Index Sm-Ss

Smagin, Aleksey (Alekseyevich) (b. July 4, 1857, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Nov. 20, 1928, Sofia, Bulgaria), military governor (1901-03) and governor (1903-05) of Kutaisi.

A. Smailov
Smailov, Alikhan (Askhanovich) (b. Dec. 18, 1972, Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), finance minister (2018-20), first deputy prime minister (2019-22), and prime minister (2022-24) of Kazakhstan. He was also chairman of the Statistics Agency (1999-2003, 2009-14) and assistant to the president (2015-18).

Smailov, Yerlan (Baykenovich) (b. Jan. 27, 1951), head of Dzhezkazgan oblast (1996-97).

Small, Len(nington) (b. June 16, 1862, Kankakee, Ill. - d. May 17, 1936, near Kankakee), governor of Illinois (1921-29).

Smallenbroek, Jan (b. Feb. 21, 1909, Assen, Netherlands - d. Sept. 29, 1974, Wassenaar, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (1965-66).

Smallman, David (Leslie) (b. April 29, 1940), governor of St. Helena (1995-99).

Smallwood, Sir Denis (Graham) (b. Aug. 13, 1918 - d. July 26, 1997), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (1969-70); knighted 1969.

J.R. Smallwood
Smallwood, Joseph R(oberts), byname Joey Smallwood (b. Dec. 24, 1900, Gambo, Newfoundland [now Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada] - d. Dec. 17, 1991, St. John's, Nfld.), premier of Newfoundland (1949-72). In 1920-25 he worked in New York City for leftist newspapers and for the Progressive Party. Returning to Newfoundland, he became a union organizer and unsuccessfully ran for office in the 1932 election. In 1946 he was elected to a convention called by Britain to decide Newfoundland's future, and he led a campaign for the territory to join Canada. "I dragged Newfoundland kicking and screaming into the 20th century," he once said. After pro-confederation forces won the 1948 vote by a 7,000-vote (2%) margin, he was appointed premier of an interim government on April 1, 1949, and won the first provincial election in May. A man of grand ambitions, he said in 1951: "I'd like to go down as the greatest Newfoundlander who ever lived." His Liberal Party won the elections of 1951, 1956, 1959, 1962, and 1966 before being defeated in 1971. His most turbulent year was 1959, when his repression of a strike by 1,250 members of the International Forest Workers of America caused a split within his party. The strike dragged on for months and although the loggers went back to work, his power was never again the same. He resigned as party head in 1972. After losing a 1974 bid to be reelected party leader, the colourful Smallwood formed the Liberal Reform Party. He finally retired from politics in 1977. He was also the author of a six-volume history, The Book of Newfoundland (1937, 1967, 1975), and accumulated heavy personal debt in his last years with a project for a four-volume Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, completed after his death.

Smallwood, William (b. 1732, Kent county, Maryland - d. Feb. 14, 1792, Mattawoman, Charles county, Md.), governor of Maryland (1785-88).

Smarth, Rosny (b. Oct. 19, 1940, Cavaillon, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (1996-97).

Smedal, Harald (b. April 5, 1859, Christiansand [now Kristiansand], Norway - d. May 3, 1911, Kristiania [now Oslo], Norway), justice minister of Norway (1897-98). He was also minister of auditing (1896-97).

Smedley, Sir Harold (b. June 19, 1920 - d. Feb. 16, 2004), governor of Pitcairn Island (1976-80); knighted 1977. He was also British high commissioner to Ghana (1964-65, 1966-68), Sri Lanka (1973-75), New Zealand (1976-80), and Western Samoa (1977-80) and ambassador to Laos (1968-70) and Maldives (1973-75).

Smekalin, Aleksandr (Aleksandrovich) (b. March 25, 1980, Sengiley, Ulyanovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Ulyanovsk oblast (2016-21).

Smekalov, Aleksey (Mikhailovich) (b. March 10, 1838 - d. Feb. 2, 1890, Vladikavkaz, Russia), governor of Batum oblast (1881-83), military governor of Kutaisi (1883-87), and governor of Terek oblast (1887-90).

Smerkolj, Alenka (b. Dec. 15, 1963, Kranj, Slovenia), acting finance minister of Slovenia (2016). She was minister without portfolio responsible for development, strategic projects, and cohesion (2014-18).

Smeshko, Ihor (Petrovych) (b. Aug. 17, 1955, Khristinovka [Khrystynivka], Chernigov [Chernihiv] oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), Ukrainian politician. He was head of the Security Service of Ukraine (2003-05) and a presidential candidate (2019).

Smet de Naeyer, Paul (Joseph) (from 1900, comte/graaf) de (b. May 13, 1843, Ghent, Belgium - d. Sept. 9, 1913, Brussels, Belgium), finance minister (1894-99, 1899-1907) and prime minister (1896-99, 1899-1907) of Belgium.

Smetanyuk, Sergey (Ivanovich) (b. June 8, 1962, Dashev, Vinnitsa [Vinnytsya] oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), acting governor of Tyumen oblast (2005). He was also mayor of Tyumen (2005-07).

Smetona, Antanas (b. Aug. 10, 1874, Ukmerge district, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Jan. 9, 1944, Cleveland, Ohio), president of Lithuania (1919-20, 1926-40) and general commissioner of the Memel Territory (1923-24). He edited the first Lithuanian daily, Vilniaus Zinios, and the Democratic Party organ, Lietuvos Ukininkas. In 1905 he was elected a member of the Presidium of the Vilnius Diet, which proclaimed Lithuanian autonomy. On the convocation of the Lithuanian National Council, during the German military occupation of the country in 1917, he was unanimously elected chairman of its Presidium, and in this capacity was the first head of state when Lithuania became independent in 1918, before becoming the first president. In 1921 he was chairman of the Lithuanian delegation at Riga during the negotiations on the settlement of the Latvian-Lithuanian boundary dispute. Early in 1923, when the insurrection broke out in the Memel Territory against the German directorate, Smetona was requested by the Lithuanian government to compose the trouble in cooperation with the Allied representatives. After a military coup of December 1926, Smetona was elected to become president again. Parliamentary government was suspended, and in 1929 he assumed full dictatorial power. He was reelected in 1931 and 1938. In 1940, when Lithuania became a part of the Soviet Union, Smetona fled to Germany and then to the United States, where he arrived in March 1941. He died in a fire.

Smid, Ladislav (b. July 16, 1925, Kladno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. April 14, 1999, Havlíckuv Brod, Czech Republic), Czechoslovak diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1973-77).

Smidt, Hendrik Jan (b. Oct. 11, 1831, Assen, Netherlands - d. March 14, 1917, The Hague, Netherlands), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1885-88). He was also Dutch justice minister (1877-79, 1891-94).

Smigly-Rydz, Edward, surname until 1936 Rydz-Smigly, originally Rydz (b. March 11, 1886, Adamówka, near Brzezany, Galicia, Austria [now Adamivka, part of Berezhany, Ternopil oblast, Ukraine] - d. Dec. 2, 1941, Warsaw, Poland), Polish military officer. He fought against Russia on the Eastern Front in 1914-17 and again during the Polish campaign of 1919-20 and was briefly military affairs minister in a provisional government (1918). During this time he acquired the nickname Smigly ("nimble"), which he soon added to his name. He was inspector of the Polish army (1922-35) and became one of Marshal Józef Pilsudski's closest associates during this period. After Pilsudski's death in 1935 he became virtual dictator of Poland, assuming the post of inspector-general of the armed forces. He was made marshal in 1936. Prior to the German invasion in September 1939, he was designated commander-in-chief of the army and successor to Pres. Ignacy Moscicki. Less than three weeks after the invasion, he fled to Romania. The exile government removed him as inspector-general in November. In October 1940 he was arrested in Bucharest in connection with the discovery of an alleged Polish espionage organization. In December he escaped from internment at Dragoslavele; in Hungary he organized a Camp of Fighting Poland and he returned to his country in October 1941, where he soon died of natural causes.

Smiljanic, Zivorad (b. Feb. 6, 1942, Zajecar, eastern Serbia - d. Dec. 14, 2018, Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Serbia), president of the Assembly of Vojvodina (1997-2000).

Smirnov, Aleksey (Borisovich) (b. May 27, 1973), chairman of the government (2022- ) and acting governor (2024- ) of Kursk oblast.

Smirnov, Anatoly (Vladimirovich) (b. Nov. 17, 1946, Altay kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of Severo-Kazakhstan oblast (2002-03). He was also Kazakh ambassador to Belarus (2008-12).

Smirnov, Gennady (Ivanovich) (b. April 1903 - d. [executed] July 28, 1938), chairman of the State Planning Commission of the Soviet Union (1937).

Igor Smirnov
Smirnov, Igor (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 23, 1941, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russian S.F.S.R.), leader (1990-2011) of Moldova's breakaway Dniester Republic (Transnistria). He moved to Moldova in 1986 and became mayor of Tiraspol. He was jailed in 1991 on charges of supporting the failed coup against Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, but was released and charges were dropped. Leaders of Transnistria, an eastern region with 700,000 people, had proclaimed independence in 1990 amid fears that Moldova planned to reunite with neighbouring Romania. Transnistria's people are mostly ethnic Slavs while some two-thirds of Moldovans are ethnic Romanians. Smirnov won Transnistria's first presidential election in 1991 and campaigned for recognition as a separate nation. Fighting between separatists and the Moldovan government killed 700 people in 1992. The fighting ended after Russian troops were sent to the region, but relations remained tense. Smirnov said he would insist that the Russian troops, numbering about 7,000, remain in the region. He was reelected president of the area in 1996 and vowed to push for full independence. Moldovan president-elect Petru Lucinschi said that the election had no legal standing. "This part of our territory keeps violating our laws," Lucinschi told reporters. But given the Russian troop presence the Moldovan government was powerless to end Smirnov's separatist regime. He was again reelected in 2001 and 2006 but only came third in 2011.

Smirnov, Ivan (Nikolayevich) (b. Jan. 5, 1899 [Dec. 24, 1898, O.S.] - d. [executed] 1938, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of Mari autonomous oblast (1923-24).

Smirnov, Leonid (Vasilyevich) (b. April 16 [April 3, O.S.], 1916, Kuznetsk, Saratov province [now in Penza oblast], Russia - d. Dec. 21, 2001, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was chairman of the State Committee for Defense Technology (1961-63) and a deputy premier (1963-85).

Smirnov, Nikolay (Mikhailovich) (b. May 16, 1807 - d. March 4, 1870), governor of Kaluga (1845-51) and St. Petersburg (1855-61).

Smirnov, Sergey (Alekseyevich) (b. April 2 [March 21, O.S.], 1883, Likino, Vladimir province, Russia - d. Feb. 28, 1951, Paris, France), Russian state comptroller (1917).

Smirnov, Yevgeny (Aleksandrovich) (b. Nov. 15, 1937, Rayki, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Pskov oblast, Russia]), prime minister of Khakassia (1992-97).

Smirnov, Yuriy (Oleksandrovych) (b. Aug. 17, 1948, Buy, Kostroma oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister of Ukraine (2001-03).

Smit, Jaap (b. March 8, 1957, 't Harde, Doornspijk municipality, Gelderland, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Zuid-Holland (2014- ).

Smit, Paul Meyer (b. Aug. 30, 1813 - d. 1875), governor of Bergen (1859-75). He was also mayor of Bergen (1852-53, 1855-56, 1858-59).

Alfred Smith
Smith, Alfred E(manuel), byname Al Smith (b. Dec. 30, 1873, New York City - d. Oct. 4, 1944, New York City), governor of New York (1919-21, 1923-29). He first ran for elective office in 1903, when - supported by Tammany Hall, the New York City Democratic political organization - he was elected to the state assembly; in 1913 he won the powerful office of speaker. He was a member of a commission investigating factory conditions (1911) and a delegate to the state constitutional revision committee (1915). Tammany Hall made him New York county sheriff (1915) and president of the New York City Board of Aldermen (1917). He resigned in 1918 to run for governor against the Republican incumbent and, although few believed he had a chance, he won by a narrow margin. Though he lost the governorship in the nationwide shift to the Republicans in 1920, he was elected to three more terms in 1922, 1924, and 1926. With his brown derby hat, ever-present cigar, and common touch, he was an extraordinary vote-getter. He was the first Roman Catholic to be seriously considered as a candidate for the U.S. presidency. First suggested as a possibility in 1920, he actively sought the nomination in 1924, but his religion worked against him in the convention, as did his opposition to Prohibition, and after a prolonged deadlock with William G. McAdoo, the "dry" candidate, neither candidate was nominated. In 1928, he had no serious opposition and was nominated on the first ballot. In the election, however, he was defeated by the conservative Republican Herbert Hoover, winning only eight states and losing New York. Although giving belated support to Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932, he broke with him later, opposed the New Deal, and in 1936 and 1940 supported Roosevelt's Republican opponents.

Smith, Alvin (Alfred) (b. Sept. 23, 1951, Hatchet Bay, Bahamas), Bahamian politician. He was leader of the opposition (2002-05), speaker of the House of Assembly (2007-12), and high commissioner to Canada (2017-20).

Smith, Arnold (Cantwell) (b. Jan. 18, 1915, Toronto, Ont. - d. Feb. 7, 1994, Toronto), secretary-general of the Commonwealth (1965-75). He was an attaché to the British legation at Tallinn (1940) and to the British embassy in Cairo (1940-43), was transferred to the Canadian diplomatic service in 1943, served in Moscow, Brussels, New York City, Phnom Penh, and London, and was ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1958-61) and the Soviet Union (1961-63), then returned to Canada to become assistant undersecretary of state for external affairs. In 1965 he was elected by Commonwealth leaders as the organization's first secretary-general. He had barely taken over the post when the Commonwealth's cohesiveness was threatened by the unilateral declaration of independence from Britain by the white-minority government in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). In 1971, the alliance was again jeopardized when Britain proposed to sell arms to South Africa. Smith pleaded with Prime Minister Edward Heath, and eventually the arms sale was abandoned. During his two five-year terms in office, the Commonwealth weathered a number of other events that threatened to tear it apart: Idi Amin's regime in Uganda, Pakistan's civil war and the emergence of Bangladesh, Singapore's expulsion from the Malaysian federation, and coups in Ghana, Cyprus, Pakistan, and Nigeria. Throughout his tenure, he endeavoured to shift the Commonwealth "from residual but significant Anglo-centricity to full multilateralism" as he later put it. He was a co-founder (1976) and the first chairman of the North-South Institute in Ottawa. He was made a Companion of Honour in 1975 and in 1984 was named an Officer of the Order of Canada.

Smith, Benjamin (b. Jan. 10, 1756, Brunswick county, North Carolina - d. Jan. 27, 1826, Smithville [now Southport], N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1810-11).

Smith, Brendan, Irish Breandán Mac Gabhann (b. June 1, 1956, Cavan, Ireland), justice minister of Ireland (2011). He was also minister of agriculture, fisheries, and food (2008-11).

Smith, Carsten (b. April 20, 1817, Grimstad, Nedenes amt [now in Agder fylke], Norway - d. March 11, 1884, Inderøen [now Inderøy], Nordre Trondhjems amt [now in Trøndelag fylke], Norway), governor of Nordlands amt (1858-67) and Nordre Trondhjems amt (1867-84).

Smith, Sir Cecil Clementi (b. Dec. 23, 1840, London, England - d. Feb. 6, 1916), governor of the Straits Settlements (1887-93); knighted 1886.

Smith, Charles A(urelius) (b. Jan. 22, 1861, Hertford county, N.C. - d. April 1, 1916, Baltimore, Md.), acting governor of South Carolina (1915).

Smith, Charles Emory (b. Feb. 18, 1842, Mansfield, Conn. - d. Jan. 19, 1908, Philadelphia, Pa.), U.S. postmaster general (1898-1902). He was also minister to Russia (1890-92).

Smith, Charles M(anley) (b. Aug. 3, 1868, West Rutland, Vt. - d. Aug. 12, 1937, Rutland, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1935-37).

C.A. Smith
Smith, Sir Cornelius A(lvin) (b. April 7, 1937, North Long Island, Bahamas), governor-general of The Bahamas (2019-23); knighted 2019. He was also minister of education (1992-95), public safety and immigration (1995-97), tourism (1997-2000), and transport and local government (2000-02) and ambassador to the United States (2008-13) and to Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama (non-resident, 2018-19).

Smith, Daniel (Bennett) (b. 1956), acting U.S. secretary of state (2021). He was also ambassador to Greece (2010-13).

D. Smith
Smith, (Marlaina) Danielle (b. April 1, 1971, Calgary, Alta.), premier of Alberta (2022- ).

Smith, David (Colville) (b. April 19, 1922, Clachan, Argyll, Scotland - d. July 9, 1996, Harare, Zimbabwe), finance minister (1976-79) and deputy prime minister (1976-79) of Rhodesia. He was also minister of agriculture (1968-76) and, in Zimbabwe, of commerce and industry (1980-81) and trade and commerce (1981).

Smith, David (Joseph) (b. Jan. 12, 1951), administrator of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1994-96).

Smith, Edward C(urtis) (b. Jan. 5, 1854, St. Albans, Vt. - d. April 6, 1935, St. Albans), governor of Vermont (1898-1900); son of John Gregory Smith.

Smith, Elmo E(verett) (b. Nov. 19, 1909, near Grand Junction, Colo. - d. July 15, 1968, Albany, Ore.), acting governor of Oregon (1956-57).

Smith, Forrest (b. Feb. 14, 1886, Ray county, Mo. - d. March 8, 1962, Gulfport, Miss.), governor of Missouri (1949-53).

Smith, Sir Francis (Villeneuve) (b. Feb. 13, 1819, Lindfield, Sussex, England - d. Jan. 17, 1909, Kent, England), premier (1857-60) and acting governor (1874-75, 1880) of Tasmania; knighted 1862. He was chief justice in 1870-85.

Smith, Sir Frederick (b. July 6, 1924 - d. July 11, 2016), Barbadian politician; knighted 1987. He was attorney general (1966-71), minister of communications and works (1971-75) and education and sports (1975-76), and leader of the Democratic Labour Party (1976-78).

Smith, Sir George (b. March 8, 1858 - d. June 14, 1938), governor of Mauritius (acting, 1911) and Nyasaland (1913-23); knighted 1914.

Smith, George Charles (b. 1948), chief minister of Norfolk Island (1997-2000).

Smith, George W(illiam) (b. 1762, "Bathurst," Essex county, Virginia - d. [in fire] Dec. 26, 1811, Richmond, Va.), governor of Virginia (1811 and [acting] 1811).

Smith, George Whitfield (b. July 24, 1861 - d. June 1934), commissioner of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1914-23).

Smith, Sir Gerard (b. Dec. 12, 1839, London, England - d. Oct. 28, 1920, London), governor of Western Australia (1895-1900); knighted 1895.

Smith, Godfrey (Phillip) (b. May 8, 1968, Belize, British Honduras [now Belize City, Belize]), foreign minister (2003-06) and defense minister (2004) of Belize. He was also attorney general (1999-2004) and tourism minister (2004-08).

Smith, Green Clay (b. July 4, 1826, Richmond, Ky. - d. June 29, 1895, Washington, D.C.), governor of Montana (1866-69); nephew of Cassius Marcellus Clay. He was Prohibition Party nominee for president in 1876.

Smith, Henry (b. Feb. 10, 1766, Providence, Rhode Island - d. June 28, 1818, Newport, R.I.), acting governor of Rhode Island (1805-06).

H.G.W. Smith
Smith (of Aliwal), Sir Henry George Wakelyn, (1st) Baronet, byname Sir Harry Smith (b. June 28, 1787, Whittlesea, Isle of Ely, England - d. Oct. 12, 1860, London, England), governor of Cape Colony (1847-52). He was first knighted (K.C.B.) in 1844 and in 1846 was created a baronet and awarded the G.C.B.

Smith, (Michael) Hoke (b. Sept. 2, 1855, Newton, N.C. - d. Nov. 27, 1931, Atlanta, Ga.), U.S. secretary of the interior (1893-96) and governor of Georgia (1907-09, 1911).

Smith, Hulett C(arlson) (b. Oct. 21, 1918, Beckley, W.Va. - d. Jan. 15, 2012, Scottsdale, Ariz.), governor of West Virginia (1965-69).

Ian Smith
Smith, Ian D(ouglas) (b. April 8, 1919, Selukwe, Southern Rhodesia [now Shurugwi, Zimbabwe] - d. Nov. 20, 2007, near Cape Town, South Africa), prime minister of Rhodesia (1964-79). He was elected to the Southern Rhodesian Legislative Assembly in 1948 as a member of the opposition Rhodesia Liberal Party. He changed allegiance to the governing United Federal Party in 1953 when the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was formed. By 1958 he was chief government whip in parliament, but he left the Federalists in 1961 when they approved a new constitution allowing for increased Black African representation. He then established the Rhodesian Front Party, which was initially unpopular but in 1962 won a surprise victory at the elections by promising to attain independence from Britain while preserving white rule. The Federation was dissolved in 1963 and he became prime minister of Southern Rhodesia (later called Rhodesia) in April 1964. In July he rejected the proposal to discuss a new constitution that would ensure eventual black-majority rule. Revealing himself increasingly inflexible in subsequent talks, he finally, on Nov. 11, 1965, unilaterally declared independence. Britain did not recognize this, but took no decisive action to assert its authority. Economic sanctions were applied, but it was the increasing black guerrilla activity and the large military expenditures needed to counter it which compelled Smith finally in 1977 to negotiate with the moderate black leader Abel Muzorewa. A Transitional Executive Council consisting of himself and three black leaders was established in 1978, and in June 1979 he ceded the prime ministership to Muzorewa and served as minister without portfolio in the government of "Zimbabwe Rhodesia" which existed until December. He continued to serve in the parliament of Zimbabwe until 1987.

Smith, Israel (b. April 6, 1759, Suffield, Connecticut - d. Dec. 2, 1810, Rutland, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1807-08).

Smith, Ivor Otterbein (b. Dec. 13, 1907, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. April 2003, Kelowna, B.C., Canada), commissioner of the Cayman Islands (1946-52).

Smith, Jacqui, byname of Jacqueline Jill Smith (b. Nov. 3, 1962, Malvern, Worcestershire, England), British home secretary (2007-09).

Smith, James, byname Jim Smith (b. Dec. 31, 1919, New Westminster, B.C. - d. April 14, 2017), commissioner of Yukon Territory (1966-76).

Smith, James Eman (b. 1862? - d. June 16, 1916, Wellington, N.Z.), resident commissioner of the Cook Islands (1909-12).

Smith, James Francis (b. Jan. 28, 1859, San Francisco, Calif. - d. June 29, 1928, Washington, D.C.), governor-general of the Philippines (1906-09).

Smith, James M(ilton) (b. Oct. 24, 1823, Twiggs county, Ga. - d. Nov. 25, 1890, Columbus, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1872-77).

Smith, James Skivring (b. 1825, Charleston, S.C. - d. ...), secretary of state (1856-60), vice president (1870-71), and president (1871-72) of Liberia.

Smith, James Y(oungs) (b. Sept. 15, 1809, Groton, Conn. - d. March 26, 1876, Providence, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1863-66).

Smith, Jean (Ann) Kennedy (b. Feb. 20, 1928, Boston, Mass. - d. June 17, 2020, New York City), U.S. diplomat; sister of John F., Robert F., and Edward M. Kennedy. She was ambassador to Ireland (1993-98).

Jennifer Smith
Smith, Dame Jennifer (Meredith) (b. Oct. 14, 1947), premier of Bermuda (1998-2003); knighted 2005. She was also minister of education (1998-99, 2010-12).

Smith, Jeremiah (b. Nov. 29, 1759, Peterborough, New Hampshire - d. Sept. 21, 1842, Dover, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1809-10).

Smith, John (b. 1655 - d. Oct. 2, 1723), British chancellor of the exchequer (1699-1701, 1708-10). He was also speaker of the House of Commons (1705-08).

John Smith
Smith, John (b. Sept. 13, 1938, Dalmally, Argyll, Scotland - d. May 12, 1994, London, England), British politician. He joined the Labour Party in 1955 and, after unsuccessful efforts in 1963 and 1964, was elected to Parliament in 1970 for Lanarkshire North (from 1983 Monklands East). In 1972 he defied Labour's anti-European policy and voted in favour of the Conservative government's proposal that the U.K. join the European Communities. He first joined the government in 1974 to become undersecretary of state for energy; as minister of state for energy (1975-76) he was responsible for the early stages of the development of North Sea oil. After serving as minister of state in the Privy Council Office (1976-78), Smith, at 39, became the youngest member of Prime Minister James Callaghan's cabinet as trade secretary (1978-79). After Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives ousted Labour from power, Smith used his debating skills in the shadow cabinet as opposition spokesman on trade, prices, and consumer protection (1979-82), energy (1982-83), employment (1983-84), and trade and industry (1984-87). In 1987 opposition leader Neil Kinnock appointed him shadow chancellor of the exchequer. He imposed strict financial discipline on Labour's policy-making in opposition. "We will not spend, nor will we promise to spend, more than Britain can afford," he said repeatedly, and he insisted that none of his shadow cabinet colleagues make commitments that would undermine that pledge. Widely admired for his integrity, he was by the end of 1991 Labour's most popular politician. After Labour's disastrous April 1992 election defeat, Kinnock resigned and on July 18 Smith was elected party leader by a 91% majority. The party seemed well positioned for the next election when Smith suddenly died from a heart attack.

Smith, John B(utler) (b. April 12, 1838, Saxton's River, Vt. - d. Aug. 10, 1914, Hillsboro, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1893-95).

Smith, John Cotton (b. Feb. 12, 1765, Sharon, Connecticut - d. Dec. 7, 1845, near Sharon), governor of Connecticut (1812-17).

Smith, John Gregory (b. July 22, 1818, St. Albans, Vt. - d. Nov. 6, 1891, St. Albans), governor of Vermont (1863-65).

Smith, John Hilary (b. March 20, 1928, Oxted, Surrey, England), governor of the Gilbert (and Ellice) Islands (1973-78).

Smith, John Manners (b. Aug. 30, 1864, Lahore, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Jan. 6, 1920), British resident in Nepal (1905-16) and Jammu and Kashmir (1916-17) and chief commissioner of Ajmer-Merwara (1918-19).

Smith, John W(alter) (b. Feb. 5, 1845, near Snow Hill, Md. - d. April 19, 1925, Baltimore, Md.), governor of Maryland (1900-04). He was also a U.S. representative (1899-1900) and senator (1908-21) from Maryland.

Smith, Joseph, III (b. Nov. 6, 1832, Kirtland, Ohio - d. Dec. 10, 1914, Independence, Mo.), president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1860-1914).

Smith, Joseph Henry (b. Jan. 9, 1945, Takoradi, Gold Coast [now in Ghana] - d. Dec. 19, 2023), defense minister of Ghana (2009-13). He was also chief of army staff (1996-2001) and ambassador to the United States (2014-17).

Smith, Sir (Alexander) Lockwood (b. Nov. 13, 1948, Paparoa, Northland, N.Z.), New Zealand politician; knighted 2013. He was minister of education (1990-96), agriculture (1996-98), forestry (1996-99), international trade (1996-99), and tourism (1999), speaker of the House of Representatives (2008-13), and high commissioner to the United Kingdom and ambassador to Ireland (2013-17).

M.L. Smith
Smith, Mary Louise, née Epperson (b. Oct. 6, 1914, Eddyville, Iowa - d. Aug. 22, 1997, Des Moines, Iowa), U.S. politician. Smith, known for her support of abortion rights, served on the Republican National Committee from 1964 to 1984 and was the first woman to chair it (1974-77). In 1976, she was the first woman to organize and call to order the National Convention of a major American political party. One of the most respected political figures in the state, she was a founding member of the Iowa Women's Political Caucus and was inducted into the Iowa Women's Hall of Fame in 1977. Smith served on the board of directors of Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa in 1986-92. At a National Women's Political Caucus in August 1989, she said the caucus must convey the message that supporting reproductive rights is "a good thing to do."

Smith, Michael (b. Nov. 8, 1940, Roscrea, County Tipperary, Ireland), defence minister of Ireland (1997-2004). He was also minister of energy (1988-89), environment (1992-94), and education (1994).

Smith, Nels H(ansen) (b. Aug. 27, 1884, Gayville, S.D. - d. July 5, 1976, Spearfish, S.D.), governor of Wyoming (1939-43).

Smith, Norman Lockhart (b. May 29, 1887 - d. Jan. 26, 1968), acting governor of Hong Kong (1935, 1937, 1940). He was colonial secretary (1936-41).

O. Smith
Smith, (Daniel) Orlando (b. Aug. 28, 1944), chief minister (2003-07) and premier (2011-19) of the British Virgin Islands.

Smith, Peter (John) (b. May 15, 1942), governor of the Cayman Islands (1999-2002). He entered the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1962 and served in Saigon, Paris, New York, Mexico City, Port Louis, Montreal, Toronto, Antananarivo (ambassador to Madagascar 1993-96), and Maseru (high commissioner to Lesotho 1996-99).

P.E. Smith
Smith, Preston (Earnest) (b. March 8, 1912, Williamson county, Texas - d. Oct. 18, 2003, Lubbock, Texas), governor of Texas (1969-73). He said he decided at the age of 8 that he would one day become governor. A Democrat, he was lieutenant governor in 1963-69 and was elected governor in 1968, relying on personal contacts, face-to-face campaigning, and direct mail. Besides his old-fashioned electioneering, he was also known for his trademark polka-dot ties. As governor he focused on education and criminal justice, pushing for the first comprehensive drug abuse program in Texas. He was also instrumental in passing the state's first minimum wage law. Reelected in 1970, his second term was dominated by fallout from an influence-peddling scandal that resulted in the defeat of many long-term officeholders in the 1972 election.

Smith, Robert (b. Nov. 3, 1757, Carlisle, Pennsylvania - d. Nov. 26, 1842, Baltimore, Md.), U.S. secretary of the navy (1801-09), attorney general (1805), and secretary of state (1809-11); brother of Samuel Smith (1752-1839).

Smith, Robert B(urns) (b. Dec. 29, 1854, Hickman county, Ky. - d. Nov. 16, 1908, Kalispell, Mont.), governor of Montana (1897-1901).

Smith, Sir (Charles) Robert (b. Nov. 13, 1887 - d. Nov. 4, 1959), governor of North Borneo (1937-46); knighted 1947.

Smith, Sally, byname of Sarah J. Smith (b. Jan. 23, 1945, Pekin, Ill.), mayor of Juneau (2000-03).

Smith, Samuel (b. July 27, 1752, Carlisle, Pennsylvania - d. April 22, 1839, Baltimore, Md.), mayor of Baltimore (1835-38).

Smith, Samuel (b. May 26, 1788, Huntington, N.Y. - d. 1872), mayor of Brooklyn (1850).

Smith, Samuel E(merson) (b. March 12, 1788, Hollis, N.H. - d. March 3, 1860, Wiscasset, Maine), governor of Maine (1831-34).

Smith, Sidney Earle (b. March 9, 1897, Port Hood, N.S. - d. March 17, 1959, Ottawa, Ont.), foreign minister of Canada (1957-59). He served with the Canadian army and the Royal Flying Corps in France in World War I. In 1934, at the age of 37, he became the youngest Canadian university president when he was named to head the University of Manitoba. In 1945 he became president of the University of Toronto. At times it appeared he might be named leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada; he was nominated for the leadership in 1942, but withdrew in favour of Premier John Bracken of Manitoba. In September 1957 he abandoned his academic career to become secretary of state for external affairs. He was elected to the House of Commons on Nov. 4, 1957, for the constituency of Hastings-Frontenac, Ont., and was reelected on March 31, 1958. He headed the Canadian delegation to the United Nations General Assembly on the Middle East crisis in August 1958. He died in office.

Smith, Stan, Bahamian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2022- ).

Stephen Smith
Smith, Stephen (Francis) (b. Dec. 12, 1955, Narrogin, W.Aus.), foreign minister (2007-10) and defense minister (2010-13) of Australia. He was also minister of trade (2010).

Smith, Stephen John (b. 1887, Dunedin, N.Z. - d. 1948), acting resident commissioner of the Cook Islands (1937-38).

Smith, Stephenson Percy (b. June 11, 1840, Beccles, Suffolk, England - d. April 19, 1922, New Plymouth, N.Z.), resident agent of Niue (1901-02).

Smith, Thomas R(ichard) (b. June 8, 1904, Blackburn, England - d. Nov. 18, 1979, Wellington, N.Z.), secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1958-63).

Smith, Victor Emmanuel (b. af. 1945), Ghanaian diplomat/politician; brother of Joseph Henry Smith. He was ambassador to the Czech Republic (2010-12), minister for the Eastern region (2012-13), and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2014-17).

Smith, W(illiam) Wallace (b. Nov. 18, 1900, Lamoni, Iowa - d. Aug. 4, 1989, Independence, Mo.), president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1958-78); son of Joseph Smith III.

Smith, Wallace B(unnell) (b. July 29, 1929, Independence, Mo. - d. Sept. 22, 2023, Lee's Summit, Mo.), president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1978-96); son of W. Wallace Smith.

Walter B. Smith
Smith, Walter Bedell, byname Beetle Smith (b. Oct. 5, 1895, Indianapolis, Ind. - d. Aug. 6, 1961, Washington, D.C.), director of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (1950-53). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1946-49).

Smith, William, byname Extra Billy (b. Sept. 6, 1797, Marengo, King George county, Va. - d. May 18, 1887, Warrenton, Va.), governor of Virginia (1846-49, 1864-65).

Smith, Sir William Douglas (b. March 24, 1865 - d. Feb. 4, 1939), lieutenant governor of Jersey (1920-24); knighted 1921.

Smith, William E. (b. June 18, 1824, near Inverness, Scotland - d. Feb. 13, 1883, Milwaukee, Wis.), governor of Wisconsin (1878-82).

Smith, William F(rench) (b. Aug. 26, 1917, Wilton, N.H. - d. Oct. 29, 1990, Los Angeles, Calif.), U.S. attorney general (1981-85).

Smith, Sir William Frederick Haynes (b. 1839 - d. Dec. 17, 1928, Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire, England), governor of the Leeward Islands (1887-95) and the Bahamas (1895-98) and high commissioner of Cyprus (1898-1904); knighted 1890.

Smith, William H(ugh) (b. April 26, 1826, Fayette county, Ga. - d. Jan. 1, 1899, Birmingham, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1868-70).

Smith, William Henry (b. June 24, 1825, London, England - d. Oct. 6, 1891, Walmer, Kent, England), British secretary of state for war (1885-86, 1886-87). He was also first lord of the Admiralty (1877-80) and chief secretary for Ireland (1886).

Wycliffe Smith
Smith, Wycliffe (Sylvester) (b. Dec. 18, 1948, Saba), administrator of Saba (1983-89) and acting prime minister of Sint Maarten (2019). He was also minister of education, culture, youth, and sports of Sint Maarten (2018-19).

Smith-Dorrien, Sir Horace Lockwood (b. May 26, 1858, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England - d. [following car crash] Aug. 12, 1930, Chippenham, Wiltshire, England), governor of Gibraltar (1918-23); knighted 1904.

Smith-Rewse, Geoffrey Bingham Whistler, surname until 1889 Smith (b. May 16, 1878, Kalabagh, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Aug. 17, 1927, Vila, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu]), administrator of Nauru (1917-21) and British resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1924-27).

Smithers, Sir Peter (Henry Berry Otway) (b. Dec. 9, 1913, Yorkshire, England - d. June 8, 2006, Vico Morcote, Ticino, Switzerland), secretary-general of the Council of Europe (1964-69); knighted 1970. He was Conservative MP for Winchester in 1950-64.

Smits, Jean-Baptiste (b. April 10, 1792, Antwerp, Austrian Netherlands [now Belgium] - d. May 3, 1857, Arlon, Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1841-43). He was also governor of Luxembourg province (1843-57).

Smole, Janko (b. June 2, 1921, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia] - d. June 11, 2010, Ljubljana), chairman of the Executive Council of Slovenia (1965-67). He was also governor of the National Bank of Yugoslavia (1958-62) and federal secretary of finance (1967-74).

Smoliy, Valeriy (Andriyovych) (b. Jan. 1, 1950, Avratin, Kamenets-Podolsky oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Avratyn, Khmelnytskyi oblast, Ukraine]), a deputy prime minister of Ukraine (1997-99). He is also known as a historian.

Smólski, Stefan (b. Sept. 2, 1879, Karolówka, Podolia, Russia [now Korolivka, Ukraine] - d. Feb. 2, 1938, Warsaw, Poland), interior minister of Poland (1926). He was also minister of labour and social protection (1923).

Smørum, Jens (Laurids Oluf Sørensen) (b. Feb. 3, 1891, Smørum, Denmark - d. Dec. 18, 1976, Ballerup, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (1947-50). He was also minister of agriculture (1953-57).

Smotrich, Bezalel (b. Feb. 27, 1980, Haspin, Golan Heights [Israeli-occupied Syria]), finance minister of Israel (2022- ). He was also minister of transportation and road safety (2019-20). A self-described "fascist homophobe," he has called for pogroms against Palestinians, prompting some rare (if inconsequential) criticism from Western countries.

Smuts, Jan (Christian), Christian also spelled Christiaan (b. May 24, 1870, Bovenplaats, near Riebeeck West, Cape Colony [now in South Africa] - d. Sept. 11, 1950, Irene, near Pretoria, South Africa), prime minister (1919-24, 1939-48), defense minister (1910-20, 1939-48), interior minister (1910-12), finance minister (1912-15), and justice minister (1933-39) of South Africa. He was also minister of mines (1910-12) and native affairs (1919-24). In 1898 he was appointed state attorney of Transvaal. He fought in the South African (Boer) War (1899-1902) and afterwards worked with Louis Botha to achieve an alliance between Boer and British groups in South Africa. Having achieved responsible government for the Transvaal in 1907, they directed their efforts toward the unification of the South African colonies, which came in 1910. Botha became prime minister and Smuts his right-hand man. In World War I they suppressed rebellion in South Africa, conquered South West Africa, and launched a campaign in East Africa. Smuts then went to England for an imperial conference (March 1917), where British prime minister Lloyd George at once recognized his abilities and included him in the war cabinet. He organized the Royal Air Force and was concerned in all major decisions about the war. When Botha died in 1919, Smuts became prime minister. Defeated by a coalition of the Nationalist and Labour parties in 1924, he remained in opposition until 1933, when he and J.B.M. Hertzog joined forces against the more extreme nationalists and he became deputy prime minister. In 1939 the two split over whether South Africa should join Britain in World War II. When Smuts's view prevailed in parliament, he replaced Hertzog as prime minister and South Africa declared war on Germany. He represented South Africa at the 1945 San Francisco Conference and played a major role in drafting the Charter of the United Nations. At the 1948 general election his party was defeated by the Nationalists.

Smylie, Robert E(ben) (b. Oct. 31, 1914, Marcus, Iowa - d. July 17, 2004, Boise, Idaho), governor of Idaho (1955-67). In 1947 he became deputy to Idaho Attorney General Robert Ailshie, and he was appointed to replace Ailshie when he died later that year. Smylie was elected to a full four-year term as attorney general in 1950 and was elected governor four years later. His administration saw an increase in the minimum wage, institution of the five-day work week for state employees, an extensive highway construction program, and the establishment of the state park system. He helped moderate Republicans nationally regroup following the defeat of Barry Goldwater in the 1964 presidential election. It was Smylie's decision to embrace the imposition of a sales tax in 1965 that enabled supporters to round up the votes needed for passage. In his autobiography, he wrote that his support for the 3-cent tax was probably a major factor in his upset defeat in the Republican primary a year later to state Sen. Don Samuelson. Still he called it the most important legislative act in the state's first century, creating what policy-makers call Idaho's three-legged stool of income, property, and sales taxes. Before his failed reelection bid in 1966, Smylie had been mentioned as a possible vice presidential nominee in 1968.

Smyr, Rauli (Kyazimovich) (b. March 5, 1953, Kulanurkhva, Gudauta rayon, Abkhaz A.S.S.R., Georgian S.S.R.), interior minister of Abkhazia (2019-20).

Smyth, Frederick (b. March 9, 1819, Candia, N.H. - d. April 22, 1899, Hamilton, Bermuda), governor of New Hampshire (1865-67).

Smyth, Sir Henry Augustus (b. Nov. 25, 1825 - d. Sept. 18, 1906), governor of Cape Colony (acting, 1889) and Malta (1890-93); knighted 1890.

Smyth, Sir James Carmichael, (1st) Baronet (b. Feb. 22, 1779, London, England - d. March 4, 1838, Georgetown, British Guiana [now Guyana]), governor of the Bahamas (1829-33) and British Guiana (1833-38). He was made baronet in 1821.

Smyth, John William (b. May 13, 1880, London, England - d. Feb. 2, 1968), chief commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1931-35).

Smyth, Sir Leicester, original name (until 1866) Leicester Curzon-Howe (b. Oct. 25, 1829 - d. Jan. 27, 1891, London, England), acting governor of Cape Colony (1881, 1883-84) and governor of Gibraltar (1890-91); knighted 1884.

Smythe, Charles John (b. April 21, 1852, Methven Castle, Perthshire, Scotland - d. May 15, 1918, Nottingham Road, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal], South Africa), prime minister (1905-06) and administrator (1910-18) of Natal.

Snedden, Sir Billy Mackie (b. Dec. 31, 1926, Perth, Western Australia - d. June 27, 1987, Sydney, N.S.W.), Australian politician. A member of parliament for the Melbourne constituency of Bruce (1955-83), he was attorney general (1963-66) under Sir Robert Menzies and served successive Liberal-Country Party prime ministers as minister for immigration (1966-69), minister for labour and national service (1969-71), treasurer (1971-73), and leader of the House (1966-71). As leader of the Liberal Party in opposition from December 1972, Snedden proved insufficiently combative to counter Labor Party prime minister Gough Whitlam effectively; Snedden was ousted as party leader by the more abrasive Malcolm Fraser in March 1975. Snedden was outstandingly successful as speaker (1976-83) of the House of Representatives. He was knighted in 1977.

Snegur, Mircea (Ion), Russian Mircha (Ivanovich) Snegur (b. Jan. 17, 1940, Trifanesti village, Romania [now in Moldova] - d. Sept. 13, 2023), president of Moldova (1990-97). He was a member of the Communist Party from 1964 to 1990, becoming a secretary of the Central Committee of the Moldavian party in 1985-89. He became chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1989-90) and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1990) of the Moldavian S.S.R. An advocate of Moldavian sovereignty and full economic independence, his victory in the April 1990 election over Communist Party leader Petru Lucinschi reflected the strength of his support among nationalists in Moldavia's parliament. In September the Supreme Soviet created a new post of executive president, to which he was elected unopposed. Following Moldova's declaration of independence in August 1991, he was confirmed in a popular election in December, again as the only candidate. During his tenure as president, tensions increased between the central Moldovan government and separatist forces in Transnistria, an eastern region with a majority of Ukrainians and Russians. A brief civil war between Moldovans and Transnistrians was quelched by Russian troops in 1992. Snegur was instrumental in the transition from centralized economic planning and the development of an independent foreign and security policy for Moldova; while the republic joined the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Snegur insisted that Moldova not participate in many of the CIS's main economic and military conventions. In the 1996 presidential elections he led with 39% of the vote in the first round, but was defeated by Lucinschi in the runoff. After his defeat he remained active in Moldovan party politics, having established the centre-right Party of Rebirth and Conciliation in 1995. In the 2001 parliamentary elections, however, the party failed to cross the 6% threshold for representation.

Sneidern, Axel (Wilhelm Teodor) von (b. Sept. 9, 1875, Skallsjö, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. May 23, 1950, Holm, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland]), governor of Älvsborg (1922-41).

Snell, Earl (Wilcox) (b. July 11, 1895, Gilliam county, Ore. - d. [plane crash] Oct. 28, 1947, southwest of Lakeview, Ore.), governor of Oregon (1943-47).

Snell, Lisle Denis (b. 1948?, Norfolk Island), chief minister of Norfolk Island (2013-15).

Snelling, Richard A(rkwright) (b. Feb. 18, 1927, Allentown, Pa. - d. Aug. 13, 1991, Shelburne, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1977-85, 1991).

Snieckus, Antanas, Russian Antanas (Yuozovich) Snechkus (b. Jan. 7, 1903 [Dec. 25, 1902, O.S.], Bubliai, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Jan. 22, 1974, Druskininkai, Lithuanian S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Lithuanian S.S.R. (1940-74). He was also first secretary of the Communist Party of Lithuania (1936-39).

Snijders, Errol (Glenn) (b. Dec. 1, 1948, Paramaribo, Suriname), foreign minister of Suriname (1997-2000). He was labour minister in 1996-97.

Sniuksta, Petras (b. Nov. 24, 1877, Zopelskiai, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Nov. 22, 1952, Silute, Lithuanian S.S.R.), defense minister of Lithuania (1934-35).

Snoilsky, Gustaf Fredrik greve (b. May 6, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Sept. 25, 1897, Göteborg, Sweden), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1885-97).

Snopek, Carlos (b. Oct. 2, 1914, La Mendieta, Jujuy, Argentina - d. [car accident] June 9, 1991, near Uquia, Jujuy), governor of Jujuy (1973-76, 1983-87).

Snopek, Guillermo (Eugenio) (b. 1947 - d. [car accident] Feb. 23, 1996, San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy, Argentina), governor of Jujuy (1995-96); nephew of Carlos Snopek.

Snouck Hurgronje, Johan Willem Marius (b. July 6, 1896, Venlo, Netherlands - d. Nov. 18, 1972, Bern, Switzerland), Dutch diplomat. He was ambassador to Mexico (1940-43), Canada (1944-47), Ireland (1950-55), and Switzerland (1956-62) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1947-50).

Snoussi, Ahmed, also spelled Senoussi (b. 1929, Meknès, Morocco - d. Oct. 11, 2021, Rabat, Morocco), Moroccan diplomat. He was ambassador to Nigeria and Cameroon (1965-67), Tunisia (1971-73), Algeria (1973-78), and Mauritania (1978-79), information minister (1967-71), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-2001).

Snow, Alfred (Ernest) (b. 1898 - d. ...), British military administrator of the Channel Islands (1945).

J. Snow
Snow, John (William) (b. Aug. 2, 1939, Toledo, Ohio), U.S. treasury secretary (2003-06).

Snow, (Charles) Wilbert (b. April 6, 1884, Whitehead Island, Maine - d. Sept. 28, 1977, Spruce Head, Maine), governor of Connecticut (1946-47).

Snowball, Jabez Bunting (b. Sept. 24, 1837, Lunenburg, Nova Scotia - d. Feb. 24, 1907, Fredericton, N.B.), lieutenant governor of New Brunswick (1902-07).

Snowden, Philip Snowden, (1st) Viscount (b. July 18, 1864, Middleton, Yorkshire, England - d. May 15, 1937, Tilford, Surrey, England), British chancellor of the exchequer (1924, 1929-31). He was also president of the Board of Trade (1931-32). He was created viscount in 1931.

Snoy et d'Oppuers, Jean-Charles, in full Jean Baptiste Charles Idesbalde Julien Marie Ghislain, baron (from 1982, comte) Snoy et d'Oppuers (b. July 2, 1907, Ophain-Bois-Seigneur-Isaac, Belgium - d. May 17, 1991), finance minister of Belgium (1968-72).

Snuderl, Boris (b. June 7, 1926, Maribor, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), justice minister of Yugoslavia (1971).

Snyder, John W(esley) (b. June 21, 1895, Jonesboro, Ark. - d. Oct. 8, 1985, Seabrook Island, S.C.), U.S. government official. In 1930 he joined the field service of the comptroller of the currency of the U.S. and served with this office until 1937, when he became head of the St. Louis, Mo., agency of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. During World War II he helped organize the Defense Plant Corporation, an RFC subsidiary, and as its operational vice-president and director administered the agency's commitments of more than $10,000,000,000 to finance war plants. He was vice-president of the First National Bank of St. Louis from January 1943 to April 1945 when he became federal loan administrator. Snyder was made director of the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion July 17, 1945, and was secretary of the treasury (1946-53) in the cabinet of Pres. Harry S. Truman. He presided over the nation's booming postwar economy, celebrating a big tax cut in 1948 but then proclaiming within two years that paying for vital military needs - especially in Korea - meant "tax increases all along the line are inevitable." He was closely involved in U.S. efforts to help rebuild Europe and Japan, and he presided over reorganization of the U.S. tax agency, then known as the Internal Revenue Bureau, in the face of congressional charges of staff loafing and inefficiency.

Snyder, Meredith P(inxton) (b. Oct. 22, 1859, Winston-Salem, N.C. - d. April 7, 1937, Los Angeles, Calif.), mayor of Los Angeles (1896-98, 1900-04, 1919-21); son-in-law of William Wallace Ross.

Snyder, Rick, byname of Richard Dale Snyder (b. Aug. 19, 1958, Battle Creek, Mich.), governor of Michigan (2011-19).

Snyder, Simon (b. Nov. 5, 1759, Lancaster, Pennsylvania - d. Nov. 9, 1819, Selinsgrove, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1808-17).

Soalaoi, Clay Forau (b. Oct. 10, 1976), national security minister (2011-12) and foreign minister (2012-14) of the Solomon Islands. He was also justice (2006) and health (2006-07) minister.

Soames (of Fletching in the County of East Sussex), (Arthur) Christopher (John) Soames, Baron (b. Oct. 12, 1920, Sheffield Park, East Sussex, England - d. Sept. 16, 1987, North Warnborough, Hampshire, England), British politician. Member of Parliament for Bedford (1950-66), he was parliamentary private secretary (1952-55) to his father-in-law, Sir Winston Churchill (Soames had married Mary Churchill in 1947) and perhaps came closest to real power in Britain during the summer of 1953 when, unknown to the public, the prime minister was incapacitated by a stroke. Soames was secretary of state for war (1958-60) and minister of agriculture (1960-64) in Harold Macmillan's cabinet. Harold Wilson's Labour government sent him as ambassador to Paris (1968-72) to work toward Britain's entry into the European Communities (EC). During the period 1973-77 he was a vice-president of the EC Commission. Created a life peer in 1978, he was leader of the House of Lords (1979-81); soon, however, he became one of the first of a long line of traditional Tories who found themselves in conflict with the Thatcherite style of government. He was the last governor of Rhodesia (1979-80), where he ended a bitter civil war and presided over the first elections for an independent Zimbabwe.

A.J.O. Soares
Soares, Abílio José Osório (b. June 2, 1947, Laclubar, Portuguese Timor [now Timor-Leste] - d. June 17, 2007), governor of Timor Timur (1992-99). Accused of failing to control civilian militias set up by Indonesia ahead of East Timor's vote for independence in 1999, he was found guilty of crimes against humanity by a special Indonesian court on Aug. 14, 2002, and was sentenced to three years in prison. He was later cleared on appeal and released after serving only four months, a move that angered rights groups.

Soares, Alaor Prata (b. June 17, 1882, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Sept. 17, 1964, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), prefect of Distrito Federal (1922-26).

Soares, Asdrúbal Martins (b. June 18, 1900, Piuma, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. Dec. 16, 1978, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Espírito Santo (1962-63). He was also mayor of Vitória (1930-33).

Soares, Firmino Licinio da Silva (d. June 1891), acting president of Piauí (1888).

Soares, Jair de Oliveira (b. Nov. 26, 1933, Porto Alegre, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1983-87). He was also Brazilian minister of social security (1979-82).

Soares, João Augusto Crispiniano, acting governor-general of Angola (1924).

Soares, João Crispiniano (b. July 24, 1809, Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Aug. 15, 1876, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Mato Grosso (1847-48), Minas Gerais (1863-64), Rio de Janeiro (1864), and São Paulo (1864-65).

Soares, Joaquim Pedro (b. 1840? - d. March 4, 1897, Porto Alegre), acting president of Rio Grande do Sul (1881, 1882).

Soares, José Carlos de Macedo (b. Oct. 6, 1883, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Jan. 29, 1968, São Paulo), foreign minister (1934-36, 1955-58) and justice minister (1937) of Brazil and federal interventor in São Paulo (1945-47).

Soares, Marcelo Miranda (b. Dec. 1, 1938, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil), governor of Mato Grosso do Sul (1979-80, 1987-91). He was also mayor of Campo Grande (1977-79).

M. Soares
Soares, Mário (Alberto Nobre Lopes) (b. Dec. 7, 1924, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Jan. 7, 2017, Lisbon), president of Portugal (1986-96). Under the right-wing dictatorship he was imprisoned 12 times and twice exiled (São Tomé, 1968; Paris, 1970-74). In 1964 he and others founded the Portuguese Socialist Action, a clandestine society which in 1973 transformed into the Socialist Party (PS) with him as secretary-general. After the 1974 revolution by leftist military officers, he was foreign minister (1974-75) in provisional cabinets appointed by the military and oversaw the negotiations for the independence of Portugal's overseas colonies. He became the first constitutionally elected prime minister since the revolution (1976-78), heading first a minority Socialist government and then a coalition with the Christian Democrats and while in office negotiating Portugal's first agreement with the International Monetary Fund. In 1983 he became premier for a second time after his party's qualified success in the April general election and its establishment of a coalition with the Social Democrats. He successfully negotiated Portugal's entry into the European Communities. In 1985 the PS was decisively defeated in elections and he was succeeded as prime minister by the right-wing Aníbal Cavaco Silva. But just three months later Soares was elected president, winning 51.3% of the votes despite the formidable challenge posed by the popular conservative Diogo Freitas do Amaral. He became the first civilian head of state in 60 years. Within days of being elected he renounced his leadership of the PS and emphasized that he would be a leader of all people, regardless of their political views. He was reelected in 1991 but was constitutionally barred from seeking a third consecutive term in 1996. In 2006 he ran again, but was unsuccessful.

R.F. Soares
Soares, Rui (Alberto de) Figueiredo (b. Jan. 20, 1956, Mindelo, São Vicente, Cape Verde), foreign minister (1999-2001, 2021- ) and defense minister (2021- ) of Cape Verde/Cabo Verde. He has also been minister of health (1992-94), the presidency of the Council of Ministers (1998-99), and regional integration (2020- ) and ambassador to France (1995-98).

Soares, Vital Henrique Batista (b. Nov. 3, 1874, Água Preta [now Uruçuca], Bahia, Brazil - d. April 19, 1933, Salvador, Bahia), governor of Bahia (1928-30). He was elected vice president of Brazil in 1930, but was prevented from taking office by the revolution of that year.

A. Sobchak
Sobchak, Anatoly (Aleksandrovich) (b. Aug. 10, 1937, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia] - d. Feb. 20, 2000, Svetlogorsk, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia), mayor of St. Petersburg (1991-96). He did not join the Communist Party until 1988 and left it two years later. He rose to national prominence during the sessions of the U.S.S.R. Congress of People's Deputies and U.S.S.R. Supreme Soviet in the spring of 1989. He headed the commission looking into the deaths of 20 demonstrators at Tbilisi, Georgia, in April 1989 and severely censured the Communist Party and the military. Now, next to Boris Yeltsin, he was the most influential Russian politician. He became chairman of the Leningrad city soviet on May 23, 1990, and was elected as the city's first mayor on June 12, 1991, winning 66% of the vote. The Soviet coup of Aug. 19, 1991, found Sobchak in Moscow consulting with Russian President Yeltsin. Helped by elements of the KGB, he flew back to Leningrad, met with the military commander Lt.Gen. Viktor Samsonov, and dissuaded him from bringing troops into the city. On Nov. 7, 1991, the anniversary of the October Revolution, he organized a countercelebration - the official renaming of Leningrad as St. Petersburg, following a city referendum in September. Vladimir Putin became Sobchak's top aide and deputy mayor; he was seen as firmly entrenched in the reform camp under Sobchak's tutelage. Sobchak lost office in 1996 and was investigated for allegedly arranging to have his apartment upgraded and for accepting another apartment as a gift while he was mayor; a real estate company allegedly received benefits from city authorities in return. He went to France in November 1997 and returned to Russia only in the summer of 1999, when Putin became Russian prime minister.

Sobchak, Kseniya (Anatolyevna) (b. Nov. 5, 1981, Leningrad, Russian S.F.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]), Russian politician; daughter of Anatoly Sobchak. She was a minor presidential candidate in 2018.

Soberanis Reyes, Ana Catalina (b. Nov. 14, 1948, Guatemala City, Guatemala), Guatemalan politician. She was minister of labour (1986-88), president of Congress (1991-92), and a minor presidential candidate (1999).

Soberón Guzmán, Ernesto (b. Oct. 15, 1975), Cuban diplomat. He has been ambassador to the Bahamas (2011-15) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2024- ).

Sobhuza II, original name Nkhotfotjeni, other names Mona, Mahagoza, Mpandla (b. July 22, 1899, Zombodze, Swaziland [now Eswatini] - d. Aug. 21, 1982, Lobzilla Palace, near Mbabane, Swaziland), paramount chief (1921-68) and king (1968-82) of Swaziland. His father, Ngwane V, died when Sobhuza was an infant, and his grandmother ruled as queen regent during his minority, while he was being educated at the Swazi National School at Zombodze and at the famous missionary-run Lovedale Institute in Cape province, South Africa. He was installed as paramount chief of the Swazi in 1921. He led his country (which had become a British protectorate in 1902) gently into the 20th century while never forsaking, but rather encouraging, the ancient tribal customs that bound his people tightly together as a cohesive nation. Bit by bit, and with long battles in the British courts, he regained for his people many of the lands that had been handed out to foreigners. Swaziland achieved full independence in September 1968 as a constitutional monarchy. In April 1973, however, Sobhuza repealed the constitution, dissolved the legislature, disbanded all political parties, and assumed supreme power to rule. A new constitution proclaimed in 1978 provided for a merely consultative parliament (Libandla). Opposition to his rule was small. With probably more than 100 wives and hundreds of children, he tied all important families to his own Dlamini clan, constituting about one-quarter of the population. His lifestyle reflected a synthesis of the old and the new African; on formal state occasions he appeared in top hat and full dress, but on most other occasions he wore his traditional regalia of scarlet silk loincloth and feathers. He maintained strong Western ties and refused to allow Swaziland to be used as a base for guerrilla attacks against South Africa.

Sobisch (Velázquez), Jorge (Omar) (b. Jan. 16, 1943, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Neuquén (1991-95, 1999-2007). He was a minor presidential candidate in 2007.

Sobków, Witold (b. Feb. 17, 1961, Warsaw, Poland), Polish diplomat. He was ambassador to Ireland (2002-06) and the United Kingdom (2012-16) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2010-12).

Sobolev, Anatoly (Nikolayevich) (b. Dec. 10, 1940), head of the administration of Kurgan oblast (1995-96).

Sobolev, Arkady (Aleksandrovich) (b. Nov. 25, 1903, Danilkovo, Kostroma province, Russia - d. Dec. 1, 1964, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet diplomat. He was ambassador to Poland (1951-53) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1955-60).

Sobolev, Leonid (Nikolayevich) (b. May 28, 1844, Russia - d. Sept. 30, 1913), prime minister and interior minister (1882-83) and acting finance minister (1883) of Bulgaria.

Sobolev, Viktor (Vasilyevich) (b. Dec. 30, 1948, Tokmak, Kirgiz S.S.R.), Kazakh politician. He was minister of labour (1993-94) and a deputy prime minister (1994-96).

Sobolewski, Bronislaw (Pawel) (b. June 25, 1870, Jatwiez, Poland - d. Feb. 4, 1924, Warsaw, Poland), justice minister of Poland (1919, 1921-22).

Soborun, Somduth (b. June 27, 1951, Mauritius), Mauritian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in the United States (1999-2001), ambassador to Egypt (2004-06) and the United States (2011-15), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-11).

B. Sobotka
Sobotka, Bohuslav (b. Oct. 23, 1971, Telnice, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), finance minister (2002-06), a deputy prime minister (2003-04, 2005-06), and prime minister (2014-17) of the Czech Republic. He was also leader of the Social Democratic Party (2005-06 [acting], 2010-17) and acting minister of industry and trade (2017).

Sobotka, Wolfgang (b. Jan. 5, 1956, Waidhofen an der Ybbs, Niederösterreich, Austria), interior minister of Austria (2016-17). He has also been president of the National Council (2017- ).

Sobral, José Francisco de Menezes (b. Nov. 1, 1788, São Cristóvão, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Aug. 4, 1854, Simão Dias, Sergipe), member of the provisional junta (1822-24) and acting president (1831, 1844-45, 1847) of Sergipe.

Sobral, José Julio de Albuquerque Barros, barão de (b. May 11, 1841, Sobral, Ceará, Brazil - d. Aug. 31, 1893, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Ceará (1878-80) and Rio Grande do Sul (1883-85); brother-in-law of João Capistrano Bandeira de Mello Filho. He was also prosecutor-general of Brazil (1891-93). He was made baron in 1889.

Sobral, Teodoro Ferreira (b. Jan. 10, 1891, Amarante, Piauí, Brazil - d. June 30, 1972, Floriano, Piauí), federal interventor in Piauí (1946-47).

Sobreira, Ivan Bichara (b. May 24, 1918, Cajazeiras, Paraíba, Brazil - d. June 11, 1998, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (1975-78).

Sobukwe, Robert Mangaliso (b. Dec. 5, 1924, Graaff-Reinet, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. Feb. 27, 1978, Kimberley, Cape [now in Northern Cape]), South African black nationalist. He became secretary of the African National Congress (ANC) youth league and later edited The Africanist. In 1958 he left the ANC and founded the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), a black-consciousness organization which sought to eliminate apartheid in South Africa. On March 21, 1960, when he and other blacks protested the restrictive pass laws that controlled their lives, police opened fire and killed more than 60 demonstrators in what became known as the Sharpeville massacre. Sobukwe was arrested, charged with incitement to riot, and sentenced to three years in prison. When his prison term ended, authorities enacted a special law that permitted his continued detention on Robben Island for six more years. In 1969 he was sent to Kimberley where he remained under renewed banning orders, and he was denied the right to emigrate to the U.S. where he was offered teaching posts.


Sobyanin, Sergey (Semyonovich) (b. June 21, 1958), head of the administration of Tyumen oblast (2001-05) and mayor of Moscow (2010- ). In 2005-08 he was head of the Russian presidential administration and in 2008-10 he was a deputy prime minister and head of the Government Apparatus (chief of staff).

Sócrates (Carvalho Pinto de Sousa), José (b. Sept. 6, 1957, Vilar de Maçada, northeastern Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (2005-11). He was also minister of youth and sports (1997-99) and environment (1999-2002).

Sodano, Angelo Cardinal (b. Nov. 23, 1927, Isola d'Asti village, Piemonte, Italy - d. May 27, 2022, Rome, Italy), Vatican foreign minister (1988-90) and secretary of state (1990-2006). Ordained priest in 1950, he held assignments in the apostolic nunciatures in Ecuador (1961-63), Uruguay (1963-65), and Chile (1965-67). After another ten years in Rome at the Secretariat of State, he was apostolic nuncio to Chile (1977-88). Under his influence, a string of steadily conservative bishops were appointed in Chile. In the run-up to a key plebiscite in 1988, Sodano appeared at a televised gathering of supporters of dictator Augusto Pinochet. He became a cardinal in 1991. While secretary of state, Sodano, as an opponent of liberation theology, was sent to preside over a meeting of the Latin American bishops' conference (CELAM) in Santo Domingo in 1992. Conflicts between Sodano and some of the progressive bishops within CELAM became so fierce that at one point Sodano locked himself into his hotel room and declared his intention of returning to Rome immediately; he was persuaded to stay only by notes pushed under his door. Since 2005 he is the dean of the College of Cardinals. Sodano has a long history of protecting the interests of the church as an institution, being accused of turning a blind eye to sexual abuse scandals. In particular, he blocked an investigation into Hans Hermann Cardinal Groër, archbishop of Vienna, who was found guilty of sexually abusing children in 1998. Also, he was an ally up to the end of Father Marcial Maciel, founder of the Legion of Christ, who was found guilty of sexual abuse and misconduct in 2006 and sentenced to a life of prayer and penance.

K. Söder
Söder, Karin (Anne-Marie), née Bergenfur (b. Nov. 30, 1928, Frykerud, Sweden - d. Dec. 19, 2015, Stockholm, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1976-78). As social welfare minister in 1979-82, she acquired a dry, puritanic image because she closed the monopoly government liquor stores on Saturdays. She was also president of the Nordic Council (1984, 1989) and leader of the Centre Party (1986-87).

M. Söder
Söder, Markus (Thomas Theodor) (b. Jan. 5, 1967, Nürnberg, Bayern, West Germany), minister-president of Bayern (2018- ). He has also been general secretary (2003-07) and chairman (2019- ) of the Christian Social Union.

Söderhjelm, Johan Otto (b. Sept. 3, 1898, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. Feb. 28, 1985, Helsinki), justice minister of Finland (1939-40, 1957, 1958, 1962-63, 1964-66).

Söderholm, Karl (Gustaf) (b. Dec. 9, 1859, Loviisa, Finland - d. June 17, 1948, Pernaja [now part of Loviisa]), justice minister of Finland (1918-19, 1920, 1930-31). He was also president of the Supreme Administrative Court (1923-29).

Söderman, Jacob(-Magnus) (b. March 19, 1938, Helsinki, Finland), governor of Uusimaa (1982-89). He was also Finnish minister of justice (1971) and social affairs and health (1982).

Sodnom, Dumaagiyn (b. July 14, 1933, in present Dornogovi aymag, Mongolia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of Mongolia (1984-90). He was also finance minister (1963-69), chairman of the State Planning Commission (1972-84), and a deputy premier (1974-84).

Sodré, Antonio Augusto de Azevedo (b. Dec. 13, 1864, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Feb. 1, 1929, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro), acting prefect of Distrito Federal (1916-17).

Sodré, Constante Gomes (b. Dec. 22, 1850, São Mateus, Espírito Santo, Brazil - d. Sept. 29, 1921), acting president of Espírito Santo (1890, 1897-98).

Sodré, Feliciano Pires de Abreu (b. Sept. 30, 1881, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 26, 1944, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro), president of Rio de Janeiro (1923-27). He was also mayor of Niterói (1911-14).

Sodré (e Silva), Lauro (Nina) (b. Oct. 17, 1858, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. June 16, 1944, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Pará (1891-97, 1917-21).

Sodré, Roberto Costa de Abreu (b. June 21, 1918, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Sept. 15, 1999, São Paulo), governor of São Paulo (1967-71) and foreign minister of Brazil (1986-90).

Soe Tin (b. 1919), Burmese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-70).

Soe Win (b. 1947?), Myanmar diplomat; great-grandson of Thibaw Min. He was ambassador to Japan (1995-99), Pakistan (1999-2003), and Australia (2003-05).

Soe Win (1949- )
Soe Win (b. May 1949, Taunggyi, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. Oct. 12, 2007, Yangon, Myanmar), prime minister of Myanmar (2004-07).

Soebardjo (Djojoadisoerjo), Ahmad, also spelled Subardjo (Djoyoadisuryo) (b. March 23, 1896, Karawang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. Dec. 15, 1978, Jakarta, Indonesia), foreign minister of Indonesia (1945, 1951-52). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (1957-61).

Soedirdja, Soerjadi, Soerjadi also spelled Surjadi (b. Oct. 11, 1938, Batavia, Netherlands East Indies [now Jakarta, Indonesia] - d. Aug. 3, 2021, Jakarta), governor of Jakarta (1992-97) and home affairs minister of Indonesia (1999-2001). He was also coordinating minister for politics and security (2000).

Soedjiman (b. July 1, 1928, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. Dec. 3, 2014, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Barat (1977-88).

Soegondo, (Raden Mas) Setyadjit (b. June 7, 1907, Sengon, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. October 1948, Madiun, Jawa Timur, Indonesia), a deputy prime minister of Indonesia (1947-48).

Soejima, Taneomi, in full (from 1884) Hakushaku (Count) Taneomi Soejima (b. Oct. 17 [Sept. 9, lunar calendar], 1828 - d. Jan. 31, 1905), foreign minister (1871-73) and home affairs minister (1892) of Japan.

Soejono, Pangeran Adipati (b. March 31, 1886, Toeloengagoeng, Netherlands East Indies [now Tulungagung, Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. Jan. 5, 1943, London, England), Dutch minister without portfolio for overseas territories (1942-43). He was the only Indonesian and first Muslim minister in the Dutch government.

Soekarwo (b. June 16, 1950, Madiun, Jawa Timur, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Timur (2009-19).

Soepardjan, Ery (b. 1926? - d. July 16, 1984, Yogyakarta, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Timur (1978-83).

Soepomo, also spelled Supomo (b. Jan. 22, 1903, Sukoharjo, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Sept. 12, 1958, Jakarta, Indonesia), justice minister of Indonesia (1945, 1949-50). He was also president of the University of Indonesia (1951-54) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (1954-56).

Soeprapto, R(aden) (b. Aug. 12, 1924, Surakarta, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. Sept. 26, 2009, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jakarta (1982-87).

Sõerd, Aivar (b. Nov. 22, 1964, Haapsalu, Estonian S.S.R.), finance minister of Estonia (2005-07).

Soeripto (b. Nov. 18, 1934 - d. Jan. 7, 2010, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Riau (1988-98).

Soetens van Roijen, Isaäc Antoni (b. March 28, 1800, Vledder, Drenthe, Batavian Republic [now Netherlands] - d. Jan. 14, 1868, Zwolle, Netherlands), king's commissioner of Groningen (1853-67).

Soewandi (b. Oct. 31, 1898, Ngawi, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. March 6, 1964), justice minister of Indonesia (1945-46). He was also minister of education (1946-47).

Soewandi (b. Oct. 24, 1926, Lumajang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. July 6, 1990, Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Timur (1983-88).


Sofiyanski, Stefan (Antonov) (b. Nov. 7, 1951, Sofia, Bulgaria), mayor of Sofia (1995-97, 1997-2005) and interim prime minister of Bulgaria (1997).

Sofwan, Masjchun (b. Sept. 7, 1927, Wlingi, Blitar, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Timur, Indonesia] - d. Oct. 3, 2015, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jambi (1979-89).

Søgaard, Poul (b. Nov. 12, 1923, Dalum, Denmark - d. Dec. 12, 2016, Odense, Denmark), defense minister of Denmark (1977-82).

Sogavare, Manasseh (Damukana) (b. Jan. 17, 1955, Oro province, Papua New Guinea), finance minister (1997-98, 2017-19, 2024- ) and prime minister (2000-01, 2006-07, 2014-17, 2019-24) of the Solomon Islands. He was also minister of commerce, industries, and employment (2006), leader of the opposition (2000, 2007-10), and deputy prime minister (2017-19).

C. Soglo
Soglo, Christophe (b. June 28, 1909, Abomey, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. Oct. 7, 1983, Cotonou, Benin), president of Dahomey (1963-64, 1965-67). He was also chief of staff of the army (1964-65) and minister of defense and rural development (1966-67).

Soglo, Ganiou (Daouda) (b. Jan. 4, 1961, Paris, France), Beninese politician; son of Nicéphore Soglo; brother of Léhady Soglo. He was a minor presidential candidate (2006) and minister of youth, sports, and leisure (2007-08) and culture, literacy, and promotion of national languages (2008-11).

Soglo, Léhady (Vinagnon Mitoun) (b. Dec. 18, 1960, Paris, France), Beninese politician; son of Nicéphore Soglo. He was mayor of Cotonou (2015-17).

N. Soglo
Soglo, Nicéphore (Dieudonné) (b. Nov. 29, 1934, Lomé, Togo), prime minister (1990-91) and president (1991-96) of Benin; nephew of Christophe Soglo; brother-in-law of Désiré Vieyra. Having served as inspector-general of finances and as a governor of the International Monetary Fund, he became minister of finance and economic affairs (1965-66) and economic affairs and planning (1966-67). As leader of the Benin Renaissance Party, he was prime minister of a transitional national executive council after a civilian coup in 1990, with a brief to reform the ravaged economy and prepare for multiparty democracy; he also took the defense portfolio. He became the country's first democratically elected president when he beat long-time Marxist military ruler Mathieu Kérékou in polls in 1991. He was faced with two rebellions by parts of the military in 1992. He became a leading spokesman for the democratic process and economic reforms throughout Africa. In 1993-94 he was chairman of the Economic Community of West African States. But he was defeated by Kérékou in 1996 and again in 2001. He was elected mayor of Cotonou, the largest city and economic capital of the country, on Feb. 13, 2003, taking office March 3 and serving until Aug. 14, 2015, when he was succeeded by his son, Léhady Soglo.

Soglo, Saturnin (Koaovi) (d. July 2, 2024), Beninese diplomat; brother of Nicéphore Soglo. He was ambassador to Germany (1990-96).

Sogoni, Mbulelo (b. Jan. 16, 1966), premier of Eastern Cape (2008-09).

Sogorov, Milovan (b. June 16, 1941, Basaid, Yugoslavia [now in Vojvodina, Serbia] - d. July 15, 2020), chairman of the Vojvodina Provincial Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1988).

Sohahong-Kombet, Jean-Pierre (b. March 26, 1935, Berberati, French Equatorial Africa [now Central African Republic] - d. Jan. 25, 2017, Sandy Springs, Ga.), foreign minister of the Central African Republic (1981). He was also ambassador to the United States (1962-65, 1989-94), Sudan (1967-70), Italy and Switzerland (1970-71), and China (1983-89) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1989-94).

Soheili, Ali (b. Oct. 4, 1896 - d. May 1, 1958, London, England), foreign minister (1938-39, 1941-42) and prime minister (1942, 1943-44) of Iran. He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1936-38) and ambassador to Afghanistan (1939-40), France (1948-50), and the United Kingdom (1950-51, 1954-58).

Sohlman, Staffan (Alexander Rolfsson) (b. Jan. 21, 1937, Rome, Italy - d. Sept. 18, 2017), acting secretary-general of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1994).

Soilih (Mtsashiwa), Ali (b. Jan. 7, 1937, Majunga, Madagascar - d. [killed] May 29?, 1978), president of the Comoros (1976-78). He was also minister of public works (1970-72).

Soilihi, Soilihi Mohamed (b. Jan. 1, 1964, Moroni, Comoros), Comoran diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (2014-19).

Soini, Timo (Juhani) (b. May 30, 1962, Rauma, Finland), foreign minister of Finland (2015-19). He was also leader of the True Finns/Finns Party (1997-2017), a presidential candidate (2006, 2012), and deputy prime minister (2015-17).

Soisson, Guillaume (b. Nov. 19, 1866, Lorentzweiler, Luxembourg - d. 1938), Luxembourg politician. He was minister of agriculture (1915-16) and public works (1915-16, 1923-25).

Soisson, Jean-Pierre (b. Nov. 9, 1934, Auxerre, Yonne, France - d. Feb. 27, 2024), president of the Regional Council of Bourgogne (1992-93, 1998-2004). He was also mayor of Auxerre (1971-98), president of the Republican Party (1977-88), and French minister of youth, sports, and leisures (1978-81), labour, employment, and vocational training (1988-91), civil service and administrative modernization (1991-92), and agriculture and rural development (1992-93).

Sok An, Samdech Vibol Panha (b. April 16, 1950, Damnak Reachea, Takeo province, Cambodia - d. March 15, 2017, Beijing, China), a deputy prime minister of Cambodia (2004-17). He was also ambassador to India (1985-88), a minister in the Office of the Council of Ministers (1993-98), and minister in charge of the Office of the Council of Ministers (1998-2017). He was awarded the Samdech Vibol Panha title two days before his death.

Sok C.S.
Sok Chenda Sophea (b. April 27, 1956, Phnom Penh, Cambodia), foreign minister and a deputy prime minister of Cambodia (2023- ).

Sok Chhong (b. 1918, Battambang province, Cambodia - d. 1982), finance minister and a deputy prime minister of Cambodia (1971-72). He was also minister of national economy (1951-52) and trade (1962).

Sokambi, Gaspard (b. Aug. 12, 1924, Kouango, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), Central African Republic politician. He was president of the National Assembly (1991-92).

Sökmensüer, Sükrü, before 1935 Sükrü Bey (b. 1891, Uskub, Ottoman Empire [now Skopje, North Macedonia] - d. Oct. 18, 1978, Istanbul, Turkey), interior minister of Turkey (1946-47). He was also governor of Hatay (1939-42).

Sokoine, Edward Moringe (b. 1938, Monduli, Masai district, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania] - d. April 12, 1984, near Morogoro, Tanzania), prime minister of Tanzania (1977-80, 1983-84). He became a member of parliament in 1965. He was appointed minister of state in 1970 and was minister of defense in 1972-77. He then served a term as prime minister, retiring because of ill health in 1980. He was replaced by Cleopa David Msuya, but in 1983 Sokoine was recalled to take over from Msuya, reportedly because the country was on the verge of economic collapse. Sokoine instituted a campaign against black marketeering that led to widespread arrests. He was the heir apparent of Pres. Julius Nyerere, who had indicated that he would retire in 1985, but he died in an automobile accident after attending a parliamentary session in Dodoma.


A. Sokolov
Sokol, Sergey (Mikhailovich) (b. Dec. 17, 1970, Sevastopol, Ukrainian S.S.R.), acting governor of Irkutsk oblast (2009).

Sokolnikov, Grigory (Yakovlevich), original name Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant (b. Aug. 15 [Aug. 3, O.S.], 1888, Romny, Poltava province, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. [killed in prison] May 21, 1939), people's commissar of finance of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1922-23) and the U.S.S.R. (1923-26). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1929-32).

Sokolov, Aleksandr (Valentinovich) (b. Aug. 4, 1970, Kostroma, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Kirov oblast (2022- ).

Sokolov, Ivan (Fyodorovich) (b. 1897 - d. 19...), acting chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Kirgiz S.S.R. (1937-38).

Sokolov, Lazar (b. March 18, 1914, Kumanovo, Serbia [now in North Macedonia] - d. 1984, Skopje, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), president of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia (1945).

Sokolov, Leonid (Ivanovich) (b. 1907 - d. 1988), Soviet politician. He was chairman of the executive committee of Novosibirsk oblast (1946-49) and ambassador to North Vietnam (1958-61).

Sokolov, Sergey (Leonidovich) (b. July 1, 1911, Yevpatoriya, Crimea, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. Aug. 31, 2012, Moscow, Russia), Soviet defense minister (1984-87). He joined the army in 1932. Two years later he became a member of the tank corps in the Far East, and in 1937 he joined the Communist Party. During a 50-year military career he served in the Far East as commander of a special battalion of tank troops and in Europe as chief commander of the tank and mechanized troops of the 32nd Army. He survived Iosif Stalin's purges of the Red Army and steadily rose through the military ranks; his specialized training in tanks and mechanized armour at military academies was regarded as an attractive asset to his career. In 1960 he was named chief of the Moscow military district, and four years later he was made first deputy commander of the Leningrad military district. In 1965 he was made commander of the district, with the rank of colonel. As longtime deputy minister of defense (1967-84) he made at least 23 trips abroad, presumably to sell Soviet arms to the third world, and from 1979 he was believed to have overseen the Soviet offensive in Afghanistan. He was made a marshal of the Soviet Union in 1978. After a flurry of mistaken speculation that Grigory Romanov would succeed Marshal Dmitry Ustinov as defense minister, Sokolov was named to that post on Dec. 22, 1984. He was viewed as a tractable personality who would not disturb the delicate balance within the party leadership. His appointment also restored the tradition of naming a military man to the post, a custom that was broken in 1976 when Ustinov was appointed defense minister. Sokolov was dismissed in 1987 after he failed to prevent Mathias Rust, a 19-year-old West German, from landing in Red Square in his Cessna 172 light aircraft.

Sokolov, Yefrem (Yevseyevich) (b. April 25, 1926, Revyachino, Belorussian S.S.R. [now in Mahilyow voblast, Belarus] - d. April 5?, 2022), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Belorussian S.S.R. (1987-90). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Brest oblast (1977-87).

Sokolov, Yordan (Georgiev) (b. Jan. 18, 1933, Sofia, Bulgaria - d. Feb. 24, 2016), interior minister of Bulgaria (1991-92). He was also president of the National Assembly (1997-2001).

Sokolov-Sokolinsky, Mikhail (Aleksandrovich), original surname (until 1916) Folbaum (b. Nov. 3 [Oct. 22, O.S.], 1866, St. Petersburg province, Russia - d. Nov. 4 [Oct. 22, O.S.], 1916, Verny, Russia [now Almaty, Kazakhstan]), governor of Semirechye oblast (1908-16).

Sokolovic, Zoran (b. 1938, Lepena, near Knjazevac, eastern Serbia, Yugoslavia - found dead Feb. 6, 2001, Lepena), interior minister of Serbia (1991-97) and of Yugoslavia (1997-2000). Throughout the 1990s, he was considered one of Slobodan Milosevic's closest associates. When Milosevic's government and power pyramid crumbled in October 2000, Sokolovic fell out of the public's eye. Police said he "most likely committed suicide with a pistol."

Sokomanu, Ati George, original name (until 1980) George Kalkoa (b. Jan. 13, 1937, Mele village, Efate, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu]), president of Vanuatu (1980-84, 1984-89). He was also minister of public administration (1978-79) and deputy chief minister and interior minister (1979-80) of the New Hebrides and secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1993-96).

Soksok (Malsevsani), Vital, foreign minister of Vanuatu (1997-98). He was also minister of agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fisheries (1997).

Solá, Felipe (b. July 23, 1950, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Buenos Aires (2002-07) and foreign minister of Argentina (2019-21).

Sola, René de (b. 1919, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Venezuela (1958-59). He was also justice minister (1958).

Solaim, Soliman Abdul Aziz al- (b. November 1942), finance minister of Saudi Arabia (1995). He was also commerce minister (1975-95).

J. Solana
Solana Madariaga, Javier (b. July 14, 1942, Madrid, Spain), Spanish politician. He joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party in 1964, when it was an underground operation during the rule of fascist dictator Francisco Franco. He became a member of parliament in 1977, two years after Franco's death. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, he and other Socialist leaders marched against U.S. military bases in Spain and, when Spain joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1982, called for a referendum to reverse that move. Later that year, the Socialists came to power and he was appointed minister for culture. In 1985 he took over the additional post of government spokesman. The Socialists' position on NATO changed completely, and he supported endorsement of Spain's membership in a referendum held in 1986. He became minister for education and science in 1988 and foreign minister in 1992. In 1995, after the resignation of NATO Secretary-General Willy Claes, Solana became a compromise choice for the post. The former vocal opponent of NATO said his early attitudes were influenced by his student years in the U.S. during the Vietnam War and the civil rights movement. He took over at the time that NATO led 60,000 troops into Bosnia to implement the Dayton peace agreement. He saw NATO through its first enlargement since 1982, admitting Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic in March 1999. The same month NATO began a bombing campaign against Serbia, and he was lauded for maintaining a consensus in the North Atlantic Council as to the conduct of the campaign. In October 1999 he began his new job as the European Union's first High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, in addition becoming secretary-general of the Western European Union in November; he held both posts until 2009.

Solana Morales, Fernando (b. Feb. 8, 1931, Mexico City, Mexico - d. March 23, 2016), foreign minister of Mexico (1988-93); nephew of Guillermo Morales Blumenkron. He was also minister of commerce (1976-77) and education (1977-82, 1993-94).

Solanas Pacheco, Héctor (b. Aug. 12, 1905, Cupalén, Entre Ríos, Argentina - d. June 26, 1997, Buenos Aires, Argentina), war secretary of Argentina (1958-59). He was also chief of the General Staff (1958-59) and ambassador to Italy (1961-62).

K.S. Solanki

R. Solano
Solanki, Kaptan Singh (b. July 1, 1939, Garhpara, Bhind district, Central Provinces and Berar [now Madhya Pradesh], India), governor of Haryana (2014-18), Punjab (2015-16), and Tripura (2018-19).

Solanki, Madhavsinh (Fulsinh) (b. July 29, 1927, Piludra, Bharuch district, Bombay province [now in Gujarat state], India - d. Jan. 9, 2021, Gandhinagar, Gujarat), chief minister of Gujarat (1976-77, 1980-85, 1989-90) and foreign minister of India (1991-92). He was also Indian minister of planning and programme implementation (1988-89).

Solano (Quirós), Rodolfo (b. 1965?), foreign minister of Costa Rica (2020-22). He was also ambassador to South Korea (2015-19).

Solano López, Miguel (d. Dec. 14, 1976), Paraguayan diplomat. He was permanent delegate to the United Nations (1965-72) and ambassador to the United States (1973-76) and Haiti (1974-76).

Solari, (Jean Baptiste Dominique Jules) Alfred (b. June 24, 1868, Coti-Chiavari, Corse [now in Corse-du-Sud], France - d. March 26, 1935, Tahiti, French Settlements in Oceania [now French Polynesia]), French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1919-20) and acting governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1927-28).

L. Solari
Solari (de la Fuente), Luis (María Santiago Eduardo) (b. Jan. 28, 1948, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2002-03). He was also minister of health (2001-02).

E. Solberg
Solberg, Erna (b. Feb. 24, 1961, Bergen, Norway), prime minister of Norway (2013-21). She was also minister of local government and regional development (2001-05). In 2004 she became leader of the Conservative Party.

Solberg, Hill-Marta (b. Nov. 12, 1951, Sortland, Nordland, Norway), governor of Nordland (2007-18). She was also Norwegian minister of social affairs (1994-97).

Solbes (Mira), Pedro (b. Aug. 31, 1942, Pinoso, Alicante province, Spain - d. March 18, 2023, Madrid, Spain), finance minister of Spain (1993-96, 2004-09). He was also minister of agriculture, fisheries, and food (1991-93), EU commissioner for economic and monetary affairs (1999-2004), and second deputy prime minister (2004-09).

Solchaga Catalán, Carlos (b. May 28, 1944, Tafalla, Navarra, Spain), economy and finance minister of Spain (1985-93). He was also minister of industry and energy (1982-85).

Soldati, Agostino (Jorge Alessandro) (b. Nov. 17, 1910, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Dec. 11, 1966, Geneva, Switzerland), Swiss diplomat. He was permanent observer to the United Nations (1957-58) and ambassador to France (1961-66).

Solé (i Barril), Bernat (b. Jan. 30, 1975, Agramunt, Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain), foreign minister of Catalonia (2020-21).

Sole, Donald (Bell) (b. Dec. 13, 1917, Grahamstown, South Africa - d. May 19, 2011, Cape Town, South Africa), South African diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-57) and ambassador to Austria (1957-61), West Germany (1969-77), and the United States (1977-82).

Soledade, Antonio Vieira da (b. Elvas, Portugal - d. Dec. 16, 1836, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Rio Grande do Sul (1829).

Soler (Jovellanos), Adolfo Rufo (b. 1869 - d. December 1925, Buenos Aires, Argentina), foreign minister of Paraguay (1906). He was also minister to Argentina and Uruguay (1911-12).

Soler (Queirolo), Miguel Ángel (b. 1888, Asunción, Paraguay - d. 1959), foreign minister of Paraguay (1946-47). He was also minister to Argentina (1936-37).

Soler i Cladera, Cristòfol (b. Dec. 26, 1956, Inca, Baleares, Spain), president of the government of Baleares (1995-96).

Soleri, Marcello (b. May 28, 1882, Cuneo, Italy - d. July 22, 1945, Turin, Italy), finance minister (1921-22), war minister (1922), and treasury minister (1944-45) of Italy.

Soleye, Onaolapo (Olusegun) (b. Nov. 11, 1933, Owu [now in Ogun state], Nigeria - d. Nov. 15, 2023), finance minister of Nigeria (1984-85).

Solf, Wilhelm (Heinrich) (b. Oct. 5, 1862, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. Feb. 6, 1936, Berlin), governor of Samoa (1900-11) and foreign minister of Germany (1918). He was also minister of colonies (1911-18) and ambassador to Japan (1920-28).

Solf y Muro, Alfredo (Federico) (b. March 15, 1872, Lambayeque, Peru - d. Aug. 14, 1969, Lima, Peru), prime minister and foreign minister of Peru (1939-44). He was also minister of justice and education (1913) and finance and commerce (1933).

Solh, Kazem al-, Arabic Kazim al-Sulh (b. 1900, Beirut, Lebanon - d. 1977), Lebanese diplomat. He was ambassador to Iraq (1950s).

Solh, Rashid (Anis) al- (b. 1926, Beirut, Lebanon - d. June 27, 2014), prime minister (1974-75, 1992) and interior minister (1974-75) of Lebanon.

Solh, Riad Bey al-, Arabic Riyad al-Sulh (b. Aug. 17, 1894, Sidon, Lebanon - d. July 16, 1951, Amman, Jordan), prime minister of Lebanon (1943-45, 1946-51). He was active in the Arab nationalist movement and was arrested by the Turkish authorities during World War I. He was sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted to deportation. He returned to Lebanon after the war and fought against the French mandate. He was again sentenced to death by a French court-martial, but was pardoned in 1924. He continued his opposition to French rule and opposed the Franco-Lebanese treaty of Nov. 13, 1936. He was exiled by the French, but again returned to Lebanon to form a government as prime minister in August 1943. He was also minister of the interior and supply (1944-45). In November 1943 his government amended the constitution to remove the legal right of the French to administer Lebanon under a League of Nations mandate. Solh and his cabinet were arrested by French forces. When widespread anti-French demonstrations occurred, the British stepped in to demand that Lebanon be granted full independence to prevent a wider anti-Allied revolt in the Middle East; the French climbed down and he was released. He was again asked to form a government in 1946, in which he was also minister of justice (1948-49), education (1949), and interior (1949-51). An attempt was made by the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) to overthrow his government in 1948. The leader of the attempt, Antoun Saadeh, was sentenced to death and executed in 1949. His supporters vowed to seek revenge against Solh, whom they held responsible for Saadeh's death. An attempt was made to assassinate Solh in March 1950 in Paris. He stepped down as prime minister in February 1951. When he was about to return to Beirut after a visit to Jordan at the invitation of King Abdullah in July 1951, he was shot to death by presumed members of the SSNP while on his way to the Amman airport.

Solh, Sami (Bey) al- (b. 1890, Sidon, Lebanon - d. Nov. 6, 1968, Beirut, Lebanon), prime minister of Lebanon (1942-43, 1945-46, 1952, 1954-55, 1956-58). He was also chief justice (1938-42) and minister of commerce and industry, supply, and posts and telegraphs (1945-46), interior (1952, 1956-58), justice (1955, 1956-57, 1958), planning (1955), information (1956-58), and defense (1957, 1958).

Solh, Takieddin (Mounah) al-, also spelled Takieddine El Solh, Arabic Taqi al-Din (Muna) al-Sulh (b. 1909, Saida, Lebanon - d. Nov. 27, 1988, Paris, France), interior minister (1964-65), prime minister (1973-74, 1980), and finance minister (1973-74) of Lebanon; brother of Kazem al-Solh; cousin of Riad Bey al-Solh.

Solholm, Lodve (b. March 14, 1949, Vestnes, Møre og Romsdal, Norway), governor of Møre og Romsdal (2009-18). He was also president of the Lagting of Norway (2001-05).

Soliana, George (Albert) (b. 1950, Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles), administrator of Bonaire (1986-92).

Solih, Ibrahim Mohamed, byname Ibu (b. March 1, 1962, Hinnavaru island, Lhaviyani Atoll, Maldives), president of Maldives (2018-23).

Solihin Gautama Purwanegara (b. July 21, 1926, Tasikmalaya, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. March 5, 2024, Bandung, Jawa Barat), governor of Jawa Barat (1970-75).

Solimões, Manoel Francisco Machado, barão de (b. Nov. 10, 1838, Óbidos, Pará, Brazil - d. Aug. 18, 1928, Óbidos), president of Amazonas (1889). He was made baron in September 1889.


L.G. Solís
Solinas, Christian (b. Dec. 2, 1976, Cagliari, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (2019-24).

Solís (Rivera), Luis Guillermo (b. April 25, 1958, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (2014-18).

Solís (Fallas), Ottón (b. May 31, 1954, San Isidro, San José province, Costa Rica), Costa Rican presidential candidate (2002, 2006, 2010). He was also minister of planning (1986-88).

Solís Aguirre, Octaviano (b. March 22, 1890, Puebla, Mexico - d. 19...), governor of Quintana Roo (1918-21).

Solís Fernández, Galileo (b. March 16, 1900, Matachín [now disappeared under the Panama Canal], Colombia [now in Panama] - d. Sept. 19, 1972, Panama City, Panama), interior and justice minister (1934) and finance minister (1935) of Panama. He was also minister to France and the United Kingdom (1935-36).

Solís (y) Folch de Cardona, José (Manuel Becerra Ventura), duque de Montellano (b. Feb. 4, 1716, Madrid, Spain - d. April 27, 1770, Bogotá, New Granada [now in Colombia]), viceroy of New Granada (1753-61).

Solís Palma, Isidro (del Carmen) (b. 1954), justice minister of Chile (2006-07). He was also director of the Gendarmerie (1990-93).

Solís Palma, Manuel (b. Dec. 3, 1917, Los Santos province, Panama - d. Nov. 6, 2009, Panama City, Panama), acting president of Panama (1988-89). He was also minister of education (1963-64, 1984-88).

Soljic, Vladimir (b. Oct. 29, 1943, Gornji Crnac, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina]), president of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1997).

Solkin, Andrey (Fyodorovich) (b. 1895, Pyrkino, Penza province, Russia - d. [executed] June 16, 1937), chairman of the Communist Party of the Turkestan S.F.R. (1918-19). He was also rector of Tashkent state university (1920-21) and deputy premier of the Turkmen S.S.R. (1925-27).

Sollie, Solveig (Helene), née Berger (b. April 19, 1939, Sørum, Akershus, Norway), governor of Telemark (1998-2004). She was also Norwegian minister of consumer affairs and administration (1989-90) and family and consumer affairs (1990).

Sollmann, (Friedrich) Wilhelm, from 1943 William Frederick Sollmann (b. April 1, 1881, Oberlind, Saxe-Meiningen [now part of Sonneberg, Thüringen], Germany - d. Jan. 6, 1951, Mount Carmel, Conn.), interior minister of Germany (1923).

Sollogub, Vasily (Ustinovich) (b. Aug. 23, 1848 - d. af. 1909), interim governor-general of Livonia, Estonia, and Courland (1905-06).

Solmi, Arrigo (b. Jan. 27, 1873, Finale Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy - d. March 5, 1944, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1935-39).

Solntsev, Yevgeny (Aleksandrovich) (b. 1980, Voronezh, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of the Donetsk People's Republic (2023- ).

Solodov, Vladimir (Viktorovich) (b. July 26, 1982, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Sakha (2018-20) and governor of Kamchatka kray (2020- ).

Sologuren (Vélez), Armando (b. June 23, 1883, Locumba, Tacna, Peru - d. May 24, 1959, Lima, Peru), justice and education minister of Peru (1930).

Soloma, Saki (Hacky) (b. June 9, 1978), defense minister of Papua New Guinea (2019-20). He was also minister of correctional services (acting, 2020) and energy (2020-22).

Solomentsev, Mikhail (Sergeyevich) (b. Nov. 7, 1913, Yerilovka [now in Lipetsk oblast], Russia - d. Feb. 15, 2008, Moscow, Russia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1971-83). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Karaganda (1959-62) and Rostov (1964-66) oblasti.

Solomiac, Léon (b. Oct. 19, 1873, Saint-Antonin-Noble-Val, Tarn-et-Garonne, France - d. May 10, 1960, Cannes, Alpes-Maritimes, France), acting head of state of Syria (1931-32), governor of French India (1934-36), acting governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1939), and acting governor of Niger (1940). He was also prefect of Tarn département (1944-46).

Solomidis, Renos (b. March 1928 - d. July 2017), finance minister of Cyprus (1962-68). He was also provisional minister of commerce and industry (1968).

Solomin, Yury (Mefodiyevich) (b. June 18, 1935, Chita, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Jan. 11, 2024, Moscow, Russia), culture minister of the Russian S.F.S.R. (1990-91). He was a famous actor and artistic director of the Maly (Small) Theatre in Moscow (1988-2024).

Solomon, Patrick (Vincent Charles Joseph) (b. April 12, 1910, Newtown, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad - d. Aug. 26, 1997, Valsayn, Trinidad), home affairs minister (1959-64) and foreign minister (1964-66) of Trinidad and Tobago. He was also minister of education and culture (1956-59), deputy prime minister (1962-66), permanent representative to the United Nations (1966-71), and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1971-75).

Solomon, Petros (b. May 5, 1951), defense minister (1992-94) and foreign minister (1994-97) of Eritrea. He was also minister of marine resources (1997-2001). He was arrested on Sept. 18, 2001, with 10 other officials after having written in May 2001 an open letter criticizing the concentration of powers in the hands of Pres. Isaias Afewerki and calling for reforms. Officially, they were arrested for "conspiring to overthrow the government, colluding with hostile foreign powers with a view to compromising the sovereignty of the state, undermining Eritrean national security, and endangering Eritrean society and the general welfare of the people."

Solomon Gafabusa Iguru I (b. June 18, 1949), king of Bunyoro-Kitara (1994- ).

Solón Romero (Oroza), Pablo (Erick) (b. August 1958, Bolivia), Bolivian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires (2008-09) and permanent representative (2010-11) to the United Nations.

C. Solórzano

A. Solovyov
Solórzano (Constantine), Carlos (b. Feb. 11, 1939, Bahía de Caráquez, Ecuador), member of the Council of State of Ecuador (2000).

Solórzano (Gutiérrez), Carlos José (b. Jan. 17, 1860, Managua, Nicaragua - d. April 30, 1936, San José, Costa Rica), president of Nicaragua (1925-26).

Solórzano Martínez, Mario (Rolando) (b. Feb. 24, 1945 - d. Sept. 24, 1999), Guatemalan politician. He was a minor presidential candidate (1985) and minister of labour (1991-93).

Solossa, J(acobus) P(erviddya), byname Jaap Solossa (b. May 8, 1948, Mefkajim village, Ayamaru district, Netherlands East Indies [now in Papua Barat, Indonesia] - d. Dec. 19, 2005, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia), governor of Papua (2000-05).

Solovyov, Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) (b. June 18, 1950, Alnashi, Udmurt A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. July 24, 2023), head of the republic of Udmurtia (2014-17).

Solovyov, Nikolay (Vasilyevich) (b. March 22 [March 9, O.S.], 1903, Yeremino, Kostroma province, Russia - d. [executed] Oct. 27, 1950), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Crimea oblast (1946-49). He was also chairman of the executive committee of Leningrad oblast (1938-46).

Solovyov, Vadim (Pavlovich) (b. March 3, 1947 - d. Feb. 11, 2019), head of the administration of Chelyabinsk oblast (1991-97). He was also first secretary of the party committee (1986-90) and mayor (1990-91) of Chelyabinsk city.

Solsky, Dmitry (Martynovich) (b. Sept. 15 [Sept. 3, O.S.], 1833, St. Petersburg, Russia - d. Dec. 12 [Nov. 29, O.S.], 1910, St. Petersburg), Russian official. He was secretary of state (1867-78), state comptroller (1878-89), and chairman of the Imperial State Council (1905-06).

Soltan, Wladyslaw (Eugeniusz) (b. July 7, 1870, Tver, Russia - d. Feb. 7, 1943, Warsaw, Poland), governor of Warszawskie województwo (1919-23, 1924-27) and interior minister of Poland (1923-24).

Solts, Isaak (Grigoryevich) (b. 1892 - d. [in labour camp] 1940), executive secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkestan A.S.S.R. (1920-21).

Soludo, (Charles) Chukwuma (b. July 28, 1960, Isuofia [now in Anambra state], Nigeria), governor of Anambra (2022- ).

Solyakov, Pyotr (Vasilyevich) (b. 1891, Vytegra, Olonets province [now in Vologda oblast], Russia - d. 1962), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Karelian A.S.S.R. (1937-40).

Sólymos, László (b. Nov. 16, 1968, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), a deputy prime minister of Slovakia (2018-20). He was also minister of environment (2016-20).

Sólyom, László (b. Jan. 3, 1942, Pécs, Hungary - d. Oct. 8, 2023), president of Hungary (2005-10). He was also president of the Constitutional Court (1990-98).

Somare, Arthur, governor of East Sepik (1999-2003) and acting finance minister of Papua New Guinea (2010); son of Sir Michael Somare. He was also minister of state enterprises and information (2003-04), national planning and monitoring (2005-06), state enterprises, communication, and information (2006-07), and public enterprises (2007-11).

M. Somare
Somare, Sir Michael (Thomas) (b. April 9, 1936, Rabaul, East New Britain, New Guinea [now in Papua New Guinea] - d. Feb. 26, 2021, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea), chief minister (1972-75), prime minister (1975-80, 1982-85, 2002-11, and in opposition 2011-12), and foreign minister (1988-92, 1999, 2000, 2006) of Papua New Guinea and governor of East Sepik (1995-99, 2012-17). He and other young civil servants set up in 1967 the centre-left Pangu Pati, which became the dominant formation in pre-independence politics. Somare as its leader became chief minister, then the first prime minister after independence. In 1980 and 1985 he had to resign following votes of no confidence. He retired from the party leadership in 1988. As foreign minister, he took the credit for finding a formula to deal with Bougainville secessionists in mid-1990. As leader of the National Alliance Party, he was again elected prime minister in 2002. In August 2011 he was removed by parliament due to his prolonged absence for medical treatment in Singapore; in December the Supreme Court invalidated the move and he formed a new government, which stood in parallel to the one of Peter O'Neill until August 2012, when O'Neill was elected prime minister with Somare's support following parliamentary elections in July. He was also minister of natural resources (1976-77), national planning and the Public Services Commission (1977-80), mining and Bougainville affairs (1999-2000), state enterprises, communication, and information (2004-06), internal affairs (2006), autonomy and autonomous regions (2007-11), and transport and civil aviation (2009-10). He was knighted in 1990 and received the Grand Companion of the Order of Logohu with the title Grand Chief in 2005.

Somasundaram, K(rishnan) J(ohn) (b. Feb. 24, 1915), chief commissioner of Pondicherry (1963).

Somavia (Altamirano), Juan (Octavio) (b. April 21, 1941), director-general of the International Labour Organization (1999-2012). He was also Chilean permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-99).

Somchai Anuman Rajadhon, Thai diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-64) and ambassador to Canada (1962-65) and Egypt (1968-72).

Somchai W.

B. Somers
Somchai Wongsawat (b. Aug. 31, 1947), prime minister and defense minister of Thailand (2008). He was also minister of education and a deputy prime minister (2008).

Somers, Arthur Herbert Tennyson Somers Cocks, (6th) Baron (b. March 20, 1887, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, England - d. July 14, 1944, Eastnor Castle, near Ledbury, Herefordshire, England), governor of Victoria (1926-31) and acting governor-general of Australia (1930-31). He was also chief scout of the British Empire (1942-44). He succeeded as baron in 1899.

Somers, Bart(olomeus Jozef Lodewijk Rosalia) (b. May 12, 1964, Mechelen, Belgium), minister-president of Flanders (2003-04). He has also been mayor of Mechelen (2001- ).

Somers, John Somers, (1st) Baron (b. March 4, 1651, Worcestershire, England - d. April 26, 1716, Brookmans Manor, Hertfordshire, England), British lord keeper (1693-97) and lord chancellor (1697-1700). He was also solicitor general (1689-92), attorney general (1692-93), and lord president of the council (1708-10). He was knighted in 1689 and created baron in 1697.

Somervell of Harrow, Donald Bradley Somervell, Baron (b. Aug. 24, 1889, Harrow, Middlesex [now part of London], England - d. Nov. 18, 1960, London), British home secretary (1945). He was also solicitor general (1933-36) and attorney general (1936-45). He was knighted in 1933 and created a life peer in 1954.

Somerville, David Alford (b. May 9, 1908, Kent, England - d. 1974, Hampshire, England), administrator of the Cocos Islands (1946).

Somkuthy, József (b. April 20, 1883, Folt, Hungary [now in Romania] - d. Oct. 18, 1961, Washington, D.C.), defense minister of Hungary (1936). He was also chief of the General Staff (1935-36).

Sommai Hoontrakul (b. May 15, 1918 - d. June 30, 1993), finance minister of Thailand (1974-75, 1980, 1981-86).

Sommaruga, Cornelio (b. Dec. 29, 1932, Rome, Italy - d. Feb. 18, 2024, Geneva, Switzerland), interim secretary-general of the European Free Trade Association (1975) and president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1987-99).

S. Sommaruga
Sommaruga, Simonetta (b. May 14, 1960, Zug, Switzerland), president of Switzerland (2015, 2020). She was minister of justice (2010-18) and environment, transport, energy, and communications (2019-22).

Sommerfeld (Rosero), (María) Gabriela, foreign minister of Ecuador (2023- ).

Sommerfelt, Christian, also spelled Sommerfeldt (b. Jan. 6, 1746, Sukkestad, Aggershuus amt [now in Innlandet fylke], Norway - d. May 30, 1811, Sukkestad), governor of Christians amt (1781-1811).

Sommerfelt, Ole Hannibal, also spelled Sommerfeldt (b. March 5, 1753, Toten, Aggershuus amt [now in Innlandet fylke], Norway - d. April 6, 1821, Vardal, Christians amt), governor of Finmarkens amt (1787-1800), Romsdals amt (1800-11), and Christians amt (1811-21); brother of Christian Sommerfelt.

Sommestad, Lena (Anna Sofia) (b. April 3, 1957, Börje, Uppsala, Sweden), governor of Halland (2014-20). She was also Swedish minister of environment (2002-06).

Somogyi, Ferenc (b. Sept. 1, 1945, Hartkirchen, Austria), foreign minister of Hungary (2004-06). He was also ambassador to the United States (2007-09).

Somov, Aleksandr (Vasilyevich) (b. March 4 [Feb. 19, O.S.], 1906, Malikovo, Nizhny Novgorod province, Russia - d. Sept. 6, 1992, Cheboksary, Chuvashia, Russia), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1938-42). He was also finance minister (1951-56).

A. Somoza D.
Somoza Debayle, Anastasio (de Jesús), byname Tachito (b. Dec. 5, 1925, León, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 17, 1980, Asunción, Paraguay), president of Nicaragua (1967-72, 1974-79); son of Anastasio Somoza García; nephew of Luis Manuel Debayle. He was prepared for power from childhood. Graduating from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1945, he returned home and rose quickly through the ranks in Nicaragua's National Guard, becoming its de facto leader by the time of his father's assassination in 1956. As president from 1967, he ruled aggressively in the manner of his father, and he continued to expand the family's fortune. He relinquished his office in 1972 but when a devastating earthquake rocked Managua in December 1972, he appointed himself president of an emergency committee with absolute power to administer financial and material aid from other countries. In 1974 he returned to the presidency under a new constitution that permitted him to rule until 1981. Violent insurrection against his rule was led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front. He crushed the Sandinistas in the late 1960s, only to see them reappear a few years later. In 1974 the rebels raided the home of a prominent government official and took hostages, including members of the Somoza family. Somoza had to free 14 political prisoners and pay a $1 million ransom for the release of the hostages. In an August 1978 Sandinista raid on Nicaragua's National Palace, 2,000 hostages were taken and released after more prisoners were freed and ransom paid. Thereafter fighting intensified until the entire nation was swept up in the civil war which finally forced Somoza to resign in July 1979. Somoza, who reportedly got $100 million out of the country, fled first to Miami, Fla., then to The Bahamas, and finally to Paraguay, where he was assassinated.

L. Somoza
Somoza Debayle, Luis (Anastasio) (b. Nov. 18, 1922, León, Nicaragua - d. April 13, 1967, Managua, Nicaragua), president of Nicaragua (1956-63). After his father, Pres. Anastasio Somoza García, was shot in an assassination attempt on Sept. 21, 1956, Luis, at the time president of the Chamber of Deputies and, by monthly turn, president of the Congress, was elected by the Congress as acting president on September 28 to serve during the president's incapacity. His father died the following day at 5:05; at 11:00 the Congress elected Luis president of the republic, to serve until the end of his father's term on May 1, 1957. He later won election to his own term of office (1957-63), during which he extended the family's business interests and, by most accounts, ruled more gently than had his father. After he refused to run for a second term, the presidency was held by politicians favourable to the Somoza family, and in 1967 his younger brother Anastasio Somoza Debayle became president.

A. Somoza G.
Somoza García, Anastasio, byname Tacho (b. Feb. 1, 1896, San Marcos, Carazo province, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 29, 1956, Ancón, Panama Canal Zone [now in Panama]), president of Nicaragua (1937-47, 1950-56); brother-in-law of Luis Manuel Debayle. By marrying Salvadora Debayle, a member of one of Nicaragua's wealthiest families, he ensured himself a secure political career, becoming collector of internal revenue of the department of León, then governor of León, minister of war, minister to Costa Rica (1929), and assistant secretary of foreign affairs. In 1933 he became head of Nicaragua's army, the National Guard. With this force at his disposal, he deposed the elected president, Juan Bautista Sacasa, in June 1936, then had himself elected in December. In 1947 he permitted an election in which his candidate, Leonardo Argüello, was chosen president; but Argüello seemed to be under misapprehension as to who was in control of Nicaragua and when he tried to act without consulting Somoza, he was overthrown and Somoza installed one of his own aged uncles, Víctor Manuel Román y Reyes. After the latter's death in 1950, Somoza made his position again official by having himself elected to a new six-year presidential term. His administration made Nicaragua less dependent on banana income, but on the whole he ruled the country like a feudal fief, so that some called it "Somoza's plantation"; he personally owned large areas of land and many businesses and amassed a considerable fortune. Most of his political opponents were exiled. He was nominated for another presidential term on Sept. 21, 1956. That night he was shot in León by 27-year-old Rigoberto López Pérez; he died eight days later. The Somoza family went on to rule Nicaragua until 1979.

Sompong Amornwiwat (b. July 3, 1941, Bangkok, Thailand), foreign minister of Thailand (2008). He was justice minister earlier in 2008. In 2019 he became leader of the Pheu Thai party.

Somsanith, Prince (b. April 19, 1913, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. 1975), interior minister (1945, 1959-60), finance minister (1949, 1959), prime minister (1960), and president of the National Assembly (1960-63) of Laos.

Somsavat Lengsavad (b. June 15, 1945, Luang Prabang, Laos), foreign minister of Laos (1993-2006). He was ambassador to Bulgaria in 1989-91.

Somssich de Sárd, József gróf, Sárd also spelled Saárd (b. Dec. 19, 1864, Graz, Austria - d. Jan. 22, 1941, Budapest, Hungary), foreign minister of Hungary (1919-20). He was also Austro-Hungarian minister to France (1912-14) and Hungarian ambassador to the Vatican (1920-24).

Somveille, Pierre (b. Nov. 12, 1921, Hiersac, Charente, France - d. July 29, 2009), prefect of police of Paris (1976-81). He was also prefect of Bouches-du-Rhône département (1974-76, 1981-86).

Son Ngoc Thanh (b. Dec. 7, 1908, Travinh, Cochinchina, French Indochina [now Tra Vinh, Vietnam] - d. July 8?, 1977, Vietnam), foreign minister (1945, 1972) and prime minister (1945, 1972) of Cambodia.

Son Sann, Samdech (Bovor Setha Thippadey) (b. Oct. 5, 1911, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Dec. 19, 2000, Paris, France), Cambodian politician. He began his public service in 1935 as governor of the northwestern province of Battambang. He founded the Democratic Party in 1947 and was finance minister (1947, 1948, 1958, 1961-62) and foreign minister (1950-51, 1958-60). He created the National Bank of Cambodia in 1955 and was its governor until 1966. He served as prime minister in 1967-68 under Head of State Norodom Sihanouk, who granted him the Samdech title in 1969. When Sihanouk was ousted in a republican coup d'etat in 1970, Son Sann went into exile. He tried unsuccessfully to reconcile Sihanouk with the republican regime as it fought against a takeover by the Communist Khmer Rouge. He moved to Paris after the Khmer Rouge government of Pol Pot took power in 1975. He helped found a guerrilla resistance force, the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF), in 1979 at the Thai-Cambodian border. The U.S.-backed KPNLF, together with the Khmer Rouge and Sihanouk's royalists (with Son Sann as prime minister of a coalition government-in-exile from 1982), battled a Vietnamese army of occupation and the Hanoi-backed government in Phnom Penh until a 1991 peace treaty officially ended the Cambodian conflict. He then served in the UN-sponsored Supreme National Council that guided the nation until 1993 elections. His Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP) won 10 seats in those elections and it joined the coalition set up by Norodom Ranariddh and the leader of the former government, Hun Sen. He was chairman of the National Assembly in June-October 1993. He gave up his seat in the Assembly in 1997 and resigned as president of the BLDP in 1998 when he was appointed by King Norodom Sihanouk to sit on the Constitutional Council, the supreme body for ensuring the rule of law and judging constitutional disagreements.

Son Sen (b. June 12, 1930, Tra Vinh province, Cochinchina [now in Vietnam] - d. June 10, 1997, Anlong Veng, Cambodia), Cambodian political figure. He was one of the young Cambodian radicals, including Saloth Sar (later known as Pol Pot), who were students in France in the 1950s and later founded the movement that became known as the Khmer Rouge. Son Sen returned to Cambodia in 1956 and became closely involved in the growing Communist movement. As a military commander, he oversaw the capture of Phnom Penh in April 1975. He was one of three members of the central committee. As defense minister during the Khmer Rouge's rule in 1975-79, he had overall responsibility for internal security and oversaw the gruesome purges of "enemies of the state." He was in charge of Tuol Sleng prison, where thousands of people were tormented before being put to death. After Vietnam overthrew the Khmer Rouge in 1979, they returned to the jungle. In 1991, the warring factions signed a peace accord, and Son Sen became part of the Supreme National Council during the United Nations' peacekeeping operations that led to democratic elections in 1993. From July to December 1992, he temporarily lost the title of "defense minister" when his comrades suspected him of disloyalty for opposing the movement's decision to boycott the polls. He appeared to have been rehabilitated, and remained with Pol Pot, Khieu Samphan, and other hardline members following a schism in 1996 in which Ieng Sary, another longtime leader, led some 10,000 guerrillas to defect to the government, militarily crippling the movement. Further factional infighting, however, led to Son Sen's execution (along with his wife Yun Yat, former minister of information and culture) by Pol Pot's loyalists; Pol Pot was himself arrested soon after.

Sondakh, Adolf Jouke (b. June 20, 1939, Suluun village, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia] - d. March 8, 2007, Singapore), governor of Sulawesi Utara (2000-05).

Sone, Arasuke, in full Shishaku (Viscount) Arasuke Sone (b. Feb. 20, 1849, Hagi [now in Yamaguchi prefecture], Japan - d. Sept. 13, 1910, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1901) and resident-general of Korea (1909-10). He was also minister to France (1893-97) and minister of justice (1898), agriculture and commerce (1898-1900), finance (1901-06), and communications (1903). He was made baron in 1902 and viscount in 1907.

Sonexay Siphandone (b. Jan. 26, 1966, Houaphan province, Laos), prime minister of Laos (2022- ); son of Khamtai Siphandon. He has also been a deputy prime minister (2016-22) and minister of planning and investment (2019- ).

Song (Shem), Keasipai, internal affairs minister of Vanuatu (2004). He was also minister of agriculture, livestock, forestry, and fisheries (1995-96) and health (1998-2001, 2004).

Song Jiaoren, Wade-Giles Sung Chiao-jen (b. April 5, 1882, Taoyuan, Hunan, China - d. March 22, 1913, Shanghai, China), Chinese revolutionary activist. He founded the Chinese Restoration Bloc (an anti-Qing-dynasty political party) in 1904 together with Huang Xing and Chen Tianhua, and then joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance a year later. He helped the revolutionary activists in the southern provinces to establish military juntas after the 1911 Wuchang Uprising. Throughout the year 1912 he devoted himself to writing China's first republican constitution and organizing a democratic parliamentary election. He reorganized the Revolutionary Alliance, renaming it Nationalist Party late in 1912. He was considered the biggest obstacle for Yuan Shikai's attempt to become a dictator and then an emperor. He was shot in the Shanghai railway station on March 20, 1913, and died two days later. It is widely believed that Premier Zhao Bingjun, a loyal supporter of Yuan Shikai, was responsible for the assassination. The direct instigator turned out to be a Shanghai police officer, Ying Kuicheng (Ying Guixin, himself assassinated in 1914).

Song Min Soon
Song Min Soon, Revised Romanization Song Min-sun (b. July 28, 1948, Jinyang, South Korea), foreign minister of South Korea (2006-08). He was also national security advisor (2006).

Song Qingling
Song Qingling, also spelled Soong Ch'ing-ling, also known as Madame Sun Yat-sen (b. Jan. 27, 1893, Shanghai, China - d. May 29, 1981, Beijing, China), Chinese political figure. Song, who married Sun Yat-sen in 1915 after he abandoned his wife and three children, was one of three illustrious sisters who made remarkable marriages. Her elder sister, Song Ailing, wed Kong Xiangxi, a director of the Bank of China, while her younger sister, Song Meiling, married Chiang Kai-shek. During her marriage to Sun Yat-sen, she served as his secretary, chief confidant, and inseparable companion until his death in 1925. In 1927 she disrupted family unity by accusing Chiang Kai-shek of betraying her husband's "Three People's Principles," the foundation on which the Republic of China was established. For two years she lived in the Soviet Union. The rift widened when she decided to remain on the mainland when Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces fled to Taiwan in 1949. In that year she was named vice-chairman of the Central People's Government, and from then on she was engaged in state activities. When Liu Shaoqi succeeded Mao Zedong as head of state in 1959, she was named one of two vice-chairmen of the people's republic, a largely ceremonial post. She was admitted to membership in the Communist Party only a few weeks before her death and was honoured with a state funeral.

Song Xiuyan

Song Zheyuan
Song Xiuyan (b. October 1955, Tianjin, China), governor of Qinghai (2004-10). She was only the second female provincial governor in China (after Gu Xiulian).

Song Yo Chan (b. Feb. 13, 1918 - d. Oct. 18, 1980), defense minister (1961), chief cabinet minister (1961-62), and foreign minister (1961) of South Korea. He was also army chief of staff (1959-60) and martial law administrator (1960).

Song Zheyuan (b. 1885, Leling, Shandong, China - d. April 5, 1940, Mianyang, Sichuan, China), governor of Rehe (1925-26) and chairman of the government of Shaanxi (1927-28), Chahar (1932-35), and Hebei (1935-36).

Song Ziwen
Song Ziwen (Pinyin), Wade-Giles Sung Tzu-wen, name for Western use T.V. Soong (b. Dec. 4, 1894, Shanghai, China - d. April 25, 1971, San Francisco, Calif.), finance minister (1925-31), acting premier (1930), foreign minister (1941-45), and premier (1945-47) of China and chairman of the government of Guangdong (1947-49); brother of Song Qingling. After the Nationalist defeat in 1949 he went to the U.S.

Songaila, Ringaudas Bronislovas, Russian Ringaudas-Bronislovas (Ignovich) Songayla (b. April 20, 1929, Klaipeda, Lithuania - d. June 25?, 2019), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1981-85), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1985-87), and first secretary of the Communist Party (1987-88) of the Lithuanian S.S.R. He was also a deputy premier (1961-62), first deputy premier (1962-63), minister of production and supply of agricultural produce (1962-63), and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1975-81).

Sonko, André (b. Feb. 4, 1944, Ngazobil, Mbour département, Senegal), interior minister of Senegal (1987-90). He was also minister of civil service, employment, and labour (1983-87) and national education (1991-2000) and secretary-general of the presidency (1990-91).

Sonko, Ousman (b. Jan. 9, 1969, Serrekunda, The Gambia), interior minister of The Gambia (2006-12, 2012-16).

Sonko, Ousmane (b. July 15, 1974, Thiès, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (2024- ). He was a presidential candidate in 2019. He sought to run again in 2024 but was disqualified because of a defamation conviction, which he said was politically motivated. However, his replacement candidate, Bassirou Diomaye Faye, won the election and appointed him prime minister.

Sonko, Yankuba, interior minister of The Gambia (2019- ). He was also inspector general of police (2010-14, 2015-17).

Sonn Mam (b. Oct. 29, 1888, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. Jan. 22, 1966), foreign minister (1950, 1951-52) and deputy prime minister (1951) of Cambodia. He was also minister of health (1948, 1951-52), public works and communications (1950), and labour and social action (1951).

Sonn Voeunsai (b. 1911, Phnom Penh, Cambodia - d. 1986), defense minister (1946-48, 1950-51, 1951-52) and interior minister (1951-52) of Cambodia; son of Sonn Mam. He was also minister of economy (1948-49) and public works (1948-49, 1951), permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-65), and ambassador to France (1965-70), the United Kingdom (1965-69), and the United States (1970-73).

Sonnenholzner (Sper), Otto (Ramón) (b. March 19, 1983, Guayaquil, Ecuador), vice president of Ecuador (2018-20). He was a presidential candidate in 2023.

Sonni, Taher (Mohamed) al- (b. 1972), Libyan diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2020- ).

Sonnino, Barone Sidney (Costantino)1 (b. March 11, 1847, Pisa, Tuscany [now in Italy] - d. Nov. 24, 1922, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1906, 1909-10). Entering the diplomatic service in 1867, he left it in 1873 to devote himself to political and social studies. Elected deputy in 1880, he served for some months in 1889 as undersecretary of state for the treasury. In 1893, at a time of severe financial crisis, he was entrusted by Francesco Crispi with the portfolio of finance, and his energetic measures averted national bankruptcy; when parliament objected, he did not hesitate to impose taxes by decree. He fell from office with Crispi after the military disaster of Adowa in Ethiopia (1896). He assumed the leadership of the opposition, but after the modification of Luigi Pelloux's cabinet (May 1899) he became leader of the ministerial majority and supported the attempt to introduce a more authoritarian form of government. In 1901 he returned to the opposition. For two brief periods he served as prime minister, but his temperament was too solitary and severe to win him much support in parliament. In November 1914, three months after the outbreak of World War I, he became foreign minister in Antonio Salandra's cabinet. He negotiated first with the Central Powers, hoping for territorial concessions from Austria-Hungary. When this approach failed, he turned to the Allies. He convinced his government that Italy should join the war on their side; in May 1915 war was declared against Austria-Hungary. He remained foreign minister under Paolo Boselli (1916-17) and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (1917-19). He attended the Paris peace conference as second Italian delegate. Disappointed in his attempt to annex Yugoslav territory, he left Paris in a moment of temper. On the fall of the Orlando cabinet he retired to private life.
1 His full name often appears as Giorgio Sidney Sonnino; this is the result of a confusion with his elder brother Giorgio, also a politician.

Sonntag, Kunes (b. Feb. 19, 1878, Deutschloosen, Austria [now Lazce, part of Troubelice, Czech Republic] - d. March 29, 1931, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), finance minister of Czechoslovakia (1919-20). He was also minister of nutrition (acting, 1920), industry, commerce, and trade (1920), and agriculture (acting, 1920).

Sonoda, Sunao (b. Dec. 11, 1913, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan - d. April 2, 1984, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1977-79, 1981). In 1938 he was drafted into the Army, then served in China and in the Pacific area during World War II, gaining distinction as a crack paratrooper and commando leader. But the war, with all its terrible death and destruction, turned Sonoda into a pacifist who never forgot that he would almost certainly have died had the war lasted five more days. He had been scheduled to fly a glider suicide mission against B-29s on Saipan on Aug. 20, 1945. In 1946 he became head of his village and the following year was elected to the House of Representatives, the lower house of the Diet (parliament). Originally a member of the conservative Democratic Party, he became a Liberal-Democrat when his party merged with the Liberals. Appointed parliamentary vice-foreign minister in 1955, he actively helped normalize relations with the U.S.S.R., but in 1960 he left his party to protest ratification of the U.S.-Japan mutual security treaty. After rejoining the party he became vice-speaker of the House (1965-67) and minister of health and welfare (1967-68, again in 1980-81). In 1976 he energetically supported Takeo Fukuda in his successful bid to become prime minister and was rewarded with the post of chief cabinet secretary (1976-77). Since becoming foreign minister on Nov. 28, 1977, he adhered to the belief that Japan should remain only lightly armed. For some 30 years Sonoda had sought reconciliation between Japan and China, so it was a great moment in his political life when in August 1978 he represented Japan in Beijing at the signing of the long-delayed Sino-Japanese treaty of peace and friendship, the final phases of which he negotiated with Deng Xiaoping.

Sonowal, Sarbananda (b. Oct. 31, 1962, Molokgaon, Dibrugarh district, Assam, India), chief minister of Assam (2016-21). He has also been Indian minister of state for skill development and entrepreneurship (2014) and youth affairs and sports (2014-16) and minister of ports, shipping, and waterways (2021- ) and AYUSH (alternative medicine) (2021-24).

Sonsbeeck, Herman van (b. July 24, 1796, Zwolle, Batavian Republic [now in Overijssel, Netherlands] - d. Nov. 29, 1865, Heino, Overijssel, Netherlands), foreign minister (and minister of affairs of Roman Catholic worship) of the Netherlands (1849-52).

Sonsbeeck, Willem (George Alphonse) van (b. Sept. 11, 1877, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. Aug. 14, 1969, Heino, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Limburg (1936-41, 1944-47); grandson of Herman van Sonsbeeck. He was also mayor of Breda (1919-36).

Sonthi Boonyaratkalin, also spelled Sondhi Boonyaratglin, etc. (b. Oct. 2, 1946, Pathumthani, central Thailand), leader of the Democratic Reform Council of Thailand (2006).

Sonthonax, Léger Félicité (b. March 17, 1763, Oyonnax [now in Ain département], France - d. July 28, 1813, Oyonnax), commissioner of Saint-Domingue (1793-94, 1796-97). A Jacobin sent by the French National Assembly, along with Étienne Polverel, to restore order in Saint-Domingue, he offered freedom to slaves who joined his army and soon abolished slavery altogether (August 1793). When a new governor-general, François Galbaud du Fort, arrived in May 1793, a power struggle with the commissioners escalated into armed combat and Galbaud was defeated in June. Returning to France in 1794, the two were accused of pushing slaves to revolt against white settlers and having made a secret agreement with them; in 1795 they were acquitted. In 1796 Sonthonax was head of a new commission, also including Julien Raimond, Philippe Rose Roume, Jean-Marie Leblanc, and Marc Antoine Giraud. In 1797 he made black leader Toussaint-Louverture governor-general, who however rejected Sonthonax's radical ideas and sent him back to France. The French coup of 1799 put an end to his political career and he was for some time exiled to Charente-Maritime.

Soomro, Illahi Bakhsh, also spelled Elahi Bux Soomro (b. April 15, 1926), Pakistani politician. He was speaker of the National Assembly (1997-2001).

M. Soomro

Soomro, Mohammadmian (b. Aug. 19, 1950, Shikarpur, Sindh, Pakistan), governor of Sindh (2000-02) and chairman of the Senate (2003-09), prime minister (2007-08), and acting president (2008) of Pakistan; nephew of Illahi Bakhsh Soomro.

Soong, James (name for foreign use), Wade-Giles Sung Ch'u-yü, Pinyin Song Chuyu (b. March 16, 1942, Xiangdan county, Hunan, China), Taiwanese politician. He was governor of Taiwan province in 1993-98, becoming the first elected governor in 1994 and also the last, as the provincial government was downsized in 1998. Having been expelled from the ruling Kuomintang party in 1999, he ran as an independent in the 2000 presidential election and came second with over 36% of the vote. Shortly afterwards he founded the People First Party.

Soong Chang-chih (b. June 10, 1916, Liaozhong county, Liaoning, China - d. Aug. 21, 2002, Taipei, Taiwan), defense minister of Taiwan (1981-86). He was also commander-in-chief of the navy (1970-76), chief of the general staff (1976-81), and ambassador to Panama (1987-90).

Soop af Limingo, Carl Gustaf friherre (b. April 10, 1659, Helsingborg, Skåne, Sweden - d. Nov. 4, 1711, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Skaraborg (1707-11); son of Gustaf friherre Soop af Limingo.

Soop af Limingo, Gustaf friherre (b. Feb. 24, 1624, Ytterselö socken, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Nov. 30, 1679, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Örebro (1653-54) and Närke och Värmland (1654-58).

Soós (de Bádok), Károly vitéz (vitéz from 1929) (b. July 28, 1869, Nagyszeben, Hungary [now Sibiu, Romania] - d. June 22, 1953, Villach, Austria), defense minister of Hungary (1920). He was also chief of staff of the army (1919).

Soots, Jaan (b. March 12 [Feb. 29, O.S.], 1880, Helme parish, Viljandi county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Feb. 6, 1942, Solikamsk, Molotov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Perm kray, Russia]), war minister of Estonia (1921-23, 1924-27). He was also mayor of Tallinn (1934-39).

Sopanen, Elias (Walfrid) (b. Sept. 28, 1863, Savonlinna, Finland - d. April 8, 1926, Kangaslampi [now part of Varkaus], Finland), justice minister of Finland (1923-24).

Sopé (Maautamate), Barak (Tame) (b. 1951, Port Vila, New Hebrides [now Vanuatu]), prime minister (1999-2001) and foreign minister (2004) of Vanuatu; nephew of Ati George Sokomanu. He was part of the team of historical leaders within the Vanua'aku Pati (then led by Walter Lini) which led the French-British condominium of the New Hebrides to independence as Vanuatu in 1980. Once Vanuatu's first roving ambassador, Sopé was a member of many Lini-led governments until he was sacked in May 1988, being accused of involvement in a riot in the capital. He then defected from the Vanua'aku Pati (of which he had been secretary-general since 1974) to form the Melanesian Progressive Party (MPP). In December 1988 he was appointed prime minister by President Sokomanu, but was arrested within hours as Lini refused to leave office; the following day the Supreme Court ruled that Sokomanu had acted unconstitutionally. Sopé took part in later coalition governments, becoming finance minister (1996), deputy prime minister (1997), and minister of trade and industry (1997-98). He was elected prime minister in 1999 following the resignation of Donald Kalpokas. His new government set a Vanuatu record regarding the number of different parties involved in forming a coalition government (MPP, National United Party, Union of Moderate Parties, Vanuatu Republican Party, and the John Frum cargo cult movement). Two former French-speaking prime ministers and once bitter foes, Maxime Carlot Korman (VRP leader) and Serge Vohor (UMP) were part of the lineup. He was jailed for fraud in July 2002 (relating to bank guarantees he had signed when he was prime minister), but only months after he began serving his three-year sentence, Pres. John Bani pardoned him on Nov. 13, 2002, citing health problems. In 2004-06 he was minister of agriculture, forestry, and fisheries.

Sophoulis, Themistoklis (Panagioti) (b. Nov. 24, 1860, Vathy, Samos, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. June 24, 1949, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1924, 1945-46, 1947-49). He was also president of the Revolutionary Assembly of Samos (1912), general administrator of Macedonia (1914-15), minister of interior (1924), marine (1924), defense (1928-30), and public order (1946), and president of the Vouli (1917-21, 1926-28, 1930-33, 1936).

Sophusson, Fridrik (b. Oct. 18, 1943, Reykjavík, Iceland), finance minister of Iceland (1991-98). He was also minister of industry (1987-88).


Sopoaga, Enele (Sosene) (b. Feb. 10, 1956), foreign minister (2010) and prime minister (2013-19) of Tuvalu; brother of Saufatu Sopoanga. He was also high commissioner to Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Samoa (1996-2001), permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-06), and minister of environment and labour (2010) and public utilities (2015-19).

Sopoanga, Saufatu (b. Feb. 22, 1952, Nukufetau atoll, Gilbert and Ellice Islands [now in Tuvalu] - d. Dec. 15, 2020, Tuvalu), prime minister of Tuvalu (2002-04). He was also minister of finance and economic planning (2001-02) and communications, transport, works, and energy (2004-06).



H. Soren
Sorain, Dominique (b. July 31, 1955, Cauderan, Gironde, France), prefect of Réunion (2014-17) and Mayotte (2018-19) and high commissioner of French Polynesia (2019-22). He was also prefect of the French départements of Vosges (2009-11) and Eure (2011-14).

Søreide, Ine Marie Eriksen (b. May 2, 1976, Lørenskog, Akershus, Norway), defense minister (2013-17) and foreign minister (2017-21) of Norway.

Soren, Champai (b. November 1956, Jilinggora, Singhbhum district, Bihar [now in Seraikela-Kharsawan district, Jharkhand], India), chief minister of Jharkhand (2024- ).

Soren, Hemant (b. Aug. 10, 1975, Nemra, Hazaribagh district, Bihar [now in Ramgarh district, Jharkhand], India), chief minister of Jharkhand (2013-14, 2019-24); son of Shibu Soren.

S. Soren
Soren, Shibu, byname Guruji (b. Jan. 11, 1944, Nemra village, Hazaribagh district, Bihar, India), Indian politician. A tribal leader, he failed in his first attempt to enter parliament in 1977 but succeeded in 1980. In 1993 the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha party under his leadership voted against a no-confidence motion in parliament to save the Narasimha Rao government, allegedly for a price. In May 1994 his private secretary Shashi Nath Jha, who allegedly knew about the bribes, was abducted and murdered. In 1998, charges in the case were filed against Soren and others. In May 2004 Soren joined the Manmohan Singh government as coal minister. He resigned in July 2004 after an arrest warrant was issued against him for his alleged involvement in a 1975 massacre in his native place; he was arrested in August. Released on bail in September, he was re-inducted into Singh's cabinet as coal minister in November. In March 2005 he was appointed chief minister of Jharkhand, but he failed to command a majority in the assembly and had to resign after 9 days. In January 2006 he again became coal minister. In November 2006 a Delhi court found him guilty of conspiring to kidnap and murder Jha, and he resigned from the cabinet again. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in December. In August 2007 the Delhi high court overturned the conviction. He again became chief minister of Jharkhand in August 2008. After losing a by-election which he had contested to enter the state assembly, he resigned in January 2009. He became chief minister a third time in December 2009 but resigned in May 2010 when the Bharatiya Janata Party withdrew its support.

Sørensen, Enevold (Frederik Adolf) (b. Sept. 21, 1850, Karrebæksminde, Denmark - d. Feb. 1, 1920, Copenhagen, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (1901-05). He was also minister of church and education (1905-09).

Sørensen, Jacob (b. Jan. 23, 1915, Ravnsbjerg, Denmark - d. Dec. 27, 1990), interior (and social affairs) minister of Denmark (1973-75).

Sørensen, Poul (b. June 25, 1904, Roskilde, Denmark - d. June 29, 1969, Hornbæk, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (1968-69). He was also minister of labour and social affairs (1950-53).

Sørenssen, Aimar August (b. Jan. 6, 1823 - d. June 2, 1908), justice minister of Norway (1884-87). He was also minister of labour (1888).

Sorgdrager, Winnie, byname of Winnifred Sorgdrager (b. April 6, 1948, The Hague, Netherlands), justice minister of the Netherlands (1994-98).

Sorhaindo, Crispin (Anselm) (b. May 23, 1931, Vieille Case, Dominica - d. Jan. 10, 2010, Roseau, Dominica), president of Dominica (1993-98). He was speaker of the House of Assembly in 1989-93.

Sori-Coulibaly, (Hadizatou) Rosine (b. Oct. 31, 1958, Niamey, Niger), economy, finance, and development minister (2016-19) and foreign minister (2021-22) of Burkina Faso. She was also UN special representative for Guinea-Bissau and head of the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (2019-20).

Soria, Carlos (Ernesto) (b. March 1, 1949, Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. [shooting incident] Jan. 1, 2012, General Roca, Río Negro, Argentina), governor of Río Negro (2011-12). He was also Argentine secretary of state intelligence (2002).

Soria Díaz, Juan (Enrique) (b. June 21, 1930, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1988-89).

Soriano (y Roxas), Andres (b. Feb. 8, 1898, Manila, Philippines - d. Dec. 30, 1964, Boston, Mass.), finance, agriculture, and commerce secretary of the Philippines (1942-44). He was also secretary without portfolio (1942).

Soriano y Benítez de Lugo, Alfonso (b. Oct. 2, 1936, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain), president of the Junta of Canarias (1978-79).

Sorin, Constant (Louis Sylvain) (b. July 27, 1901, Landerneau, Finistère, France - d. Jan. 20, 1970, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, France), governor of Guadeloupe (1940-43).

Sorlie, Arthur G(ustav) (b. April 26, 1874, Albert Lea, Minn. - d. Aug. 28, 1928, Bismarck, N.D.), governor of North Dakota (1925-28).

Sörman, (Claes) Håkan (b. Feb. 17, 1952, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Jönköping (2016-17).

Soro, Guillaume (Kigbafori) (b. May 8, 1972, Diawala village, northern Ivory Coast), prime minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2007-12). He rose to prominence as the leader of the main students' union, FESCI, in 1995-98. His fierce opposition to the then-ruling Côte d'Ivoire Democratic Party of Pres. Henri Konan Bédié got him thrown into prison several times. When an army general, Robert Guéi, carried out the country's first-ever coup in December 1999, Soro initially emerged as one of his supporters. However he soon became disenchanted with Guéi and his junta, and threw in his lot with Alassane Ouattara, a former prime minister who like him was from the north. In the run-up to elections in 2000 the junta decreed that Ouattara was not in fact Ivorian and therefore prevented him from running. That decision, which only strengthened Soro's support for the northerner, helped fuel frustrations that broke out in the rebellion of September 2002. Soro was one of the main political leaders of the rebellion, which quickly led to Côte d'Ivoire being split in two, with rebels in control of the north and government forces in the south. After taking the leadership of the Côte d'Ivoire Patriotic Movement (MPCI), he played a leading role in negotiating the first of several abortive peace deals in January 2003. He later became part of a national reconciliation government, serving as communications minister in 2004-05. The New Forces, which brought together the main rebel groups, demanded from 2005 that Soro become prime minister; in the cabinet of Prime Minister Charles Konan Banny, he held the post of minister for reconstruction. Soro accepted an offer in January 2007 for "direct dialogue" with his former enemy Pres. Laurent Gbagbo to take the country toward a peace accord and elections. The talks led to a peace agreement in March, and Soro became prime minister. In the dispute between Gbagbo and Ouattara over the presidency following the 2010 elections, he sided with the latter and served as prime minister under him until 2012, when he was elected president of the National Assembly. In 2019 he resigned in a split with Ouattara, signalling a potential presidential run in 2020.

Sorokin, Karp (Yeliseyevich) (b. 1871 - d. 1940), chairman of the Communist Party (1919) and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1919) of the Turkestan S.F.R.

Sorokin, Maksim (Fyodorovich) (b. Jan. 16, 1899, Baku, Russia [now in Azerbaijan] - d. 1965), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Dagestan A.S.S.R. (1937-39). He was also mayor of Penza (1942-43).

Sorokunsky, Akinfy (Ivanovich) (b. 1781 - d. 18...), governor of Vitebsk (1823-29) and Bessarabia (1829-33).

Sorongopé(-Zoumandji), Eric, finance minister of the Central African Republic (2001-02). He was arrested on embezzlement charges in July 2002.

Soronics, Franz (b. July 28, 1920, Eisenstadt, Burgenland, Austria - d. May 25, 2009, Eisenstadt), interior minister of Austria (1968-70).

Sorsa, (Taisto) Kalevi (b. Dec. 21, 1930, Keuruu, Finland - d. Jan. 16, 2004, Helsinki, Finland), foreign minister (1972, 1975-76, 1987-89), deputy prime minister (1975-76, 1987-89), and prime minister (1972-75, 1977-79, 1982-87) of Finland. He worked as a program specialist for UNESCO in 1959-65 and as secretary-general of the Finnish UNESCO commission in 1965-69. He became secretary-general (1969-75) and chairman (1975-87) of the Social Democrats, Finland's largest party, was a member of parliament (1970-91) and speaker (1989-91), and headed four coalition governments. Both as prime minister (with the longest combined tenure in this office in Finland's history) and foreign minister he did much behind-the-scenes work to keep alive the flagging arms-control and disarmament process, developing good contacts with the Soviet leadership in particular. In 1987 he resigned as party leader, and in 1989 he made way for the new leader, Pertti Paasio, at the foreign ministry, becoming speaker instead. After leaving parliament he took up a place (which he nominally held since 1987) on the governing board of the Bank of Finland, from which he retired in 1996. His last posts were seen as positioning him for running for president in 1994, but a drop in the value of the markka and huge losses of Finnish banks diminished his popularity, and Martti Ahtisaari became his party's candidate instead. He was also a vice president of the Socialist International (1980-96).

Soru, Renato (b. Aug. 16, 1957, Sanluri, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (2004-08).

Sorvachev, Vasily (Ivanovich) (b. Feb. 5 [Jan. 24, O.S.], 1884, Tentyukovo, Vologda province [now in Kostroma oblast], Russia - d. July 23, 1942, Syktyvkar, Komi A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Executive Committee of Komi autonomous oblast (1922-24). He was also mayor of Ust-Sysolsk (1924).

Sorzano, Francisco, war minister of Colombia (1925-26). He was also governor of Cúcuta (1908-09) and Norte de Santander (1922) and minister to Bolivia (1918, 1931) and Chile (1918).

Sosa (Fernández), Arturo (b. Feb. 17, 1924, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Aug. 5, 1996, Miami, Fla.), finance minister of Venezuela (1958, 1982-84).

Sosa (Peláez), Belisario (b. May 12, 1846, Lima, Peru - d. Feb. 14, 1933), second vice president of Peru (1908-12). He was also minister of development and public works (1915-17).

C. Sosa
Sosa (Lunda), Celinda (b. Oct. 13, 1963, Yesera, Cercado province, Tarija department, Bolivia), foreign minister of Bolivia (2023- ). She was also minister of economic development in charge of production and microenterprises (2006-08).

Sosa (López), Lizardo (Arturo) (b. April 18, 1945, Guatemala City, Guatemala), Guatemalan politician. He was minister of economy (1986-88), president of the Bank of Guatemala (1989-90, 1993, 2000-06), and a minor presidential candidate (2015).

Sosa Ávila, Luis Ernesto, Guatemalan politician; brother-in-law of Efraín Ríos Montt. He was a minor presidential candidate in 1990.

Sosa Molina, José Humberto (b. Dec. 25, 1893, San José de Guaymallén, Mendoza, Argentina - d. April 10, 1960, Mercedes, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), federal interventor in Mendoza (1943), San Juan (1944), and Entre Ríos (1944-45) and war minister (1945-49) and defense minister (1949-55) of Argentina.

C. Sosa R.
Sosa Rodríguez, Carlos (b. April 30, 1912, Caracas, Venezuela - d. June 30, 1997), president of the UN General Assembly (1963-64). He was Venezuelan ambassador to the United Kingdom (1950-52) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1958-66).

Sosa Rodríguez, Julio (b. July 22, 1923 - d. July 2, 1998), finance minister of Venezuela (1994-95); brother of Carlos Sosa Rodríguez.

Sosefo Mautâmakia II (b. 186... - d. Dec. 15, 1928), king of `Uvea (1916-18).

Soskovets, Oleg (Nikolayevich) (b. May 11, 1949, Taldy-Kurgan, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Taldykorgan, Kazakhstan]), Kazakh and Russian politician. He was Soviet minister of metallurgy (1991), a first deputy prime minister and minister of industry of Kazakhstan (1992), and a first deputy prime minister of Russia (1993-96).

Sosnkowski, Kazimierz (b. Nov. 19, 1885, Warsaw, Poland - d. Oct. 11, 1969, Arundel, Que.), military affairs minister of Poland (1920-23, 1923-24). He was also a minister without portfolio (in exile, 1939-41).

Sossa, Dorothé (Cossi), (b. Feb. 5, 1956, Savalou, Dahomey [now Benin]), justice minister of Benin (2003-06). He was also minister of higher education and scientific research (2001-03).

Sota (Moriconi), José Manuel de la (b. Nov. 28, 1949 - d. [car accident] Sept. 15, 2018, between Córdoba and Despeñaderos, Córdoba province, Argentina), governor of Córdoba (1999-2007, 2011-15). He was also Argentinian ambassador to Brazil (1990-92).

Sotheron Estcourt, Thomas Henry Sutton, original surname Estcourt, then (1839-55) Sotheron (b. April 4, 1801 - d. Jan. 6, 1876), British home secretary (1859). He was also president of the Poor Law Board (1858-59).

Sotiropoulos, Sotirios (b. 1831, Nafplio, Greece - d. May 1898, Athens, Greece), prime minister of Greece (1893). He was also minister of finance (1864-65, 1865, 1865-66, 1870-71, 1875-76, 1876-77, 1877, 1880-81, 1893) and justice (1880-81 [provisional], 1893) and president of the Vouli (1878-79, 1879-80).

Sotirov, Vladimir, Bulgarian diplomat. He was acting permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2001) and UN special representative to Tajikistan (2002-07).

Sotnikov, Vasily (Semyonovich) (b. 1788 - d. April 13, 1853), governor of Georgia-Imereti (1843-45) and Podolia (1846-49).

Soto (Estigarribia), Bernardino (b. May 20, 1952, Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay), defense minister of Paraguay (2013-15, 2018-23).

Soto (Polar), Hernando de (b. June 2, 1941, Arequipa, Peru), Peruvian presidential candidate (2021); great-grandson of Juan Manuel Polar.

Soto (Martínez), Marco Aurelio (b. Nov. 13, 1846, Tegucigalpa, Honduras - d. Feb. 24, 1908, Paris, France), president of Honduras (1876-83). He was Guatemalan minister of interior, justice, and ecclesiastical affairs (1872-73) and accepted an invitation to join the administration of Justo Rufino Barrios as foreign and education minister (1873-76); in 1876 he was minister to El Salvador. Experience in Guatemala sharpened his liberalist views and strengthened his opposition to Honduras's conservative leadership. Aligned with the liberals who ousted Pres. Ponciano Leiva in February 1876, Soto was appointed provisional president in August and became constitutional president in May 1877. His liberal program paralleled that of other Central American liberal leaders at the time. He supported the expansion of telegraph lines across the country and founded the national mint (Casa de Moneda), which also performed the functions of a national bank. He established Tegucigalpa as the permanent national capital, created a national postal service, directed the construction of a national library, and instituted free public education. In keeping with the liberal platform, he separated the military from national politics. He ensured that a clearly defined military institution remained, under the control of civilian political leaders. These and other liberal ideas found expression in the 1880 constitution. While the upper and middle classes benefited, however, this was at the expense of lower socioeconomic groups. He opened the country's doors to foreign investment, particularly in the banana and mining sectors, placing new emphasis on silver mining. In 1883, two years following his reelection as president, his connection with Barrios splintered as the latter sought to revive the Central American federation with himself at the head. Soto openly opposed the union and attacked Barrios through a series of pamphlets. Under pressure from unionist supporters, Soto finally resigned the presidency and was replaced by another liberal, Luis Bográn. He moved to the United States (where he schemed unsuccessfully against Bográn) and in 1903 to France.

Soto Alfaro, (Ramón) Bernardo (b. Feb. 12, 1854, Alajuela, Costa Rica - d. Jan. 28, 1931, San José, Costa Rica), president of Costa Rica (1885-90); son-in-law of Próspero Fernández Oreamuno.

Soto del Corral, Jorge (b. April 6, 1904, Bogotá, Colombia - d. June 28, 1955, Bogotá), finance minister (1934-36) and foreign minister (1936-37) of Colombia. He was also minister of agriculture and commerce (1934), minister to the Dominican Republic (1937) and France (1938-39), and mayor of Bogotá (1944). He was invalided after being shot in the Chamber of Deputies in 1949.

Soto Harrison, Fernando (b. Oct. 24, 1916, Alajuela, Costa Rica - d. March 18, 2006, San José province, Costa Rica), interior minister of Costa Rica (1944-45). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1945-46), minister (1945-46) and ambassador (1977-78) to the United Kingdom, and ambassador to the United States (1982-83).

Soto Maior, Abel de Abreu (b. Nov. 7, 1882, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal - d. Nov. 29, 1967, Lisbon, Portugal), acting governor-general of Angola (1941-42). He was also civil governor of Ponta Delgada (1926-28).

Soto Prieto, Lionel (b. June 25, 1927, Cienfuegos, Cuba - d. Nov. 28, 2008, Havana, Cuba), a vice premier of Cuba (1990-95). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1973-76) and the Soviet Union (1983-86).

Sotomayor, Carlos Martínez de Irujo (y McKean), (II) marqués de Casa Irujo, duque de (b. Dec. 14, 1802, Washington, D.C. - d. Dec. 26, 1855, Madrid, Spain), prime minister (1847) and foreign minister (1847, 1847-48) of Spain; son of Carlos Fernando Martínez de Irujo y Tacón, marqués de Casa Irujo. He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1844-47) and France (1850-53). He succeeded as marquess in 1824 and became duke (consort) by marriage in 1844.

Sotomayor (Guzmán), Justiniano (b. 1845, Santiago, Chile - d. June 16, 1909, Brussels, Belgium), finance minister of Chile (1888-89, 1896-97).

Sotomayor (Baeza), Rafael (b. Sept. 13, 1823, Melipilla, Chile - d. May 20, 1880, Tacna, Peru), finance minister (1876-77) and war and navy minister (1879-80) of Chile.

Sotomayor (Gaete), Rafael (Segundo) (b. Nov. 16, 1849, Cauquenes, Chile - d. Feb. 16, 1918, aboard the Infanta Isabel de Borbón, near Recife, Brazil), Chilean politician; son of Rafael Sotomayor (Baeza). He was minister of finance (1898-99, 1906-07), interior (1899, 1903, 1904, 1907-08), and foreign affairs, worship, and colonization (1903).

Sotomayor y Luna, Manuel (b. Nov. 4, 1887, Quito, Ecuador - d. Oct. 16, 1949, Guayaquil, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (1934). He was also minister to Chile (1932-33), Colombia (1934), Argentina and Bolivia (1935), Brazil (1938-39), and France, the U.K., and Switzerland (1939-42), ambassador to the Vatican (1944-48), and vice president (1948-49).

Sotto, Vicente, III, in full Vicente Castelo Sotto, byname Tito Sotto (b. Aug. 24, 1948, Quezon City, Philippines), Philippine politician. He was president of the Senate (2018-22).

Soubanh Srithirath (b. Sept. 9, 1936, Khong, Laos - d. July 17, 2012), Laotian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-83).

Soubiane, Ahmat Hassaballah, interior minister of Chad (1991-92).

Soublette (y Jerez de Aristeguieta), Carlos (Valentín José de la Soledad Antonio del Sacramento) (b. Dec. 15, 1789, La Guaira, New Granada [now in Venezuela] - d. Feb. 11, 1870, Caracas, Venezuela), war and navy minister of Colombia (1825-28) and war and navy minister (1830, 1831-34, 1841-42, 1861), vice president (1837-41), president (1837-39 [acting], 1843-47), and foreign minister (1859) of Venezuela.

Soublette (Garín), Guillermo (Daniel) (b. Aug. 30, 1867, Valparaíso, Chile - d. Aug. 26, 1932, Valparaíso), war and marine minister of Chile (1915). He was also intendant of Valparaíso (1924-25).

Soucadaux, (Jean Louis Marie) André (b. 1904 - d. 2001), governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1946-47, 1947-48) and high commissioner of French Cameroons (1950-54) and Madagascar (1954-59).



Souchon, René (b. March 12, 1943, Le Malzieu-Ville, Lozère, France), president of the Regional Council of Auvergne (2006-15).

Soudan, Eugène (Edouard César Gaëtan) (b. Dec. 4, 1880, Ronse, Belgium - d. Nov. 30, 1960, Brussels, Belgium), justice minister (1935-36, 1939-40), finance minister (1938), and foreign minister (1939) of Belgium. He was also minister of public education (1940).

Soueina, Vatma Vall Mint (b. Aug. 25, 1977, Aioun El Atrouss, Mauritania), foreign minister of Mauritania (2015). She was also minister of culture (2014-15) and livestock (2015-18) and ambassador to Côte d'Ivoire (2018-21).

Souers, Sidney W(illiam) (b. March 30, 1892, Dayton, Ohio - d. Jan. 14, 1973), U.S. director of central intelligence (1946).

Soufflet, Jacques (Lucien Gustave) (b. Oct. 4, 1912, Lesboeufs, Somme, France - d. Jan. 9, 1990, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine, France), defense minister of France (1974-75).

Soukup, Frantisek (b. Aug. 22, 1871, Steinlhota, Austria [now Kamenná Lhota, Czech Republic] - d. Nov. 11, 1940, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), justice minister of Czechoslovakia (1918-19). He was also chairman of the Senate (1929-39).

Soulbury, Herwald Ramsbotham, (1st) Viscount (b. March 6, 1887 - d. Jan. 30, 1971), governor-general of Ceylon (1949-54). He was British minister of pensions (1936-39), first commissioner of works (1939-40), and president of the Board of Education (1940-41). He was created (1st) Baron Soulbury in 1941 and viscount in 1954.

Soulioti, Stella (b. Feb. 13, 1920, Limassol, Cyprus - d. Nov. 1, 2012, Limassol), justice minister of Cyprus (1960-70). She was also minister of health (1964-66).

Soulouque, Faustin (Élie), also called (1849-59) Faustin I (b. Aug. 15, 1782, Petit Goâve, Haiti - d. Aug. 18, 1867, Petit Goâve), president (1847-49) and emperor (1849-59) of Haiti.

Soult, Jean de Dieu,1 duc (duke) de Dalmatie (b. March 29, 1769, Saint-Amans-la-Bastide [now Saint-Amans-Soult, Tarn], France - d. Nov. 26, 1851, Saint-Amans-la-Bastide), French military leader and political figure. He enlisted in the infantry in 1785 and on the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789) was a sergeant at Strasbourg. He was made a general of brigade for his conduct at the Battle of Fleurus (June 1794). In 1799 he was promoted general of division and ordered to proceed to Switzerland; he particularly distinguished himself in André Masséna's campaign, especially at the Battle of Zürich. He received the command of the southern part of the Kingdom of Naples (1800-02) and in 1804 was made one of the first marshals of France. He played a great part in many of the famous battles of the Grande Armée. In 1808 he was created duc de Dalmatie and sent to Spain, and he came to direct all French armies in the Peninsular War. His principal opponent was Britain's Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington), who eventually defeated him at Toulouse (April 1814), four days after Napoléon had abdicated. His political career was less creditable. During the First Restoration (1814-15) he declared himself a royalist and served as minister of war, but during the Hundred Days (1815) he again supported Napoléon, acting as his chief of staff at Waterloo. Exiled at the Second Restoration, he was recalled in 1819 and once more showed himself a royalist. Under King Louis-Philippe he presided over three ministries (1832-34, 1839-40, 1840-47); he also was minister of war (1830-34, 1840-45) and foreign minister (1839-40). He was responsible for the conquest of Algeria. In 1847 he was made marshal general of France. When Louis-Philippe was overthrown in 1848, Soult declared himself a republican.
1 He is often referred to with the first name Nicolas, but this appears to be in error, originating from stories that dubiously claim he sought to be elected king of Portugal under the name Nicolas I in 1808.

Soum, Henry (Jules Joseph Pierre) (b. Dec. 29, 1899, Carcassonne, France - d. Aug. 24, 1983, Aix-en-Provence, France), minister of state of Monaco (1953-58). He was also prefect of the French départements of Côte-d'Or (1942-43), Doubs (1943-45), and Alpes-Maritimes (1951-53) and Monegasque minister to Switzerland (1959-65).

C.H. Soumaré
Soumaré, Cheikh Hadjibou (b. 1951, Dakar, Senegal), prime minister of Senegal (2007-09).

Soumaré, Diaramouna (b. 1931, Ajar Saracole, southern Mauritania), finance minister of Mauritania (1971-75). He was also minister of commerce and transport (1970-71) and minister of state for rural advancement (1975-77).

Soumialot (Ete Tambwe), Gaston (Émile), original form of name Sumayili (b. March 23, 1922, Ngom village, Kasongo territory, Maniema, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Feb. 11, 2007, Kinshasa, Congo), president of the People's Republic of the Congo at Stanleyville (1965).

Soumokil, Chris(topel Robert Stephen) (or Christiaan Robbert Steven Soumokil?) (b. Oct. 13, 1905 - d. [executed] April 12, 1966, Obi island, Pulau Seribu archipelago, Maluku, Indonesia), president of the Republic of South Moluccas (1950-66).

Soundararajan, Tamilisai (b. June 2, 1961, Nagercoil, Madras [now Tamil Nadu], India), governor of Telangana (2019-24) and lieutenant governor of Puducherry (2021-24).

Sounthone Pathammavong (b. 1911, Vientiane, Laos - d. 1985), defense minister (1959) and head of government (1959-60) of Laos.

Sounton, Martial (b. Jan. 18, 1964, Abomey, Dahomey [now Benin]), interior minister of Benin (2010-11). He was also minister of administrative and institutional reform (2011-16) and labour and civil service (2013-16).

Soupault, Jean-Michel (Marie René) (b. April 16, 1918 - d. Sept. 25, 1993), lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1956-58).

Souphanouvong, Prince (b. July 13, 1909, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. Jan. 9, 1995, Vientiane, Laos), president of Laos (1975-91); half-brother of Souvanna Phouma. He was a son of Prince Boun Khong, viceroy of Luang Prabang. Opposing the reimposition of French rule after World War II, he joined the nationalist provisional government in Vientiane as defense minister and in 1947-48 served as foreign minister of the Lao Issara ("Free Lao") government-in-exile in Bangkok. He was expelled from the Lao Issara in 1949 because of his decision to ally with the Viet Minh, who helped form the Communist-oriented Pathet Lao ("Lao Nation") in 1950. He was elected its president, although Kaysone Phomvihane and Nouhak Phoumsavan were generally believed to have more power. With North Vietnamese aid, Pathet Lao forces launched major activities in Laos in 1953. A political settlement in 1957 created a coalition government under Souvanna Phouma with Souphanouvong as minister of planning. The settlement lasted only until 1958 when a rightist government took power and fighting erupted again. He was clamped under house arrest, but escaped a year later with 15 followers and returned to the jungle. In 1962 he joined another coalition government set up by Souvanna Phouma, but that too collapsed within a year; he escaped to northern provinces administered by the Pathet Lao and its political wing, the Neo Lao Hak Xat, and resumed the military struggle. In 1974 he returned to Vientiane to head the National Political Council. The Pathet Lao soon gained control and, when a republic was proclaimed in late 1975, he became president (ceremonial head of state) and served on the Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. In 1986 Phoumi Vongvichit took over the duties of the presidency from the ailing Souphanouvong, who nevertheless was nominal president until 1991.

Sourang, Moustapha (b. July 24, 1949, Saint-Louis, Senegal), justice minister (2009-11) and defense minister (2011-12) of Senegal. He was also minister of education (2001-09).

Sourdille, Jacques (b. June 19, 1922, Nantes, France - d. July 9, 1996, Paris, France), president of the Regional Council of Champagne-Ardenne (1974-81).

Sourdis (Juliao), Evaristo (b. March 29, 1905, Sabanalarga, Atlántico, Colombia - d. Sept. 22, 1970, Barranquilla, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1950, 1953-56). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1953), comptroller-general (1967-69), and a presidential candidate (1970).

Sourrouille, Juan (Vital) (b. Aug. 13, 1940, Adrogué, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. July 21, 2021, Buenos Aires, Argentina), economy minister of Argentina (1985-89).

Sousa, Antônio José de Melo e (b. Dec. 24, 1867, Papari [now Nísia Floresta], Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. July 6, 1955, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1907-08, 1920-24).

Sousa, António Teixeira de (b. May 5, 1857, Celeirós, Vila Real district, Portugal - d. June 5, 1917, Porto, Portugal), prime minister of Portugal (1910). He was also minister of marine and colonies (1900-03), finance (1903-04, 1906), and interior (1910).

Sousa, Ernesto Augusto Gomes de, acting governor-general of Angola (1906, 1907).

Sousa, Faustino de Albuquerque e (b. Dec. 15, 1882, Pacatuba, Ceará, Brazil - d. 1961, Pacatuba), governor of Ceará (1947-51).

Sousa, Jerónimo (Carvalho) de (b. April 13, 1947, Pirescouxe village, Santa Iria de Azóia, Portugal), general secretary of the Portuguese Communist Party (2004- ).

Sousa, João Alberto de (b. Oct. 1, 1935, Bacabal, Maranhão, Brazil), acting governor of Maranhão (1990-91).

Sousa, João Crisóstomo de Abreu e (b. Jan. 27, 1811, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Jan. 7, 1895, Lisbon), prime minister of Portugal (1890-92). He was also minister of public works, commerce, and industry (1864-65), marine and colonies (1864-65), and war (1879-80, 1890-92).

Sousa, Luís Abílio de, Neto (b. March 1, 1946, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil - d. April 14, 2010, Maceió), governor of Alagoas (2006-07).

M.I. Sousa

M.R. Sousa

R.D. de Sousa
Sousa, Manuel Inocêncio (b. June 22, 1951, São Vicente island, Cape Verde), foreign minister of Cape Verde (2001-02). He was also minister of infrastructure and transport (2002-11) and a presidential candidate (2011).

Sousa, Maria Regina (b. July 4, 1950, União, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Piauí (2022-23).

Sousa, Óscar (Aguiar Sacramento e) (b. Sept. 8, 1951, São Tomé), defense and interior minister (2003-08, 2012-14, 2018-21) and foreign minister (2004, 2006) of São Tomé and Príncipe.

Sousa, Pedro de Vasconcellos e (b. Nov. 17, 1664 - d. Dec. 13, 1732), governor-general of Brazil (1711-14).

Sousa, Rui Dia de (b. April 4, 1952, Cantchungo, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), finance minister (1994-97) and foreign minister (2015) of Guinea-Bissau.

W.L.P. de Sousa
Sousa, Washington Luís Pereira de, commonly known as Washington Luís (b. Oct. 26, 1869, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 4, 1957, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Brazil (1926-30). He started a political career in the state of São Paulo in 1897, first as a municipal officer in the town of Batatais, later becoming mayor of São Paulo (1914-19) and president of São Paulo state (1920-24). He was elected president of Brazil without a contest on March 1, 1926. At that time the country was under martial law and its currency was deliberately inflated. After taking office, he quickly restored the disaffected parts of the country to order, stabilized the currency, and initiated a vast highway construction program. He was hampered by an enormous foreign debt and the collapse of the coffee market. In spite of attempts to limit the production of coffee, the coming of the world economic decline in 1929 left Brazil with huge unsellable reserves. When the next presidential election approached, it was assumed that his successor would be from Minas Gerais, continuing the alternation of the presidency between the country's two leading states. Sousa, however, endorsed another São Paulo politician, Júlio Prestes de Albuquerque, who went on to defeat Getúlio Vargas in the March 1930 election. But a revolt broke out in Minas Gerais and other states in early October 1930 and in a successful coup d'état, Vargas deposed Sousa on October 24, just before he was to complete his term. He was imprisoned for a time and then exiled in November 1930. He spent 17 years in Europe and the United States, then returned to Brazil in 1947 to a tumultuous welcome.

Sousa Franco
Sousa Franco, António (Luciano Pacheco de) (b. Sept. 21, 1942, Lisbon, Portugal - d. June 9, 2004, Matosinhos, Portugal), finance minister of Portugal (1979-80, 1995-99).

Sousa Matute, Aurelio (b. Aug. 31, 1860, Cajamarca, Peru - d. Feb. 26, 1925, Nice, France), prime minister of Peru (1913, 1914). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1899-1900), minister to Ecuador (1900-01), and minister of interior and police (1913), justice, education, and worship (1914), and finance and commerce (1914).

Sousa Matute, Ernesto (b. Dec. 15, 1864, Cajamarca, Peru - d. Nov. 25, 1927, Cerro de Pasco, Peru), Peruvian politician; brother of Aurelio Sousa Matute. He was minister of development and public works (1926-27).

Soustelle, Jacques (Émile) (b. Feb. 3, 1912, Montpellier, France - d. Aug. 7, 1990, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France), French politician. After the fall of France in 1940, he joined the Free French forces of Gen. Charles de Gaulle in London and was commissioner of information (1942-43). A member of the Constituent Assembly of 1945-46, he was minister of information (1945) and of colonies (1945-46). He was secretary-general of de Gaulle's Rally of the French People (1947-51) and led the party in the National Assembly after his election in 1951. Appointed governor-general of Algeria in 1955, he was soon regarded as the principal spokesman of the French community there, favouring the economic and political integration of Algeria with France. He was recalled in 1956. As leader of the Gaullists in the National Assembly in 1956-58, he caused the downfall of three governments by his intensive attacks on their Algerian policies. In May 1958 he returned to Algeria and became a leader of the rebel Committee of Public Safety. With the rebels and other sectors of French society, he helped force the resignation of Premier Pierre Pflimlin and his replacement by de Gaulle. He became minister of information in July 1958 and, after de Gaulle's election as president, minister-delegate in charge of Sahara and atomic affairs in 1959. When de Gaulle made clear his intention to grant independence to Algeria, he left the government in 1960 and went into exile in 1961. In 1962 a warrant was placed for his arrest on grounds of plotting against the state in league with a banned terrorist group. He returned to France under a general amnesty in 1968. He served again in the National Assembly (1973-78) and on the city council of Lyon (1971-77). Also a distinguished anthropologist, he was elected to the Académie française in 1983.

Southard, Frank A(llan), Jr. (b. Jan. 17, 1907, Cleveland, Ohio - d. Nov. 25, 1989, Delray Beach, Fla.), deputy managing director (1962-74) and acting managing director (1963) of the International Monetary Fund.

Southard, Samuel L(ewis) (b. June 9, 1787, Basking Ridge, N.J. - d. June 26, 1842, Fredericksburg, Va.), U.S. secretary of the Navy (1823-29) and governor of New Jersey (1832-33).

Southorn, Sir (Wilfrid) Thomas (b. Aug. 4, 1879 - d. March 15, 1957), acting governor of Hong Kong (1930, 1935, 1935) and governor of Gambia (1936-42); knighted 1933.

Soutsos, Ioannis (b. 1813 - d. 1892), Greek diplomat; son of Mihai Grigore Sutu; son-in-law of Dmitry Obrezkov. He was chargé d'affaires in the United Kingdom (1839-40) and chargé d'affaires (1855-59) and minister (1859-63) to Russia.

Southwell, (Caleb Azariah) Paul (b. July 18, 1913, Dominica - d. May 18, 1979, Castries, Saint Lucia), chief minister (1960-66) and premier (1978-79) of Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Souto, José Ferreira (b. Feb. 14, 1808, Jacobina, Bahia, Brazil - d. Feb. 22, 1864, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1846-47).

Souto, Paulo Ganem (b. Nov. 11, 1943), governor of Bahia (1995-98, 2003-07).

Souto, Theodureto Carlos de Faria (b. March 4, 1841, Ipu, Ceará, Brazil - d. Aug. 11, 1893, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Santa Catarina (1883) and Amazonas (1884).

Souvanna Phouma, Prince (b. Oct. 7, 1901, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. Jan. 10, 1984, Vientiane, Laos), prime minister (1951-54, 1956-58, 1960, 1962-75) and foreign minister (1956-57, 1960, 1963-64, 1965-74) of Laos; brother of Prince Phetsarath; nephew of Sisavang Vong. One of 23 children of Viceroy Boun Khong, he helped set up a provisional government at the end of World War II. The return of French troops drove him into a three-year exile (1946-49). During his first term as prime minister he successfully negotiated the country's independence in 1953. In his second term he achieved, if only temporarily, one of his basic goals - formation of a "government of national union." Afterwards he became ambassador to France (1958-59). He was also minister of public works (1950-54), planning (1951-54), and defense (1954-57, 1960), a deputy prime minister (1954-56), and president of the National Assembly (1960). A moderate conservative and nationalist, he tried to steer a centre course between the various factions within the country and the foreign powers directly or indirectly involved in the affairs of the region. In 1960 he led the government for four months before he had to flee to Cambodia. Bitter over U.S. intervention on behalf of the Laotian rightists, he set up a new capital at Ban Khangkhai on the Plain of Jars and arranged for Soviet and Chinese aid. In 1961 and 1962 a series of meetings between Prince Souphanouvong and Prince Boun Oum led eventually to the Geneva agreement of 1962, which created a coalition government led by Souvanna Phouma. His efforts to maintain neutrality were in vain, and he came to lean more and more on the U.S., while the leftist Pathet Lao stepped up its offensive. Corruption increased in Laos, as did U.S. and Thai influence. As the U.S. withdrew from the region, he led a final coalition in 1974-75. After the Communists took over in Saigon, the Pathet Lao quickly established itself in Vientiane, and Souvanna Phouma was retired with the nominal title of government adviser.

Souvannarath, Prince (b. July 8, 1893, Luang Prabang, Laos - d. June 23, 1960, Vientiane, Laos), prime minister of Laos (1947-48). He was also minister of public works, agriculture, and commerce (1941-45) and economic affairs (1942-45).

Souville, (Alexandre) Joseph (François) Chalvet, baron de (b. bf. 1753, Saint-Marcellin [now in Isère département], France - d. bf. 1810), governor of Île Bourbon (1781-85).

Souza, Antonio Francisco de Paula (b. Oct. 3, 1819, Itu, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Nov. 18, 1866, Itu), Brazilian politician. He was minister of agriculture, commerce, and public works (1865-66).

Souza, Antonio Francisco de Paula (b. Dec. 6, 1843, Itu, São Paulo, Brazil - d. April 13, 1917, São Paulo, São Paulo), foreign minister of Brazil (1892-93); son of the above. He was also minister of industry, transport, and public works (1893).

Souza, Antonio José de Moraes, Filho, byname Zé Filho (b. Feb. 13, 1970, Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Piauí (2014-15). He was also mayor of Parnaíba (1997-2001).

Souza, Antonio Vieira de (b. 1875?, Cururupu, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Jan. 24, 1926, Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil), prefect of Alto Acre (1915, 1916-17).

Souza, Augusto Fausto de (b. Jan. 12, 1835, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Dec. 20, 1890, Rio de Janeiro), president of Santa Catarina (1888-89).

Souza, Bernardo Lobo de (d. [assassinated] Jan. 7, 1835, Belém, Pará, Brazil), president of Pará (1833-35).

Souza, Braz Florentino Henriques de (b. Jan. 5, 1825, Baía da Traição, Paraíba, Brazil - d. March 29, 1870, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil), president of Maranhão (1869-70).

Souza, Ernani Ayres Satyro e (b. Sept. 11, 1911, Patos, Paraíba, Brazil - d. May 8, 1986, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (1971-75). He was also mayor of João Pessoa (1940).

Souza, Francisco Belisario Soares de (b. Nov. 9, 1839, Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Sept. 24, 1889, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1885-88).

Souza, Francisco Bertholdo de (b. 1863 - d. July 16, 1941), acting president of Goiás (1909).

Souza, Francisco de Assis de Moraes, byname Mão Santa (b. Oct. 13, 1942, Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Piauí (1995-2001). He has also been mayor of Parnaíba (1989-93, 2017- ).

Souza, Guilherme Xavier de (b. July 3, 1818, Desterro [now Florianópolis], Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Dec. 21, 1870, Desterro), president of Rio Grande do Sul (1868).

Souza, Herculano Marcos Inglez de (b. Dec. 28, 1853, Óbidos, Pará, Brazil - d. Sept. 6, 1918, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Sergipe (1881-82) and Espírito Santo (1882).

Souza, Hippolyto José Soares de (b. 1815, Maranhão captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. Aug. 21, 1869, São Paulo, Brazil), acting president of São Paulo (1852).

Souza, Iberê Paiva Ferreira de (b. Feb. 27, 1944, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. Sept. 13, 2014, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (2010-11).

J.R. Souza
Souza, Jerônimo Rodrigues (b. April 3, 1965, Aiquara, Bahia, Brazil), governor of Bahia (2023- ).

Souza, João Lourenço Paes de (b. 1813? - d. June 23, 1897, Belém, Pará, Brazil), acting president of Pará (1885).

Souza, João Ribeiro de Oliveira e (b. July 9, 1863, Entre Rios, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Nov. 7, 1933, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1919).

Souza, João Silveira de (b. Feb. 4, 1824, Nossa Senhora do Desterro [now Florianópolis], Santa Catarina, Brazil - d. Dec. 11, 1906, Cabo, Pernambuco, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1868); son-in-law of Severo Amorim do Valle. He was also president of Ceará (1857-59), Maranhão (1859-61), Pernambuco (1862-64), and Pará (1884-85).

Souza, Joaquim José Luiz de (b. 1790? - d. June 28, 1849, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), president of São Paulo (1843).

Souza, Joaquim Vieira da Silva e (b. Jan. 12, 1800, Rosário, Maranhão, Brazil - d. June 23, 1864, São Luís, Maranhão), principal minister of Brazil (1835). He was also president of Rio Grande do Norte (1832) and Maranhão (1832-34) and war and navy minister (1835).

Souza, José Augusto Amaral de (b. Aug. 21, 1929, Palmeira das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. June 13, 2012, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1979-83).

Souza, José da Costa Machado de (b. July 5, 1829, Baependi, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. July 14, 1925, São Paulo, Brazil), president of Minas Gerais (1867-68).

Souza, José Joaquim de (b. Sept. 30, 1830, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. Aug. 3, 1913), acting president (1887) and member of the Governing Junta (1889-90) of Goiás.

Souza, José Marcelino de (b. Oct. 15, 1848, São Filipe, Bahia, Brazil - d. April 26, 1917, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Bahia (1904-08).

Souza, José Ornellas de, Filho (b. Nov. 30, 1921, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Distrito Federal (1982-85).

Souza, Marcel Alain de (b. Oct. 30, 1953, Pobe, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. July 16, 2019, Paris, France), president of the Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (2016-18); brother-in-law of Yayi Boni. He was also Beninese minister of development, economic analysis, and planning (2011-15) and a minor presidential candidate (2016).

Souza, Marcondes Alves de (b. Sept. 12, 1868, Itaúna, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. April 29, 1938, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais), president of Espírito Santo (1912-16).

Souza, Naphtali Alves de (b. Nov. 3, 1940, Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil), governor of Goiás (1998).

P.-É. de Souza
Souza, Paul-Émile de (b. 1930? - d. June 17, 1999), chairman of the Directory (and minister of interior, security, defense, information, and planning) of Dahomey (1969-70). He was also army chief of staff (1970-72).

Souza, Paulino José Soares de (b. April 21, 1834, Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro province [now state], Brazil - d. Nov. 3, 1901, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), interior minister of Brazil (1868-70); son of Paulino José Soares de Souza, visconde de Uruguai. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1877-78) and the Senate (1889).

Souza, Pedro Luiz Pereira de (b. Dec. 13, 1839, Araruama, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. July 16, 1884, Bananal, São Paulo, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1880-81). He was also minister of agriculture (1881) and president of Bahia (1882-84).

Souza, Pedro Viriato Parigot de (b. Feb. 26, 1916, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil - d. July 11, 1973, Curitiba), governor of Paraná (1971-73).

Souza, Wilfred (Raoul Eugène) de (b. April 18, 1935, Ouidah, Dahomey [now Benin] - d. June 25, 2021, Cotonou, Benin), Dahomey diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1970-73) and ambassador to the United States (1970-73) and France, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Algeria, and Malta (1973-76).

Souza Carvalho, Antonio Alves de Souza Carvalho, visconde de (b. July 15, 1832, Goiana, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. April 4, 1885, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1860-61), Alagoas (1861-62), and Maranhão (1866-67). He was made viscount in 1884.

Souza Franco, Bernardo de Souza Franco, visconde de (b. June 28, 1805, Belém, Brazil - d. May 8, 1875, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister (1848) and finance minister (1848, 1857-58) of Brazil. He was also president of Pará (1839-40, 1841-42), Alagoas (1844), and Rio de Janeiro (1864-65). He was made viscount in 1872.

Souza Leão, Ignacio Joaquim de Souza Leão, barão de (b. Nov. 25, 1825, Muribeca [now part of Jaboatão dos Guararapes], Pernambuco, Brazil - d. May 30, 1904, Recife, Pernambuco), acting president of Pernambuco (1886, 1887, 1888, 1889). He was made baron in 1889.

Souza Lima, José Antonio de Souza Lima, barão de (baptized July 25, 1831, Rio Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. 1900, Rio Preto), president of Pernambuco (1881) and Rio Grande do Sul (1882-83). He was made baron in 1883.

Souza Queiroz, Francisco Antonio de Souza Queiroz, barão de (b. Dec. 8, 1806, São Paulo, Brazil - d. July 4, 1891, São Paulo), acting president of São Paulo (1835). He was made baron in 1874.



Sovaleni, Siaosi ('Ofakivahafolau) (b. Feb. 28, 1970), deputy prime minister (2014-18), foreign minister (2017-18), and prime minister (2021- ) of Tonga; son of Langi Kavaliku. He has also been minister of meteorology, energy, information, disaster management, environment, climate change, and communications (2014-17), education and training (2019- ), armed forces (2021-24), and police, fire services, and emergency services (2021- ). In January 2021 he was given the chiefly title Hu'akavameiliku.

Sovmen, Khazret (Medzhidovich) (b. May 1, 1937), president of Adygeya (2002-07).

Søvndal, Villy (b. April 4, 1952, Linde, Struer municipality, Denmark), foreign minister of Denmark (2011-13). He was leader of the Socialist People's Party in 2005-12.

Sow, Abdoulaye Sékou (b. 1931, Bamako, French Sudan [now Mali] - d. May 27, 2013, Bamako), defense minister (1992-93) and prime minister (1993-94) of Mali.

Sow, Abdourahmane (b. March 14, 1942, Cambérène, Senegal - d. July 15, 2023, Dakar, Senegal), interior minister of Senegal (1995-98). He was also minister of fisheries and sea transport (1993-95) and urban planning and housing (1998-2000).

Sow, Adam Malick, Chadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-64) and ambassador to the United States (1961-64).

Sow, Alpha Ibrahima (b. Dec. 18, 1949), Guinean diplomat. He was ambassador to Iran (1997-2003) and Ethiopia (2003) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-11).

Sow, Daouda (b. 1933, Linguère, Senegal - d. Dec. 6, 2009, Dakar, Senegal), armed forces minister of Senegal (1981-83) and defense minister of Senegambia (1982-83). He was also minister of health and social affairs (1970-73), information (1973-81), and telecommunications (1975-81) and president of the National Assembly (1984-88) of Senegal.

S.L. Sow

Sow, Sadio Lamine (b. Aug. 9, 1952, Kayes, French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (2012).

Sow, Sy Kadiatou (b. March 7, 1955, Nioro du Sahel, western French Sudan [now Mali]), foreign minister of Mali (1994). She was also minister of urban development and housing (1994-2000).

Soyer, Ferdi Sabit (b. 1952, Nicosia, Cyprus), prime minister of North Cyprus (2005-09). He was also minister of agriculture, natural resources, and energy (1994-95).

Söylemezoglu, Süleyman Sefik, until Jan. 1, 1935, Süleyman Sefik Pasha (b. 1860, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. 1946, Istanbul), war minister of the Ottoman Empire (1919). He was also governor of Basra (1913-14).

Soylu, Süleyman (b. Nov. 21, 1969, Istanbul, Turkey), interior minister of Turkey (2016-23). He was also leader of the Democrat Party (2008-09) and minister of labour and social security (2015-16).

Soysa, Gamini Vijith Vijayamuni, Soysa also spelled Zoysa, chief minister of Uva (2004-09). He was also Sri Lankan minister of wildlife resources conservation (2013-15), irrigation and water resources management (2015-18), and fisheries, aquatic resources development, and rural economic affairs (2018).

Soysal, Ibrahim Ethem, until Jan. 1, 1935, Ibrahim Edhem Bey (b. 1867 - d. 1951), Ottoman official. He was head of the Council of State (1920) and minister of commerce (1920).

Spaak, Paul-Henri (Charles) (b. Jan. 25, 1899, Schaerbeek [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium - d. July 31, 1972, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium), Belgian statesman; nephew of Paul Emile Janson. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies as a Socialist in 1932, he became minister of transport, posts, and telegraphs (1935-36) and then foreign minister (1936-39). He conducted the negotiations to release Belgium from the Pact of Locarno, believing that Belgium could remain neutral in the event of war between Germany and the Western Powers. He became Belgium's first Socialist prime minister (1938-39) and after an interval of some months again served as foreign minister (1939-49). He went into exile with the government in 1940. In London in September 1944 (just before his return to Belgium), he laid the foundation for the Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) customs union, which took effect in 1948. Having helped draft the United Nations Charter in 1945, he served as president of the first UN General Assembly in 1946. He became prime minister a second time (1947-49), heading a Social Christian-Socialist coalition government. In 1948 woman suffrage was introduced and in 1949 he signed the North Atlantic Treaty. In 1950 he took part in the political outcry that led to the abdication of King Léopold III in 1951. He became president of the Consultative Assembly of the Council of Europe in 1951 and of the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. He served again as foreign minister in 1954-57 and played a leading role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Rome (March 1957), which created the European Economic Community. After serving as NATO secretary-general (1957-61), he returned to Belgian politics as leader of the Socialist Party and became deputy premier (1961-65) and foreign minister (1961-66). He retired from public life in 1966.

Spadafora (Franco), Hugo (b. September 1940, Chitré, Panama - d. Sept. 13, 1985, Chiriquí province, Panama), Panamanian politician. In February 1966 he joined the Portuguese Guinea (Guinea-Bissau) independence movement as a volunteer physician. In 1967 he returned to Panama, and he served as vice minister of health in the government of Omar Torrijos in the 1970s. He joined Edén Pastora Gómez in recruiting more than 300 Panamanians to help overthrow Anastasio Somoza Debayle, the Nicaraguan dictator, in 1979. After joining Pastora again (1982) to fight against the Sandinista government they had helped put in power, Spadafora left to become an adviser to Miskito Indian rebels in Costa Rica. In 1985 he spoke of his hopes of overthrowing Gen. Manuel Noriega and freeing his country of army domination, accusing Noriega of being a narcotics trafficker who had corrupted Panama. On Sept. 13, 1985, he tried to slip into Panama from Costa Rica. His decapitated body was found the next day.

W. Spadafora
Spadafora (Franco), Winston (b. Dec. 22, 1941, Chitré, Panama), interior minister of Panama (1999-2001); brother of Hugo Spadafora.

Spadolini, Giovanni (b. June 21, 1925, Florence, Italy - d. Aug. 4, 1994, Rome, Italy), prime minister of Italy (1981-82). Before entering politics, he was editor of the Corriere della Sera, Italy's leading newspaper. He was elected to the Senate as an independent on the Republican Party list in 1972 and became minister of cultural heritage and environment (1974-76) and of education (March-August 1979) before succeeding Ugo La Malfa as leader of the small but influential Republican Party (1979-87). In June 1981, after a scandal involving a powerful Freemasons lodge known as Propaganda Due (P2) had brought down the previous government, Spadolini put together a five-party coalition and became the first non-Christian Democrat prime minister since World War II. He resigned his first government in the midst of an economic crisis in August 1982, bowing out gracefully after a power play by Socialist leader Bettino Craxi, but after a political stalemate lasting just over two weeks, he was able to cobble together another five-party coalition and remain in office until November. During his stewardship, the Italian police made great inroads in breaking the back of the left-wing Red Brigades terrorist group; police freed the U.S. NATO general James Dozier from kidnappers in early 1982. He served as defense minister in 1983-87 and was elected speaker of the Senate in 1987. Spadolini, who was named a senator-for-life in 1991 and was acting president in 1992, was not implicated in the political scandals that brought down most of the old guard of Italian politics in the early 1990s, and came close to being reelected as speaker in April 1994, losing by one vote to a member of Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia party.

Spahiu, Bedri (b. July 13, 1908, Gjirokastër, Ottoman Empire [now in Albania] - d. Jan. 11, 1998, Tiranë, Albania), a deputy premier of Albania (1952-53). He was also minister of reconstruction (1944-46) and education and culture (1953-54).

Spahiu, Xhafer (b. June 5, 1923, Gjakovë, Albania), a deputy premier of Albania (1970-76); brother-in-law of Reis Malile. He was also minister of industry (1960-66) and industry and mines (1976-80).

Spaight, Richard D(obbs) (b. March 25, 1758, New Bern, North Carolina - d. [after being shot in a duel the previous day] Sept. 6, 1802, New Bern), governor of North Carolina (1792-95).

Spaight, Richard D(obbs), Jr. (b. 1796, New Bern, N.C. - d. Nov. 17, 1850, New Bern), governor of North Carolina (1835-36); son of Richard D. Spaight.

Spajic, Milojko (b. Sept. 24, 1987, Pljevlja, Montenegro), finance minister (2020-22) and prime minister (2023- ) of Montenegro.

Spalajkovic, Miroslav (J.) (b. April 18 [April 6, O.S.], 1869, Kragujevac, Serbia - d. February 1951, Paris, France), acting foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1920). He was also Serbian/Yugoslav minister to Bulgaria (1911-13), Russia (1913-17), Italy (1920-24), and France (1924-35).

Spalding, Warner Wright (b. May 1, 1844, Portsmouth, England - d. Aug. 22, 1920, Sydney, N.S.W.), chief magistrate of Norfolk Island (1896-98).

Spano, Salvator Angelo (b. Aug. 21, 1925, Villacidro, Sardegna, Italy - d. Jan. 30, 2004), president of Sardegna (1972).

Spanta, Rangin Dadfar (b. 1954, Karokh district, Herat province, Afghanistan), foreign minister of Afghanistan (2006-10).

Spantidakis, Grigorios (b. 1909, Crete [now in Greece] - d. January 1996, Athens, Greece), deputy prime minister and defense minister of Greece (1967). He was also chief of the General Staff (1965-67).

Spåre, Knut (Robert Carl) Walfrid (b. March 4, 1831, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. July 3, 1903, Helsingfors), governor of Mikkeli (1891-99).

Sparkman, John J(ackson) (b. Dec. 20, 1899, near Hartselle, Ala. - d. Nov. 16, 1985, Huntsville, Ala.), U.S. politician. He was a representative (1937-46) and senator (1946-79) from Alabama and Democratic vice presidential candidate (1952).

Sparks, Chauncey M. (b. Oct. 8, 1884, Barbour county, Ala. - d. Nov. 6, 1968, Eufaula, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1943-47).

Sparks, John (b. Aug. 30, 1843, Winston county, Miss. - d. May 22, 1908, near Reno, Nev.), governor of Nevada (1903-08).

Sparre, Axel (Carlsson) friherre (b. Aug. 3, 1620, Öja socken, Södermanland, Sweden - d. April 16, 1679, Mö socken, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Gotland (1650-54), Östergötland (1654-55), and Stockholm city (1665-73).

Sparre, Carl (Fredriksson) friherre (baptized Dec. 6, 1723, Stockholm, Sweden - d. June 20, 1791, Stockholm), governor of Österbotten (1763), Gävleborg (1763-72), and Stockholm city (1773-91); son of Fredrik Henrik friherre Sparre.

Sparre, Carl Gustaf friherre (b. 1689 - d. April 24, 1741), governor of Södermanland (1737-39). He was also Swedish minister to Great Britain (1719-36).

Sparre, Erik (Carlsson) friherre (b. Oct. 20, 1628, Öja socken, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Sept. 3, 1678), governor of Södermanland (1657-78); half-brother of Axel friherre Sparre.

Sparre, Fredrik greve (b. Feb. 2, 1731 - d. Jan. 30, 1803, Bettna socken [now part of Flen municipality], Södermanland, Sweden), first chancellor of Sweden (1792-97); son of Fredrik Henrik friherre Sparre; half-brother of Carl friherre Sparre and Gabriel Erik friherre Sparre. He was raised from friherre (baron) to greve (count) in 1797.

Sparre, Fredrik Henrik friherre (b. March 12, 1691, Moholm, Skaraborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. June 30, 1764, Gävle, Gävleborg, Sweden), governor of Västernorrland (1757-62), Gävleborg (1762-63), and Österbotten (1763); grandson of Axel friherre Sparre.

Sparre, Gabriel Erik friherre (b. Nov. 20, 1726, Stockholm, Sweden - d. July 15, 1804, Kristianstad, Kristianstad [now in Skåne], Sweden), governor of Kristianstad (1776-86); son of Fredrik Henrik friherre Sparre; brother of Carl friherre Sparre.

Sparre, Knut (Johan Ulfsson) friherre (b. April 7, 1835, Grimsberg, Jönköping, Sweden - d. May 31, 1929), governor of Jämtland (1895-1906).

Sparre af Söfdeborg, Carl Georg greve (b. Dec. 12, 1790, Torpa, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Sept. 9, 1852, Limmared, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland]), governor of Norrbotten (1825-36); brother of Eric Samuel greve Sparre af Söfdeborg.

Sparre af Söfdeborg, Eric (Josias Filip) greve (b. March 2, 1816, Gävle, Gävleborg, Sweden - d. June 17, 1886, Vänersborg, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden), governor of Älvsborg (1858-86); son of Eric Samuel greve Sparre af Söfdeborg.

Sparre af Söfdeborg, Eric Samuel greve (b. July 22, 1776, Karlskrona, Blekinge, Sweden - d. Oct. 10, 1843, Ribbingebäck, Uppsala, Sweden), governor of Gävleborg (1813-43).

Sparre af Söfdeborg, Gustaf Adolf Vive greve (b. Sept. 4, 1802, Svalöv socken, Malmöhus [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. April 26, 1886, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister for justice of Sweden (1848-56). He was also chancellor of the universities (1859-71).

Sparre af Sundby, Axel greve, also called Axel Wrede-Sparre (b. Dec. 1, 1708, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Jan. 19, 1772, Stockholm), governor of Stockholm city (1770-72); son of Erik greve Sparre af Sundby.

Sparre af Sundby, Erik greve, originally Erik friherre Sparre (b. July 15, 1665 - d. Aug. 4, 1726, Stockholm, Sweden), Swedish diplomat; son of Axel friherre Sparre. He was ambassador to France (1714-17) and Austria (1719-20). He was made greve (count) in 1719.

Sparrfelt, Anders (b. 1645 - d. March 14, 1730, Stensätra, Södermanland, Sweden), governor of Gotland (1708-10) and Älvsborg (1710-16).

Spasov, Gjorgji (b. 1949, Negotino, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), justice minister of Macedonia (1997-98). He was also ambassador to Bulgaria (1994-97) and the United Kingdom (2003-07).

Spasov, Luka (Semyonovich) (b. Feb. 7 [Jan. 26, O.S.], 1899, Sredniye Traki, Kazan province [now Lipovka, Chuvashia republic], Russia - d. Dec. 31, 1955, Cheboksary, Chuvash A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1931-32, 1937-38). He was also people's commissar of agriculture (1928-31).

Spasovski, Oliver (b. Oct. 21, 1976, Kumanovo, Macedonia [now North Macedonia]), interior minister (2015-16, 2016, 2017-20, 2020-24) and prime minister (2020) of (North) Macedonia.

Spassky, Vladimir (Nikiforovich) (b. 1824 - d. May 9 [April 27, O.S.], 1877), governor of Kaluga (1864-68).

Spatafora, Marcello (b. July 30, 1941, Innsbruck, Germany [now in Austria]), Italian diplomat. He was ambassador to Malaysia (1980-86), Malta (1986-89), Australia (1993-97), and Albania (1997-99) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-08).

Spataro, Giuseppe (b. June 12, 1897, Vasto, Italy - d. Jan. 30, 1979, Rome, Italy), interior minister of Italy (1960). He was also minister of posts and telecommunications (1950-53, 1959-60), public works (1953), merchant marine (1958-59), and transport (1960-62).

Späth, Lothar (b. Nov. 16, 1937, Sigmaringen [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. March 18, 2016), minister-president of Baden-Württemberg (1978-91).

Spaulding, Huntley N(owell) (b. Oct. 30, 1869, Townsend Harbor, Mass. - d. Nov. 14, 1955, Rochester, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1927-29).

Spaulding, Rolland H(arty) (b. March 15, 1873, Townsend Harbor, Mass. - d. March 14, 1942, Rochester, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1915-17); brother of Huntley N. Spaulding.

Spautz, Jean (b. Sept. 9, 1930, Schifflange, Luxembourg), interior minister of Luxembourg (1980-95). He was also minister of family (1980-89), housing (1980-95), social solidarity (1984-89), and urbanism (1989-95) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1995-2004).

Spedding, Sir David (Rolland) (b. March 7, 1943, Surrey, England - d. June 13, 2001, Henley, Oxfordshire, England), British spy chief. He was recruited into the Secret Intelligence Service (long known to thriller readers and the general public as MI6) in 1967. His postings took him to Lebanon, Chile, the United Arab Emirates, and Jordan. In Chile, which was his only posting outside the Middle East, he was second secretary at the British embassy from 1972 to 1974, a post that was then a prime cover position for spies. There was speculation that he would have been aware of a U.S. plot against the elected socialist government of Salvador Allende. In 1994 he was appointed to head the MI6, whose very existence the Foreign Office did not publicly acknowledge until that year. He was the youngest head of the agency since its founding in 1909. An expert in Middle East terrorism, he was the first MI6 chief not to be a Soviet specialist, reflecting the post-Cold War shift of emphasis in the espionage agency. Spedding, like his predecessors, was known in government circles as "C," for Chief, the inspiration for "M," the creation of James Bond author Ian Fleming. Sir David invited Dame Judi Dench to MI6's Christmas lunch in 1998, after the actress, who has played "M" in recent 007 movies, expressed an interest in learning more about her real-life counterpart. Traditionally, "C" writes memos in green ink, and is the only member of the service who is allowed to do so. "C" is also the only MI6 member whose identity is made public, but Spedding discouraged the taking of his photograph. Spedding, who was knighted in 1996, left office in 1999.

Speed, James (b. March 11, 1812, Jefferson county, Ky. - d. June 25, 1887, Louisville, Ky.), U.S. attorney general (1864-66).

Speekenbrink, Antonius Bernardus (b. 1905, Breda, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. 1978), governor of the Netherlands Antilles (1957-61).

Speer, (Berthold Konrad Hermann) Albert (b. March 19, 1905, Mannheim, Baden [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany - d. Sept. 1, 1981, London, England), German politician. Enthralled by Adolf Hitler after hearing him speak in Berlin in late 1930, he joined the Nazi Party in January 1931 and, after Hitler became chancellor, impressed the latter by his organizational talent and in 1934 became his chief architect. Among his early projects was the design of the parade grounds, searchlights, and banners of the spectacular Nürnberg party congress of 1934 (filmed by Leni Riefenstahl in Triumph of the Will), party headquarters in Munich, and the chancellery in Berlin. Grandiose plans to rebuild the whole of Berlin were cut short by the beginning of the war in 1939. He became a personal friend of Hitler, who mesmerized his young protégé and in 1942 appointed him to succeed Fritz Todt as minister of armaments and munitions (from 1943 minister of armaments and war production). Utilizing conscript and slave labour, he kept war production going despite Allied air raids, even raising production from 1942 to 1944; some experts said his effectiveness might have extended the war by two years. He also showed remarkable foresight by encouraging the production of synthetic substitutes for oil. But Speer was also one of the first to foresee Germany's defeat and opposed Hitler's scorched-earth policies near the end of the war. After Hitler's death he briefly served as minister of industry and production until the government was dissolved and he was arrested (May 23, 1945). Alone among the 23 leading Nazis at the Nürnberg trial, he pleaded guilty. Given a 20-year sentence, he was released from Spandau prison, West Berlin, in 1966. He died while in London for a television interview.

Spegelj, Martin (b. Nov. 11, 1927, Stari Gradac, near Virovitica, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. May 11, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia), defense minister of Croatia (1990-91).

George Speight
Speight, George, Fijian name Ilikini Naitini (b. 1955?, Fiji), Fijian coup leader. He was the son of an opposition MP, Sam Speight, who was a senior member in the government of 1987 coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka. A "part-European," Sam Speight became a "born-again Fijian" after the 1987 coup and legally changed his name to Savenaca Tokainavo. Rabuka's government lost power in 1999 when ethnic Indian Mahendra Chaudhry won a landslide election victory. George Speight's business interests suffered following the 1999 election. Chaudhry sacked him as chairman of two Fijian firms involved in the country's lucrative timber trade; he had been appointed to both posts by the previous government. Speight was also a key player in an American company which lost a bid to harvest Fiji's mahogany forests. On May 19, 2000, with the aim of instituting supremacy for indigenous Fijians, Speight led a group of armed men in seizing the parliament complex in Suva and kept Prime Minister Chaudhry, most members of his cabinet, and others as hostages. An agreement between his group and the military ended the standoff on July 13. He was arrested July 26. In September 2001, running his campaign from a prison island where he was awaiting trial for treason, he was elected to parliament from Tailevu North, a stronghold of his support during the rebellion. As he was still held in prison, he was unable to attend parliamentary sessions, and in December he was expelled from parliament because of this absence. He was convicted on a charge of treason on Feb. 18, 2002; a sentence of death by hanging was immediately commuted by Pres. Josefa Iloilo to life imprisonment.

Speight, Sir Graham (Davies) (b. July 21, 1921, Auckland, New Zealand - d. July 17, 2008, Auckland), acting queen's representative of the Cook Islands (1984). He was chief justice in 1982-88.

Spekke, Arnolds (b. June 14, 1887, near Vecumnieki, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. July 27, 1972, Washington, D.C.), head of the diplomatic service of Latvia in exile (1963-70). He was also minister to Italy, Greece, and Bulgaria (1933-40) and Albania (1933-39) and chargé d'affaires in the United States (1954-70).

Spellings, Margaret (LaMontagne), née Dudar (b. Nov. 30, 1957, Ann Arbor, Mich.), U.S. education secretary (2005-09).

Spellman, John (Dennis) (b. Dec. 29, 1926, Seattle, Wash. - d. Jan. 15, 2018, Seattle), governor of Washington (1981-85).

Spénale, Georges (b. Nov. 29, 1913, Carcassonne, Aude, France - d. Aug. 20, 1983, Paris, France), commissioner (1957-58) and high commissioner (1958-60) of French Togo and president of the European Parliament (1975-77).

Spence, Floyd (Davidson) (b. April 9, 1928, Columbia, S.C. - d. Aug. 16, 2001, Jackson, Miss.), U.S. politician. He began his political career in 1956 as a Democrat, in the South Carolina House of Representatives, where he served until 1962 when he switched parties to become a Republican. In 1966 he was elected to the state senate and served as minority leader until 1970. That year he was first elected to the U.S. House, where he was chairman of the Armed Services Committee from January 1995 to January 2001 and was also a member of the Veterans' Affairs Committee. A strong advocate for the military throughout his congressional career, he fought against deep cuts in defense spending and base closures and was an early advocate of a U.S. missile defense system.

B. Spencer
Spencer, (Winston Denfield) Baldwin (b. Oct. 8, 1948), prime minister (2004-14) and foreign minister (2005-14) of Antigua and Barbuda. He was also minister of national security (2004-09).

Spencer, George John Spencer, (2nd) Earl (b. Sept. 1, 1758, Wimbledon Park, Surrey, England - d. Nov. 10, 1834, Althorp, Northamptonshire, England), British lord privy seal (1794), first lord of the Admiralty (1794-1801), and home secretary (1806-07). He succeeded as earl in 1783.

Spencer, John C(anfield) (b. Jan. 8, 1788, Hudson, N.Y. - d. May 17, 1855, Albany, N.Y.), U.S. secretary of war (1841-43) and the treasury (1843-44).

Spencer, John Charles Spencer, (3rd) Earl, before 1834 known as Viscount Althorp (b. May 30, 1782, London, England - d. Oct. 1, 1845, Wiseton, Nottinghamshire, England), British chancellor of the exchequer (1830-34); son of George John Spencer, Earl Spencer. He succeeded as earl in 1834.

Spencer, John Poyntz Spencer, (5th) Earl, before 1857 known as Viscount Althorp (b. Oct. 27, 1835, London, England - d. Aug. 13, 1910, Althorp, Northamptonshire, England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1868-74, 1882-85); nephew of John Charles Spencer, Earl Spencer. He was also British lord president of the council (1880-83, 1886), first lord of the Admiralty (1892-95), and leader of the Liberal Party in the House of Lords (1902-05).

Spencer-Churchill, John Kemys (George Thomas) (b. Dec. 27, 1835, London, England - d. Aug. 9, 1913, Falmouth, Cornwall, England), president of the British Virgin Islands (1879-81) and Montserrat (1888-89) and commissioner of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla (1889-95).

Spender, Sir Percy Claude (b. Oct. 5, 1897, Sydney, New South Wales - d. May 3, 1985, Sydney), Australian diplomat and politician. In 1937 he was elected to the House of Representatives as an independent. He joined the United Australia Party in 1938 and was minister for the army in 1940-41 and a member of the Advisory War Council (AWC). He remained an opposition member of the AWC (1941-45) under the succeeding Labor government. When Sir Robert Menzies returned to power, Spender became minister for external affairs and territories (1949-51). He went to the U.S. as vice-president of the Japanese peace treaty conference in 1951. After conversations in Canberra with John Foster Dulles, who became U.S. secretary of state under Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower, he developed the concept of ANZUS, the security treaty involving Australia, New Zealand, and the U.S. He also played a major role in the establishment of the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia, originally known as the Spender Plan. Spender, who was knighted in 1952, served as ambassador to the U.S. (1951-58) and as a member (1958-64) and president (1964-67) of the International Court of Justice at The Hague. He led the Australian delegation to the second Suez Conference in 1966.

Spengler, (from 1816, Jonkheer) Johannes Theodorus van (b. Dec. 4, 1790, Zutphen, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. Nov. 16, 1856, Gendringen, Gelderland), war minister of the Netherlands (1849-52). He was also acting navy minister (1851).

Spens, Gustaf Harald greve (b. Aug. 3, 1827, Grensholmen, Östergötland, Sweden - d. July 26, 1914, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Kronoberg (1888-98).

Speransky, Mikhail (Mikhailovich) (b. Jan. 12 [Jan. 1, O.S.], 1772, Cherkutino, Moscow province [now in Vladimir oblast], Russia - d. Feb. 23 [Feb. 11, O.S.], 1839, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor of Penza (1816-19) and governor-general of Siberia (1819-21). He was also Russian secretary of state (1810-12).

Spéville, Jean Daniel (b. Aug. 3, 1971), chief commissioner of Rodrigues (2002-03).

Spidla, Vladimír (b. April 22, 1951, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of the Czech Republic (2002-04). He was minister of labour and social affairs and deputy prime minister in 1998-2002 and chairman of the Czech Social Democratic Party in 2001-04. In 2004-10 he was the Czech EU commissioner, responsible for employment, social affairs, and equal opportunities.

Spies, Liesbeth, byname of Jantje Wilhelmina Elisabeth Spies (b. April 6, 1966, Alphen aan den Rijn, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (2011-12). She has also been mayor of Alphen aan den Rijn (2014- ).

Spiliadis, Nikolaos (b. 1785, Tripolitsa, Ottoman Empire [now Tripoli, Greece] - d. Nov. 26, 1867, Nafplio, Greece), secretary of state (1829-32) and interior minister (1829-32) of Greece.

Spiljak, Mika (b. Nov. 28, 1916, Odra, near Sisak, Austria-Hungary [now in Croatia] - d. May 18, 2007, Zagreb, Croatia), Yugoslav politician. He was mayor of Zagreb (1949-50), chairman of the Executive Council (1963-67) and secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists (1984-86) of Croatia, and president of the Federal Executive Council (1967-69) and of the Presidency (1983-84) of Yugoslavia.

Spindelegger, Michael (b. Dec. 21, 1959, Mödling, Austria), foreign minister (2008-13), vice chancellor (2011-14), and finance minister (2013-14) of Austria. In 2011-14 he also was chairman of the Austrian People's Party. From 2016 he is director-general of the International Centre for Migration Policy Development.

Spinelli, Altiero (b. Aug. 31, 1907, Rome, Italy - d. May 23, 1986, Rome), Italian politician. He was European commissioner for industry and technology (1970-77).

Spinellis, Michalis (b. March 26, 1953, Athens, Greece), Greek diplomat. He was ambassador to Yugoslavia/Serbia and Montenegro (1993-96, 2000-05), Israel (2005-06), and Russia (2008-13) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-15).

Spínola, António (Sebastião Ribeiro) de (b. April 11, 1910, Santo André, Estremoz, Portugal - d. Aug. 13, 1996, Lisbon, Portugal), president of Portugal (1974). Trained under Spanish dictator Gen. Francisco Franco and Hitler's Russian Front generals, he earned a reputation for toughness and valor and became Portugal's most decorated officer. A hero of the wars against independence movements in the African colonies, he became a focus for dissent within the military in February 1974, when he published a critique of the dictatorship's African policy. Months later, a group of young captains staged a coup. Tanks rolled into Lisbon and on the night of April 25, Spínola was called to the barricades to receive the old regime's surrender. With his trademark monocle, leather gloves, and riding crop, Spínola did not look the part of the rebel nor the hero of blue-jeaned revolutionaries shouting for a new Marxist state. But with Portugal threatened with anarchy and possible bloodshed, Spínola's stand for democracy and dominating personality made him the man of the hour. The military junta named him head of state. He immediately promised freedom of the press and democratic elections before the revolution's first anniversary. But in September he resigned in a power struggle and in protest against rushed attempts to dismantle the colonial empire. In March 1975, he fled to Brazil after again being implicated in a military coup, this time against the new left-wing government. After returning to Portugal in August 1976, he lived out his days outside the political spotlight, appearing only on anniversaries of the revolution to accept his cheers as a hero, his monocle still firmly in place.

Spinola, Aristides de Souza (b. Aug. 29, 1850, Caetité, Bahia, Brazil - d. July 9, 1925, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Goiás (1879-80).

Spinoy, Antoon (Octavia Nikolaas) (b. Dec. 6, 1906, Mechelen, Belgium - d. May 26, 1967, Hasselt, Belgium), defense minister of Belgium (1954-58). He was also mayor of Mechelen (1945-61, 1966-67), minister of economic affairs and energy (1961-65), and deputy prime minister (1965-66).

Spiric, Nikola (b. Sept. 4, 1956, Drvar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), prime minister (2007-12) and finance minister (2012-15) of Bosnia and Herzegovina. He was also speaker of the House of Peoples (2002-03, 2020-21, 2022-23) and of the House of Representatives (2003-04, 2005-06).

Spiridonov, Aleksey (Mikhailovich) (b. March 17 [March 4, O.S.], 1909, Nizhnyaya Sinyachikha, Perm province [now in Sverdlovsk oblast], Russia - d. Sept. 6, 1988, Novosibirsk, Russian S.F.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Mari A.S.S.R. (1951-57). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Sakhalin (1940-43) and Amur (1943-47) oblasti.

Spiridonov, Ivan (Vasilyevich) (b. Oct. 23 [Oct. 10, O.S.], 1905, Pogibalovka [now in Nizhny Novgorod oblast], Russia - d. July 7, 1991, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), Soviet politician. He was first secretary of the Communist Party committees of Leningrad city (1956-57) and Leningrad oblast (1957-62) and chairman of the Soviet of the Union (1962-70).

Spiridonov, Yury (Alekseyevich) (b. Nov. 1, 1938, Poltavka village, Omsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Aug. 12, 2010), first secretary of the party committee of the Komi A.S.S.R. (1989-90) and chairman of the Supreme Council (1990-94) and head of the republic (1994-2002) of Komi.

Spirlì, Antonino (b. July 13, 1961, Taurianova, Reggio Calabria province, Italy), acting president of Calabria (2020-21).

Spiroiu, Niculae (Constantin) (b. July 6, 1936, Bucharest, Romania - d. March 31, 2022), defense minister of Romania (1991-94).

Spiteri, Lino (b. Sept. 21, 1938, Qormi, Malta - d. Nov. 14, 2014), finance minister of Malta (1981-83, 1996-97). He was also minister of economic planning and commerce (1983-87) and economic affairs (1996-97).

Spiteri Debono, Myriam (b. Oct. 25, 1952, Victoria, Gozo, Malta), president of Malta (2024- ). She was also speaker of the House of Representatives (1996-98).

É. Spitz
Spitz, Éric (b. Dec. 4, 1963, Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin, France), high commissioner of French Polynesia (2008 [acting], 2022- ) and prefect of French Guiana (2013-16). He was also prefect of the départements of Drôme (2016-19) and Pyrénées-Atlantiques (2019-22).

Spitz, Georges (Aimé) (b. April 7, 1881, Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France - d. 1959), governor of Martinique (1939-40).

Spitzer, Eliot (Laurence) (b. June 10, 1959, New York City), governor of New York (2007-08). As attorney general of New York (1999-2007), he uncovered crooked practices and self-dealing in the stock brokerage and insurance industries and in corporate boardrooms; he went after former New York Stock Exchange chairman Richard Grasso over his $187.5 million compensation package. Spitzer became known as the "Sheriff of Wall Street"; Time magazine named him "Crusader of the Year," and the tabloids proclaimed him "Eliot Ness," after the legendary leader of "The Untouchables," the FBI team that brought down Al Capone. Elected governor with a historic margin of victory, the Democrat vowed to stamp out corruption in New York government in the same way that he took on Wall Street executives while attorney general. He was sometimes mentioned as a potential candidate for president. But he was suddenly disgraced and resigned after he was caught on a federal wiretap arranging to meet a prostitute from a call-girl business. Spitzer, whose cases as attorney general included criminal prosecutions of prostitution rings and tourism involving prostitutes, was married with three children.

Spock, Benjamin (McLane) (b. May 2, 1903, New Haven, Conn. - d. March 15, 1998, San Diego, Calif.), U.S. political activist. Spock, who also won a gold medal in rowing at the 1924 Olympics, was primarily known as a pediatrician and author of a famous book on childcare ultimately titled Dr. Spock's Baby and Child Care. It became one of the best sellers of all time - translated into 42 languages, over 50 million copies have been sold. In addition, he became known for his political activism after he joined the protests shaking the country in the 1960s. In 1962, he warned of the possible hazards posed to children and nursing mothers by atmospheric nuclear testing. He was elected co-chairman of the National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy and joined demonstrations demanding nuclear disarmament. He was also an early opponent of the Vietnam War. He wrote protest letters to the White House and, when this proved futile, joined demonstrators in the streets. In 1967 he was arrested for crossing a police line in an act of civil disobedience at an armed forces induction centre in New York. In 1968, in a highly publicized case, he was arrested and tried for conspiring to aid and abet resistance to the draft. He was convicted and sentenced to two years in prison. But a year later, a federal appeals court overturned the conviction. In 1972 he was the presidential candidate of the People's Party and got more than 75,000 votes with a platform that called for free medical care, the legalization of abortion and marijuana, a guaranteed minimum income for families, and the immediate withdrawal of all U.S. troops from foreign countries. Conservative critics branded him the "father of permissiveness," arguing that his methods of bringing up children had caused a breakdown in discipline and a collapse of conventional morality.

Sponheim, Lars (b. May 23, 1957, Halden, Østfold, Norway), governor of Hordaland (2010-19), Sogn og Fjordane (2019), and Vestland (2020-22). He was also leader of the Liberal Party (1996-2010) and minister of trade and industry (1997-2000), agriculture (2001-05), and food (2004-05) of Norway.

Sponneck, Wilhelm Carl Eppingen (rigsgreve) (b. Feb. 16, 1815, Ringkøbing, Denmark - d. Feb. 29, 1888, Hellerup, Denmark), finance minister of Denmark (1848-54).

Spore, James Sutherland (b. May 13, 1885, Bay City, Mich. - d. April 30, 1937, San Diego, Calif.), acting governor of Guam (1921-22) and American Samoa (1931).

Spore, Steen (Marr) (b. April 27, 1938 - d. Aug. 13, 2022), high commissioner of Greenland (1992-95).

Spornic, Aneta (b. June 29, 1930, Bucharest, Romania), a deputy prime minister of Romania (1986-87). She was also minister of education (1979-82) and ambassador to Venezuela (1987-90).

Spotswood, Alexander (b. 1676, Tangier, Morocco - d. June 7, 1740), governor of Virginia (1710-22); half-brother of Roger Elliott.

Sprague, Charles A(rthur) (b. Nov. 12, 1887, Lawrence, Kan. - d. March 13, 1969, Salem, Ore.), governor of Oregon (1939-43).

Sprague, Joseph (b. July 25, 1783, Leicester, Mass. - d. 1854), mayor of Brooklyn (1843-44).

Sprague, William (b. Nov. 3, 1799, Cranston, R.I. - d. Oct. 19, 1856, Providence, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1838-39).

Sprague, William (b. Sept. 12, 1830, Cranston, R.I. - d. Sept. 11, 1915, Paris, France), governor of Rhode Island (1860-63); nephew of the above; son-in-law of Salmon P. Chase.

Sprem, Boris (b. April 14, 1956, Koprivnicki Bregi, Croatia - d. Sept. 30, 2012, Houston, Texas), Croatian politician. He was head of the office of the president (2005-07) and president of the Sabor (2011-12).

Sprenger van Eyk, Jacobus Petrus (b. Jan. 20, 1842, Hilvarenbeek, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. March 21, 1907, Utrecht, Netherlands), finance minister of the Netherlands (1894-97). He was also minister of colonies (1884-88).

Sprengtporten, Göran Magnus greve, originally Georg Magnus Sprengtporten (b. Aug. 16, 1740, Gammelbacka [now part of Porvoo], Finland - d. Oct. 1 [Sept. 19, O.S.], 1819, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor-general of Finland (1808-09); half-brother of Johan Vilhelm friherre Sprengtporten. He became a Russian baron in 1799 and a Finnish count in 1809.

Sprengtporten, Jakob Wilhelm friherre (b. Oct. 9, 1794, Hyltinge socken, Södermanland, Sweden - d. Sept. 29, 1875, Hyltinge socken), governor of Stockholm city (1830-38, 1844-48); son of Johan Vilhelm friherre Sprengtporten.

Sprengtporten, Johan Vilhelm friherre, originally Johan Vilhelm Sprengtport (b. Feb. 11, 1720, Tobolsk, Russia - d. Dec. 25, 1795, Copenhagen, Denmark), Swedish diplomat. He was minister (1761-87) and ambassador (1787-95) to Denmark. He was made friherre (baron) in 1766.

Sprigg, Sir (John) Gordon (b. April 27, 1830, Ipswich, Suffolk, England - d. Feb. 4, 1913, Vredenburg, Cape province [now in Western Cape], South Africa), prime minister of Cape Colony (1878-81, 1886-90, 1896-98, 1900-04); knighted 1886.

Sprigg, Samuel (b. 1783, near Largo, Prince George's county, Md. - d. April 21, 1855, Northampton, Prince George's county), governor of Maryland (1819-22).

Spring, Dick, byname of Richard Spring, Irish Risteard Mac An Earraigh (b. Aug. 29, 1950, Tralee, County Kerry, Ireland), deputy prime minister (1982-87, 1993-94, 1994-97) and foreign minister (1993-94, 1994-97) of Ireland. He represented the southwest coastal district of North Kerry since 1981, inheriting a seat represented by his father, Dan, since 1943. He was also minister of environment (1982-83) and energy (1983-87). In 1992 he led the Labour Party to its high-water mark, forming a coalition government with Fianna Fáil in 1992-94, then with Fine Gael in 1994-97. He lost his seat in the 2002 election.

Springer, Sir Hugh (Worrell) (b. June 22, 1913 - d. April 14, 1994), governor-general of Barbados (1984-90); knighted 1971. He was also general secretary of the Barbados Labour Party and the Barbados Workers' Union (1940-47).

Springer, Jerry, byname of Gerald Norman Springer (b. Feb. 13, 1944, London, England - d. April 27, 2023, Chicago, Ill.), mayor of Cincinnati (1977-78). He was also known as a television host (The Jerry Springer Show, 1991-2018).

Springford, John (Roland) (b. March 3, 1925, Invercargill, N.Z. - d. Sept. 19, 2007, Auckland, N.Z.), New Zealand representative in Niue (1984-86).

Sprinzak, Yosef (b. Dec. 8, 1885, Moscow, Russia - d. Jan. 28, 1959, Jerusalem), interim president of Israel (1952). He was speaker of the Knesset (1949-59).

Sprlje, Ante (b. Aug. 20, 1979, Metkovic, Croatia), justice minister of Croatia (2016-17).

Sprockel, Gerald C(ornelius) (b. Feb. 18, 1919, Willemstad, Curaçao - d. Jan. 29, 1999, Boca Raton, Fla.), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1969).

Sproul, William C(ameron) (b. Sept. 16, 1870, Octoraro, Pa. - d. March 21, 1928, Chester, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1919-23).

Spruds, Andris (b. July 13, 1971, Liepaja, Latvian S.S.R.), defense minister of Latvia (2023- ).

Spry, William (b. Jan. 11, 1864, Windsor, Berkshire, England - d. April 21, 1929, Washington, D.C.), governor of Utah (1909-17).

Spühler, Willy (b. Jan. 31, 1902, Zürich, Switzerland - d. May 31, 1990, Zürich), president (1963, 1968) and foreign minister (1966-70) of Switzerland. He was also minister of posts and railways (1960-62) and transport, communications, and energy (1963-65).

Spuller, Eugène (b. Dec. 8, 1835, Seurre, Côte-d'Or, France - d. July 23, 1896, Sombernon, Côte-d'Or), foreign minister of France (1889-90). He was also minister of public instruction, worship, and fine arts (1887, 1893-94).

Spurdzins, Oskars (b. Aug. 22, 1963, Aizpute, Latvian S.S.R.), finance minister of Latvia (2004-07).

Spychalski, Marian (b. Dec. 6, 1906, Lódz, Poland, Russian Empire - d. June 7, 1980, Warsaw, Poland), Polish politician. He joined the underground Communist Party of Poland in 1931. During World War II he was prominent in the resistance movement against the Germans. In 1944-45 he was mayor of Warsaw. In 1945 he was appointed first deputy minister of national defense but in November 1949, after serving for some months as minister of reconstruction, he was dismissed from the government and from the Central Committee of the Communist Party, and in 1950 he was imprisoned for "Titoist deviations." He was rehabilitated in 1956 and succeeded Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky as minister of defense. In 1959 Spychalski was elected a member of the Politburo. Two years later he graduated from the General Staff Academy and in 1963 Wladyslaw Gomulka made him marshal of Poland. In 1968 he left the army and was elected chairman of the Council of State. When Gomulka was forced to resign (1970) as first secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party, Spychalski also resigned.

Squeff, María del Carmen (b. Oct. 26, 1955), Argentine diplomat. She was ambassador to France (2013-16) and Nigeria (2018-19) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2020-23).

Squire, Watson C(arvosso) (b. May 18, 1838, Cape Vincent, N.Y. - d. June 7, 1926, Seattle, Wash.), governor of Washington (1884-87).

Squires, Peter (James Murray) (b. 1968, Hertfordshire, England), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (2022- ).

R. Squires
Squires, Sir Richard (Anderson) (b. Jan. 18, 1880, Harbour Grace, Newfoundland - d. March 26, 1940, St. John's, Newfoundland), prime minister of Newfoundland (1919-23, 1928-32). In 1907 he formed the People's Party, which became the major opposition in the 1908 election. He missed winning a seat by only five votes. The general election ended in a tie, and a new election was called for 1909. In that election, Squires was elected and the People's Party won 26 of the 36 seats. He lost his seat in the 1913 general election. In 1914 Prime Minister Sir Edward Patrick Morris appointed him minister of justice and a member of the Legislative Council. The need to encourage more volunteers in World War I called for a united legislative front and resulted, in 1917, in the formation of an all-party National Government, with Morris remaining prime minister and Squires becoming colonial secretary. When Morris resigned on Dec. 31, 1917, a new National administration was formed, with Liberal leader William Lloyd as prime minister. Squires was invited to be a member of the new administration but declined. He became leader of the Liberal Party in 1919 and effected a coalition government with the Fishermen's Protective Union. He was appointed K.C.M.G. in 1921. In 1923 dissensions within the cabinet led to the resignation of four ministers, whereupon Squires himself resigned as prime minister. The 1928 election saw him return to power. On April 5, 1932, during the Great Depression, about 10,000 demonstrators gathered outside the House. After a delegation was denied entrance to the legislature a riot ensued, and a mob forced its way into the building. Squires, in disguise, barely escaped. The House was dissolved and an election set for June 11. The government went down to defeat, and Squires himself lost his seat.

Srámek, Jan (b. Aug. 11, 1870, Grygov, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. April 22, 1956, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), prime minister of Czechoslovakia in exile (1940-45). He was also minister of railways (1921-22), public health and physical education (1922-25 and [acting] 1926-27), posts and telegraphs (1925-26), social care (1926-29), and unification of laws and organization of administration (1929-38), chairman of the Czechoslovak People's Party (1922-38, 1945-48), and a deputy premier (1945-48).

Srbovan, Jon (b. 1930, Torak, Yugoslavia [now in Vojvodina, Serbia] - d. June 6, 2018, Novi Sad, Vojvodina), chairman of the Executive Council of Vojvodina (1986-89).

Srebric, Borislav (b. Aug. 13, 1927, Staro Selo, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. 1997), a deputy premier of Yugoslavia (1982-86).

Sreekissoon, Ramesh, Mauritian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1983-87).

Srettha Thavisin (b. Feb. 15, 1962, Bangkok, Thailand), prime minister (2023- ) and finance minister (2023-24) of Thailand.

Sridharmadhibes, Chao Phya (b. Oct. 30, 1885, Songkhla, Siam [now Thailand] - d. 1976), finance minister (1933-34) and foreign minister (1938-39) of Siam. He was also president of the Supreme Court (1927-28) and the National Assembly (1934-36, 1947-51) and minister of justice (1928-32, 1937-38, 1944-45, 1946) and health (1944-45).

Srinagesh, Satyavant Mallannah (b. May 11, 1903, Kolhapur, India - d. Dec. 27, 1977, New Delhi, India), governor of Assam (1959-60, 1961-62), Andhra Pradesh (1962-64), and Mysore (1964-65). He was also Indian chief of army staff (1955-57).

Srivastava, Chandrika Prasad (b. July 8, 1920, Unnao, India - d. July 22, 2013, Italy), secretary-general of the International Maritime Organization (1974-89).

Srokowski, Stanislaw (Józef) (b. July 8, 1872, Wegrzce, Austria [now in Poland] - d. Aug. 20, 1950, Warsaw, Poland), governor of Wolynskie województwo (1923-24).

Srour, Saad Hayel (b. 1947, Mafraq, Transjordan [now Jordan]), interior minister of Jordan (2010-11). He was also minister of irrigation and water resources (1991) and public works and housing (1991-93) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1995-97, 2003, 2013).

Ssemogerere, Paul (Kawanga) (b. Feb. 11, 1932, Bumangi, Bugala island, Uganda - d. Nov. 18, 2022, Kampala, Uganda), foreign minister of Uganda (1988-94). He was also minister of labour (1979), internal affairs (1985-88), and public service (1994-95). He was a presidential candidate in 1996.

Ssemwogerere, Joseph (Godfrey Mulwanyamuli), Katikkiro of Buganda (1994-2005).

Ssendaula, Emmanuel (Lujumwa) (b. Dec. 20, 1940), interim Katikkiro of Buganda (2007-08). He was also Ugandan ambassador to France (1977-81, 1992-96) and Italy (1977-81) and high commissioner to Australia (1982-86?).