Index Man-Maz

Man, Edward Horace (b. Sept. 13, 1846, Singapore - d. Sept. 28, 1929), acting chief commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1894); son of Henry Stuart Man.

Man, Hendrik de (b. Nov. 17, 1885, Antwerp, Belgium - d. June 20, 1953, Murten, Switzerland), finance minister of Belgium (1936-38). He was also minister of public works (1935-36).

Man, Henry Stuart (b. December 1815 - d. April 10, 1898, Surbiton, Surrey, England), superintendent of the Andaman (and Nicobar) Islands (1858, 1868-71).

Mana, Mohammed (b. July 10, 1950, in present Adamawa state, Nigeria), administrator of Plateau (1993-96).

Manabe, Takeki (b. April 3, 1940), governor of Kagawa (1998-2010).

Mañach (y Robato), Jorge (b. Feb. 14, 1898, Sagua la Grande, Las Villas province, Cuba - d. June 25, 1961, San Juan, Puerto Rico), foreign minister of Cuba (1944). He was also known as a writer.

Manaj, Ali (b. 1923), Albanian politician. He was chairman of the People's Assembly (1976-78).

Manalo, Armando (D.) (b. Feb. 12, 1920, Manila, Philippines - d. Oct. 28, 2008), Philippine diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (1979-85) and Switzerland (1985-86).

E. Manalo
Manalo, Enrique (Austria) (b. July 21, 1952), foreign secretary of the Philippines (2017 [acting], 2022- ); son of Armando and Rosario Manalo. He was also ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (2010-11) and the United Kingdom (2011-16) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2020-22).

Manalo, Rosario (Gonzales) (b. Oct. 2, 1935, Manila, Philippines), Philippine diplomat; wife of Armando Manalo. She was ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (1985-88), France and Portugal (1990-94), and Sweden (1994-97).

Manara Linga, Didier (b. Oct. 29, 1964), governor of Maniema (2007-10).

Manasein, Nikolay (Avksentyevich) (b. Dec. 1 [Nov. 19, O.S.], 1834, Uspenskaya, Voronezh province, Russia - d. Sept. 28 [Sept. 16, O.S.], 1895, Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin, part of St. Petersburg], Russia), justice minister of Russia (1885-94).

Manceron, François (b. Nov. 21, 1872, Annecy, France - d. April 18, 1937), resident-general of Tunisia (1929-33). He was also prefect of Moselle département (1919-29) and minister to Denmark (1933-34).

Mancham, Sir James R(ichard Marie) (b. Aug. 11, 1939, Victoria, Seychelles - d. Jan. 8, 2017, Glacis, Mahé, Seychelles), chief minister (1970-75), prime minister (1975-76), and president and foreign and defense minister (1976-77) of Seychelles. He founded the Seychelles Democratic Party (SDP) in 1964, became a member of the Legislative Council in 1964, of the Governing Council in 1967, and of the Legislative Assembly in 1970, and led the country to independence in 1976, although he had been rather pro-British and in 1970 declared himself "more than happy" with internal autonomy. Already in 1977, while he was in London for a Commonwealth conference, he was deposed in a coup, being described by the coup leaders as a "dictator" who had "adopted a style of life which involves lavish spending" and had not spent more than three consecutive weeks in his country since independence. Mancham said that much of his extensive foreign travel had been spent in aid negotiations. Prime Minister France-Albert René, who denied complicity in the plot but was probably its mastermind, then became president. Not allowed to return to Seychelles, Mancham engaged in private business but again turned to politics in 1990 as founder of the Crusade for the Restoration of Democracy in Seychelles. (Having been awarded an honorary knighthood in 1976, he became entitled to use the "Sir" after adopting British nationality in 1984.) Returning from British exile in 1992, he became leader of the revived SDP (1992-2005) and leader of the opposition (1993-98). He was a presidential candidate in 1993 and 1998 but was defeated by René.

Manchego Muñoz, Celestino (b. April 6, 1887, Córdova district, Castrovirreyna province, Huancavelica department [now region], Peru - d. April 26, 1968, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1926-27). He was also minister of the navy (1925-26) and development and public works (1926, 1927-29) and acting president of the Chamber of Deputies (1928-29).

Mancheno Cajas, Carlos (Elicio) (b. Oct. 9, 1902, La Merced barrio, Riobamba, Ecuador - d. Oct. 11, 1996), defense minister (1944-47, 1947) and acting president (1947) of Ecuador.

Manchin, Joe, byname of Joseph Anthony Manchin III (b. Aug. 24, 1947, Farmington, W.Va.), governor of West Virginia (2005-10). He has also been a U.S. senator from West Virginia (2010- ).

Al. Mancini
Mancini, Alessandro (b. Oct. 4, 1975, San Marino, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2007, 2020).

Mancini, Ange (b. June 15, 1944, Beausoleil, Alpes-Maritimes, France), prefect of French Guiana (2002-06) and Martinique (2007-11). He was also prefect of Landes département (2006-07).

Mancini, Hugo (Ricardo) (b. 1931, Esquina, Corrientes, Argentina - d. Dec. 13, 2021, Esquina), acting governor of Corrientes (1991-92).

Mancini, Pasquale (Stanislao) (b. March 17, 1817, Castel Baronia, Two Sicilies [now in Italy] - d. Dec. 26, 1888, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (1881-85). He was also minister of education (1862) and justice (1876-78).

Mancino, Nicola (b. Oct. 15, 1931, Montefalcione, Avellino province, Campania, Italy), president of Campania (1971-72, 1975-76) and interior minister (1992-94), president of the Senate (1996-2001), and acting president (1999) of Italy.

Mancuso, Filippo (b. July 11, 1922, Palermo, Italy - d. May 30, 2011, Rome, Italy), justice minister of Italy (1995).

Mandaba, Jean-Luc (b. Aug. 15, 1943 - d. Oct. 22, 2000, Bangui, Central African Republic), prime minister of the Central African Republic (1993-95). He was also minister of health (1980-81). On Oct. 21, 2000, he attended a dinner to commemorate Pres. Ange-Félix Patassé's first year in power in his "second administration." Suddenly, after Mandaba got back home he felt sick and a heart attack put an end to his life. Some family relatives reported that Mandaba was in fact poisoned at the dinner party. Mandaba was not reliable anymore for the presidential elite; he was thought to be planning a coup to overthrow Patassé from power.

Mandacan, Dominggus (b. Dec. 16, 1959, Manokwari, Netherlands New Guinea [now in Papua Barat, Indonesia]), governor of Papua Barat (2017-22).

Mandacan, Nataniel Dominggus (b. Nov. 11, 1962, Manokwari, West New Guinea [now in Papua Barat, Indonesia]), acting governor of Papua Barat (2017).

Mandal, Badri Prasad, deputy prime minister of Nepal (2002-03). He was also minister of law and justice (1988-90), agriculture and cooperatives (2002-03, 2005), home affairs (2003), forest and soil conservation (2004-05), and general administration (2005-06).

Mandal, Bindeshwari Prasad (b. Aug. 25, 1918, Benares [now Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh], India - d. April 13, 1982, Patna, Bihar, India), chief minister of Bihar (1968).

Mandarini, Francesco (b. March 14, 1942, Perugia, Italy - d. March 14/15, 2022, Perugia), president of Umbria (1987-92).

Mande, Bala (Mohammed) (b. Jan. 8, 1958, Zurmi [now in Zamfara state], Nigeria), administrator of Nasarawa (1998-99). He served as environment minister of Nigeria in 2003-05.

Mandel, Georges, original name Louis Georges Rothschild (b. June 5, 1885, Chatou, Seine-et-Oise [now in Yvelines], France - d. [assassinated] July 7, 1944, Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, France), interior minister of France (1940). He was also minister of posts, telegraphs, and telephones (1934-36) and colonies (1938-40).

Mandel, Marvin (b. April 19, 1920, Baltimore, Md. - d. Aug. 30, 2015, St. Mary's county, Md.), governor of Maryland (1969-79).

N. Mandela
Mandela, Nelson (Rolihlahla Dalibunga), original name Rolihlahla Mandela (he was given the name Nelson by his teacher at age 7 and the initiation name Dalibunga at age 16), Xhosa clan name Madiba (b. July 18, 1918, Mvezo village, near Umtata, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. Dec. 5, 2013, Johannesburg, South Africa), president of South Africa (1994-99). With Oliver Tambo, he founded the African National Congress (ANC) Youth League in 1944. He soon became one of the ANC's leaders. He was given a nine-month sentence for his political activities in 1952, and eventually went on trial for treason in 1956 (acquitted 1961). After police opened fire on unarmed Africans in Sharpeville in 1960, and the ANC was banned, Mandela began advocating controlled violence. He clandestinely went abroad in 1962 to seek support elsewhere in Africa and in Britain. On his return home he was arrested. He was sentenced first to five years' imprisonment in November 1962, and was given a life sentence on June 12, 1964. Incarcerated at Robben Island Prison until 1982 and then at the maximum-security Pollsmoor Prison until 1988, he came to symbolize the struggle against apartheid. The South African government under Pres. F.W. de Klerk finally released Mandela on Feb. 11, 1990. On March 2 he was chosen deputy president of the relegalized ANC, and he replaced Tambo as president in July 1991. In 1993 Mandela and de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to end apartheid and bring about a peaceful transition to nonracial democracy in South Africa. In April 1994 Mandela was elected president of South Africa in the country's first all-race elections. He introduced a redevelopment and construction program designed to improve the living standards of the country's majority black population; the program emphasized housing and education. He stepped down as ANC leader in December 1997 and retired from active politics after the end of his presidential term. His second wife (1958-96) Winnie Madikizela-Mandela herself became a political figure; after divorcing her, he married Graça Machel, widow of former president of Mozambique Samora Machel, in 1998.

Mandela, Winnie: see Madikizela-Mandela, Winnie.

Mandela, Zindzi(swa) (b. Dec. 23, 1960, Johannesburg, South Africa - d. July 13, 2020, Johannesburg), South African diplomat; daughter of Nelson Mandela and Winnie Madikizela-Mandela; sister of Zenani Mandela-Dlamini. She was ambassador to Denmark (2015-20).

Mandela-Dlamini, Zenani (b. Feb. 4, 1959, Johannesburg, South Africa), South African diplomat; daughter of Nelson Mandela and Winnie Madikizela-Mandela; sister-in-law of Mswati III. She has been ambassador to Argentina (2012-17) and South Korea (2019- ) and high commissioner to Mauritius (2017-19).

Mandelson, Peter (Benjamin) Mandelson, Baron (b. Oct. 21, 1953, London, England), British politician; grandson of Herbert Morrison, Baron Morrison. He served on Lambeth borough council (1979-82) and was an influential figure within the Labour Party as director of campaigns and communications (1985-90). A close confidante of Tony Blair and an expert at media management, he demonstrated his organizational talents in Labour's victorious campaign in the 1997 general election. He entered the House of Commons in 1992, representing Hartlepool. As minister without portfolio (1997-98) and secretary of state for trade and industry (1998) under Prime Minister Blair, he worked closely on the Millennium Dome project at Greenwich. He resigned in late 1998 after it emerged that he had borrowed £370,000 from his cabinet colleague Geoffrey Robinson, who also resigned as paymaster general. After reappointment as secretary of state for Northern Ireland in 1999, he resigned again in 2001, accused of helping an Indian industrialist obtain British citizenship in 1998. He was cleared the following month. He stood down as MP in 2004 in order to take up appointment as EU trade commissioner. In 2008 Prime Minister Gordon Brown surprised the political world by making him a life peer and recalling him to the British cabinet; he served as business secretary (2008-10) and lord president of the council (2009-10) until the end of the Labour government.

Manderson, Franz (Ireland), deputy governor (2012- ) and acting governor (2013, 2018, 2018, 2023) of the Cayman Islands.

Manderström, (Christoffer Rutger) Ludvig greve (b. Jan. 24, 1806, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Aug. 18, 1873, Cologne, Germany), prime minister for foreign affairs of Sweden (1858-68). He was also minister to Austria (1855-56) and France (1856-58). He was made greve (count) in 1860.

Mandi, André Fernand (b. 1934, Upoto, Coquilhatville province, Belgian Congo [now in Mongala province, Congo (Kinshasa)]), Congo (Kinshasa) diplomat. He was ambassador to Italy (1965-66), Romania (1967-69), and France (1969-71) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-72).

Mandic, Nikola (b. Jan. 15, 1869, Dolac, near Travnik, Ottoman Empire [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. [executed] June 7, 1945, Zagreb, Croatia), prime minister of Croatia (1943-45).


A. Mané
Mandloi, Bhagwantrao (b. Dec. 10, 1892 - d. Nov. 3, 1977), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1957, 1962-63).

Mandokhail, Sheikh Jaffar Khan (b. Dec. 26, 1956, Zhob, West Pakistan [now in Balochistan], Pakistan), governor of Balochistan (2024- ).

Mandrika, Aleksandr (Nikolayevich) (b. May 26, 1876, Kharkov, Russia [now Kharkiv, Ukraine] - d. May 29, 1928, Paris, France), governor of Tiflis (1916-17).

Mandungu Bula Nyati, (Antoine) (b. Sept. 14, 1935, Léopoldville, Belgian Congo [now Kinshasa, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. Aug. 29, 2000, Cotonou, Benin), foreign minister of Zaire (1975-76, 1986) and governor of Kinshasa (1978-80) and Shaba (1980-85). He was also minister of national guidance (1976-77), public works and territorial development (1977-78), information and press (1987-88), territorial administration and decentralization (1988), and interior and community development (1991-92).

Mandviwalla, Saleem (H.), finance minister of Pakistan (2013). He was also minister of state for investment (2008-13).

Mandzhiyev, Erdni (Chuditovich) (b. 1922 - d. 1974), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kalmyk A.S.S.R. (1967-74).

Mané, Ansumane (b. 1940?, Gambia - d. [killed] Nov. 30, 2000, Quinhamel, Guinea-Bissau), foreign minister (1994-96) and commander of the Military Junta (1999) of Guinea-Bissau.

Mané, Samba Lamine, foreign minister (1982-83) and defense minister (1991-99) of Guinea-Bissau. He was also minister of natural resources (1978-82).

Manele, Jeremiah (b. 1968), foreign minister (2019-24) and prime minister (2024- ) of the Solomon Islands. He was also chargé d'affaires at the United Nations and in the United States (2000-03), leader of the opposition (2014-17), and minister of development planning and aid coordination (2017-19).

Maneniaru, John (b. June 20, 1965), finance minister of the Solomon Islands (2017). He was also minister of fisheries and marine resources (2014-17, 2017-19) and deputy prime minister (2019).

Manès, (Aimé Louis) Édouard (b. April 12, 1835, Saint-Denis, Île Bourbon [now Réunion] - d. July 14, 1898), governor of French India (1886-88) and Réunion (1888-93).

C. Manescu
Manescu, Corneliu (b. Feb. 8, 1916, Pitesti, Romania - d. June 26, 2000, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1961-72). He was ambassador to Hungary (1960-61) and France (1977-82) and chairman of the UN General Assembly (1967-68). Following arguments with the regime in the early 1980s, he was forced to retire in 1982. In March 1989, he and Gheorghe Apostol, Alexandru Bîrladeanu, Silviu Brucan, Constantin Pîrvulescu, and Grigore Raceanu signed a document denouncing the policy of the Romanian Communist Party, which went into history as "The Letter of the Six." In December 1989 he was a member of the Council of the National Salvation Front.

Manescu, Manea (b. Aug. 9, 1916, Braila, eastern Romania - d. Feb. 27, 2009), finance minister (1955-57) and prime minister (1974-79) of Romania. Claims that he was a brother-in-law of Nicolae Ceausescu are dubious.

R. Manescu
Manescu, Ramona (Nicole) (b. Dec. 6, 1972, Constanta, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (2019).

Manetoali, Samuel (b. Jan. 24, 1969), Solomon Islands politician. He was minister of justice and legal affairs (2006-07), police, national security, and correctional services (2007-09), lands, housing, and survey (2009-10), culture and tourism (2010-14), environment, climate change, disaster management, and meteorology (2014-17), and forestry and research (2017-19). He was arrested in 2018 on corruption charges.

Mangabeira, João (b. June 26, 1880, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. April 27, 1964, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1962-63). He was also a minor presidential candidate (1950) and minister of mines and energy (1962).

Mangabeira, Octávio (b. Aug. 27, 1886, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. Nov. 29, 1960, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister of Brazil (1926-30) and governor of Bahia (1947-51); brother of João Mangabeira.

Mangal, Mohammad Gulab (b. 1958, Laja Mangal, Paktia province, Afghanistan), Afghan politician. He was governor of Paktika (2004-06), Laghman (2006-08), Helmand (2008-12), and Nangarhar (2016-18) and minister of border and tribal affairs (2015-16).

Mangalaza, Eugène (Régis) (b. July 13, 1950, Ambodivoanio, Madagascar), prime minister of Madagascar (2009).

Mangefel, John (Avila) (b. May 10, 1932, Gal, Kanifay municipality, Yap, Micronesia [now in Federated States of Micronesia] - d. April 11, 2007, Colonia, Yap), governor of Yap (1979-87).

Mang'enya, Erasto A(ndrew) M(bwana) (b. April 17, 1915, Mkuzi village, Muheza district, Tanga region, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania] - d. ...), Tanganyikan/Tanzanian politician. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1963-64), minister of community development and national culture (1964-65), and speaker of the National Assembly (1973-75).

Mangin, Sir Thorleif Rattray Orde (b. Sept. 27, 1896 - d. Sept. 29, 1950), acting governor of Gold Coast (1949); knighted 1949.

Mangion, Charles (b. November 1952), justice minister of Malta (1996-98). He was also acting leader of the Labour Party (2008), leader of the opposition (2008), and chairman of Air Malta (2017-20).

Mangkusasmito, Prawoto (b. Jan. 4, 1910, Magelang, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. July 24, 1970, near Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur, Indonesia), deputy prime minister of Indonesia (1952-53). He was also chairman of the Masyumi Party (1959-60).

Manglapus, Raul S(evilla) (b. Oct. 20, 1918, Manila, Philippines - d. July 25, 1999, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines), foreign secretary of the Philippines (1957 [acting], 1987-92). He was a presidential candidate in 1965. He spent 14 years in self-imposed exile in the United States after Pres. Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972, returning home only after Marcos was overthrown in a "people's power" revolt in 1986. While in exile in the United States, Manglapus headed a group called Movement for a Free Philippines, which lobbied in the U.S. Congress for an end to U.S. economic and military assistance to the Marcos dictatorship. Washington persuaded Marcos to step down during the 1986 uprising. Manglapus served as foreign secretary to Marcos's successor, Corazon Aquino.

Mangoaela, Percy (Metsing) (b. Aug. 26, 1942, Teyateyaneng, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), Lesotho diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-2001).


Mangope, Lucas (Lawrence Manyane) (b. Dec. 27, 1923, Motswedi, Transvaal [now in North West province], South Africa - d. Jan. 18, 2018, Motswedi), chief minister (1972-77) and president (1977-94) of Bophuthatswana.

Mangoush, Najla (Muhammad) al- (b. Benghazi, Libya), foreign minister of Libya (2021- ).

Mangue, Ahmed (b. 1921 - d. [plane crash] May 10, 1961, near Edjele, Algeria), interior minister of Chad (1959-60). He was also minister of health and social affairs (1960) and education (1960-61).

Mangueira, (Augusto) Archer (de Sousa) (b. Sept. 26, 1962, Luanda, Angola), finance minister of Angola (2016-19). He was appointed governor of Namibe province in 2019.

Mangueira, Rui Jorge Carneiro (b. Nov. 13, 1962, Luanda, Angola), justice minister of Angola (2012-17). He was also ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (2008-10) and the United Kingdom (2018-19).

Mangwazu, Timon Sam, byname Tim Mangwazu (b. Oct. 12, 1933, Kasungu, Nyasaland [now Malawi] - d. Oct. 17, 2012, Lilongwe, Malawi), Malawian politician. He was ambassador to West Germany, Austria, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, and Switzerland (1964-67), Portugal (1967-69), the Vatican (1968-69), Belgium and the Netherlands (1973-78), South Africa (1982-84), and the United States (1985-88), high commissioner to Lesotho (1982-84), permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-88), and minister of housing (1994-97).

Mangwende, Witness (Pasichigare Magunda) (b. Oct. 15, 1946, Buhera province, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. Feb. 26, 2005, Harare, Zimbabwe), foreign minister of Zimbabwe (1981-88). One of the less controversial figures in Pres. Robert Mugabe's administration, he was subsequently minister of information, posts, and telecommunications (1988-90), lands, agriculture, and rural resettlement (1990-92), education and culture (1992-95), sports, recreation, and culture (1995-97), and transport and communications (2002-04). From 2004 to his death he was provincial governor of Harare.

Manigat, Edmé (Thalès) (d. Feb. 9, 1950, Caracas, Venezuela), foreign minister of Haiti (1947-48). He was also minister of education, agriculture, and labour (1935-36) and ambassador to Venezuela (1948-50).

Manigat, (Saint-Roc) Leslie (François) (b. Aug. 16, 1930, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. June 27, 2014, Port-au-Prince), president of Haiti (1988). He was the grandson of Gen. François Manigat, who in the late 19th century sought the presidency and was repeatedly exiled. He served in the foreign ministry but, accused of backing a student strike in 1960, was jailed for two months in 1961 and fled Haiti in 1963. He opposed the Duvalier family dictatorship from exile, forming the Rally of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP) in 1981. He returned to Haiti after the fall of Jean-Claude Duvalier in 1986. He was known as "the Haitian Voltaire" because of his keen intelligence but also as an autocratic man intolerant of dissent. As the military-backed candidate he won the fraudulent January 1988 presidential elections, having refused to join four major centrist candidates in boycotting the vote. He was removed in June after trying to assert his control over the army and was forced into exile. He returned again in 1990 but was barred from seeking the presidency that year. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 2006.

Manigat, Mirlande, née Hyppolite (b. Nov. 3, 1940, Miragôane, Haiti), Haitian presidential candidate (2010-11); wife of Leslie Manigat.

Maniglia (Ferreira), (Ramón) Orlando (b. Aug. 31, 1952), defense minister of Venezuela (2005-06). He has also been ambassador to Germany (2015- ).

Manikfan, Hussain (b. June 16, 1936), Maldivian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-91).

Manikya, Kirit Vikrama (b. Dec. 13, 1933 - d. Nov. 28, 2006, Kolkata, India), raja of Tripura (1947); brother-in-law of Madhavrao Scindia. He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1967, 1977, and 1989 from East Tripura constituency as a Congress candidate.

Manin, Josette (b. March 16, 1950), president of the General Council of Martinique (2011-15).

Manini Ríos (Rodríguez), Carlos (b. Oct. 18, 1909, Paris, France - d. April 20, 1990, Madrid, Spain), interior minister of Uruguay (1985-86); son of Pedro Manini Ríos. He was also minister of culture (1967) and ambassador to Brazil (1971-77).

Manini Ríos (Stratta), Guido (b. Aug. 20, 1958, Montevideo, Uruguay), Uruguayan presidential candidate (2019); nephew of Carlos Manini Ríos; grandson of Pedro Manini Ríos.

Manini Ríos, Pedro (b. Sept. 21, 1879, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. July 4, 1958, Montevideo), interior minister (1911-12, 1919), foreign minister (1923-24), and finance minister (1933 [acting], 1934) of Uruguay.

Maniratanga, Zéphyrin, Burundian diplomat. He has been chargé d'affaires in India (2009-10) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2021- ).

Manis, Omar Bashir (Mohamed), Sudanese politician. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2005-06) and minister of cabinet affairs (2019-21).

Maniscalco, Albert V. (b. 1908, Manhattan, New York City - d. Sept. 2, 1998, Staten Island, New York City), borough president of Richmond (1955-65).

Manison, Nicole (Susan) (b. 1979?, Tennant Creek, N.T.), acting chief minister of the Northern Territory (2022).

Manitski, Jaan (b. March 7, 1942, Viinistu, Harju county, Estonia), foreign minister of Estonia (1992).

Maniu, Iuliu (b. Jan. 8, 1873, Simleu Silvaniei, Transylvania, Hungary [now in Romania] - d. [in prison] Feb. 5, 1953, Sighet [now Sighetu Marmatiei], Romania), president of the Directing Council of Transylvania (1918-19) and prime minister (1928-30, 1930, 1932-33), finance minister (acting, 1929), and war minister (acting, 1930) of Romania.

Maniusis, Juozas, Russian Iosif (Antonovich) Manyushis (b. Dec. 25 [Dec. 12, O.S.], 1910, Malkovka, Mogilyov province, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. March 17, 1987, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Lithuanian S.S.R. (1967-81). He was also mayor of Kaunas (1947-50) and minister of construction (1950-54) and urban and rural construction (1954-55).

Manjappa, Kadidal (b. 1910, Haragolige village, Shimoga district [now in Karnataka], India - d. ...), chief minister of Mysore (1956).

Manjhi, Jitan Ram (b. Oct. 6, 1944, Mahkar village, Gaya district, Bihar, India), chief minister of Bihar (2014-15).

Mankin, Ivan (Pavlovich) (b. Oct. 9, 1924, Karpovka, Karelian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. - d. March 9, 1984), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Karelian A.S.S.R. (1979-84). He was also deputy/first deputy premier (1971-79).

Mankirov, Galzan (b. 1895, Zyungana, Astrakhan province, Russia - d. 1942), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Kalmyk autonomous oblast (1921).

Manley, Albert Leslie (b. Dec. 19, 1945, Cape Town, South Africa), South African diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1987-88) and ambassador to Peru (2008-12).

J. Manley
Manley, John (Paul) (b. Jan. 5, 1950, Ottawa, Ont.), Canadian politician. He first ran for parliament in 1988 when the Liberals were in opposition and was critic for the portfolios of science, finance, and transportation. He represented the electoral district of Ottawa South. He was appointed industry minister in 1993 and foreign minister in 2000. Aides credited Manley with making the work of the industry ministry much more focused and on insisting on the need to pay more attention to the booming high-technology industry. Manley's willingness to put himself on the line for the party was shown best in January 2000, when he was forced to make a humiliating about-turn over whether Ottawa would bail out the country's six top-level professional ice hockey teams. Although sports had nothing to do with his portfolio Manley agreed to look into the viability of the clubs and then announced that the government would give them a total of C$20 million (U.S.$13 million) a year. But the decision unleashed howls of protest and just three days later a chastened Manley announced the plan was dead. His rowback prompted many to write off his chances of ever replacing Prime Minister Jean Chrétien but he soon bounced back and within weeks was even making fun of himself over the controversy. Manley's only other real brush with controversy came in September 1997 when he suggested Canada should ditch the monarchy; protests from cabinet colleagues quickly forced him to drop the idea. The low-profile Manley had shown no obvious interest in foreign affairs although he had won respect for his considered, if stolid, approach. Manley, who sat firmly on the right wing of the Liberal Party, was much more of a cabinet team player than his high-profile predecessor Lloyd Axworthy. In 2002 he was first promoted to deputy prime minister and then took the additional post of finance minister. He retired in 2003.

M. Manley
Manley, Michael (Norman) (b. Dec. 10, 1924, St. Andrew, Jamaica - d. March 6, 1997, Kingston, Jamaica), prime minister of Jamaica (1972-80, 1989-92); son of Norman Manley. In the 1950s he became involved in the trade-union movement, gaining recognition as a skilled negotiator. He was given an appointed senator's seat in 1962 and was elected to the House of Representatives in 1967. He succeeded his father as president of the People's National Party in 1969. He defeated the Labour Party to become prime minister in 1972 and was reelected in 1976. From 1972 to 1975 he was also foreign minister. In his first two terms as prime minister, the popular Manley was a firebrand socialist and champion of the nonaligned movement. A powerful orator, he was often called "Joshua," after the Old Testament prophet. He forged close ties with Cuban leader Fidel Castro, railed against capitalist domination, and discouraged foreign investment. In 1973 he was one of the founders of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom). By the end of 1980, Jamaica was nearly bankrupt and Manley was defeated by conservative Edward Seaga, who became the Reagan administration's closest ally in the Caribbean. In 1989, a new Manley emerged. Though he still claimed to be a socialist, the anti-imperialist rhetoric was gone, along with his trademark bush jacket. He espoused private investment and good relations with the United States. Helped by a worsening economy, he trounced Seaga in national elections. He then pursued free-market policies and privatized many state-owned enterprises. Manley said he had learned from his mistakes. But he never toned down his tendency to speak out when he felt it was necessary. Citing health reasons, he quit as prime minister in 1992.

N. Manley
Manley, Norman (Washington) (b. July 4, 1893, Roxborough, Manchester parish, Jamaica - d. Sept. 2, 1969, St. Andrew, Jamaica), chief minister (1955-59) and prime minister (1959-62) of Jamaica; cousin of Sir Alexander Bustamante. He began his political career after the Jamaican labour riots of 1938 by founding the People's National Party (September 1938). In 1944 he ran unsuccessfully for the legislative assembly, but five years later he won. He took the post of chief minister after his party's first electoral victory in 1955 and became the first premier of Jamaica in 1959. His administration was credited with stimulating industrial growth, attracting much foreign capital, and achieving significant gains in agrarian reform and education. He was also a pioneer in the movement to establish a West Indies federation and developed the West Indies Federal Labour Party. The federation came into being in 1958, but a strong anti-federalist movement began in Jamaica, based on fears that Jamaica would have to support the rest of the federation; a referendum was held in 1961 and a majority decided against continued membership, a result Manley accepted with regret. His government was defeated in elections in 1962, and he became leader of the opposition. He campaigned again in Jamaica's first post-independence election, in 1967, but was unsuccessful. He retired from politics early in 1969.

Manly, Charles (b. May 13, 1795, Chatham county, N.C. - d. May 1, 1871, Raleigh, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1849-51).

B. Mann

E. Mann
Mann, Bhagwant (Singh) (b. Oct. 17, 1973, Satoj village, Sangrur district, Punjab, India), chief minister of Punjab (2022- ).

Mann, David S(cott) (b. Sept. 25, 1939), mayor of Cincinnati (1980-82, 1991).

Mann, Edgar (b. June 24, 1926, London, England - d. June 21, 2013, Strang, Isle of Man), chairman of the Executive Council of the Isle of Man (1985-86).

Mann, Sir Frederick Wollaston (b. May 2, 1869, Mount Gambier, South Australia - d. May 29, 1958, South Yarra, Melbourne, Vic.), acting governor of Victoria (1939); knighted 1933. He was chief justice (1935-44) and lieutenant governor (1936-45).

Mann, Stephen A(llison) (b. Aug. 28, 1837, Orange county, Vt. - d. Sept. 13, 1881, Reno, Nev.), acting governor of Utah (1870).

Mann, William H(odges) (b. July 30, 1843, Williamsburg, Va. - d. Dec. 12, 1927, Petersburg, Va.), governor of Virginia (1910-14).

Mannerfelt, Carl (Erik August) (b. Sept. 26, 1886, Borås, Älvsborg [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. July 27, 1951), governor of Skaraborg (1935-51).

Mannerheim, Carl Erik greve (b. Dec. 14, 1759, Säter socken, Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden - d. Jan. 15, 1837, Åbo [Turku], Finland), governor of Åbo och Björneborg (1816-22) and chief minister of Finland (1822-26); son-in-law of Ernst Gustaf friherre von Willebrand. He was made a count (greve/kreivi) in the Finnish nobility in 1824.

Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf (Emil friherre) (friherre in Finnish vapaaherra) (b. June 4, 1867, Villnäs [Askainen; now part of Masku municipality], Finland - d. Jan. 27, 1951, Lausanne, Switzerland), president of Finland (1944-46); grandson of Carl Gustaf greve Mannerheim. He entered the Russian army in 1889 as a lieutenant in the cavalry and rose to the rank of lieutenant general and corps commander. After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in November 1917 he returned to Finland, which declared its independence from Russia. He assumed command of the "White" (anti-Bolshevik) forces in January 1918 during the Finnish Civil War and, with the aid of German forces, defeated the Finnish Bolsheviks and expelled Russian forces in a bloody four-month campaign. He became regent of Finland in December 1918, holding this post for seven months (during which he signed his name Kustaa Mannerheim) until a republic was declared in 1919. Defeated in the first presidential election in July 1919, he mostly retired from public life until he became chairman of the national defense council (1931-39); during his tenure Finland constructed the Mannerheim Line of fortifications across the Karelian Isthmus facing Leningrad. In 1933 he was given the rank of field marshal. When Soviet forces attacked Finland in December 1939, he served as commander in chief, and his brilliant leadership won considerable successes against vast numerical superiority, but the end result was defeat, resulting in a relatively harsh peace settlement in 1940. Hoping to win back some territory, Finland successfully joined Nazi Germany in its invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. He was named the only Marshal of Finland in June 1942. But as Russian strength grew and Germany weakened, his troops were forced to retreat. He was named president in August 1944 and signed an armistice with the Soviets in September, which ultimately led to a peace treaty by which Finland was forced to make concessions more extensive than those made in 1940. He remained president until ill health forced his retirement in 1946.

Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf greve (b. Aug. 10, 1797, Villnäs [Askainen; now part of Masku municipality], Finland - d. Oct. 9, 1854, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Vasa (1832-34) and Viborg (1834-39); son of Carl Erik greve Mannerheim. He was also known as an entomologist.

Manning, Daniel (b. May 16, 1831, Albany, N.Y. - d. Dec. 24, 1887, Albany), U.S. treasury secretary (1885-87).

E.C. Manning
Manning, Ernest C(harles) (b. Sept. 20, 1908, Carnduff, Sask. - d. Feb. 19, 1996, Calgary, Alta.), premier of Alberta (1943-68). As a young man he studied under the charismatic evangelist William Aberhart, the founder of the populist Social Credit political movement. After Aberhart's Social Credit Party captured 56 of 63 seats in the 1935 election, Aberhart became premier and Manning joined the cabinet as provincial secretary. When Aberhart died in 1943, Manning was elected party leader and premier. Reelected seven consecutive times, he served for 25 years while concurrently enjoying a career as an evangelist on radio, where he was heard weekly on the North American broadcast of "Back to the Bible Hour." He was credited with guiding the province through the Great Depression and shaping it into a model of economic prosperity, in part owing to the discovery of a major oil field at Leduc in 1947 and his innovative rules concerning the proper management of petroleum reserves. That allowed him to expand social services while maintaining the lowest taxes in Canada. He was a Canadian senator from 1970 to 1983.

Patrick Manning
Manning, Patrick (Augustus Mervyn) (b. Aug. 17, 1946, San Fernando, Trinidad - d. July 2, 2016, San Fernando), prime minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1991-95, 2001-10). He was also minister of information and Tobago affairs (1980-81), industry, commerce, and consumer affairs (1981), and energy and natural resources (1981-86). He was leader of the People's National Movement from 1987 to 2010.

Preston Manning
Manning, (Ernest) Preston (b. June 10, 1942, Edmonton, Alta.), Canadian politician; son of Ernest C. Manning. He followed in his father's footsteps as a populist and an evangelical Christian fundamentalist and gave sermons on the elder's radio program. He ran unsuccessfully as a candidate for the Social Credit Party in the 1965 federal election. He returned to the political arena in 1987. In May, delegates of the Reform Association of Canada voted to create a new federal political party. The Reform Party of Canada was founded in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in October, and Manning, a key organizer of the association, was elected leader of the party. The Reform Party grew out of the feeling of alienation prevalent in Canada's western provinces, and its aim was to advance the interests of western Canada by sending members of parliament to Ottawa. The slogan was "The West Wants In," and the purpose was to pursue economic and political equality for the West within Canada. In 1991, however, the party changed its focus to that of a national party that would organize across Canada. The slogan became "Building a New Canada," and the party aimed to place all provinces on an equal footing within the nation. In 1993 he was voted into parliament for the riding of Calgary Southwest. In the 1997 general election, the Reform Party received 19% of the popular vote and won 60 seats in the House of Commons. Thus, barely 10 years after its founding, it had risen from a western fringe party to become the official opposition, with Manning becoming leader of the opposition. Although the party was disappointed that no party candidates were elected outside the western provinces, it expected that the strong showing of the party would give the Canadian West a greater voice in the federal government. In 2000 the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance and he lost a leadership vote to Stockwell Day. He resigned from parliament in 2002.

Manning, John L(aurence) (b. Jan. 29, 1816, Sumter district [in present Clarendon county], S.C. - d. Oct. 29, 1889, Camden, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1852-54); son of Richard I. Manning (1789-1836).

Manning, Richard I(rvine) (b. May 1, 1789, Clarendon county, S.C. - d. May 1, 1836, Philadelphia, Pa.), governor of South Carolina (1824-26); nephew of James B. Richardson.

Manning, Richard I(rvine) (b. Aug. 15, 1859, Sumter district [now county], S.C. - d. Sept. 11, 1931, Columbia, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1915-19); nephew of John L. Manning.

Manning, Sir William (Henry) (b. July 19, 1863 - d. Jan. 1, 1932, Faversham, Kent, England), governor of Nyasaland (1907-08 [acting], 1911-13), Jamaica (1913-18), and Ceylon (1918-25) and commissioner of British Somaliland (1910-11); knighted 1904.

Mano, Manuel da Cunha e Costa Marques (b. Sept. 22, 1894, Aveiro, Portugal - d. Nov. 17, 1971), governor-general of Angola (1939-41).

Manoilescu, Mihail (b. Dec. 10, 1891, Tecuci, Romania - d. [in prison] Dec. 30, 1950, Sighet [now Sighetu Marmatiei], Romania), foreign minister of Romania (1940). Known as an economist and theoretician of corporatism, he was also minister of public works and transport (1930) and industry and trade (1930-31) and governor of the National Bank (1931).

Manoli, Mihai (b. Sept. 20, 1954, Valea Mare, Moldavian S.S.R.), finance minister of Moldova (1999-2002). He was also ambassador to the United States, Canada, and Mexico (2002-06).

Manolic, Josip (b. March 22, 1920, Kalinovac, Croatia - d. April 15, 2024), prime minister of Croatia (1990-91). He was president of the House of Counties in 1993-94.

Manongi, Tuvako Nathaniel (b. Sept. 6, 1953, Same, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), Tanzanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2012-17).

Manopakornnitithada, Phya (b. July 15, 1884, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand] - d. Oct. 1, 1948, Penang, Malaya [now in Malaysia]), finance minister (1932-33) and prime minister (1932-33) of Siam.

Manorohanta (Dominique), Cécile (Marie Ange), defense minister (2007-09), interior minister (2009-10), and prime minister (2009) of Madagascar.

Manotoc, Matthew (Joseph Marcos) (b. Dec. 9, 1988, Morocco), Philippine politician; son of Imee Marcos. He has been governor of Ilocos Norte (2019- ).

Manrique, Francisco (Guillermo) (b. Feb. 10, 1919, Mendoza, Argentina - d. Feb. 15, 1988, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentine politician. He was minister of social welfare (1970-72) and a presidential candidate (1973, 1983).

G. Manrique
Manrique (Miranda), Gustavo (b. May 1, 1970, Guayaquil, Ecuador), foreign minister of Ecuador (2023). He was also minister of environment, water, and ecological transition (2021-23).

Manrique Martínez, Juan, interior minister of Ecuador (2000-01). He was also ambassador to Peru (2001-03).

Mansfield, Sir Alan (James) (b. Sept. 30, 1902, Indooroopilly, Qld. - d. July 17, 1980, Benowa, Qld.), governor of Queensland (1957-58 [acting], 1966-72); knighted 1958. He was chief justice of Queensland in 1956-66.

M. Mansfield
Mansfield, Mike, byname of Michael Joseph Mansfield (b. March 16, 1903, New York City - d. Oct. 5, 2001, Washington, D.C.), U.S. politician. He built a solid reputation in the House of Representatives for a decade (1943-53) before moving to the Senate, where he became assistant Democratic leader under the tutelage of majority leader Lyndon B. Johnson in 1957. Four years later, Mansfield became Senate majority leader when Johnson became vice president under Pres. John F. Kennedy in 1961. He held the post for 16 years - longer than anyone in Senate history. While a close associate of Johnson, Mansfield was one of the most vocal critics of America's role in the Vietnam War. He was also instrumental in establishing a Senate committee that investigated the Watergate scandal that proved Richard Nixon's downfall. Mansfield's career in the Senate included membership on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He was a strong advocate for national health insurance and played a leading role in lowering the voting age to 18 and in the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In Congress, Mansfield represented Montana for 34 years until in 1977 he was named by Pres. Jimmy Carter as U.S. ambassador to Tokyo. In an unusual move, Republican president Ronald Reagan reappointed Mansfield as ambassador to Japan, a post he held until 1988.

Mansfield, Sir Philip (Robert Aked) (b. May 9, 1926, Harrogate, England - d. May 14, 2003, San Francisco, Calif.), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1976-79); knighted 1984. He was also British ambassador to the Netherlands (1981-84).

Mansfield, Samuel (b. 1815 - d. Dec. 12, 1893), commissioner of Sind (1862-67).

Mansfield, William Murray, (1st) Earl of, (1st) Baron Mansfield (b. March 2, 1705, Scone, Perthshire, Scotland - d. March 20, 1793, London, England), British jurist. He was lord chief justice of the King's Bench (1756-88) and acting chancellor of the exchequer (1757, 1767). He was created baron in 1756 and earl in 1776 and (due to certain limitations on the earlier patent) again in 1792.

Mansholt, Sicco (Leendert) (b. Sept. 13, 1908, Ulrum, near Groningen, Netherlands - d. June 30, 1995, Wapserveen, Drenthe, Netherlands), Dutch politician. After playing an important role in the Dutch resistance during World War II and in feeding people in Amsterdam during the winter of 1944-45, he helped rebuild domestic food production as minister of agriculture, fisheries, and food (1945-58). In 1946 he represented the Netherlands at the UN and in the negotiations for the creation of the Benelux Economic Union with Belgium and Luxembourg. In 1953 he introduced the original guidelines for the Mansholt Plan, a proposed radical restructuring of Western European agriculture that became the basis for the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Economic Community (EEC) and its successor, the European Community (EC). From 1958 to 1972 he served as vice president of the EEC (from 1967, EC) Commission and as commissioner for agriculture. In 1972-73 he was president of the Commission.

Mansor (bin) Othman (b. Jan. 12, 1924 - d. Jan. 21, 1999, Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia), chief minister of Negeri Sembilan (1969-78).

Adli Mansour
Mansour, Adli (Mahmoud) (b. Dec. 23, 1945, Cairo, Egypt), interim president of Egypt (2013-14). He was head of the Supreme Constitutional Court (2013-16).

Adnan Mansour
Mansour, Adnan, Arabic `Adnan Mansur (b. Jan. 5, 1946, Borj el-Barajné, Lebanon), foreign minister of Lebanon (2011-14). He was ambassador to Zaire (1990-94), Iran (1999-2007), and Belgium and Luxembourg (2007-10).

Mansour, Albert (Sami) (b. 1939, Ras Baalbek, Lebanon), defense minister of Lebanon (1989-90). He was also information minister (1990-92).

Mansour, Habib (b. Feb. 23, 1949, Hammam Sousse, Tunisia), Tunisian diplomat. He was ambassador to Zaire (1990-92), Argentina (1994-97), Chile (1995-97), Spain (1997-2001), Italy (2005-07), Cyprus (2006-07), and the United States (2009-10) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-09).

Mansour, Omar (b. Jan. 27, 1958, Tunis, Tunisia), justice minister of Tunisia (2016). He was also governor of Ariana (2015-16) and Tunis (2016-17).

Mansur (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. 1922, Riyadh, Nejd [now in Saudi Arabia] - d. May 2, 1951, Paris, France), Saudi prince; son of Abdul Aziz. He was defense minister (1943-51).

Mansur, (Rajab) Ali (b. 1895 - d. Dec. 8, 1974, Tehran, Iran), prime minister of Iran (1940-41, 1950). He was also governor of Khorasan (1942-45) and ambassador to Turkey (1954-58).

Mansur, Hassan Ali (b. April 1923, Tehran, Iran - d. Jan. 26, 1965, Tehran), prime minister of Iran (1964-65); son of Ali Mansur. He was also minister of commerce (1959-60) and labour (1959-60). He was shot by right-wing Muslim extremists while on his way to parliament on Jan. 21, 1965, and died five days later.

Mansur, João (b. July 22, 1923, Irati, Paraná, Brazil - d. Feb. 23, 2012, Curitiba, Paraná), governor of Paraná (1973).

Mansur, Kamal Hassan, original surname (until 1985) Maqhur (b. 1935 - d. 2002), foreign minister of Libya (1986-87). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-75), ambassador to France (1976-78) and China (1978-81), and minister of petroleum (1982-84).

Mansur, Tawfiq Ahmad Khalil al- (b. Nov. 14, 1957), Bahraini diplomat. He was ambassador to Russia (2001-03) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-11).

Mansur (bin Tengku Muhammad Adil), Tengku (b. Jan. 17, 1897, Tanjung Balai, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sumatera Utara, Indonesia] - d. Oct. 7, 1955, Medan, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia), Wali Negara of Sumatera Timur (1947-50); grandson of Husain Syah bin Ali and nephew of Ahmad Syah bin Husain (sultans of Asahan).

Mansur ibn Miteb (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud) (b. 1952), Saudi prince; son of Miteb. He was minister of municipal and rural affairs (2009-15).

Mansur ibn Nasir (ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud), Saudi prince; son of Nasir. He was ambassador to Switzerland (2019-20).

Mansurov, Burkhan (Khusnutdinovich) (b. 1889, Staroye Zelenoye, Saratov province [now in Ulyanovsk oblast], Russia - d. August 1942, Tatar A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Tatar A.S.S.R. (1920-21).

Mansurov, Tair (Aymukhametovich) (b. Jan. 1, 1948, Sarkand, Taldy-Kurgan oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. [now in Zhetysu oblast, Kazakhstan]), head of Severo-Kazakhstan oblast (2003-07). He was also Kazakh ambassador to Russia (1994-2002) and Finland (1996-2002) and secretary-general of the Eurasian Economic Community (2007-14).

Mansyrev, Fayzulla (Saidovich) (b. 1882 - d. 19...), chairman of the Provisional Military-Revolutionary Committee (1920) and of the Central Executive Committee (1920-21) of the Bashkir A.S.S.R.

Mantayev, Arslan-Ali (Mantayevich) (b. 1918, Kandauraul, Dagestan oblast [now republic], Russia - d. 1997), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Dagestan A.S.S.R. (1952-54).

Mantega, Guido (b. April 7, 1949, Genoa, Italy), finance minister of Brazil (2006-15). He was also minister of planning, budget, and management (2003-04).

Mantere, Oskari, originally Oskar Mantere (b. Sept. 18, 1874, Hausjärvi, Finland - d. Dec. 9, 1942, Helsinki, Finland), prime minister of Finland (1928-29). He was also minister of social affairs (1922-24) and education (1932-36).

Manteuffel, (Karl Rochus) Edwin Freiherr von (b. Feb. 24, 1809, Dresden, Saxony [Germany] - d. June 17, 1885, Karlsbad, Austria [now Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic]), Reichsstatthalter of Alsace-Lorraine (1879-85); cousin of Otto Theodor Freiherr von Manteuffel.

Manteuffel, Ignacy (b. Sept. 3, 1875, Taunaga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Aug. 17, 1927, Kielce, Poland), governor of Kieleckie województwo (1924-27).

Manteuffel, Otto Theodor Freiherr von (b. Feb. 3, 1805, Lübben, Prussia [now in Brandenburg, Germany] - d. Nov. 26, 1882, Krossen, Prussia [now part of Drahnsdorf, Brandenburg], Germany), interior minister (1848-50) and prime minister and foreign minister (1850-58) of Prussia.

Manthey, August Christian (b. Feb. 14, 1811, Rakkestad, Norway - d. May 25, 1880), governor of Hedemarkens amt (1849-56) and Kristiania stift (1874-80) and Norwegian minister of auditing (1856), justice (1856-57, 1859-60, 1863-64, 1869-70), interior (1858-59, 1861-62, 1865-66), army (1862-63, 1866-67, 1872), navy (1861, 1867-68, 1871-72, 1872, 1873-74), and finance (1870, 1872-73, 1874).

Mantik, G(ustaf) H(endrik) (b. April 26, 1928, Bandung, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. Aug. 8, 2001, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Sulawesi Utara (1980-85).

Mantilla (Campos), (Máximo) Agustín (b. Dec. 10, 1944, Lima, Peru - d. Nov. 20, 2015, Lima), interior minister of Peru (1989-90). He was also minister of the presidency (1989).

Mantilla (Huerta), (Luis) Felipe, interior minister of Ecuador (2003). Earlier in 2003 he was minister of labour.

Mantilla (Cáceres), Manuel, interior minister of Venezuela (1963-64, 1978-79). He was also governor of Miranda (1974-77) and the Distrito Federal (1977-78).

Mantra, Ida Bagus (b. May 8, 1928, Badung, Bali, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. July 7, 1995, Denpasar, Bali), governor of Bali (1978-88).

Manturov, Denis (Valentinovich) (b. Feb. 23, 1969, Murmansk, Russian S.F.S.R.), a deputy prime minister (2022-24) and first deputy prime minister (2024- ) of Russia. He was also minister of industry and trade (2012-24).

Manu, Gheorghe (b. July 24, 1833, Bucharest, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. May 16, 1911, Bucharest), war minister (1869-70, 1888-89, 1905-07), prime minister (1889-91), interior minister (1889-91, 1900), and finance minister (1899-1900) of Romania. He was also mayor of Bucharest (1874-77) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1892-95).

Manu, Savel (b. May 12, 1824, Botosani, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. 1905), war minister (1864-66) and acting foreign minister (1865) of Romania.

Manuari, Derrick (b. 1979), justice minister of the Solomon Islands (2017-19).

Manuel II
Manuel II, in full Manuel Maria Filipe Carlos Amélio Luís Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis Eugénio (b. Nov. 15, 1889, Lisbon, Portugal - d. July 2, 1932, Twickenham, London, England), king of Portugal (1908-10). He was the younger son of King Carlos and Queen Maria Amalia. On Feb. 1, 1908, Carlos and his elder son, Luís Filipe, were assassinated by anarchists in the streets of Lisbon; Manuel (then known as the Duque de Beja), who was in the same carriage and was wounded in the arm by one of the bullets, unexpectedly found himself king at the age of 18. The dictatorial prime minister João Franco resigned, and Manuel asked Adm. Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral to head a government composed of equal numbers of the two main parties, the Regenerators and the Progressists, with one or two others. Amaral proceeded with elections in Lisbon, which the republicans won. They intensified preparations for a revolution, while the monarchist parties formed ineffective coalitions, alternately advising the young king and blaming him for taking their advice. In the summer of 1910 Manuel went to Buçaco, but on his return a revolution, supported by the fleet on the Tagus River, broke out. His palace was shelled, and Manuel fled into exile. The republic was proclaimed, and Manuel settled near London, at Richmond and later at Twickenham. Although he never abdicated officially, he took no action to regain his throne. When royalists attempted a coup in 1919, and actually proclaimed him king, he resented the move and said so in a telegram to the royalist leaders. On Sept. 4, 1913, he married Augusta Victoria, the daughter of Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern. He left no issue. Patching up a feud between two rival branches of the house of Bragança, he met with his cousin Miguel in 1927 and agreed that upon his death another cousin, Duarte Nuno, would succeed as head of the house.

Manuel, Armando (b. 1972?), finance minister of Angola (2013-16).

T. Manuel
Manuel, Trevor (Andrew) (b. Jan. 31, 1956, Cape Town, South Africa), finance minister of South Africa (1996-2009). A former trade unionist, he was also minister of trade, industry, and tourism (1994-96). He introduced the government's sober macroeconomic policy which was welcomed by investors. He was also credited with encouraging a strict monetary and fiscal policy, which helped South Africa weather an emerging markets crisis in 1998 better than many other African nations. In 2009-14 he was minister in the presidency in charge of a new National Planning Commission.

Manuel de Vilhena (dos condes de Vila Flor), António (b. May 28, 1663, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Dec. 12, 1736), grand master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (1722-36).

Manuella, Sir Tulaga (b. Aug. 26, 1936), governor-general of Tuvalu (1994-98); knighted 1996.

Manuilov, Aleksandr (Apollonovich) (b. April 3 [March 22, O.S.], 1861, Balta, Podolia province, Russia [now in Odessa oblast, Ukraine] - d. July 20, 1929, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), education minister of Russia (1917). He was also rector of Moscow University (1905-11).

Manuilsky, Dmytro (Zakharevych), Russian Dmitry (Zakharovich) Manuilsky (b. Oct. 3 [Sept. 21, O.S.], 1883, Sviatets, near Kremianets, Volhynia, Russia - d. Feb. 22, 1959, Kiev, Ukrainian S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party (1921-23) and foreign minister (1944-52) of the Ukrainian S.S.R. He was also people's commissar of agriculture (1920-21) and a deputy premier (1944-53).

Manuitt Carpio, Eduardo (b. July 28, 1955), governor of Guárico (1998-2008).

Manukhin, Sergey (Sergeyevich) (b. Oct. 9 [Sept. 27, O.S.], 1856 - d. April 17, 1922, Petrograd [St. Petersburg], Russia), justice minister of Russia (1905).

Manukyan, Hovhannes (Gerasimi) (b. Dec. 14, 1971, Leninakan, Armenian S.S.R. [now Gyumri, Armenia]), justice minister of Armenia (2014-15). He was also president of the Court of Cassation (2005-08) and ambassador to Georgia (2011-14).

V. Manukyan
Manukyan, Vazgen (Mikayeli) (b. Feb. 13, 1946, Leninakan, Armenian S.S.R. [now Gyumri, Armenia]), Armenian politician. Before 1988, he was a member and founder of several political organizations. From February 1988 he was a member, and from June 1988 the coordinator, of the Karabagh Committee. On Oct. 10, 1988, he was imprisoned along with the other members of the Karabagh Committee, and spent 6 months in the Moscow Motrosskaya Tishina jail. He was the first chairman of the board and the author of the ideology and of the first program of the All-Armenian National Movement (ANM). In May 1990, he was elected a deputy of the Supreme Council of Armenia. On Aug. 13, 1990, he was appointed prime minister. On Sept. 25, 1991, he resigned from this post. Further, jointly with David Vardanyan, Arshak Sadoyan, and Shavarsh Kocharyan, Manukyan initiated the establishment of the centre-right National Democratic Union (NDU), which brought together the former ANM activists and sharers of the same ideology. In 1992-93 he was defense minister. In 1995, he was elected a deputy of the National Assembly. In 1996, he was the single presidential candidate from the opposition, and received 41.3% of the votes; he accused Pres. Levon Ter-Petrosyan of stealing power through fraud. Manukyan came third in the 1998 presidential election, behind Robert Kocharyan and Karen Demirchyan. In the campaign he pledged to revive Armenian heavy industry. He was also a presidential candidate in 2003 and 2008, winning only about 1% of the vote.

Manukyants, Mikhail (Sergeyevich) (b. 1909 - d. 1968), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast (1937-40, 1946-48).

Manusama, Johannes Alvarez (b. Aug. 17, 1910, Bandjermasin, Borneo, Netherlands East Indies [now Indonesia] - d. Dec. 29, 1995, Rotterdam, Netherlands), president of the South Moluccas in exile (1966-93). In 1975 and 1977, he played a key role as a negotiator when South Moluccan extremists took hostages on Dutch passenger trains.

Manushev, Anton (Georgiev) (b. 1864, Samokov, Ottoman Empire [now in Bulgaria] - d. Aug. 23, 1903), finance minister of Bulgaria (1903).

Manutsyan, Sero (V.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Nagorny Karabakh (1923).

Manyanga (Ndambo), Marc (b. Oct. 14, 1956, Mapangu, Belgian Congo [now Congo (Kinshasa)]), special commissioner (2015-16) and governor (2016-19) of Kasaï.

Manz, Johannes (Jakob) (b. Dec. 15, 1938, Zürich, Switzerland), Swiss diplomat. He was permanent observer to the United Nations (1992-97) and ambassador to Japan (1997-2002).

Manzanilla Barrientos, José Matías (b. Oct. 5, 1867, Ica, Peru - d. Oct. 6, 1947, Lima, Peru), foreign minister (1914, 1932-33) and prime minister (1932-33) of Peru. He was also president of the House of Representatives (1909-10, 1916-17) and minister to Italy (1933-39).

Manzanilla Schaffer, Víctor (b. Nov. 13, 1924, Mexico City, Mexico - d. April 7, 2019, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico), governor of Yucatán (1988-91). He was also president of Mexico's Chamber of Deputies (1967) and ambassador to China (1980-82).

Manzo González, José (b. 1922), justice minister of Venezuela (1984-88). He was also minister of labour (1976-79).

Manzoni Borghesi, Angelo (b. Sept. 16, 1882 - d. 1950), captain-regent of San-Marino (1911-12, 1917-18, 1924, 1931, 1934-35, 1940).

Manzoni Borghesi, Bartolomeo (b. Jan. 21, 1910 - d. 1975), captain-regent of San Marino (1943); nephew of Angelo Manzoni Borghesi.


Mao Chi-kuo
Manzur, Juan Luis (b. Jan. 8, 1969, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina), governor of Tucumán (2015-23) and cabinet chief of Argentina (2021-23). He was also health minister of Argentina (2009-15).

Mao Chi-kuo (b. Oct. 4, 1948), premier of Taiwan (2014-16). He was minister of transportation and communications (2009-13) and vice premier (2013-14).

Mao Dun (Wade-Giles Mao Tun), pen name of Shen Yanbing, original name Shen Dehong (b. July 4, 1896, Tongxiang, Zhejiang, China - d. March 27, 1981, Beijing, China), Chinese politician. A noted writer, he was minister of culture (1949-64).

Mao Guangxiang (b. 1893, Tongzi, Guizhou, China - d. November 1947, Chishui, Guizhou), chairman of the government of Guizhou (1929-31). Having participated in the war against Yuan Shikai in 1916 on the side of the South, he was named the vice-commander of the 25th Army and concurrently head of the Guizhou provincial Military Bureau. Having expelled Chairman Li Shen, Mao was nominated the chief commander of the 25th Army, also taking up the headquarters of the 18th Route Army. In 1935, he launched a war against Wang Jialie, but was defeated; he then left politics.

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong, Wade-Giles Mao Tse-tung (b. Dec. 26, 1893, Shaoshan, Hunan, China - d. Sept. 9, 1976, Beijing, China), Chinese leader. In July 1921 he attended the First Congress of the Chinese Communist Party. In 1923, when the young party entered into an alliance with Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang (Nationalist Party), Mao was one of the first Communists to join the Kuomintang and to work within it. In 1925 he became aware of the revolutionary potential inherent in the peasantry, and in 1927 he embarked on a new type of revolutionary warfare in the countryside in which the Red Army would play the central role. He became chairman of the Chinese Soviet Republic founded in Kiangsi (Jiangxi) province in 1931, but it was unable to stand up against Chiang Kai-shek's elite units, and in 1934 the Red Army set out for the northwest of China, on what is known as the Long March, during which Mao was chosen leader of the party (Jan. 8, 1935); he formally became chairman in March 1943. The revolution was victorious, and the People's Republic of China was proclaimed in 1949, with Mao as its chairman. In 1958 he launched the Great Leap Forward, which resulted in the starvation of millions. In 1959 he was replaced as head of state but he remained party chairman until his death. A campaign to reestablish his ideological line culminated in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-76), a mass mobilization of youth against party bureaucrats and "bourgeois values"; many people died and the economy was disrupted. Soon after his death, the Maoists were purged. The official Chinese view, defined in June 1981, is that his leadership was basically correct until 1957, but from then on it was mixed at best and frequently quite wrong.

Maoate, Sir Terepai (Tuamure-) (b. Sept. 1, 1934, Rarotonga, Cook Islands - d. July 9, 2012, Rarotonga), deputy prime minister (1985-89, 2003, 2005-09), prime minister (1999-2002), finance minister (2005-09), and foreign minister (2009) of the Cook Islands; knighted 2007.

Maoh, Alfred (b. Sept. 12, 1977), internal affairs minister of Vanuatu (2016-17). He was also minister of lands, geology, and mines (2017-20).

Maope, Kelebone Albert (b. Sept. 15, 1945, Ha Maope Lekokoaneng, Berea district, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), Lesotho politician. In November 1986 he became attorney general, a position he held even after becoming a minister (law, constitutional and parliamentary affairs, and justice and prisons) in February 1990. In May 1993, he was appointed as member of the Senate, and he was sworn in as minister of justice, human rights, law, and constitutional affairs in June. After the July 1995 cabinet reshuffle he became minister of foreign affairs. He was elected deputy leader of the Lesotho Congress for Democracy at the party's annual conference in February 1998. He was elected member of parliament for the Seqonoka constituency in the 1998 general elections, and appointed deputy prime minister and minister of agriculture, cooperatives, and land reclamation. The July 1999 cabinet reshuffle made him minister of finance and of development planning, and he still remained deputy prime minister, as he did in July 2001 when he was moved to justice and constitutional affairs. In September 2001, however, he resigned from the cabinet after an exchange of insults with Foreign Minister Tom Thabane. In October he formed an opposition party, the Congress of the People of Lesotho. In 2013-19 he was permanent representative to the United Nations.

Mapa, Victorino (Montaño) (b. Feb. 25, 1855, Calivo, Capiz, Philippines - d. April 12, 1927, Manila, Philippines), finance secretary (1913-17) and justice secretary (1913-20) of the Philippines. He was also chief justice (1920-21).

Mapisa-Nqakula, Nosiviwe (Noluthando) (b. Nov. 13, 1956, Cape Town, South Africa), home affairs minister (2004-09) and defense minister (2012-21) of South Africa; wife of Charles Nqakula. She was also minister of correctional services (2009-12) and speaker of the National Assembly (2021-24).

Mapou, Louis (b. Nov. 14, 1958, Yaté, New Caledonia), president of the government of New Caledonia (2021- ).

Mapouka, Thomas, Central African Republic politician. He was minister of public works (1981-83), energy and water resources (1983-84), posts and telecommunications (1987-88), justice (1988-89), rural development (1989-90), and public security and territorial administration (1990-91).

K. Mapp

Mapp, Kenneth (E.) (b. Nov. 2, 1955, Brooklyn, New York City), governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands (2015-19).

Mapp, Sir Ronald G(renville) (d. September 1995), Barbadian politician; knighted 1982. He was minister of housing and lands (1976-78) and constitutional affairs (1978-79) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-82).

Mapp, Wayne (Daniel) (b. March 12, 1952, Te Kopuru, New Zealand), defence minister of New Zealand (2008-11). He was also minister of research, science, and technology (2008-11).

Mappus, Stefan (b. April 4, 1966, Pforzheim, West Germany), minister-president of Baden-Württemberg (2010-11).

Mapuranga, Machivenyika (Tobias) (b. March 22, 1947), Zimbabwean diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Zambia (1980-81), high commissioner to Tanzania (1982-86), permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-99), high commissioner (2001-03) and ambassador (2003-05) to Ghana, and ambassador to the United States (2005-13).

Mapuri, Omar Ramadhan (b. Jan. 10, 1950, Kahama, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), home affairs minister of Tanzania (2003-05). He was also ambassador to China (2006-12).

Mara, Ratu Alifereti (Ulukalala Baleisasa) Finau (b. June 9, 1957 - d. April 15, 2020, Suva, Fiji), Fijian politician; son of Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara; brother of Koila Mara Nailatikau. He was chargé d'affaires in the United States (1990-92), minister of Fijian affairs (1997-99), and roving ambassador and high commissioner in the Pacific (2001-06).

K. Mara
Mara, Ratu Sir Kamisese (Kapaiwai Tuimacilai), Tui Nayau, Tui Lau (b. May 13, 1920, Sawana, Vanua Balavu island, Lau province, Fiji - d. April 18, 2004, Suva, Fiji), chief minister (1967-70), prime minister (1970-87, 1987-92), foreign minister (1970-82, 1985, 1986-87, 1987, 1987-92), and president (1993-2000) of Fiji; knighted 1969. He was also minister of natural resources (1964-67). He was the paramount chief of the eastern Lau Islands and was revered as the last surviving giant of a feudal hierarchy who was able to hold together bickering Fijian tribes as he struggled to weld the islands into a stable, united multiracial nation following independence from Britain in 1970 after 96 years of colonial rule. However, his reputation was tainted by coups that tore the country apart in 1987 and again in 2000. His tenure ended abruptly during the 2000 coup, when he was forced to resign. Rebels accused the elderly president of working to keep power in the hands of a small group of native chiefs and ethnic Indian businessmen, at the expense of ordinary Fijians. Mara was also a major figure in trade and aid negotiations between the European Union and more than 70 Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries and a staunch supporter of the Commonwealth of former British colonies and the British monarchy, which he felt underwrote the security of Fiji's chieftains and his own place in that system.

M. Mara
Mara, Moussa (b. March 2, 1975, Bamako, Mali), prime minister of Mali (2014-15). He was also minister of town planning (2013-14).

Marabut, Serafin (Dadal) (b. Oct. 7, 1889, Basey, Samar, Philippines - d. [executed] Feb. 7, 1945), defense secretary (1941) and finance secretary (1941) of the Philippines. He was also commissioner of the budget (1936-42).

Maracaju, Rufino Enéas Gustavo Galvão, barão e visconde de (b. July 2, 1831, Laranjeiras, Sergipe, Brazil - d. Feb. 18, 1909, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Amazonas (1878-79), Mato Grosso (1879-81), and Pará (1882-84) and war minister of Brazil (1889). He was made baron in 1874 and viscount in 1883.

Maradas-Nado, Paul Michel (b. 1926, Dekoa, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic]), Central African Republic politician. He was minister of public health (1961-64) and public works, posts, and telecommunications (1964-66).

Marafa Hamidou, Yaya (b. 1952), territorial administration minister of Cameroon (2002-11).

E. Maragall

P. Maragall
Maragall (i Mira), Ernest (b. Jan. 5, 1943, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain), external action minister of Catalonia (2018); brother of Pasqual Maragall.

Maragall (i Mira), Pasqual (b. Jan. 13, 1941, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (2003-06). He was mayor of Barcelona in 1982-97.

Maraghei, Mohammad Said (b. 1881, Maragha, Azarbaijan, Iran - d. Nov. 1, 1973, Tehran, Iran), foreign minister (1942-44) and prime minister (1944, 1948-50) of Iran. He was also minister to Azerbaijan (1920-22) and Italy (1936-37), chargé d'affaires in Turkey (1928-30), and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1938-42), Turkey (1950-51), and the Vatican (1957-62).

Marah, Kaifala (b. Koidu, Kono district, Sierra Leone), finance minister (2012-16) and foreign minister (2017-18) of Sierra Leone.

Marais, Jaap, byname of Jacob Albertus Marais (b. Nov. 2, 1922, Vryburg, South Africa - d. Aug. 8, 2000, Pretoria, South Africa), South African politician. He helped found the far-right Herstigte Nasionale Party in 1969 with a group of right-wing parliamentarians who were thrown out of the ruling National Party - the architect of apartheid - after disputes with party leaders. Marais became party leader in 1977. Though his party never held much power and attracted few votes, it was considered the voice of ultraconservative Afrikaners. As the apartheid state was crumbling in the early 1990s, Marais accused Pres. F.W. de Klerk of behaving like a dictator for proposing compromises that would likely bring a black head of state to power. Apartheid ended with the country's first all-race elections in 1994.

P. Marais
Marais, Peter, byname of Petrus Jacobus Marais (b. Sept. 4, 1948), premier of Western Cape (2001-02). He was mayor of Cape Town in 2000-01. He resigned as premier on May 31, 2002, following claims of sexual misconduct which might have led to a criminal prosecution. On October 9 it was announced that he would not be prosecuted.

Maraj, Ralph (b. Jan. 21, 1949, Rousillac, La Brea, Trinidad), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1991-95, 1995-2000). He was also minister of communications and information technology (2000-01).

Marajó, José Coelho da Gama (e) Abreu, barão de (b. April 12, 1832, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. Nov. 25, 1906, Lisbon, Portugal), president of Amazonas (1867-68) and Pará (1879-81). He was also mayor of Belém (1891-94). He was made baron in 1881.

Marak, Salseng C(hada) (b. Jan. 16, 1941, Baghmara, Assam [now in South Garo Hills district, Meghalaya], India), chief minister of Meghalaya (1993-98). A protégé of the first Meghalaya chief minister, Capt. Williamson Sangma, who initiated him into politics, Marak contested the 1972 Meghalaya assembly election. He won it as a nominee of the then composite All Party Hill Leaders's Conference from the Resubelpara constituency. His first break into the ministerial office came in 1975, when he was inducted into the ministry headed by Captain Sangma as a minister of state, a post he held until 1978. In 1976, he joined the Indian National Congress. In the 1978 assembly election, he contested from Resubelpara on a Congress ticket and won. Subsequently, in 1979, he was inducted into the B.B. Lyngdoh ministry as cabinet minister. Contesting from the same constituency in the assembly poll, on the same ticket, Marak was returned in 1983. On the formation of the Sangma ministry soon after, he was again made a cabinet minister, in charge of public health engineering. In 1985, however, he resigned on moral grounds over the Jowai PHE scandal. In 1986, he was re-inducted into the ministry. In the ministry headed by P.A. Sangma, Marak was, yet again, a cabinet minister. He held the post till the government was voted out in 1990. Marak also served as general secretary of the Meghalaya Pradesh Congress Committee (MPCC) from 1979 to 1988. From 1992 to 1993 and again from 2000 he was the president of the MPCC. Following his victory in 1993 to the Meghalaya assembly, which was his fifth consecutive win from the constituency, Marak became the popular choice to head the government as chief minister. He completed his five-year tenure, and in the midst of a fractured verdict in the 1998 election, was sworn in as chief minister for a second time, but resigned a month later.

Marambio Marchant, Tulio (Manuel) (b. April 10, 1911, Curicó, Chile - d. April 29, 1999, Santiago, Chile), defense minister of Chile (1968-69).

Maramis, A(lexander) A(ndries) (b. June 20, 1897, Manado, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia] - d. July 31, 1977, Jakarta, Indonesia), finance minister (1945, 1947-49) and foreign minister (emergency government, 1948-49) of Indonesia. He was also ambassador to the Philippines (1950-53), West Germany (1953-56), the Soviet Union (1956-59), and Finland (1958-59).

Marandi, Babulal (b. Jan. 11, 1958, Kodai Bank village, Giridih district, Bihar [now in Jharkhand], India), chief minister of Jharkhand (2000-03).

Maranguape, Caetano Maria Lopes Gama, visconde de (b. Aug. 5, 1795, Recife, Brazil - d. June 21, 1864, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign minister (1839-40, 1857-58) and acting principal minister (1840) of Brazil. He was also president of Alagoas (1822, 1844-45), Goiás (1824-27), and Rio Grande do Sul (1829-30) and justice minister (1847, 1862). He was made viscount in 1854.

Maranhão, Affonso de Albuquerque (b. 17..., Pernambuco captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. July 10, 1836, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Paraíba (1834).

Maranhão, Alberto (Frederico de Albuquerque) (b. Oct. 2, 1872 - d. Feb. 1, 1944), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1900-04, 1908-14); brother of Pedro Velho de Albuquerque Maranhão.

Maranhão, André de Albuquerque, Júnior (b. 1799, Arez, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. 1895, Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brazil), president of Paraíba (1832, 1843 [acting], 1844 [acting]) and Rio Grande do Norte (acting, 1843-44).

Maranhão, Constantino Carneiro de Albuquerque, byname Constâncio Maranhão, acting governor of Pernambuco (1959).

Maranhão, João de Albuquerque (d. Aug. 20, 1859, Paraíba [now João Pessoa], Paraíba, Brazil), acting president of Paraíba (1848).

J.T. Maranhão
Maranhão, José Targino (b. Sept. 6, 1936, Araruna, Paraíba, Brazil - d. Feb. 8, 2021, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Paraíba (1995-2002, 2009-11).

Maranhão, Pedro Velho de Albuquerque (b. Nov. 27, 1856, Macaíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. Dec. 9, 1907, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), president (1889 and [acting] 1890) and governor (1892-96) of Rio Grande do Norte.

Marani, Primo (b. Dec. 9, 1922, San Leo, Italy - d. Jan. 10, 2013, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1957, 1980).


Marapana, Tilak (Janaka) (b. August 1942), defense minister (2001-03) and foreign minister (2017-18, 2018-19) of Sri Lanka. He was also solicitor general (1990-92), attorney general (1992-95), and minister of transport, highways, and civil aviation (2002-04), law and order (2015), and development assignments (2017).

Marape, James (b. April 24, 1971), chairman of the Hela Transitional Authority (2010-11) and finance minister (2012-19) and prime minister (2019- ) of Papua New Guinea. He has also been minister of education (2008-11), public service, public enterprises, and state investments (2019), national planning, police, defense, and correctional services (2022), planning (2022-24), foreign affairs (acting, 2023-24), and treasury (2024- ).

Maras, Vukasin (b. Feb. 5, 1938, Podgorica, Yugoslavia [now in Montenegro] - d. Sept. 12, 2008, Podgorica, Montenegro), interior minister of Montenegro (1998-2001).

Marat, Allan (Savenat Mesak) (b. Sept. 28, 1954), Papua New Guinean politician. He was deputy prime minister (2002-03) and minister of trade and industry (2002-03), justice (2002, 2007-10, 2011-12), and police (2002).

Maraú, José Teixeira de Vasconcellos, barão de (b. 1798, Paraíba captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. April 29, 1873, Paraíba [now João Pessoa], Paraíba), acting president of Paraíba (1867). He was made baron in 1860.

Marau, Willie, byname of William Bradford Marau (b. July 16, 1978), Solomon Islands politician. He was minister of commerce, industries, labour, and immigration (2014-15, 2017-19), justice and legal affairs (2015-17), and lands, housing, and survey (2019-20).

Marazov, Ivan (Roussev) (b. March 15, 1942, Pirne village, near Burgas, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. He entered politics as deputy culture minister in the first post-Communist caretaker government in 1991. He later became culture minister. As Bulgarian Socialist Party candidate he trailed a humiliating 17 points behind Petur Stoyanov after the first round of presidential elections in 1996. A little-known scholar of Thracian mythology, Marazov had been drawn into the presidential race on a joint ticket with Foreign Minister Georgi Pirinski, whose candidacy was rejected because he was born in the United States. He modeled himself on other East European intellectuals who became heads of state after the fall of Communism in 1989. He prefered open-necked shirts and sweaters to the formal wear of party functionaries, but diligently attended party rallies commemorating dates in Communist history and spoke nostalgically of the low prices in pre-1989 Bulgaria and lost Russian markets for Bulgaria's lacklustre industrial goods. His "Together for Bulgaria" campaign had the difficult task of appealing equally to the Socialists' two main constituencies - private entrepreneurs and older voters nostalgic for the security of the former one-party regime.

Marback, Guilherme Carneiro da Rocha (b. March 28, 1898, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. April 6, 1954, Salvador), federal interventor in Bahia (1946).

Marble, Sebastian S(treeter) (b. March 1, 1817, Dixfield, Maine - d. May 10, 1902, Waldoboro, Maine), acting governor of Maine (1887-89).

Marboua, Mohamed Mahdi, originally (until 1990s) Timothée Marboua (b. Aug. 25, 1944, Bemal, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. April 25, 2020, Talence, Gironde, France), finance minister of the Central African Republic (1981-82). He was also minister of trade and industry (1987-91).

Marbush-Stepanov, Ivan (Romanovich), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Kalmyk autonomous oblast (1921-23). He was also executive secretary of the party committee of Ural province (1924-...).

Marcano (Castillo), Ángel Bautista (b. Nov. 5, 1963), governor of Bolívar (2021- ).

Marcel (Cullell), Mario (b. Oct. 22, 1959, Santiago, Chile), finance minister of Chile (2022- ). He was also director of budgets (2000-06) and president of the Central Bank (2016-22).

Marcelin, Frédéric (b. Jan. 11, 1848, Port-au-Prince, Haiti - d. Jan. 10, 1917, Paris, France), foreign minister of Haiti (1894). He was also minister of finance and commerce (1892-94, 1905-08) and interior (1907-08).

Marcellin, Raymond (b. Aug. 19, 1914, Sézanne, Marne, France - d. Sept. 8, 2004, Paris, France), French minister of public health and population (1962-69), industry (1966-67), interior (1968-74), and agriculture and rural development (1974) and president of the Regional Council of Bretagne (1978-86).

Marcère, Émile (Deshayes) de (b. March 16, 1828, Domfront, Orne, France - d. April 26, 1918, Messei, Orme), interior minister of France (1876, 1877-79). He was also interim minister of worship (1879).

Marchais, Georges (René Louis) (b. June 7, 1920, La Hoguette, Calvados, France - d. Nov. 16, 1997, Paris, France), French politician. He joined the Communist Party in 1947, became a member of the central committee in 1956 and of the Politburo in 1959 and organizational secretary in 1961. He effectively took over as party leader in 1970 when General Secretary Waldeck Rochet fell ill, and was formally named to the top post on Rochet's death two years later. In 1972, with Socialist leader François Mitterrand and Left Radical leader Robert Fabre, he developed a joint electoral platform between the leftist parties in France. He won a seat in the National Assembly from the Val-de-Marne département outside Paris in March 1973 and was continually reelected thereafter. He supported Mitterrand's unsuccessful candidacy in the 1974 presidential elections. After the breakup of the Communist-Socialist alliance in 1977, he adopted a more pro-Soviet, hardline policy (he had refused to support the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, but backed the 1979 invasion of Afghanistan and Poland's crackdown on the Solidarity movement in 1981). But his orthodox and dogmatic stance alienated many sympathizers and failed to restore the Communists to their former dominance of the left. In the first round of the 1981 presidential election, he ran against Mitterrand but polled only 15.3% of the vote, the worst showing for a Communist presidential candidate since 1935. The Communists entered the Socialist-led government as a minority partner, holding four cabinet seats until Marchais pulled them out three years later in protest at the Socialists' switch to austerity policies. Support for the Communist Party declined further; in parliamentary elections in 1986 and 1993 the party received less than 10% of the vote. Only in June 1993 did he agree to give up the Leninist principle of "democratic centralism." He retired as party leader in January 1994.

Marchaisse, Jean Ernest (b. May 5, 1814, Rochefort, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. ...), commandant of Nossi-Bé (1848-51).

Marchak, Nikolay (Makarovich) (Russian), Ukrainian Mykola (Makarovych) Marchak (b. Jan. 5, 1904 [Dec. 23, 1903, O.S.], Zalistsi, Russia [now in Khmelnytskyi oblast, Ukraine] - d. [executed] Sept. 22/23, 1938), acting chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1937-38). He was also first deputy premier (1937).

Marchal, Charles (Emmanuel Joseph) (b. October 1855, Grand-Bourg, Marie-Galante island, Guadeloupe - d. June 26, 1917, Paris, France), governor of French Guiana (1905) and Dahomey (1906-08).

Marchal, Léon (b. June 8, 1900 - d. Sept. 24, 1956), secretary-general of the Council of Europe (1953-56).

Marchand, Philippe (b. Sept. 1, 1939, Angoulême, Charente, France - d. Jan. 10, 2018, Saintes, Charente-Maritime, France), interior minister of France (1991-92).

Marchand, René (André) (b. Nov. 19, 1903 - d. Nov. 30, 1955), administrator of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1946-47).

Marchand Stens, Luis (Ernesto) (b. April 5, 1930, Lima, Peru - d. Aug. 1, 2012), foreign minister of Peru (1990-91). He was also ambassador to the United States (1984-86), Chile (1986-90), Venezuela (2001-02), and Ecuador (2002-06).

Marchandeau, Paul (Marie Henri Joseph) (b. Aug. 10, 1882, Gaillac, Tarn, France - d. May 31, 1968, Paris, France), finance minister (1934, 1938, 1938) and interior minister (1934) of France. He was also minister of budget (1933-34), commerce and industry (1934-35), and justice (1938-39) and mayor of Reims (1925-40, 1940-42).

Marchant, Henri, byname of Hendrik Pieter Marchant (b. Feb. 12, 1869, Deventer, Netherlands - d. May 12, 1956, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch politician; brother-in-law of Jean Jacques Rambonnet. He was minister of education, arts, and sciences (1933-35).

Marchant, William Sydney (b. Dec. 10, 1894 - d. Feb. 1, 1953), resident commissioner of the British Solomon Islands (1939-43).

Marchant et d'Ansembourg, Max(imilien Victor Eugène Hubert Joseph Marie) graaf de (b. Jan. 18, 1894, Gulpen, Limburg, Netherlands - d. Jan. 24, 1975, Heerlen, Limburg), provincial commissioner of Limburg (1941-44).

Marchant Scott, Ignacio (b. Sept. 16, 1879, Collipulli, Chile - d. 1952), war and marine minister of Chile (1922). He was also mayor of Santiago (1909-10).

Marchat, Jean (b. June 17, 1897, Saint-Jean-d'Angély, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. Jan. 13, 1949), resident of Wallis and Futuna (1928-31).

Marchena (Dujarric), Enrique de (b. Oct. 13, 1908, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - d. Feb. 25, 1988, Santo Domingo), foreign minister of the Dominican Republic (1955-56). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-61) and ambassador to West Germany (1966-69).

Marchenko, Pyotr (Petrovich) (b. Jan. 2, 1948, Stavropol kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), head of the administration of Stavropol kray (1995-96). He was also mayor of Stavropol (1989-91).

Marchenko, Serhiy (Mykhaylovych) (b. Jan. 24, 1981, Makarov [Makariv], Kiev oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R.), finance minister of Ukraine (2020- ).

Marchenko, Vasily (Romanovich) (b. Jan. 8, 1783 [Dec. 28, 1782, O.S.], Mogilyov, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. Dec. 18 [Dec. 6, O.S.], 1840, St. Petersburg, Russia), governor of Tomsk (1810-12). He was also Russian secretary of state (1827-34).

Marchessou, (Marcel Alix) Jean (b. June 24, 1879, Le Puy [now Le Puy-en-Velay], Haute-Loire, France - d. April 6, 1964, Chamalières, Haute-Loire), acting governor-general of French Equatorial Africa (1927, 1934, 1935-36), acting lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1929-30), and governor of New Caledonia (1936-38).

Marchezan, Nelson (b. May 4, 1938, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Feb. 11, 2002, Rio Pardo, Rio Grande do Sul), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1981-83).

Marchuk, Gury (Ivanovich) (b. June 8, 1925, Petro-Khersonets [now in Orenburg oblast], Russian S.F.S.R. - d. March 24, 2013, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was a deputy premier and chairman of the State Committee on Science and Technology (1980-86) and president of the Academy of Sciences (1986-91).

Ye. Marchuk

Marchuk, Yevhen (Kyrylovych) (b. Jan. 28, 1941, Dolinovka [Dolynivka] village, Gayvoron [Haivoron] district, Kirovograd [Kirovohrad] oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. - d. Aug. 5, 2021), prime minister (1995-96) and defense minister (2003-04) of Ukraine. He was also head of the Security Service (1991-94), a deputy prime minister (1994), first deputy prime minister (1994-95), a presidential candidate (1999), and secretary of the National Security and Defense Council (1999-2003).

Marcílio, Flávio Portela (b. Aug. 12, 1917, Picos, Piauí, Brazil - d. Jan. 26, 1992, Brasília, Brazil), acting governor of Ceará (1958-59). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (1973-75, 1979-81, 1983-85).

Marcinkiewicz, Kazimierz (b. Dec. 20, 1959, Gorzów Wielkopolski, northwestern Poland), prime minister of Poland (2005-06). In July 2006 he became acting mayor of Warsaw; in the mayoral election in November he was the candidate of the Law and Justice party but lost to Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz.

Marcinkowski, Andrzej (b. Feb. 28, 1929, Poznan, Poland - d. March 13, 2010), acting justice minister of Poland (1991).

Marcó del Pont Santisteban, Guillermo, economy and finance minister of Peru (1974). He was also head of the National Planning Institute (1969-74).

Marco Torres, Rodolfo (Clemente) (b. Sept. 10, 1966), economy and finance minister of Venezuela (2014-16) and governor of Aragua (2017-21). He has also been minister of public banking (2013-16), food (2016-17), and water services (2021- ).

B. Marcos
Marcos, Bongbong, byname of Ferdinand Romualdez Marcos, or Ferdinand Marcos, Jr. (b. Sept. 13, 1957, Manila, Philippines), president of the Philippines (2022- ); son of Ferdinand E. Marcos and Imelda Marcos; brother of Imee Marcos. He was also governor of Ilocos Norte (1983-86, 1998-2007) and a vice presidential candidate (2016).

F.E. Marcos
Marcos, Ferdinand (Emmanuel) E(dralin) (b. Sept. 11, 1917, Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippines - d. Sept. 28, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii), president (1965-86) and prime minister (1978-81) of the Philippines. He was a member of the House of Representatives (1949-59) and of the Senate (1959-65) and served as Senate president (1963-65). He was a prominent member of the Liberal Party, but broke with it in 1964 after failing to get its nomination for president. He then ran as the Nationalist Party candidate against the Liberal incumbent, Diosdado Macapagal. The campaign was expensive and bitter, but Marcos won and he was reelected in 1969, the first Philippine president to serve a second term. He was also acting defense secretary (1965-67, 1971-72). On Sept. 21, 1972, he imposed martial law, citing the presence of Communist and subversive forces. He jailed opposition politicians, dissolved Congress, and tripled the size of the armed forces. He announced the end of martial law in January 1981 but continued to rule in an authoritarian fashion. He won election as president against token opposition in June 1981. After a dubious victory in the Feb. 7, 1986, presidential election over opposition candidate Corazon Aquino, Marcos held fast to his presidency as the military split between supporters of his and of Aquino's legitimate right to the presidency. The standoff ended only when Marcos fled the country on February 25, at U.S. urging, and went into exile in Hawaii. Evidence emerged that during his years in power, Marcos, his family, and close associates had looted the Philippine economy of billions of dollars through embezzlements and other corrupt practices. In October 1988 Marcos was indicted by the U.S. government on racketeering charges, but in April 1989 he was declared too ill to stand trial.

Marcos, Imee, byname of Maria Imelda Josefa Romualdez Marcos (b. Nov. 12, 1955, Mandaluyong [now part of Metropolitan Manila], Philippines), Philippine politician; daughter of Ferdinand E. Marcos and Imelda Marcos. She was governor of Ilocos Norte (2010-19).

I. Marcos
Marcos, Imelda (Remedios Visitacion Trinidad Romualdez) (b. July 2, 1929, Tolosa, Leyte, Philippines), Philippine politician; widow of Ferdinand E. Marcos. She made headlines first as Miss Manila of 1953, and again when she married Marcos in 1954. After moving into the presidential palace as first lady in 1966, she quickly took advantage of her new position. There was much talk about her growing wealth and the appointments of relatives to highly-paid governmental and industrial positions. In 1975 her husband appointed her governor of metropolitan Manila. She spent $500 million in 1977 for the construction of 14 hotels and only some $13 million for badly needed public housing. In June 1978 she joined the cabinet to head the newly created Department of Ecology and Human Settlements, with responsibility for planning and developing 1,500 cities and towns. Because she had been warmly received during state visits to China, Cuba, and Libya, she was stunned by the welcome accorded her in August 1978, when she traveled to Washington, D.C.: 15 of the 114 congressmen who signed a letter protesting the alleged rigging of the Philippine elections in April asked pointed and serious questions about her personal wealth and alleged torture. She continued to hold the posts of governor of Manila and minister of human settlements until 1986, when she and her husband fled to Hawaii. They were subsequently indicted by the U.S. government for stealing $103 million from the Philippines to buy art and real estate in Manhattan. Ferdinand died in 1989, and in 1990 Imelda was acquitted of all charges by a federal court. She was allowed to return to the Philippines in 1991; in 1993 a Philippine court found her guilty of corruption, but in 1998 she was again acquitted. She lost a bid for the presidency in 1992, but in 1995 won a seat in the House of Representatives, serving until 1998; she cancelled a planned second presidential candidacy in 1998. In 2018 she was again found guilty of graft and sentenced to at least 42 years in prison.

Marcos, Subcomandante, Mexican guerrilla leader. He was the leader of the Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN), which launched a rebellion in Chiapas state on New Year's Day 1994 to demand indigenous rights and greater democracy, liberty, and justice. On Feb. 9, 1995, Mexico's Pres. Ernesto Zedillo broke a ceasefire and ordered thousands of troops into the area of Chiapas held by the EZLN. The stated purpose of the crackdown was to prevent further violence by capturing Zapatista leaders, in particular Subcomandante Marcos, their eloquent but elusive spokesperson. As part of the offensive, Zedillo unmasked Marcos as Rafael Sebastián Guillén Vicente (b. July 10, 1957, Tampico, Tamaulipas), a middle-class "maverick philosopher and university professor," in an attempt to discredit him as the voice of the peasant-led EZLN and to strip him of the charismatic guerrilla mystique that had captured the imagination of many. One of the EZLN's few non-Indian fighters, Marcos had become internationally known for his literate communiqués, issued in the name of the Revolutionary Indigenous Clandestine Committee of the General Command (CCRI-CG) of the EZLN. These letters to the Mexican people often combined humour, poetry, and storytelling with sharp political critiques. More than 100,000 demonstrators in Mexico City and elsewhere answered Zedillo by proclaiming, "We are all Marcos." The government move to isolate the rebels politically thus met with limited success. The military push and reported abuse of civilians galvanized the support of students, union leaders, human rights advocates, and leftists outside Chiapas. While Zedillo proclaimed Marcos a terrorist, the National Autonomous University awarded him Mexico's highest honour - an honorary degree. In 2006 he embarked on a political tour through all of Mexico's 31 states and said he wanted to be known as Delegado Zero rather than Subcomandante.

Marcos-Keon, Elizabeth (Edralin) (b. 1921? - d. Dec. 14, 1986, Manila, Philippines), Philippine politician; sister of Ferdinand E. Marcos. She was governor of Ilocos Norte (1971-83).

Marcoz, Oreste (b. Nov. 17, 1905 - d. April 25, 1972), president of Valle d'Aosta (1959-63).

Marcuard, (Jean-François) Sigismond (b. Feb. 14, 1917, Bern, Switzerland - d. May 20, 2010, Fribourg, Switzerland), Swiss diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Iraq (1959-62), ambassador to Algeria (1962-66), and permanent observer to the United Nations (1974-82).

G.M. Marcucci
Marcucci, Gian Marco (b. July 25, 1954, Borgo Maggiore, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (2000); son of Giovanni Vito Marcucci. He was also minister of labour, cooperation, and posts (2008-11).

Marcucci, Giovanni Vito (b. June 15, 1927, San Marino - d. April 11, 2011), captain-regent of San Marino (1961-62, 1966-67, 1975-76).

Marcucci, Marco (b. June 16, 1949, Viareggio, Toscana, Italy), president of Toscana (1990-92).

Marcy, William L(earned) (b. Dec. 12, 1786, Southbridge, Mass. - d. July 4, 1857, Ballston Spa, N.Y.), governor of New York (1833-39) and U.S. secretary of war (1845-49) and secretary of state (1853-57).

Mardanov, Genrikh (Irakliyevich) (b. 1933), chairman of the Executive Committee of the South Ossetian autonomous oblast (1973-80).

R. Mardanov
Mardanov, Rustem (Khabibovich) (b. May 9, 1964, Ufa, Bashkir A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), prime minister of Bashkortostan (2015-18).

Mardarescu, Gheorghe (D.) (b. Aug. 4, 1866, Iasi, Romania - d. Sept. 5, 1938, Bad Nauheim, Hessen, Germany), war minister of Romania (1922-26).

Mardiyanto (b. Nov. 21, 1946, Surakarta, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Tengah (1998-2007) and home affairs minister of Indonesia (2007-09).

Mardiyev, Alisher (Mardiyevich), justice minister of Uzbekistan (1993-95). He was also hokim of Samarkand region (1995-98).

Mardones Otaíza, Francisco (b. May 29, 1877, Santiago, Chile - d. July 23, 1950), interior minister (1925) and finance minister (1932) of Chile. He was also minister of public works (1923-24, 1925).

Marees van Swinderen, René de, byname of Reneke de Marees van Swinderen (b. Oct. 6, 1860, Groningen, Netherlands - d. Jan. 17, 1955, London, England), foreign minister of the Netherlands (1908-13). He was also minister-resident to Romania (1901-03) and Serbia (1904) and minister to the United States and Mexico (1904-08) and the United Kingdom (1913-37).

Marei, Sayed (Ahmed) (b. Aug. 26, 1913, al-Sharqiya governorate, Egypt - d. Oct. 22, 1993, Egypt), a deputy prime minister of Egypt (1970-72). He was also minister of agriculture (1957-61, 1967-72) and agrarian reform (1957-61, 1968-72) and speaker of the People's Assembly (1974-78).

Marenco, Federico, interior minister of Nicaragua (1891-92).

Marenco Cardenal, José (Bosco) (b. 1947? - d. June 11, 2015, San Juan del Sur, Rivas, Nicaragua), interior minister of Nicaragua (2000-02). He was also minister of agriculture and forestry (2000).

Marengo, Marc Michael Rogers (b. Aug. 9, 1955, Anse Royale, Seychelles), Seychellois diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in France (1986-87), the United States and the United Nations (1987-93), and Canada (1989-93) and permanent representative to the United Nations, ambassador to the United States, and high commissioner to Canada (1993-96).

Mares, Petr (b. Jan. 15, 1953, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), a deputy prime minister of the Czech Republic (2002-04). He was also chairman of the Freedom Union-Democratic Union (2003-04) and ambassador to the Netherlands (2006-10).

Maret, Hugues Bernard, duc de (duke of) Bassano (b. May 1, 1763, Dijon, France - d. May 13, 1839, Paris, France), French statesman. The interest aroused by the debates of the first National Assembly suggested to him the idea of publishing them in the Bulletin de l'Assemblée, and he was persuaded to merge this in a larger paper, the Moniteur universel, which gained a wide repute for correctness and impartiality. He entered the diplomatic service in 1792 and went on two missions to Great Britain before becoming ambassador to Naples. He was arrested by the Austrian government and held for 32 months (1793-95). After the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799), Napoléon appointed him secretary of state to the consuls. The Moniteur, which became the official journal of the state in 1800, was placed under his control. He grew in Napoléon's esteem and acted as his confidential adviser. He was created a count in 1807 (confirmed in May 1809) and duke of Bassano in August 1809. In 1811-13 he served as minister of foreign affairs; he concluded the treaties with Prussia (February 1812) and with Austria (March 1812) that preceded the French invasion of Russia. In 1813 he reverted to the post of secretary of state, until the first Bourbon restoration in 1814. In 1815 he helped arrange Napoléon's return from Elba and again resumed his functions as secretary of state. Exiled during the second Bourbon restoration, Maret returned to France in 1820 and was made a peer of France by Louis-Philippe (1831). In November 1834 he was appointed prime minister and interior minister but his government lasted only days.

Mareuilh de Villeboi, Pierre François de (d. Oct. 22, 1788), governor of French Guiana (1787-88).

Marfán (Lewis), (José) Manuel (b. 1952), finance minister of Chile (1999-2000).

Marga, Andrei (b. May 22, 1946, Bucharest, Romania), foreign minister of Romania (2012). He was also minister of education (1997-2000).

A. Margai
Margai, Sir Albert (Michael) (b. Oct. 10, 1910, Bonthe, Sierra Leone - d. Dec. 18, 1980, Washington, D.C.), prime minister of Sierra Leone (1964-67). Together with his elder brother, Milton, he formed the Sierra Leone People's Party. He was then elected by the protectorate assembly to a seat in the Legislative Council. He was minister of education, local government, and social welfare from 1951 until 1957, when he broke away from his brother and founded the People's National Party with Siaka Stevens. He was reconciled with his brother in 1960 and was made minister of agriculture and natural resources (1960-62) and finance (1962-64). After Sir Milton died, Margai succeeded him as prime minister in 1964 and was knighted in 1965. He tried to establish a one-party state with an executive president; following demonstrations he declared his adherence to the multiparty system. His party was defeated in the 1967 election; minutes after a new government led by Siaka Stevens was sworn in on March 21, Army chief Brig. David Lansana took power (at the instigation of Margai), on the grounds that the election results were still incomplete. Two days later, however, a group of young officers seized power and all political leaders were taken into custody. Margai was released on April 11, and went into exile in New York in February 1968.

M. Margai
Margai, Sir Milton (Augustus Strieby) (b. Dec. 7, 1895, Gbangbatok, Sierra Leone - d. April 28, 1964, Freetown, Sierra Leone), prime minister of Sierra Leone (1960-64). The grandson of a paramount chief, his active political career began in 1946 when he was elected to Bonthe district council and entered the protectorate assembly. He was concerned to uphold the rights of the protectorate tribes (including his own people, the Mende) against what he regarded as suppression by the Creole political leaders of the colony area. Having first been active in the Sierra Leone Organization Society, he later helped develop this into the Sierra Leone People's Party, of which he became leader in 1951, when it became the majority group in the Legislative Council. He then was appointed to the Executive Council, and in 1953 became minister of health, agriculture, and forestry, one of the first Africans to hold a ministerial post. In 1954 he was named chief minister; in 1958, premier; and in 1960, prime minister; he also held the posts of minister for internal affairs (1957-64) and defense (1961-64). Although he easily won the elections of 1957, Margai was challenged within the People's Party by his younger brother Albert, who accused him of being too moderate and cautious. In 1958 Albert left to form his own party, the People's National Party, which was defeated in district elections in 1959. In 1960 Margai formed a united front to hold talks in London for independence, which was granted in 1961. He kept all the British civil servants he could, and was quite unafraid of complaints that he lacked true nationalistic fervour. His coalition government, with many former opposition leaders in his cabinet, lasted until his death, after which he was succeeded by his brother Albert. Margai had been knighted in 1959.

Margáin (Gleason), Hugo B(enigno) (b. Feb. 13, 1913, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Sept. 11, 1997, Mexico City), finance minister of Mexico (1970-73). He was also ambassador to the United States (1965-70, 1977-82) and the United Kingdom (1973-76).

Margan, Ivo (b. Aug. 21, 1926, Bakar, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. May 20, 2010, Cres island, Croatia), a deputy premier of Yugoslavia (1978-82).

Margaryan, Mher (b. Nov. 4, 1974, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), Armenian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2018- ).

Margesson, (Henry) David (Reginald) Margesson, (1st) Viscount (b. July 26, 1890, London, England - d. Dec. 24, 1965, Nassau, Bahamas), British secretary of state for war (1940-42). He was created viscount in 1942.

Marghiloman, Alexandru (b. Jan. 27, 1854, Buzau, Walachia [now in Romania] - d. May 10, 1925, Buzau), foreign minister (1900-01), interior minister (1910-12), and prime minister (1918) of Romania.

Margiani, Avtandil (Antonovich) (b. Dec. 24, 1945, Mestia, Georgian S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Georgian S.S.R. (1990-91). He was also a Georgian deputy premier (1992-95) and a minor presidential candidate (2013).

Margo, Dee, byname of Donald Rupert Margo II (b. Feb. 3, 1952), mayor of El Paso (2017-21).

Margrethe II
Margrethe II, in full Margrethe Alexandrine Thórhildur Ingrid (b. April 16, 1940, Copenhagen, Denmark), queen of Denmark (1972-2024); daughter of Frederik IX. Born a week after the Nazi invasion of Denmark, she attended school in Copenhagen and then continued her studies (focusing on political science and archaeology) at Copenhagen University; Girton College, Cambridge; Aarhus University; the Sorbonne; and the London School of Economics. Her interest in archaeology was acquired from her maternal grandfather, King Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden, whom she accompanied on expeditions. In 1953, following a change in the Danish constitution to permit female succession to the throne, Margrethe, the king's eldest daughter, assumed the title of "throne heiress" (i.e., crown princess, although that title, in Denmark, had denoted the wife of a male heir to the throne). As such, from her 18th birthday she regularly took part in meetings of the Council of State in preparation for her future regal duties. On June 10, 1967, she married Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat (1934-2018), a French diplomat, who afterward took the title of Prince Henrik. Their first child, Crown Prince Frederik, was born on May 26, 1968, and a second son, Prince Joachim, on June 7, 1969. On the death of her father on Jan. 14, 1972, she became Denmark's first queen regnant (the first Margrethe was queen dowager of Norway and regent of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway from 1388 to 1412). After exactly 52 years on the throne, she abdicated, the first Danish monarch to do so since Erik III in 1146.

Margue, Nicolas (b. Jan. 2, 1888, Fingig, Luxembourg - d. March 18, 1976), Luxembourg politician. He was minister of agriculture (1937-40, 1945-48), education and worship (1937-40, 1945-48), and arts and sciences (1945-48).

Margvelashvili, Giorgi (Teimurazis dze) (b. Sept. 4, 1969, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), president of Georgia (2013-18). He was also education minister (2012-13) and first deputy prime minister (2013).

Mari, Adriano (b. Dec. 16, 1813, Florence, France [now in Italy] - d. July 24, 1887, Fiesole, Firenze province [now Firenze metropolitan city], Italy), justice minister of Italy (1867-68). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1865-67, 1868-69).

Maria I
Maria I, in full Maria Francisca Isabel Josefa Antónia Gertrudes Rita Joana (b. Dec. 17, 1734, Lisbon, Portugal - d. March 20, 1816, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), queen of Portugal (1777-1816) and Brazil (1815-16). She was the daughter of King José I. In 1760 she married her uncle Pedro who after Maria's accession (February 1777) was given the courtesy style of king as Pedro III; coins were struck in the joint names of Maria I and Pedro III, but he was not a co-ruler. Maria, the first ruling queen of Portugal, attempted to compensate the people for years of misery under the despotic administration of her father's minister, the marquês de Pombal, freeing his political prisoners and banishing him to Pombal, although an inquiry ended in his pardon. She abandoned some of his trading enterprises but developed small industries in Portugal and new crops in Brazil. She created the Maria Pia House, a foster house for destitute orphans, and ordered the construction of the Estrela Basilica in Lisbon; in economic affairs, passing laws protecting foreign trade became her greatest concern. A treaty of alliance was signed with Spain (1778), after an agreement to map the common frontier in South America. Maria had always shown a tendency toward religious mania. The deaths of Pedro in 1786 and of her eldest son José and daughter Mariana in 1788, combined with news of the excesses of the French Revolution, so affected her that she suffered a mental collapse in January 1792. She entrusted power to her only surviving child, João (the future João VI), who officially became prince regent in 1799, when her condition was deemed incurable. When Napoléon's armies invaded Portugal in November 1807, she went with the rest of the royal family to Brazil, where she died.

Maria II
Maria II da Glória, in full Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina Isidora da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Luisa Gonzaga (b. April 4, 1819, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Nov. 15, 1853, Lisbon, Portugal), queen of Portugal (1828, 1834-53); daughter of Pedro I of Brazil (Pedro IV of Portugal). When Pedro, already emperor of Brazil, succeeded to the Portuguese throne in 1826, he quickly made a conditional abdication in favour of Maria, the proviso being that she should marry her uncle, Dom Miguel. However, before Maria arrived in Europe (September 1828), Miguel had renounced his allegiance to her and to Pedro and had been proclaimed king. As a result, Maria did not definitively become queen until 1834 when Miguel was defeated by Pedro, who was regent for her. When Pedro died later that year, Maria was declared of age at 15. Her reign was characterized by the continuing struggle between liberals and conservatives, and by foreign intervention. Maria married in 1835 Augustus, Duke of Leuchtenberg, who died the same year, and in 1836, Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, by whom she had 11 children and who was proclaimed king consort as Fernando II upon the birth in 1837 of their first son (the future Pedro V). She died in childbirth.

Maria, Victor Saúde (b. 1939 - d. Oct. 25, 1999, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau), foreign minister (1973-82), deputy chairman of the Council of the Revolution (1980-84), and prime minister (1982-84) of Guinea-Bissau.

María Cristina, Queen, in full María Cristina Ferdinanda de Borbón-Dos Sicilias y de Borbón (b. April 27, 1806, Naples [Italy] - d. Aug. 23, 1878, Sainte-Adresse, France), regent of Spain (1833-40); daughter of Francesco I; wife of Fernando VII.

María Cristina, Queen, in full María Cristina Deseada Enriqueta Felicidad Raniera de Habsburgo-Lorena (b. July 21, 1858, Gross Seelowitz, Austria [now Zidlochovice, Czech Republic] - d. Feb. 6, 1929, Madrid, Spain), regent of Spain (1885-1902).

Maria Theresia (Walpurgis Amalia Christina), Hungarian Mária Terézia (Walpurgis Amália Krisztina), English Maria Theresa (b. May 13, 1717, Vienna, Austria - d. Nov. 29, 1780, Vienna), archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary (1740-80). She was the daughter of Holy Roman emperor Karl VI (Archduke Karl III of Austria). By the Pragmatic Sanction (published 1720), her father appointed her heir to his hereditary thrones. In 1736 she married Franz Stephan, duke of Lorraine (from 1745 Holy Roman emperor Franz I), and at her father's death (1740) her claim to the hereditary Habsburg lands led to the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48) when she lost Silesia to Prussia, and some lands in Italy, but her husband was recognized as emperor. Aided by Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Haugwitz, she instituted financial reforms, fostered agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and nearly doubled the national revenues, while decreasing taxation. Marshal Leopold Joseph Graf von Daun reorganized her armies. With Wenzel Anton Fürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg as her foreign minister and France as an ally, she renewed the contest with the Prussian king, Friedrich II, but the Seven Years' War (1756-63) confirmed Friedrich in his possession of Silesia. After the peace she carried out a series of reforms: peasant serfdom was reduced, as was the power of the church, law reform continued, and she set up the best educational system in Europe. After the death of her husband (1765), her eldest son, Emperor Joseph II, cooperated with her in the government. She joined with Russia and Prussia in the first partition of Poland (1772), securing Galicia. Warm, friendly, and spirited, she tempered her idealism with earthy common sense and won the affection and admiration of her subjects. Of her 10 surviving children, Joseph II succeeded her, Leopold, grand duke of Tuscany, succeeded him as Leopold II, Ferdinand became titular duke of Modena, and Marie Antoinette married Louis XVI of France.

Mariaca Pando, Oscar (b. June 12, 1881, La Paz, Bolivia - d. 19...), interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1930-31). He was also minister of public works and communications (1940-41).

Mariani, Francisco (b. 1811, Bahia captaincy [now state], Brazil - d. Nov. 6, 1905, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Goiás (1852-54).

Marianni, José (b. May 28, 1800, Barra, Bahia, Brazil - d. Dec. 2, 1875, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Sul (1833-34).

Mariátegui (y Tellería), Francisco Javier (b. Nov. 22, 1793, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 23, 1884, Lima), prime minister of Peru (1865). He was also minister of interior and foreign affairs (1827-28), finance (1842), and interior, police, and public works (1865), minister to Ecuador (1832-33) and Bolivia (1842), and president of the Supreme Court (1852-54, 1855-58, 1864-65, 1869-70).

J.C. Mariátegui
Mariátegui (La Chira), José Carlos, baptized José del Carmen Eliseo Mariátegui La Chira (b. June 14, 1894, Moquegua, Peru - d. April 16, 1930, Lima, Peru), Peruvian political leader. In 1919 Pres. Augusto B. Leguía, to rid himself of a critical journalist, sent Mariátegui to Europe by naming him "Peruvian Agent of News, Propaganda, and Publicity" in Italy. In Europe he established strong ideological ties with some of the leading Socialist thinkers of the time, among them Henri Barbusse, Antonio Gramsci, and Maksim Gorky. He returned to Lima in 1923 and became a strong supporter of Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre's Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA). After a dispute with Luis Alberto Sánchez, a leading Aprista, he left the Alliance to establish the Peruvian Socialist Party in 1928 (in 1930, shortly after his death, it was renamed Communist Party). A supporter of indigenismo, he proposed a revolutionary path to social change predicated on an alliance between Peruvian workers and peasants. Though confined to a wheelchair after the amputation of a leg in 1924, he also founded Amauta (1926-30), a Marxist cultural and literary journal that published avant-garde writing. In La escena contemporánea (1925; "The Contemporary Scene"), a collection of essays, he attacked Fascism and defined the responsibilities of the intellectual in countries where social oppression reigns. César Vallejo, Peru's greatest poet, was deeply influenced by him. Mariátegui's masterpiece is another collection of essays, Siete ensayos de interpretación de la realidad peruana (1928; Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality). Still harassed by the Leguía regime, he made plans to go into exile in 1930 but died before he could leave.

Mariátegui Chiappe, Sandro (Tiziano Romeo) (b. Dec. 5, 1921, Rome, Italy - d. Sept. 28, 2013, Lima, Peru), prime minister and foreign minister of Peru (1984); son of José Carlos Mariátegui. He was also minister of finance and commerce (1965-67) and president of the Senate (1982-83).

Maric, Jozo (b. 1948, Grude [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor of West Herzegovina (1996-2000).

Maric, Zdravko (b. Feb. 3, 1977, Slavonski Brod, Croatia), finance minister of Croatia (2016-22). He was also a deputy prime minister (2019-22).

Maricá, Mariano José Pereira da Fonseca, visconde e marquês de (b. May 18, 1773, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Sept. 16, 1848, Rio de Janeiro), finance minister of Brazil (1823-25). He was made viscount in 1825 and marquess in 1826.


Aurelius Marie
Maricar, M.O. Hasan Farook (b. Sept. 6, 1937, Karikal, French India [now in Puducherry, India] - d. Jan. 26, 2012, Chennai, India), chief minister of Pondicherry (1967-68, 1969-74, 1985-89) and governor of Jharkhand (2010-11) and Kerala (2011-12). He was also Indian ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2004-09).

Marie (de Saint-Georges), Alexandre (Pierre Thomas Amable) (b. Feb. 15, 1795, Auxerre, Yonne, France - d. April 28, 1870, Paris, France), justice minister of France (1848). He was also minister of public works (1848) and president of the National Constituent Assembly (1848).

Marie, André (b. Dec. 3, 1897, Honfleur, Calvados, France - d. June 12, 1974, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, France), prime minister of France (1948). He was also minister of justice (1947-48, 1948-49) and national education (1951-54) and deputy prime minister (1948-49).

Marie, Aurelius (John Baptist Lamothe) (b. Dec. 23, 1903 - d. Sept. 28, 1995), president of Dominica (1980-83).

Marie-Adélaïde (Thérèse Hilda Antoinette Wilhelmine) (b. June 14, 1894, Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg - d. Jan. 24, 1924, Hohenburg castle, Lenggries, Bavaria, Germany), grand duchess of Luxembourg (1912-19). She succeeded her father Guillaume IV, the last male in the House of Nassau, on the throne in 1912. When in World War I the Germans demanded passage of their armies through Luxembourg on the way to attack France, she demurred, but there is no truth in the story that was widely printed at the time that, in way of a formal protest, she drew her motor car across the street through which the German columns were about to pass. In any case, no attempt was made to oppose the Germans forcibly, and they quietly occupied Luxembourg. Whether, after that, she was frightened or conciliated is uncertain. Her enemies said that she was pro-German; her friends that she was humiliating herself in the hope of saving her country from the fate of Belgium. In September 1914, she invited the Kaiser to dinner and toasted "the glorious German army," which probably cost her the throne. The fury of the people was intensified by a telegram which she sent to the Kaiser in 1915, congratulating him on his victories, and by her ready assent to her sister Antoinette's marriage to Crown Prince Rupert of Bavaria. She abdicated in favour of her sister Charlotte in January 1919, and in September 1920 became a nun in the Carmelite convent of Modena, Italy, her name in religion being Marie des Pauvres.

Mariere, (Samuel) Jereton (b. 1906, Evwreni [now in Delta state], Nigeria - d. [car crash] May 9, 1971), governor of Midwest Region, Nigeria (1964-66).

Marijnen, Victor (Gerard Maria) (b. Feb. 21, 1917, Arnhem, Netherlands - d. April 5, 1975, The Hague, Netherlands), prime minister of the Netherlands (1963-65). He was also minister of agriculture and fisheries (1959-63), acting minister of health and social affairs (1961), and mayor of The Hague (1968-75).

G. Marín
Marín (Millie viuda de Muñoz), Gladys (del Carmen) (b. July 16, 1941, Curepto locality, near Curicó, Chile - d. March 6, 2005, La Florida, near Santiago, Chile), Chilean politician. She joined the Communist Party at age 16 and was elected to Congress for three consecutive terms before the 1973 coup in which Augusto Pinochet toppled Marxist Pres. Salvador Allende. After Allende won the 1970 election, the youth organization she was heading increased its activities. She had to go underground after the September 1973 coup. She took refuge, against her will, in the Dutch embassy in Santiago in December of that year, complying with a party decision, and later traveled into exile in Amsterdam. She then assumed tasks of solidarity with the Chilean cause, touring several countries to denounce the crimes committed in Chile. Marín returned clandestinely to Chile in early 1978, and began to lead the Communist Party in the interior of the country until she assumed the post of general undersecretary in 1984. Following the return of democracy in 1990, she sought legal proceedings against General Pinochet. In 1994 she was elected general secretary of her party, and in 1998 she was proclaimed presidential candidate for the 1999 election, in which she won 3% of the vote.

Marín (Arista), José del Carmen (b. March 2, 1899, El Quillo, Amazonas, Peru - d. Dec. 6, 1980, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), war minister of Peru (1947-48).

Marin, José Maria (b. May 6, 1932, São Paulo, Brazil), acting governor of São Paulo (1982-83).

M. Marín
Marín (González), Manuel (b. Oct. 21, 1949, Ciudad Real, Spain - d. Dec. 4, 2017, Madrid, Spain), acting president of the European Commission (1999). He was a vice president of the Commission (1986-99), commissioner for competition, social affairs, and education (1986-89), cooperation, development, and fisheries (1989-93), cooperation, development, and humanitarian aid (1993-95), and external relations with certain countries (1995-99), and chairman of the Congress of Deputies (lower house of the Spanish Cortes) (2004-08).

R. Marín

S. Marin
Marín, Rubén (Hugo) (b. May 1, 1934, Trenel, La Pampa, Argentina - d. Jan. 27, 2024, Santa Rosa, La Pampa), governor of La Pampa (1983-87, 1991-2003).

Marin, Sanna (Mirella) (b. Nov. 16, 1985, Helsinki, Finland), prime minister of Finland (2019-23). She was minister of transport and communications (2019) before she became the world's youngest prime minister. In 2020-23 she was chairperson of the Social Democratic Party.

Marín Abaunza, Leandro (b. March 7, 1932, Masaya, Nicaragua - d. Feb. 22, 2021, Miami, Fla.), interior minister of Nicaragua (1972-74). He was also minister of education (1974-76).

Marín Aráuz, Sidhartha Francisco, Nicaraguan diplomat. He has been ambassador to Ecuador (2009-16) and Honduras (2022- ) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2018).

Marín Gómez, Otto (b. Aug. 29, 1931, San Fernando de Apure, Apure, Venezuela), justice minister of Venezuela (1974-75).

Marín Iglesias, Alejandro (Ramón) (b. Sept. 20, 1907, Villarrica, Guairá, Paraguay - d. Oct. 29, 1988, Asunción, Paraguay), acting president of Paraguay (1940). He was president of the Chamber of Deputies (1939-40) and minister of government and labour (1940).

Marín Torres, Mario (Plutarco) (b. June 28, 1954, Nativitas Cuautempan, Coyotepec municipality, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (2005-11). He was also mayor of Puebla (1999-2002).

Marinc, Andrej (b. Oct. 4, 1930, Celje, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), chairman of the Executive Council (1972-78) and secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists (1982-86) of Slovenia. He was also a deputy premier of Yugoslavia (1978-82).

Marinescu, Gabriel (b. Nov. 7, 1885, Tigveni, Romania - d. Nov. 26/27, 1940, Jilava, Romania), interior minister of Romania (1939). He was also minister of public order (1939).

Marinescu, Mihai (b. Nov. 22, 1917, Bârca, Dolj county, Romania - d. 2000, Bucharest, Romania), a deputy premier of Romania (1969-72, 1974-78). He was also minister of machine-building industry (1965-69) and technico-material supply and control of fixed-assets administration (1971-72) and chairman of the State Planning Committee (1974-78).

Marinescu, Teodor (b. Sept. 22, 1922, Sighisoara, Romania), Romanian politician. He was chairman of the Committee for Radio and Television (1965-66), ambassador to the Soviet Union (1966-72), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1978-86).

Marinho, Gilberto (b. Sept. 15, 1909, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Feb. 11, 1985, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Brazilian politician. He was president of the Senate (1968-70).

Marinho, Joaquim Saldanha (b. May 4, 1816, Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil - d. May 27, 1895, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Minas Gerais (1865-67) and São Paulo (1867-68).

Marinho, Luiz (b. May 20, 1959, Cosmorama, São Paulo, Brazil), Brazilian politician. He has been minister of labour and employment (2005-07, 2023- ) and social security (2007-08) and mayor of São Bernardo do Campo (2009-17).

Marini, Catiuscia (b. Sept. 25, 1967, Todi, Umbria, Italy), president of Umbria (2010-19).

Marinko, Miha (b. Sept. 8, 1900, near Trbovlje, Austria [now in Slovenia] - d. Aug. 19, 1983, Ljubljana, Slovenia), prime minister (1946-53), secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party/League of Communists (1948-66), chairman of the Executive Council (1953), and president of the People's Assembly (1953-62) of Slovenia.

Marinkovic (Jovicevic), Branko (Goran) (b. Aug. 21, 1967, Santa Cruz, Bolivia), finance minister of Bolivia (2020). He was also minister of development planning (2020).

V. Marinkovic
Marinkovic, Vojislav (b. May 13 [May 1, O.S.], 1876, Belgrade, Serbia - d. Sept. 18, 1935, Belgrade), prime minister of Yugoslavia (1932). In 1901 he entered government service in the Ministry of Finance. He became a member of the Serbian parliament as a Progressist in 1906, and was a member of every Serbian and Yugoslav parliament until May 1935. He represented Serbia at the Paris Conference (1913) for the financial settlement of the Balkan Wars and became minister of national economy (1914-17). As the leader of the Progressists from 1915, he took part in the drafting of the Corfu Declaration calling for a South Slav state in 1917. In 1919, he became Yugoslavia's first minister of trade and merged the Progressists with the second most powerful political party in the new state, the Democratic Party. As interior minister (1921-22), he organized the electoral law. He later served twice as foreign minister (1924, 1927-32) and, in April-July 1932, as prime minister. As foreign minister he signed a treaty of friendship with France (1927), ratified the Nettuno Conventions concluded in 1925 to improve economic and cultural relations with Italy (1928), represented Yugoslavia at the assemblies of the League of Nations, and was a member of the League Council (1929-32) and its president (1930). At the League of Nations in Geneva in 1931, he so energetically opposed the formation of an Austro-German customs union that the Austrians had to disavow their signature to the agreement. He also took part in the negotiations for establishing the Balkan Entente and for the new statute of the Little Entente, but both were signed (1934 and 1933, respectively) after his resignation. After the murder of King Aleksandar in 1934, he entered the cabinet as minister without portfolio at the request of Regent Prince Pavle.

Mariño, Salvador (L.), justice secretary of the Philippines (1963-65). He was also executive secretary (1962-63).

Marinovic, Jovan (b. 1821, Sarajevo, Ottoman Empire [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. July 30, 1893, Villiers-sur-Mer, France), member of the Provisional Regency (1868) and prime minister and foreign minister (1873-74) of Serbia. He was also finance minister (1856-57) and minister to France (1878-89).

Marinuta, Vitalie (b. June 16, 1970, Holercani, Moldavian S.S.R.), defense minister of Moldova (2009-14).

Marion, Daniel Joseph (b. Dec. 6, 1945, St. Malo, Man. - d. May 12, 2022, Frank Channel, N.W.T.), commissioner of the Northwest Territories (1999-2000).

Maripov, Ulukbek (Asamidinovich) (b. Aug. 30, 1979, Kirgiz-Ata village, Osh oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (2021).

Mariscal de Gante y Mirón, Margarita (b. Jan. 10, 1954, Madrid, Spain), justice minister of Spain (1996-2000).

Marisov, Valery (Konstantinovich) (b. Oct. 23 [Oct. 10, O.S.], 1915, Astrakhan, Russia - d. Jan. 18, 1992), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Udmurt A.S.S.R. (1963-85).

Maritain, Jacques (b. Nov. 18, 1882, Paris, France - d. April 28, 1973, Toulouse, France), French diplomat. Known as a Catholic philosopher, he was ambassador to the Vatican (1945-48).

Mariz, Antônio Marques da Silva (b. May 12, 1937, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil - d. Sept. 16, 1995, João Pessoa), governor of Paraíba (1995); cousin of João Agripino Maia Filho.

Mariz, Dinarte de Medeiros (b. Aug. 23, 1903, Serra Negra do Norte, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - d. July 9, 1984, Brasília, Brazil), governor of Rio Grande do Norte (1956-61).

Mariz, José Marques da Silva (b. Oct. 4, 1902, Sousa, Paraíba, Brazil - d. July 3, 1953, João Pessoa, Paraíba), federal interventor in Paraíba (1934-35).

Marjai, József (b. Dec. 18, 1923, Budapest, Hungary - d. May 7?, 2014), a deputy premier of Hungary (1978-88). He was also ambassador to Switzerland (1956-59), Czechoslovakia (1959-63), Yugoslavia (1966-70), and the Soviet Union (1976-78) and minister of trade (1987-88).

Marjan, Abdul Wahhab, Marjan also spelled Mirjan (b. 1910, Hilla, Iraq - d. March 1964), prime minister and defense minister of Iraq (1957-58). He was also minister of economy (1948), communications and works (1950, 1953, 1957), finance (1950-51), and agriculture (1954) and speaker of the Chamber of Deputies (1948-50, 1951-52, 1953-54, 1954-57, 1957, 1958).

Marjanovic, Mirko (b. July 27, 1937, Knin, Croatia, Yugoslavia - d. Feb. 21, 2006, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister of Serbia (1994-2000). He served as director of the Yugoslav Chamber of Commerce, and had brief stints as deputy head of the Yugoslav soccer association and as president of Belgrade soccer team Partizan. He was elected Serbian prime minister in March 1994, and reelected in 1998, all the time still running Progres, an import-export company that handled lucrative deals for Russian oil, gas, and minerals, where he stayed on as manager until 2002. He is mostly remembered for mistakenly saying in 1998 the Kosovo armed ethnic Albanian separatists had been defeated - the conflict in the restive Serbian province was only beginning. When a pro-democracy movement toppled autocratic ruler Slobodan Milosevic and set up new, democratic authorities in October 2000, Marjanovic resigned as prime minister. He was for a long time close to Milosevic but fell out of the former Serb strongman's favour after Milosevic's 2001 extradition to the UN war crimes tribunal at The Hague, Netherlands. From his detention cell at The Hague, Milosevic initially appointed Marjanovic as acting chief of the Socialists, only to remove him from the top of the party in 2002.

Marjasin, (Mauritz) Sigvard (b. Nov. 24, 1929, Stockholm, Sweden - d. Jan. 24, 2021, Örebro, Sweden), governor of Örebro (1989-94). He was also chairman of the Swedish Municipal Workers' Union (1978-89).

Marjolin, Robert (b. July 27, 1911, Paris, France - d. April 15, 1986, Paris), secretary-general of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (1948-55). He was also a vice president of the Commission of the European Economic Community and commissioner for economic and financial questions (1958-67).

Marjoribanks, Sir Norman Edward (b. Oct. 16, 1872, India - d. Aug. 21, 1939), acting governor of Madras (1929); knighted 1928.

Mark, David (Bonaventure Alechenu) (b. April 8, 1948, Otukpo [now in Benue state], Nigeria), governor of Niger state, Nigeria (1984-86). He was also Nigerian minister of communications (1987-90) and president of the Senate (2007-15).

Mark, Heinrich (b. Oct. 1, 1911, Krootuse, Võrumaa, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Aug. 2, 2004, Stockholm, Sweden), acting prime minister (1971-90) and prime minister acting as president (1990-92) of Estonia in exile. In 1940, he registered as a candidate to run against the Estonian Working People's Union in the parliamentary elections but was crossed off the list of candidates by Soviet authorities. In 1943, he fled to Finland and, one year later, settled down in Sweden. He was active in many exile organizations and over several decades was chairman of the Estonian Committee's Board of Education, later on director of the bureau and deputy chairman of the committee, from 1975 to 1982 chairman, and from 1982 honorary chairman. In 1951-79, he was secretary-general of the Estonian National Council. In the Estonian exile government, he was state secretary (1953-71), deputy prime minister and minister of war (1971-90), and then prime minister with presidential powers (1990-92). In October 1992, before the Riigikogu, he devolved his powers to Lennart Meri who had been elected president of the republic.

Markar, Imthiaz Bakeer (b. Aug. 8, 1953), Sri Lankan politician; son of M.A. Bakeer Markar. He was minister of mass communication (2001-03).

Markar, (Alhaj) M(ohamed) A(bdul) Bakeer (b. May 12, 1917, Beruwala, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Sept. 10, 1997), governor of Southern province, Sri Lanka (1988-93). He was also speaker of parliament (1978-83) and a minister without portfolio (1983-88).

Markarov, Gerasim (Melkoyevich) (d. [executed] 1937), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of Abkhazia (1923-24).

Markarova, Oksana (Serhiyivna) (b. Oct. 28, 1976, Rovno, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Rivne, Ukraine]), finance minister of Ukraine (2018-20). She became ambassador to the United States in 2021.

A. Markaryan
Markaryan, Andranik (Nahapeti) (b. June 12, 1951, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R. - d. March 25, 2007, Yerevan, Armenia), prime minister of Armenia (2000-07). He became active in opposition to the Soviet Union in the 1960s and was arrested in 1974 and imprisoned for two years for espousing Armenian independence, according to his official biography. He was chairman of the board (1993-2005) and chairman (1997-99, 2005-07) of the conservative Republican Party. A National Assembly deputy from 1995, he became leader of the Unity faction in 1999. He was appointed prime minister in 2000 amid rising discontent over Armenia's economic troubles. He died in office.

Markaryan, Taron (Andraniki) (b. April 17, 1978, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), Armenian politician; son of Andranik Markaryan. He was mayor of Yerevan (2011-18).

Markaryants, Vladimir (Surenovich) (b. Aug. 19, 1934, Yeysk, Krasnodar kray, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. March 2, 2000), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Armenian S.S.R. (1989-90). He was also mayor (1974-76) and first secretary of the party committee (1982-85) of Stavropol city.

Markbreit, Leopold (b. March 13, 1842, Vienna, Austria - d. July 27, 1909, Cincinnati, Ohio), mayor of Cincinnati (1908-09). He was also U.S. minister to Bolivia (1869-73).

Markel Bouwer, Arnold Hendrik van (b. April 16, 1771, Deventer, Overijssel, Netherlands - d. June 22, 1826, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the Second Chamber (1819-20).

Markell, Jack (Alan) (b. Nov. 26, 1960, Newark, Del.), governor of Delaware (2009-17).

Markelov, Konstantin (Alekseyevich) (b. June 16, 1962, Nikolskoye, Astrakhan oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the government of Astrakhan oblast (2005-17). He has also been rector of Astrakhan State University (2018- ).

Markelov, Leonid (Igorevich) (b. June 25, 1963), president (2001-11) and head of the republic (2011-17) of Mari El.

Marker, Jamsheed (K.A.) (b. Nov. 24, 1922, Hyderabad, India - d. June 21, 2018, Karachi, Pakistan), Pakistani diplomat. He was high commissioner to Ghana (1965-67), ambassador to Guinea and Mali (1965-67), Romania and Bulgaria (1967-69), the Soviet Union and Finland (1969-72), Canada (1972-73), East Germany (1973-76), Japan (1976-78), West Germany (1980-82), France and Ireland (1982-86), and the United States and Jamaica (1986-89), permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-95), and UN special envoy to East Timor (1997-99). He was a legendary cricket commentator before entering diplomacy.

Markevicius, Vytautas (b. Jan. 4, 1962, Milvyda, Lithuanian S.S.R.), interior minister (2000-01) and justice minister (2001-04) of Lithuania.

Markezinis, Spyros, byname of Spyridon (Vasiliou) Markezinis (b. April 22, 1909, Athens, Greece - d. Jan. 4, 2000, Athens), prime minister of Greece (1973). He was the founder of two conservative parties and got elected a total of five times in parliament from 1946 to 1964. Markezinis, one of the country's most controversial political figures, is best remembered for devaluing the drachma by 50% to the dollar in 1952 in his capacity as coordination minister. He held the post until 1954 and introduced significant changes in the economy which included deregulation of foreign trade, introduction of domestic loans for industrial investments, and the securing of European credits. In 1967 a military dictatorship seized power and Markezinis was the only mainstream politician to maintain contact with the junta's leaders. He agreed with the regime to become prime minister in October 1973 saying that he would lead the country to free elections and a return to democracy. But his government was toppled a month later by one of the junta leaders after a student uprising at the Athens Polytechnic. The dictatorship collapsed in 1974 and Markezinis played a major role in negotiations with political leaders for a return to democratic rule and the formation of a national unity government under Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis.

Markham, Henry H(arrison) (b. Nov. 16, 1840, Wilmington, N.Y. - d. Oct. 9, 1923, Pasadena, Calif.), governor of California (1891-95).

Markin, Sergey (Nikolayevich) (b. Aug. 29, 1926, Chita, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Feb. 3, 2014, Moscow, Russia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Yakut A.S.S.R. (1979-89). He was also first secretary of the Communist Party committee of Yakutsk city (1966-70).

Marklund, Kari (Kalevi) (b. Aug. 29, 1938, Tornio, Finland - d. Oct. 10, 2018), governor of Norrbotten (1999-2003).

Marko, Rita (b. Feb. 17, 1920, Dishnicë, near Korçë, Albania - d. June 15, 2018), Albanian politician. He was minister of industry (1950-51), chairman of the People's Assembly (1956-58), and a vice chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (1966-76, 1982-91).

Markója, Imre (b. June 6, 1931, Hetes, Somogy county, Hungary - d. March 27, 2008, Budapest, Hungary), justice minister of Hungary (1978-88).

Markov, Arkady (Terentyevich) (b. June 25 [June 12, O.S.], 1915, Malaya Bodya, Vyatka province [now in Udmurtia republic], Russia - d. 1994), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Udmurt A.S.S.R. (1967-78).

Markov, Stoyan (Ivanov) (b. March 26, 1942, Pazardzhik, Bulgaria), a first deputy premier of Bulgaria (1986-87). He was also chairman of the state committees for Science and Technical Progress (1985-86) and Research and Technology (1986-87).

Markovic, Ante (b. Nov. 25, 1924, Konjic, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. Nov. 28, 2011, Zagreb, Croatia), chairman of the Executive Council (1982-86) and president of the Presidency (1986-88) of Croatia and premier of Yugoslavia (1989-91).

Markovic, Danilo Z. (b. June 30, 1933, Dol, near Bela Palanka, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. April 3, 2018, Nis, Serbia), Yugoslav politician. He was education minister (1991-93) and a deputy prime minister (1993-94) of Serbia and ambassador of Yugoslavia to Russia (1994-98).

Markovic, Dragoslav (b. June 28, 1920, Popovic, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. April 20, 2005, Belgrade), Yugoslav politician. He was ambassador to Bulgaria (1963-67), president of the National Assembly of Serbia (1969-74) and, ex officio, member of the Presidency of Yugoslavia (1971-74), then president of the Presidency of Serbia (1974-78), president of the Federal Assembly (1978-82), and president of the Presidium of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1983-84).

Dusko Markovic
Markovic, Dusko (b. July 6, 1958, Mojkovac, Montenegro), prime minister of Montenegro (2016-20). He was also minister without portfolio (2010), a deputy prime minister (2010-16), justice minister (2010-15), and acting interior minister (2016).

Markovic, Ivan (b. June 3, 1888, Miava, Hungary [now Myjava, Slovakia] - d. Feb. 16, 1944, Buchenwald concentration camp, Germany), defense minister of Czechoslovakia (1920). He was also minister of unification of laws (1922-25) and education (acting, 1924-25).

P. Markovic
Markovic, Predrag (b. Dec. 7, 1955, Cepure, Serbia), acting president of Serbia (2004). An official of the G17 Plus party, he was president of the National Assembly (2004-07) and minister of culture, media, and informational society (2011-12).

Markowski, Boleslaw (b. March 23, 1862, Zawichost, Poland - d. Sept. 30, 1936, Kielce, Poland), acting finance minister of Poland (1921, 1923).

Marks, Albert S(mith) (b. Oct. 16, 1836, Davies county, Ky. - d. Nov. 4, 1891, Nashville, Tenn.), governor of Tennessee (1879-81).

Marks von Würtemberg, Erik Teodor friherre (b. May 11, 1861, Björnlunda, Södermanland, Sweden - d. March 5, 1937, Saltsjöbaden, Stockholm county, Sweden), foreign minister of Sweden (1923-24).

Marland, Ernest W(hitworth) (b. May 8, 1874, Pittsburgh, Pa. - d. Oct. 3, 1941, Ponca City, Okla.), governor of Oklahoma (1935-39).

Marland, William C(asey) (b. March 26, 1918, Johnston City, Ill. - d. Nov. 26, 1965, Chicago, Ill.), governor of West Virginia (1953-57).

Marlborough, Charles Spencer, (3rd) Duke of (b. Nov. 22, 1706 - d. Oct. 20, 1758, Münster, Bishopric of Münster [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany]), British politician; grandson of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough. He was lord privy seal (1755) and master-general of the ordnance (1755-58). He succeeded as duke in 1733.

Marlborough, George Spencer, (4th) Duke of (b. Jan. 26, 1739 - d. Jan. 29, 1817, Blenheim, Oxfordshire, England), British politician; son of Charles Spencer, Duke of Marlborough. He was lord privy seal (1763-65). He succeeded as duke in 1758.

Marlborough, John Churchill, (1st) Duke of (b. May 26, 1650, near Musbury, Devon, England - d. June 16, 1722, Windsor, Berkshire, England), British general. In 1678 his discreet handling of a confidential mission to William of Orange (William III) led to his ennoblement as Baron Churchill in 1682. In 1685 he crushed the rebellion led by the Duke of Monmouth, and when William landed Churchill pledged support to his cause. The value of his defection was recognized by his elevation to Earl of Marlborough in 1689. He became master-general of the ordnance (1702-11, 1714-22), was given supreme command of the British and Dutch forces in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14), and was made Marquess of Blandford and Duke of Marlborough in 1702. One of Britain's greatest generals, he led British and allied armies to important victories over Louis XIV of France, notably at Blenheim (1704), Ramillies (1706), and Oudenaarde (1708). In 1705 he was made a German Reichsfürst and given the newly created principality of Mindelheim (returned to Bavaria in 1714). When he endeavoured to take a political stand over the terms of peace being negotiated by the government, he was charged with embezzlement and dismissed in 1711, and went abroad in 1712. With the accession of George I (1714), however, he was restored to his honours, his advice being sought at the time of the Jacobite rebellion in 1715.

Marlborough, John (Winston Spencer[-])Churchill, (7th) Duke of (b. June 2, 1822, Garboldisham, Norfolk, England - d. July 5, 1883, London, England), lord lieutenant of Ireland (1876-80); great-grandson of George Spencer, Duke of Marlborough. He was also British lord president of the council (1867-68). He succeeded as duke in 1857.

Marlin, William (V.) (b. Oct. 21, 1950, Curaçao), leader of the government (1997-99, 2009-10) and prime minister (2015-17) of Sint Maarten. In 2019-20 he was chairman of parliament.

Marmaduke, John S(appington) (b. March 14, 1833, Arrow Rock, Mo. - d. Dec. 28, 1887, Jefferson City, Mo.), governor of Missouri (1885-87); son of M.M. Marmaduke; great-grandson of John Breathitt.

Marmaduke, M(eredith) M(iles) (b. Aug. 25, 1791, Westmoreland county, Va. - d. March 26, 1864, Arrow Rock, Mo.), acting governor of Missouri (1844); brother-in-law of Claiborne F. Jackson.

Mármol León, Fermín (Porfirio) (b. May 4, 1936, Caracas, Venezuela - d. Feb. 3, 2011, Caracas), justice minister of Venezuela (1993-94).

Marmora, Alfonso Ferrero, marchese della (b. Nov. 18, 1804, Turin, Piedmont, France [now in Italy] - d. Jan. 5, 1878, Florence, Italy), war minister (1848, 1849-55, 1856-60), acting foreign minister (1851), and prime minister (1859-60) of Sardinia and prime minister and foreign minister of Italy (1864-66).

Marof, Achkar (b. 1930, Coyah, French Guinea [now Guinea] - d. [shot] Jan. 26, 1971), Guinean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1964-68).

Maroim, João Gomes de Mello, barão de (b. Sept. 18, 1809, Maruim, Sergipe, Brazil - d. April 23, 1890, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Sergipe (1855-56). He was made baron in 1848.

Marois, Pauline (b. March 29, 1949, Québec, Que.), premier of Quebec (2012-14).

Maroja, Manoel, Neto (b. July 17, 1880, Pilar, Paraíba, Brazil - d. Feb. 21, 1964, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Pará (1945-46).

Maron, Amour (Émile Valentin) (b. 1891 - d. 1948), commissioner (1933-41) and governor (1941-46) of Elisabethville province.

Maron, Karl (b. April 27, 1903, Charlottenburg [now part of Berlin], Germany - d. Feb. 2, 1975, East Berlin), interior minister of East Germany (1955-63).

Maroni, Roberto (Ernesto) (b. March 15, 1955, Varese, Lombardia, Italy - d. Nov. 22, 2022, Lozza, Lombardia), interior minister of Italy (1994-95, 2008-11) and president of Lombardia (2013-18). He was also minister of labour and social policy (2001-06).

Marosán, György (b. May 15, 1908, Hosszúpályi [now in Hajdú-Bihar county], Hungary - d. Dec. 20, 1992, Budapest, Hungary), a deputy premier of Hungary (1956). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Budapest (1948-49), minister of light industry (1949-50), and a minister of state (1956-60).

Maroselli, (Don Jean) André (b. Feb. 22, 1893, Rutali, Corse, France - d. April 7, 1970, Luxeuil-les-Bains, Haute-Saône, France), French politician. He was minister of air (1947), veterans and war victims (1948), and public health and population (1958).

Maróthy, László (b. Dec. 25, 1942, Szeghalom, Békés county, Hungary), a deputy premier of Hungary (1984-87). He was also chairman of the National Planning Office (1986-87) and minister of environmental protection and water management (1987-89).

Marovic, Jovana (b. 1977, Kotor, Montenegro), a deputy prime minister and minister of European affairs of Montenegro (2022- ).

S. Marovic
Marovic, Svetozar (b. March 31, 1955, Kotor, Montenegro), president of Serbia and Montenegro (2003-06). He was also president of the Skupstina (1994-2001) and a deputy prime minister (2009-10) of Montenegro.

Marques, Altino Arantes (b. Sept. 29, 1876, Batatais, São Paulo, Brazil - d. July 5, 1965, São Paulo, Brazil), president of São Paulo (1916-20).

Marques, Jaime Silvério (b. 1914, Nazaré, Portugal - d. 1986), governor of Macau (1959-62).

Marques, Joaquim Augusto da Costa (b. June 7, 1861, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. Dec. 2, 1939, Cáceres, Mato Grosso), president of Mato Grosso (1911-15).

Marques, José Joaquim (b. 1870?, Penalva, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Oct. 9, 1918, São Luís, Maranhão), acting president of Maranhão (1918).

Marques, José Manuel de Azevedo (b. Feb. 19, 1865, São Paulo, Brazil - d. May 24, 1943, São Paulo), foreign minister of Brazil (1919-22).

Marques, Luiz Bartholomeu (b. 1784, Santa Rita de Anta, Goiás, Brazil - d. 18...), acting president of Goiás (1831).

Marques, Silvino Silvério (b. March 23, 1918, Nazaré, Portugal - d. Oct. 1, 2013, Lisbon, Portugal), governor of Cape Verde (1958-62) and governor-general of Angola (1962-66, 1974); brother of Jaime Silvério Marques.

Marqués F.
Marqués Fernández, Sergio (b. Aug. 4, 1946, Gijón, Spain - d. May 8, 2012, Gijón), president of Asturias (1995-99).

Marquès Oste, Nemesi (b. May 17, 1935, Cabó, Lleida province, Catalonia, Spain), personal representative of the episcopal co-prince of Andorra (1993-2012).

Marquesado, Eugenio, finance minister of Peru (1893).

Marquet, Adrien (b. Oct. 6, 1884, Bordeaux, France - d. April 3, 1955, Bordeaux), mayor of Bordeaux (1925-44) and interior minister of France (1940). He was also minister of labour (1934).

Márquez (Reina), Gerardo (Alfredo) (b. Sept. 25, 1960), governor of Trujillo (2021- ).

Márquez (Barreto), José Ignacio de (b. Sept. 9, 1793, Ramiriquí, Boyacá, New Granada [now in Colombia] - d. March 21, 1880, Bogotá, Colombia), president of New Granada (1832 [acting], 1837-41). He was also prefect of Cundinamarca (1830), finance minister (1830-31), and vice president (1832-33, 1835-37).

Márquez (Flores), Ricardo, first vice president (1995-2000) and second vice president (2000) of Peru.

Márquez Bustillos, Victorino (b. Nov. 2, 1858, Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela - d. Jan. 10, 1941, Caracas, Venezuela), provisional president of Trujillo (1910), governor of the Distrito Federal (1911-12), and minister of war and navy (1913-14) and provisional president (1914-22) of Venezuela.

Márquez Márquez, Miguel (b. Nov. 11, 1968, Purísima del Rincón, Guanajuato, Mexico), governor of Guanajuato (2012-18).

Márquez Sterling y Loret de Mola, (Carlos) Manuel (Agustín) (b. Aug. 28, 1872, Lima, Peru - d. Dec. 9, 1934, Washington, D.C.), foreign minister of Cuba (1933-34). He was also ambassador to the United States (1934).

Marquié, Jean-Pierre (b. May 6, 1938, Paris, France), prefect of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1989-91). He was also prefect of the départements of Yonne (1993-97) and Drôme (1997-99).

Marraco Ramón, Manuel (b. June 16, 1870, Zaragoza, Spain - d. Sept. 29, 1956, Zaragoza), finance minister of Spain (1934-35). He was also governor of the Bank of Spain (1933-34) and minister of industry and commerce (1935) and public works (1935).

Marraco Solana, Santiago (b. July 25, 1938, Canfranc, Huesca province, Aragón, Spain), president of the Diputación General of Aragón (1983-87).

Marraud, (Alexandre Marie Jean Louis Bernard) Pierre (b. Jan. 8, 1861, Port-Sainte-Marie, Lot-et-Garonne, France - d. March 23, 1958, Paris, France), interior minister of France (1921-22). He was also prefect of the départements of Aude (1900-04), Manche (1904-05), Hérault (1905-06), Loire-Inférieure (1907), and Seine-Maritime (1918) and education minister (1928-30, 1930).

Marrero (Cruz), Manuel (b. July 11, 1963), prime minister of Cuba (2019- ). He was also tourism minister (2004-19).

Marris, Sir William Sinclair (b. Oct. 9, 1873, Cookley, Worcestershire, England - d. Dec. 13, 1945, Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England), governor of Assam (1921-22) and the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (1922-28); knighted 1919.

Marroquín (Ricaurte), José Manuel (Cayetano) (b. Aug. 6, 1827, Bogotá, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Sept. 19, 1908, Bogotá), vice president (1898-1902), acting president (1898, 1900-02), and president (1902-04) of Colombia.

Mars, Louis (Price-) (b. Sept. 5, 1906 - d. May 20, 2000, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), foreign minister of Haiti (1958-59); son of Jean Price-Mars. He was also ambassador to the United States (1961-64) and the Vatican (1970-72).

Marsal bin Maun, Dato Seri Paduka Haji (b. Nov. 8, 1913, Kampong Pulau Ambok [now Kampong Pintu Malim], Brunei - d. March 28, 2000, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei), chief minister of Brunei (1962-67).

Marschall von Bieberstein, Adolf (Hermann) Freiherr (b. Oct. 12, 1842, Karlsruhe, Baden [now in Baden-Württemberg, Germany] - d. Sept. 24, 1912, Badenweiler, Baden [now in Baden-Württemberg], Germany), foreign minister of Germany (1890-97) and of Prussia (1894-97). He was also ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1897-1912) and the United Kingdom (1912).

Marschik, Alexander (b. April 12, 1967), Austrian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2020- ).

Marsden, William (b. Sept. 15, 1940), commissioner of the British Indian Ocean Territory (1985-88). He was also British ambassador to Costa Rica and Nicaragua (1989-92) and Argentina (1997-2000).

Marsh, George Perkins (b. March 15, 1801, Woodstock, Vt. - d. July 23, 1882, Vallombrosa, Firenze province [now Firenze metropolitan city], Italy), U.S. politician. A pioneer of environmental conservationism, he was a U.S. representative (1843-49), minister resident to the Ottoman Empire (1850-53), and minister to Italy (1861-82).

Marsh, Narcissus (b. Dec. 20, 1638, Hannington, Wiltshire, England - d. Nov. 2, 1713), joint lord lieutenant of Ireland (1699). He was bishop of Ferns and Leighlin (1683-90) and archbishop of Cashel (1690-94), Dublin (1694-1702), and Armagh (1702-13) in the Church of Ireland and a lord justice (1699, 1700-01, 1701-02, 1707, 1707-08, 1710).

Marsh, Reginald (b. Dec. 25, 1906, Braidwood, N.S.W. - d. May 2005, Sydney, N.S.W.), administrator of Norfolk Island (1966-68).

Marshall, David Saul (b. March 12, 1908, Singapore - d. Dec. 12, 1995, Singapore), chief minister of Singapore (1955-56). He served in the colonial army in World War II, during which he was captured (1942) by the Japanese and forced to work in the coal mines in Hokkaido, Japan. He entered Singapore politics in the early 1950s, during the struggle for independence. He was a co-founder of the socialist Labour Front and was elected to the Legislative Assembly in April 1955 under Singapore's new constitution. He formed a centre-left coalition government with the United Malays National Organization and the Malayan Chinese Association, and became the state's first chief minister. When he led an unsuccessful mission to London at the end of 1955 for independence talks, he accused the British of offering Singapore "Christmas pudding with arsenic sauce"; when a second mission in 1956 also failed, he resigned as chief minister. In 1957 he founded the Workers' Party, which, however, was unsuccessful at the polls. After the authoritarian People's Action Party (PAP) took over (1959), he consistently and unequivocally spoke out against the government's repressive policies. Though he was quick to praise the economic progress achieved by the PAP, he condemned what he saw as the resultant loss of a sense of humanity. He remained active in politics until 1972. Later, he served as ambassador to France (1978-93), Portugal (1981-93), Spain (1981-93), and Switzerland (1990-93). Upon his return to Singapore, he resumed his outspoken criticism of the government. In 1994 he was one of the very few citizens publicly to oppose the caning of the U.S. teenager Michael Fay as punishment for vandalism.

G.C. Marshall
Marshall, George C(atlett) (b. Dec. 31, 1880, Uniontown, Pa. - d. Oct. 16, 1959, Washington, D.C.), U.S. secretary of state (1947-49). He advanced steadily through the ranks of the army, ultimately becoming general of the army in December 1944. He was sworn in as chief of staff of the U.S. Army on Sept. 1, 1939. As the chief representative of the U.S. chiefs of staff at the international conferences at Casablanca; Washington, D.C.; Quebec; Cairo; and Tehran, he led the fight for an Allied drive on German forces across the English Channel, in opposition to the so-called Mediterranean strategy of the British. A few days after he resigned as chief of staff on Nov. 21, 1945, Pres. Harry Truman persuaded him to attempt, as his special representative, to mediate the Chinese Civil War. Though his efforts were unsuccessful, on Jan. 7, 1947, he was appointed secretary of state. In June of that year he proposed a European Recovery Program, which, known as the Marshall Plan, played a decisive role in the reconstruction of war-torn Europe. Also significant during his secretaryship were the provision of aid to Greece and Turkey, the recognition of Israel, and the initial discussions that led to the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He left his position because of ill health in January 1949. In September he was named president of the American Red Cross. In 1950, Truman called him to the post of secretary of defense. After 1951 he remained on the active-duty list as the highest ranking general of the army, available for consultation by the government. In 1953 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his contributions to the economic rehabilitation of Europe after World War II and his efforts to promote world peace and understanding.

Marshall, Helen M(arie) (b. Sept. 30, 1929, Manhattan, New York City - d. March 4, 2017, Palm Desert, Calif.), borough president of Queens (2002-13).

Marshall, John (b. Sept. 24, 1755, near Germantown [now Midland], Virginia - d. July 6, 1835, Philadelphia, Pa.), U.S. secretary of state (1800-01) and chief justice (1801-35). He served (1775-79) in the Continental army during the American Revolution and later became active in Virginia state politics. He was a special envoy to France during the XYZ Affair (1797-98) and served briefly in Congress (1799-1800). He was appointed by Pres. John Adams as secretary of state, then as chief justice. During his 34-year tenure at the Supreme Court, he established its power and independence as well as the fundamental principles of constitutional law. He ended the practice by which each justice wrote a separate opinion, instead producing a single majority opinion that stood as the verdict of the court. His most important decision was in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803), which established the principle of judicial review, asserting the court's authority to determine the constitutionality of legislation. He also wrote majority opinions in decisions that upheld the inviolability of contracts with states and the superiority of federal over state authority. He is the single most influential figure in U.S. legal history.

J.R. Marshall
Marshall, Sir John Ross, byname Jack Marshall (b. March 5, 1912, Wellington, N.Z. - d. Aug. 30, 1988, Snape, Suffolk, England), prime minister of New Zealand (1972). He was first elected to parliament in 1946. He held a wide variety of ministerial posts, including minister of health (1951-54), minister of justice (1954-57, 1969), attorney general (1954-57, 1969-71), minister of commerce and industry (1960-69), and minister of labour and immigration (1969-72). He achieved his greatest success in 1971 when, as minister of overseas trade, he stalled Britain's admission to the European Economic Community (EEC) until the EEC agreed to continue the importation of New Zealand dairy products for at least five years. As deputy leader of the National Party from 1957, he was chosen to succeed retiring prime minister Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake in February 1972, but the party was defeated in the November general election by Norman Kirk's Labour Party. Marshall was also a representative to the United Nations (1970) and chairman of the National Development Council (1969-72). He was ousted as leader of the opposition by his party rival, Robert David Muldoon, in 1974, and retired from parliament in 1975. He was knighted in 1974.

Marshall, Keith (Hamilton Llewellyn), byname Tony Marshall, Barbadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2015-18).

P. Marshall

S. Marshall
Marshall, Peter (Brendon) (b. 1953?), high commissioner of the Cook Islands (2017-19). He was also commissioner of police of the Solomon Islands (2009-11) and New Zealand (2011-14).

Marshall, (Cedric) Russell (b. Feb. 15, 1936, Nelson, New Zealand), foreign minister of New Zealand (1987-90). He was also minister of education (1984-87), environment (1984-86), conservation (1986-87), disarmament and arms control (1987-89), and Pacific Island affairs (1988-90) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2002-05).

Marshall, Steven (Spence) (b. Jan. 21, 1968, Adelaide, S.Aus.), premier of South Australia (2018-22).

T.R. Marshall
Marshall, Thomas R(iley) (b. March 14, 1854, North Manchester, Ind. - d. June 1, 1925, Washington, D.C.), governor of Indiana (1909-13) and vice president of the United States (1913-21).

Marshall, Thurgood, originally Thoroughgood Marshall (b. July 2, 1908, Baltimore, Md. - d. Jan. 24, 1993, Bethesda, Md.), U.S. jurist. He joined the legal staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1936 and was named chief of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund in 1940. He successfully argued many important civil-rights cases, most notably Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), which abandoned the "separate but equal" doctrine and prohibited states from establishing racially segregated schooling. He served as a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals (1961-65) and as U.S. solicitor general (1965-67) before becoming the first black justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1967-91). A steadfast liberal, he fit comfortably among the majority under the leadership of Chief Justice Earl Warren, but as more conservatives were appointed to the court he came to be known as "the great dissenter." His most important contribution to constitutional doctrine was his "sliding scale" interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment's equal-protection clause that would weigh the objectives of the government against the nature and interests of the groups affected by the law.

Marshall, Tom, byname of Thomas Wendell Marshall (b. Oct. 26, 1946, Glace Bay, N.S.), premier of Newfoundland and Labrador (2014).

Marshall, William R(ogerson) (b. Oct. 17, 1825, Boone county, Mo. - d. Jan. 8, 1896, near St. Paul, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1866-70).

Marshoff, (Frances) Beatrice (b. Sept. 17, 1957, Bloemfontein, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa - d. April 15, 2023, Soweto, Gauteng, South Africa), premier of the Free State (2004-09).


Marsicanin, Dragan (b. Jan. 26, 1950, Belgrade, Serbia), acting president of Serbia (2004). He was president of the National Assembly (2001, 2004), economy minister (2004), a presidential candidate (2004), and ambassador to Switzerland (2004-09).

Marsilio, Marco (b. Feb. 17, 1968, Rome, Italy), president of Abruzzo (2019- ).

Marsipal, Arnold (b. April 27, 1941, Nauna island, New Guinea [now in Manus province, Papua New Guinea]), defense minister of Papua New Guinea (1988-89). He was also minister of labour and employment (1992) and justice (1995-97).

Marson, Evariste (b. Oct. 3, 1938, Vohipeno, Madagascar), foreign minister of Madagascar (1996-97). He was also minister of agriculture and rural development (1996).


Marsters, Sir Tom (John) (b. Aug. 4, 1945, Palmerston island, Cook Islands), foreign minister (2004-05, 2010-13) and queen's/king's representative (2013- ) of the Cook Islands; knighted 2018. He was also attorney general (2004), transport minister (2004-05, 2010-13), and deputy prime minister (2010-13).

Marsudi, Retno (Lestari Priansari) (b. Nov. 27, 1962, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia), foreign minister of Indonesia (2014- ). She was also ambassador to Norway and Iceland (2005-08) and the Netherlands (2012-14).

Marte (Hoffiz) de Barrios, Licelott (Catalina) (b. April 30, 1934, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic - d. June 13, 2019, Santo Domingo), finance minister of the Dominican Republic (1990-93); daughter of Santos Mélido Marte Pichado.

Marte Pichado, Santos Mélido (b. July 19, 1899, Estancia Nueva, Puñal municipality, Dominican Republic - d. 1984), armed forces minister of the Dominican Republic (1961).

Martel, Damien (Joseph Alfred Charles comte) de (b. 1878 - d. Jan. 21, 1940, Paris, France), French high commissioner of Syria and Lebanon (1933-38). He was also French minister to Latvia (1921-24) and China (1924-29) and ambassador to Japan (1929-33).

Martel, Louis (Joseph) (b. Sept. 13, 1813, Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. March 4, 1892, Évreux, Eure, France), justice (and worship) minister of France (1876-77). He was also president of the Senate (1879-80).

Martelli, Claudio (b. Sept. 24, 1943, Gessate, Milano province [now Milano metropolitan city], Lombardia, Italy), deputy prime minister (1989-92) and justice minister (1991-93) of Italy.

Martelli, Sir Horace de Courcy (b. July 17, 1877, Multan, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. March 11, 1959, England), lieutenant governor of Jersey (1934-39); knighted 1937.

Martelly, Michel (Joseph), stage name Sweet Micky (b. Feb. 12, 1961, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), president of Haiti (2011-16).

Martens, Wilfried (Achiel Emma) (b. April 19, 1936, Sleidinge, near Ghent, Belgium - d. Oct. 9/10, 2013, Lokeren, Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1979-81, 1981-92). Active in the Flemish federalist movement, he staged an unofficial "Flemish Day" at the Brussels world's fair in 1958. A member of the executive of the "Vlaamse Volksbeweging" (a federalist lobby) from 1960 until 1964, he joined the Social Christians in 1962. By 1965 he had moved up to the national committee of the party, and as a member of the personal staffs of two prime ministers he acquired firsthand political experience. Elected chairman of the Young Social Christians in 1967, he joined the staff of the then minister for community affairs, Léo Tindemans. By 1969 Martens was on the Social Christian Party executive staff and in the directorate of the party's Flemish wing. His entry into parliament came two years after he was chosen as chairman of the Social Christians in March 1972. Together with the leaders of the other parties in the Tindemans coalition of 1974-78, Martens masterminded the Egmont and Stuyvenberg agreements on the transformation of Belgium's political structure into a federal one. As chairman of a special agreements commission, he helped to push them through the legislature despite their many unconstitutional aspects. On April 3, 1979, the latest and longest of Belgium's almost perennial governmental crises ended when Martens, who had not previously held ministerial office, became prime minister at the head of a five-party coalition. In 1988, he became the longest-serving Belgian prime minister since 1918. His government configurations were centre-left (1979-80, 1980-81, 1988-92), centre-right (1981-88), and a grand coalition (1980). He was president of the European People's Party, which he co-founded in 1976, from 1990 to 2013. In 1994-99 he was a member of the European Parliament where he led the EPP group. In 2000-01 he was president of the Christian Democrat International.

Martens van Sevenhoven, Jonkheer Jacob Constantijn (b. Aug. 27, 1793, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Feb. 16, 1861, Utrecht), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the First Chamber (1851-52).

A.F. Martí
Martí (Rodríguez), Agustín Farabundo,1 byname El Negro (b. May 5, 1893, Teotepeque, El Salvador - d. Feb. 1, 1932, San Salvador, El Salvador), Salvadoran rebel leader. In Guatemala, he organized the Socialist Party of Central America (Partido Socialista Centroamericano) in 1925. After his return he became one of the leaders of the Federación Regional de Trabajadores de El Salvador and fought in 1928-29 with Augusto César Sandino in the mountains of Segovia. After his split with Sandino and a short stay in Mexico he returned to El Salvador, where he became a founding member of the Salvadoran Communist Party (Partido Comunista Salvadoreño; 1930). He was responsible for the military preparation of the uprising of Jan. 20, 1932, against the government of Gen. Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, but he and other leaders were arrested three days before the rebellion. The uprising began after the government refused to seat Salvadoran Communist Party candidates who won municipal and legislative elections. On January 20 the government began to crush the uprising by killing 4,000 people. With rebel communications severed, unarmed peasants and farmworkers followed a plan to march into the nation's cities. The army decided to teach the insurgents a lesson. It launched a genocidal campaign known as La Matanza ("The Slaughter"). Within a few weeks, the killings by the army and the coffee barons' private militias, the infamous Guardias Blancas (White Guards), numbered more than 30,000. By the time La Matanza was over, 4% of the Salvadoran population were dead, the Communist Party liquidated, and the Indian population forced to abandon its native dress, languages, and customs. On January 30 a military tribunal sentenced Martí to death, and he was shot on February 1.
1 Birth and baptism certificates show Faramundo Agustín Martí.

J. Martí
Martí (y Pérez), José (Julián) (b. Jan. 28, 1853, Havana, Cuba - d. May 19, 1895, Dos Ríos, Oriente province, Cuba), Cuban political leader. At age 16 he founded a newspaper, La patria libre ("The Free Fatherland"). During a revolutionary uprising that broke out in Cuba in 1868, he sympathized with the patriots, for which he was sentenced to six months of hard labour and, in 1871, deported to Spain. He spent a few years in France, Mexico, and Guatemala, and returned to Cuba in 1878. Because of his continued political activities, however, Martí was again exiled from Cuba to Spain in 1879. From there he went to France, to New York City, and, in 1881, to Venezuela, where he founded the Revista Venezolana ("Venezuelan Review"). The politics of his journal, however, provoked Venezuela's dictator, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, and Martí returned that year to New York City, where he remained, except for occasional travels, until the year of his death. In New York he achieved international fame as a writer. His best-known poem (later put to music) is "Guantanamera." His literary fame helped him to unite most of the Cuban exile factions in the U.S. In 1892 he was elected delegado ("delegate"; he refused to be called president) of the Partido Revolucionario Cubano (Cuban Revolutionary Party) that he had helped to form. Making New York City the centre of operations, he began to draw up plans for an invasion of Cuba. He left New York for Santo Domingo on Jan. 31, 1895, accompanied by the Cuban revolutionary leader Máximo Gómez and other compatriots. They arrived in Cuba to begin the invasion on April 11. He was killed a month later in a skirmish with a detachment of Spanish troops on the plains of Dos Ríos.

R. Marti
Marti, Robert (b. July 11, 1953), Landammann of Glarus (2006-08, 2010-12, 2014-16).

Martí Alanís

Martí Petit
Martí Alanís, Joan (Catalan), Castilian Juan Martí Alanis (b. Nov. 29, 1928, Milá [El Milà], Spain - d. Oct. 11, 2009, Barcelona, Spain), co-prince of Andorra (1971-2003).

Martí Petit, Antoni, byname Toni Martí (b. July 30, 1963, Escaldes-Engordany, Andorra - d. Nov. 6, 2023, Escaldes-Engordany), head of government of Andorra (2011-15, 2015-19).

Martian, Dan (b. Nov. 23, 1935, Soimus-Petreasa, Bihor county, Romania - d. March 8, 2002, Lisbon, Portugal), member of the Council of the National Salvation Front of Romania (1989). In 1990-92 he was president of the Chamber of Deputies. From 2001 he was ambassador to Portugal.

Martic, Milan (b. Nov. 18, 1954, Zagoric village, near Knin, Croatia), president of Krajina (1994-95). He surrendered to the UN war crimes tribunal on May 15, 2002. On June 12, 2007, he was sentenced to 35 years in jail for atrocities carried out in Croatia.

Martignac, Jean-Baptiste (Sylvère) Gaye, vicomte de (b. June 20, 1778, Bordeaux, France - d. April 3, 1832, Paris, France), prime minister and interior minister of France (1828-29). He was made vicomte (viscount) in 1824.

Martikyan, Sergo (Nikolayevich) (b. 1874, Tiflis, Russia [now Tbilisi, Georgia] - d. May 13, 1957, Yerevan, Armenian S.S.R.), chairman of the Central Executive Committees of the Armenian S.S.R. (1933-36) and the Transcaucasian S.F.S.R. (1935-36). He was also chairman of the Supreme Council of National Economy of the Armenian S.S.R. (1931-32).

Martin, Alexander (b. 1740, Hunterdon county, New Jersey - d. Nov. 2, 1807, "Danbury" plantation, near Crawford [now Danbury], Stokes county, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1781-82 [acting], 1782-85, 1789-92). He was also a U.S. senator from North Carolina (1793-99).

Martín, Carlos, foreign and interior minister (1867-68) and acting war and navy minister (1867-68) of Colombia. He was also minister to the United States (1872-74, 1883-84).

Martin, Charles H(enry) (b. Oct. 1, 1863, White county, Ill. - d. Sept. 22, 1946, Portland, Ore.), governor of Oregon (1935-39).

C. Martin

H. Martin

Jacques Martin
Martin, Clare (Majella) (b. June 15, 1952, Sydney, N.S.W.), chief minister of the Northern Territory (2001-07).

Martin, Clarence D(aniel) (b. June 29, 1887, Cheney, Wash. - d. Aug. 11, 1955, Cheney), governor of Washington (1933-41).

Martin, Daniel (b. December 1780, "The Wilderness," near Easton, Talbot county, Md. - d. July 11, 1831, Talbot county), governor of Maryland (1829-30, 1831).

Martin, Sir David James (b. April 15, 1933 - d. Aug. 10, 1990), governor of New South Wales (1989-90); knighted 1988.

Martin, Edward (b. Sept. 18, 1879, Ten Mile, Pa. - d. March 19, 1967, Washington, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1943-47). He was also a U.S. senator from Pennsylvania (1947-59).

Martin, Harold (b. April 6, 1954), president of the government of New Caledonia (2007-09, 2011-14).

Martin, Jacques (b. May 11, 1933, Chapelle-sur-Moudon, Vaud, Switzerland - d. Dec. 2, 2005), president of the Council of State of Vaud (1994).

Martin, James G(rubbs) (b. Dec. 11, 1935, Savannah, Ga.), governor of North Carolina (1985-93).

Martin, Jean-Auguste (b. May 21, 1814, Rochefort, Charente-Inférieure [now Charente-Maritime], France - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1849-50).

Martin, John A(lexander) (b. March 10, 1839, Brownsville, Pa. - d. Oct. 2, 1889, Atchison, Kan.), governor of Kansas (1885-89).

Martin, Joshua L(anier) (b. Dec. 12, 1799, Blount county, Tenn. - d. Nov. 2, 1856, Tuscaloosa, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1845-47).

Martin, Sir John (Edward Ludgate) (b. May 10, 1918 - d. May 31, 2011), lieutenant governor of Guernsey (1974-80); knighted 1972.

J.W. Martin

M. Martin
Martin, John W(ellborn) (b. June 21, 1884, Plainfield, Fla. - d. Feb. 22, 1958, St. Augustine, Fla.), governor of Florida (1925-29).

Martín, Juan Benedicto (b. May 7, 1910, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina - d. ...), foreign minister of Argentina (1969-70). He was also ambassador to Japan (1968-69).

Martin, Jules (b. Nov. 18, 1855, Béziers, Hérault, France - d. Sept. 26, 1923), acting governor of Mayotte (1904-05) and French resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1909-11).

Martin, Micheál, Irish Micheál Ó Máirtín (b. Aug. 1, 1960, Cork, Ireland), foreign minister (2008-11, 2022- ), prime minister (2020-22), deputy prime minister (2022- ), and defence minister (2022- ) of Ireland. He has also been lord mayor of Cork (1992-93), minister of education and science (1997-2000), health and children (2000-04), and enterprise, trade and employment (2004-08), and leader of Fianna Fáil (2011- ).

Martin, Noah (b. July 26, 1801, Epsom, N.H. - d. May 28, 1863, Dover, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1852-54).

P. Martin
(1938- )
Martin, Paul (Edgar Philippe) (b. Aug. 28, 1938, Windsor, Ont.), finance minister (1993-2002) and prime minister (2003-06) of Canada; son of Paul Martin (1903-92). He represented Montreal's LaSalle-Émard region in parliament from 1988. When the Liberal Party won power in the 1993 elections and Jean Chrétien became prime minister, Martin became finance minister, and during his 9 years at that position, he could boast of five consecutive budget surpluses, erasing a Can$42 billion deficit and investing in healthcare. Canada's business leaders generally backed him, considering him one of their own. He was forced to resign in June 2002 during a controversial split within the party. Reacting to pressure, Prime Minister Chrétien of the rival Liberal faction (their rivalry dated back to their battle for the party leadership in 1990, which Chrétien won) announced his impending retirement in 2003. Martin was elected party leader in November and succeeded as prime minister on Chrétien's resignation in December. He led the Liberal Party to a fourth successive election victory in June 2004, but it lost many seats and he had to lead a minority government. An inquiry into a sponsorship scheme in Quebec that allegedly involved the Liberals funneling money to advertising firms associated with the party for little or no work while Martin was finance minister ultimately caused him to lose a no-confidence vote on Nov. 28, 2005, and the Liberals were defeated in the new elections on Jan. 23, 2006. He stepped down as party leader in March 2006.

P. Martin
Martin, Paul (Joseph James) (b. June 23, 1903, Ottawa, Ont. - d. Sept. 14, 1992, Windsor, Ont.), Canadian politician. Stricken with polio at the age of four, he experienced a miraculous recovery, but his affliction left a lasting impression on the legislation he supported. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1935 and represented the Windsor riding of Essex East until 1968. He was appointed parliamentary assistant to the minister of labour in 1943, and in 1945 he joined the cabinet as secretary of state. As minister of national health and welfare (1946-57), he guided important legislation through parliament, including the National Health Program (1948), the federal Old Age Security Act (1951), and the Hospital Insurance and Diagnostic Services Act (1957). He was also responsible for ordering the manufacture of vast quantities of the polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk so that, when it was approved safe for distribution, Canadians could quickly be vaccinated. A skilled diplomat, Martin was a delegate to the League of Nations in the 1930s, the principal architect of an expanded UN membership plan (1955), secretary of state for external affairs (1963-68), and high commissioner to Britain (1974-79). Twice he sought the Liberal Party leadership, losing to Lester Pearson (1958) and Pierre Trudeau (1968).

Martin, Sir Richard Biddulph, (1st) Baronet (b. May 12, 1838, London, England - d. Aug. 23, 1916), chairman of the British North Borneo Chartered Company (1893-1903). He was created baronet in 1905.

Martin, Robert (b. 1833, Frankfort Springs, Pa. - d. March 2, 1897, Guthrie, Okla.), acting governor of Oklahoma (1891-92).

Martin, Roy B(utler), Jr. (b. May 13, 1921, Norfolk, Va. - d. May 20, 2002), mayor of Norfolk (1962-74). In 1953, he was appointed to City Council by Mayor W. Fred Duckworth. Six years later, Martin crossed him by casting the lone vote against closing the public schools beyond sixth grade as part of Massive Resistance, the statewide effort to shut down public schools rather than racially integrate them. Martin succeeded Duckworth as mayor in 1962. He helped bring the Chrysler Museum of Art and the Gen. Douglas MacArthur memorial to downtown and gave the green light for the Scope arena complex redevelopment project. He left City Council in 1974, but continued to serve on numerous boards and act as a goodwill ambassador for the city.

U. Martin
Martin, Urs (b. Feb. 6, 1979, Arbon, Thurgau, Switzerland), president of the government of Thurgau (2023- ).

Martin, Wayne (Stewart) (b. Dec. 28, 1952), acting governor of Western Australia (2011, 2014). He was chief justice (2006-18).

Martin, William M(cChesney) (b. Dec. 17, 1906, St. Louis, Mo. - d. July 27, 1998, Washington, D.C.), chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (1951-70). His career began as a bank examiner in his native St. Louis and included appointments as head of the Export-Import Bank in Washington and as an assistant treasury secretary during the Harry Truman administration. He was dubbed the "Boy Wonder" of Wall Street when he became the first paid president of the New York Stock Exchange at the age of 31. During his nearly two decades as Fed chairman, the longest tenure in the central bank's history, Martin presided over a golden age for the U.S. economy. The United States enjoyed strong economic growth, low unemployment, low inflation, and the biggest gains in living standards of any time in the post-World War II period. His tenure also covered the longest economic expansion in the nation's history, from 1961 to 1969, a period of uninterrupted growth that ended when the central bank was forced to begin raising interest rates to fight a buildup of inflation caused by government spending during the Vietnam War. Martin was known as a consensus builder who sought to establish a collegial atmosphere at the central bank. As chairman, he always waited until last to cast his vote on whether to change interest rates, insisting that he did not want to influence his Fed colleagues. The central bank, through its control over short-term interest rates, seeks to promote the fastest economic growth possible without triggering inflation. True to his Missouri roots, Martin favoured a plainspoken approach to interest-rate policy, complaining once in an interview in the mid-1980s that he believed there was too much double-talk in discussions about monetary policy.

Martín Alonso, Pablo (b. July 10, 1896, El Ferrol, La Coruña province, Spain - d. Feb. 11, 1964, Madrid, Spain), army minister of Spain (1962-64). He was also captain-general of Catalonia (1957-62).

Martin du Nord, Nicolas (Ferdinand Marie Louis Joseph), comte (b. July 29, 1790, Douai, Nord, France - d. March 12, 1847, Lormois, Nord), justice minister of France (1840-47). He was also minister of agriculture, commerce, and public works (1836-39). He was made comte (count) in 1847.

Martin-Feuillée, Félix (b. Nov. 25, 1830, Rennes, Ille-et-Vilaine, France - d. Aug. 5, 1898, Derval, Loire-Inférieure [now Loire-Atlantique], France), justice (and worship) minister of France (1883-85).

Martín Huerta

D.F. Martina
Martín Huerta, Ramón (b. Jan. 24, 1957, San Juan de los Lagos, Jalisco, Mexico - d. [helicopter crash] Sept. 21, 2005, near San Miguel Mimiapan village, México state, Mexico), governor of Guanajuato (1999-2000). He was serving as secretary of public security in the Mexican cabinet since 2004.

Martín Villa, Rodolfo (b. Oct. 3, 1934, Santa María del Páramo, León province, Spain), interior minister of Spain (1976-79). He was also civil governor of Barcelona (1974-75), minister of relations with trade unions (1975-76) and territorial administration (1980-81), and first deputy prime minister (1981-82).

Martina, Dominico F(elipe), byname Don Martina (b. May 1, 1935, Curaçao), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1979-84, 1986-88).

Martina, Ornelio, byname Kees Martina (b. Nov. 14, 1930, Curaçao - d. Nov. 11, 1996), administrator of Curaçao (1976-82).

Martinaud-Deplat, Léon (Jean), original surname Martinaud (b. Aug. 9, 1899, Lyon, France - d. Oct. 5, 1969, Paris, France), justice minister (1952-53) and interior minister (1953-54) of France.

Martinazzoli, (Fermo) Mino (b. Nov. 30, 1931, Orzinuovi, Brescia province, Italy - d. Sept. 4, 2011, Brescia, Italy), justice minister (1983-86) and defense minister (1989-90) of Italy. He was also minister without portfolio (regional affairs and institutional reform) (1991-92) and mayor of Brescia (1994-98).

Martindale, Sir Arthur Henry Temple (b. March 13, 1854 - d. Jan. 25, 1942), chief commissioner of Ajmer-Merwara (1898-1905); knighted 1904.

Martineau, (Albert) Alfred (b. Dec. 18, 1859, Artins, Loir-et-Cher, France - d. Jan. 25, 1945, Varennes, Dordogne, France), governor of French Somaliland (1899-1900) and Mayotte (1902-04), lieutenant governor of Gabon (1907), acting commissioner-general of French Congo (1907), and governor of French India (1910-11, 1913-18). He was appointed (Sept. 18, 1900) but not installed as governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.

Martineau, Gilbert (Roger) (b. July 26, 1918, Rochefort-sur-Mer, France - d. Aug. 23, 1995, La Rochelle, France), conservator of the French possessions on St. Helena (1956-87).

Martineau, John E(llis) (b. Dec. 2, 1873, Clay county, Mo. - d. March 6, 1937, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1927-28).

Martínek, Radko (b. June 6, 1956, Brno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Pardubický kraj (2008-12). He also was Czech minister of regional development (2005-06).

Martinelli, Mario (b. May 12, 1906, Como, Italy - d. May 21, 2001), finance minister of Italy (1963). He was also minister of foreign trade (1954-55, 1960-62) and transport (1974-76).

R. Martinelli
Martinelli (Berrocal), Ricardo (Alberto) (b. March 11, 1952, Panama City, Panama), president of Panama (2009-14). Facing an 11-year prison sentence following a 2023 conviction centring on money-laundering charges, he requested and was granted asylum in Nicaragua in 2024.

Martinet, Henri Étienne (b. May 5, 1896 - d. Jan. 28, 1941), acting governor of Dahomey (1937, 1938).

Martínez, Álvaro Ernesto, foreign minister of El Salvador (1977-78). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1974-77) and Italy (1978-80).

Martínez (de Orihuela), Andrés (b. Nov. 28, 1795, Arequipa, Peru - d. July 22, 1856, Arequipa), finance minister of Peru (1833, 1834, 1835-36, 1843-44, 1844). He was also mayor of Arequipa (1831).

Martínez (González), Bartolomé (b. 1860, Jinotega, Nicaragua - d. Jan. 30, 1936, Matagalpa, Nicaragua), acting president (1923-25) and interior and justice minister (1925) of Nicaragua.

Martinez, Bob, byname of Robert Martinez (b. Dec. 25, 1934, Tampa, Fla.), governor of Florida (1987-91). He was also mayor of Tampa (1979-86).

Martínez (Alvarado), Carlos Ramiro (b. Sept. 13, 1958, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (2024- ). He was also ambassador to Argentina (2012-15).

Martínez, Diógenes (b. April 9, 1947, Villarrica, Paraguay), foreign minister (1993), interior minister (1995-96), and defense minister (2015-18) of Paraguay. He was also attorney general (1989-90).

Martínez, Ernesto, finance minister of Nicaragua (1908-09).

Martínez, Héctor, war minister of Peru (1948).

H. Martínez

Mel Martinez
Martínez (Bonilla), Hugo (Roger) (b. Jan. 2, 1968, Concepción de Oriente, El Salvador), foreign minister of El Salvador (2009-13, 2014-18). In 2013-14 he was secretary-general of the Central American Integration System.

Martínez, Julio (César) (b. March 23, 1962, Chilecito, La Rioja, Argentina), defense minister of Argentina (2015-17).

Martínez (Nucete), Leopoldo (José) (b. Oct. 16, 1964), finance minister of Venezuela (2002).

Martínez, Luis, finance minister of Bolivia (1951-52).

Martínez (Fagalde), Martín C(asimiro) (b. Feb. 22, 1859, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. Jan. 21, 1946, Montevideo), finance minister of Uruguay (1903-04, 1916).

Martinez, Mel(quiades Rafael) (b. Oct. 23, 1946, Sagua La Grande, Cuba), U.S. secretary of housing and urban development (2001-03) and general chairman of the Republican National Committee (2007).

Martínez (Abdenur), Ramón (del Valle) (b. Aug. 31, 1948 - d. Jan. 25, 2022, Cumaná, Sucre, Venezuela), governor of Sucre (1992-98, 2000-08).

Martínez (Achával), Rodolfo (b. May 19, 1919, Córdoba, Argentina - d. Nov. 6, 2012, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina), defense minister (1962) and interior minister (1962, 1962-63) of Argentina. He was also minister of commerce and industry (1956-57).

Martinez, Susana (b. July 14, 1959, El Paso, Texas), governor of New Mexico (2011-19).

Martínez (Guerrero), Tomás (b. Dec. 21, 1820, Nagarote, León, Nicaragua - d. March 12, 1873, León), member of the Government Junta (1857) and president (1857-67) of Nicaragua.

Martínez (Solórzano), Tomás, foreign minister of Nicaragua (1910-11); son of the above.

Martínez Álvarez, Jesús (Emilio) (b. Sept. 18, 1944, Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico), governor of Oaxaca (1985-86). He was also mayor of Oaxaca (1978-80).

Martínez Baca, Alberto (b. May 2, 1906, Tres Arroyos, Buenos Aires province, Argentina - d. July 5, 1984, Buenos Aires, Argentina), governor of Mendoza (1973-74).

Martínez Barrio, Diego (b. Nov. 25, 1883, Sevilla, Spain - d. Jan. 1, 1962, Paris, France), prime minister (1933, 1936) and president (1936 [interim] and in exile 1945-62) of Spain. He was also minister of communications (1931), interior (1933, 1934), and war (1933-34) and president of the Congress of Deputies (1936-45, from 1939 in exile).

Martínez Blanco, Gerardo (b. 1939? - d. Aug. 6, 2019, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), Honduran diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-98).

Martínez Campos (y Antón), Arsenio (b. Dec. 14, 1831, Segovia, Spain - d. Sept. 23, 1900, Zarauz, Guipúzcoa province, Spain), governor of Cuba (1878-79, 1895-96) and prime minister (1879) and war minister (1879, 1881-83) of Spain. He was also captain-general of Catalonia (1873-74, 1874-76, 1890, 1893).

Martínez Corbalá, Gonzalo (b. March 10, 1928, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. Oct. 15, 2017, Mexico City, Mexico), interim governor of San Luis Potosí (1991-92). He was also Mexican ambassador to Chile (1972-75) and Cuba (1980-82) and president of the Chamber of Deputies (1990).

Martínez de Ferrari, Marcial (Alberto) (b. Nov. 3, 1866, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 16, 1950, Santiago), justice (and education) minister of Chile (1923). He was also minister to Uruguay and Paraguay (1912-17) and Switzerland (1918-20).

Martínez de la Rosa (Berdejo Gómez y Arroyo), Francisco (de Paula) (b. March 10, 1787, Granada, Spain - d. Feb. 7, 1862, Madrid, Spain), first secretary of state (1822), prime minister (1834-35), and foreign minister (1834-35, 1844-46, 1857-58) of Spain. He was also president of the Cortes (1821) and the Congress of Deputies (1852, 1853, 1853, 1857, 1858-62) and ambassador to France (1847) and the Papal State (1848-49).

Martínez Domínguez, Alfonso (b. Jan. 7, 1922, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico - d. Nov. 6, 2002, Monterrey), chief of government of the Distrito Federal (mayor of Mexico City; 1970-71) and governor of Nuevo León (1979-85). He was president of the Chamber of Deputies in 1964-65 and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1968-70. He was removed from his post as mayor shortly after the violent suppression of a pro-democracy demonstration. It was called in June 1971 after the student demonstrators involved in the huge Tlatelolco protest of 1968 were released from jail. Security forces in civilian clothes beat and shot at student demonstrators, leaving an estimated 30 protesters dead. In 2002, government prosecutors visited him in hospital to question him about his alleged role in the 1971 incident. Martínez denied any involvement and said the security forces involved were under the control of then-president Luis Echeverría Álvarez, who also was under investigation for both the 1971 incident and the larger student massacre of 1968. Echeverría also denied responsibility. Human rights groups charged that Mexico City's government, under the supervision of Echeverría, recruited and trained a paramilitary group called the "Falcons" to eliminate political activists. Pres. Vicente Fox named a special prosecutor in 2001 after the government's National Human Rights Commission confirmed at least 275 "disappearances" in the 1970s and early 1980s. Fox, whose election ended the PRI's 71-year rule, promised to end government-sponsored corruption and violence.

M.A. Martínez

P. Martínez
Martínez García, María Antonia (b. May 18, 1953, Molina de Segura, Murcia, Spain), president of Murcia (1993-95).

Martínez García, Patricio (b. March 17, 1948, Chihuahua, Mexico), governor of Chihuahua (1998-2004). He was also mayor of Chihuahua (1992-95). He was shot and wounded in an assassination attempt on Jan. 17, 2001.

F. Martínez
Martínez Jiménez, (José) Fernando, foreign minister of Honduras (1998-99). He was fired by Pres. Carlos Flores after criticizing government reconstruction efforts in the wake of Hurricane Mitch.

Martínez Lacayo, Roberto (b. Dec. 18, 1899 - d. Feb. 16, 1984), defense minister (1972) and member of the National Government Junta (1972-74) of Nicaragua.

Martínez Manautou, Emilio (b. July 30, 1919, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico - d. Dec. 25, 2004, San Fernando municipality, Tamaulipas), governor of Tamaulipas (1981-87). He was also Mexican minister of the presidency (1964-70) and health and welfare (1976-80).

Martínez Neira, Néstor Humberto (b. Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1998-2000). He was also minister of justice (1994-95) and the presidency (2014-15) and ambassador to France (1996-97).

Martínez Ordóñez, (José) Roberto (b. Sept. 18, 1922, Tegucigalpa, Honduras - d. Oct. 16, 2001, New York), Honduran politician. A member of the Liberal Party, he was minister of communications and public works (1958-59) and on three occasions served as the Honduran permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-77, 1986-87, 1988-90). He also served as ambassador to El Salvador (1959-60), Nicaragua (1982-83), the Organization of American States (1983-85), and Chile (1994-99). He ran for president unsuccessfully in 1980. He was serving as Honduras' alternate ambassador to the United Nations when he died.

Martínez Rosales, Emilio (b. Nov. 27, 1955, Barranquilla, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (1998-99).

Martínez Silva, Carlos (b. Oct. 6, 1847, San Gil, Santander, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Feb. 10, 1903, Tunja, Boyacá, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1900-01). He was also treasury minister (1888-89).

E. Martínez S.
Martínez Somalo, Eduardo Cardinal (b. March 31, 1927, Baños de Río Tobía, La Rioja, Spain - d. Aug. 10, 2021, Vatican City), chamberlain of the Roman Catholic Church (1993-2007). He was also apostolic nuncio to Colombia (1975-79).

Martínez Sotomayor, Carlos (Humberto) (b. Aug. 7, 1929, Copiapó, Chile - d. Feb. 24, 2006, Santiago, Chile), foreign minister of Chile (1961-63). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1963-65) and ambassador to Brazil (1990-94) and Peru (1994-97).

Martínez Suárez, Francisco (b. 1864, Chalatenango, El Salvador - d. 1940, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of El Salvador (1928-31). He was also president of the Supreme Court of Justice (1903-05, 1919-26).

Martínez Trueba, Andrés (b. 1884, Florida, Uruguay - d. 1959, Montevideo, Uruguay), president (1951-52) and president of the National Council of Government (1952-55) of Uruguay. He was also mayor of Montevideo (1947-48) and president of the Banco de la República (1948-51).

Martínez Varela, Juan Antonio (d. Feb. 23, 2021), interior minister (1972-74, 1990-93) and defense minister (1999-2004) of El Salvador. He was also ambassador to Spain (1974-77), minister of the presidency (1989-90), and chief of the air force (1993-98).

Martínez Villicaña, Luis (b. April 1, 1939, Uruapan, Michoacán, Mexico - d. March 2, 2011, Houston, Texas), governor of Michoacán (1986-88). He was also Mexican minister of agrarian reform (1982-86).

Martínez y Martínez, Enrique (b. Nov. 10, 1948, Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico), governor of Coahuila (1999-2005). He was also mayor of Saltillo (1979-81) and Mexican agriculture minister (2012-15) and ambassador to Cuba (2016-18).

Martínez Zuleta, Aníbal (Rafael) (b. Nov. 30, 1926, Valledupar, Colombia - d. Oct. 3, 2014, Valledupar), Colombian politician. He was comptroller-general (1975-82) and mayor of Valledupar (1990-92).

Martini, Claudio (b. Jan. 10, 1951, Le Bardo, Tunis, Tunisia), president of Toscana (2000-10). He was also mayor of Prato (1988-95).

Martini, Ferdinando (b. July 30, 1841, Florence, Tuscany [now in Italy] - d. April 24, 1928, Monsummano Terme, Toscana, Italy), governor of Eritrea (1897-1907). He was also Italian minister of public instruction (1892-93) and colonies (1914-16).

Martini Herrera, Julio Armando, Guatemalan diplomat. He was ambassador to Venezuela (1983-85), Belgium and Luxembourg (1998-2000), Trinidad and Tobago (2002-04), the United States (2011-12), and Brazil (2012-19) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1993-98).

Martini Urdaneta, Alberto (b. April 2, 1930, Trujillo, Venezuela), Venezuelan politician. He was minister of labour (1972-74) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1981-84).

Martinière, Dominique (Machet) de la (b. Oct. 25, 1927, La Roche-sur-Yon, Vendée, France - d. Nov. 4, 2002), acting president of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes (2002).

A. Martino

G. Martino
Martino, Antonio (b. Dec. 22, 1942, Messina, Italy - d. March 5, 2022, Rome, Italy), foreign minister (1994-95) and defense minister (2001-06) of Italy; son of Gaetano Martino.

Martino, Enrico (b. Jan. 29, 1907, La Spezia, Italy - d. April 27, 1981), administrator of Somalia (1953-55). He was also Italian minister to Yugoslavia (1947-53) and ambassador to Uruguay (1955-58), Ireland (1959-61), Austria (1961-67), and Switzerland (1968-71).

Martino, Gaetano (b. Nov. 25, 1900, Messina, Italy - d. July 21, 1967, Rome, Italy), foreign minister of Italy (1954-57). He was also minister of education (1954).

Martino, Renato Raffaele Cardinal (b. Nov. 23, 1932, Salerno, Italy), Vatican diplomat. He was apostolic pro-nuncio to Thailand and Singapore (1980-86), apostolic delegate to Laos and Malaysia (1980-86) and Brunei (1984-86), and permanent observer to the United Nations (1986-2002). He was created cardinal in 2003.

Martinovic, Jozo (b. Sept. 9, 1942, Gornji Mamici, near Siroki Brijeg, Croatia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. Sept. 14, 1994, Zagreb, Croatia), finance minister of Croatia (1991-92).

Martins, Alexandre de Paula Dupeyrat (b. March 12, 1944, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (1994-95).

Martins, Alfredo da Cunha (b. Aug. 17, 1842, Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil - d. Feb. 20, 1916, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Maranhão (1892-93, 1895-96, 1897-98).

Martins, António Jacinto do Amaral (b. Sept. 28, 1924, Luanda, Angola - d. June 23, 1991, Lisbon, Portugal), Angolan politician. Known as the poet António Jacinto (also using the pseudonym Orlando Távora), he was minister of education and culture (1975-76), secretary of the National Cultural Council (1976-79), and secretary of state for culture (1979-81).

Martins, Custodio José Ferreira (b. July 23, 1857, Ponte Nova, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Nov. 7, 1931, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Espírito Santo (1884-85).

Martins, Daniel Hugo (b. July 12, 1927, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. June 5, 2016, Montevideo), finance minister (1964-65, 1995) and defense minister (1993-95) of Uruguay.

Martins, Elisio Firmo (d. October 1908, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Goiás (1889).

Martins, Elyseu de Souza (b. 1842, Gurgueia, Piauí, Brazil - d. Aug. 23, 1894, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Norte (1878) and Espírito Santo (1879-80).

Martins, Enéas (b. Jan. 6, 1872, Cametá, Pará, Brazil - d. July 2, 1919, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting foreign minister of Brazil (1912) and governor of Pará (1913-17).

Martins, Epaminondas de Oliveira (d. March 22, 1966, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Acre (1937-41).

Martins, Firmino de Souza (d. Jan. 6, 1901, Teresina, Piauí, Brazil), acting president of Piauí (1879, 1880-81, 1883, 1889).

Martins, Francisco de Souza (b. Jan. 6, 1805, Jaicós, Piauí, Brazil - d. Feb. 28, 1857, Picos, Piauí), president of Bahia (1834-36) and Ceará (1840).

Martins, Gaspar da Silveira (b. Aug. 5, 1835, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. July 23, 1901, Montevideo, Uruguay), finance minister of Brazil (1878-79). He was also president of Rio Grande do Sul (1889).

G. Martins
Martins, Geraldo (João) (b. 1964?), economy and finance minister (2014-15, 2015-16, 2019, 2023) and prime minister (2023) of Guinea-Bissau. He was also minister of education (2001-03).

Martins, Ismael (Abraão) Gaspar (b. Jan. 12, 1940, Luanda, Angola), finance minister of Angola (1977-82). He was also governor of the central bank (1976-77), minister of external trade (1982-87), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-18).

Martins, Ivanhoé Gonçalves (b. Feb. 26, 1907, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. 1993?, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), governor of Amapá (1967-72).

Martins, José Diogo Ferreira, acting governor-general of Angola (1939) and governor of Cape Verde (1941-43).

Martins, Paulo Egydio (b. May 2, 1928, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Feb. 12, 2021, São Paulo), governor of São Paulo (1975-79). He was also Brazilian minister of labour and social security (acting, 1966) and industry and commerce (1966-67).

Martins, Wilson Barbosa (b. June 21, 1917, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso [now in Mato Grosso do Sul], Brazil - d. Feb. 13, 2018, Campo Grande), governor of Mato Grosso do Sul (1983-86, 1995-99). He was also mayor of Campo Grande (1959-63).

Martins, Wilson Nunes (b. May 17, 1953, Oeiras, Piauí, Brazil), governor of Piauí (2010-14).

Martirosyan, Armen (Sergeyevich) (b. Feb. 10, 1961), Armenian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-09) and ambassador to Germany (2009-13), India (2015-21), and Lithuania (2021-22).

G. Martirosyan
Martirosyan, Grigory (Igorevich) (b. Nov. 14, 1978, Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), finance minister (2017-18, 2021- ) and minister of state (2018-21) of Artsakh.

Martner Urrutia, Daniel (b. Sept. 13, 1880, Constitución, Chile - d. 1945), finance minister of Chile (1920-21). He was also rector of the University of Chile (1927-28).

Martonmere, John Roland Robinson, (1st) Baron (b. Feb. 22, 1907 - d. May 3, 1989), governor of Bermuda (1964-72). He was created baron in 1964.


B. Martos

W. Martos
Martonyi, János (b. April 5, 1944, Kolozsvár, Hungary [now Cluj-Napoca, Romania]), foreign minister of Hungary (1998-2002, 2010-14).

Martos, Borys (Mykolayovych) (b. May 20, 1879, Gradizk settlement, Poltava province, Russia [now Hradyzk, Ukraine] - d. Sept. 19, 1977, Irvington, N.J.), chairman of the Council of Ministers and finance minister of the non-Communist Ukraine (1919). He was also minister of food (1918-19).

Martos (Ruiz), Walter (Roger) (b. Feb. 11, 1957, Cajamarca, Peru), defense minister (2019-20) and prime minister (2020) of Peru.

Martos y Balbi, Cristino (b. Sept. 13, 1830, Granada, Spain - d. Jan. 17, 1893, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1869-70, 1871, 1872-73). He was also president of the National Assembly (1873) and the Congress of Deputies (1886-89) and justice minister (1874).

Martowardojo, Agus (Dermawan Wintarto) (b. Jan. 24, 1956, Amsterdam, Netherlands), finance minister of Indonesia (2010-13). He was also governor of Bank Indonesia (2013-18).

Martson, Fyodor (Vladimirovich) (b. Sept. 28 [Sept. 16, O.S.], 1853 - d. autumn 1916), governor-general of Turkestan (1914-16).

Marty, Louis Frédéric Claire Guillaume (b. March 14, 1883, Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, France - d. May 14, 1959, Cahors, Lot, France), acting resident-superior of Laos (1934-35) and administrator of Kwangchowan (1942).


A. Martynov
Martynau, Syarhey (Mikalayevich), Russian spelling Sergey (Nikolayevich) Martynov (b. Feb. 22, 1953, Leninakan, Armenian S.S.R. [now Gyumri, Armenia]), foreign minister of Belarus (2003-12). He was also ambassador to the United States (1993-97, already chargé d'affaires in 1992-93) and the Benelux countries (2001-03).

Martynov, Aleksandr (Vladimirovich) (b. Jan. 12, 1981, Tiraspol, Moldavian S.S.R. [now in Transnistria, Moldova]), prime minister of Transnistria (2016-22).

Martynov, Nikolay (Vasilyevich) (b. April 26 [April 13, O.S.], 1910, Moscow, Russia - d. Nov. 22, 1998, Moscow), Soviet politician. He was a deputy premier and chairman of the State Committee for Material-Technical Supply (1976-85).

Martz, Judy, née Judith Helen Morstein (b. July 28, 1943, Big Timber, Mont. - d. Oct. 30, 2017, Rocker, Mont.), governor of Montana (2001-05). She worked for Republican candidates in the 1960s (also competing in speed skating in the 1964 Winter Olympics) and became a field representative for Sen. Conrad Burns (1989-95). In 1996 she was Gov. Marc Racicot's running mate. Racicot's job approval was around 75%, and the Racicot-Martz ticket won with 79% of the vote. In 1999, she began running for governor. She said she wanted to make Montana "open for business." In the primary, she defeated anti-tax crusader Rob Natelson 57%-43%. Racicot appeared in TV spots for Martz, and she defeated Democrat Mark O'Keefe 51%-47% in the November 2000 election. In August 2001, state House Majority Leader Paul Sliter was killed in the crash of a car driven by Martz's chief policy adviser, Shane Hedges, who was intoxicated. Martz took him from the hospital at 4 AM and washed his bloodstained clothes, which the police later sought as evidence; when this was made public in January 2002, she admitted she had acted wrongly. In November 2001, it was revealed that Martz and her husband in 1999 purchased an 80-acre parcel of land next to their home from Arco for $300 an acre. As governor, she was the trustee for the state in litigation against Arco ongoing since the 1980s. The Martzes had paid $833 an acre for a nearby parcel; Democrats charged that Arco made a gift to Martz in violation of the state's ethics law. In September 2002 the state Political Practices Commissioner ruled that Martz did not violate the law. She was also criticized for saying she would willingly serve as a "lapdog to industry," a comment she said was taken out of context. In November 2002, she had a 20% positive job approval, the lowest of any of the 50 governors. In August 2003 she decided not to seek a second term.

Maru, Richard (b. Aug. 8, 1962), finance minister of Papua New Guinea (2019). He has also been minister of trade, commerce, and industry (2012-17), national planning and monitoring (2017-19, 2019), petroleum and energy, inter-government relations, and community development (2019), and international trade and investment (2022- ).

Ma'ruf, Mohammad (b. Sept. 20, 1942, Tegal, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Tengah, Indonesia] - d. March 10, 2017, Bandung, Indonesia), home affairs minister of Indonesia (2004-07). He was also ambassador to Vietnam (1997-2000).

Maruiá, João Wilkens de Mattos, barão de (b. March 8, 1822, Belém, Pará, Brazil - d. May 3, 1889, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Amazonas (1868-70). He was made baron in 1888.

Marulanda Botero, Jesús María (b. Dec. 24, 1892, Sonsón, Colombia - d. June 20, 1973, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister of Colombia (1924-26, 1931, 1957-58).


Marurai, Jim (b. July 9, 1947, Mangaia, Cook Islands - d. early November 2020, Mangaia), prime minister of the Cook Islands (2004-10). He was also minister of education and cultural development (1999-2004).

Marusic, Tomaz (b. May 19, 1932, Gorizia, Italy [in present Solkan, Slovenia] - d. Feb. 16, 2011), justice minister of Slovenia (1997-2000).

Maruszewski, Artur Tomasz (b. Dec. 21, 1886, Warsaw, Poland - d. Dec. 6, 1945, Kirkcaldy, Scotland), governor of Tarnopolskie (1933-35), Poznanskie (1935, 1935-39), and Wilenskie (1939) województwa.

Marut Bunnag (b. Aug. 21, 1924, Bangkok, Siam [now Thailand] - d. Sept. 23, 2022, Bangkok), justice minister of Thailand (1981-83). He was also minister of health (1983-86, 1989-90) and education (1986-88) and speaker of the House of Representatives and president of the National Assembly (1992-95).

Maruyama, Tatsuya (b. March 25, 1970), governor of Shimane (2019- ).

Marvil, Joshua H(opkins) (b. Sept. 3, 1825, Laurel, Del. - d. April 8, 1895, Dover, Del.), governor of Delaware (1895).

Marvin, William (b. April 14, 1808, Fairfield, N.Y. - d. July 9, 1902, Skaneateles, N.Y.), provisional governor of Florida (1865).

Marwa, Mohammed (Buba) (b. Sept. 9, 1953), governor of Borno (1990-92) and administrator of Lagos (1996-99).

Marwah, Ved (Prakash) (b. Sept. 15, 1932, Peshawar, India [now in Pakistan] - d. June 5, 2020, Goa, India), governor of Manipur (1999-2003), Mizoram (2000-01), Jharkhand (2003-04), and Bihar (2004). He was also director-general of the National Security Guard (1988-90).

Marwick, Allan Graham (b. 1877, Richmond, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa] - d. Oct. 7, 1966, Mbabane, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), resident commissioner of Swaziland (1935-37).

Marwick, Sir Brian (Allan) (b. June 18, 1908, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa] - d. April 1, 1992, Isle of Man), resident commissioner (1956-63) and commissioner (1963-64) of Swaziland; knighted 1963; nephew of Allan Graham Marwick.

J.-L. Marx
Marx, Jean-Luc (b. Sept. 14, 1954, Metz, France), prefect of Réunion (2012-14). He was also prefect of the départements of Lot (2009-11), Allier (2011-12), Seine-et-Marne (2014-17), and Bas-Rhin (2017-20).

K. Marx
Marx, Karl (Heinrich) (b. May 5, 1818, Trier, Prussia [now in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany] - d. March 14, 1883, London, England), German socialist. In 1842 he became an editor of the Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne. In 1843, the newspaper was suppressed and he emigrated to Paris. There he became acquainted with French socialist writers and established his friendship with Friedrich Engels. In 1847, he wrote Misère de la philosophie (1847; The Poverty of Philosophy), in which he developed the fundamental propositions of his economic interpretation of history. Against the utopian socialists' quest for the most morally desirable social order he put his own search for a system that would inevitably and by necessity result from the operation of historical forces. Another even more important document originated from Marx's (and Engels') pen during the stay in Brussels - Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei (1848), commonly known as The Communist Manifesto, which contains a summary of his whole social philosophy. It was written to serve as the platform of the Communist League. The Communist Manifesto appeared at a moment most favourable to its effectiveness: on the eve of the February (1848) revolution in France during which socialism showed its power. The revolutionary atmosphere in Germany in 1848 enabled Marx to return to Cologne and revive his newspaper, now under the title of Neue Rheinische Zeitung, but in 1849 he was expelled. He then settled in London, where he spent most of the remainder of his life. His most important theoretical work was Das Kapital (1867), an analysis of the economics of capitalism. He also became the leading spirit of the International Working Men's Association (the First International). The impact of his ideas was relatively small during his lifetime, but expanded enormously after his death.

W. Marx
Marx, Wilhelm (b. Jan. 15, 1863, Cologne, Prussia [now in Germany] - d. Aug. 5, 1946, Bonn, Germany), chancellor of Germany (1923-24, 1926-28). He rose from a judgeship to the presidency of the senate of the Court of Appeal at Berlin (1922). After joining the Centre Party, he served as deputy in the Prussian Landtag (1899-1918) and the Reichstag (1910-32). He was elected the party's leader in the Reichstag in 1921 and its chairman in 1922, chiefly due to the part he played as a delegate to the National Assembly that drafted the Weimar constitution. He first became chancellor in November 1923; his minority government consisted of Centrists, Democrats, and People's Party members. That cabinet had to its credit that it led the Reich out of the chaos of inflation and securing acceptance of the Dawes Plan for war reparations payments. On the strength of the Dawes vote he tried to form a majority cabinet, but failed. After a period as prime minister of Prussia (February-April 1925), Marx ran for the presidency of the Reich as candidate of the republican parties (Socialists, Democrats, and Centrists) but lost to Paul von Hindenburg. He became minister for justice and occupied territories in January 1926 and returned as chancellor in May 1926. It was another minority government for half a year until he invited the Nationalists to join. While the republicans never forgave him for this move, he managed to hold the reins of his reshuffled government until June 1928 when he resigned after the electoral success of the Social Democrats. In December 1928 he resigned from the chairmanship of the Centre Party and withdrew from politics. The Nazi regime indicted him of fraud, but the charges were never pressed and he was allowed to slip back into retirement.

Mary II
Mary II (b. May 10 [April 30, O.S.], 1662, St. James Palace, London, England - d. Jan. 7, 1695 [Dec. 28, 1694, O.S.], Kensington Palace, London), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689-95). She was the daughter of the Catholic Duke of York (later King James II) and his first wife, Anne Hyde, but was brought up a Protestant. She was married (1677) to her first cousin William of Orange (Willem III), stadholder of five provinces of the Netherlands, who in 1688 landed in Torbay with an Anglo-Dutch army in response to an invitation from seven Whig peers hostile to the arbitrary rule of James II. When James fled to France, Mary went to London from Holland and was proclaimed queen, sharing the throne with her husband, who became King William III. Mary left executive authority with William (except when regent during his frequent absences abroad), but she was largely responsible for raising the moral standard of court life, setting an example of piety and devotion, and she took great interest in church appointments. She died, childless, of smallpox.

Maryash, Irina (Yevgenyevna) (b. June 15, 1967, Kislovodsk, Stavropol kray, Russian S.F.S.R.), acting prime minister of Kabardino-Balkariya (2013).

Mârzescu, George G. (b. July 7, 1877, Iasi, Romania - d. May 12, 1926, Bucharest, Romania), interior minister of Romania (1918-19). He was also mayor of Iasi (1914-16) and minister of agriculture and domains (1916-18), labour and social protection (1922-23), and justice (1923-26).

Marzhikpayev, Yermek (Boranbayevich) (b. Aug. 29, 1969, Tselinograd, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Astana, Kazakhstan]), head of Akmola oblast (2019-23). He has also been mayor of Kokshetau (2015-19) and Kazakh minister of tourism and sports (2023- ).

Marzorati, Alfred (Frédéric Gérard) (b. Sept. 28, 1881, Tournai [Doornik], Hainaut province, Belgium - d. Dec. 11, 1955, Elsene [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), royal commissioner for Belgian-occupied East Africa (1919-24), royal commissioner for Ruanda-Urundi (1924-26), and governor of Ruanda-Urundi (1926-29).

Marzouki, (Mohamed) Moncef (ben Mohamed Bedoui-), Arabic Muhammad al-Munsif bin Muhammad al-Badawi al-Marzuqi (b. July 7, 1945, Grombalia, Tunisia), president of Tunisia (2011-14). Elected by the Constituent Assembly in 2011, he was an unsuccessful candidate in popular presidential elections in 2014.

Mas Canosa
Mas Canosa, Jorge (b. Sept. 21, 1939, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba - d. Nov. 23, 1997, Miami, Fla.), Cuban exile leader. He was an early opponent of dictator Fulgencio Batista and was arrested at the age of 14 for his role in an anti-Batista radio broadcast. His initial admiration for Fidel Castro, who gained power in 1959, soon turned to disenchantment, however, and Mas was again implicated in anti-government activities. He fled in 1960 to the U.S., where he trained with the Brigade 2506, the exile force that undertook the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion, although he did not take part in the operation. Following a stint in the U.S. Army, Mas worked in a variety of jobs while devoting much of his time to the anti-Castro cause. After turning away from advocating a violent overthrow of Castro, Mas concentrated on political advocacy, forming the Cuban-American National Foundation (CANF) in 1981, a powerful and wealthy lobbying group that had considerable influence over politicians from both parties. Through the foundation, Mas created the political base to get three Cuban-Americans elected to Congress and a Cuban mayor of Dade County. He got the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992 and the Helms-Burton Act of 1996 through Congress, tightening the embargo to keep the economic pressure on Cuba. He was also instrumental in founding Radio Martí, the U.S. government-financed station broadcasting to Cuba. He was reviled by Havana, which painted him as little more than a fascist gangster, while his admirers lionized him as president-in-waiting of his island nation. Critics charged, though, that he fostered intolerance in the Cuban-American community, where any perceived lack of zeal in denouncing Castro can spark threats and violence.

A. Mas
Mas i Gavarró, Artur (b. Jan. 31, 1956, Barcelona, Spain), president of the Executive Council (2001-03) and president of the Generalitat (2010-16) of Catalonia.

Mas Ribó, Manuel (b. Feb. 26, 1946 - d. July 30, 2001), foreign minister of Andorra (1994-97). He was also ambassador to the Vatican (1998-2001).

Masadeh, Salem (b. 1930, Irbid, Transjordan [now Jordan]), justice minister (1972-74), finance minister (1974-76, 1979-84), and a deputy prime minister and interior minister (1989-91) of Jordan.

Masakhalia, (Yekoyada) Francis (Omoto) (b. 1938, Entebbe, Uganda), finance minister of Kenya (1999). His six-month tenure was regarded as a retrograde step by foreign donors and investors who saw him as lacking the charisma and competence of his predecessor Simeon Nyachae.

Masala, Italo (b. April 15, 1937, Guamaggiore, Sardegna, Italy), president of Sardegna (2003-04).

Masaliyev, Absamat (Masaliyevich) (b. April 10, 1933, Alysh village, Kirgiz A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan] - d. July 31, 2004, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan), first secretary of the Communist Party (1985-91) and chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1990) of the Kirgiz S.S.R. In 1961, he became an instructor at the Osh regional branch of the Communist Party and worked his way up the ranks; he was mayor of Frunze (1972-74) and first secretary of the party committee of Issyk-Kul oblast (1979-85). He became the party leader in Kirgiziya after changes in the Soviet Communist leadership that saw Mikhail Gorbachev take power in Moscow. He remained in power until 1990 when he lost to Askar Akayev in the country's first-ever presidential elections, as the Soviet republics sought to assert their sovereignty in moves that led the next year to the disintegration of the Soviet Union. In 1992 Masaliyev took control of the surviving Communist Party, and in 1995 he won a seat in the upper chamber of parliament representing his southern home region of Osh. Later that year, he challenged Akayev unsuccessfully again, but drew strong support in the south. In 2000, he won a lower house seat and held that post until his death.

Masangu, Jacques, foreign minister of Katanga (1960) and deputy prime minister of Congo (Léopoldville) (1962-64).

J. Masaryk
Masaryk, Jan (Garrigue) (b. Sept. 14, 1886, Prague, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary [now in Czech Republic] - d. March 10, 1948, Prague, Czechoslovakia), Czechoslovak politician; son of Tomás Masaryk. He served as first lieutenant in a Hungarian regiment during World War I and when the Czechoslovak Republic was established, he entered the diplomatic service. In 1919 he went to Washington, D.C., as first secretary to the Czechoslovak legation and remained for a year. Thereafter he was chancellor at the legation in London before becoming secretary to Foreign Minister Edvard Benes in 1923. He was ambassador to Great Britain from 1925 until 1938, when he resigned in protest against the Munich agreement that had "sold Czechoslovakia down the river." During World War II he was foreign minister (from 1940) of the Czechoslovak émigré regime in London. A leading spokesman for that government, he made wartime broadcasts to occupied Czechoslovakia, published in English in 1944 under the title Speaking to My Country, and became a popular figure at home. It was chiefly because of his efforts that the U.S. recognized the exile government in July 1941. Retaining the portfolio of foreign minister after his government's return to Prague in 1945, he accompanied President Benes to Moscow and also participated in the inauguration of the United Nations in San Francisco. He was convinced that Czechoslovakia must remain friendly to the Soviet Union, and he was greatly disappointed by the Soviet veto of Czechoslovak acceptance of postwar U.S. reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan. At Benes's request, Masaryk remained at his post after the Communist takeover of Feb. 25, 1948, but two weeks later he apparently committed suicide by throwing himself out of a window at the foreign office, though the possibility of a murder can not be ruled out.

T.G. Masaryk
Masaryk, Tomás Garrigue1 (b. March 7, 1850, Göding, Moravia, Austria-Hungary [now Hodonín, Czech Republic] - d. Sept. 14, 1937, Lány, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), president of Czechoslovakia (1918-35). From 1891 to 1893, as a member of the Young Czech party, and from 1907 to 1914 as the leader of his own small Realist Party, he served as a deputy in the Austrian Reichsrat. He criticized Austria's aggressive policy in the Balkans, particularly in regard to the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. When World War I broke out, he definitely became the champion of Czechoslovak independence. Britain aided him almost from the first, while Austria condemned him to death as a traitor. With the help of France, he and his aides formed Czech legions from prisoners of war the Allies had captured. When Russia collapsed he had organized a Czechoslovak army in Russia; in May 1918 he went to the United States. When Austria sued for peace, expressing willingness to federalize the empire, Masaryk checkmated the move by immediately issuing a proclamation of independence. The U.S. adopted his point of view on the future of Czechoslovakia, and with Allied victory, independence was won. He was elected the country's first president in November 1918 while he was still in the U.S., and returned to Prague in December 1918. He was reelected in 1920, 1927, and 1934, resigning in 1935 because of his age.
1 Garrigue is the family name of Charlotte Garrigue, which he adopted as a second name upon their marriage (1878).

Mascarenhas, José de Assis (b. c. 1805, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. Oct. 5, 1868, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Goiás (1839-45); son of Francisco de Assis Mascarenhas, marquês de São João da Palma.

Mascarenhas, Manoel de Assis (b. Aug. 28, 1805, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. Jan. 30, 1867, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Rio Grande do Norte (1839) and Espírito Santo (1843-44); son of Francisco de Assis Mascarenhas, marquês de São João da Palma; brother of José de Assis Mascarenhas.

Mascarenhas, Manoel Ribeiro Coutinho (b. July 21, 1831, Espírito Santo province [now state], Brazil - d. July 12, 1889, Barra do Jucu [now part of Vila Velha], Espírito Santo), acting president of Espírito Santo (1872, 1873, 1874-75, 1875-76, 1885, 1887).

Maschke Tornero, Arturo (b. Jan. 18, 1902, La Serena, Chile - d. Nov. 4, 2001, Santiago, Chile), finance minister of Chile (1946, 1950). He was also president of the Central Bank (1953-58) and ambassador to West Germany (1959-65).

Mascia, Luciano (b. Jan. 16, 1896, Tunis, Tunisia - d. af. 1964), Italian diplomat. He was permanent observer to the United Nations (1947-50) and ambassador to Cuba (1951-53).

Masdar, Andi Ali Baal (b. May 29, 1960, Makassar [now in Sulawesi Selatan], Indonesia), governor of Sulawesi Barat (2017-22).

Masefield, (John) Thorold (b. Oct. 1, 1939), governor of Bermuda (1997-2001). He was also British high commissioner to Tanzania (1989-92) and Nigeria (1994-97; also ambassador to Benin and Chad).

Maselsky, Oleksandr (Stepanovych) (b. Dec. 7, 1936, Khmelevoye, Odessa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Khmelove, Kirovohrad oblast, Ukraine] - d. April 12, 1996), a deputy prime minister of Ukraine (1991). He was also chairman of the Executive Committee (1983-92), representative of the president (1992-95), and governor (1995-96) of Kharkov/Kharkiv oblast.

Maseng (Nalo), Alfred (b. 19... - d. Nov. 18, 2004, Luganville, Espirito Santo island, Vanuatu), acting president (1994), foreign minister (1995-96), and president (2004) of Vanuatu. He was speaker of parliament in 1991-95.

Masengo, Ildephonse (b. c. 1935, Mufu village, near Mitwaba, Katanga province, Belgian Congo [now in Haut-Katanga, Congo (Kinshasa)] - d. [executed] April 8, 1969, Lubumbashi, Congo [Kinshasa]), head of a provisional government of Katanga (1964).

Maseribane, Sekhonyana Nehemia (b. May 4, 1918, Mount Moorosi, Quthing district, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. Nov. 3, 1986), prime minister of Basutoland (1965). He was also deputy prime minister (1965-76) and minister of home affairs (1965-70), agriculture (1970-74), public works and communications (1974-75), works (1975-76), and interior (1978-86).

Mashabane, (Manuel Nyafokeng) Norman (b. June 26, 1956, Phalaborwa, Transvaal [now in Limpopo], South Africa - d. [car accident] Oct. 10, 2007, outside Polokwane, Limpopo), South African diplomat. He was ambassador to Indonesia (2000-01).

Mashat, Mahdi (Muhammad Hussein) al- (b. early 1980s, Saada governorate, Yemen [Sana]), president of the Supreme Political Council of Yemen (2018- ).

Mashatile, Paul (Shipokosa) (b. Oct. 21, 1961, Geraldsville [now in Tshwane municipality, Gauteng], South Africa), premier of Gauteng (2008-09) and deputy president of South Africa (2023- ). He was also South African minister of arts and culture (2010-14) and acting secretary-general of the African National Congress (2022).

Masheke, Malimba (Nathaniel) (b. June 17, 1941, Nonge village, Senanga district, Western province, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia]), defense minister (1985-88), home affairs minister (1988-89), and prime minister (1989-91) of Zambia.

Masherov, Pyotr (Mironovich) (b. Feb. 26 [Feb. 13, O.S.], 1918, Shirki, Mogilyov province, Russia [now in Belarus] - d. [car accident] Oct. 4, 1980, Smolevichi, Minsk oblast, Belorussian S.S.R.), first secretary of the Communist Party of the Belorussian S.S.R. (1965-80). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Brest oblast (1955-59).

Mashingaidze, Elleck (Kufakunesu), Zimbabwean diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1980-85) and ambassador to the United States (1980-82).

Mashits, Vladimir (Mikhailovich) (b. April 18, 1953, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. late May 2019), Russian politician. He was chairman of the State Committee for Economic Cooperation with Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (1991-94), acting minister of cooperation with CIS members (1994-95), and president of the CIS Interstate Bank (1995-99).

Mashkovtsev, Mikhail (Borisovich) (b. Jan. 1, 1947 - d. Oct. 29, 2022), governor of Kamchatka oblast (2000-07).

Mashologu, Mothusi Thamsanga (b. March 7, 1939, Morija, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), Lesotho diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-71), ambassador to the United States (1969-73), and high commissioner to Canada (1980-85).

Mashologu, Teboho J. (b. Nov. 9, 1942), Lesotho diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-75) and ambassador to the United States (1975-76).

Mashudi (b. Sept. 11, 1920, Cibatu, Garut, Netherlands East Indies [now in Jawa Barat, Indonesia] - d. June 22, 2005, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Jawa Barat (1960-70).

Masi, Tito (b. Jan. 20, 1949, San Marino), captain-regent of San Marino (1977-78). He was also minister of justice and information (2002) and industry, crafts, trade, and research (2006-08).

Masías, Felipe, finance minister of Peru (1871-72).

Masías, Manuel G. (b. Lima, Peru - d. ...), finance minister of Peru (1925-30); son of Felipe Masías.

Masié Mibuy, Ángel, justice minister of Equatorial Guinea (2004-06); son of Ángel Masié Ntutumu. He has also been minister at the presidency (2006-18), deputy prime minister (2018-20), and second deputy prime minister (2020- ) in charge of relations with parliament and legal affairs.

Masié Ntutumu, Ángel (b. 1929? - d. October 2020), interior minister of Equatorial Guinea (1968-76); cousin of Francisco Macías Nguema.

Masimov, Karim (Kazhimkanovich) (b. June 15, 1965, Tselinograd, Kazakh S.S.R. [now Astana, Kazakhstan]), prime minister of Kazakhstan (2007-12, 2014-16). He was also minister of transport and communications (2000-01) and economy and budget planning (2006), a deputy prime minister (2001-03, 2006-07), head of the administration of the president (2012-14), and chairman of the National Security Committee (2016-22).

Masire, Sir (Quett) Ketumile (Joni) (b. July 23, 1925, Kanye, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. June 22, 2017, Gaborone, Botswana), president of Botswana (1980-98). He served first on his tribal council (he belonged to the Bangwaketse tribe) and subsequently on the legislative and executive councils under the British administration. However, his real political mark was made as the hard-working secretary-general of the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP). When Sir Seretse Khama, founder of the BDP, became prime minister of the then British protectorate of Bechuanaland in 1965, Masire became deputy prime minister; when the country gained independence in 1966, he was made Khama's vice-president as well as minister of finance (1966-67, 1970-80) and development planning (1967-80), a post well suited to his energy and enthusiasm for tackling difficult problems head-on. Much of the financial discipline and prudent economic management that led to Botswana's economic success is generally attributed to his leadership qualities. For a time in 1969 his promising political career received a setback when he was defeated in his home constituency of Kanye-South by the former Bangwaketse chief, but after spending some years as a nominated member of parliament, he made a strong comeback and regained his seat in the 1974 elections. Like Khama, he was a passionate enemy of South Africa's system of racial separation. Masire strongly believed in the ideals of a nonracial society and favoured political moderation. Quett Masire became president after Khama's death in 1980, and he became known as Sir Ketumile Masire in 1991, when he was given an honorary knighthood (G.C.M.G.), although these normally do not go with the title. Masire's party steadily gained in popularity until the 1994 poll, when it lost some ground to the opposition Botswana National Front. He retired in 1998.

Masisi, Edison (Setlhomo Keitshoketswe) (b. March 31, 1921, Moshupa, Bechuanaland [now Botswana] - d. Feb. 14, 2003, Gaborone, Botswana), foreign minister of Botswana (1969-71). He was also minister of agriculture (1972-78) and health (1978-79).

M. Masisi
Masisi, Mokgweetsi (Eric Keabetswe) (b. July 21, 1962, Moshupa, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), vice president (2014-18) and president (2018- ) of Botswana; son of Edison Masisi. He was also minister of presidential affairs and public administration (2011-14) and education and skills development (2014-18).

Masiulis, Boleslovas Jonas (b. Jan. 21, 1889, Tverecius, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. April 18, 1965, Michigan City, Ind.), justice minister of Lithuania (1938).

Maskhadov, Aslan (Aliyevich) (b. Sept. 21, 1951, Shakoi, Karaganda oblast, Kazakh S.S.R. - d. March 8, 2005, Tolstoy-Yurt, Chechnya), president of Chechnya (1997-2005). His parents were caught up (1944) in mass deportations of Chechens by Iosif Stalin, who wanted them punished for allegedly collaborating with the Nazis in World War II. The family returned in 1957. In January 1991, as a colonel in one division's missile and artillery forces, he took part in the Soviet Army's attempt to capture the television tower in Vilnius, as part of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's attempts to halt the drive for independence in the Baltics. A career as a high-ranking officer in the Soviet army was rare for ethnic Chechens, who were not viewed in the Soviet system as politically reliable enough for leading military positions. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, he returned to the southern republic in 1992. From 1992 to 1996, he served in the Chechen Armed Forces; in December 1993 he was promoted to chief of staff. He kept a low profile during the early stage of the 1994-96 Chechen war, being overshadowed by the flamboyant separatist leader Dzhokhar Dudayev. In his most important move, he led a successful campaign to recapture Grozny, the capital, in August 1996. He served as prime minister in the Chechen coalition government from October 1996 until January 1997. On Aug. 31, 1996, following talks with Aleksandr Lebed, he signed the Khasavyurt agreements, effectively ending the conflict with Russian troops. This paved the way for presidential elections in January 1997, which Maskhadov won. He was unable to bring law and order to Chechnya or rebuild the fractured economy. As a result, a number of wartime colleagues deserted him. They tried to impeach Maskhadov and accused him of violating Chechnya's constitution, but the country's top Islamic court ruled in his favour. After Chechen rebel forces crossed into Dagestan in 1999, Russia sent troops back into Chechnya, and Maskhadov had to leave Grozny in 2000. Five years later he was killed by Russian forces.

Maslennikov, Georgy (Ivanovich) (b. May 6 [April 23, O.S.], 1905, Stavropol, Russia - d. Nov. 21, 1999, Moscow, Russia), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Yakut A.S.S.R. (1943-46).

Maslesa, Hamo (b. June 16, 1959, Hamzici village, near Citluk, Bosnia and Herzegovina), governor of Herzegovina-Neretva (1998-2000).

Masloff, Sophie, née Friedman (b. Dec. 23, 1917, Pittsburgh, Pa. - d. Aug. 17, 2014, Mt. Lebanon, Pa.), mayor of Pittsburgh (1988-94).

Maslov, Aleksey (Grigoryevich), chairman of the Central Executive Committee of Kalmyk autonomous oblast (1924-2...).

Maslov, Demyan (Korneyevich) (b. 1889 - d. 1938), acting chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Buryat-Mongol A.S.S.R. (1933-34).

Maslov, Semyon (Leontyevich) (b. February 1873, Nizhneye Dolgoye, Oryol province, Russia - d. [executed] June 20, 1938, Leninsky rayon, Moscow oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), agriculture minister of Russia (1917).

V. Maslov

Maslov, Viktor (Nikolayevich) (b. Oct. 4, 1950, Fergana, Uzbek S.S.R.), head of the administration of Smolensk oblast (2002-07).

Maslyukov, Yury (Dmitriyevich) (b. Sept. 30, 1937, Leninabad, Tadzhik S.S.R. [now Khujand, Tajikistan] - d. April 1, 2010, Moscow, Russia), Russian minister of industry and trade (1998) and a first deputy prime minister (1998-99). He was also a Soviet first deputy premier (1988-90) and chairman of the State Planning Committee (1988-91).

Masmoudi, Mohamed, Arabic Muhammad al-Masmudi (b. May 29, 1925, Mahdia, Tunisia - d. Nov. 7, 2016, Mahdia), foreign minister of Tunisia (1970-74). He was also minister of state (1954-55, 1956-57), minister of national economy (1955-56) and information (1958-61), and ambassador to France (1957-58, 1965-70).

Masol, Vitaliy (Andriyovych) (Ukrainian), Russian Vitaly (Andreyevich) Masol (b. Nov. 14, 1928, Olishevka, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Olyshivka, Chernihiv oblast, Ukraine] - d. Sept. 21, 2018, Kiev, Ukraine), premier of the Ukrainian S.S.R. (1987-90) and prime minister of Ukraine (1994-95). He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee and a deputy premier (1979-87).

Mason, C(harles) H(enry) (b. 1830, Fort Washington, Md. - d. July 27, 1859, Olympia, Wash.), acting governor of Washington (1857, 1858-59).

Mason (Robles), Diego I(sidro) (b. May 14, 1887, Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. Jan. 11, 1972, Buenos Aires), acting foreign minister of Argentina (1944). He was also minister of agriculture (1943-44) and commander-in-chief of the army (1946-48).

Mason, Harry Macan (b. Aug. 19, 1850 - d. Aug. 30, 1929), political resident of Aden (1904-06).

Mason, James Scott (b. March 31, 1873, Lancashire, England - d. [accident] Dec. 6, 1912, Jesselton, North Borneo [now Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia]), governor of North Borneo (1912).

Mason, John Y(oung) (b. April 18, 1799, Greensville county, Va. - d. Oct. 3, 1859, Paris, France), U.S. secretary of the navy (1844-45, 1846-49) and attorney general (1845-46). He was also minister to France (1854-59).

S. Mason
Mason, Dame Sandra (Prunella) (b. Jan. 17, 1949), governor-general (2012 [acting], 2018-21) and president (2021- ) of Barbados; knighted 2018.

Mason, Stevens T(homson) (b. Oct. 27, 1811, Leesburg, Va. - d. Jan. 4, 1843, New York City), governor of Michigan (1834-40).

Mason-Macfarlane, Sir (Frank) Noel (b. Oct. 23, 1889, Maidenhead, Berkshire, England - d. Aug. 12, 1953, Twyford, Berkshire), governor of Gibraltar (1942-44) and chief commissioner of the Allied Control Commission for Italy (1944); knighted 1943.

Mason of Barnsley, Roy Mason, Baron (b. April 18, 1924, Royston, Yorkshire, England - d. April 19, 2015, Barnsley, Yorkshire), British defence secretary (1974-76). He was also postmaster-general (1968), minister of power (1968-69), president of the Board of Trade (1969-70), and secretary of state for Northern Ireland (1976-79). He was made a life peer in 1987.

A.S. Masood
Masood, Ahmad Shah (b. 1953, Jangalak, Afghanistan - d. Sept. 15, 2001, Khodja Bahauddin, Takhar province, Afghanistan), Afghan leader. A veteran guerrilla commander, the dashing Masood was dubbed the "Lion of Panjshir" for his military prowess defending the Panjshir Valley against the Soviet Union during its decade-long war in Afghanistan. He later held the valley in northern Afghanistan against the Taliban. Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, and Masood rode triumphantly into Kabul on a tank in 1992, the year the pro-Moscow government fell. Masood was defense minister in the government of Burhanuddin Rabbani until they were thrown out of Kabul in 1996 by invading Taliban troops. Masood moved quickly to rally warring factions against the Taliban, forming a northern alliance that fought to prevent the Taliban from gaining full control of Afghanistan. But animosities within the alliance ran deep. The opposition comprised small groups mostly representing ethnic and religious minorities. When it ruled between 1992 and 1996, fighting sparked by internal feuds destroyed vast neighbourhoods of Kabul and killed 50,000 people, mostly civilians. Masood died of injuries suffered in a suicide bombing on Sept. 9, 2001. In the attack, two men posing as journalists detonated a bomb that may have been hidden in a television camera while they interviewed Masood in northern Afghanistan. The blast killed both bombers and a Masood spokesman. Masood's death threatened to strengthen the hand of the Taliban by splintering the Afghan opposition, which was held together by his charismatic leadership. The Taliban at the time ruled about 95% of Afghanistan, with the opposition alliance in control of the remaining 5%, mostly in the north.

Masood, Ahmad Wali (b. Nov. 1, 1964, Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan), Afghan diplomat; brother of Ahmad Shah Masood. He was chargé d'affaires (1993-2001) and ambassador (2001-06) to the United Kingdom.

Masood, Ahmad Zia (b. May 1, 1956, Muqur, Ghazni province, Afghanistan), first vice president of Afghanistan (2004-09); brother of Ahmad Shah Masood; son-in-law of Burhanuddin Rabbani. He was also ambassador to Russia (2002-04).

Masoomi, Sayed Ekramuddin (b. 1953, Eshkmash district, Takhar province, Afghanistan), Afghan politician. He was governor of Takhar (2002-04), Badakhshan (2004), and Baghlan (2006-07) and minister of labour and social affairs (2004-06).

Maspéro, Georges (René Gaston) (b. Aug. 21, 1872, Paris, France - d. Sept. 21, 1942, Saint-Tropez, France), acting governor of Cochinchina (1918-20) and acting resident-superior of Cambodia (1920).

Masquelet Lacaci, Carlos (b. July 14, 1871, Ferrol, La Coruña province, Spain - d. 1948, La Junquera, Gerona province, Spain), war minister of Spain (1935, 1936). He was also chief of the General Staff (1933-35).

Masra, Succès (b. Aug. 30, 1983, Béboni, Logone Oriental, Chad), prime minister of Chad (2024- ). He was a presidential candidate in 2024.

Masri, Ahmad Fathi al- (b. 1932, Damascus, Syria), Syrian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Cyprus (1965-67) and Chile (1978-82) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-90).

T. al-Masri

S. Massa

Masri, Taher (Nashat) al- (b. March 5, 1942, Nablus, Palestine), foreign minister (1984-88, 1991) and prime minister and defense minister (1991) of Jordan. He was also ambassador to Spain (1975-78), France (1978-83), and the United Kingdom (1983-84), speaker of the House of Representatives (1993-95), and president of the Senate (2009-13).

Massa, Carlos Roberto, Júnior, byname Ratinho Júnior (b. April 19, 1981, Jandaia do Sul, Paraná, Brazil), governor of Paraná (2019- ).

Massa, Sergio (Tomás) (b. April 28, 1972, Buenos Aires, Argentina), cabinet chief of Argentina (2008-09). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (2019-22), minister of economy, productive development, and agriculture (2022-23), and a presidential candidate (2023).

Massaccesi, Horacio (b. Sept. 12, 1948, Villa Regina, Río Negro, Argentina), governor of Río Negro (1987-95). He was an Argentinian presidential candidate in 1995.

Massamba-Débat, Alphonse (b. 1921, Nkolo, Pool region, Middle Congo [now Congo (Brazzaville)] - d. March 25, 1977, Brazzaville), prime minister (1963) and president (1963-68) of Congo (Brazzaville). While working as a teacher in Chad, he joined the Chad Progressive Party. In 1947 he returned to the Congo, where he also remained involved in politics and joined Fulbert Youlou's Democratic Union for the Defense of African Interests (UDDIA) in 1956. Following elections in 1957, he served as a secretary to the minister of education. He was elected to the National Assembly in 1959 and served as its president (1959-61). He was named minister of state in 1961 and was appointed minister of planning and equipment in Youlou's cabinet shortly thereafter. He became a critic of Youlou's policies and resigned from the government in May 1963. Youlou was ousted in August 1963 and Massamba-Débat was named head of a provisional government; he was elected president in December. His government, pressured by leftist agitation, strengthened its ties with the Soviet Union and China, and diplomatic relations with the United States were severed in 1965. Three leading officials, Supreme Court president Joseph Pouabou, Attorney General Lazare Matsokota, and Information Agency director Anselme Massouemi, were assassinated under mysterious conditions in 1965. Massamba-Débat survived a mutiny of the military in June 1966. The political situation deteriorated in 1968, and he was forced to resign following a military coup. He retired to live in seclusion. On March 18, 1977, he was arrested following the assassination of Pres. Marien Ngouabi, who had been a leader in the coup that deposed him. He was convicted of complicity in the assassination and was executed.

Massano de Amorim, Pedro Francisco (b. Jan. 14, 1862, Fronteira, Portugal - d. June 2, 1929, Nova Goa, Portuguese India [now Panaji, Goa, India]), governor-general of Angola (1916-17), Mozambique (1918-19), and Portuguese India (1926-29).

Massari, Maurizio (b. 1959, Naples, Italy), Italian diplomat. He has been ambassador to Egypt (2013-16) and permanent representative to the European Union (2016-21) and the United Nations (2021- ).

Masse, Henri (Hubert Georges) (b. Aug. 11, 1947, Cambrai, Nord, France), prefect of French Guiana (1999-2002). He was also prefect of the départements of Lot-et-Garonne (2002-05), Drôme (2005-06), and Charente-Maritime (2008-11).

Masse, Marcel (b. May 27, 1936, Saint-Jean-de-Matha, Que. - d. Aug. 25, 2014, Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts, Que.), defence minister of Canada (1991-93). He was also minister of communications (1984-85, 1985-86, 1989-91) and energy, mines, and resources (1986-89).

Massenbach, (Ehrhard) Friedrich (Fabian) von (b. May 3, 1753, Bladiau, East Prussia [now Pyatidorozhnoye, Kaliningrad oblast, Russia] - d. June 3, 1819, Johrengen, near Bartenstein [now Bartoszyce], East Prussia [now in Poland]), governor of Danzig (1814).

Massera (Padula), Emilio Eduardo (b. Oct. 19, 1925, Parana, Entre Ríos, Argentina - d. Nov. 8, 2010, Buenos Aires, Argentina), Argentine junta member. He was head of the Navy and one of the most feared junta members for much of the period of military dictatorship in 1976-83. The junta's "Dirty War" against suspected leftist guerrillas claimed 15,000 victims according to the government, and 30,000 according to human rights groups. Massera and other top junta bosses were tried and jailed for their human rights abuses after the return of democracy, but were pardoned after Menem took power in 1989. The former military rulers and their henchmen managed to keep a low profile until 1995, when a guilt-tortured former naval officer recounted on television how he had helped to throw detainees from planes to their deaths in the sea. The ugly memories he revived prompted the armed forces to make unprecedented official apologies for their past atrocities, but also spurred new judicial investigations. Massera was arrested in November 1998 by a judge investigating the alleged systematic theft of the babies of Dirty War detainees. The mothers were usually killed and the babies handed over to childless military couples. In 2005, the courts ruled that Massera was unfit to stand trial and ordered that all of the investigations and charges against him be dropped.

Masseron, Paul (b. April 3, 1950, Landerneau, Finistère, France), interior minister of Monaco (2006-15). He was also prefect of the French départements of Corrèze (1987-89), Orne (1989-93), Allier (1993-98), Vendée (1998-2001), and Haut-Rhin (2001-04).

V. Massey
Massey, (Charles) Vincent (b. Feb. 20, 1887, Toronto, Ont. - d. Dec. 30, 1967, London, England), governor general of Canada (1952-59). He was appointed associate secretary of the cabinet war committee during World War I (1914-18) and became minister without portfolio in W.L. Mackenzie King's Liberal cabinet (September 1925). In 1926-30 he served as the first Canadian minister to the United States. He was president of the National Liberal Federation (1932-35) before becoming Canada's high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1935-46). In 1949-51 he was chairman of the Royal Commission on National Development in Arts, Letters, and Sciences; as such he spoke of Canada's need to break away culturally from the United States. He was named governor general in 1952, becoming the first Canadian to serve in that post.

Massey, William Ferguson (b. March 26, 1856, Limavady, County Londonderry, Ireland [now in Northern Ireland] - d. May 10, 1925, Wellington, N.Z.), prime minister of New Zealand (1912-25). He was also minister of lands (1912-18), agriculture (1912-15), labour (1912-20), industries and commerce (1912-20), railways (1919-22), mines (1920-21), and finance (1920-25).

Massi, Charles (b. July 25, 1952, Baboua, Oubangui-Chari [now Central African Republic] - d. January 2010?), Central African Republic politician. He was minister of energy resources and minerals (1993-96) and agriculture and livestock (1997) and a minor presidential candidate (1999, 2005).

Massibe, Lazare (b. Nov. 14, 1935, Baiboukoum, Chad), Chadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1968-69) and ambassador to the United States (1968-74).

Massicault, Justin (Théophile Athanase) (b. Sept. 14, 1838, Ourouer-les-Bourdelins, Cher, France - d. Nov. 5, 1892, La Marsa, Tunisia), resident-general of Tunisia (1886-92). He was also prefect of the French départements of Haute-Vienne (1870-71, 1877-82), Somme (1882), and Rhône (1882-86).

Massiet, (Charles Gabriel) Renaud (b. Feb. 1, 1877 - d. June 9, 1947), governor of Jebel Druze (1932-34).

Massigli, René (Lucien Daniel) (b. March 22, 1888, Montpellier, France - d. Feb. 3, 1988, Paris, France), foreign affairs commissioner of the Free French government in exile (1943-44). He was also French ambassador to Turkey (1939-40) and the United Kingdom (1944-55).

Massingham, John Dudley (b. Feb. 1, 1930 - d. March 16, 2009), governor of Saint Helena (1981-84). He was also British high commissioner to Guyana (1985-87).

Massiot, Pierrick (b. April 22, 1948, Josselin, Morbihan, France), president of the Regional Council of Bretagne (2012-15).

Masson, Émile (b. April 21, 1832, Paris, France - d. ...), commandant-particular of Gabon (1881-83).

Masson, Fulgence (Paul Benoît) (b. Feb. 16, 1854, Dour, Belgium - d. Jan. 24, 1942, Mons, Belgium), war minister (1918-20) and justice minister (1921-25) of Belgium.

Masson, Georges Pierre (d. [suicide] Nov. 14, 1940), governor-delegate of Gabon (1938-40).

Masson, Louis François Rodrigue (b. Nov. 6, 1833, Terrebonne, Lower Canada [now Que.] - d. Nov. 8, 1903, Montreal, Que.), defence minister of Canada (1878-80) and lieutenant governor of Quebec (1884-87).

Masson, Paul (Jean Marie) (b. July 21, 1920, Ussel, Corrèze, France - d. May 28, 2009, Paris, France), high commissioner of Upper Volta (1959-60). He was also minister to Upper Volta (1960) and prefect of the French départements of Lot (1967-71), Loiret (1973-76), and Gironde (1976-78).

Masson de Saint-Félix, (Charles) Max de (b. Sept. 14, 1882, Paris, France - d. July 3, 1958), lieutenant governor of Middle Congo (1931-32) and governor of French Guiana (1935-36) and Oubangui-Chari (1936-39).

Massoni, Philippe (David Jean) (b. Jan. 13, 1936, Marseille, France - d. Feb. 14, 2015, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1993-2001) and personal representative of the French co-prince of Andorra (2002-07). He was also prefect of the départements of Aube (1988-90), Oise (1990-92), and Puy-de-Dôme (1992-93).

Massoudou, Hassoumi, also spelled Massaoudou (b. Oct. 22, 1957, Birni N'Gaouré, Dosso region, Niger), interior minister (2013-16), defense minister (2016), finance minister (2016-19), and foreign minister (2021-23) of Niger. He was also minister of communication, culture, youth, and sports (1993-94).

Massounde, Tadjidine Ben Said (b. Dec. 25, 1933, Domoni, Anjouan, Comoros - d. March 1, 2004, Paris, France), prime minister (1996) and interim president (1998-99) of the Comoros.

Massu, Jacques (Émile) (b. May 5, 1908, Châlons-sur-Marne [now Châlons-en-Champagne], Marne, France - d. Oct. 26, 2002, Conflans-sur-Loing, Loiret, France), French general. He first rose to prominence in World War II. In June 1940, he followed Gen. Charles de Gaulle's call to resist the pro-Nazi Vichy government in France. Before rising to the rank of general in 1955, Massu fought in Chad, Tunisia, Vietnam, and other operations in the former French colonies across Africa and Asia. He took command of the 10th Parachute Division in 1956, France's elite force tasked with maintaining order in Algeria. Massu eventually led French troops to victory in the 1957 Battle of Algiers - a pivotal point in the war that ended with Algeria's independence from France in 1962. During the revolt of French Algerians in May 1958, which brought de Gaulle to power in France, he was president of the Committee of Public Safety. De Gaulle made him prefect of Algiers and commander of the Algiers Army Corps. In January 1960 he was dismissed from these functions after he criticized de Gaulle's Algerian policy. The 1954-62 Algerian war is considered the most troubling chapter of France's recent history. Through the years, it was recognized that torture was widespread during the conflict, though there was no official admission. Massu, in an interview with Le Monde in 2000, said he regretted the practices of torture and summary executions during the war, which were "generalized," then "institutionalized." "Torture was not indispensable during times of war," Massu said in the interview. "We could have done things differently." Massu was awarded the Distinguished Service Order and the prestigious Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, among numerous other decorations, during his 40-year military career.

Mastella, (Mario) Clemente (b. Feb. 5, 1947, Ceppaloni, Campania, Italy), justice minister of Italy (2006-08). He has also been minister of labour and social security (1994-95) and mayor of Benevento (2016- ).

Mastenbroek, Emiel, byname of Emile Maria Mastenbroek (b. March 29, 1930, Sittard, Limburg, Netherlands - d. Jan. 20, 2005, Sittard), queen's commissioner of Limburg (1990-93).

Masuda, Hiroya (b. Dec. 20, 1951), governor of Iwate (1995-2007) and interior minister of Japan (2007-08).

Masuku, Melusi Martin, Swazi diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2017-21).

T. Masuku
Masuku, Themba (Nhlanganiso) (b. July 7, 1950, Hlathikhulu, Swaziland [now Eswatini]), finance minister (1996-98), deputy prime minister (2008-13, 2018- ), and acting prime minister (2020-21) of Swaziland/Eswatini. He was also minister of agriculture and cooperatives (1991-93) and economic planning and development (1993-96).

Masum (Hawrami), (Muhammad) Fuad (b. 1938, Koya [now in Kurdistan autonomous region], Iraq), prime minister of Iraqi Kurdistan (1992-93) and president of Iraq (2014-18). He was also president of the interim Iraqi National Council (2004-05).

Masutani, Shuji (b. Jan. 17, 1888, Ushitsu [now part of Noto], Ishikawa prefecture, Japan - d. Aug. 18, 1973), deputy prime minister of Japan (1959-60). He was also minister of construction (1948-50), speaker of the House of Representatives (1955-58), and director of the Administrative Management Agency (1959-60).

Masuzoe, Yoichi (b. Nov. 29, 1948), governor of Tokyo (2014-16).

Maswanya, Saidi Ali (b. 1923, Usungu, Tabora district, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]), home affairs minister of Tanzania (1967-73). He was also minister without portfolio (1962) and minister of health (1962-64) of Tanganyika and minister of agriculture, forests, and wildlife (1964-65) and lands, settlement, and water development (1965-67) of Tanzania.

Masyk, Kostyantyn (Ivanovych), Russian Konstantin (Ivanovich) Masik (b. June 9, 1936, Volochisk, Vinnitsa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Volochysk, Khmelnytskyi oblast, Ukraine]), a deputy premier (1981-86, 1989-90) and a first deputy prime minister (1990-92) of the Ukrainian S.S.R./Ukraine. He was also first secretary of the party committee of Kiev city (1987-89) and ambassador to Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway (1992-97).

Mata, Ernesto (Samonte) (b. Nov. 7, 1915, Laoag, Ilocos Norte, Philippines - d. March 2012), defense secretary of the Philippines (1967-70). He was also chief of the staff of the armed forces (1966-67).

Mata, João Nogueira da (b. Dec. 27, 1909, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil - d. Aug. 10, 1991, Manaus), acting federal interventor in Amazonas (1946, 1947).

Mata, José Caeiro da (b. Jan. 6, 1882, Vimieiro, Portugal - d. Jan. 3, 1963, Lisbon, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1933-35, 1947-50). He was also education minister (1944-47).

Mata Figueroa, Carlos (José) (b. Oct. 30, 1957, Pedregales, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela), defense minister of Venezuela (2010-12) and governor of Nueva Esparta (2012-17). In 2022 he was appointed ambassador to Qatar.

Mata'afa, Fiame Naomi (b. April 29, 1957, Apia, Western Samoa [now Samoa]), prime minister and foreign minister of Samoa (2021- ); daughter of Mata'afa Mulinu'u II. She was also minister of education (1991-2006), youth, sports, and culture (1991-92), women, community, and social development (2006-11), justice and courts administration (2011-16), and natural resources and environment (2016-20) and deputy prime minister (2016-20).

Mataga, Philippe (b. March 3, 1938, Edéa, French Cameroons [now in Littoral province, Cameroon] - d. Jan. 21, 2003, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Cameroon (1987-88). He also served as labour and social welfare minister (1986-87) and ambassador to Israel (1990-95), Spain (1995-2003), and the Vatican (2002-03).

Mataja, Heinrich (b. March 14, 1877, Vienna, Austria - d. Jan. 23, 1937, Vienna), interior secretary of state (1918-19) and foreign minister (1924-26) of Austria.

Matambo, (Ontefetse) Kenneth (b. Dec. 1, 1947, Tonota, Bechuanaland [now Botswana]), finance minister of Botswana (2009-19).

Matamoros D'Costa, Gustavo (b. May 28, 1928, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Jan. 5, 1985, Bogotá), defense minister of Colombia (1984-85). He was also commander of the armed forces (1982-84).

Matane, Sir Paulias (Nguna) (b. Sept. 21, 1931, Viviran, Rabaul, New Guinea [now in Papua New Guinea] - d. Dec. 12, 2021), governor-general of Papua New Guinea (2004-10); knighted 1986. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-80), chargé d'affaires (1975-76) and ambassador (1976-80) to the United States, and high commissioner to Canada (1977-80).

Matanovic, Mijo (b. Feb. 14, 1965, Donji Svilaj village, near Odzak [now in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina]), governor (2001-02) and premier (2007-11) of Posavina.

Matanzima, George (Mzimvubu) (b. 1918, Qamata, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. Nov. 10, 2000, Queenstown, Eastern Cape), prime minister of Transkei (1979-87). He was named after Britain's King George. His better-known older brother Kaiser, born when World War I was at its height and the Germans looked like being the victors, was named after Kaiser Wilhelm. He was struck from the roll of attorneys in 1963 for stealing money from various trust funds. Six months later, he was made Transkei's minister of justice; his brother Kaiser was chief minister. In spite of an outer show of sophistication and the fact that he was a better-than-average political manipulator, he fired verbally from the hip, and this often made him seem a bit of a buffoon or at least hopelessly inconsistent. He wasted no time imposing on the newly independent Transkei the same draconian legislation in force in South Africa. Opponents were detained without trial, there were deaths in detention, and he even banned the Methodist Church. He became prime minister in 1979 when Kaiser became president. Although fond of warning his countrymen against the evils of corruption, Matanzima himself was incurably corrupt. Commissions of inquiry held soon after he fled Transkei in 1988 revealed mind-boggling levels of dishonesty. The auditor-general estimated that from the time Transkei became the first "independent" homeland in 1976 until Matanzima's rapid departure 12 years later, some R 200 million had been stolen or misappropriated by the government of the Matanzima brothers. Eventually, he returned to South Africa, and, after much wrangling, was extradited to Transkei. He stood trial for bribery and corruption and, in 1989, was sentenced to nine years. The next year he was released for health reasons by the government of Bantu Holomisa, who had ousted him in 1987.

K.D. Matanzima
Matanzima, Kaiser Daliwonga (b. June 15, 1915, Qamata, Cape province [now in Eastern Cape], South Africa - d. June 15, 2003, Queenstown, Eastern Cape, South Africa), chief minister (1963-76), prime minister (1976-79), foreign minister (1978-80), and president (1979-86) of Transkei. He was initially head of a subordinate Thembu chiefdom that was called the Emigrant Thembu. A man of overweening personal ambition, he saw the South African government's Bantu Authorities Act, which it introduced in the 1950s, as a means of enhancing his power and status. Transkei under his leadership was intended as the showpiece of the South African government's policy of grand apartheid. In 1976 it became the first homeland to accept independence. In fact this independence was entirely spurious. Economically, militarily, and in every other way, Transkei was utterly dependent on Pretoria. Four-fifths of its budget came from the South African government. Matanzima was in every respect Pretoria's man, although once or twice he forgot this. The most celebrated occasion was in 1978 when he made a great show of severing diplomatic relations with South Africa - and even ending Transkei's nonaggression pact with the country - over unfulfilled territorial demands. He was forced embarrassingly soon to restore full relations without achieving his objectives because he needed money from the South African treasury. He accumulated considerable business and farming interests and became a wealthy man. Nelson Mandela once described him as "a sell-out in the proper sense of the word," though they came from the same royal family (Matanzima was Mandela's nephew according to Thembu custom) and for many years were inseparable.


Matas Palou, Jaume (b. Oct. 5, 1956, Palma de Mallorca, Spain), president of the government of Baleares (1996-99, 2003-07).

Mataskelekele (Mauliliu), Kalkot (b. April 24, 1949), president of Vanuatu (2004-09); brother-in-law of Walter Lini.

Matata Ponyo Mapon, Augustin (b. June 5, 1964, Kindu, Congo [Léopoldville (now Kinshasa)]), finance minister (2010-14) and prime minister (2012-16) of Congo (Kinshasa). He was a minor presidential candidate in 2023.

Matawalle, Bello (Mohammed) (b. Feb. 12, 1969, Maradun local government area [now in Zamfara state], Nigeria), governor of Zamfara (2019-23).

Matchanov, Nazar (Matkarimovich) (b. Jan. 1, 1923, Khiva, Khorazmian People's Soviet Republic [now in Uzbekistan] - d. July 30, 2010, Tashkent, Uzbekistan), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1970-78). He was also a deputy premier (1961-62) and first secretary of the party committee of Bukhara oblast (1962-65).

Mate, Dragutin (b. May 2, 1963, Cakovec, Croatia), interior minister of Slovenia (2004-08).

Matecná, Gabriela (b. Nov. 28, 1964, Poprad?, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), a deputy prime minister of Slovakia (2018-20). She was also minister of agriculture and rural development (2016-20).

Matekane, Sam(uel Ntsokoane) (b. March 15, 1958, Mantsonyane, Basutoland [now Lesotho]), prime minister and defense minister of Lesotho (2022- ).

Matenje, Dick Tennyson (b. Jan. 29, 1929, Blantyre district, Nyasaland [now Malawi] - d. May 19, 1983), finance minister of Malawi (1972-78). He was also minister of trade and industry (1972, 1973-75), tourism (1973-75), and education and culture (1978-82) and minister without portfolio (1982-83). He died with two other cabinet ministers and a fourth politician in what was announced to be a car accident near Mwanza; however, in 1994 a commission of inquiry found that the four were killed by a police squad under the orders of "higher authorities."

Matenje, Stephen D(ick Tennyson), byname Steve Matenje (b. Feb. 17, 1956, Zomba, Nyasaland [now Malawi]), Malawian official; son of Dick Tennyson Matenje. He was solicitor general (1995-2006), permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-10), and ambassador to the United States (2010-15).

Mateo Sagasta (y Escolar), Práxedes (Mariano) (b. July 21, 1825, Torrecilla, Logroño province, Spain - d. Jan. 3, 1903, Madrid, Spain), prime minister of Spain (1871-72, 1874, 1881-83, 1885-90, 1892-95, 1897-99, 1901-02). He was also interior minister (1869-70, 1870-71, 1871-72, 1874), foreign minister (1870, 1874), and interim finance minister (1871, 1874).


Mateparae, Sir Jerry, byname of Sir Jeremiah Mateparae, original surname Andrews (b. Nov. 14, 1954, Wanganui, N.Z.), governor-general of New Zealand (2011-16); knighted 2011. He was also high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2017-20).

Mates, Leo (b. Dec. 24, 1911, Osijek, Hungary [now in Croatia] - d. Sept. 9, 1991, Belgrade, Serbia), Yugoslav diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1952-54) and ambassador to the United States (1954-58).

Matesa, Zlatko (b. June 17, 1949, Zagreb, Croatia), prime minister of Croatia (1995-2000). He has also been minister without portfolio (1993-95), minister of economy (1995), and president of the Croatian Olympic Committee (2002- ).

Mateu Pi, Meritxell (b. Jan. 19, 1966), foreign minister of Andorra (2007-09). She was also ambassador to France (1995-99) and the Benelux countries (1997-2005) and minister of housing, higher education, research, and youth (2005-07).

Mateus, António Lopes (b. April 23, 1877, Povolide, Viseu, Portugal - d. Feb. 24, 1955), interior minister (1930-31) and war minister (1931-32) of Portugal and governor-general of Angola (1935-39).

Mateus, Francisco de Paula (b. Oct. 2, 1835, Ramiriquí, Boyacá, New Granada [now Colombia] - d. Aug. 1, 1919, Bogotá, Colombia), acting president of Cundinamarca (1867) and foreign minister of Colombia (1904). He was also minister to Italy (1881-83, 1887-88), France (1885-87), and Ecuador (1898-99).

Mateus, Juan Nepomuceno, war and navy minister of Colombia (1882-84). He was also minister to France (1885).

Matevski, Mateja (b. March 13, 1929, Istanbul, Turkey), acting president of the Presidency of Macedonia (1986).

Mathabatha, (Chupu) Stanley (b. Jan. 21, 1957), premier of Limpopo (2013- ). He was South African ambassador to Ukraine in 2012-13.

Mathale, Cassel (Charlie) (b. Jan. 23, 1961), premier of Limpopo (2010-13).

Mathavious, Robert A(nderson), acting governor of the British Virgin Islands (2017). He was financial secretary (1985-91), director of financial services (1993-2001), and managing director of the Financial Services Commission (2002-20).

Mathema, Cain (Ginyilitshe Ndabazekhaya) (b. Jan. 28, 1948), home affairs minister of Zimbabwe (2018-19). He has also been high commissioner/ambassador to Zambia (2001-04), governor of Bulawayo (2004-17), minister of welfare services for war veterans, war collaborators, and former political detainees (2017) and primary and secondary education (2019-21), and minister without portfolio (2021- ).

Mathers, Frederick Francis (b. Oct. 17, 1871, St. John, N.B. - d. April 14, 1947, Halifax, N.S.), lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1940-42).

Matheson, Scott M(ilne) (b. Jan. 8, 1929, Chicago, Ill. - d. Oct. 7, 1990, Salt Lake City, Utah), governor of Utah (1977-85).

Mathew, C(aluadewagey) Nanda (b. Feb. 2, 1940 - d. Aug. 23, 2019), governor of Uva (2003-15). He was also Sri Lankan minister of youth affairs and sports (1989-94).

Mathew, P(uthenveetil) C(handapilla) (b. June 30, 1913, Mavelikara [now in Kerala], India - d. March 28, 2011, Chennai, India), chief commissioner of Manipur (1955-58).

Mathews, George (b. Sept. 10, 1739, Augusta county, Georgia - d. Aug. 30, 1812, Augusta, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1787-88, 1793-96).

Mathews, Henry M(ason) (b. March 29, 1834, Frankford, Va. [now in W.Va.] - d. April 28, 1884, Lewisburg, W.Va.), governor of West Virginia (1877-81).

Mathews, John (b. 1744, Charles Town [now Charleston], South Carolina - d. Oct. 26, 1802, Charleston), governor of South Carolina (1782-83).

Mathews, Sir Lloyd William (b. March 7, 1850, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal - d. Oct. 11, 1901, Zanzibar [now part of Tanzania]), first minister of Zanzibar (1891-1901); knighted 1894.

Mathias, Marcelo Gonçalves Nunes Duarte (b. Aug. 15, 1903, Benfeita, Portugal - d. June 9, 1999, Estoril, Portugal), foreign minister of Portugal (1958-61). He was also minister (1947-48) and ambassador (1948-58, 1961-71) to France.

Mathiesen, Árni M(atthías) (b. Oct. 2, 1958, Reykjavík, Iceland), finance minister of Iceland (2005-09); son of Matthías Á. Mathiesen. He was also minister of fisheries (1999-2005).

Mathiesen, Mait Mihkel (b. Dec. 28, 1949, Malmö, Sweden - d. April 5, 2005), foreign minister of Estonia in exile (2003-05); son of Mihkel Mathiesen.

Mathiesen, Matthías Á(rnason) (b. Aug. 6, 1931, Hafnarfjördur, Iceland - d. Nov. 9, 2011, Hafnarfjördur), foreign minister of Iceland (1986-87). He was also minister of finance (1974-78), commerce (1983-85), and communications (1987-88).

Mathiesen, Mihkel (b. Oct. 27, 1918, Are, Pärnu county, Estonia - d. Nov. 28, 2003, Stockholm, Sweden), prime minister acting as president of Estonia in exile (1992-2003). He was also minister of roads (1985-90) and economy (1990-92).

Mathieu (Andrews), Beltrán (Luis) (b. April 10, 1852, Talcahuano, Chile - d. May 20, 1931, Paris, France), war and marine minister (1901-02) and foreign minister (1926) of Chile. He was also minister to Ecuador and Central America (1896-1901), Bolivia (1903-06), and the United Kingdom (1926-27), minister of industry, public works, and railways (1910), and ambassador to the United States (1918-26).

Mathieu, Michel (Pierre Marie) (b. July 25, 1944, Montpellier, Hérault, France - d. Sept. 30, 2010), high commissioner of French Polynesia (2001-05) and New Caledonia (2005-07). He was also prefect of the départements of Eure (1989-92), Oise (1992-96), and Val-d'Oise (1999-2001).

Mathieu-Bodet, Pierre (b. Dec. 16, 1816, Saint-Saturnin, Charente, France - d. Jan. 28, 1911, Paris, France), finance minister of France (1874-75).

Mathot, Guy (José Léopold Ghislain) (b. April 26, 1941, Nandrin, Belgium - d. Feb. 21, 2005, Liège, Belgium), Belgian politician. He was minister of public works and Walloon affairs (1977-80), minister of Francophone national education (1980), minister of the budget and the interior (1980-81), and vice-premier and minister of the budget (1981). He was also mayor of the town of Seraing (1971-88, 2000-05).

Mathuki, Peter (Mutuku) (b. 1969), secretary-general of the East African Community (2021- ).

Mathur, Mohan Prakash (b. July 19, 1908 - d. ...), chief commissioner of Chandigarh (1972-75) and lieutenant governor of Mizoram (1977-80). He was also Indian ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1962-66) and Romania (1962-63).

R.K. Mathur
Mathur, Radha Krishna (b. Nov. 25, 1953), lieutenant governor of Ladakh (2019-23).

S.C. Mathur
Mathur, Shiv Charan (b. Feb. 14, 1926, Marhi Kanungo [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. June 25, 2009, Delhi, India), chief minister of Rajasthan (1981-85, 1988-89) and governor of Assam (2008-09).

Mathurin Mair, Lucille, née Walrond (b. 1924, Jamaica - d. Jan. 28, 2009, Kingston, Jamaica), Jamaican diplomat. She was ambassador to Cuba (1978-79) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-95).

Mathys, Adidjatou (b. 1956, Porto-Novo, Dahomey [now Benin]), finance minister of Benin (2011-12). She has also been minister of labour, civil service, and social affairs (2016- ).

Matiabe, Aruru (b. 1955, Koroba, Papua and New Guinea [now in Hela province, Papua New Guinea]), acting foreign minister of Papua New Guinea (1987). He was also minister of education (1985-87) and tourism and culture (1989-91).

Matiba, Kenneth (Stanley Njindo) (b. June 1, 1932, Kahuhia, Muranga district, Kenya - d. April 15, 2018, Nairobi, Kenya), Kenyan politician. He was minister of culture and social services (1983-86), works, housing, and physical planning (1986-87), health (1987-88), and transport and communications (1988) and a presidential candidate (1992, 2007).

B. Matic
Matic, Bozidar, byname Bozo Matic (b. Sept. 8, 1937, Bogatic, near Sarajevo, Yugoslavia [now in Bosnia and Herzegovina] - d. May 12, 2016, Sarajevo), prime minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001).

Matic, Dimitrije (b. Aug. 18, 1821, Ruma, Austria [now in Vojvodina, Serbia] - d. Oct. 17, 1884, Belgrade, Serbia), foreign minister of Serbia (1868-72). He was also education minister (1859-60, 1868-72) and justice minister (1878-79).

Matiliauskas, Rolandas (b. July 10, 1968, Utena, Lithuanian S.S.R.), finance minister of Lithuania (1996-97).

Matin, M(antaus) A(bdul) (b. Nov. 13, 1937, Rangpur district, Bengal, India [in present Kurigram district, Bangladesh] - d. June 12, 2012, Dhaka, Bangladesh), home affairs minister (1981-82, 1986-89) and a deputy prime minister (1986-89) of Bangladesh. He was also minister of civil aviation and tourism (1979), health and population control (1979-81, 1988, 1989), youth development (1981), commerce (1984-85), works (1985-86), and communications (1986-87).

Matin-Daftari, Ahmad (b. 1896, Tehran, Iran - d. 1971, Tehran), prime minister of Iran (1939-40); cousin and son-in-law of Mohammad Mossadegh.

Matinchev, Evgeni (Kirilov) (b. Aug. 20, 1939, Sofia, Bulgaria), Bulgarian politician. He was a deputy prime minister and minister of labour and social policy (1992-94).

Matingou, Boniface, finance minister of Congo (Brazzaville) (1970-71). He was also minister of commerce (1973-75), transport and public works (1975-77), and tourism and environment (1980-84).

Matjila, Jerry Matthews (b. July 14, 1952), South African diplomat. He was high commissioner to India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives and ambassador to Nepal (1995-99), ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (2001-06), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2016-20).

Matlala, M(aurice) M(aserumule) (b. Oct. 21, 1924 - d. Feb. 13, 2021), chief councillor (1969-72) and chief minister (1972-73) of Lebowa.

Matlyubov, Bakhodir (Akhmedovich) (b. March 10, 1952, Samarkand, Uzbek S.S.R.), interior minister of Uzbekistan (2006-13). He was also chairman of the State Customs Committee (2004-06).

Matochkin, Yury (Semyonovich) (b. Oct. 18, 1931 - d. July 6, 2006), head of the administration of Kaliningrad oblast (1991-96).

Matoka, Peter (Wilfred) (b. April 8, 1930, Mwinilunga, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. Sept. 12, 2014, Lusaka, Zambia), Zambian politician. He was minister of information and postal services (1964-65), health (1965-66, 1971-72), works and housing (1967-68), power, transport, and works (1968-69), Luapula province (1969), Southern province (1970-71), local government and housing (1972-75), development planning and public works (1975-77), and economic and technical cooperation (1977-79) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1969-70) and Zimbabwe (1984-88).

Matolcsy, György (b. July 18, 1955, Budapest, Hungary), Hungarian politician. He has been minister of economy (2001-02, 2010-13) and president of the Hungarian National Bank (2013- ).

Matos, José Botelho de (baptized Nov. 5, 1678, Lisbon, Portugal - d. Nov. 22, 1767, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil), member of the Provisional Government Junta of Brazil (1754-55). He was archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia (1741-59).

Matos, José (Maria) Mendes Ribeiro Norton de (b. March 23, 1867, Ponte de Lima, Portugal - d. Jan. 2, 1955, Lisbon, Portugal), governor-general of Angola (1912-15, 1921-23) and war minister of Portugal (1915-17).

Matos (Páez), Manuel Antonio (b. Jan. 8, 1847, Puerto Cabello, Carabobo state, Venezuela - d. May 27, 1929, Paris, France), foreign minister of Venezuela (1910-12).

Matos, Valdir Raupp de (b. Aug. 24, 1955, São João do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil), governor of Rondônia (1995-99).

Matos Azócar, Luis Raúl (b. 1945?), finance minister of Venezuela (1995-98).


Matovic, Igor (b. May 11, 1973, Trnava, Slovakia), prime minister (2020-21) and finance minister and a deputy prime minister (2021-22) of Slovakia.

Matovnikov, Aleksandr (Anatolyevich) (b. Sept. 19, 1965, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), plenipotentiary of the president in Severo-Kavkazsky federal district (2018-20).

Matsch, Franz (b. Jan. 24, 1899, Vienna, Austria - d. July 26, 1973, Vienna), Austrian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-64).

Matsebula, Mhlangano Stephen (b. July 16, 1925, Maphalaleni, Swaziland [now Eswatini] - d. January 2015), foreign minister of Swaziland (1972-79). He was also minister of labour and public service (1983-86) and natural resources, land utilization, and energy (acting, 1987).

Matsepe-Casaburri, Ivy (Florence), née Matsepe (b. Sept. 18, 1937, Kroonstad, Orange Free State [now Free State], South Africa - d. April 6, 2009, Pretoria, South Africa), premier of the Free State (1996-99). From 1999 to her death she was communications minister of South Africa. In 2008 she was acting president for part of a day after Thabo Mbeki left office and before Kgalema Motlanthe was elected.

Matsheka, Thapelo (Clayton), finance minister of Botswana (2019-21). He has also been minister of infrastructure and housing development (2021- ).

Matskevich, Vladimir (Vladimirovich) (b. Dec. 14 [Dec. 1, O.S.], 1909, Privolnoye village, Russia [now in Zaporizhzhya oblast, Ukraine] - d. Nov. 7, 1998, Moscow, Russia), Soviet politician. He was minister of livestock (1947) and agriculture (1949-50) and first deputy premier (1950-52) of the Ukrainian S.S.R., Soviet minister of agriculture (1955-60, 1965-73) and a deputy premier (1956), chairman of the Executive Committee of Tselinny kray (1961-65), and ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1973-80).

Matsuda, Masahisa, in full (from 1914) Danshaku (Baron) Masahisa Matsuda (b. May 17 [April 12, lunar calendar], 1845, Hizen province [in present Saga prefecture], Japan - d. March 4, 1914, Tokyo, Japan), finance minister of Japan (1898, 1908). He was also minister of education (1900-01) and justice (1906-08, 1911-12, 1913) and speaker of the House of Representatives (1904-06).

Matsudaira, Koto (b. Feb. 5, 1903, Tokyo, Japan - d. 1994), Japanese diplomat. He was ambassador to Canada (1954-57) and India (1961-65) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1957-61).

Matsui, Akira (b. Jan. 6, 1908, Paris, France - d. 1994), Japanese diplomat; son of Keishiro Matsui. He was ambassador to Ceylon (1957-59), Sweden (1959-62), and France (1967-70) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1963-67).

Matsui, Ichiro (b. Jan. 31, 1964), governor of Osaka (2011-19). He was also mayor of Osaka (2019-23).

Matsui, Keishiro, in full (from 1920) Danshaku (Baron) Keishiro Matsui (b. March 5, 1868, Osaka, Japan - d. June 4, 1946, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister of Japan (1924). He was also ambassador to France (1915-22) and the United Kingdom (1925-28).

Matsukata, Masayoshi, in full Koshaku (Duke) Masayoshi Matsukata (b. April 3, 1834, Kagoshima, Japan - d. July 2, 1924, Tokyo, Japan), prime minister of Japan (1891-92, 1896-98). He was also minister of finance (1881-92, 1895, 1896-98, 1898-1900) and home affairs (1888-89, 1892) and lord keeper of the privy seal (1917-22). He became Hakushaku (count) in 1884, Koshaku (marquess) in 1907, and Koshaku (duke) in 1922.

Matsumoto, Juro (b. May 22, 1918 - d. Nov. 21, 2011, Tokyo, Japan), defense minister of Japan (1989-90).

T. Matsumoto
Matsumoto, Takeaki (b. April 25, 1959, Tokyo, Japan), foreign minister (2011) and internal affairs minister (2022-23, 2023- ) of Japan; son of Juro Matsumoto; great-grandson of Hirobumi Ito.

Matsumuro, Itasu (b. Jan. 22 [Jan. 2, lunar calendar], 1852, Kokura, Chikuzen province [now in Fukuoka prefecture], Japan - d. Feb. 16, 1931), justice minister of Japan (1912-13, 1916-18). He was also attorney general (1906-12).

Matsunaga, Hikaru (b. Nov. 23, 1928, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan - d. Oct. 11, 2022), finance minister of Japan (1998). He was also minister of education (1984-85) and international trade and industry (1989-90).

Matsuno, Raizo (b. Feb. 12, 1917, Kumamoto prefecture, Japan - d. May 10, 2006, Tokyo, Japan), Japanese politician. He was minister of labour (1959-60) and agriculture (1966-67) and director-general of the Defense Agency (1965-66).

Matsuno, Yukiyasu (b. Oct. 13, 1908, Gifu prefecture, Japan - d. May 22, 2006), governor of Gifu (1958-66). He was also a Japanese minister of state, director-general of the National Land Agency and the Hokkaido Development Agency (1981-82).

Matsushima, Midori (b. July 15, 1956, Toyonaka, Osaka prefecture, Japan), justice minister of Japan (2014).

Matsuura, Isao (b. April 24, 1923, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan - d. Dec. 28, 2002, Tokyo, Japan), justice minister of Japan (1996-97).

Matsuzaka, Hiromasa (b. March 25, 1884, Uji, Kyoto prefecture, Japan - d. Jan. 5, 1960), justice minister of Japan (1944-45). He was also prosecutor-general (1941-44).

Matsuzawa, Shigefumi (b. April 2, 1958, Kawasaki, Kagawa prefecture, Japan), governor of Kanagawa (2003-11).

Mattalatta, (Mohammad) Andi (b. Sept. 30, 1952, Bone, Sulawesi [now in Sulawesi Selatan], Indonesia), law minister of Indonesia (2007-09).

Mattarella, Bernardo (b. Sept. 15, 1905, Castellammare del Golfo, Trapani province, Italy - d. March 1, 1971, Rome, Italy), Italian politician. He was minister of merchant marine (1953), transport (1953-55, 1962-63), foreign trade (1955-57, 1963-66), posts and telecommunications (1957-58), and agriculture and forestry (1963).

Mattarella, Piersanti (b. May 24, 1935, Castellammare del Golfo, Trapani province, Italy - d. [assassinated] Jan. 6, 1980, Palermo, Italy), president of Sicilia (1978-80); son of Bernardo Mattarella.

S. Mattarella
Mattarella, Sergio (b. July 23, 1941, Palermo, Italy), defense minister (1999-2001) and president (2015- ) of Italy; son of Bernardo Mattarella; brother of Piersanti Mattarella. He was also minister of relations with parliament (1987-89) and education (1989-90) and deputy prime minister (1998-99).

Matte (Peréz), Augusto (b. 1843, Santiago, Chile - d. Feb. 25, 1913, Berlin, Germany), finance minister (1877-78, 1879-80) and foreign minister (1888) of Chile. He was also minister to France (1891-96), the United Kingdom (1892-96), Switzerland (1893-96), the Holy See (1895-97), Germany (1905-13), and Russia (1909-13).

Matte (Pérez), Claudio (Alejandro Lázaro) (b. Dec. 18, 1858, Santiago, Chile - d. Dec. 22, 1956, Santiago), foreign minister of Chile (1895); brother of Augusto Matte and Eduardo Matte.

Matte (Pérez), Eduardo (b. Jan. 8, 1847, Santiago, Chile - d. Dec. 3, 1902, Santiago), Chilean politician; brother of Augusto Matte. He was minister of foreign affairs, worship, and colonization (1889) and interior (1892).

Matte (Pérez), (José Adolfo) Ricardo (b. March 20, 1860, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 16, 1913, Santiago), war and marine minister (1899-1900, 1903) and interior minister (1903) of Chile; brother of Augusto Matte, Eduardo Matte, and Claudio Matte. He was also president of the Senate (1911-12).

Matte Gormaz, Jorge (b. April 11, 1876, Santiago, Chile - d. Sept. 30, 1944), war and navy minister (1913), foreign minister (1920-21, 1925, 1926-27, 1932), and interior minister (1922) of Chile; son of Eduardo Matte.

Matte Larraín, Arturo (b. June 5, 1893, Santiago, Chile - d. April 9, 1980, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1943-44); nephew of Augusto Matte, Eduardo Matte, Claudio Matte, and Ricardo Matte. He was a presidential candidate in 1952.

Matte Larraín, Benjamín (b. June 15, 1902, Santiago, Chile - d. October 1982), finance minister of Chile (1942); brother of Arturo Matte Larraín; nephew of Augusto Matte, Eduardo Matte, Claudio Matte, and Ricardo Matte. He was also agriculture minister (1936).

Matte Lecaros, Magdalena (b. Aug. 13, 1950, Santiago, Chile), Chilean politician; wife of Hernán Larraín Fernández; granddaughter of Arturo Matte Larraín; great-granddaughter of Arturo Alessandri Palma. She was minister of housing and urban development (2010-11).

Matte Valdés, Luis (b. April 5, 1933, Santiago, Chile - d. March 5?, 2019, Santiago), Chilean politician; grandnephew of Augusto Matte, Eduardo Matte, Claudio Matte, and Ricardo Matte. He was minister of housing and urban planning (1972-73).

Matter, Hans (b. Dec. 7, 1944), Landammann of Obwalden (2005-06, 2009).

Matteson, Joel A(ldrich) (b. Aug. 2, 1808, Watertown, N.Y. - d. Jan. 31, 1873, Chicago, Ill.), governor of Illinois (1853-57).

Matteucci, Carlo (b. June 20, 1811, Forlì, Papal State [now in Italy] - d. June 24, 1868, Livorno, Italy), Italian politician. Also known as a physicist, he was minister of education (1862).

Matthai, John (b. Jan. 10, 1886, Calicut [now Kozhikode, Kerala], India - d. Nov. 2, 1959, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), finance minister of India (1948-50). He was also minister of railways and transport (1947-48).

Matthei (Fornet), Evelyn (Rose) (b. Nov. 11, 1953, Santiago, Chile), Chilean presidential candidate (2013); daughter of Fernando Matthei Aubel. She has also been minister of labour and social security (2011-13) and mayor of Providencia (2016- ).

Matthei Aubel, Fernando (Jorge) (b. June 11, 1925, Osorno, Los Lagos, Chile - d. Nov. 19, 2017, Santiago, Chile), Chilean junta member (1978-90). He was also minister of health (1976-78) and commander-in-chief of the air force (1978-91).

Matthews, Albert Edward (b. May 17, 1873, Lindsay, Ont. - d. Aug. 13, 1949, Windermere, Ont.), lieutenant governor of Ontario (1937-46).

Matthews, Claude (b. Dec. 14, 1845, Bethel, Ky. - d. Aug. 28, 1898, Tippecanoe county, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1893-97); son-in-law of James Whitcomb.

Matthews, Francis P(atrick) (b. March 15, 1887, Albion, Neb. - d. Oct. 18, 1952, Omaha, Neb.), U.S. politician. He was active in Democratic Party work and from 1933 to 1949 was counsel for the Reconstruction Finance Corporation in Nebraska and Wyoming. In 1949, Pres. Harry S. Truman named him secretary of the navy, and he served in that post until 1951. Early in 1950 Matthews was under congressional fire over the ouster of Adm. Louis E. Denfeld as chief of naval operations, which came at the climax of interservice disputes over unification. On January 30 the Senate armed services committee accepted Matthews' explanation that the difference was one of policy that made harmony impossible. However, on March 1, 23 of the 32-member house armed services committee denounced the Denfeld ouster as reprisal for the latter's congressional testimony on the navy's role in unification. On August 25 Matthews in a speech at Boston, Mass., declared that the U.S. should "pay any price" for world peace, "even the price of instituting a war to compel cooperation for peace." The White House and State Department promptly disclaimed responsibility for any preventive war ideas. Matthews was U.S. ambassador to Ireland in 1951-52.

Matthews, Gabriel Bacchus (b. May 13, 1948 - d. Sept. 7, 2007, Monrovia, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (1980-81, 1990-94).

Matthews, H(arrison) Freeman (b. May 26, 1899, Baltimore, Md. - d. Oct. 19, 1986, Washington, D.C.), acting U.S. secretary of state (1953). He was also ambassador to Sweden (1947-50), the Netherlands (1953-57), and Austria (1957-62).

Matthews, Joseph W(arren) (b. 1812, near Huntsville, Ala. - d. Aug. 27, 1862, Palmetto, Ga.), governor of Mississippi (1848-50).

Matthews, Norman Derek (b. March 19, 1922 - d. July 21, 1976), governor of Montserrat (1974-76).

Matthews, Zachariah Keodirelang (b. Oct. 20, 1901, Winter's Rush, near Kimberley, Cape Colony [now in Northern Cape, South Africa] - d. May 11, 1968, Washington, D.C.), Botswanan diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1966-68).

Matthöfer, Hans (b. Sept. 25, 1925, Bochum, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. Nov. 14, 2009, Berlin, Germany), finance minister of West Germany (1978-82). He was also minister of research and technology (1974-78) and post and communications (1982).

Mattila, Olavi J(ohannes) (b. Oct. 24, 1918, Hyvinkää, Uusimaa province, Finland - d. Aug. 4, 2013, Hyvinkää), foreign minister of Finland (1971-72, 1975). He was also minister of trade and industry (1963-64, 1970) and deputy prime minister (1975).

Mattis, James (Norman), byname Jim Mattis, or Mad Dog Mattis (b. Sept. 8, 1950, Pullman, Wash.), U.S. defense secretary (2017-18). He was also commander of U.S. Central Command (2010-13). While he had done justice to his nickname with quotes like "It's fun to shoot some people" and "Be polite, be professional, but have a plan to kill everybody you meet," and this attitude was probably the very reason he was picked (already in the campaign) by Pres. Donald Trump as his defense secretary, he proved to be considered, in the Trump White House, one of the "reasonable" people restraining Trump's most reckless impulses. According to reporter Bob Woodward, Mattis told "close associates that the president acted like and had the understanding of 'a fifth- or sixth-grader.'" Trump reportedly indicated his disappointment with Mattis by referring to him behind closed doors as "Moderate Dog." Following Trump's sudden decision to withdraw troops from Syria against the advice of Mattis and others, Mattis resigned in December 2018, effective the end of February. Trump first accepted what he called Mattis' "retirement," without apparently reading the resignation letter in which Mattis declared that his views were not well aligned with Trump's, but, angered by unfavourable media coverage, finally converted the resignation effectively into a firing by making him leave the post two months earlier. In 2020, when Trump threatened to use the military against protesters, Mattis denounced him clearly: "Donald Trump is the first president in my lifetime who does not try to unite the American people - does not even pretend to try. Instead he tries to divide us."

Mattle, Anton (b. March 10, 1963, Zams, Tirol, Austria), Landeshauptmann of Tirol (2022- ).

Matto, Loma Cissé, née Cissé, justice minister of Côte d'Ivoire (2012).

Mattocks, John (b. March 4, 1777, Hartford, Conn. - d. Aug. 14, 1847, Peacham, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1843-44).

Mattos, Affonso Giffenig de (b. Feb. 11, 1845 - d. Dec. 18, 1922, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil), acting president of Maranhão (1914).

Mattos, Carlos de Meira (b. July 23, 1913, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Jan. 26, 2007, São Paulo, Brazil), governor of Goiás (1964-65).

Mattos, Eduardo Pindahyba de (b. Oct. 11, 1831, Maranhão province [now state], Brazil - d. Feb. 20, 1913, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting president of Espírito Santo (1863-65) and Rio de Janeiro (1867, 1868, 1868). He was also president of the Supreme Federal Court (1908-10).

Mattos, Ernesto Augusto da Cunha (b. Dec. 23, 1843, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. Aug. 23, 1920, Rio de Janeiro), president of Mato Grosso (1889).

Mattos, Francisco Liberato de (b. Aug. 23, 1813, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Bahia, Brazil - d. Feb. 10, 1892, Salvador), president of Paraná (1857-59).

Mattos, João Theodoro Xavier de (b. May 10, 1828, Mogi-Mirim, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Oct. 31, 1878, São Paulo, Brazil), president of São Paulo (1872-75).

Mattos, Leonidas Antero de (b. Feb. 28, 1894, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil - d. April 8, 1936, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), federal interventor in Mato Grosso (1932-34).

Mattos, Raphael Augusto da Cunha (b. April 16, 1850 - d. May 11, 1906), prefect of Alto Acre (1904-05).

Mattos, Tito Augusto Pereira de (b. Aug. 17, 1835, Bahia province [now state], Brazil - d. Nov. 29, 1917, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Maranhão (1889).

Mattsson, Kjell A(lgot) (b. Feb. 21, 1930, Skee, Göteborg och Bohus [now in Västra Götaland], Sweden - d. Jan. 7, 2015), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1989-95).

Mattsson, (Kaarle) Sigurd (b. June 19, 1892, Helsingfors [now Helsinki], Finland - d. June 26, 1970), governor of Häme (1930-59). He was also Finnish minister of agriculture (1927-28, 1931-32).

Matturi, Sahr (Thomas) (b. Oct. 22, 1925, Jaiama, Sierra Leone), Sierra Leonean diplomat. He was ambassador to Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia (1977-78), Belgium (1982-85), and the United States (1987-88), high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1978-80), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-87).

Matubuana Nkuluki, Atou (b. Jan. 4, 1966, Thysville [now Mbanza-Ngungu], Congo [Léopoldville (now Kinshasa)]), governor of Kongo Central (2018-21).

Maturana (del Campo), Marcos (b. July 12, 1802, San Fernando, Chile - d. Aug. 29, 1871, Santiago, Chile), war and marine minister of Chile (1862-65). He was also senior general of the army (1866-70).

Matussek, Thomas (b. Sept. 18, 1947, Lauda, Germany), German diplomat. He was ambassador to the United Kingdom (2002-06) and India (2009-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-09).

Matuszewski, Ignacy (Hugo Stanislaw) (b. Sept. 10, 1891, Warsaw, Poland - d. Aug. 3, 1946, New York City), finance minister of Poland (1929-31). He was also minister to Hungary (1928-29).

Matutes (Juan), Abel (b. Oct. 31, 1941, Ibiza, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1996-2000). He was also European commissioner for credit, investment, financial instruments, and small and medium-sized enterprises (1986-89), Mediterranean policy, relations with Latin America and Asia, and North-South relations (1989-93), and transport and energy (1993-94).

Matveyev, Anton (Matveyevich) (b. Dec. 4, 1903, Osinkino, Kazan province, Russia - d. Oct. 19, 1971, Bryansk, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of People's Commissars/Council of Ministers of the Chuvash A.S.S.R. (1942-47).

Matveyev, Nikolay (Mikhailovich) (b. May 22, 1876, Bogdat, Zabaikalsky oblast, Russia - d. April 20, 1951, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Government and of the Council of Ministers of the Far-Eastern Republic (1921-22).

Matveyev, Vasily (Vasilyevich) (b. Dec. 22, 1911, Bolshoye Pyzakovo [now in Mari El republic], Russia - d. April 1, 1997, Moscow, Russia), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Mari A.S.S.R. (1948-51).

A.S. Matvienko

V. Matvienko
Matvienko, Anatoliy (Serhiyovych) (b. March 22, 1953, Bershad, Vinnitsa oblast, Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Vinnytsya oblast, Ukraine] - d. May 22, 2020), prime minister of Crimea (2005). He was also governor of Vinnytsya oblast (1996-98).

Matvienko, Valentina (Ivanovna) (b. April 7, 1949, Shepetovka, western Ukrainian S.S.R. [now Shepetivka, Ukraine]), plenipotentiary of the president in Severo-Zapadny federal district (2003) and governor of Saint Petersburg (2003-11). She was Russian (originally Soviet) ambassador to Malta (1991-94) and Greece (1997-98) and a deputy prime minister of Russia (1998-2003). In 2011 she became chairwoman of the Federation Council.

Matyukhin, Georgy (Gavrilovich) (b. 1934, Barnaul, Russian S.F.S.R. [now in Altay kray, Russia]), chairman of the Central Bank of Russia (1990-92).

Matzkin, Jorge (Rubén) (b. Jan. 25, 1943, La Pampa, Argentina), interior minister of Argentina (2002-03).

Mau Say (b. June 1, 1926, Kbal Romeas, Kampot province, Cambodia), Cambodian politician. He was minister of budget (1955-56), finance and political and economic affairs (1956), national education, sports, and youth (1957-58), information and planning (1958-59), and planning (1962-65, 1966-67) and a deputy prime minister (1966-67).

Mauberna, Jean (b. Nov. 6, 1904, Arles, France - d. April 18, 1983, Paris, France), acting governor of Oubangui-Chari (1948) and French Guinea (1958).

Maud, Sir Humphrey (John Hamilton) (b. April 17, 1934, Oxford, England - d. Nov. 10, 2013, London, England), British diplomat; knighted 1993; son of John Maud, Baron Redcliffe-Maud. He was ambassador to Luxembourg (1982-85) and Argentina (1990-93) and high commissioner to Cyprus (1988-90).

Maudave, Armand (b. 1930 - d. March 24, 2021, Souillac, Mauritius), Mauritian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-83).

Maude, Henry Evans, byname Harry Maude (b. Oct. 1, 1906, Bankipore, Patna, India - d. Nov. 4, 2006, Canberra, Australia), resident commissioner of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1946-49).

Maudet, Pierre (b. March 6, 1978, Geneva, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Genève (2018). He was also mayor of Geneva (2011-12).

Maudling, Reginald (b. March 7, 1917, London, England - d. Feb. 14, 1979, London), British politician. He became private secretary to Air Minister Sir Archibald Sinclair during World War II. He then made a name for himself in economics in the Conservative Party's research department and entered Parliament as member for Barnet in 1950. Maudling was parliamentary secretary to the Ministry of Civil Aviation in 1952, economic secretary to the Treasury from 1952, minister of supply in 1955, and paymaster general in 1957-59. When he could not negotiate Great Britain's entry into the European Common Market because of French intransigence, he helped create the European Free Trade Association. After the 1959 general election he became president of the Board of Trade and in 1961 colonial secretary. After Prime Minister Harold Macmillan made him chancellor of the exchequer in 1962, he worked to create an expansionist boom, but the largely mythical £800 million balance of trade deficit helped to defeat his party in the 1964 general election. He narrowly missed being elected to the leadership of his party in 1964. During 1970-72 he served Edward Heath's government as home secretary. Maudling's career declined after his involvement in three financial scandals: he was chairman (1969) of swindler Jerome Hoffman's investment company but resigned some 17 months before its collapse; he was associated with architect John Poulson, who was tried in 1973 and convicted of bribery; and in 1965-70 he was adviser to corporation head Sir Eric Miller, who committed suicide in 1977. Maudling later served as shadow foreign secretary (1974-76) before slipping to the back benches.

Mauduit, Henry (Jean Marie) de (b. Dec. 13, 1897, Provins, Seine-et-Marne, France - d. Dec. 13, 1975, Paris, France), governor of Ivory Coast (1945-46), Mauritania (1947-49), and Chad (1949-51).


Mauga, Lemanu Peleti (Palepoi Sialega) (b. Jan. 3, 1960, Nu'uuli, American Samoa), governor of American Samoa (2021- ).

Maugé Mosquera, René (Jean) (b. Jan. 16, 1938, Quito, Ecuador), Ecuadorian presidential candidate (1978, 1984).

Maugham, Frederic (Herbert) Maugham, (1st) Viscount (b. Oct. 20, 1866, Paris, France - d. March 23, 1958, London, England), British lord chancellor (1938-39). He was knighted in 1928, made a life peer as Baron Maugham in 1935, and created viscount in 1939. He was a brother of the writer Somerset Maugham.

Maull, Joseph (b. Sept. 6, 1781, Pilot Town [now part of Lewes], Del. - d. May 3, 1846, near Lewes), acting governor of Delaware (1846).

Maumoon, Dunya (b. March 20, 1970), foreign minister of Maldives (2013-16); daughter of Maumoon Abdul Gayoom; niece of Abdulla Yameen.

Maumoon, Ghassan (b. June 12, 1980), defense minister of Maldives (2023- ); son of Maumoon Abdul Gayoom; brother of Dunya Maumoon; nephew of Abdulla Yameen.

Maundrell, Ernest Barton (b. Nov. 9, 1880, Nagasaki, Japan - d. May 18, 1916, Brunei), acting British resident in Brunei (1915-16). He was shot and killed while trying to arrest a native.

Maung Lwin (b. 1918 - d. June 23, 1998), foreign minister of Burma (1969-70). He was also minister of social welfare, relief, resettlement, and national solidarity (1963-70), trade (1970-74), and cooperatives (1970-72).

Maung Maung (b. Jan. 11, 1925, Mandalay, Burma [now Myanmar] - d. July 2, 1994, Yangon, Myanmar), president of Burma (1988). He fought with the Burmese nationalists during and after World War II. After Burma gained its independence in 1948, he served in Prime Minister Nu's civilian administration. After a 1962 coup brought Gen. Ne Win to power, he was named supreme court chief justice and appointed to the central committee of the Burma Socialist Program Party. After Pres. Sein Lwin was forced out by anti-government riots about 2½ weeks after taking office in 1988, Maung Maung became president. He lifted martial law, released political prisoners, and declared a free press, but his attempts at reform were undermined by his longtime association with the dictatorial rule of Ne Win. The riots continued until the military stepped in after only one month.

Maung Maung Gyee (b. Feb. 15, 1921), Burmese diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-81).

Maung Maung Gyi (b. May 25, 1925, Mandalay, Burma [now Myanmar]), Burmese diplomat. He was ambassador to Japan and South Korea (1978-80), Sri Lanka (1980-84), and the United States (1984-86) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-89).

Maung Maung Kha (b. 1920 - d. April 30, 1995, Yangon, Myanmar), prime minister of Burma (1977-88). He was also minister of industry (1972-75), labour (1972-74), and mines (1975-77).

Maunoury, Maurice (b. Oct. 16, 1863, Alexandria, Egypt - d. May 16, 1925, Paris, France), interior minister of France (1922-24). He was also minister of colonies (1914).

Maupas, Charlemagne (Émile) de (b. Dec. 8, 1818, Bar-sur-Aube, Aube, France - d. June 19, 1888, Paris, France), prefect of police of Paris (1851-52). He was also prefect of the départements of Allier (1849-51), Haute-Garonne (1851), and Bouches-du-Rhône (1860-66) and French minister of police (1852-53) and minister to the Two Sicilies (1853-54).


A. Maurer
Maupertuis, Marie-Antoinette (b. April 10, 1967), president of the Corsican Assembly (2021- ).

Maura y Montaner, Antonio (b. May 2, 1853, Palma de Mallorca, Spain - d. Dec. 13, 1925, Torrelodones, Madrid province [now autonomous community], Spain), prime minister of Spain (1903-04, 1907-09, 1918, 1919, 1921-22). He was also minister of overseas (1892-94), justice (1894-95, 1918), and interior (1902-03).

Mauran, Henry (b. Jan. 24, 1876, Toulon, France - d. April 10, 1946, Monaco), acting minister of state of Monaco (1932, 1937).

Maurate Romero, Daniel (Ysaú) (b. March 26, 1965, Acolla, Junín, Peru), justice minister of Peru (2023). He has also been minister of labour and promotion of employment (2015-16, 2023- ).

Maurer, Andreas (b. Sept. 7, 1919, Trautmannsdorf, Niederösterreich, Austria - d. Oct. 25, 2010, Trautmannsdorf), premier of Niederösterreich (1966-81).

Maurer, Genrikh (Vladislavovich) (b. 1893, Buczacz, Galicia, Austria [now Buchach, Ternopil oblast, Ukraine] - d. [in prison] 1938, Ordzhonikidze, Russian S.F.S.R. [now Vladikavkaz, Russia]), first secretary of the Communist Party committee of North Ossetian autonomous oblast/A.S.S.R. (1936-37). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Ingush (1931-34) and Karachay (1934-36) autonomous oblasti.

Maurer, Ion Gheorghe (Iosif) (b. Sept. 23, 1902, Bucharest, Romania - d. Feb. 8, 2000, Bucharest), Romanian politician. He joined the Communist Party in 1936 when it was illegal. He acted as an attorney for dozens of Communist fighters, including later dictator Nicolae Ceausescu, during World War II. He was arrested for his Communist views in 1941, when Romania was allied with Nazi Germany, and kept along with Ceausescu in jail until 1944. After Romania gave up its monarchy and turned to Communism in 1947, Maurer began a political accession inside the party that led him to top posts. He served as foreign minister between 1957 and 1958 and chairman of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly from 1958 to 1961. In 1961, he became prime minister and held that post until 1974. In the years that followed the demise of Communism, analysts considered him a moderate. Apparently disappointed by the policies of Ceausescu, Maurer gave up political life at the age of 75. He never explained his withdrawal from public life.

Maurer, Peter (b. Nov. 20, 1956, Thun, Switzerland), president of the International Committee of the Red Cross (2012-22). He was also Swiss permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-10).

U. Maurer
Maurer, Ueli, byname of Ulrich Maurer (b. Dec. 1, 1950, Wetzikon, Zürich, Switzerland), defense minister (2009-15), president (2013, 2019), and finance minister (2016-22) of Switzerland.

Maurice-Bokanowski, Michel (b. Nov. 6, 1912, Paris, France - d. May 3, 2005, Paris), French minister of posts and telecommunications (1960-62) and industry (1962-66); son of Maurice Bokanowski.

Mauricius, Johan Jacob (b. May 3, 1692, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. March 15, 1768, Hamburg [now in Germany]), governor-general of Dutch Guiana (1742-51).

Maurin, Louis (Félix Thomas) (b. Jan. 5, 1869, Cherbourg, France - d. June 6, 1956, Paris, France), war minister of France (1934-35, 1936).

Mauro, Mario (Walter) (b. July 24, 1961, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia province, Italy), defense minister of Italy (2013-14).

Mauro, Max Freitas (b. March 11, 1937, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, Brazil), governor of Espírito Santo (1987-91). He was also mayor of Vila Velha (1971-73).

Mauroy, Pierre (b. July 5, 1928, Cartignies, Nord, France - d. June 7, 2013, Clamart, Hauts-de-Seine, France), prime minister of France (1981-84). At 16 he joined the youth wing of the Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière (SFIO), became its national secretary in 1950, and remained in that post until 1958. In 1963 he became a member of the national executive bureau of the SFIO, where he was an active supporter of Socialist unity. At the congress of Épinay-sur-Seine in 1971 he was one of those who helped François Mitterrand to gain control of the Socialist Party. With Mitterrand as first secretary, Mauroy joined the national secretariat and became a faithful ally of Mitterrand and his official deputy in the party. Although at the 1979 party congress Mauroy sided with Michel Rocard in the moderate minority faction within the party, he rallied again to Mitterrand when in November 1980 the latter decided to be a presidential candidate; during the campaign he was Mitterrand's spokesman. Mauroy owed his strength in the Socialist Party to his regionally based support. He gained his parliamentary seat as deputy for the Nord département in 1973 and in the same year was elected mayor of Lille (a post he held until 2001). In 1974 he was elected to the Regional Council for Nord-Pas-de-Calais and became its chairman until 1981. When Mitterrand was elected president in May 1981, he appointed Mauroy premier. He had the calm, the refusal to be swayed by haste or fashion, and the timeless style of la France profonde. He spoke in an old-fashioned way, with simple words straight from the heart. A born conciliator and a prudent man, the new premier was a reassuring presence. He was the apostle of "everyday Socialism" and the decentralization of power. In 1988-92 he was first secretary of the Socialist Party and in 1992-99 president of the Socialist International.

Maúrtua (Lara), Manuel (Félix) (b. Feb. 20, 1910, Lima, Peru - d. June 16, 1970), Peruvian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-70).

Maúrtua (Uribe), Víctor M(anuel) (b. March 28, 1865, Ica, Peru - d. May 27, 1937, aboard the Northern Prince, Atlantic Ocean), finance minister of Peru (1918). He was also minister to Bolivia (1904-06), Argentina (1906-10), Venezuela (1910-11), Cuba (1911-13), the Netherlands (1919-22), Ecuador (1922-24), and Brazil (1924-31).

Maúrtua de R.
Maúrtua de Romaña, Óscar (José Ricardo) (b. Feb. 7, 1947, Lima, Peru), foreign minister of Peru (2005-06, 2021-22). He was also ambassador to Canada (1985-88), Bolivia (1988-93), Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos (1995-99), Ecuador (1999-2002), and Spain (2022-23).

Maurya, Baby Rani (b. Aug. 15, 1956), governor of Uttarakhand (2018-21).

Maussion de Candé, Antoine Marie Ferdinand de (b. March 12, 1801, Beynac, Dordogne, France - d. Jan. 21, 1867, Vals-les-Bains, Ardèche, France), governor of Martinique (1859-64).

Mavila Ruiz, Óscar (b. June 29, 1876, Ayacucho, Peru - d. June 30, 1950, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1919). He was also prefect of Loreto (1933-36).

Mavlyanov, Abdurazak (b. 1908 - d. March 1975), chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek S.S.R. (1950-51). He was also first secretary of the party committees of Bukhara (1939-41), Tashkent (1942-46), and Andizhan (1946-49) oblasti.

Mavoa, Jonati (Malamala) (b. April 12, 1920, Kabara, Lau, Fiji - d. June 16, 1985, New Zealand), foreign minister of Fiji (1983-85). He was also minister of labour (1972-77), communications, works, and tourism (1977), urban development and housing (1977-81), and agriculture and fisheries (1981-83).

Mavrellis, Christos (Dimosthenou) (b. July 19, 1946, Arsos, Cyprus), finance minister of Cyprus (1985-88). He was also minister of communications and public works (1982-85).

Mavrocordat, Alexandru Constantin, byname Deli-bei (b. 1742 - d. April 9 [March 28, O.S.], 1812, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]), prince of Moldavia (1782-85); son of Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-Scarlati.

Mavrocordat, Alexandru Ioan, bynames Firaris, Fugarul (b. 1754, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. 1819, Moscow, Russia), prince of Moldavia (1785-86); cousin of Alexandru Constantin Mavrocordat.

Mavrocordat-Scarlati, Constantin Nicolae (b. 1711 - d. 1769), prince of Walachia (1730, 1731-33, 1735-41, 1744-48, 1756-58, 1761-63) and Moldavia (1733-35, 1741-43, 1748-49, 1769); son of Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-Scarlati.

Mavrocordat-Scarlati, Ioan Alexandru (b. 1684 - d. 1719), princely lieutenant of Moldavia (1711) and prince of Walachia (1716-19); brother of Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-Scarlati. He was also grand dragoman of the Porte (1709-16).

Mavrocordat-Scarlati, Ioan Nicolae (b. 1712 - d. ...), prince of Moldavia (1743-47); son of Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-Scarlati; brother of Constantin Nicolae Mavrocordat-Scarlati.

Mavrocordat-Scarlati, Nicolae Alexandru (b. 1680 - d. Sept. 14 [Sept. 3, O.S.], 1730), prince of Moldavia (1709-10, 1711-16) and Walachia (1716, 1719-30). He was also grand dragoman of the Porte (1699-1709).

Mavrogenis, Alexandros (Spiridonou), Turkish Alexandre Mavroyeni Bey (b. 1845 - d. 1929), governor of Samos (1902-04). He was also Ottoman minister to the United States (1887-96) and ambassador to Austria-Hungary (1911-12).

Mavrogheni, Nicolae Petru (b. 1735, Paros island, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. [killed] September 1790), prince of Walachia (1786-90).

Mavrogheni, Petre (b. Nov. 16, 1818, Iasi, Moldavia [now in Romania] - d. April 20, 1887, Vienna, Austria), finance minister (1866, 1866-67, 1871-75) and foreign minister (1866) of Romania. He was also minister to Italy (1881-82), the Ottoman Empire (1882-85), and Austria-Hungary (1885-87).

Mavrokordatos, Alexandros (Nikolaou) (b. Feb. 11, 1791, Constantinople, Ottoman Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey] - d. Aug. 18, 1865, Aegina, Greece), Greek statesman; grandson of Nicolae Constantin Caragea; great-grandson of Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat-Scarlati; nephew of Ioan Gheorghe Caragea. In 1812 he became secretary at the court of his uncle, prince of Walachia (now in Romania), and in 1817 went with his master into exile in Russia and Italy. In 1821, however, on the outbreak of the Greek war of independence, he joined the revolutionaries and soon established himself as head of a regional government at Missolonghi, in western Greece. During December 1821-January 1822 he presided over the first National Assembly, at Epidaurus, and led in the drafting of a constitution. He was elected first president of the Hellenic republic, but the new government exercised little actual power, and he soon returned to Missolonghi, where he conducted a successful defense against the Turks (November 1822-January 1823). He represented the national government as governor-general (1823-25) at Missolonghi, receiving there Lord Byron, the famous English poet-partisan of the Greek cause. He became the principal leader of the pro-English party, bringing him into opposition to the "Russian" party headed by Dimitrios Ypsilantis and Theodoros Kolokotronis, though he did not approve of the Greek demand for British protection (June-July 1825). Ignored during the presidency of the Russophile Ioannis Kapodistrias (1828-31), he became finance minister in 1832 and was made the principal minister in 1833 by Greece's first king, Othon. From 1834 he served as Greek envoy in Munich, Berlin, London, and Constantinople. Between his terms in London and Constantinople he was in Athens first to become foreign minister (February 1841) and then to head a short-lived government (July-August 1841). After the revolution of September 1843 he became minister without portfolio and in 1844 again prime minister. After a period in opposition, where he distinguished himself by his violent attacks on Ioannis Kolettis' government, he was prime minister once more in 1854-55.

Mavrokordatos, Nikolaos (Alexandrou) (b. 1837 - d. Jan. 31, 1903, Athens, Greece), Greek diplomat; son of Alexandros Mavrokordatos. He was minister to France (1882-85), Russia (1886-89), the Ottoman Empire (1889-95), and the United Kingdom (1895-1902).

Mavromichalis, Kyriakoulis (Petrou) (b. Nov. 12, 1850, Athens, Greece - d. Feb. 2 [Jan. 20, O.S.], 1916, Athens), prime minister and foreign minister of Greece (1909-10). He was also minister of interior (1895-97, 1902-03, 1903, 1905), marine (1904-05), military (1904-05, 1909 [provisional], 1909 [provisional]), and justice (provisional, 1909).

Mavromichalis, Stylianos (b. 1902, Tsimova [now Areopoli], Greece - d. Oct. 30, 1981, Athens, Greece), prime minister and interior minister of Greece (1963). He was also president of the Supreme Court (1963-68).

Mavrommatis, Andreas (Vladimirou) (b. June 9, 1932, Larnaca, Cyprus - d. April 20, 2019), Cypriot politician. He was minister of labour and social insurance (1970-72) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1979-82, 1989-92).

Mavronikolas, Kyriakos (b. Jan. 25, 1955, Paphos, Cyprus), defense minister of Cyprus (2003-06).

Mavros, Georgios (b. March 15, 1909, Kastellorizo, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. June 6, 1995), foreign minister and deputy prime minister of Greece (1974). He was also minister of justice (1946 and [acting] 1951), national education (provisional, 1946), national economy (1949-50), finance (1951), coordination (1951 [provisional], 1963, 1964), and defense (1952) and governor of the National Bank (1964-66).

Mavrou, Eleni (b. Feb. 2, 1961, Kyrenia, Cyprus), interior minister of Cyprus (2012-13). She was also mayor of Nicosia (2007-11).

Mavroyiannis, Andreas (D.) (b. July 20, 1956, Agros, Cyprus), Cypriot diplomat. He was ambassador to Ireland (1997-99) and France, Andorra, Tunisia, and Morocco (1999-2002), permanent representative to the United Nations (2003-08, 2019-21), and a presidential candidate (2023).

Mavros, Georgios (I.) (b. March 15, 1909, Castellorizo island, Ottoman Empire [now in Greece] - d. May 6, 1995), foreign minister of Greece (1974). He was also minister of education (1946), justice (1946, 1951), economy (1949-50), coordination (1951, 1963, 1964), finance (1951), and defense (1952) and governor of the National Bank of Greece (1964-66).

Maw, Herbert B(rown) (b. March 11, 1893, Ogden, Utah - d. Nov. 17, 1990, Salt Lake City, Utah), governor of Utah (1941-49).

Mawampanga Mwana Nanga, (Ferdinand) (b. 1952), finance minister of Congo (Kinshasa) (1997-98, 1999-2000). He has also been minister of agriculture and livestock (1998-99) and fisheries and livestock (2000-01) and ambassador to Zimbabwe (2001- ).

Maweja Muteba, Jean (b. Nov. 20, 1958, Paris, France), governor of Kasaï Oriental (2019-21).

Mawlong, E(vansius) K(ek) (b. Feb. 1, 1946, Mawmih village, Assam [now in East Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya], India - d. Oct. 18, 2008, Shillong, Meghalaya), chief minister of Meghalaya (2000-01).

Maxamad Cabdille Xasan, Sayid (Somali), Arabic Sayyid Muhammad `Abd Allah al-Hasan, called "Mad Mullah" by the British (b. April 7, 1864, Dulbahante area [now Doli Bahanta, Somalia] - d. Dec. 21, 1920, Imi, Ethiopia), Somali leader. At a young age he showed great learning in the Qur´an, and, during a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1894, he joined the Salihiyah, a militant, reformist, and puritanical Sufi order. Soon after his return to Somaliland, he began urging the expulsion of the English "infidels" and their missionaries and a strict observance by all Somalis of the Islamic faith. Through his stirring oratory and didactic verse (some of his poems are considered classics in Somalia), he attracted a fanatical group of followers who became known as dervishes. In 1899 he declared a holy war (jihad) on the colonial powers and their Somali collaborators. In 1901-04, several major British, Ethiopian, and Italian expeditions were made against Maxamad. In March 1905 he concluded a truce, whereby he was assigned certain territories in the Italian protectorate. By 1908, however, he had begun his holy war again, and further operations against him were undertaken. In 1913 he won a major victory at Dulmadobe, near Burao, against the British-led Somali Camel Constabulary. But finally, in February 1920, the dervish stronghold at Taalex (Taleh) was bombed in an Anglo-Italian action, and Maxamad escaped to the Ogaden, where he died of influenza. With his death the dervish rebellion ceased, although in some Somali quarters he continued to be regarded as a national hero.

Maximilian I, in full Maximilian Maria Michael Johann Evangelist Franz von Paula Joseph Kaspar Ignatius Johann Nepomuk (b. May 27, 1756, Mannheim, Palatinate [Germany] - d. Oct. 13, 1825, Munich, Bavaria [Germany]), duke and elector (as Maximilian IV) (1799-1806) and king (1806-25) of Bavaria.

Maximilian II, in full Maximilian Maria Emanuel, French Maximilien (b. July 11, 1662, Munich, Bavaria [Germany] - d. Feb. 26, 1726, Munich), duke and elector of Bavaria (1679-1706, 1714-26), governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1692-1706), and duke of Luxembourg (1711-13); son-in-law of Leopold I (1640-1705).

Maximiliano I, German in full Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Maria (b. July 6, 1832, Vienna, Austria - d. June 19, 1867, near Querétaro, Mexico), emperor of Mexico (1864-67). The younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I, Archduke Maximilian became a rear admiral in the Austrian navy at age 22 and served as governor-general of the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom (1857-59). In 1863 he accepted the offer of the Mexican throne, the result of a scheme between conservative Mexicans, who wished to overturn the liberal government of Pres. Benito Juárez, and the French emperor Napoléon III, whose troops were occupying much of Mexico at the time on the pretext of collecting debts arising from the Mexican civil war of 1858-61. The archduke made the condition that the Mexican people approve of him in a plebiscite; this was arranged by the French commander and went overwhelmingly in his favour. Maximilian accepted the results, although Juárez continued to consider himself the constitutional president. Maximilian sailed for Mexico with his wife Carlota (daughter of Léopold I, king of the Belgians) and was crowned emperor on June 10, 1864. He intended to rule with paternal benevolence, upholding Juárez' sweeping reforms (to the indignation of the landed proprietors) and antagonizing the Roman Catholic hierarchy by refusing to restore vast church holdings confiscated by Juárez. By April 1865 the French army had driven Juárez northward almost into Texas. But later the French forces withdrew, and Juárez and his army moved back toward Mexico City. Refusing to abdicate, feeling that he could not honorably desert "his people," Maximiliano was made supreme commander of the imperial army by his conservative Mexican backers. At Querétaro, his small force was surrounded, starved, and finally betrayed into capitulation (May 15, 1867). The following month he was executed by firing squad.

Maximos, Dimitrios (Epaminondou) (b. July 6, 1873, Patras, Greece - d. Oct. 16, 1955, Athens, Greece), foreign minister (1933-35, 1935) and prime minister (1947) of Greece. He was also governor of the National Bank of Greece (1920-22).

Maximos V Hakim, secular name Georges Hakim (b. May 18, 1908, Tanta, northern Egypt - d. June 29, 2001, near Beirut, Lebanon), patriarch of the Melkite Catholic Church (1967-2000).

Maxon, Miroslav (b. May 16, 1951, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia [now in Slovakia]), finance minister of Slovakia (1998).

Maxse, Ernest George Berkeley (b. Nov. 18, 1863 - d. March 13, 1943), member of the Provisional Government of Samoa (1899); son of Sir Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse.

Maxse, Sir Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley (b. April 4, 1832, London, England - d. Sept. 8, 1883, St. John's, Newfoundland), lieutenant governor (1863-68) and governor (1868-81) of Heligoland and governor of Newfoundland (1881-83); knighted 1877.

Maxwell, Sir Charles William (d. Sept. 23, 1848), governor of Senegal (1809-11), Sierra Leone (1811-15), and Dominica (1816-19); knighted 1836.

Maxwell, Christopher Freke (b. 1857? - d. Oct. 25, 1923, Honolulu, Hawaii), resident agent (1902-04) and resident commissioner (1904-07) of Niue.

Maxwell, Sir (William) George (b. June 9, 1871, Malacca? - d. Aug. 22, 1959, Shoreham, Sussex, England), chief secretary of the Federated Malay States (1920-26); knighted 1924; son of Sir William Edward Maxwell.

Maxwell, Sir James Crawford (b. Aug. 8, 1869, Dundee, Scotland - d. Nov. 16, 1932), governor of Gold Coast (acting, 1927) and Northern Rhodesia (1927-32); knighted 1925.

Maxwell, James L(ivingston) (b. May 12, 1926, Tulsa, Okla. - d. Oct. 18, 1984, Oklahoma City, Okla.), mayor of Tulsa (1958-66).

Maxwell, Sir John (b. Sept. 6, 1875 - d. March 31, 1946), acting governor of Gold Coast (1927); knighted 1930.

Maxwell, Sir William Edward (b. Aug. 5, 1846 - d. Dec. 14, 1897, at sea off Gran Canaria), resident of Selangor (1889-92) and governor of Straits Settlements (acting, 1893-94) and Gold Coast (1895-97); knighted 1896.

May, Arthur J(ohan) (b. July 2, 1903, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname] - d. Feb. 8, 1979, Leidschendam, Netherlands), prime minister of Suriname (1969).

May, Elizabeth (Evans) (b. June 9, 1954, Hartford, Conn.), Canadian politician. She has been leader of the Green Party (2006-19, 2022- ).

May, Sir Francis Henry (b. March 14, 1860, Dublin, Ireland - d. Feb. 6, 1922, Clare Priory, Suffolk, England), governor of Hong Kong (1903-04 [acting], 1907 [acting], 1912-19) and Fiji (1911-12); knighted 1909.

T. May
May, Theresa (Mary), née Brasier (b. Oct. 1, 1956, Eastbourne, Sussex, England), British home secretary (2010-16) and prime minister (2016-19). A Conservative since her school days, she was elected as a councillor in Merton by the time she was 30. She first stood as a parliamentary candidate in 1992, for North West Durham, a safe Labour seat, where she came second to Labour incumbent Hilary Armstrong but ahead of future Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron, who was in third place. She tried again two years later in a by-election in Barking, East London, where she was roundly defeated. Finally, she won Maidenhead, in Berkshire, in 1997, despite Labour's landslide victory nationally. May was the first female chairman of the Conservative Party (2002-03) and held a number of shadow cabinet positions under the leadership of Michael Howard and Iain Duncan Smith. As chairman, she made an infamous speech at the party conference in 2002, where she told delegates that the Conservatives needed to shed their image as "the nasty party" by becoming more inclusive. Named home secretary by Prime Minister David Cameron, she became only the fourth woman ever to hold one of the four great offices of state (prime minister, foreign secretary, home secretary, chancellor of the exchequer). She took a hardline stance on immigration and famously took on the Police Federation over perceived vested interests within the force. Following the "Brexit" referendum on European Union membership in 2016, Cameron resigned and May won the first round of voting for a new Conservative leader against Andrea Leadsom and Michael Gove. Liam Fox and Stephen Crabb won the least votes and both threw their weight behind May. Gove was next eliminated and Leadsom withdrew, making May party leader and prime minister. Although, like Cameron, she had supported the "Remain" side in the referendum, she took a firm position in favour of implementing the "Leave" result ("Brexit means Brexit"), opposing any new referendum even among indications of a shifted public opinion. In 2017 she called early elections, hoping to profit from disarray in the Labour Party, but she lost the Conservative majority and had to enter an agreement with the Democratic Unionist Party. In 2018 she survived a Conservative leadership challenge. In 2019, however, her Brexit deal was defeated in Parliament in the largest defeat for a sitting government in British history, and then two further times. After feebly proposing essentially the same deal a fourth time, and faced with a mass exodus of pro-Brexit voters away from her party, she resigned.

Maya, Constâncio Ribeiro da (b. Nov. 30, 1831, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. Sept. 4, 1898, Goiás, Goiás), acting president of Goiás (1891, 1891-92).

Maya, José da Silva (b. Feb. 26, 1811, Alcântara, Maranhão, Brazil - d. April 24, 1893, São Luís, Maranhão), acting president of Maranhão (1869, 1870, 1871).

Mayagoitia Domínguez, Héctor (b. Jan. 7, 1923, Gómez Palacio, Durango, Mexico - d. Oct. 4, 2023), governor of Durango (1974-79). He was also director of the National Polytechnic Institute (1979-82) and the National Council of Science and Technology (1983-88).

Mayaki, Adamou (Assane), dit Kassari (b. June 1919, Filingué, Niger - d. summer 2003), foreign minister of Niger (1963-65). He was also minister of agriculture (1957-58), interior (1958), economy and planning (1958-60), and industry and commerce (1960-63), permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1966-70), and prefect of Dosso département (1970-71).

Mayaki, Ibrahim Assane (b. Sept. 24, 1951, Niamey, Niger), foreign minister (1996-97) and prime minister (1997-2000) of Niger; son of Adamou Mayaki.

Mayalde y Villaroya, Rafael (b. Oct. 24, 1805, Valencia, Spain - d. April 23, 1870), war minister of Spain (1868). He was also captain-general of Catalonia (1864-65).

Mayanja Nkangi, Jehoash (Sibakyalwayo) (b. Aug. 22, 1931, Budu county, Buganda, Uganda - d. March 6, 2017, Kampala, Uganda), prime minister of Buganda (1964-66, 1993-94) and finance minister of Uganda (1992-98). He was also Ugandan minister of commerce and industry (1964), labour (1985-86), education (1986-89), planning and economic development (1989-92), and justice and constitutional affairs (1998-2002).

Mayans (y Enríquez de Navarra), Luis (b. July 24, 1805, Requena, Valencia, Spain - d. Sept. 14, 1880, Madrid, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (1854). He was also justice minister (1843-46, 1864) and president of the Congress of Deputies (1848-52).

Mayawati, byname of Mayawati Das (b. Jan. 15, 1956, Badalpur village, Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India), chief minister of Uttar Pradesh (1995, 1997, 2002-03, 2007-12). Kanshi Ram, champion of India's Dalits (formerly "untouchables"), recognized her talent for public speaking and persuaded her to enter politics. In 1984, she took her first official step by joining his Bahujan Samaj Party. After unsuccessful attempts in 1985 and 1987, she won a seat in the Lok Sabha (lower house of parliament) from Bijnor in 1989. In 1994, she became a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house). She created history by becoming Uttar Pradesh's first Dalit chief minister in 1995. Her tenures in office were marred by allegations of corruption and poor governance. During her fourth term, the only one to last the full five years, she started a project to build memorials of many Dalit icons. While her supporters were proud of this initiative, the opposition criticized the humongous expenditure. Meanwhile, in 2001, Kanshi Ram made Mayawati his heir to the Bahujan movement. In 2003, she became the national president of the BSP due to his ill health. After his death in 2006, Mayawati supervised his last rites, which could be perceived as a stand against gender bias, as only male relatives are traditionally allowed to perform last rites. She was also reelected as the BSP president shortly thereafter. In 2012 she was again elected to the Rajya Sabha. She resigned in 2017 after being told to end a speech as she had exceeded her allotted time.

Maybank, Burnet R(hett) (b. March 7, 1899, Charleston, S.C. - d. Sept. 1, 1954, Flat Rock, N.C.), mayor of Charleston (1931-38) and governor of South Carolina (1939-41).

Maybin, Sir John Alexander (b. Aug. 5, 1889 - d. April 9, 1941), governor of Northern Rhodesia (1938-41); knighted 1939.

Maycock, Ernest Besley (b. Jan. 5, 1935, Barbados - d. Aug. 30, 2020, Cave Hill, St. Michael, Barbados), Barbadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-95).

Maycotte (Martínez), Fortunato (b. 1891, Múzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico - d. [executed] May 12, 1924, Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico), governor of Hidalgo (1915) and Durango (1916).

Maydar, Damdinjavyn (b. Aug. 15, 1916 - d. 1991), a deputy premier (1953-72) and a first deputy premier (1972-84) of Mongolia. He was also chairman of the State Planning Committee (1947-53), the State Committee for Construction (1959-63, 1967-68), and the State Committee for Science and Technology (1971-84).

Maye Ela (Mangue), Florencio (b. 1944), foreign minister of Equatorial Guinea (1979-81). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1982-87) and ambassador to Cameroon (2006-09).

Mayer, René (b. May 4, 1895, Paris, France - d. Dec. 13, 1972, Paris), prime minister of France (1953) and president of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community (1955-58). He was also Free French commissioner of merchant marine (1943) and transport (1943-44) and French minister of public works and transport (1944-45), finance and economic affairs (1947-48, 1951-52), defense (1948), and justice (1949-51) and deputy prime minister (1951-52).

Mayer-Rossignol, Nicolas (b. April 8, 1977, Bamako, Mali), president of the Regional Council of Haute-Normandie (2013-15) and Normandie (acting, 2016) and mayor of Rouen (2020- ) and Métropole Rouen Normandie (2020- ).

Mayhew of Twysden (of Kilndown in the County of Kent), Patrick (Barnabas Burke) Mayhew, Baron (b. Sept. 11, 1929, Cookham, Berkshire, England - d. June 25, 2016, Kent, England), British Northern Ireland secretary (1992-97). Earlier he was solicitor general (1983-87) and attorney general (1987-92). He was knighted in 1983 and made a life peer in 1997.

Mayilyan, Masis (Samvelovich) (b. 1967, Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous oblast, Azerbaijan S.S.R.), foreign minister of Artsakh (2017-21). He was a presidential candidate in 2007.

Maynard, Sir Clement T(ravelyan) (b. Sept. 11, 1928, Nassau, Bahamas - d. Oct. 2, 2009, Adelaide, The Bahamas), foreign minister of The Bahamas (1984-89, 1990-92); knighted 1989. He was also minister without portfolio (1967-68), minister of state (1968), minister of works (1968-69), tourism and telecommunications (1969-71), health (1970-71), tourism (1971-79), labour and home affairs (1979-84), and tourism and public personnel (1987-90), and deputy prime minister (1985-92).

Maynard, Horace (b. Aug. 30, 1814, Westboro, Mass. - d. May 3, 1882, Knoxville, Tenn.), U.S. postmaster general (1880-81). He was also minister to the Ottoman Empire (1875-80).

Mayo, Richard Southwell Bourke, (6th) Earl of, Viscount Mayo of Monycrower, Baron Naas of Naas, courtesy title (1849-67) Lord Naas (b. Feb. 21, 1822, Dublin, Ireland - d. [assassinated] Feb. 8, 1872, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India), viceroy of India (1869-72). He was also chief secretary for Ireland (1852-53, 1858-59, 1866-68). He succeeded as earl in 1867.

Mayobre (Cova), José Antonio (b. Aug. 21, 1913, Cumaná, Venezuela - d. Aug. 15, 1980, Washington, D.C.), finance minister of Venezuela (1958-60). He was also ambassador to the United States (1961-62), executive secretary of the Economic Commission for Latin America (1963-66), and minister of mines and hydrocarbons (1967-69).

Mayor (Zaragoza), Federico (b. Jan. 27, 1934, Barcelona, Spain), director-general of UNESCO (1987-99). He was also Spanish minister of education and science (1981-82).

Mayor Oreja, Jaime (b. July 12, 1951, San Sebastián, Spain), interior minister of Spain (1996-2001); nephew of Marcelino Oreja Aguirre.

Mayoral, César (Fernando) (b. Dec. 21, 1947), Argentine diplomat. He was ambassador to Canada (2000-03) and China (2008-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-07).

Mayorga (y Ferrer), Martín (Díaz) de (b. early 18th century - d. April 28, 1783, at sea near Cádiz, Spain), viceroy of New Spain (1779-83).

Mayorga, Mateo (b. 1826 - d. [assassinated] Oct. 22, 1855, Granada, Nicaragua), foreign minister of Nicaragua (1854-55).

Mayorga Cortés, Roberto (Genaro) (b. Jan. 2, 1937, Managua, Nicaragua - d. June 14, 2009, El Salvador), Nicaraguan diplomat. He was minister of economic planning (1979), permanent representative to the United Nations (1990-93), and ambassador to the United States (1993-97).

Mayr, Michael (b. April 10, 1864, Adlwang, Oberösterreich, Austria - d. May 21, 1922, Waldneukirchen, Oberösterreich), chancellor and foreign minister of Austria (1920-21). He was also secretary of state for constitutional and administrative reform (1919-20).

Mayr-Harting, Robert, originally Robert Mayr, 1907-20 Robert Ritter (knight) von Mayr-Harting (b. Sept. 13, 1874, Aspern [now part of Vienna], Austria - d. March 12, 1948, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), justice minister of Czechoslovakia (1926-29).

Mayr-Harting, Thomas (Ritter von) (b. May 22, 1954, Epsom, Surrey, England), Austrian diplomat; grandson of Robert Mayr-Harting. He was ambassador to Belgium (1999-2003), permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-11), and head of the European Union delegation to the United Nations (2011-15).


Maystadt, Philippe (M.P.J.) (b. March 14, 1948, Petit-Rechain, Belgium - d. Dec. 7, 2017), finance minister of Belgium (1988-98) and president of the European Investment Bank (2000-11). He was also minister of civil service (1980-81), scientific policy (1980-85), budget (1981-85), economic affairs (1985-88), and foreign trade (1995-98), a deputy prime minister (1986-88, 1995-98), and leader of the Social Christian Party (1998-99).

Mayta (Mayta), Rogelio (b. Sept. 16, 1971), foreign minister of Bolivia (2020-23).

Á. Maza
Maza, Ángel (Eduardo) (b. Dec. 18, 1954, La Rioja city, Argentina), governor of La Rioja (1995-2007).

Maza (Fernández), José (b. Oct. 13, 1889, Los Ángeles, Chile - d. May 6, 1964, Santiago, Chile), president of the UN General Assembly (1955-56). He was also Chilean minister of interior (1924) and justice and education (1925), president of the Senate (1936-37), and ambassador to Argentina (1957-58).

Maza Martelli, Joaquín Alexander (b. April 25, 1949, Sonsonate, El Salvador), Salvadoran diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Mexico (1980) and Nicaragua (1981-83), ambassador to Panama (1984), Colombia (2005-09), and Switzerland (2014-23), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-13). In 2023 he was appointed ambassador to Spain.

Mazankowski, Donald (Frank) (b. July 27, 1935, Viking, Alta. - d. Oct. 27, 2020), finance minister of Canada (1991-93). He was also minister of transport (1979-80, 1984-86) and agriculture (1988-91) and deputy prime minister (1986-93).

Mazari, Balakh Sher (b. July 8, 1928, Rojhan, Punjab, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Nov. 4, 2022, Lahore, Pakistan), interim prime minister of Pakistan (1993).

Mazeau, Charles (Jean Jacques) (b. Sept. 1, 1825, Dijon, France - d. Feb. 8, 1905, Paris, France), justice minister of France (1887). He was also first president of the Court of Cassation (1890-1900).

Mazeaud, Pierre (b. Aug. 24, 1929, Lyon, France), president of the Constitutional Council of France (2004-07).

Mazeiks, Janis (b. Jan. 30, 1973), Latvian diplomat. He has been permanent representative to the United Nations (2013-18) and head of the EU delegation in Moldova (2021- ).

Isaak Mazepa

Ivan Mazepa
Mazepa, Isaak (Prokhorovych) (b. Aug. 28 [Aug. 16, O.S.], 1884, Kostobobra village, Novgorod-Siversky district, Chernigov province, Russia [now in Chernihiv oblast, Ukraine] - d. March 18, 1952, Augsburg, West Germany), interior minister (1919-20) and chairman of the Council of Ministers (1919-20) of the non-Communist Ukraine.

Mazepa(-Koledynsky), Ivan (Stepanovych) (b. March 20, 1639, Mazepyntsi, near Bila Tserkva, Poland [now in Ukraine] - d. Oct. 2, 1709, Bendery, Moldavia [now Tighina, Moldova]), hetman of Ukraine (1687-1709).

Mazette, Jacquesson, interior minister of the Central African Republic (2003). He was also minister of public works (1999).

Mazhar Bey, Ottoman official. He was governor of Kosovo (1911-12).

Mazikin, Valentin (Petrovich) (b. Dec. 17, 1945, Promyshlennaya, Kemerovo oblast, Russian S.F.S.R. - d. Jan. 21, 2022, Kemerovo, Russia), acting head of the administration of Kemerovo oblast (2001).

Mazin, Nikolay (Petrovich) (b. Dec. 1 [Nov. 18, O.S.], 1909, Mazinsky, Don Cossack Host [now in Volgograd oblast], Russia - d. 1972), first secretary of the Communist Party committees of the North Ossetian A.S.S.R. (1940-44) and the Kabardian A.S.S.R. (1944-49).

Maziol, Jacques (b. Jan. 13, 1918, Aurillac, Cantal, France - d. June 28, 1990), French minister of construction (1962-66).

Maziq, Hussein, Arabic in full Husayn Yusuf Maziq (b. June 26, 1918, Wadi Ghassal, near Tacnis, Libya - d. May 12, 2006, Benghazi, Libya), foreign minister (1964-65) and prime minister (1965-67) of Libya. He was governor of Cyrenaica in 1952-61. He was sentenced to a ten-year prison term in 1971 for political reasons, but was released three years later.

Mazoka, Anderson (Kambela) (b. March 22, 1943, Chobana village, west of Monze, Northern Rhodesia [now Zambia] - d. May 24, 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa), Zambian presidential candidate (2001).

Mazón (Guixot), Carlos (b. April 8, 1974, Alicante, Spain), president of the Generalitat of Valencia (2023- ).

Mazowiecki, Tadeusz (b. April 18, 1927, Plock, Poland - d. Oct. 28, 2013, Warsaw, Poland), Polish politician. Upon being elected to the Sejm (parliament) in 1961, he joined the Znak group of Catholic deputies, an island of open opposition unique in Communist legislative assemblies. His name became linked with every major demonstration of dissent, culminating with his condemnation of the excesses that ended the 1968 student demonstrations. In the 1970s he forged links with the Workers' Defense Committee, which protected anti-Communist labour activists in Poland from government persecution. When strikes in the Lenin shipyard in Gdansk sparked the birth of the Solidarity labour movement there in 1980, he became one of the principal advisers to the strikers and helped mobilize Polish intellectuals in support of them. With the imposition of martial law in 1981, he was interned. Emerging a year later, he gradually became Solidarity leader Lech Walesa's alter ego. An evocative image was that of the two men at the head of the apparently defeated workers leaving the Lenin Shipyard in May 1988. In early 1989 he served as the mediator in talks between the government and Solidarity that resulted in Solidarity's legalization and the holding of the freest national elections in Poland since 1947. Solidarity's stunning victory in those elections prompted Pres. Wojciech Jaruzelski to appoint Mazowiecki as prime minister of a coalition government of Solidarity and Communist members, as well as those of minor parties. He undertook radical reforms aimed at moving Poland in the direction of a free-market economy. In presidential elections held in December 1990 to choose a successor to Jaruzelski, Mazowiecki finished third in a race won by Walesa. Mazowiecki continued as prime minister until Walesa's nominee succeeded him in early 1991.

Mazuera Gómez, Daniel (b. Dec. 12, 1945, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (1984-85), ambassador to Argentina (1991-93), and minister of external trade (1994-95).

Mazur, Vladimir (Vladimirovich) (b. June 19, 1966, Krutolozhnoye, Tomsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), governor of Tomsk oblast (2022- ). He was also mayor of Tobolsk (2012-19).

Mazure, Jannis Pieter (b. Dec. 24, 1899, Rotterdam, Netherlands - d. Nov. 3, 1990, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was chairman of the First Chamber (1966-69).

Mazurov, Kirill (Trofimovich) (b. April 7 [March 25, O.S.], 1914, Pribytkovskaya, Mogilyov province, Russia [now in Homel voblast, Belarus] - d. Dec. 19, 1989, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), chairman of the Council of Ministers (1953-56) and first secretary of the Communist Party (1956-65) of the Belorussian S.S.R. He was also first secretary of the party committees of Minsk city (1949-50) and oblast (1950-53) and Soviet first deputy premier (1965-78).

Mazza, Alberto (José) (b. 1938), health minister of Argentina (1993-99).

Mazza, Luigi (b. Oct. 12, 1960, New York City), captain-regent of San Marino (1997-98).

Mazzei Carta, Oscar (b. Nov. 26, 1907, Barquisimeto, Lara, Venezuela - d. May 27, 1988, Caracas, Venezuela), defense minister of Venezuela (1953-58). He was also minister of communications (1949-53) and public works (1958).

Mazzetti (Soler), Pilar (Elena) (b. Sept. 9, 1956, Lima, Peru), interior minister of Peru (2006-07). She was also minister of health (2004-06, 2020, 2020-21).

Mazzilli, Pascoal Ranieri (b. April 27, 1910, Caconde, São Paulo, Brazil - d. April 21, 1975, São Paulo, São Paulo), acting president of Brazil (1961, 1964). He was president of the Chamber of Deputies in 1958-65.

Mazzini, Giuseppe (b. June 22, 1805, Genoa, France [now in Italy] - d. March 10, 1872, Pisa, Italy), Italian revolutionary leader. As a young man he was initiated into the Carbonari, a secret society pledged to overthrow absolute rule in Italy. He was arrested by the Piedmontese police and exiled to France, where in 1833 he founded his own movement, Young Italy (Giovane Italia). Expelled from France, he travelled widely in Europe, calling for republican insurrection. He took part in the Lombard revolt against Austrian rule in 1848 and subsequently in the governing triumvirate of the Roman Republic established after Pius IX fled the city (1849). His rule was short-lived, however, as the pope appealed to Catholic countries for help and a French army landed in Italy and crushed the republic. A number of abortive Mazzinian insurrections during the 1850s (notably that of Carlo Pisacane) and a growing support for the moderate views embodied by the Italian National Society largely discredited him. He refused to participate in the parliamentary government that was established under the monarchy of the House of Savoy when Italy became unified in 1861. In the final decade of his life he continued to preach republicanism and women's emancipation and played a small part in the establishment of the First International, but never managed to reconcile his ideas to those of socialism.