index X

Xanthopoulos-Palamas, Christos (b. November 1902, Missolonghi, Greece - d. January 1977), foreign minister of Greece (1964, 1973). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1954-60) and ambassador to the United States (1967-69).

Xhaška, Olta (b. Dec. 25, 1979, TiranŰ, Albania), defense minister (2017-20) and foreign minister (2020-23) of Albania.

Xhafaj, Fatmir (Sezai) (b. May 17, 1959, VlorŰ, Albania), interior minister of Albania (2017, 2017-18). He was also minister of regional planning and tourism (2002) and justice (2003-05).

Xhaferi, Talat (b. April 15, 1962, Forino, near Gostivar, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), defense minister (2013-14) and prime minister (2024) of (North) Macedonia. He was also president of the Sobranie (2017-24).

Xhaja, Abdyl (b. March 13, 1943, Elbasan, Albania), Albanian politician. He was a deputy prime minister (1991-92) and minister of mining and energy (1991-97) and industry (1992-93).

Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping (b. June 1953, Beijing, China [though by Chinese convention "native" of Fuping county, Shaanxi]), governor of Fujian (1999-2002), secretary of the Provincial Committee of the Communist Party (2002-07) and acting governor (2002-03) of Zhejiang, secretary of the Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of Shanghai (2007), vice president (2008-13) and president (2013- ) of China, and general secretary of the Communist Party of China (2012- ); son of Xi Zhongxun; son-in-law (1979-82) of Ke Hua. His father having been purged, during the Cultural Revolution the family was persecuted and in 1969 he was sent to rural areas to do hard labour. He nevertheless tried to join the Communist Party but was rejected repeatedly before finally gaining membership in 1974. He rose up the party structure and in 1997 became an alternate member of the Central Committee. While leading Zhejiang, double-digit growth and his toughness against corruption earned him national fame. In 2007 he was elected to the 9-member Politburo. He was also president of the Central Party School (2007-12). In 2008 he was designated successor to Hu Jintao to lead China. Taking over Hu's leading positions in 2012 and 2013, he became the country's most powerful leader since Mao Zedong. In 2016 he was granted the symbolic title of "the core" of the Communist Party (previously only held by Mao, Deng Xiaoping, and Jiang Zemin); in 2017 "Xi Jinping Thought" was incorporated into the party constitution; and on his reelection as president in 2018 term limits were abolished, facilitating his election to a third term in 2023. His authoritarian policies were manifested in a somewhat Orwellian "social credit score" system and in the treatment of the Uygurs in Xinjiang, where reportedly as many as a million Muslims were placed in "reeducation centres" for having a too "extreme" attachment to Islam.

Xi Zhongxun (b. Oct. 15, 1913, Fuping county, Shaanxi, China - d. May 24, 2002, Beijing, China), first secretary of the Provincial Committee of the Communist Party (1978-80) and governor (1979-81) of Guangdong. He was a vice premier of China in 1959-65.

Xia Chao (b. 1882, Qingtian, Zhejiang, China - d. Oct. 22, 1926, Zhejiang), civil governor of Zhejiang (1924-26). A graduate of Zhejiang Military College, he joined the United League of China and upon the founding of the republic was named head of the Security Bureau of Zhejiang. In 1926, the Northern Expedition army entered Zhejiang province and, persuaded by former governor Lu Gongwang, he declared the independence of Zhejiang from the Beijing government and was subsequently made the commander of the 18th Army in the Northern Expedition. He led his troops to Shanghai, where he was soon defeated by Gen. Song Meicun, representing Sun Chuanfang. He was captured and killed on his retreat to Hangzhou.

Xia Douyin (b. Jan. 14, 1884, Macheng, Hubei, China - d. June 23, 1951, Hong Kong), chairman of the government of Hubei (1932-33).

Xia Qifeng (b. 1889, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China - d. 1961), foreign minister of China (Nanjing government) (1939-40).

Xia Shoukang (b. 1871, Huanggang, Hubei, China - d. Nov. 14, 1923, Beijing, China), civil governor of Hubei (1912-13, 1920-21). He began his political career when he took the post of vice-president of the provincial council of Hubei in 1909. He supported Yuan Shikai's imperial attempts during the unstable times of 1915-16 and was rewarded with the honour of "Senior Officer" by Yuan. He became secretary of the president's office after Yuan's death.

Xiang Huaicheng (b. February 1939, Wujiang, Jiangsu, China), finance minister of China (1998-2003).

Xiao Jie (b. June 1957, Kaiyuan, Liaoning, China), finance minister of China (2016-18). He was also secretary-general of the State Council (2018-23).

Xiao Yang (b. August 1938, Heyuan, Guangdong, China - d. April 19, 2019, Beijing, China), justice minister of China (1993-98). He was also president of the Supreme People's Court (1998-2008).

Xiao Yaonan (b. 1875, Huanggang, Hubei, China - d. Feb. 14, 1926, Wuchang [now part of Wuhan], Hubei, China), military (1921-26) and civil (1924-26) governor of Hubei. A graduate of the famous Beiyang Military College, he was sent to Yuan Shikai's army in the late Qing period, being commander of a brigade, then a division. He was a participant in the First Zhili-Fengtian War, siding with Wu Peifu. He was involved in suppressing the strike launched by Beijing-Hankou Railway workers Feb. 1-9, 1923, killing 52 workers, including Lin Xiangqian, the leader of the action (a Communist Party member), and leaving several hundreds injured; thousands lost their jobs. He betrayed his protector Cao Kun, who was defeated in the second war against Zhang Zuolin, and turned to Duan Qirui, then the following year back to Wu Peifu. He died as governor.

Xie Jieshi (b. 1878, Taiwan - d. 1954, China), foreign minister of Manchukuo (1932-35). He was also ambassador to Japan (1935-37).

Xie Juezai (b. April 27, 1884, Xiaojiachong, Ningxiang county [now city], Hunan, China - d. June 15, 1971, Beijing, China), interior minister of China (1949-59). He was also chief justice of the Supreme People's Court (1959-65).

Xie Ruyi (b. 1882, Xinxing, Yunnan, China - d. May 3, 1914, Yiliang, Yunnan), acting military governor of Yunnan (1913). He graduated from the College of Army Officers in Japan and served in the army after returning to China. He became president of the Army College of Yunnan and then chief of the staff bureau of Yunnan. He was also the commander of the 2nd Division of the Yunnan local army. He was assassinated while on his way to Beijing.

Xie Xuren (b. October 1947, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China), finance minister of China (2007-13). He was also director of the State Administration of Taxation (2003-07).

Xiong Bin (b. March 12, 1894, Hongan, Hubei, China - d. Nov. 30, 1964, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Shaanxi (1941-44). He was also mayor of Beiping (1945-46).

Xiong Bingqi (b. Feb. 5, 1884, Jining, Shandong, China - d. Jan. 19, 1959), civil governor of Shandong (1922-24) and Henan (1926-27).

Xiong Kewu (b. Dec. 26, 1885, Sichuan province, China - d. Sept. 2, 1970, Beijing, China), military (1918-19) and civil (1920-21) governor of Sichuan.

Xiong Xiling
Xiong Xiling (b. July 23, 1870, Fenghuang, Hunan, China - d. Dec. 25, 1937, Hong Kong), finance minister (1912, 1913-14) and premier (1913-14) of China and governor of Rehe (1912-13).

Xoxe, Koši (b. May 1, 1911, Negovan, near Florina, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. [executed] June 11, 1949, TiranŰ, Albania), interior minister of Albania (1946-48). He was also a deputy premier (1946-48) and minister of industry (1948).

Xu Chongqing (b. Jan. 14, 1888, Fanyu, Guangdong, China - d. March 14, 1969, Guangzhou, Guangdong), chairman of the government of Guangdong (1931); brother of Xu Chongzhi; son of Xu Yinggui.

Xu Chongzhi
Xu Chongzhi (b. Oct. 14, 1887, Fanyu, Guangdong, China - d. Jan. 25, 1965), military (1923) and civil (1925) governor of Guangdong; son of Xu Yinggui.

Xu Lanzhou (b. June 10, 1872, Nangong, Hebei, China - d. Jan. 14, 1951, Beijing, China), military governor of Heilongjiang (1917).

Xu Liang (b. 1892, Sanshui, Guangdong, China - d. [executed] July 1951, Tianjin, China), foreign minister of China (Nanjing government) (1940-41). He was also ambassador to Japan (1941-43).

Xu Nailin (b. 1867, Jilin, Jilin, China - d. 1940, Beijing, China), civil governor of Heilongjiang (1912-13) and Jilin (1919-20).

Xu Shichang (b. Oct. 20, 1855, Tianjin, China - d. June 5, 1939, Tianjin), secretary of state (1914-15, 1916), premier (1917), and president (1918-22) of China.

Xu Shiying (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Hsu Shih-ying (b. Sept. 10, 1873, Guichi, Anhui, China - d. Oct. 13, 1964, Taipei, Taiwan), justice minister (1912-13, 1922-23), interior minister (1916), transportation minister (1916-17), premier (1925-26), and acting finance minister (1926) of China and civil governor of Fujian (1914-16) and Anhui (1921-23). He was also ambassador to Japan (1936-38).

Xu Xiangqian (b. Nov. 8, 1901, Wutai county, Shanxi, China - d. Sept. 21, 1990, Beijing, China), defense minister of China (1978-81). He was also a vice premier (1978-80).

Xu Xiaogang (b. 1880, Huayang, Sichuan, China - d. 1956), acting civil governor of Sichuan (1924-25).

Xu Yinggui (b. 18... - d. 1903), governor of Zhejiang (1898-1903).

Xu Yongchang
Xu Yongchang (Pinyin), Wade-Giles HsŘ Yung-ch'ang (b. Dec. 15, 1887, Shanxi province, China - d. July 12, 1959, Taipei, Taiwan), chairman of the government of Suiyuan (1928-29), Hebei (1929-30), and Shanxi (1930-36) and defense minister of China (1948-49).

Xuan Thuy, original name Nguyen Trong Nhan (b. Sept. 2, 1912, Tu Liem commune, near Hanoi, Tonkin [now in Vietnam] - d. June 18, 1985, Hanoi), Vietnamese politician. He joined (1926) the League of Young Revolutionaries founded by Nguyen Ai Quoc (afterward Ho Chi Minh) and was twice arrested (1928, 1929). As a member of the Indochinese Communist Party he was imprisoned (1939-45) throughout the period of Japanese occupation and Vichy French rule. On his release (March 1945) he became editor in chief of the Viet Minh's official newspaper, Cuu Quoc ("National Salvation"). After the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) was formed, he was elected (1946) as a deputy to its National Assembly and became a member of the governing Central Committee. He represented North Vietnam at the Geneva conference that ended (1954) the French Indochina war and in 1962 was deputy chairman of a North Vietnamese delegation to a conference on Laos. He was the North Vietnamese foreign minister in 1963-65 and in 1965 became head of the foreign relations department of the Workers' Party Central Committee. He was his country's chief delegate (with Le Duc Tho, who negotiated separately with Henry Kissinger) at the 1968-73 Paris peace talks that ended U.S. involvement in Vietnam. He also served as vice-speaker and secretary-general of Vietnam's National Assembly and in 1981-82 was a vice chairman of the State Council.

Xue Dubi, Wade-Giles Hsueh Tu-pi (b. 1892, Xie county, Shanxi, China - d. July 9, 1973, Shanghai, China), acting justice minister (1924) and acting interior minister (1924) of China, mayor of Beijing (1924-25), and civil governor of Gansu (1925-27). He was also minister of interior (1928), health (1928-29), and water conservancy (1947-48) under the Kuomintang.

Xuereb, Paul (b. July 21, 1923, Rabat, Malta - d. Sept. 6, 1994), acting president of Malta (1987-89). A member of the Malta Labour Party, he entered into politics in 1962, and successfully contested the general election of that year. He kept his parliamentary seat in the elections of 1966, 1971, 1976, and 1981. In August 1971 he was appointed parliamentary secretary at the office of the prime minister, and in October 1971 was made minister of trade, industry, agriculture, and tourism (until 1976). Xuereb resigned from his seat at the House of Representatives on April 27, 1983, thus vacating a seat into which was co-opted Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici, the designated leader of the Malta Labour Party. Xuereb also served as speaker of the House of Representatives (1986-87), chairman of the Trade Licensing Board, chairman of the Malta Development Corporation, and member of the disciplinary board of the Malta Labour Party. He was appointed by the prime minister as the acting president of the republic following the end of the term of office of the third president, Agatha Barbara.