Index J

Ja Song Nam (b. March 28, 1954), North Korean diplomat. He was ambassador to the United Kingdom (2006-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2014-18).

Jaafar (al-Karkhi), Majid Abed (b. 1942), finance minister of Iraq (1991-92).

Jaafar Mohamed, Datuk (b. 1838, Telok Belanga, Singapore - d. 1919), chief minister of Johor (1886-90).

Jaafari, Bashar (b. April 14, 1956, Damascus, Syria), Syrian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-20). In 2022 he was appointed ambassador to Russia.

I. al-Jaafari
Jaafari (al-Eshaiker), Ibrahim al- (Arabic in full Ibrahim `Abd al-Karim Hamza al-Ja`fari al-A`shayqir), original name Ibrahim al-Eshaiker (b. 1947, Karbala, Iraq), president of the Governing Council (2003), vice president (2004-05), prime minister (2005-06), and foreign minister (2014-18) of Iraq. In 1980 he fled to Iran and, to protect his family from retribution by the Iraqi regime, adopted the name al-Jaafari. He was chosen prime minister by the United Iraqi Alliance, a coalition of Shi`ite parties which won the 2005 elections.

Jaakson, Ernst (Rudolf) (b. Aug. 11, 1905, Riga, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Sept. 4, 1998, New York City), Estonian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1991-94) and ambassador to the United States (1991-93). For the exile government he was consul-general in New York in charge of the legation (1965-91).

Jaakson, Jüri (b. Jan. 16, 1870, Karula municipality, Russia [now Uue-Võidu municipality, Estonia] - d. April 20, 1942, Sosva camp, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), state elder of Estonia (1924-25). He was also justice minister (1918-20) and president of the Bank of Estonia (1926-40). He was arrested in 1941, taken to Russia, sentenced to death, and shot.

Jäätteenmäki, Anneli (Tuulikki) (b. Feb. 11, 1955, Lapua, Finland), prime minister of Finland (2003). She was justice minister (1994-95), leader of the Centre Party (2000-03), and speaker of parliament (2003). She guided the Centre Party to victory in the 2003 elections but resigned after only two months in office due to what was dubbed the "Iraqgate" scandal. In March 2004 she was acquitted of any wrongdoing in the affair. She had been accused of asking a presidential advisor, Martti Manninen, to hand over secret papers about the Finnish involvement in the Iraq war during the election campaign. The court found that although she was not entitled to the documents, the request she made to Manninen did not constitute incitement to a crime. Manninen, however, was fined for handing over the material. Jäätteenmäki, who remained a popular politician, was elected to the European Parliament in the June 2004 elections as the leading candidate of the Centre Party.

Jabang, Lamin Kiti (b. Dec. 12, 1942, Pirang, Gambia), foreign minister (1977-87) and interior minister (1987-94) of The Gambia. He was also ambassador to Saudi Arabia (2006-10).

Jabir Al Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah, Sheikh (b. June 29, 1926, Kuwait city, Kuwait - d. Jan. 15, 2006, Kuwait city), emir of Kuwait (1977-2006). The third son of Sheikh Ahmad Al Jabir Al Sabah (ruler 1921-50), he played a leading role in Kuwait's administration from an early age. After Iraq claimed sovereignty over newly independent Kuwait in 1961, he led a six-man mission to an Arab League council meeting in Cairo to negotiate a settlement. He became prime minister and minister of finance and economy (1962-63) and minister of finance and industry (1963-65). In 1965 he again became prime minister and the following year he was formally designated crown prince by agreement among members of the ruling family whereby his own Jabir Al Sabah branch of Kuwait's ruling family divides the highest authority in the state with the Salim Al Sabah branch. By the early 1970s the emir, his cousin Sheikh Sabah Al Salim Al Sabah, suffering from poor health, had left most of the government operations to Sheikh Jabir, and on Dec. 31, 1977, Sheikh Sabah died and Jabir became emir. In May 1985 he narrowly escaped after an Islamic extremist drove a car bomb into a royal motorcade. During the middle of the night on Aug. 2, 1990, he was awakened by a phone call from army headquarters. He was told that Iraqi troops were pouring over the Kuwaiti border by the thousands - a massive surprise attack for which the Kuwaiti military could not have prepared. Not five minutes after the emir was taken to safety, Iraqi helicopters and ground troops attacked the building. He resided in exile at a luxury hotel complex in al-Ta´if, Saudi Arabia. At a press conference he told reporters, "We have to liberate Kuwait. Whatever it takes, we would like to have it done." It was done by a U.S.-led international force in early 1991, and he returned to Kuwait on March 14. He was seldom seen in public after suffering a minor stroke in 2001.

Jabir Al Ali Al Salim Al Sabah (b. 1927), deputy prime minister of Kuwait (1975-81). He was also minister of information (1964-71, 1975-81).

Jabir Mubarak

Jabir Mubarak Al Hamad Al Sabah, Sheikh (b. Jan. 4, 1942), defense minister (2001-11), interior minister (2006-07), and prime minister (2011-19) of Kuwait. He was also governor of Hawalli (1979-85) and Ahmadi (1985-86) governorates, minister of social affairs and labour (1986-88) and information (1988-90), and first deputy prime minister (2006-11).

Jabiri, Saadallah al-, Arabic Sa`d Allah al-Jabiri (b. 1893 - d. June 20, 1947, Aleppo, Syria), foreign minister (1936-39, 1945-46), prime minister (1943-44, 1945-46), and speaker of parliament (1944-45) of Syria.

Jabloner, Clemens (b. Nov. 28, 1948, Vienna, Austria), vice chancellor of Austria (2019-20). He was also minister of constitution, reforms, deregulation, and justice (2019-20).


D. Jack
Jablonski, Henryk (b. Dec. 27, 1909, Waliszew, near Lowicz, Poland - d. Jan. 27, 2003, Warsaw, Poland), chairman of the Council of State of Poland (1972-85). He was also minister of higher education (1965-72) and education (1966-72).

Jabr, Sayyid Salih (b. 1896, Nasiriya, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. June 6, 1957, Baghdad, Iraq), justice minister (1936-37), interior minister (1941-42, 1943, 1947-48, 1950), acting foreign minister (1941-42), finance minister (1942-43, 1944-46, 1946), and prime minister (1947-48) of Iraq. He was also minister of education (1933-34, 1938-40) and social affairs (1940) and governor of Karbala (1935-36) and Basra (1940-41).

Jack, Sir David (Emmanuel) (b. July 16, 1918 - d. July 18, 1998, New Montrose, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), governor-general of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1989-96); knighted 1991. Earlier he was minister of housing, labour, and community development (1984-86) and minister of health (1986-89).

Jack, Hulan (Edwin) (b. Dec. 29, 1906, Saint Lucia, West Indies - d. Dec. 19, 1986, New York City), borough president of Manhattan (1954-61). He came to the United States at the age of sixteen. He was Harlem representative in the New York State Assembly (1941-53) before becoming the first black borough president in New York City. His trial and suspended sentence on conflict of interest charges forced him out of his office in 1961. He was convicted of having accepted a $4,500 renovation of his apartment from a real-estate operator. He later served again in the State Assembly (1969-73).

Jack, Sir Roy (Emile) (b. Jan. 12, 1914, New Plymouth, N.Z. - d. Dec. 24, 1977, Wellington, N.Z.), New Zealand politician; knighted 1970. He was speaker of the House of Representatives (1967-72, 1976-77) and justice minister and attorney-general (1972).

S. Jack
Jack, Stuart (Duncan Macdonald) (b. June 8, 1949), governor of the Cayman Islands (2005-09).


H.N.R. Jackman
Jacklick, Alvin (T.) (b. Aug. 3, 1949, Ebeye, Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands), foreign minister of the Marshall Islands (2000-01). From 1980 to 1982, he worked as a legislative assistant for the parliamentary delegation of Kwajalein. In 1983, he became the first mayor of Kwajalein Atoll, a post he held for the next eight years. He first joined the parliament in 1991 as a senator representing Kwajalein Atoll and in 1995 was elected as senator representing Jaluit Atoll. In 2009-12 he was speaker of the Nitijela.

Jackman, François, Barbadian diplomat; son of Oliver Jackman. He has been ambassador to China (2018-21) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2021- ).

Jackman, Henry N(ewton) R(owell), also called Hal Jackman (b. June 10, 1932, Toronto, Ont.), lieutenant governor of Ontario (1991-97).

Jackman, Oliver (Hamlet) (b. Aug. 10, 1929, Black Rock, St. Michael parish, Barbados - d. Jan. 24, 2007, Bridgetown, Barbados), Barbadian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1969-71), high commissioner to Canada (1971-75), ambassador to the United States (1977-81) and Belgium (1981-84), and UN secretary-general's personal representative on the border controversy between Guyana and Venezuela (1999-2007).

Jackson, Alphonso (Roy) (b. Sept. 9, 1945, Marshall, Texas), U.S. secretary of housing and urban development (2004-08). He resigned while under pressure by Congress to answer questions about charges of political favouritism. A federal lawsuit accused Jackson, the former head of the housing authority in Dallas, of using his influence at HUD to punish the Philadelphia Housing Authority after it refused to transfer a $2 million property to one of Jackson's business friends. He was also reported to be under investigation by the FBI, Justice Department, and a federal grand jury for making comments in 2006 in which he said he arranged the firing of a contractor who did not like Pres. George W. Bush.

A. Jackson
Jackson, Andrew, byname Old Hickory (b. March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, South Carolina - d. June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tenn.), president of the United States (1829-37). In 1796 he became a member of the convention that drafted a constitution for the new state of Tennessee. In the same year he was elected as the first representative from Tennessee to the national House of Representatives. He refused to seek reelection and served only until March 4, 1797. Jackson returned to Tennessee, vowing never to enter public life again, but before the end of the year he was elected to the U.S. Senate. He resigned from the Senate in 1798 after an uneventful year, though. Soon after his return to Nashville he was appointed a judge of the Superior Court (in effect, the supreme court) of the state and served in that post until 1804. During the War of 1812 (1812-15), he crushed the Creek Indians, who were allied with the British, and decimated an invading British army in the Battle of New Orleans. He led the invasion of Florida in the Seminole War of 1817-18, and after Spain was forced to cede the territory, he was commissioner of Florida in 1821. These military triumphs led to suggestions that he become a candidate for president, but he at first disavowed any interest. In 1823 the Tennessee legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate. In the election of 1824 Jackson received the highest number of votes, but no majority of the electoral votes, and the House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams. In 1828 Jackson defeated Adams by an electoral vote of 178 to 83 after a campaign in which personalities and slander played a larger part than in any previous national election in the history of the United States. He was the first U.S. president to come from the area west of the Appalachians and the first to gain office by a direct appeal to the mass of voters. He was reelected in 1832.

Jackson, Charles (b. March 3, 1797, Providence, R.I. - d. Jan. 21, 1876, Providence), governor of Rhode Island (1845-46).

Jackson, Claiborne F(ox) (b. April 4, 1806, Flemingsburg, Ky. - d. Dec. 6, 1862, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Missouri (1861); cousin of Hancock Lee Jackson.

Jackson, Ed(ward L.) (b. Dec. 27, 1873, Howard county, Ind. - d. Nov. 18, 1954, Orleans, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1925-29).

Jackson, Elihu E(mory) (b. Nov. 3, 1837, near Salisbury, Md. - d. Dec. 27, 1907, Baltimore, Md.), governor of Maryland (1888-92).

Jackson, Sir Francis Walter Fitton (b. 1881 - d. May 17, 1936), senior political officer of British Togoland (1919-20); knighted 1936. In Gold Coast he was chief commissioner of the Northern Territories (1930-33) and Ashanti (1933-36).

Jackson, Frank Darr (b. Jan. 26, 1854, Arcade, N.Y. - d. Nov. 16, 1938, Redlands, Calif.), governor of Iowa (1894-96).

Jackson, Sir Frederick (John) (b. Feb. 17, 1860, Catterick, Yorkshire, England - d. Feb. 3, 1929, Beaulieu-sur-Mer, Alpes-Maritimes, France), acting commissioner of the British East Africa Protectorate (1904, 1905) and governor of Uganda (1911-18); knighted 1913. He was also known as an ornithologist.

Jackson, Hancock Lee (b. May 12, 1796, near Richmond, Madison county, Ky. - d. March 19, 1876, Salem, Ore.), acting governor of Missouri (1857).

H.M. Jackson
Jackson, Henry M(artin), byname Scoop Jackson (b. May 31, 1912, Everett, Wash. - d. Sept. 1, 1983, Everett), U.S. politician. A powerful and influential Democratic representative (1941-53) and senator (1953-83) from Washington, he became an outspoken supporter of military preparedness, organized labour, and civil rights. A titan in the Senate, Jackson won six elections decisively and was regarded as the nucleus of those Democrats who viewed themselves as neoconservatives (liberals in domestic policy but hawkish in foreign policy). Because he persisted in trying to win military contracts for Boeing (his state's largest employer), Jackson was dubbed "the senator from Boeing." Despite two unsuccessful bids for the presidency, first in 1972 and again in 1976, Jackson's political strength was great and undisputed. He served as a senator under seven presidents. He took part in the Army-McCarthy hearings in 1954, and sharply criticized the "witch hunts" of that era. He was selected by Pres. John F. Kennedy to head the Democratic National Committee (1960-61), forced the Nixon administration to alter the SALT I agreement, forced through legislation in 1974 that pressured the Soviet Union into allowing Jews to emigrate, and was one of the major architects of the landmark 1969 National Environmental Policy Act. Jackson, who was the ranking Democrat on the Senate Armed Services Committee, was perhaps best known as the most vocal Democratic skeptic with regard to the Soviet Union. Hours before his death from a massive heart attack, Jackson had denounced the Soviet Union for downing a commercial airliner carrying 269 civilians.

Jackson, Sir Henry Moore (baptized Aug. 13, 1849, Barbados - d. Aug. 29, 1908, London, England), commissioner of the Turks and Caicos Islands (1885-90) and governor of the Leeward Islands (1901-02), Fiji (1902-04), and Trinidad and Tobago (1904-08); knighted 1899.

Jackson, Jacob B(eeson) (b. April 6, 1829, Parkersburg, Va. [now in W.Va.] - d. Dec. 11, 1893, Parkersburg), governor of West Virginia (1881-85).

Jackson, James (b. Sept. 21, 1757, Moreton Hampstead, Devonshire, England - d. March 19, 1806, Washington, D.C.), governor of Georgia (1798-1801).

J. Jackson
Jackson, Jesse (Louis) (b. Oct. 8, 1941, Greenville, S.C.), U.S. politician. Becoming involved in the black civil-rights movement, he went to Selma, Ala., in 1965 to march with Martin Luther King, Jr., and became a worker in King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). In 1966 he helped found the Chicago branch of Operation Breadbasket, the economic arm of the SCLC, and served as the organization's national director from 1967 to 1971. In 1971 he founded Operation PUSH (People United to Save [later Serve] Humanity), a Chicago-based organization in which he advocated black self-help and achieved a broad audience for his liberal views. He became a leading spokesman and advocate for black Americans in the 1980s. His voter-registration drive was a key factor in the election of Chicago's first black mayor, Harold Washington, in April 1983. In late 1983 he became the first black man to make a serious bid for the U.S. presidency. After calling for the creation of a "Rainbow Coalition" of Americans of all colours to unite against the Reagan administration, Jackson was overheard calling Jews "Hymies" and New York City "Hymietown." The slur, and his failure for nearly two weeks to acknowledge it, virtually ruined his ability to appeal beyond black voters. He won about 3.2 million votes during the Democratic primaries. He made another unsuccessful attempt for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1987-88. In 1989 he took residency in Washington, D.C., and in 1990, when the Washington City Council created two unpaid offices of "statehood senator" - popularly called "shadow senator" - to lobby the U.S. Congress for statehood for the District of Columbia, Jackson won election to one of the posts, his first elective office. His son, Jesse Jackson, Jr., was a Democratic U.S. representative from Illinois (1995-2012).

Jackson, Lisa P(erez) (b. Feb. 8, 1962, Philadelphia, Pa.), administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2009- ).

M. Jackson
Jackson, Maynard (Holbrook, Jr.) (b. March 23, 1938, Dallas, Texas - d. June 23, 2003, Arlington, Va.), mayor of Atlanta (1974-82, 1990-94). In 1968, largely on impulse and admittedly as a kind of protest, he unsuccessfully challenged Herman Talmadge, Georgia's incumbent U.S. senator, in the Democratic primary. A year later he organized a serious and victorious campaign for vice-mayor of Atlanta. In 1973 he ran for the office of mayor and won (defeating Sam Massell), becoming the first black man to hold office as chief executive of a major southern U.S. city. He challenged Atlanta's white leadership establishment and often clashed with the business community. He was reelected to a second term in 1977. A series of 28 unsolved murders and disappearances of young blacks in Atlanta, beginning in 1979, brought the city worldwide publicity. Since the victims were all black, the murders became a racial issue with some blacks convinced that the killer was white. Jackson tried to keep Atlanta calm while the police hunted for the killer. On June 21, 1981, Wayne Williams, a 23-year-old black freelance photographer, was arrested and charged with the murder of Nathaniel Carter, 27, one of the 28 victims. Jackson, who could not by law seek a third consecutive term, backed Andrew Young, also black, who won a runoff election for mayor in 1981. Jackson returned to seek a third term in 1989. He was elected with 80% of the vote and was instrumental in Atlanta's successful effort to host the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. In 2001, he made a bid for the chairmanship of the Democratic National Committee, but withdrew from the race against Terry McAuliffe. He was then named chairman of the DNC's Voting Rights Institute and was heavily involved in the fight for election reform.

Jackson, (Gordon) Noel (b. Dec. 25, 1913 - d. Sept. 13, 1999), British political agent in Kuwait (1944-45, 1949) and political officer in the Trucial States (1947-48). He was also ambassador to Kuwait (1963-67).

Jackson, Rashleigh E(smond) (b. Jan. 12, 1929, New Amsterdam, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. Sept. 1, 2022, Georgetown, Guyana), foreign minister of Guyana (1978-90). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1973-78).

Jackson, Sir Richard (Leofric) (b. July 12, 1902, India - d. Feb. 17, 1975), president of the International Criminal Police Organization (1960-63); knighted 1963.

Jackson, Sir Richard Downes (b. March 24, 1776, Petersfield, Hampshire, England - d. June 9, 1845, Montreal, Canada East [now Que.]), acting governor of Canada (1841-42); knighted 1815.

Jackson, Robert H(oughwout) (b. Feb. 13, 1892, Spring Creek, Pa. - d. Oct. 9, 1954, Washington, D.C.), U.S. solicitor general (1938-40) and attorney general (1940-41).

Jackson, Sir (Francis) Stanley (b. Nov. 21, 1870, Chapel Allerton, near Leeds, England - d. March 9, 1947, London, England), governor of Bengal (1927-32); knighted 1927.

Jackson, Sir Wilfrid Edward Francis (b. 1883, St. John's, Newfoundland - d. March 28, 1971, Cape Town, South Africa), governor of Mauritius (1930-37), British Guiana (1937-41), and Tanganyika (1941-45); knighted 1931; son of Sir Henry Moore Jackson.

Jackson, Sir William (Godfrey Fothergill) (b. Aug. 28, 1917, Blackpool, England - d. March 12, 1999), governor of Gibraltar (1978-82). He was commissioned into the Royal Engineers in 1937. In World War II he served in Norway, North Africa, and Italy. After the war he was posted to the Far East. From 1948 to 1950, he was an instructor at the Staff College, Camberley, after which he became a company commander at Sandhurst (1951-53). Next came a posting as second-in-command of the Royal Engineers 7th Armoured Division in Germany, and a spell at the War Office where he helped plan the Suez invasion. From 1958 to 1960, he commanded the Gurkha Engineers in Malaya. From 1973 to 1976 he was quartermaster general. As governor, he proved a doughty defender of the Gibraltarians' interests, invariably referring to the Rock's inhabitants as "we." While he could not prevent Lord Carrington concluding an agreement with the Spaniards in 1980, which opened the door to talks about the colony's future, he was delighted the next year to welcome the prince and princess of Wales to Gibraltar on their honeymoon - a plan which had caused King Juan Carlos to boycott the royal wedding. During the Falklands War, Jackson had the delicate task of misleading the Spanish authorities about British strength and intentions, knowing that the Spaniards were in contact with the Argentine government. This did not prevent him, later in 1982, from stamping firmly on the notion that a Spanish admiral might be allowed to fly his flag in Gibraltar after Spain had joined NATO. After retiring from the governorship, Jackson continued to defend Gibraltar's cause in the press. "It will take several generations," he wrote, "to expunge the depth of anti-Spanish feeling generated over the last half a century." He was knighted in 1971.

Jackson-Nelson, Marjorie, née Jackson (b. Sept. 13, 1931, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales), governor of South Australia (2001-07). Dubbed the Lithgow Flash, she became the first Australian woman to win an Olympic track and field gold medal, winning the 100 m and 200 m at the 1952 Helsinki Games. She broke 10 world sprint records during her career, was inducted into the International Hall of Fame for Women in 2000, and was named as one of the 200 greatest Australians during the 1988 Bicentenary year.

Jacob, Eduard Herman s' (b. Aug. 4, 1827, The Hague - d. April 15, 1912, The Hague), king's commissioner of Utrecht (1882-88); brother of Frederik s'Jacob; nephew of Jan Jacob Rochussen.

Jacob, Frederik s' (b. Feb. 25, 1822, The Hague, Netherlands - d. April 3, 1901, Utrecht, Netherlands), governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies (1881-84); nephew of Jan Jacob Rochussen.

Jacob, Hendrik Laurentius s' (b. April 5, 1906, Driebergen [now part of Utrechtse Heuvelrug], Utrecht, Netherlands - d. Sept. 29, 1967, Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands), war and navy minister of the Netherlands (1950-51); son of Herman Theodoor s'Jacob; nephew of Pim baron van Boetzelaer van Oosterhout.

Jacob, Herman Theodoor s' (b. March 4, 1869, The Hague, Netherlands - d. July 16, 1950, Zeist, Utrecht, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Utrecht (1924-34); son of Eduard Herman s'Jacob; nephew of Frederik s'Jacob.

Jacob, J(ack) F(rederick) R(alph) (b. May 2, 1921, Calcutta, Bengal [now Kolkata, West Bengal], India - d. Jan. 13, 2016, New Delhi, India), governor of Goa (1998-99) and Punjab (1999-2003). He is best known for his role as chief of the Indian army's eastern command during the 1971 Bangladesh independence war, negotiating the surrender of Pakistani troops.

Jacob, John J(eremiah) (b. Dec. 9, 1829, Hampshire county, Va. [now in W.Va.] - d. Nov. 24, 1893, Wheeling, W.Va.), governor of West Virginia (1871-77).

Jacob, Louis Léon, comte (b. Nov. 11, 1768, Tonnay-Charente [now in Charente-Maritime département], France - d. March 14, 1854, Clichy-sous-Bois, Seine-et-Oise [now in Seine-Saint-Denis], France), governor of Guadeloupe (1823-26).

Jacob, M(undakkal) M(atthew) (b. Aug. 9, 1928, Ramapuram [now in Kottayam district, Kerala state], India - d. July 8, 2018, near Kottayam, Kerala), governor of Meghalaya (1995-2007).

Jacobi, Karl Rudolf von (b. Sept. 8, 1828, Jeggau, Prussia [now part of Gardelegen, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany] - d. July 24, 1903, Zinnowitz, Prussia [now in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern], Germany), finance minister of Germany (1886-88). He acquired the "von" in 1888.

Jacobina, José Eustaquio Ferreira (d. May 8, 1898), president of Alagoas (1880-82).

Jacobovits de Szeged, Adriaan Pieter Roetert (b. Dec. 27, 1935, Vienna, Austria), Dutch diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1986-89) and ambassador to the United States (1993-97).

Jacobs, Marie-Josée (b. Jan. 22, 1950, Marnach, Luxembourg), Luxembourg politician. She was minister of agriculture, viticulture, and rural development (1992-95), family (1995-2013), female promotion (1995-2004), the handicapped and life accidents (1995-99), social solidarity and youth (1999-2004), integration (2004-13), equality of chances (2004-09), and cooperation and humanitarian action (2009-13).

S. Jacobs
Jacobs, Silveria (Elfrieda) (b. July 31, 1968, Aruba), prime minister of Sint Maarten (2019-24). She was also minister of education, youth, sports, and culture (2012-13, 2015-18).

Jacobs, (Philippe Marie) Victor (b. Jan. 18, 1838, Antwerp, Belgium - d. Dec. 20, 1891, Saint-Gilles [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1870-71). He was also minister of public works (1870) and interior and education (1884).

Jacobs, Sir Wilfred E(benezer) (b. Oct. 19, 1919 - d. March 11, 1995), governor of Antigua (1967-81) and governor-general of Antigua and Barbuda (1981-93); knighted 1967. He was also attorney-general of the Leeward Islands (1957-59), Antigua (1960), and Barbados (acting, 1961-63).

Jacobsen, Eigil Thune (b. Oct. 1, 1880, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. May 27, 1949, Hellerup, Denmark), justice minister of Denmark (1941-45).

Jacobsson, Malte (Ferdinand) (b. April 3, 1885, Kristianstad, Kristianstad [now in Skåne], Sweden - d. Dec. 22, 1966, Göteborg, Sweden), governor of Göteborg och Bohus (1934-50).

Jácome, Epaminondas (Tito) (b. April 20, 1867, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso [now in Mato Grosso do Sul], Brazil - d. March 29, 1928, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil), acting prefect of Alto Acre (1910-11) and governor of Acre (1921-22). He was also mayor of Rio Branco (1915-18).

Jacomet, Arnaud (Marie Pierre André) (b. Oct. 20, 1946, Paris, France - d. Oct. 14, 2011, Brussels, Belgium), secretary-general of the Western European Union (2009-11).

Jacquinot, Louis (Lucien Raymond) (b. Sept. 16, 1898, Gondrecourt-le-Château, Meuse, France - d. June 14, 1993, Paris, France), French politician. He was commissioner for marine (1943-44, Free French government), minister of marine (1944-45, 1947), veterans and war victims (1949-51), overseas France (1951-52, 1953-54), overseas departments and territories (1961-66), and Sahara (1961-62), and a minister of state (1945-46, 1958-61).

Jadid, Salah (b. 1926, Duwayr B`abda, near Jablah, Syria - d. Aug. 19, 1993, Damascus, Syria), Syrian politician. In the 1950s, by then an army officer, he joined the Ba`th Party, which was banned at the time. He was promoted to major general in 1963 and named chief of staff of the Syrian armed forces. With Hafez al-Assad, he led a coup in February 1966 that ousted the more moderate Ba`th leadership. For the next four years, although he held only a party post, Jadid was the effective leader of Syria. In September 1970 he sent armoured troops to Jordan in support of Palestinians fighting King Hussein and unsuccessfully tried to persuade Assad, who commanded the air force, to provide cover. When the Syrian forces suffered defeat, Assad had Jadid arrested. A man of strict principle, Jadid remained defiant, and he spent the remaining 23 years of his life under arrest, making him one of the world's longest-held political prisoners.

M. Jaeger
Jaeger, Martin (b. Nov. 25, 1953, Casablanca, Morocco), prefect of French Guiana (2016-17).

Jaeger, Richard (b. Feb. 16, 1913, Berlin, Germany - d. May 15, 1998, Munich, Germany), justice minister of West Germany (1965-66).

Ja'far, Usman (b. Sept. 10, 1951, Sekadau, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia - d. May 15, 2015, Jakarta, Indonesia), governor of Kalimantan Barat (2003-08).

Jaffa, Henry N(aphtali) (b. 1846, Prussia - d. early January 1901, Albuquerque, N.M.), mayor of Albuquerque (1885-86).

Jaffar, Ahmed Ben Said (b. August 1966), foreign minister of the Comoros (2006-10).

Jaffar (al-Amjade), (Prince) Said Mohamed (b. April 14, 1918, Mutsamudu, Anjouan - d. Oct. 22, 1993), president of the Government Council (1972) and chairman of the National Executive Council and foreign minister (1975-76) of the Comoros; great-great-grandson of Ahmed bin Shekhe Ngome.

Jaffel, Leila (b. Aug. 29, 1960, Radès, Tunisia), justice minister of Tunisia (2021- ). She was also minister of state domains and land affairs (2020-21).

C. Jagan
Jagan, Cheddi (Berret) (b. March 22, 1918, Plantation Port Mourant, British Guiana [now Guyana] - d. March 6, 1997, Washington, D.C.), president of Guyana (1992-97). He was elected to the British Guianan legislature in 1947. In 1946 he, his wife Janet, and other politicians had set up the Political Affairs Committee, which in early 1950 evolved into the People's Progressive Party (PPP), with himself as leader. In elections held in April 1953 under a new British-granted constitution, the party won 18 of the 24 seats in the House of Assembly and Jagan became chief minister and minister of agriculture, lands, and mines. His subsequent program of radical socioeconomic reforms led the British - acting at the behest of the United States - to dismiss him from office on Oct. 9, 1953, suspend the new constitution, and send in troops. Jagan and a number of prominent Guyanese were jailed, ostensibly for defying a colonial order restricting movement. In 1955 the PPP split along racial lines, with most of its black members seceding under Forbes Burnham to form the People's National Congress (PNC) and its members of East Indian descent, like Jagan, remaining in the ranks. The PPP won the 1957 elections, and Jagan pursued moderate policies of socioeconomic reform as the new government's minister of trade and industry (there was no prime ministerial position). In the 1961 elections the PPP emerged with a slim majority, and Jagan became premier and minister of development and planning. His term was marred by a long general strike and by serious rioting. He served as leader of the parliamentary opposition from 1964 and was the PPP's general secretary from 1970. After the PPP won general elections in 1992 he finally became president of Guyana. Long an outspoken Marxist, he now supported free-market economic policies. He died in office.

J. Jagan
Jagan, Janet (Rosalie), née Rosenberg (b. Oct. 20, 1920, Chicago, Ill. - d. March 28, 2009, Georgetown, Guyana), president of Guyana (1997-99). In 1942, she met Cheddi Jagan in Chicago, where he was studying dentistry. The following year they were married and returned to Georgetown in what was then the colony of British Guiana. By 1950 they had both become active in politics, and during that year they joined with Forbes Burnham to found the People's Progressive Party. She became the party's first secretary general, a post she held for 20 years. When Cheddi Jagan headed the government, Janet served in the parliament and was minister of labour, health, and housing (1957-61) and home affairs (1963-64). Having been stripped of her U.S. citizenship in 1947 (nominally because she had voted in local elections in British Guiana), Jagan in 1966 officially became a citizen of Guyana. Cheddi became president in 1992 and died in 1997. She then became prime minister. Hesitant at first to run for the presidency, she accepted her party's nomination on Aug. 31, 1997, in order to carry forward her late husband's agenda. Her main opposition came from People's National Congress leader Desmond Hoyte. When she was sworn in, she made history on two fronts - becoming the first elected female president in South America and the first white president of Guyana. Following the election, hundreds demonstrated in the capital, Georgetown, charging her with fraud and an inability to lead the country on the grounds that she was not a natural-born citizen and was too old. An independent audit of the results by a Caribbean Community team found no evidence to support the fraud charges, but Hoyte's supporters protested so vehemently that, in an effort to quell the unrest, Jagan and Hoyte reached an agreement to hold new elections in 2000. She resigned due to ill health in 1999.

Jagat, Gurbachan (b. June 1, 1942), governor of Manipur (2008-13) and Nagaland (2009). He was also director-general of India's Border Security Force (2000-02).

Jagdeo, Bharrat (b. Jan. 23, 1964, Unity Village, East Coast Demerara, British Guiana [now Guyana]), president of Guyana (1999-2011). The Moscow-educated economist became finance minister in 1995. He was the architect of a key debt relief program granted to Guyana by multilateral organizations. He was sworn in as president, becoming the youngest head of state in the Americas, after Janet Jagan resigned because of poor health. The main opposition People's National Congress (PNC), which claimed Jagan's 1997 election was fraudulent, said it would not recognize Jagdeo's administration. The ruling People's Progressive Party (PPP), of which Jagdeo had been an activist for years, was generally supported by Guyanese of Indian descent. Guyanese of African descent traditionally backed the PNC. Jagdeo was expected to maintain the free-market economic policies of Jagan, who named him as her successor after suffering a mild heart attack. Describing himself as "an emissary of renewed hope," he said he brought to his office "no hang-ups from the past." Saying economic growth was one of his main goals, he promised to offer "a more confident environment for investors." His appointment required some unusual political manoeuvring. Under the Guyanese constitution, the prime minister is next in line when the president falls ill. Prime Minister Sam Hinds resigned to make way for Jagdeo - who could then become president and in turn reappointed Hinds as premier. In 2020 Jagdeo became vice president under President Irfaan Ali.

Jager, Jan Kees de, byname of Jan Cornelis de Jager (b. Feb. 10, 1969, Kapelle, Zeeland, Netherlands), finance minister of the Netherlands (2010-12).

Jager, Michel (Jean Emile Marie) (b. Aug. 18, 1944, Helmond, Noord-Brabant, Netherlands - d. Sept. 15, 2023), queen's commissioner of Flevoland (1996-2008).

Jägerhorn af Spurila, Carl Magnus (b. May 21, 1730 - d. April 28, 1782), governor of Uleåborg (1775-82).

Jaghman, Yahya (Hamud), also spelled Geghman (b. Sept. 24, 1934, Jahanah, Yemen), foreign minister of Yemen (Sana) (1968-69, 1974-75). He was also deputy prime minister (1969-71), permanent representative to the United Nations (1971-73), and ambassador to the United States (1973-74) and Switzerland (1985-90).

Jagielinski, Roman (b. Jan. 2, 1947, Wichradz, Poland), Polish politician. He was a deputy prime minister and minister of agriculture and food economy (1995-97).

Jagielski, Mieczyslaw (Zygmunt) (b. Jan. 12, 1924, Kolomyja, Poland [now Kolomyia, Ukraine] - d. Feb. 27, 1997, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1970-81). He was also minister of agriculture (1959-70) and chairman of the Planning Commission (1971-75).

Jagland, Thorbjørn (b. Nov. 5, 1950, Drammen, Norway), Norwegian politician. His first senior position came in 1977 as leader of the AUF, the Labour Party's youth league. In 1981, the year Gro Harlem Brundtland first became prime minister, Jagland was busy building a power base in the party. He turned down a golden chance to work in Brundtland's office in 1986 as a junior minister, saying he needed time with his children - a typical feature of Norway where eight out of 10 men use their right to take paid paternity leave. In 1992, he was voted in as party leader following Brundtland's resignation from the post after her son committed suicide. Brundtland had initially wanted Jens Stoltenberg as party leader and heir-apparent, but Jagland won out because he was supported by the trade unions, traditional and powerful allies of the Labour Party. The following year Jagland took over as parliamentary representative for the county of Buskerud. Brundtland announced in October 1996 that she was resigning as prime minister to give Jagland and the Labour Party time to prepare properly for the next election in September 1997. As prime minister, he argued for creation of a "Norwegian House" built on social justice, strong state participation in the economy, concern for the environment, and closer ties with international organizations. But at the 1997 elections, he said Labour was fed up with sniping and gave an ultimatum: Labour would quit unless it matched its 1993 result of 36.9% of the vote. Voters seized the chance and dumped Labour, giving it 35%. He quit as shadow premier in February 2000 in favour of Stoltenberg, causing Labour's popularity to leap from 30 to 38% in one opinion poll. He was foreign minister in 2000-01 under Stoltenberg, who succeeded him as party leader in 2002. In 2005-09 he was president of the Storting (parliament) and in 2009-19 secretary-general of the Council of Europe. He also was chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee (2009-15).

Jagmohan (Malhotra) (b. Sept. 25, 1927, Hafizabad, India [now in Pakistan] - d. May 3, 2021, Delhi, India), lieutenant governor of Delhi (1980-81, 1982-84) and Goa, Daman and Diu (1981-82) and governor of Jammu and Kashmir (1984-89, 1990). He was also Indian minister of communications (1998-99), urban development (1999-2001), poverty alleviation (1999-2001), tourism (2001-04), and culture (2001-04).

B.-B. Jagne

M.A. Jagne
Jagne, Baboucarr-Blaise (Ismaila) (b. Feb. 11, 1955, Bathurst [now Banjul], Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (1995-97, 2001-04). He was also ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1997-98) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2001).

Jagne, Mamour Alieu, foreign minister of The Gambia (2014). He was also ambassador to the Benelux countries, Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia (2008-14).

Jagodzinski, Zygmunt Stefan (b. Feb. 25, 1891, Radomin [now in Kujawsko-Pomorskie województwo], Poland - d. June 22, 1968, Warsaw, Poland), governor of Stanislawowskie województwo (1930-36).

Jagow, Gottlieb (Eugen Günther) von (b. June 22, 1863, Berlin, Prussia [Germany] - d. Jan. 11, 1935, Potsdam, Germany), foreign minister of Germany (1913-16). He was also minister to Luxembourg (1907-09) and ambassador to Italy (1909-12).

Jaguara, Antonio Pinheiro de Ulhôa Cintra, barão de (b. June 12, 1837, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Aug. 14, 1895, São Paulo), acting president of São Paulo (1889). He was made baron in 1888.

Jaguaribe, Domingos José Nogueira Jaguaribe, visconde de (b. Sept. 14, 1820, Aracati, Ceará, Brazil - d. June 5, 1890, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1871-72). He was made viscount in 1888.

Jaguary, José Ildefonso de Souza Ramos, barão das Tres Barras, visconde de (b. Sept. 28, 1812, Baependi, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. July 23, 1883, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Piauí (1843-44), Minas Gerais (1848-50), and Pernambuco (1850-51) and justice minister (1852-53, 1870-71) and interior minister (1861-62) of Brazil. He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1852) and the Senate (1874-81). He was made baron in 1867 and viscount in 1872.

Jagvaral, Nyamyn (b. May 4, 1919 - d. Sept. 19, 1987), a deputy premier (1957-69) and acting chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural (1984) of Mongolia. He was also minister of agriculture (1957-61).

Jahan, Ismat (b. June 3, 1960, Dacca, East Pakistan [now Dhaka, Bangladesh]), Bangladeshi diplomat. She was ambassador to the Netherlands (2005-07) and Belgium and Luxembourg (2009-16) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-09).

Jahjaga, Atifete (b. April 20, 1975, Gjakovë [Djakovica], Kosovo), president of Kosovo (2011-16).

Jahn, Gerhard (b. Sept. 10, 1927, Kassel, Prussia [now in Hessen], Germany - d. Oct. 20, 1998, Müllheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), justice minister of West Germany (1969-74).

Jahn, Gunnar (b. Jan. 10, 1883, Trondhjem [now Trondheim], Norway - d. Jan. 31, 1971, Oslo, Norway), finance minister of Norway (1934-35, 1945). He was also chief of the central bank (1946-54).

Jahn, Martin (b. Jan. 21, 1970, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), a deputy prime minister of the Czech Republic (2004-05).

Jahn, Rudi, byname of Rudolf Jahn (b. Nov. 4, 1906, Paunsdorf [now part of Leipzig], Germany - d. Sept. 30, 1990), minister-president of Brandenburg (1949-52) and chairman of the District Council of Dresden (1952-58). He was also East German ambassador to Bulgaria (1959-63).

Jahren, Gunder Anton (Johannesen) (b. Aug. 8, 1858, Jahren, Rakkestad municipality, Smaalenenes amt [now Østfold fylke], Norway - d. May 20, 1933, Oslo, Norway), Norwegian politician. He was president of the Storting (1916, 1926) and minister of agriculture (1920-21).

Jaifi, Hamoud al- (b. 1918, Wadi Dahr, Yemen - d. March 22, 1985, Cairo, Egypt), prime minister of Yemen (Sana) (1964-65). He was also minister of defense (1962, 1966-67) and economy (1965) and ambassador to the United Arab Republic (1962-64) and Saudi Arabia (1975-81).

Jaime, Aguinaldo (b. Jan. 15, 1956, Luanda, Angola), finance minister of Angola (1990-92). He was also governor of the central bank (1999-2002).

Jain, Milap Chand (b. July 21, 1929, Jodhpur [now in Rajasthan], India - d. April 29, 2015, Jaipur, Rajasthan), acting governor of Rajasthan (1990). He was acting chief justice of Rajasthan High Court (1989-90) and chief justice of Delhi High Court (1990-91).

N.C. Jain
Jain, Nirmal Chandra (b. Sept. 24, 1928, Jabalpur [now in Madhya Pradesh], India - d. Sept. 22, 2003, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India), governor of Rajasthan (2003).

Jaipal, Rikhi (b. Dec. 15, 1916, Rangoon, Burma, India [now Yangon, Myanmar] - d. Nov. 4, 1991, New Delhi, India), Indian diplomat. He was ambassador to Yugoslavia and Greece (1969-72) and Austria (1972-74) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1974-79).

Jaishankar, Subrahmanyam (b. Jan. 9, 1955, New Delhi, India), foreign minister of India (2019- ). He was also ambassador to the Czech Republic (2000-04), China (2009-13), and the United States (2014-15) and high commissioner to Singapore (2007-09).

Jaitley, Arun (b. Dec. 28, 1952, New Delhi, India - d. Aug. 24, 2019, New Delhi), finance minister (2014-19) and defense minister (2014, 2017) of India. He was also minister of law and justice (2000-02, 2003-04), company affairs (2000-02), shipping (2000-01), commerce and industry (2003-04), information and broadcasting (2014-16), and corporate affairs (2014-19).

Jakande, (Alhaji) Lateef (Kayode) (b. July 23, 1929, Lagos, Nigeria - d. Feb. 11, 2021), governor of Lagos (1979-83). He was also Nigerian minister of works and housing (1993-95).

Jakes, Milos (b. Aug. 12, 1922, Ceské Chalupy, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. July 10, 2020, Prague, Czech Republic), Czechoslovak politician. In 1945 he joined the Communist Party, which was rapidly signing up new members, and became a leader at the local level. He was an employee of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1958-63), chairman of the Central Administration for the Development of a Communal Economy (1963-66), deputy minister of the interior (1966-68), and chairman of the party's Central Control and Auditing Commission (1968-77). After the Soviet invasion of 1968 ended the "Prague Spring," it was his commission that reviewed what party members had done during the "crisis period." Thousands were expelled. In 1977 he joined the Central Committee and became chairman of its Committee on Agriculture and Food. He increased food production by promoting entrepreneurship without ending planning. As chairman of the National Economic Committee (1981-87), by contrast, he supervised a stagnant national economy. On Dec. 17, 1987, the Central Committee elected Jakes to the most important job in the party, that of secretary-general. On Oct. 10, 1988, Jakes announced the resignation of Lubomír Strougal as prime minister and as a member of the Presidium, the inner circle of party leaders. Although Jakes had kind words for Strougal, Western observers believed that the two had been rivals for years. Both had achieved prominence after the Soviet invasion. Neither wanted anything like a repetition of the "Prague Spring" experiment, but Strougal, in 1987, had worked with economists on a policy of reduced economic planning and greater reliance on market forces. Jakes resisted Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring).

Jakeway, Sir (Francis) Derek (b. June 6, 1915 - d. Nov. 6, 1993), governor of Fiji (1964-68); knighted 1963.

Jakhar, Balram (b. Aug. 23, 1923, Panjkosi village, Ferozepur district, Punjab, India - d. Feb. 3, 2016, New Delhi, India), governor of Madhya Pradesh (2004-09) and Gujarat (2004). He was speaker of the Lok Sabha in 1980-89 and minister of agriculture in 1991-96.

Jakic, Roman (b. May 1, 1967, Ljubljana, Slovenia), defense minister of Slovenia (2013-14).

Jakins, Herbert George (b. July 6, 1897 - d. 1988, Somerset, England), British political agent in Kuwait (1949-51).

Jakobsdóttir, Katrín (b. Feb. 1, 1976, Reykjavík, Iceland), prime minister of Iceland (2017-24). She was also minister of education, science, culture, and Nordic cooperation (2009-13).

Jakobsen, Svend (b. Nov. 1, 1935, Ulsted [now in Nordjylland], Denmark - d. May 28, 2022), finance minister of Denmark (1979-81). He was also minister of housing (1973, 1977), inland revenue (1975-77), environment (1977), and fisheries (1977-79) and speaker of the Folketing (1981-89).

Jakobson, August, Russian August (Mikhkelevich) Yakobson (b. Sept. 2 [Aug. 20, O.S.], 1904, Rääma, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. May 23, 1963, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian S.S.R. (1950-58). He was also head of the Estonian Writers' Union (1939-40, 1944-45, 1950-54).

Jakobson, Max (b. Sept. 30, 1923, Viipuri, Finland [now Vyborg, Russia] - d. March 9, 2013, Helsinki, Finland), Finnish diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-72) and ambassador to Sweden (1972-74).

Jakova, Tuk (b. April 26, 1914, Shkodër, Albania - d. Aug. 27, 1959, Tiranë, Albania), finance minister of Albania (1953-54). He was also chairman of the People's Assembly (1946), economy minister (1946-47), minister to Yugoslavia (1947), and a deputy premier (1948-53).

Jalalar, Mohammad Khan (b. 1935, Andkhoy, Afghanistan - d. May 2, 2020, New Jersey), finance minister of Afghanistan (1972-73). He was also minister of commerce (1974-78, 1980-89).

Jalander, Bruno (Fredrik) (b. Aug. 28, 1872, Brahestad [now Raahe], Finland - d. Dec. 14, 1966, Helsinki, Finland), governor of Uusimaa (1917-32) and war/defense minister of Finland (1920-21, 1921-23).

Jalang'o, Bob Francis (b. Feb. 5, 1945), Kenyan diplomat. He was high commissioner to Zambia, Malawi, and Botswana (1993-97), ambassador to Italy, Greece, and Poland (1997-2001), and permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-03).

Jaldo, Osvaldo (Francisco) (b. April 19, 1958, Trancas, Tucumán, Argentina), governor of Tucumán (2021-23 [acting], 2023- ).

Jaleel, Moosa Ali (b. 1960), defense minister of Maldives (2015). He was also chief of defence force (2008-12) and high commissioner to Pakistan (2014-15).

Jalkh (Röben), (Charbel) Gustavo (b. Guayaquil, Ecuador), interior minister of Ecuador (2009-10). He was also minister of justice and human rights (2007-09).

Jalloud, Abdul Salam (Ahmed), Arabic `Abd al-Salam Ahmad Jallud (b. Dec. 15, 1944, Mizdah, south of Tripoli, Libya), interior minister (1970), finance minister (1970-72), and prime minister (1972-77) of Libya.

Jallow, Hassan Bubacar (b. Aug. 14, 1951, Bansang, Gambia), justice minister and attorney general of The Gambia (1984-94). He has also been prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (2003-15) and chief justice of The Gambia (2017- ).

Jallow, Tamsir (b. 1941, Gambia), Gambian diplomat. He was high commissioner to the United Kingdom and ambassador to Croatia, Ireland, Israel, and the Nordic countries (2005-07) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-08). He was appointed ambassador to the United States in 2008 but was recalled before presenting credentials.

Jallow-Tambajang, Fatoumata (C.M.) (b. Oct. 22, 1949, Brikama, Gambia), vice president of The Gambia (2017-18). She was also minister of women's affairs (2017-18).

Jaló, Luzéria dos Santos (b. Aug. 24, 1955, Portuguese Guinea [now Guinea-Bissau]), Guinea-Bissauan diplomat. She was permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-03).

Jama, Jama Ali, president of Puntland (2001-02).

Jamakosmanovic, Sead (b. 1949, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), governor of Tuzla canton (1996-98).

Jamal, Amir (Habib) (b. Jan. 26, 1922, Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania] - d. March 20, 1995, Vancouver, B.C.), finance minister of Tanzania (1965-72, 1975-77, 1979-83). He was also minister of urban local government and works (1959-60), communications, power, and works (1960-64), commerce and industry (1972-75), and communications and transport (1977-79) and a minister without portfolio (1983-84).

Jamal, Arsala (b. 1966, Yusufkhel district, Paktika province, Afghanistan - d. [bomb attack] Oct. 15, 2013, Pul-i-Alam, Logar province, Afghanistan), Afghan politician. He was governor of Khost (2006-08) and Logar (2013) and acting minister of border and tribal affairs (2010).

Jamal, Jassim (ibn Yusuf) (b. Sept. 17, 1940 - d. Feb. 25, 2023, London, England), Qatari diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-84) and ambassador to Morocco (1984-88).

M.Z.K. Jamali
Jamali, Mir Zafarullah Khan (b. Jan. 1, 1944, Rojhan Jamali village, Nasirabad district, Balochistan, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Dec. 2, 2020, Rawalpindi, Pakistan), acting chief minister of Balochistan (1988, 1996-97) and prime minister of Pakistan (2002-04).

Jamali, Muhammad Fadhel al-, Arabic Muhammad Fadil al-Jamali (b. April 20, 1903, Kadhimiya [now part of Baghdad], Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. May 24, 1997, Tunis, Tunisia), foreign minister (1946-48, 1949, 1952, 1954, 1958) and prime minister (1953-54) of Iraq. He was one of the prominent politicians during the Hashemite monarchy that ruled Iraq from 1921 to 1958. He helped develop Iraq's first modern school system and signed the United Nations charter in 1945. He was also minister to Egypt (1949), permanent representative to the UN (1949-50), president of the Chamber of Deputies (1950-52), and minister of education (1954). As prime minister, he was involved in negotiations with Britain for a treaty to give Iraq more freedom under colonial rule, but was forced to resign when the treaty was rejected by most nationalist parties. After a military coup overthrew the monarchy in 1958, he was sentenced to be hanged on charges of collaboration with the West. His sentence was later commuted and he was freed (1961) after Morocco intervened and later became an adviser to Tunisian president Habib Bourguiba, who granted him Tunisian citizenship.

Jamaluddin (bin Mohd) Jarjis, Tan Sri (b. May 25, 1951, Pekan, Pahang, Malaya [now in Malaysia] - d. [helicopter crash] April 4, 2015, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia), second finance minister of Malaysia (2002-04). He was also minister of domestic trade and consumer affairs (2004) and science, technology, and innovation (2004-08) and ambassador to the United States (2009-12). He was awarded the titles Dato' (1992), Dato' Indera (2001), Dato' Sri (2004), Dato' Seri (2007), and Tan Sri (2014).

Jambon, Jan (b. April 26, 1960, Genk, Belgium), interior minister (and a deputy prime minister) of Belgium (2014-18) and minister-president of Flanders (2019- ).

Jambrek, Peter (b. Jan. 14, 1940, Ljubljana, Yugoslavia [now in Slovenia]), interior minister of Slovenia (2000).


E. James
Jameel, Fathulla (b. Sept. 5, 1942 - d. March 1, 2012, Singapore), foreign minister of Maldives (1978-2005). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1977-78) and minister of state for planning and environment (1990).

James, Arthur H(orace) (b. July 14, 1883, Plymouth, Pa. - d. April 27, 1973, Plymouth), governor of Pennsylvania (1939-43).

James, Edison (Chenfil) (b. Oct. 18, 1943, Marigot, Dominica), prime minister (1995-2000) and foreign minister (1995-98) of Dominica. He worked as a civil servant in both Dominica and the United Kingdom and served as an officer with the Caribbean Development Bank. He was for seven years chief executive officer of the Dominica Banana Marketing Corporation. A founding member of the United Workers Party, he was its leader in 1990-2005 and 2012-13.

James, Edmund Henry Salt (b. June 26, 1874 - d. Oct. 27, 1952), acting chief commissioner of Baluchistan (1926-27, 1929).

F.H. James
James, Forrest H(ood), Jr., byname Fob James (b. Sept. 15, 1934, Lanett, Chambers county, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1979-83, 1995-99). In 1978, following a switch from the Republican to the Democratic Party, James entered the gubernatorial race and won. He did not run for reelection in 1982, when George Wallace won his last term. He again switched parties on April 8, 1994, ran as a Republican and won reelection on Nov. 8, 1994. Even in Alabama, which has a reputation for electing controversial governors, James was a standout. He once did an ape imitation as a way of mocking the theory of evolution in an appearance before the state Board of Education. In 1997, he announced he would call out the National Guard if necessary to defend the right of a state judge to display a wooden tablet of the Ten Commandments on the wall of his courtroom. In a protest against federal court rulings prohibiting organized prayer in public schools, James argued that the U.S. Supreme Court had no jurisdiction over Alabama. James' stands prompted conservative business interests to back businessman Winton Blount in the Republican primary for governor in 1998. Blount branded James as an "embarrassment." James called Blount a "fat monkey" and handily won with 56% of the vote. James lost, however, to Democrat Don Siegelman in the general election. One single issue dominated the race - Siegelman's proposal to establish a state lottery to raise education standards. In a state increasingly dominated by Republicans, Siegelman managed to drive a wedge between the evangelical Christians who regarded James as a hero, and more business oriented voters who believed the colourful governor was harming the state's reputation and slowing its development.

James, Sir Frederick Seton (b. April 8, 1870 - d. Feb. 13, 1934), governor of the Straits Settlements (acting, 1919-20) and the Windward Islands (1924-30); knighted 1923.

James, Sir Henry Evan Murchison (b. Jan. 20, 1846 - d. Aug. 20, 1923), commissioner of Sind (1891-1900); knighted 1901.

James, Jonas, justice minister of Vanuatu (2013-14).

James, Sir Stanislaus (Anthony) (b. Nov. 13, 1919, Soufrière, Saint Lucia - d. May 26, 2011, Castries, Saint Lucia), governor-general of Saint Lucia (1988-96); knighted 1992.

James, William H(artford) (b. Oct. 16, 1831, Marion, Ohio - d. Feb. 1, 1920, Colfax, Wash.), acting governor of Nebraska (1871-73).

Jameson, David (b. 1723?, Essex county, Virginia - d. July 10, 1793, Yorktown?, Va.), acting governor of Virginia (1781).

Jameson, Sir Leander Starr, (1st) Baronet (b. Feb. 9, 1853, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. Nov. 26, 1917, London, England), administrator of Mashonaland (1891-96) and prime minister of Cape Colony (1904-08). He was made a baronet in 1911.



O. Jammeh
Jamieson, Donald Campbell (b. April 30, 1921, St. John's, Newfoundland - d. Nov. 19, 1986, Swift Current, Sask.), foreign minister of Canada (1976-79). He was also minister of defence production (1968-69), supply and services (1969), transport (1969-72), regional economic expansion (1972-75), and industry, trade and commerce (1975-76) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1983-85).

Jamir, S(anaiyangba) C(hubatoshi) (b. Oct. 17, 1931, Ungma village, Assam [now in Mokokchung district, Nagaland], India), chief minister of Nagaland (1980, 1982-86, 1989-90, 1993-2003) and governor of Goa (2004-08), Maharashtra (2008-10), Gujarat (2009), and Odisha (2013-18).

Jammeh, Ousman (b. Aug. 13, 1953, Brikama, Gambia), foreign minister of The Gambia (2009-10). He was also minister of petroleum, energy, and mineral resources (2007-08) and energy (2008-09, 2010).

Y. Jammeh
Jammeh, Yahya (Abdul-Azziz Jemus Junkung)1 (b. May 25, 1965, Kanilai village, Foni Kansala district, Western Division, The Gambia), president of The Gambia (1994-2017). He joined what was then the Gambia National Gendarmerie in 1984 and was promoted from private to sergeant two years later. He transferred to The Gambia National Army and was commissioned in 1989. He attended the Military Police Officers Basic Course at Fort McClellan, Ala., U.S., and obtained a diploma in military science in 1994. Jammeh served under various units in The Gambia National Army. From 1984 to 1986 he was in the Special Intervention Unit, 1986-89 in the Gendarmerie Training School (Escort Training Instructor), 1989-90 Presidential Guards (in charge of Presidential Escort); in 1991 he served as officer commanding in the Mobile Gendarmerie and in 1992 was officer commanding The Gambia National Army Military Police, until July 22, 1994, when the army toppled Pres. Sir Dawda Jawara in a bloodless coup and he became chairman of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council. At the time Jammeh was a lieutenant. In 1994, he was promoted to the rank of captain and in 1996 to the rank of colonel. Jammeh retired from the army in 1996. After a two-year transitional period constitutional and civilian government was restored. He won presidential elections on Sept. 26, 1996. Reelected in 2001, 2006, and 2011, he somewhat surprisingly lost to Adama Barrow in December 2016. Initially accepting the result, he later attempted to cling to power and Barrow had to be sworn in (Jan. 19, 2017) in Senegal. Regional neighbours as well as the wider international community supported Barrow, and Senegal sent troops over the border to remove Jammeh; he flew into exile on January 21.
1 He identified himself as Sheikh Professor Alhaji Dr. Yahya Abdul-Azziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh Babili Mansa, the last two words (meaning "chief bridge builder" or "conqueror of rivers") being adopted in August 2014, dropped in December, then added again in June 2015, while the religious title "Naasiru Deen" that had been added March 1, 2011, was dropped in October 2014.

Jamoussi, (Mohamed) Karim (b. Jan. 28, 1966, Tunis, Tunisia), justice minister (2018-20) and acting defense minister (2019-20) of Tunisia. He was also ambassador to France (2021-23).



Jampa Phuntsok, also spelled Qiangba Puncog (b. May 1947, Qamdo prefecture, Xikang [now in Xizang], China), chairman of the government of Xizang (2003-10).

Jämsén, Artturi (b. Feb. 7, 1925, Pihtipudas, Finland - d. Aug. 11, 1976, Moscow, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister and Finland (1970-71) and governor of Keski-Suomi (1971-76).

Jamshedov, Shodikhon (Azatkhonovich), also called Shodikhon Jamshed (b. March 22, 1962, Shugnan district, Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous oblast, Tadzhik S.S.R.), chairman of Gorno-Badakhshan autonomous province (2013-18).

Jamshid ibn `Abd Allah, Sayyid (b. Sept. 16, 1929, Zanzibar), sultan of Zanzibar (1963-64). He lives in England since his deposition.

Jämtin, Carin (b. Aug. 3, 1964, Stockholm, Sweden), acting foreign minister of Sweden (2006) and governor of Västernorrland (2023- ). She was minister of development aid in 2003-06.


Jandrokovic, Gordan (b. Aug. 2, 1967, Bjelovar, Croatia), foreign minister of Croatia (2008-11). He has also been a deputy prime minister (2010-11) and president of the Sabor (2017- ).

Janelidze, Mikheil (b. March 29, 1981, Kutaisi, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Georgia (2015-18). He was also a deputy prime minister (2017-18).

Janett, Urs (b. May 31, 1976), Landammann of Uri (2022- ).

Jang, Jonah (David) (b. March 13, 1944, Du [now in Plateau state], Nigeria), governor of Plateau (2007-15).

Jang Bahadur Rana, Jang also spelled Jung, original name Jang Bahadur Kunwar (b. June 18, 1817, Kathmandu, Nepal - d. Feb. 25, 1877, Patharghatta, Bhagalpur district, Bihar, India), prime minister of Nepal (1846-56, 1857-77). A man of great courage and ability, Jang Bahadur gained control over the government after killing a usurper, Gagan Singh, who in 1846 had plotted with the junior queen to become prime minister and place her son on the throne. Subsequently, he deposed and exiled both the king and the queen after they had attempted to have him assassinated. He was named prime minister for life and given the hereditary title of Rana. His diplomatic skill and conciliatory policy helped Nepal remain independent while the rest of the Indian subcontinent came under British rule. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857-58 he sent a contingent of Gurkha soldiers to aid the British, thus establishing a tradition of Gurkha military service in the British army. He also did much to improve and modernize the administration of the country and revised the old penal code. Although he attempted to abolish suttee, three of his widows immolated themselves on his funeral pyre. Once he was appointed hereditary prime minister, he believed it essential for the security of the state that he should be succeeded by a fully adult and capable man. Accordingly, he devised an order of succession by means of which the office passed not from father to son but rather from brother to brother within the family. In the second generation it passed to the sons of all his brothers in order of age and in a similar manner in succeeding generations. At his death Jang Bahadur was thus succeeded by his younger brother Ranaudip Singh. The office of prime minister remained in the Rana family until 1951. The Rana family continued, however, to remain extremely powerful.

Jangali, Ali Ahmed Jama, Somali Cali Axmed Jaamac Jangali, foreign minister of Somalia (1990, 2008-09, 2009-10). He was also minister of posts and telecommunications (2005-06), information (2006-07), animal husbandry, forestry, and wildlife (2007-08), air and land transport (2009), culture and higher education (2010), and air transport and aviation (2015-17).

Janicki, Czeslaw (Andrzej) (b. July 19, 1926, Korytnica [now in Wielkopolskie województwo], Poland - d. Dec. 29, 2012, Poznan, Poland), Polish politician. He was a deputy prime minister and minister of agriculture and food economy (1989-90).

Janik, Krzysztof (Jan) (b. June 11, 1950, Kielce, Poland), interior minister of Poland (2001-04). He was also leader of the Democratic Left Alliance (2004).

Janina, Suela (b. June 28, 1976, Tiranë, Albania), Albanian diplomat. She has been ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg (2014-24) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2024- ).

Janisch, Hudson Ralph (b. 1824, Saint Helena - d. March 10, 1884, Saint Helena), governor of Saint Helena (1873-84). He was the first (and still the only) locally-born governor of Saint Helena.

Janjua, Amir Gulistan (b. Aug. 14, 1925, Jhelum, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Feb. 19, 2019, Rawalpindi, Pakistan), governor of the North-West Frontier Province (1988-93). He was also Pakistani ambassador to Nepal (1976-81), the United Arab Emirates (1981-85), and Saudi Arabia (1985-88).

Janjua, Tehmina, acting foreign minister of Pakistan (2018). She was ambassador to Italy (2011-15) and foreign secretary (2017-19).

Jankevicius, Elvinas (b. March 1, 1976, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), justice minister of Lithuania (2018-20).

Janklow, William J(ohn), byname Bill Janklow (b. Sept. 13, 1939, Chicago, Ill. - d. Jan. 12, 2012, Sioux Falls, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (1979-87, 1995-2003). Probably no governor in South Dakota's history had as great an impact as Republican Janklow; yet he remained as controversial in victory as in defeat. He started off as a lawyer on a Sioux Indian reservation. Then, elected attorney general in 1974, he reacted sharply to the militants' uprisings of 1975, insisting that the law be enforced. Elected governor in 1978, he got Citibank into the state - the first of many credit card operations - and set the state on a low-tax course. Reelected in 1982, he ran for the Senate in 1986, and lost the primary 55%-45% to the inarticulate but personally popular incumbent Sen. Jim Abdnor. The new governor, Republican George Mickelson, was proud of his revolving economic development fund, financed by a temporary one-cent sales tax increase, to attract jobs and industry. Mickelson died in a plane crash in 1993, and was succeeded by Walter Dale Miller, a rancher from near Rapid City who served 20 years in the legislature and six as lieutenant governor. Janklow challenged him in the 1994 Republican primary and won by 54%-46%, carrying most of eastern South Dakota and losing much of the west. In the general election he won easily, 55%-41%, over Jim Beddow, the former president of Dakota Wesleyan University. Feisty and sometimes abrasive, Janklow's critics said he ran state government like a dictator. But he pledged to keep South Dakota's economy strong and to be tough on crime and drug abuse, and was reelected in 1998. In 2002 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. On Aug. 29, 2003, he was charged with second-degree manslaughter after an accident in which his speeding car hit and killed a motorcyclist; he was convicted on December 8.

Jankovcová, Ludmila (b. Aug. 8, 1897, Kutná Hora, Austria [now in Czech Republic] - d. Sept. 5, 1990, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), a deputy premier of Czechoslovakia (1954-63). She was also minister of industry (1947-48) and food (1948-54).

Jankowitsch, Peter (b. July 10, 1933, Vienna, Austria), foreign minister of Austria (1986-87). He was also chargé d'affaires in Senegal (1964-66) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1972-78).

Jankowski, Jan Stanislaw (b. May 6, 1882, Krasowo Wielkie, Poland - d. March 13, 1953, U.S.S.R.), deputy prime minister of Poland in exile (1944-47).

Jankulovska, Gordana (b. Oct. 12, 1975, Ohrid, Macedonia), interior minister of Macedonia (2006-15).

Janmaat, Hans, byname of Johannes Gerardus Hendrikus Janmaat (b. Nov. 3, 1934, Nieuwer-Amstel, Noord-Holland, Netherlands - d. June 9, 2002, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was on the rightist fringe of Dutch politics. His views that the overcrowded Netherlands had no room for foreigners and that refugees should be sent back to their countries of origin were contrary to the country's generous open-door policy. He founded the Central Democratic party in 1984, which won its first seats in parliament in 1989. Its best result was in 1994, gaining 3 of the 150 seats. One was filled by Janmaat's wife Wil Schuurman, who lost a leg in a bomb attack by leftist radicals at a party meeting in 1986. Janmaat left politics in 1998 after his party lost all its seats. He said a comeback was hopeless, accusing the media and the Dutch security service of working against him. He was convicted several times on discrimination charges, most recently in 1997 for advocating an end to the Dutch multicultural society.

Janot, Raymond (b. March 9, 1917, Paris, France - d. Nov. 25, 2000, Paris), president of the Regional Council of Bourgogne (1989-92).

Janota, Eduard (b. March 13, 1952, Opava, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. May 20, 2011, Radovesice, Czech Republic), finance minister of the Czech Republic (2009-10).

Janotti, José de Carvalho (b. 1916, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Nov. 6, 1980, Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), acting governor of Rio de Janeiro (1962-63). He was also mayor of Teresópolis (1947-51, 1955-59).

Janowski, Jan (Stanislaw) (b. June 20, 1928, Kielce, Poland - d. April 3, 1998, Kraków, Poland), Polish politician. He was a deputy prime minister and minister-head of the Office of Scientific and Technical Progress and Implementation (1989-91).

Jans, Beat (b. July 12, 1964, Basel, Switzerland), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (2021-23) and justice minister of Switzerland (2024- ).

Jansa, Janez, byname of Ivan Jansa (b. Sept. 17, 1958, Ljubljana, Slovenia, Yugoslavia), prime minister of Slovenia (2004-08, 2012-13, 2020-22). In 1988, he became a popular figure after the Yugoslav army arrested him with three other political dissidents, accusing them of divulging state secrets. The fact that the case (widely known in the former Yugoslavia as the JBTZ case) was heard in an army court and in Serbo-Croatian triggered the first mass demonstrations in Ljubljana in the Communist era, showing in the process that the notion of an independent Slovenia was more popular than some in the Communist leadership had realized. In 1990, Jansa became defense minister in the first Slovenian independent government. He set up the Slovenian army, which in 1991 proved strong enough to withstand attack by the JLA, the ex-Yugoslav army. He was defense minister until 1994, when his career came to an abrupt end after army officials beat up an employee of the Interior Ministry. Even if the circumstances are still blurred, it was clear that the interior and defense ministries were surveying each other. Jansa was held responsible for the incident and dismissed by Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek. In 1993 Jansa became chairman of the Social Democratic Party (SDS). He was again defense minister in 2000. In the 2004 elections, the SDS (renamed Slovenian Democratic Party in 2003) managed to overturn ten years of nearly unbroken dominance by the Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) by increasing its vote from 16% in 2000 to 29%. In 2008 the SDS again won 29% but went into opposition as the Social Democrats were able to form a coalition. Jansa's popularity had been eroded by a rising cost of living and a corruption allegation. Critics also claimed that he had assumed too much power, controlling police, the judiciary, and the media, thereby endangering democracy. After snap elections in 2011, he managed to assemble a five-way coalition and return to head the government, contrary to the will of Pres. Danilo Türk, who rejected giving him a mandate to form a government. Accused by the anti-corruption watchdog in January 2013 of tax irregularities, and struggling to implement austerity measures to combat the country's financial crisis, he was ousted in a no-confidence vote in February after smaller parties left his coalition. He was given a two-year jail sentence for bribery the same year, but the conviction was later overturned by the Constitutional Court. In 2020 he returned to power at the head of a four-party coalition. An ally of Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán, he pushed a hard line on immigration. He was defeated in 2022 elections.

Jansen, Ernest George (b. Aug. 7, 1881, Strathearn, near Dundee, Natal [now KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa] - d. Nov. 25, 1959, Pretoria, South Africa), governor-general of South Africa (1951-59).

Jansen, Geert (Jan) (b. Nov. 7, 1946, Norg, Drenthe, Netherlands), queen's commissioner of Overijssel (2002-11).

Jansen, Joannes Coenraad (b. Dec. 14, 1840, The Hague - d. March 24, 1925, The Hague), acting foreign minister of the Netherlands (1894). He was also minister of marine (1891-94, 1897), acting minister of defense (1897), and acting mayor of The Hague (1911).

Janson, Paul Emile (b. May 30, 1872, Brussels, Belgium - d. March 3, 1944, Buchenwald concentration camp, Germany), defense minister (1920), justice minister (1927-31, 1932-34, 1939, 1940), prime minister (1937-38), and foreign minister (1939) of Belgium. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1910. After the German invasion of Belgium in 1914, he played an important part in the rehabilitation of his country and in the care of refugees. He became more prominent in politics and was a delegate to the League of Nations (1926-29). A leading member of the Liberal Party, he formed a cabinet in November 1937 consisting of Catholics, Socialists, and Liberals. During his tenure as premier, he met determined opposition from the Catholic deputies, who demanded that he cut expenditures by reducing his program of social reforms. The Socialists, however, urged more spending and new taxation. Caught between the conflicting demands, his government fell in May 1938. After the German invasion of 1940 he escaped to France, but was arrested by the Germans there in 1943, and was imprisoned at Fresnes before being transferred to the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany where he died.

Janssen, Albert-Edouard (Marie Henri) (b. April 1, 1883, Antwerp, Belgium - d. March 29, 1966, Hamme, Belgium), finance minister of Belgium (1925-26, 1938-39, 1952-54). He was also director of the National Bank of Belgium (1919-25).

Janssens, Jan Willem (b. Oct. 12, 1762, Nijmegen, Netherlands - d. May 23, 1838, The Hague, Netherlands), governor of Cape Colony (1803-06), war minister of Holland/the Netherlands (1807-09, 1814-15), and governor-general of the Netherlands (French) East Indies (1811).

Jantuah, Kwame Sanaa-Poku, until 1962 known as John Ernest Jantuah (b. Dec. 21, 1922, Kumasi, Gold Coast [now Ghana] - d. Feb. 3, 2011, Accra, Ghana), interior minister of Ghana (1981). He was also minister of agriculture and fisheries (1954-56) and local government, rural development, and cooperatives (1979-81) and ambassador to France (1959-62), Brazil (1962-64), and East Germany (1985-90).

Janusz, Stanislaw (b. April 25, 1890, Przeworsk, Austria [now in Poland] - d. Oct. 15, 1970, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1944-45).

Jaosoa, (Jean) Pascal (b. March 19, 1959, Amboangibe, northern Madagascar), governor of Antsiranana (2002-03).


A. Japarov
Japaridze, Tedo, byname of Teimuraz (Archilis dze) Japaridze (b. Sept. 18, 1946, Tbilisi, Georgian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Georgia (2003-04). He was also ambassador to the United States, Canada, and Mexico (1994-2002) and secretary of the National Security Council (2002-03).

Japarov, Akylbek (Usenbekovich) (b. Sept. 14, 1964, Balykchy, Kirgiz S.S.R. [now in Issyk-Kul oblast, Kyrgyzstan]), finance minister (2005-07, 2011-12) and chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers (2021- ) of Kyrgyzstan. He was also minister of economic development and trade (2007-09) and first deputy prime minister (2009-10).

S. Japarov
Japarov, Sadyr (Nurgozhoyevich), also spelled Zhaparov (b. June 12, 1968, Ken-Suu village, northern Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister (2020-21) and president (2020 [acting], 2021- ) of Kyrgyzstan. In 2017 the former lawmaker was arrested, found guilty of organizing the kidnapping of Issyk-Kul governor Emil Kaptagayev in 2013, and sentenced to 11 years and 6 months in a prison colony. In the 2020 post-election protests he was freed from prison, then designated prime minister, and the Supreme Court overturned his sentence, granting a review of the case. As President Sooronbay Jeenbekov was pressured to resign, Japarov also became acting president. He resigned from that role a month later to run (successfully) for the substantive post.

Jaque, Celso (Alejandro) (b. Sept. 24, 1960, Malargüe, Mendoza, Argentina), governor of Mendoza (2007-11). In 2011-16 he was ambassador to Colombia.

A. Jara
Jara (Velásquez), Ana (Ethel del Rosario) (b. May 11, 1968, Ica region, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2014-15). She was minister of women and social development (2011-12), women and vulnerable populations (2012-14), and labour (2014).

Jara (y Alvizuri), José María de la (b. Dec. 16, 1818, Arequipa, Peru - d. May 14, 1897, Lima, Peru), finance minister of Peru (1872-73).

Jara (y Alvizuri), Ladislao de la (b. 1837?, Arequipa, Peru - d. Sept. 25, 1902, Arequipa), finance minister of Peru (1883); brother of José María de la Jara.

Jara Corona, Heriberto (b. July 10, 1879, Nogales, Veracruz, Mexico - d. April 17, 1968, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of the Distrito Federal (1914), Tabasco (1918-19), and Veracruz (1924-27). He was also minister to Cuba (1919-20), president of the Party of the Mexican Revolution (1939-40), and minister of marine (1940-46).

Jara Cruz
Jara Cruz, Salomón (b. Sept. 15, 1959, San Melchor Betaza, Oaxaca, Mexico), governor of Oaxaca (2022- ).

Jara y Ureta, José María de la (b. March 29, 1879, Lima, Peru - d. May 22, 1932, Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Peruvian politician; grandson of José María de la Jara. He was minister to Brazil (1931) and a presidential candidate (1931).

Jara y Ureta, José María de la (b. 1920, Lima, Peru - d. Jan. 21, 1986, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1980-81); son of the above. He was also ambassador to Italy (1982-86).

Jaradat, Fahd (Muhammad Musa) (b. 1930, Bushra, Irbid, Transjordan [now Jordan] - d. May 19, 2015), finance minister of Jordan (1970).

Járai, Zsigmond (b. Dec. 29, 1951, Biharkeresztes, eastern Hungary), finance minister of Hungary (1998-2000). In 2001-07 he was governor of the Hungarian National Bank.

Jaramillo (Restrepo), Alfonso (b. Nov. 9, 1880, Sonsón, Antioquia, Colombia - d. April 15, 1926, Soacha, Cundinamarca, Colombia), war minister of Colombia (1923-24).

Jaramillo (Gutiérrez), (Jesús María) Esteban (b. Sept. 3, 1874, Abejorral, Antioquia, Colombia - d. Nov. 22, 1947, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister of Colombia (1927-29, 1931-34). He was also minister of interior (acting, 1903-04), agriculture and commerce (1918-19), and public works (1920-21).

Jaramillo, Luciano, interior minister (1856) and acting war and navy minister (1856) of New Granada.

Jaramillo Arrubla, Cástor (b. April 13, 1914, Salento, Quindío, Colombia - d. Sept. 28, 1978), foreign minister of Colombia (1965-66). He was also governor of Caldas (1949-50), minister of labour (1954-56, 1963-64), and president of the Senate (1963).

Jaramillo Bruce, Rodolfo (b. Aug. 27, 1889, Santiago, Chile - d. 1960, Santiago), finance minister of Chile (1929-30, 1931). He was also minister of economy and commerce (1943).

Jaramillo Correa, Luis Fernando (b. July 24, 1935, Barranquilla, Colombia - d. Nov. 23, 2011, Bogotá, Colombia), foreign minister of Colombia (1990-91). He was also minister of public works and transport (1986-89), permanent representative to the United Nations (1992-94), and ambassador to Spain (1998-99).

Jaramillo Giraldo, José (b. April 15, 1915, Manizales, Colombia - d. Nov. 4, 1979, Bogotá, Colombia), Colombian presidential candidate (1966). He was also president of the Senate (1946-47).

Jaramillo Isaza, Carlos (b. Feb. 1, 1882, Madrid, Cundinamarca, Colombia - d. 19..., Bogotá, Colombia), war minister of Colombia (1924-25).

Jaramillo Ocampo, Hernán (b. Oct. 13, 1915, Manizales, Colombia - d. Dec. 12, 1989, Bogotá, Colombia), finance minister of Colombia (1949-50). He was also minister of mines and petroleum (acting, 1950) and agriculture (1971-72).

Jaramillo Valderrama, Armando (b. May 10, 1886, Santiago, Chile - d. Dec. 29, 1932, Santiago), foreign minister of Chile (1924). He was also minister of industry, public works, and railways (1920, 1921-22), justice and education (1920-21), and interior (1922, 1925) and president of the central bank (1932).

Jaranilla, Delfin (Jebucion) (b. Dec. 24, 1883, La Paz, Iloilo, Philippines - d. June 4, 1980), justice secretary of the Philippines (1945). He was also attorney general (1927-32).

A.J. Jardim
Jardim, Alberto João (Cardoso Gonçalves) (b. Feb. 4, 1943, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal), president of the government of Madeira (1978-2015). A member of the centre-right Social Democratic Party elected repeatedly since 1978, his popularity grew along with Madeira's economy, as he used its status as an autonomous region to tap into extensive subsidies from Lisbon and the European Union and lavishly extend the island's infrastructure, including a number of wasteful "white elephant" projects. He resigned in 2007 to protest the Portuguese government's 2007 budget, which reduced funding for the islands; he was then reelected with his largest-ever margin. Since EU subsidies dried up, he used creative accounting to maintain spending, and Madeira accumulated massive debts; in 2011 he had to negotiate a bailout with the mainland government. In 2014 he announced his retirement.

Jardim, Eugênio Rodrigues (b. Oct. 6, 1856, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. [hit by a car] July 25, 1926, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Goiás (1921-22); grandson of José Rodrigues Jardim; brother of Francisco Leopoldo Rodrigues Jardim; cousin and brother-in-law of José Leopoldo de Bulhões Jardim.

Jardim, Francisco Leopoldo Rodrigues (b. Aug. 27, 1847, São Paulo, Brazil - d. March 3, 1920, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil), president of Goiás (1895-98); grandson of José Rodrigues Jardim.

Jardim, Jeronymo Rodrigues de Moraes (b. Feb. 12, 1838, Vila Boa, Goiás, Brazil - d. Sept. 16, 1916, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Ceará (1889); nephew of José Rodrigues Jardim. He was also Brazilian minister of industry, transport, and public works (1898).

Jardim, José Leopoldo de Bulhões (b. Sept. 28, 1856, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. Dec. 15, 1928, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), finance minister of Brazil (1902-06, 1909-10); nephew of José Rodrigues Jardim; cousin of Jeronymo Rodrigues de Moraes Jardim; brother-in-law of Urbano Coelho de Gouveia. He was also mayor of Petrópolis (1917).

Jardim, José Rodrigues (b. 1780, Goiás, Goiás, Brazil - d. Oct. 27, 1842, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Goiás (1831-37 and [acting] 1841).

Jardim, Ricardo José Gomes (b. late November 1805, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Aug. 9, 1884, Rio Grande do Sul province [now state], Brazil), president of Paraíba (1843) and Mato Grosso (1844-47).

Jardim, Torquato (Lorena) (b. Dec. 12, 1949, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), justice minister of Brazil (2017-19); grandson of Eugênio Rodrigues Jardim. He was also minister of transparency, supervision, and control (2016-17).

Jardine, Sir Douglas (James) (b. Oct. 13, 1888 - d. Dec. 11, 1946), governor of North Borneo (1934-37), Sierra Leone (1937-41), and the Leeward Islands (1941-43); knighted 1938.

Jarecki, Stanislaw (b. Aug. 28, 1892, Bialystok, Russia [now in Poland] - d. May 9, 1955, Warsaw, Poland), governor of Kieleckie (acting, 1934) and Stanislawowskie (1939) województwa.

Jargalsaikhan, Bayaryn (b. 1915, in present Dornod province, Mongolia - d. Oct. 24, 2005), foreign minister of Mongolia (1953-55). He was also ambassador to China (1950-53), Czechoslovakia (1964-66), France (1966-69), and Algeria (1973-76) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-64).

Jarman, Ahmad Abdul Rahman al- (b. 1950, Ajman, Trucial States [now United Arab Emirates]), United Arab Emirates diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-13).

Jarnjak, Ivan (b. April 9, 1941, Bednja, Croatia), interior minister of Croatia (1992-96).

Jaroszek, Henryk (b. Oct. 1, 1926, Kajetanów, Kieleckie województwo, Poland - d. June 14, 2015), Polish diplomat. He was ambassador to Iraq (1959-62) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1975-80).

Jaroszewicz, Piotr (b. Oct. 8, 1909, Nieswiez, Warsaw province, Russian Empire [now Nesvizh, Belarus] - d. Sept. 2, 1992, Anin, Poland), prime minister of Poland (1970-80). He joined the Soviet-backed Polish army in 1943. He progressed rapidly, rising to the rank of brigadier general by 1950. In 1944 he joined what effectively was the Communist Party, and he was deputy premier (1952-70) and minister of mining (1954-56). He joined the party's Politburo in 1964 and became a full member three days before his appointment as premier in 1970. He implemented the policies of Edward Gierek, first secretary of the Polish United Workers' (Communist) Party; their government policies led to a crippled economy, huge price increases, and long lines for goods. The strikes and unrest that followed gave rise to the Solidarity trade union movement. Jaroszewicz was made a scapegoat, and he was dropped from the Politburo and forced to resign from office in 1980. He and Gierek were expelled from the party the following year. In 1992 Jaroszewicz and his wife were found murdered in their home; he had been tortured and strangled, and she had been shot.

Jarpa Reyes, Sergio Onofre (b. March 8, 1921, Rengo, Chile - d. April 19, 2020), interior minister of Chile (1983-85). He was also ambassador to Colombia (1976-78) and Argentina (1978-83).

Jarquín (Calderón), Edmundo (b. Sept. 19, 1946, Ocotal, Nueva Segovia, Nicaragua), Nicaraguan politician; son-in-law of Violeta Barrios de Chamorro. He was ambassador to Mexico (1984-88) and Spain (1988-90) and a presidential candidate (2006).

Jarres, Karl (b. Sept. 21, 1874, Remscheid, Prussia [now in Nordrhein-Westfalen], Germany - d. Oct. 20, 1951, Duisburg, Nordrhein-Westfalen, West Germany), interior minister (1923-25) and vice chancellor (1923-25) of Germany. He was also mayor of Remscheid (1910-14), lord mayor of Duisburg (1914-33), and a presidential candidate (1925).

Jarrett, Sylvester (b. Sept. 26, 1926, Timbo, Liberia), Liberian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1985-90).

Jarring, Gunnar (Valfrid), original surname Jönsson (b. Oct. 12, 1907, Brunnby, Malmöhus [now in Skåne] county, Sweden - d. May 29, 2002, Helsingborg, Sweden), Swedish diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Ethiopia (1946-48), minister to India (1948-51), Ceylon (1950-51), and Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan (1951-52), permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-58), ambassador to the United States (1958-64), the Soviet Union (1964-73), and Mongolia (1965-73), and UN special representative to the Middle East (1967-91).

Jarrot, André (b. Dec. 13, 1909, Lux, near Chalon-sur-Saône, Saône-et-Loire, France - d. April 21, 2000, Lux), French political figure. He became French national motorcycle-racing champion in the 500cc category in 1937 and co-holder of the world 24-hour endurance title in 1938. Captured by German troops in June 1940, he soon escaped and bicycled his way across half of France to return to his native Burgundy, where he started organizing escape circuits. Involved in some of the first clandestine arms drops to the Resistance by the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), he was arrested by the Germans in January 1942. Released for lack of evidence, he walked over the Pyrenees to Spain where he was imprisoned for five months. When he finally reached Britain, he was trained as a secret agent and parachuted into occupied France on several sabotage missions. Awarding him the coveted Cross of the Liberation, Gen. Charles de Gaulle wrote that Jarrot's actions "seriously harmed German industries on French soil." He was also decorated by Britain, the United States, and Belgium. After the war, he was regional head for Bourgogne of the Rally of the French People (RPF) movement created by de Gaulle to bring him back to office. When the general did return to power in 1958, Jarrot was elected to parliament on a Gaullist slate and reelected in 1962, 1967, 1968, and 1973. A member of the European Parliament from 1962 to 1974, he was minister for the quality of life from 1974 to 1976 before serving in the Senate from 1986 to 1995.

Järta, Hans, original name (until 1800) Hans Hierta (b. Feb. 11, 1774, Husby socken, Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden - d. April 6, 1847, Uppsala, Sweden), governor of Kopparberg (1812-22). He was a leader of the 1809 coup that overthrew King Gustaf IV Adolf.

Jaruga-Nowacka, Izabela (Walentyna) (b. Aug. 23, 1950, Gdansk, Poland - d. [plane crash] April 10, 2010, near Smolensk, Russia), a deputy prime minister of Poland (2004-05). She was also minister of social policy (2004-05).

Jaruzelski, Wojciech (Witold) (b. July 6, 1923, Kurow, Poland - d. May 25, 2014, Warsaw, Poland), premier (1981-85), chairman of the Council of State (1985-89), and president (1989-90) of Poland. When World War II broke out, he and his family were trapped by the invading Red Army, and he was deported to the Soviet Union. In 1943 he joined the Polish army formed in the Soviet Union under Gen. Zygmunt Berling. He joined Poland's Communist party (later renamed the Polish United Workers' Party [PUWP]) in 1947 and steadily rose through the ranks of party and army, becoming a brigadier general at the early age of 33. He was elected a member of the party's Central Committee in 1964 and became a member of the Politburo in 1971. Having been deputy minister of defense since 1962, he was appointed minister of defense in March 1968. As Poland came under increasing pressure from the Solidarity movement, he was elected premier on Feb. 11, 1981, and first secretary of the party on Oct. 18, 1981, while retaining his post as minister of defense. In an effort to crush the Solidarity movement and restore Poland's economic stability, he declared martial law in Poland on Dec. 13, 1981; the move was accompanied by mass arrests of Solidarity leaders and political dissidents. With Solidarity suppressed, he lifted martial law in July 1983. In 1988 he approved negotiations between the government and the outlawed Solidarity movement. These talks culminated in April 1989 in an agreement providing for far-reaching reforms in Poland's political system, notably the legalization of Solidarity and the holding of free elections to a restructured parliament. He was elected president by the parliament in July 1989 and then resigned all his high posts in the PUWP. He faced trial in 2001, accused of giving the orders for the army to open fire on protesters in 1970.

Järventaus, Jussi (Arvi) (b. June 7, 1951, Helsinki, Finland), justice minister of Finland (1998-99).

Järvinen, Kyösti (Nestor), originally Gustaf Nestor Järvinen (b. March 31, 1869, Jyväskylä, Finland - d. March 31, 1957, Helsinki, Finland), finance minister of Finland (1925-26, 1931-32). He was also minister of trade and industry (1928-29).

Jarvis, Russ(ell Thomas) (b. Sept. 22, 1947), acting governor of the Falkland Islands (2002).

Jarvis, Thomas J(ordan) (b. Jan. 18, 1836, Jarvisburg, N.C. - d. June 17, 1915, Greenville, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1879-85). He was also U.S. minister to Brazil (1885-88).

Jarvis, Thomas Leslie Hardtman (b. Dec. 10, 1868 - d. Dec. 15, 1916, Montserrat), commissioner of the British Virgin Islands (1910-16); grandson of Sir Stephen John Hill.

Järvisalo, Johan Emil, Russian Iogan (Andreyevich) Yarvisalo (b. March 11, 1888, Tavastehus [Häme] province, Finland - d. May 14, 1929, Petrozavodsk, Karelian A.S.S.R., Russian S.F.S.R.), executive secretary of the Communist Party committee of the Karelian workers' commune/A.S.S.R. (1922-29).

Jary, João Batista Gonçalves Campos, barão e visconde de (b. May 10, 1814, Aicaraú, Pará, Brazil - d. May 17, 1890, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), president of Alagoas (1864-65). He was made baron in 1887 and viscount in 1889.

Jasarevic, Bajazit (b. April 24, 1957, Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina), premier of Tuzla canton (1999-2001, 2003-07).

Jashari, Kaqusha (b. Aug. 16, 1946, Srbica [Skenderaj], Kosovo), president of the Executive Council (1987-89) and secretary of the Central Committee of the League of Communists (1988) of Kosovo.

Jasic, Zoran (b. Feb. 25, 1939, Novo Selo, Brac island, Yugoslavia [now in Croatia] - d. Oct. 25, 2021, Zagreb, Croatia), finance minister of Croatia (1992-94). He was also Yugoslav ambassador to Malaysia (1987-91) and Croatian ambassador to Germany (1996-2000) and Austria (2004-11).

Jaskiernia, Jerzy (Andrzej) (b. March 21, 1950, Kudowa Zdroj, Poland), justice minister and prosecutor-general of Poland (1995-96).

Jasokie, John Bosco (b. 1925 - d. Oct. 19, 2005, Kohima, Nagaland, India), chief minister of Nagaland (1975, 1980-82).

Jaspar, Henri (b. July 28, 1870, Schaerbeek, Belgium - d. Feb. 15, 1939, Saint-Gilles [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), prime minister of Belgium (1926-31). Entering politics in the Catholic Party, he was made minister for economic affairs in November 1918, on the conclusion of World War I, and reorganized industry and commerce with considerable success. In 1919 he became deputy for Liége. In the following year he left the Ministry of Economic Affairs to become interior minister and, later, foreign minister (1920-24). In the latter capacity he facilitated Belgium's entry into the League of Nations and also the country's representation at the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague. He helped create the customs union of Belgium and Luxembourg in 1921, and in 1924 he took part in the Dawes Plan negotiations, which enabled Germany to resume reparations payments to the Allies. In May 1926 he was called on to form a ministry of national unity. His cabinet included representatives of the three Belgian parties, Catholic, Socialist, and Liberal, and implemented a series of financial policies, designed by banker Emile Francqui, to remedy the economic crisis; these included devaluation of the currency, creation of new taxes, conversion of the public debt, nationalization of the railroads, and financing of public works. These measures revitalized the Belgian economy, although it declined again after the onset of the Great Depression in 1929. Jaspar later served as finance minister (1932-34) and again as foreign minister (1934). He was asked to form a new government in 1939 but failed owing to the refusal of the Socialists to collaborate; he died soon thereafter.

Jaspar, Marcel Henri (b. June 23, 1901, Schaerbeek, Belgium - d. May 14, 1982, Ixelles [now in Brussels-Capital region], Belgium), Belgian politician; nephew of Henri Jaspar. He was minister of transport (1936-37) and health (1939-40) and ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1940-46, until 1945 exile government), Argentina (1946-51), Brazil (1951-54), Sweden (1954-59), and France (1959-66).

Jaspert, Gus, byname of Augustus James Ulysses Jaspert (b. 1979, London, England), governor of the British Virgin Islands (2017-21).


Jasray, Puntsagiyn (b. Nov. 26, 1933, Bugat soum, Govi-Altay province, Mongolia - d. Oct. 25, 2007, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia), prime minister of Mongolia (1992-96). During the Communist period he was a deputy premier (1984-89), first deputy premier (1989-90), chairman of the State Planning (from 1988: and Economy) Commission (1984-90), and a member of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party.

Jaszczolt, Wladyslaw (b. Nov. 11, 1883, Brest-Litovsk, Russia [now Brest, Belarus] - d. February 1962, London, England), governor of Lódzkie (1926-33) and Wilenskie (1933-35) województwa. He was also Polish minister of social welfare (1935-36).

Jatene, Simão Robison Oliveira, Robison also spelled Robson (b. April 1, 1949, Belém, Brazil), governor of Pará (2003-07, 2011-19).

Jatkola, Emil (Julius) (b. Oct. 13, 1879, Pyhäjärvi Ol [now Pyhäjärvi], Finland - d. Dec. 31, 1948, Mikkeli, Finland), governor of Mikkeli (1933-48). He was also justice minister of Finland (1936).

Jatoi, Ghulam Mustafa (b. Aug. 14, 1931, New Jatoi, Sind, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Nov. 20, 2009, London, England), chief minister of Sindh (1973-77) and prime minister of Pakistan (1990). He was also Pakistani minister of political affairs, communications, and natural resources (1971-73).

Jatti, Basappa Danappa (b. Sept. 10, 1912, Savalgi, Bijapur district [now in Karnataka], India - d. June 7, 2002, Bangalore [now Bengaluru], Karnataka), chief minister of Mysore (1958-62), lieutenant governor of Pondicherry (1968-72), governor of Orissa (1972-74), and vice president (1974-79) and acting president (1977) of India. During the movement for independence from Britain, he was active in an underground network of saboteurs in southern India. In 1943 he became a member of the municipal council of Jamkhandi, a tiny princely state, and was eventually appointed its chief minister on the eve of India's independence. After the linguistic reorganization of Indian provinces, he entered the cabinet of Mysore's chief minister, S. Nijalingappa, as health and labour minister. Endearing himself to Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi at the national level, Jatti was able to steal a march over other Congress leaders in the state and became chief minister in 1958. When Nijalingappa returned as chief minister in 1962, Jatti took the unusual step - in the Indian context - of rejoining his cabinet as an ordinary minister. By far the most controversial turn in an otherwise placid political career came when Jatti became acting president of India in 1977, and had to preside over Gandhi's electoral defeat at the hands of the Janata Party. The new government was not comfortable with the continuance of Congress governments in the states. When the nine sitting Congress chief ministers refused to recommend dissolution of their legislatures, the national government advised Jatti to dismiss the state governments, but he demurred. Prime Minister Morarji Desai is said to have sent a terse message to Jatti with the ultimatum: "Sign or resign." He had no option but to comply.

Jattin Corrales, Zulema (del Carmen) (b. Oct. 10, 1969, Lorica, Córdoba, Colombia), Colombian politician; daughter of Francisco José Jattin Safar. She was president of the Chamber of Representatives (2004-05).

Jattin Safar, Francisco José (d. May 15, 2009, Lorica, Córdoba, Colombia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Chamber of Representatives (1987-89, 1993-94) and ambassador to Panama (1991).

Jau, Michel (Charles) (b. Jan. 21, 1951, Paris, France), high commissioner of French Polynesia (1992-94). He has also been prefect of the départements of Oise (2001-04), Yvelines (2010-13), Haute-Vienne (2013-14), and Loiret (2014-15).

Jaua (Milano), Elías (José) (b. Dec. 17, 1969, Caucagua, Miranda, Venezuela), executive vice president (2010-12) and foreign minister (2013-14) of Venezuela. He was also minister of popular economy (2004-06), minister of agriculture and lands (2006-10, 2012), vice president for development of territorial socialism and minister of communes and social movements (2014-16), and vice president for social missions and minister of education (2017-18).

Jaumouillé, Philippe (Marie Henri Eugène) (b. March 24, 1954, Saint-Crespin-sur-Moine [now part of Sèvremoine], Maine-et-Loire, France - d. Nov. 3, 2021, Saint-Macaire-en-Mauges, Sèvremoine), acting prefect of Guadeloupe (2011).

Jaunarena, (José) Horacio (b. Nov. 29, 1942, Pergamino, Buenos Aires province), defense minister of Argentina (1986-89, 2001, 2002-03).

Jaundzeikars, Dzintars (b. Feb. 14, 1956 - d. March 16, 2022), interior minister of Latvia (2005-06).

Jaunzeme-Grende, Zaneta (b. March 10, 1964), Latvian politician. She was culture minister (2011-13) and acting justice minister (2012).

Jáuregui y Aldecoa, Agustín de (b. 1708 - d. [from the result of an accident] April 27, 1784, Lima, Peru), viceroy of Peru (1780-84).

Jauréguiberry, Jean-Bernard (b. Aug. 26, 1815, Bayonne, France - d. Oct. 21, 1887, Paris, France), acting governor of Cochinchina (1859-60), governor of Senegal (1861-63), and French minister of marine and colonies (1879-80, 1882-83).

Javid, Sir Sajid (b. Dec. 5, 1969, Rochdale, Lancashire, England), British home secretary (2018-19) and chancellor of the exchequer (2019-20); knighted 2023. He was also minister of equalities (2014) and secretary of state for culture, media, and sport (2014-15), business, innovation, and skills (2015-16), communities and local government (2016-18), housing (2018), and health and social care (2021-22).

Jawad, Hashem (b. Jan. 15, 1911, Baghdad, Ottoman Empire [now in Iraq] - d. [killed by his mentally deranged chauffeur] Oct. 12, 1972, Beirut, Lebanon), foreign minister (1959-63) and finance minister (1960) of Iraq. He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-57, 1958-59).

Jawara, Sir Dawda (Kairaba), original name Saihou Jawara (b. May 16, 1924, Barajally, MacCarthy Island, Gambia - d. Aug. 27, 2019, Fajara, The Gambia), president of The Gambia (1970-94). He became a Christian when he married in 1955 and changed his name to David (Kwesi) Jawara, but ten years later he reverted to the Islamic faith and adopted his final name. In 1959 he joined the Protectorate People's Party. He changed its name to the People's Progressive Party (PPP) and became its leader. In the elections of 1960 he won a seat in the Gambian legislature and was appointed minister of education. He resigned his ministerial post in 1961 when the British government picked a rival Gambian leader to serve as the country's interim prime minister preparatory to new elections. The PPP won the general elections of 1962, and Jawara became premier and in 1963 prime minister. He led his country to independence three years later. Under his leadership, the tiny nation of The Gambia became one of Africa's few successful parliamentary democracies; Jawara's ruling PPP won six successive elections (1966, 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992) under completely free conditions after independence. He was knighted in 1966. He served as president from 1970, when a republican constitution was adopted to replace the former monarchy under the British sovereign. He came close to being overthrown by an armed coup at the end of July 1981, while he was in England for the wedding of Prince Charles. In 1982-89 he was vice president of the Senegambia confederation. Sir Dawda was conciliatory rather than combative in dealing with supporters and opponents alike. A strong believer in the Commonwealth of Nations, he also gave firm support to the Organization of African Unity and to the idea of nonalignment. A successful military coup in 1994 overthrew him and he was granted asylum by Senegal. He later lived in exile in London. An unconditional amnesty for him was announced in December 2001, and he returned on June 1, 2002, and retired from the PPP on September 19.

Jawari, Mohamed Osman (b. Dec. 7, 1945, Afgoye, Somalia), acting president of Somalia (2012). He was minister of land and air transport (1990) and sports, labour, and social affairs (1990-91) and speaker of parliament (2012-18).

Jay, John (b. Dec. 12, 1745, New York City - d. May 17, 1829, Bedford, N.Y.), U.S. politician. He was a delegate to the First Continental Congress (1774) in Philadelphia and helped assure the approval of the Declaration of Independence (1776) in New York, where he was a member of the provincial Congress. The following year he helped draft New York's first constitution, was elected the state's first chief justice, and in 1778 was chosen president of the Continental Congress. In 1779 Jay was appointed minister plenipotentiary to Spain, which had joined France in openly supporting the revolutionaries against Britain. He was sent in May 1782 to join Benjamin Franklin in Paris as joint negotiator for peace with Britain. On his return from abroad, Jay found that Congress had elected him secretary for foreign affairs (1784-90). Frustrated by the limitations on his powers in that office, he became convinced that the nation needed a more strongly centralized government than was provided for by the Articles of Confederation, and he plunged into the fight for ratification of the new federal Constitution, framed in 1787. In 1789 Pres. George Washington appointed Jay the country's first chief justice. In 1794 Washington sent Jay as a special envoy to Great Britain to help avert war over accumulated grievances. The commercial agreement, called the Jay Treaty (November 19), aroused a storm of protest among the Jeffersonian Republicans, who denounced it as a sellout by pro-British Federalists. Before the negotiations, Jay at one time had been considered a leading candidate to succeed Washington, but the unpopular treaty ruined whatever chances he had for the presidency. New York Federalists, however, elected him governor (1795-1801).

Jay, John, II (b. June 23, 1817, New York City - d. May 5, 1894, New York City), U.S. diplomat; grandson of John Jay. He was minister to Austria-Hungary (1869-75).

Jaya bin Abdul Latif, Dato Paduka Haji (b. July 8, 1939), Bruneian diplomat. He was high commissioner to Malaysia (1984-86), Canada (1988-93), and the United Kingdom (1997-99), ambassador to the Philippines (1986-87), Switzerland (1988-93), and the United States (1993-97), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1988-93).

Jayah, Tuan Brahanudeen (b. Jan. 1, 1890, Galagedera, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. May 31, 1960, al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia), Ceylonese politician. He was minister of labour and social services (1947-50) and high commissioner to Pakistan (1950-57).

Jayakumar, Shanmugam (b. Aug. 12, 1939, Singapore), foreign minister of Singapore (1994-2004). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations and high commissioner to Canada (1971-74), minister of labour (1983-85), home affairs (1985-94), and law (1988-2008), a deputy prime minister (2004-09), and coordinating minister for national security (2005-10).

Jayalalitha, Jayaram (b. Feb. 24, 1948, Mysore city [now Mysuru], India - d. Dec. 5, 2016, Chennai, India), chief minister of Tamil Nadu (1991-96, 2001, 2002-06, 2011-14, 2015-16). She quit films in 1982 after a successful acting career to become one of India's most powerful regional politicians. She took over the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), a party representing low-caste Hindus and Tamil speakers, from her former co-star, matinee idol M.G. Ramachandran, after his death in 1987. As chief minister, she built up a personality cult, erecting huge plyboard cutouts of herself around the state capital Madras and proclaiming her development successes on giant hoardings. She was ousted by the opposition Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) party in state assembly polls in May 1996. An electoral alliance in the state between Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao's Congress party and Jayalalitha's AIADMK failed to gain enough support to conquer the DMK, which ran on an anti-Jayalalitha, anti-corruption campaign. The Congress-AIADMK pact backfired when it prompted several key state Congress leaders to defect and form a new party. Disillusionment with what many Tamils saw as her extravagant lifestyle and increasingly autocratic manner grew after the split. In 1999 she was accused by her accountant of savagely beating him with a high-heeled shoe. Jayalalitha and her senior party colleagues also faced 33 financial corruption cases stemming from her time in power in Tamil Nadu. She was convicted of corruption in 2000. Her 2001 appointment as chief minister was struck down because of the conviction, which was, however, quashed by an appeals court, and she was reinstated in 2002. In 2014 she was sentenced to four years in jail and thus again disqualified from office, but subsequently acquitted she returned to the office a fifth time in 2015. She died in office.

D.M. Jayaratne
Jayaratne, D(issanayake) M(udiyanselage) (b. June 4, 1931 - d. Nov. 19, 2019, Kandy, Sri Lanka), prime minister of Sri Lanka (2010-15). He was also minister of agriculture (1994-2001), post and telecommunication (2004-07), plantation industries (2007-10), and Buddha Sasana and religious affairs (2010-15).

Jayaratne, (Merenna) Francis de Silva (b. 1904 - d. ...), Ceylonese diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (1963-65) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1965-67).

Jayasekara, Dayasiri (Pathmakumara) (b. June 12, 1969), chief minister of North Western province (2013-15). He was also Sri Lankan minister of sports (2015-18) and skills development and vocational training (2018).

Jayasuriya, Karu (b. Sept. 29, 1940), Sri Lankan politician. He has been ambassador to Germany (1992-94), mayor of Colombo (1997-99), minister of power and energy (2001-04), public administration and home affairs (2007-08), and Buddha Sasana, public administration, and democratic governance (2015), and speaker of parliament (2015- ).

Jayawardena, Mahabalage Don Henry, also spelled Jayawardene (b. March 29, 1915 - d. Sept. 29, 1986), finance minister of Ceylon (1954-56). He was also minister of health (1965-68), housing and scientific research (1968-70), and plantation industries (1977-79).

Jayawickrema, (Walter Geoffrey) Montague (b. Jan. 14, 1911 - d. Nov. 16, 2001), governor of North Western province, Sri Lanka (1989-93). He was minister of transport and works (1954-56), nationalized services, shipping and transport, posts, works, and power (1960), public works and posts and telecommunications (1965-70), public administration (1977-89), home affairs (1977-80), and plantation industries (1980-89).

Jayewardene, Junius Richard, also spelled Jayawardene (b. Sept. 17, 1906, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka] - d. Nov. 1, 1996, Colombo), president of Sri Lanka (1978-89). In 1938 he joined the Ceylon National Congress, which was formed in 1918 to agitate for political reforms and freedom from British rule and later merged with several smaller parties to form the United National Party (UNP). In 1943 he was elected to the State Council, and four years later he entered parliament. He was a governor of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund from 1947 to 1952. He was minister of finance (1947-53, 1960) and agriculture (1953-56) and in 1973 became party leader on the death of Dudley Senanayake. The UNP won a sweeping victory in the 1977 general elections, and Jayewardene became prime minister in July that year. Within weeks of taking office he had to contend with an outbreak of communal conflict between Sinhalese and Tamils. Jayewardene's plan for a French-style presidential form of government was approved by parliament in September 1977, and on Feb. 4, 1978, he became president, holding also the defense, plan implementation, and other portfolios. He won a second term in an election he called ahead of schedule in October 1982. He dismantled Sri Lanka's socialist economic system, encouraging foreign investment and privatization. Cynics called him "Yankee Dickie" for his slant towards Western capitalist states. During the summer of 1983 the long-simmering and at times violent hostility between the Sinhalese and Tamil communities erupted into bloody riots. In 1987 the worst violence in Sri Lanka's history occurred. Although the Tamils made up only 18% of the population, the entire country was being affected by the spreading violence. Amid continued ethnic fighting, which had claimed thousands of lives, Jayewardene retired in 1989.

Jayme, Vicente (R.), byname Ting Jayme (b. Oct. 27, 1928, Manila, Philippines - d. April 4, 2013), finance secretary of the Philippines (1987-89). He was also secretary of public works and highways (1986-87).

Jayne, William (b. Oct. 8, 1826, Springfield, Ill. - d. March 20, 1916, Springfield), governor of Dakota (1861-63).

Jayr, Hippolyte Paul (b. Dec. 25, 1801, Bourg [now Bourg-en-Bresse], Ain, France - d. March 31, 1900, Ceyzériat, Ain), French politician. He was prefect of the départements of Ain (1834-37), Loire (1837-38), Moselle (1838-39), and Rhône (1839-47) and public works minister (1847-48).

Jazi, Dali, Arabic al-Dali al-Jazi (b. Dec. 7, 1942, Nabeul, Tunisia - d. March 9, 2007, Tunis, Tunisia), defense minister of Tunisia (2001-04). He also was ambassador to Austria (1988-89), minister of public health (1989-92) and higher education (1994-99), minister delegate at the office of the prime minister in charge of human rights, communications, and relations with the Chamber of Representatives (1999-2000), and advisor to the president of the republic. In 2005 he was named president of the Economic and Social Council. Having been a co-founder of the Movement of Democratic Socialists, he joined the ruling Democratic Constitutional Rally in 1989 and became a member of the party's central committee and later a member of the political bureau. He was decorated twice by Pres. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, first with the Grand Ribbon of the Order of the Republic and the second time with the insignia of Grand Officer of the Order of November 7.

Jean (Benoît Guillaume Marie Robert Louis Antoine Adolphe Marc d'Aviano) (b. Jan. 5, 1921, Château de Colmar-Berg, Luxembourg - d. April 23, 2019), grand duke of Luxembourg (1964-2000). He was the son of Grand Duchess Charlotte and Prince Félix of Bourbon-Parma. Having left the country with his family after the German invasion in 1940, he served as a lieutenant in Britain's Irish Guards regiment and returned in the Allied landings. In 1953 he married Princess Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium (b. Oct. 11, 1927, Brussels, Belgium - d. Jan. 10, 2005, Château de Fischbach, Luxembourg). The couple had five children, Marie-Astrid (b. 1954), Henri (b. 1955), Jean (b. 1957), Margaretha (b. 1957), and Guillaume (b. 1963). Jean served as his mother's representative from 1961 and succeeded to the throne upon her abdication in 1964. He in turn transferred most of his duties to Prince Henri in 1998 and abdicated in 2000. He steered clear of politics throughout his reign and enjoyed wide popularity as Luxembourg's economy turned away from traditional steelmaking and towards the more profitable business of global financial services.

F. Jean

M. Jean
Jean, Fritz (Alphonse) (b. 1953?, Cap-Haïtien, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (2016). He has also been governor of the central bank (1998-2001) and a member of the Transitional Presidential Council (2024- ).

Jean, Michaëlle (b. Sept. 6, 1957, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), governor general of Canada (2005-10) and secretary-general of La Francophonie (2015-18).


Jean-Charles, Enex (J.) (b. July 18, 1960, Chansolme, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (2016-17).

Jeanblanc-Risler, Florence (Hélène), administrator-superior of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (2022- ). She was also French ambassador to New Zealand (2015-18) and Laos (2018-21).

Jeandet-Mengual, Emmanuèle (b. Jan. 18, 1949), acting president of the Regional Council of Haute-Normandie (2013).

Jeanneney, Jean-Marcel (b. Nov. 13, 1910, Paris, France - d. Sept. 16, 2010, Paris), interim justice minister of France (1969); son of Jules Jeanneney. He was also minister of industry and commerce (1959-62) and social affairs (1966-68) and minister of state (1968-69).

Jeanneney, Jules (b. July 6, 1864, Besançon, Doubs, France - d. April 27, 1957, Paris, France), French politician. He was president of the Senate (1932-42) and minister of state (1944-45).

Jeannet-Oudin, Nicolas Georges (b. Oct. 4, 1762, Arcis-sur-Aube - d. Oct. 20, 1828, Arcis-sur-Aube), governor of French Guiana (1793-94, 1796-98) and co-agent of Guadeloupe (1799-1801); nephew of Georges Jacques Danton.

Jeannotte, Manon, lieutenant governor of Quebec (2024- ).


Jeanprêtre, Francine (b. July 6, 1946, Neuchâtel, Switzerland), president of the Council of State of Vaud (2002).

Jebali, Hamadi, Arabic Hammadi al-Jibali (b. Oct. 13, 1949, Sousse, Tunisia), prime minister of Tunisia (2011-13).

Jeckell, George Allan (b. July 25, 1880, Exeter, Ont. - d. May 30, 1950, Seattle, Wash.), acting gold commissioner (1927-28), comptroller (1932-36), and controller (1936-46) of Yukon Territory.

Jedrychowski, Stefan (b. May 19, 1910, Warsaw, Poland - d. May 26, 1996, Warsaw), foreign minister (1968-71) and finance minister (1971-74) of Poland. He was also minister of shipping and foreign trade (1945-47), a deputy premier (1951-56), and ambassador to Hungary (1975-78).

Jedrzejewicz, Janusz (b. June 21, 1885, Spichintsy, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. March 16, 1951, London, England), prime minister of Poland (1933-34). He was also minister of religious affairs and education (1931-34).

Jedynak, Andrzej (b. July 4, 1932, Rzeszów, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1981-82). He was also ambassador to Austria (1978-80) and Czechoslovakia (1982-88), minister of heavy and agricultural machinery industry (1980-81), and chargé d'affaires in Brazil (1991-92) and Chile (1996-97).

Jeenbekov, Sooronbay (Sharipovich) (b. Nov. 16, 1958, Telman, Osh oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister (2016-17) and president (2017-20) of Kyrgyzstan. He was also minister of agriculture, water resources, and processing industry (2007) and governor of Osh oblast (2010-12).

Jefferies, R(ichard) M(anning) (b. Feb. 27, 1889, Union [in present Cherokee] county, S.C. - d. April 20, 1964, Charleston, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1942-43).

T. Jefferson
Jefferson, Thomas (b. April 13 [April 2, O.S.], 1743, Shadwell, Goochland [now in Albemarle] county, Virginia [now in U.S.] - d. July 4, 1826, Monticello, near Charlottesville, Va.), president of the United States (1801-09). In 1769 he entered the lower house of the Virginia colonial legislature, the House of Burgesses. In 1775 the legislature appointed him as a member of its delegation to the Second Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia. In June 1776, when the decision to break irrevocably with Great Britain seemed near, he was appointed to the committee assigned to draft a formal statement of the reasons for such a decision. Benjamin Franklin and John Adams were also on the committee, but they recognized Jefferson's superior talent and gracefully bowed to it. He thus became the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. After three years in the legislature, he was elected governor in 1779 and served for two years. In 1784 he went to France to join Franklin and Adams in negotiating treaties with European powers. After a few months he succeeded Franklin as resident U.S. minister to the French government. He returned to the U.S. at the end of 1789 and became secretary of state. He soon became involved in controversy with Alexander Hamilton, leading to the formation of national political parties. Both Jefferson and Hamilton retired from the cabinet near the end of George Washington's first term, but each continued to be the symbol of the new parties, Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican, Hamilton of the Federalist. The Federalist candidates clearly lost the 1800 presidential election, but neither of the Republican candidates, Jefferson and Aaron Burr, could claim victory. The House of Representatives chose Jefferson and he was reelected in 1804.

T.C. Jefferson

Jefferson, Thomas C(arrol) (b. April 1941, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands - d. Oct. 29, 2006, Miami, Fla.), leader of government business of the Cayman Islands (1992-95). He was also financial secretary (1982-92), head of the civil service (1986-92), and minister of tourism (1994-2000).

Jeffery, (Philip) Michael (b. Dec. 12, 1937, Wiluna, W.Aus. - d. Dec. 18, 2020), governor of Western Australia (1993-2000) and governor-general of Australia (2003-08).

Jega, Mohammed, also called Muhammad Iliyasu Bashar (b. April 1941), governor of Gongola (1976-78, 1984-85) and emir of Gwandu (2005- ).

Jegermanis, Gints (b. April 5, 1964, Latvian S.S.R.), Latvian diplomat. He was ambassador to Estonia (1998-2001), Denmark (2009-13), and Sweden (2013-17) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2001-04).

Jegham, Mohamed (b. Aug. 8, 1943, Hammam-Sousse, Tunisia), interior minister (1995-97) and defense minister (1999-2001) of Tunisia. He was also governor of Gabès (1979-80), minister of tourism and handicrafts (1988-95) and commerce and tourism (2011), and ambassador to Italy (2001-05).

Jeholet, Pierre-Yves (b. Oct. 6, 1968, Verviers, Belgium), minister-president of the Wallonia-Brussels Federation (2019- ).

Jekabsons, Eriks (b. April 3, 1959, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), interior minister of Latvia (2004-05).

Jekelfalussy de Jekel- és Margitfalva, Lajos (b. Oct. 1, 1848, Szacsúr, Hungary [now Sacurov, Slovakia] - d. July 22, 1911, London, England), defense minister of Hungary (1906-10).

Jekelfalussy de Jekel- és Margitfalva, Zoltán (b. June 4, 1862, Variháza, Zemplén, Hungary - d. Feb. 5, 1945, Budapest, Hungary), governor of Fiume (1917-18); brother of Lajos Jekelfalussy de Jekel- és Margitfalva.


Jeker, Ruedi (b. July 9, 1944, Matzendorf, Solothurn, Switzerland), president of the government of Zürich (2004-05).

Jekshenkulov, Alikbek (Jekshenkulovich) (b. May 25, 1957, Cholpon, Tien-Shan [now Naryn] oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), foreign minister of Kyrgyzstan (2005-07). He was also ambassador to Austria (2000-04) and Russia (2019-20).

Jelavic, Ante (b. Aug. 21, 1963, Podprolog, Croatia), chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2000). The president of the Bosnian branch of the Croatian HDZ party and from 1996 defense minister of the Muslim-Croat federation, he successfully ran for the Croat seat on the country's presidency in 1998. His election as president by hardliners at a party congress in May 1998 despite Croatian president Franjo Tudjman's support for another candidate caused a split in the Bosnian HDZ as moderates deserted it to form a new party. Jelavic and the rump party came under heavy criticism from Zagreb but the pragmatic Jelavic managed to reestablish good relations with Tudjman and gain his full support. A wartime logistics chief in the Bosnian Croat HVO militia, Jelavic represented a powerful and rich lobby in Herzegovina - the Croat-dominated western strip of Bosnia - which wanted strong links with Croatia and opposed abolition of the institutions of the Bosnian Croat wartime statelet of Herceg-Bosna. Critics accused Hercegovinians of protecting only their business interests and forgetting about Croats from other areas of the Muslim-Croat federation and from the Serb republic. An election rule amendment ahead of the November 2000 general election - which weakened the ethnic vote and helped to tip the HDZ from power - proved too much for entrenched nationalist interests to bear. In March 2001 a Bosnian Croat congress dominated by the HDZ voted to establish Croat self-rule, and Jelavic gave the international community two weeks to change the electoral law. In response, High Representative Wolfgang Petritsch on March 7 sacked Jelavic from the Bosnian presidency. He resigned as leader of the HDZ on April 5, 2002. He was arrested on Jan. 23, 2004, on suspicion of links to organized crime. He was released on bail in May 2005. On Oct. 6, 2005, he was sentenced in absentia to 10 years in prison after he was found guilty of abuse of office and embezzlement of €100 million. He remains on trial in a separate case for undermining the stability of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Jele, Josiah Khiphusizi (b. May 1, 1930, Alexandra, Johannesburg, South Africa), South African diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1995-99).

Jeleva, Rumiana (Ruseva) (b. April 18, 1969, Nova Zagora, Bulgaria), foreign minister of Bulgaria (2009-10).

Jelevferij (Eleutherius), secular name Benjamin Aleksandrovic Voroncov (Russian Veniamin Aleksandrovich Vorontsov) (b. Oct. 17, 1892, Romashkovo, near Moscow, Russia - d. March 27, 1959), metropolitan of the Orthodox Church of Czechoslovakia (1951-55). He was bishop of Rostov and Taganrog (1943-46) and archbishop (1946-48) and metropolitan (1948-51) of Prague and the Czech lands, and later metropolitan of Leningrad and Novgorod (Nov. 28, 1955-Jan. 1, 1957) and of Leningrad and Ladoga (Jan. 1, 1957-March 27, 1959).

Jelf, Sir Arthur Selborne (b. Oct. 10, 1876 - d. Feb. 26, 1947), acting governor of Jamaica (1925-26, 1932, 1934); knighted 1932.

Jelic, Milan (b. March 26, 1956, Koprivna [now in Republika Srpska], Bosnia and Herzegovina - d. Sept. 30, 2007, Doboj, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina), president of the Republika Srpska (2006-07).

Jelks, William D(orsey) (b. Nov. 7, 1855, Warrior Stand, Ala. - d. Dec. 13, 1931, Eufaula, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1901-07).

Jellicoe, John Rushworth Jellicoe, (1st) Earl (b. Dec. 5, 1859, Southampton, Hampshire, England - d. Nov. 20, 1935, London, England), governor-general of New Zealand (1920-24). He was also British first sea lord (1916-17). He was knighted in 1911 and created Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa in 1918 and Earl Jellicoe and Viscount Brocas of Southampton in 1925.

Jelusic, Ljubica (b. June 16, 1960, Koper, Slovenia), defense minister of Slovenia (2008-12).

Jemat bin Haji Ampal, Dato Paduka Haji (b. Feb. 18, 1954), Bruneian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2000).

Jemibewon, David (Medayese) (b. July 20, 1940, Iyah-Gbedde [now in Kogi state], Nigeria), governor of Western (1975-76) and Oyo (1976-78) states. He was also Nigerian minister of police affairs (1999-2001).

Jemio (Mollinedo), Luis Carlos (b. Nov. 11, 1955), finance minister of Bolivia (2004-05).

Jenie, Rezlan Ishar (b. Jan. 6, 1952, Jakarta, Indonesia), Indonesian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Portugal (1999-2000), permanent representative to the United Nations (2004-07), and ambassador to France (2010-14).

Jenifer, Daniel of St. Thomas (b. 1723 - d. Nov. 16, 1790, Annapolis, Md.), president of the Council of Safety of Maryland (1775-77).

Jenkins, Charles J(ones) (b. Jan. 6, 1805, Beaufort, S.C. - d. June 14, 1883, Augusta, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1865-68).

Jenkins, Sir Evan Meredith (b. Feb. 2, 1896 - d. Nov. 3, 1985), chief commissioner of Delhi (1937-40) and governor of Punjab (1946-47); knighted 1944.

Jenkins, William M(iller) (b. April 25, 1856, Alliance, Ohio - d. Oct. 19, 1941, Sapulpa, Okla.), governor of Oklahoma (1901).

Jenkins of Hillhead, Roy (Harris) Jenkins, Baron (b. Nov. 11, 1920, Abersychan, near Pontypool, Monmouthshire, Wales - d. Jan. 5, 2003, East Hendred, Oxfordshire, England), British politician. He was a Labour MP for working-class constituencies, first in London and then in Birmingham, since 1948. Under Prime Minister Harold Wilson he was home secretary (1965-67, 1974-76) and chancellor of the exchequer (1967-70). From 1970 to 1972 he served as deputy leader of the Labour Party, a position he resigned because of disagreements over European policy. He found himself increasingly at odds with his own party. He resigned his House of Commons seat in 1976 to take the presidency of the European Commission, saying it was "the most important enterprise in my life." His four-year term in Brussels was in some ways a disappointment, but he was the prime mover in establishing the European Monetary System. Jenkins returned to the U.K. not to the well-earned retirement but to help create a new political party, the Social Democratic Party (SDP). Despairing of the disarray into which the Labour Party had fallen, Jenkins joined with David Owen, Shirley Williams, and William Rodgers (all of them cabinet ministers in the last Labour government) to form a Council of Social Democracy, which later became the SDP. Jenkins, the oldest of the four, was the first to contest a by-election, at Warrington in July 1981. With 42% of the votes, he came close to winning a supposedly impregnable Labour stronghold. He thus had put a new centre party on the map of British politics. In 1987 he was created a baron.

Jenks, Wilfred (b. March 7, 1909, Liverpool, England - d. Oct. 9, 1973, Rome, Italy), director-general of the International Labour Organization (1970-73).

Jennings, Jonathan (b. 1784, Hunterdon county, N.J. - d. July 26, 1834, near Charlestown, Ind.), governor of Indiana (1816-22).

Jennings, William S(herman) (b. March 24, 1863, Walnut Hill, Ill. - d. Feb. 27, 1920, St. Augustine, Fla.), governor of Florida (1901-05).

Jennison, Silas H(emenway), also spelled Jenison (b. May 17, 1791, Shoreham, Vt. - d. Sept. 30, 1849, Shoreham), governor of Vermont (1835-41).

Jenny, Kurt (b. May 13, 1931, Basel, Switzerland - d. Feb. 1, 2004, Basel), president of the government of Basel-Stadt (1975-76, 1983-84, 1990-91).

Jensby, Svend Aage (b. Sept. 10, 1940, Vejlby, Denmark), defense minister of Denmark (2001-04).

Jensen, Christian (b. April 14, 1823, Bergen, Norway - d. Sept. 3, 1884), governor of Christians amt (1859-69) and justice minister (1880-81, 1883-84) and interior minister (1882-83) of Norway. He was also minister of auditing (1879-80).

Jensen, Egon (Carlo Larsen) (b. March 14, 1922, Slagelse, Denmark - d. Feb. 4, 1985), interior minister of Denmark (1971-73, 1975-78). He was also church minister (1978-79).

Jensen, Erling (Johannes) (b. Nov. 1, 1919, Frederiksberg, Denmark - d. Oct. 4, 2000), justice minister of Denmark (1977-78). He was also minister of commerce (1971-73, 1975-76), labour (1976-77), social affairs (1978-79), and industry (1979-82).

Jensen, Frank (b. May 28, 1961, Ulsted, Denmark), justice minister of Denmark (1996-2001). He was also minister of research (1994-96) and lord mayor of Copenhagen (2010-20).

K. Jensen
Jensen, Kristian (b. May 21, 1971, Middelfart, Denmark), foreign minister (2015-16) and finance minister (2016-19) of Denmark. He was also minister of taxation (2004-10).

Jensen, (Alf Børge) Lars P(eter) (b. April 23, 1909, Gammel Holte, Denmark - d. Oct. 9, 1986), interior minister of Denmark (1961-64). He was also minister of commerce (1960-61).

Jensen, Leslie (b. Sept. 15, 1892, Hot Springs, S.D. - d. [following car accident] Dec. 14, 1964, Rapid City, S.D.), governor of South Dakota (1937-39).

Jensen, Siv (b. June 1, 1969, Oslo, Norway), finance minister of Norway (2013-20). She was also leader of the Progress Party (2006-21).

Jensen-Klejs, Jørgen (Sørensen) (b. May 19, 1863, Nebsagerskov, Denmark - d. Jan. 17, 1947, Klejs, Denmark), Danish politician. He was speaker of the Folketing (1922-24).

Jensen-Sønderup, Jens, until 1906 Jens Jensen (b. Feb. 16, 1862, Sønderup, Ålborg amt [now in Nordjylland region], Denmark - d. March 11, 1949, Sønderup), interior minister of Denmark (1910-13). He was also minister of transport (1908-09).

Jenssen, Frank (Josef) (b. Aug. 11, 1969, Levanger, Nord-Trøndelag [now in Trøndelag], Norway), governor of Trøndelag (2018- ).

Jeppsson, Ola (b. Feb. 8, 1887, Mörrum, Blekinge, Sweden - d. June 17, 1941, Visby, Gotland, Sweden), governor of Gotland (1938-41). He was also Swedish minister of communications (1930-32) and chairman of the Executive Committee of the Liberal Party (1934-35).

Jequitinhonha, Francisco Gê Acayaba de Montezuma, visconde de, original name (until 1822) Francisco Gomes Brandão (b. March 23, 1794, São Salvador da Bahia [now Salvador], Brazil - d. Feb. 15, 1870, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), foreign and justice minister of Brazil (1837). He was also president of the Bank of Brazil (1866). He was made viscount in 1854.


Jerandi, Othman (b. 1951, Hammam Lif, Tunisia), foreign minister of Tunisia (2013-14, 2020-23). He was also ambassador to Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, and Liberia (1994-97), South Korea (2002-05), and Jordan (2010-11) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2011-12).

Jerbi, Ali (Assad) Bey (al-) (b. 1904, Derna, Cyrenaica [now in Libya] - d. April 19, 1969, Benghazi, Libya), foreign minister of Libya (1951). He was also minister of health (1951), justice (1951), and defense (1951-54) and ambassador to Turkey and Iraq (1954-61) and France (1961-67).

Jereissati, Tasso Ribeiro (b. Dec. 15, 1948, Fortaleza, Ceará), governor of Ceará (1987-91, 1995-2002). He was also president of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (1991-94, 2005-07, and [acting for Aécio Neves] 2017).

Jeremiah, David E(lmer) (b. Feb. 25, 1934, Portland, Ore.), acting chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (1993).


de Jersey
Jeremic, Vuk (b. July 3, 1975, Belgrade, Serbia), foreign minister of Serbia (2007-12) and president of the UN General Assembly (2012-13). He was a presidential candidate in 2017.

Jerez (y Tellería), Máximo (José de Jesús) (b. June 8, 1818, León, Nicaragua - d. Aug. 12, 1881, Washington, D.C., U.S.), foreign minister (1855-56) and member of the Government Junta (1857) of Nicaragua. He was also minister to Costa Rica (1858) and the United States (1858-59).

Jeribi, Ghazi (b. Dec. 5, 1955, Tunis, Tunisia), defense minister of Tunisia (2014-15). He was also minister of justice (2016-18), religious affairs (2016-17), and interior (interim, 2018).

Jeribi (Khémiri), Thouraya (b. Aug. 21, 1960, Tunis, Tunisia), justice minister of Tunisia (2020). She was also minister to the prime minister in charge of relations with constitutional bodies and civil society (2020-21).

Jerningham, Sir Hubert Edward Henry (b. Oct. 18, 1842 - d. April 3, 1914), governor of Mauritius (1892-97) and Trinidad and Tobago (1897-1900); knighted 1893.

Jerome, David H(owell) (b. Nov. 17, 1829, Detroit, Mich. - d. April 23, 1896, Watkins, N.Y.), governor of Michigan (1881-83).

Jersey, Edward Villiers, (1st) Earl of (b. 1656 - d. Aug. 26, 1711, London, England), joint acting lord lieutenant of Ireland (1697-99) and British secretary of state for the Southern Department (1699-1700). He was also envoy to the United Provinces (1695-97), ambassador to France (1698-99), and lord chamberlain (1700-04). He was created Baron Villiers of Hoo and Viscount Villiers of Dartford in 1691 and Earl of Jersey in 1697.

Jersey, Paul de (b. Sept. 21, 1948, Brisbane, Qld.), governor of Queensland (2014-21). He was chief justice of Queensland in 1998-2014.

Jersey, Victor Albert George Child Villiers, (7th) Earl of (b. March 20, 1845, London, England - d. May 31, 1915, Isleworth, Middlesex [now part of London]), governor of New South Wales (1891-93); grandson of Sir Robert Peel; great-great-great-great-grandson of Edward Villiers, Earl of Jersey. He was also British paymaster-general (1889-90). He succeeded as earl in 1859.

Jerumirim, Francisco Cordeiro da Silva Torres (e Alvim), visconde de (b. Feb. 24, 1775, Ourém, Portugal - d. May 8, 1856, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1828). He was made viscount in 1854.

Jervois, Sir William (Francis Drummond) (b. Sept. 10, 1821, Cowes, Isle of Wight, England - d. [following carriage accident] Aug. 17, 1897, Bittern Court, Hampshire, England), governor of the Straits Settlements (1875-77), South Australia (1877-83), and New Zealand (1883-89); knighted 1874.

Jervolino, Rosa Russo, officially Rosa Jervolino Russo, née Rosa Jervolino, Jervolino also spelled Iervolino (b. Sept. 17, 1936, Naples, Italy - d. Aug. 31, 2022), interior minister of Italy (1998-99). She served as social affairs minister in 1987-92 and as education minister in the Giuliano Amato government of 1992-93. A tireless worker for the rights of women and of the family, Jervolino chaired the Constitutional Affairs Committee in the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, from June 1996. A member of the Popular Party (PPI), heir to the Christian Democrats, she became the first woman ever to take Italy's home affairs portfolio. In 2001-11 she was mayor of Naples.

Jespersen, Karen (Moustgaard) (b. Jan. 17, 1947, Copenhagen, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (2000-01). She was also minister of social affairs (1993-94, 1994-2000, 2007), equal rights (2007-09), and welfare (2007-09).

Jessamine, John Edward Bendelow (b. March 31, 1898, Aberdeen, Scotland - d. Jan. 30, 1956), administrator of the Cocos Islands (1944-45).

Jessel, Sir Charles James, (1st) Baronet (b. May 11, 1860, London, England - d. July 15, 1928, Tunbridge Wells, England), chairman of the British North Borneo Chartered Company (1903-09). He was created baronet in 1883.

Jessen, Johan Christian (von) (b. Jan. 2, 1817, Nykøbing Falster, Denmark - d. Feb. 6, 1884, Horsens, Denmark), interior minister of Denmark (1859-60).


Jessen-Petersen, Søren (b. June 21, 1944, Nørresundby village, northern Denmark), UN administrator of Kosovo (2004-06).

Jester, Beauford H(albert) (b. Jan. 12, 1893, Corsicana, Texas - d. July 11, 1949, on train en route to Galveston, Texas), governor of Texas (1947-49).

Jesus, José de, Filho (b. Dec. 18, 1927, Araguari, Minas Gerais, Brazil - d. Dec. 31, 2021, Brasília, Brazil), acting justice minister of Brazil (1998).

Jesus, José Luís de (b. Sept. 20, 1950, Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão island, Cape Verde [now Cabo Verde]), foreign minister of Cape Verde (1998-99). He was also permanent representative to the United Nations (1991-94), ambassador to Portugal, Spain, and Israel (1994-96), and president of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (2008-11).

Jeszenszky, Géza (b. Nov. 10, 1941, Budapest, Hungary), foreign minister of Hungary (1990-94). He was also ambassador to the United States (1998-2002) and Norway (2011-14).

Jeter, Thomas B(othwell) (b. Oct. 13, 1827, Union county, S.C. - d. May 20, 1883, Union, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1880).

Jethmalani, Ram (Boolchand) (b. Sept. 14, 1923, Shikarpur, Sind, India [now Sindh, Pakistan] - d. Sept. 8, 2019, New Delhi, India), law and justice minister of India (1996, 1999-2000). He was also minister of urban development (1998-99).

Jetté, Sir Louis Amable (b. Jan. 15, 1836, L'Assomption, Lower Canada [now Que.] - d. May 5, 1920, Québec, Que.), lieutenant governor of Quebec (1898-1908); knighted 1901.

Jetten, Rob (Arnoldus Adrianus) (b. March 25, 1987, Veghel [now part of Meierijstad], Noord-Brabant, Netherlands), acting finance minister of the Netherlands (2024). He has been minister without portfolio (climate and energy) (2022- ) and leader of Democrats 66 (2023- ).

Jettou, Driss, Arabic Idris Jitu (b. May 24, 1945, El Jadida, Morocco), finance minister (1997-98), interior minister (2001-02), and prime minister (2002-07) of Morocco.

Jevremovic, Pavle (b. 1940, Uzice, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), Yugoslav/Serbian diplomat. He was ambassador to the European Union (2000-05) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2006-09).

Jevtic, Bogoljub (b. Dec. 24, 1886, Kragujevac, Serbia - d. June 7, 1960, Paris, France), foreign minister (1932-35) and prime minister (1934-35) of Yugoslavia. He was also minister to Albania (1926-27) and Austria and Hungary (1928-29) and minister of transport (1941-42) and forests and mining (1943).

Jevtic, Desimir (b. Dec. 16, 1938, Krusevac, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Oct. 13, 2017, Belgrade, Serbia), president of the Executive Council of Serbia (1986-89). He was also Yugoslav ambassador to Romania (1990-99).

Jewell, Marshall (b. Oct. 20, 1825, Winchester, N.H. - d. Feb. 10, 1883, Hartford, Conn.), governor of Connecticut (1869-70, 1871-73) and U.S. postmaster general (1874-76). He was also minister to Russia (1873-74).

Jewkes, Gordon Wesley (b. Nov. 18, 1931), governor of the Falkland Islands (1985-88).

Jha, C(handra) S(hekhar) (b. Oct. 20, 1909, Hanumannagar village [now in Madhubani district], Bihar, India - d. January 1998), Indian diplomat. He was ambassador to Turkey (1950-54), Japan (1957-59), and France (1967-68), permanent representative to the United Nations (1959-62), and high commissioner to Canada (1962-64).

Jha, Lakshmi Kant (b. Nov. 22, 1913, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India - d. Jan. 16, 1988, Pune, India), governor of Jammu and Kashmir (1973-81). He was also governor of the Reserve Bank of India (1967-70) and Indian ambassador to the United States (1970-73).

N.N. Jha

Jha, Nagendra Nath (b. Jan. 5, 1935 - d. June 15, 2020, New Delhi, India), lieutenant governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (2001-04) and of Pondicherry (2004). He was also Indian ambassador to Ireland (1977-79), Turkey (1979-81), Kuwait (1984-89), and Yugoslavia (1989-90) and high commissioner to Sri Lanka (1990-93).

Jhabeemissur, Gaëtan (b. July 23, 1955), chief commissioner of Rodrigues (2011-12).

Jhinaoui, Khemaies (b. April 5, 1954), foreign minister of Tunisia (2016-19). He was also ambassador to the United Kingdom (1999-2004), Ireland (1999-2004), and Russia (2007-11).

Ji Hongchang
Ji Hongchang, original name Ji Hengli (b. Dec. 4, 1895, Fugou, Henan, China - d. Nov. 24, 1934, Beijing, China), chairman of the government of Ningxia (1929). He started his military career in 1913 under the leadership of Gen. Feng Yuxiang. He was the commander of the 22nd Army when he was nominated as Ningxia chairman. Refusing to attack the Red Army led by the Communist Party while the whole country was threatened by Japan, he was sacked by Chiang Kai-shek and ordered to "observe and study" abroad. He returned to China in 1932. In May 1933, he helped to organize the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army together with Feng Yuxiang and Fang Zhenwu and directed it along the front line against the Japanese invaders. The army recovered the Japanese-controlled Dolun (now in Inner Mongolia) and built nationwide confidence to fight against the Japanese. In October, the People's Army was extinguished, he went to Beijing and Tianjin for anti-Japan propaganda, but Chiang's policy to "extinguish the outlaws [mainly Communists] before fighting against invaders" disappointed him. Thus, he unexpectedly joined the Communist Party in 1934. In November that year he was shot, wounded, and arrested by Kuomintang secret agents and finally executed.

Ji Jinchun (b. 1877, Haicheng, Liaoning, China - d. 1948, Shenyang, Liaoning), governor of Rehe (1921-22) and Suiyuan (1927-28). He joined the bandit gang led by Zhang Zuolin as a teenager. In 1905, Zhang started to contact the Japanese; Ji led the "East Asia Volunteer Army" (mainly his gang members) to fight against the Russians in Northeastern China in the Russo-Japanese War. After Zhang surrendered to the government and developed his strength by annexing other bandit groups, Ji was named commander of the 28th Division, later 15th Army, as well as head of the Shanhai Pass garrison until 1931. After Japan occupied the northeastern region, Ji quit all his posts and moved to Tianjin. Japanese authorities in Tianjin spared no efforts to try to persuade him to accept office under them, but were repeatedly rejected by him. He returned to Shenyang upon the surrender of Japan in 1945.

Ji Pengfei
Ji Pengfei (b. Feb. 2, 1910, Linyi county, Shanxi, China - d. Feb. 10, 2000, Beijing, China), Chinese politician. He enlisted in the Nationalist Forces led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, but following a revolt by his unit, he switched sides to the Communists in 1931. He joined Mao Zedong's legendary 1934-35 Long March into northwestern China to escape the Nationalists. He later became director of the medical department of the Communist Party's military committee. Ji began a new career as a diplomat after the 1949 Communist victory. He traveled extensively in Africa and led delegations to Britain, France, Iran, and Yugoslavia. He was ambassador to East Germany (1953-55) and then became deputy foreign minister (1955-72). He weathered attacks by the Red Guards, ultraradical forces incited by Mao that terrorized China during the 1966-76 Cultural Revolution. In April 1971 he became acting foreign minister, when the incumbent Chen Yi held this post only nominally. After Chen's death he officially became foreign minister (1972-74). In 1972, he headed China's delegation to the Vietnam Conference in Paris. He later held a series of senior party and government posts. He was appointed deputy premier in 1979 and cabinet secretary-general in 1980. He also was a member of the national legislature. In 1982 he became director of Hong Kong and Macau affairs in the State Council, playing a lead role in the negotiations with Britain over the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty. He was also chairman of the committee that drafted the Basic Law, the constitution governing the relationship between Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland. He retired from public life after the Basic Law was approved in 1990.

Jia Deyao (b. Aug. 23, 1881, Hefei, Anhui, China - d. Dec. 9, 1940), army minister (1925-26) and premier (1926) of China. Having graduated from the Japanese College of Army Commanders, he returned to China, serving in the armed forces of Yuan Shikai, holding posts of brigade commanders. He was also the president of the Baoding College of Commanders. He became premier in 1926, but stepped down soon together with Duan Qirui. In 1935, he was elected a councillor of the Hebei-Chahar Political Committee (led by Song Zheyuan, supported by both the Japanese invaders and Chiang Kai-shek, who wished to compromise before 1937).

Jia Qinglin (b. March 1940, Botou, Hebei, China), Chinese politician. He was governor (1991-94) and secretary of the Communist Party committee (1993-96) of Fujian, mayor (1996-99) and secretary of the Communist Party committee (1997-2002) of Beijing, and chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (2003-13).

Jiang Chaozong
Jiang Chaozong (b. Sept. 15, 1861, Jingde, Anhui, China - d. Sept. 20, 1943), acting premier of China (1917). He joined the army as a teenager and stationed his forces in Hanzhong, Shaanxi, at the end of the Qing dynasty. Upon the founding of the republic, he was named vice commander of the Interim Tianjin-Beijing Garrison. He also held a post in the interim Senate (set up by imperial-minded president Yuan Shikai as an alternative to the dissolved parliament). In 1917, when Li Yuanhong was eager to dissolve the pro-Duan Qirui congress, Jiang's predecessor as premier resigned and no one wished to succeed, knowing that whoever did would have to countersign the president's proposal to validate the dissolution (according to the 1912 constitution, any validation of the president's proposals required a countersign of the premier). Jiang did agree to take office as premier upon Li's desire and countersigned to dissolve the parliament, which also removed Jiang himself from the office. For this, Jiang got the nickname of "15-minute premier." Soon afterwards he quit politics, living in Beijing until 1937, when he took up the leadership of the Japanese-backed "Beijing Peace Preservation Association." He was also a member of the Japanese-backed "Political Committee" of the "North China Interim Government."

Jiang Dengxuan (b. 1881, Yi county, Hebei, China - d. Nov. 26, 1925, Luanzhou, Hebei), military governor of Anhui (1925). He was graduated from the College of Army Commanders and then became general in the northeastern region, before which he had been the staff officer of Heilongjiang Gov. Zhu Qinglan. As Zhang Zuolin reformed his army after his failure in the battle against Cao Kun and Wu Peifu in 1921, Jiang was named the commander of the 1st Army. He then took office as Anhui governor, a post which was earlier supposed to go to Gen. Guo Songling (1883-1925), after Zhang dominated the Beijing government. He had been getting along badly with Guo Songling and was later executed by the depressed Guo on his way of fleeing from office upon the threat of the northbound army led by Chiang Kai-shek.

Jiang Guiti (b. 1843, Bo county [now Bozhou city], Anhui, China - d. Jan. 17, 1922, Rehe, China), governor of Rehe (1912, 1913-21). He started his military career when he was only a teenager, participating in the war against Taiping rebels, and decades later in the Yihetuan (Boxer) Rebellion in 1900. Years later, the Yi Jun (Army of Perseverance), which was an important army in northern Rehe province, was put under his leadership. He served as the governor of Rehe from the eve of the republic. In 1915, when Yuan Shikai claimed the imperial throne, Jiang was honoured as one of the first "dukes." He was named army inspection director in 1921.

Jiang Qing
Jiang Qing (Wade-Giles Chiang Ch'ing), stage name Lan Ping (Lan P'ing), original name Luan Shumeng (Luan Shu-meng), later Li Yunhe (Li Yun-ho) (b. March 1914, Zhucheng, Shandong, China - d. May 14, 1991, Beijing, China), Chinese political figure. She became the third wife of Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong in 1939. At first she remained largely out of public view, but in 1963 she became more politically active, sponsoring a movement in the Beijing opera and ballet aimed at infusing traditional Chinese art forms with proletarian themes. Her cultural reform movement gradually grew into a prolonged attack on many of the leading cultural and intellectual figures in China and culminated in the Cultural Revolution that by 1966 had begun to sweep the country. One of the few people whom Mao trusted, she became the first deputy head of the Cultural Revolution and acquired far-reaching powers over China's cultural life. As the Revolution waned in the late 1960s, however, so did Jiang's prominence. When Mao died in 1976, the radicals in the party lost their protector. A month later, wall posters appeared attacking Jiang and three other radicals as the Gang of Four, and the attacks grew progressively more hostile. Jiang and the other members of the Gang of Four were soon afterward arrested. She was expelled from the Communist Party in 1977. In 1980-81 at her public trial, she was accused of fomenting the widespread civil unrest that had gripped China during the Cultural Revolution, but she refused to confess her guilt. She received a suspended death sentence, which in 1983 was commuted to life imprisonment. On June 4, 1991, the government officially reported that she had committed suicide. The notice also stated that she had been out of custody and under medical treatment since May 1984.

Jiang Yi-huah
Jiang Yi-huah (b. Nov. 18, 1960, Keelung, Taiwan), interior minister (2009-12) and premier (2013-14) of Taiwan. He was also minister of the Research, Development and Evaluation Commission (2008-09) and vice premier (2012-13).

Jiang Yong (b. 1877, Changting, Fujian, China - d. Feb. 9, 1960, Shanghai, China), justice minister of China (1917, 1917-18). After the republic was founded, he was named president of the Higher Court, making his way to the cabinet. He quit all his posts in 1924 and became a lawyer. During World War II, he rejected all the offers by the Japanese authorities, later taking part in anti-Japanese movements instead. After the war, he disagreed with Chiang Kai-shek's attempt to resume the civil war, seeking peace privately together with Yan Huiqing and Zhang Shizhao in January 1949. He was elected a member of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (the central legislative organization of China until 1954, when the National People's Congress was founded).

Jiang Zemin
Jiang Zemin, Wade-Giles Chiang Tse-min (b. Aug. 17, 1926, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China - d. Nov. 30, 2022, Shanghai, China), general secretary of the Communist Party (1989-2002) and president (1993-2003) of China. He joined the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1946. In 1980 he became vice-minister of the state commission on imports and exports. In 1982 he became vice-minister of the electronics industry, and in 1983-85 he was its minister. He had meanwhile become a member of the Central Committee of the CCP in 1982. He became mayor (1985-88) and party secretary (1987-89) of Shanghai, and a member of the Politburo in 1987. He supported the government's forcible suppression of massive pro-democracy student demonstrations on Tiananmen Square in the summer of 1989. This won him the favour of China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, and of the premier, Li Peng, when the Chinese leadership was reshuffled following the suppression of the democracy movement. Jiang thus succeeded Zhao Ziyang as general secretary of the CCP in June of that year. He was a compromise choice who combined a commitment to continued free-market economic reforms with a determination to preserve the CCP's monopoly on political power. He succeeded Deng as chairman of the party's Central Military Commission in 1989 and became president in 1993. Under his leadership the state began to reduce ownership and control of some of its 300,000 industries. China aggressively promoted exports and actively sought foreign investment, and as a result, the Chinese economy began to grow at spectacular rates. Observers noted, however, that the overwhelming majority of industries continued to be owned and operated by the state and were notoriously inefficient. He gave up his last post, that of chairman of the CCP's Central Military Commission, in September 2004.

Jiang Zungui (b. Oct. 30, 1882, Zhuji, Zhejiang, China - d. Aug. 5, 1931), military governor of Zhejiang (1912, 1926). He was a graduate of the Japanese College of Army Commanders. He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in Japan, and served as a brigade commander after his return. He held the post of the minister of military affairs in the military government of Guangdong during the rush of uprising in 1911, and, as a revolutionary activist, he joined the wars launched by the south against Yuan Shikai, who made himself emperor, in 1916, and then against Duan Qirui, who refused to revive the abolished republican constitution, in 1917. In 1923, he was named the director of senior staff members in the Guangzhou headquarters of the northbound army, and then Chiang Kai-shek's senior advisor in 1928.

Jiang Zuobin, Wade-Giles Chiang Tso-pin (b. March 4, 1884, Yingcheng, Hubei, China - d. Dec. 24, 1942, Chongqing, China), chairman of the government of Anhui (1937-38). He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 when studying abroad in Japan. He joined the uprising in Jiangxi, starting from Jiujiang, as the head of staff in the Jiujiang Military Government. Though holding most posts in the south, he later became deputy minister of staff in the Beijing government. He started an ambassadorial career after Chiang Kai-shek took power, having been the president of the "Frontline Political Committee" for some time. He was posted to Germany (1929-31) and Japan (1931-35). Recalled, he was named interior minister in Chiang's government, before going to Anhui as chairman.

Jiao Dafeng (b. 1887, Liuyang, Hunan, China - d. Oct. 31, 1911, Changsha, Hunan), governor of Hunan (1911). He participated in the "Pingxiang-Liuyang-Liling Revolt" against the Qing dynasty in 1906 and fled to Japan after the revolt was extinguished. He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance (or United League; an anti-Qing political party founded in 1905, which in 1913 became the Nationalist Party or Kuomintang) and was appointed head of the department of inspection within the party. He joined the "March Together" (a similar organization) in 1907, and then on Oct. 22, 1911, he, together with Chen Zuoxin (1886-1911), launched another revolt against the Qing government, organizing a military junta in Hunan province on the following day. He was then made governor of Hunan by that government, while Chen became vice governor. Both he and Chen were killed in a coup launched by some constitutional monarchists, led by Mei Xin and Tan Yankai, on October 31.

Jiao Ruoyu (b. December 1915, Ye county, Henan, China - d. Jan. 1, 2020, Beijing, China), mayor of Beijing (1981-83). He was also Chinese ambassador to North Korea (1965-67), Peru (1972-77), and Iran (1977-79) and minister of the 8th ministry of machine building (1979-81).

Jibril, Ahmad (b. 1938, Yazur, Palestine [now Azor, Israel] - d. July 7, 2021, Damascus, Syria), Palestinian militant leader. He founded the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC) in 1968, breaking away from the PFLP.

Jibril (al-Warfally), Mahmoud, Arabic Mahmud Jibril al-Warfali (b. May 28, 1952 - d. April 5, 2020, Cairo, Egypt), interim prime minister (2011) and foreign minister (2011) of Libya.

Jiddou, Jiddou, Mauritanian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2013-14).

Jigme Dorji Wangchuk ('Jigs-med rDo-rje dBang-phyug) (b. May 2, 1929, Tongsa, Bhutan - d. July 21, 1972, Nairobi, Kenya), king of Bhutan (1952-72); son of Jigme Wangchuk.

Jigme Khesar
Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk ('Jigs-med Ge-sar rNam-rgyal dBang-phyug) (b. Feb. 21, 1980), king of Bhutan (2006- ); son of Jigme Singye Wangchuk. He married a commoner, Jetsun Pema, in 2011. A son was born Feb. 5, 2016.

Jigme Singye
Jigme Singye Wangchuk ('Jigs-med Seng-ge dBang-phyug) (b. Nov. 11, 1955, Dechenchholing Palace, Thimphu, Bhutan), king of Bhutan (1972-2006); son of Jigme Dorji Wangchuk. Educated in Bhutan and England, he was named crown prince and chairman of the Planning Commission of Bhutan in March 1972. He succeeded his father to the throne on July 21, 1972. The new king continued his father's policies of modernization, despite the opposition of traditional elements in the country. He also faced the dissent of the militant Nepalese minority in Bhutan. He continued to widen Bhutan's contacts with the international community and to decrease his nation's dependence on India. He promoted the concept of "gross national happiness" as being more important than gross national product. He renounced his absolute powers in 1998. In December 2005 he said he would abdicate in 2008, when the country was to hold its first elections under parliamentary democracy. As it turned out, he already handed over the crown to his son in December 2006.

Jigme Wangchuk ('Jigs-med dBang-phyug) (b. 1906 - d. March 24, 1952, Bumthang, Bhutan), king of Bhutan (1926-52).

Jihad, Abdulla, finance minister (2008, 2012-16) and vice president (2016-18) of Maldives.

Jijón y Caamaño, Jacinto (b. Dec. 11, 1890, Quito, Ecuador - d. Aug. 17, 1950, Quito), Ecuadorian presidential candidate (1940). He was also mayor of Quito (1934, 1946-47).

Jilani, Jalil Abbas (b. Feb. 2, 1955, Multan, Pakistan), foreign minister of Pakistan (2023-24). He was also high commissioner to Australia (2007-09), ambassador to Belgium (2009-12) and the United States (2014-17), and foreign secretary (2012-13).

Jiménez (Rebolledo), Carlos (b. April 7, 1869, Barinitas, Barinas, Venezuela - d. Jan. 11, 1951, Caracas, Venezuela), defense minister of Venezuela (1917-29). He was the first civilian to hold that post. Earlier he was president of the state of Zamora (1911-14).

Jiménez (Brin), Enrique Adolfo (b. Feb. 8, 1888, Panama City, Colombia [now in Panama] - d. April 28, 1970, Panama City), provisional president of Panama (1945-48). He was also first vice president (1924-26), finance and treasury minister (1931-35), ambassador to the United States (1943-45), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1961-62).

Jiménez (Sánchez), Francisco (Eduardo) (b. 1971), interior minister of Ecuador (2022- ). He was also governor of Guayas (2008-09).

Jiménez (Saldías), Gustavo A., byname El Zorro (b. Aug. 6, 1886, Cerro de Pasco, Peru - d. March 14, 1933, Paiján, La Libertad, Peru), interior minister (1930), chairman of the Transitional Junta (1931), and war minister (1931) of Peru. He killed himself when cornered by government forces, after leading a revolt.

Jiménez (Wald), José Mariano (b. Jan. 30, 1843, Arica, Peru [now in Chile] - d. Aug. 1, 1901, Lima, Peru), prime minister (1889, 1893-94) and foreign minister (1893-94) of Peru. He was also minister of interior, police, and public works (1889).

Juan Jiménez

M. Jiménez
Jiménez (Mayor), Juan (Federico) (b. Aug. 5, 1964, Lima, Peru), prime minister of Peru (2012-13). He was also justice minister (2011-12). In 2023 he was appointed ambassador to Costa Rica.

Jiménez (Puerto), Milton (Danilo) (b. Nov. 8, 1961, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), foreign minister of Honduras (2006-08). He resigned after local television aired a video that caught him punching police after he was arrested for drunk driving.

Jiménez (Saco), Plácido (b. 1872, Lima, Peru - d. March 27, 1936, Miraflores, Lima province, Peru), interior minister of Peru (1911-12). He was also minister of justice, education, and worship (1915).

Jiménez, Ramón Emilio, hijo, or Ramón Emilio Jiménez Reyes (b. Dec. 10, 1926, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic - d. June 30, 2016, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), armed forces minister (1971-75) and foreign minister (1975-80) of the Dominican Republic.

T. Jiménez
Jiménez (García-Herrera), Trinidad (b. June 4, 1962, Málaga, Spain), foreign minister of Spain (2010-11). She was also minister of health and social policy (2009-10).

Jiménez Cantú, Jorge (b. Oct. 27, 1914, Mexico City, Mexico - d. Nov. 10, 2005, Mexico City), governor of México (1975-81). He was also Mexican minister of health and welfare (1970-75).

Jiménez Castellanos, Adolfo (b. 1844 - d. Jan. 19, 1929, Madrid, Spain), governor of Cuba (1898-99).

Jiménez de Aréchaga, Eduardo (b. June 8, 1918, Montevideo, Uruguay - d. [car accident] April 4, 1994, Punta del Este, Uruguay), interior minister of Uruguay (1968) and president of the International Court of Justice (1976-79).

Jiménez de la Hoz, Ana, Spanish diplomat. She was chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (2023).

Jiménez de la Jara, Jorge (Adolfo) (b. May 25, 1943, San Bernardo, near Santiago, Chile), Chilean politician; son of Óscar Jiménez Pinochet; brother of Mónica Jiménez de la Jara. He was health minister (1990-92).

Jiménez de la Jara, Mónica (Eliana) (b. Dec. 25, 1940, Santiago, Chile - d. Aug. 25, 2020), Chilean politician; daughter of Óscar Jiménez Pinochet. She was education minister (2008-10) and ambassador to the Vatican (2014-16) and Israel (2016-18).

T. Jiménez E.
Jiménez Esquivel, (María) Teresa (b. May 25, 1984, Valle de Bravo, México, Mexico), governor of Aguascalientes (2022- ). She was also mayor of Aguascalientes (2017-21).

Jiménez Gallo, Guillermo, interior and justice minister of Bolivia (1977-78). He was also minister of energy and hydrocarbons (1974-77).

Jiménez Jaramillo, Ricardo (b. May 26, 1874, Santa Rosa, Antioquia, Colombia - d. May 23, 1945, Medellín, Antioquia), Colombian politician. He was president of the Senate (1916, 1920) and the Chamber of Representatives (1941) and governor of Antioquia (1923-26).

Jiménez López, Miguel (b. July 24, 1875, Paipa, Boyacá, Colombia - d. Aug. 22, 1955, Bogotá, Colombia), interior minister of Colombia (1922-23). He was also president of the Senate (1923), minister to Germany (1925-28), and minister of education (1946-47).

Jiménez Monge, Bernal (b. Jan. 8, 1930, San José, Costa Rica - d. March 20, 2021), economy and finance minister of Costa Rica (1964-65). He was also minister of planning (1962-63) and industries (1965-66), executive president of the Central Bank (1974-77), and president of the Legislative Assembly (1984-85).

Jiménez Morales, Guillermo (b. Dec. 2, 1933, Huauchinango, Puebla, Mexico), governor of Puebla (1981-87). He was also Mexican minister of fisheries (1991-94) and ambassador to the Vatican (1995-98).

Jiménez Oreamuno, (Romualdo) Ricardo (de Jesús) (b. Feb. 6, 1859, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Jan. 4, 1945, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister (1889-90) and president (1910-14, 1924-28, 1932-36) of Costa Rica; son of Jesús Jiménez Zamora. He was also president of the Congress of Deputies (1903-04, 1909-10).

Jiménez Pinochet, Óscar (b. April 12, 1915, Santiago, Chile - d. March 15, 1994, Santiago), Chilean politician. He was minister of lands and colonization (1957) and health (1970-71) and ambassador to Hungary (1972-73).

Jiménez Sánchez, Iván Darío (b. Oct. 25, 1941 - d. late May 2017), defense minister of Venezuela (1992-93).

Jiménez Zamora, Agapito (de los Dolores) (b. May 24, 1817, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Sept. 17, 1879, San José, Costa Rica), foreign minister of Costa Rica (1869-70). He was co-signatory of the 1869 Montealegre-Jiménez Treaty with Nicaragua on the diversion of water from the Colorado River.

Jiménez Zamora, Jesús (María Ciriaco) (b. June 18, 1823, Cartago, Costa Rica - d. Feb. 12, 1897, Cartago), foreign minister (1859-60) and president (1863-66, 1868-70) of Costa Rica; brother of Agapito Jiménez Zamora.

Jimmy (Tapangararua), Willie (b. March 4, 1960), finance minister (1991-92, 1993-96, 1997, 2005-08, 2013, 2015) and foreign minister (1996-97) of Vanuatu. He was also minister of commerce, industry, and tourism (1991-92, 2014), trade and industry (2003-04), infrastructure and public utilities (2004), lands (2005, 2012), and cooperatives and ni-Vanuatu business (2014) and ambassador to China (2009-12). In 2015 he was found guilty of corruption, along with half the government; the only accused to plead guilty, he was given a suspended sentence of 20 months.

Jin Renqing (b. July 1944, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China - d. [after house fire] Aug. 28, 2021, Beijing, China), finance minister of China (2003-07).

Jin Shuren (b. Dec. 20, 1880, Linxia, Gansu, China - d. Sept. 12, 1941, Lanzhou, Gansu), governor of Xinjiang (1928-33). He went to Xinjiang in 1911, serving as magistrate and as head of the bureau of civil affairs. In July 1928, he supported a mutiny against Fan Yaonan, who assassinated Gov. Yang Zengxin in a coup, and killed Fan, thus taking over the province. Jin's reign over Xinjiang was a catastrophe for the Xinjiang people, especially those from particular ethnic groups, with heavy taxes as well as discrimination policies; as a result, Uygurs revolted in the 1931 Hami Uprising. Two years later, under the constant riots in the province, Gen. Sheng Shicai, who gained the support of the Uygurs, launched a coup and expelled Jin from office. Jin went to the capital Nanjing via the U.S.S.R. In May 1935, Chiang Kai-shek framed and detained him for "colluding with the U.S.S.R.," and sentenced him to three and a half years, but under the persuasion of Qinghai chairman Ma Lin, Jin was released in October that year.

Jin Yune (b. March 14, 1881, Zou county [now Zoucheng city], Shandong, China - d. Oct. 23, 1935, Beijing, China), civil governor of Henan (1926) and military governor of Shaanxi (1926); brother of Jin Yunpeng. A graduate of the Army University of Beijing, he devoted himself to military affairs, being promoted from regiment to division commander. In 1927, his forces were defeated by Zhang Zuolin, he was removed from office, and fled to Nanjing, where Chiang Kai-shek nominated him as a councillor with a rank of general. He quit politics in 1930.

Jin Yunpeng
Jin Yunpeng (b. 1877, Zou county [now Zoucheng city], Shandong, China - d. Jan. 3, 1951, Tianjin, China), military governor of Shandong (1913-16) and premier and army minister of China (1919-20, 1920-21). Having graduated from Beiyang Military College, he turned to the governor-general of Yungui, Li Jingxi, serving as a military staff member. After finishing his term in Shandong, he was named the president of the Military Consultative Committee. He was sacked as premier on the eve of the first "Zhili-Fengtian" War in 1921 and returned to Shandong, becoming a businessman.

Jindal, Bobby, byname of Piyush Jindal (b. June 10, 1971, Baton Rouge, La.), governor of Louisiana (2008-16). Also a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (2005-08), he was the nation's first Indian-American governor. In June 2015 he entered the race for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination, dropping out in November.

Jinga, Ion (I.) (b. Sept. 1, 1961, Daneasa, Romania), Romanian diplomat. He was ambassador to Belgium (2003-08) and the United Kingdom (2008-15) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2015-22).

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali, also called Quaid-e-Azam ("The Great Leader") (b. Dec. 25, 1876, Karachi, India [now in Pakistan] - d. Sept. 11, 1948, Karachi), governor-general of Pakistan (1947-48). He first entered politics by participating in the 1906 Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress, the party that called for dominion status and later for independence for India. Four years later he was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council. Largely to safeguard Muslim interests, the All-India Muslim League was founded in 1906, but he remained aloof from it. Only in 1913, when assured that the league was as devoted as the Congress to the political emancipation of India, did he join the league. It was largely through his efforts that the Congress and the Muslim League began to hold their annual sessions jointly, to facilitate mutual consultation and participation. When the failure of the Non-cooperation Movement and the emergence of Hindu revivalist movements led to antagonism and riots between the Hindus and Muslims, the league gradually began to come into its own. Before long Jinnah became convinced that a Muslim homeland on the Indian subcontinent was the only way of safeguarding Muslim interests and the Muslim way of life. On March 22-23, 1940, in Lahore, the league adopted a resolution to form a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. The idea was first ridiculed and then tenaciously opposed by the Congress, but Jinnah led his movement with such skill and tenacity that ultimately both the Congress and the British government had no option but to agree to the partitioning of India. Pakistan thus emerged as an independent state in 1947, with Jinnah as the first head of state. He was not regarded as merely the governor-general; he was revered as the father of the nation.

Jinnouchi, Takao (b. Aug. 24, 1933), justice minister of Japan (1999).

Jizdan, Alexandru (b. June 13, 1975, Geamana, Moldavian S.S.R.), interior minister of Moldova (2016-19).

João V, in full João Francisco António José Bernardo Benedicto, byname o Magnânimo (the Magnanimous) (b. Oct. 22, 1689, Lisbon, Portugal - d. July 31, 1750, Lisbon), king of Portugal (1706-50); son of Pedro II.

João VI
João VI, in full João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael, byname o Clemente (the Clement) (b. May 13, 1767, Lisbon, Portugal - d. March 10, 1826, Lisbon), king of Portugal (1816-26). He was the younger son of Queen Maria I, becoming heir on the death of his elder brother and taking power in 1792 as a result of the mental illness of his mother. In 1799 her illness was declared incurable, and he assumed the title of prince regent. He married Carlota Joaquina, eldest daughter of Carlos IV of Spain, and supported Spain against the French Republic. But Spain made peace at Basel in 1795 and served as a vehicle for French pressure on Portugal. In 1801 Spain invaded Portugal, though peace was made at Badajoz. In 1807, Napoleon proclaimed his European blockade, threatening to close the port of Lisbon. As French troops approached Lisbon, the royal family retired to Brazil with the government. Britain guaranteed the throne of the Braganças and in 1808 sent an army to Portugal which forced the surrender of the French. After Napoleon's surrender in 1814, João was expected to return; but, on Napoleon's escape from Elba, João remained in Brazil, which he made a united kingdom with Portugal. In 1816 his mother died and he became king. In 1820 the radical revolution in Spain spread to Portugal, and he finally agreed to leave Brazil, leaving his heir Pedro in Rio de Janeiro. When the Portuguese radicals were overthrown in 1823, João was restored to his authority but promised a constitution. The absolutists supported his queen, Carlota Joaquina, and made their son Miguel commander-in-chief. João attempted to steer a middle course, separating from his wife and sending Miguel into exile. João reluctantly accepted the separation of Brazil in 1825, assuming (with the acquiescence of Emperor Pedro I, his son) the style of Emperor of Brazil, for life; he died soon after.

Joaquín Coldwell, Pedro (b. Aug. 5, 1950, Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico), governor of Quintana Roo (1981-87). He was also Mexican minister of tourism (1990-93) and energy (2012-18), ambassador to Cuba (1998-2000), and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (2011-12).

Joaquín González, Carlos (Manuel) (b. Jan. 6, 1965, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico), governor of Quintana Roo (2016-22); half-brother of Pedro Joaquín Coldwell. In 2022 he was appointed Mexican ambassador to Canada.

Job, Christian (b. June 30, 1943, Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (2002-05). He was also French ambassador to Comoros (2005-08).

Jobe, Maba (Jahou) (b. 1965?, Farafenni, Gambia - d. July 12, 2023), Gambian politician. He was commander of the army (1991-92) and high commissioner to Nigeria (1996-2001). In 2006 he was appointed foreign minister, but the appointment was revoked six days later.

Jobert, Michel (b. Sept. 11, 1921, Meknès, Morocco - d. May 26, 2002, Paris, France), foreign minister of France (1973-74). He started his career in government service at the General Accounting Office in 1949 and later moved on to other ministries, including finance and labour. He was Georges Pompidou's chief of staff for 10 years before being named foreign minister in 1973. He was minister of external commerce in 1981-83 under Pres. François Mitterrand.

Jobim, Nelson (Azevedo) (b. April 12, 1946, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), defense minister of Brazil (2007-11); grandson of Walter Só Jobim. He was also justice minister (1995-97) and president of the Superior Electoral Court (2001-03) and of the Supreme Federal Court (2004-06).

Jobim, Walter Só (b. Aug. 26, 1892, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - d. Feb. 17, 1974, Porto Alegre), governor of Rio Grande do Sul (1947-51). He was also Brazilian ambassador to Uruguay (1951-54).

Jobin, Francis Laurence, byname Bud Jobin (b. Aug. 14, 1914, Winnipeg, Man. - d. Aug. 25, 1995, Winnipeg), lieutenant governor of Manitoba (1976-81).

Joël, Curt (Walter) (b. Jan. 18, 1865, Greiffenberg, Prussia [now Gryfów Slaski, Poland] - d. April 15, 1945, Berlin, Germany), justice minister of Germany (1924-25 [acting], 1930-32).

Joensen, Edmund (Esbern Johannes) (b. Sept. 19, 1944, Oyri, Faeroe Islands), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (1994-98). He was also chairman of the Lagting (2002-08).

Jõerüüt, Jaak (b. Dec. 9, 1947, Tallinn, Estonian S.S.R.), defense minister (2004-05) and acting foreign minister (2005) of Estonia. He was also ambassador to Finland (1993-97), Italy (1998-2002), Malta (1999-2002), Cyprus (1999-2004), and Latvia (2006-10) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2004). He resigned as defense minister in 2005 after the director of a museum linked to his ministry wore a virulently anti-Communist T-shirt at a football match; the shirt was emblazoned with the slogan "Commies to the oven" and listing the names of 35 Estonian politicians who have been members of the Communist Party, including the president and prime minister. Jõerüüt said that, to a lesser extent, he had chosen to resign over a series of recent banking and political scandals in Estonia.

Joffily, Irineu (b. Sept. 14, 1886, Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil - d. 1964, Brasília, Brazil), federal interventor in Rio Grande do Norte (1930-31).

Joga, Vicente (Bienvenido) (b. March 10, 1946, Villa Berthet, Chaco, Argentina), governor of Formosa (1987-95).

Jogi, Ajit (Pramod Kumar) (b. April 29, 1946, Jogi Dongri, Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh, India - d. May 29, 2020, Raipur, Chattisgarh), chief minister of Chhattisgarh (2000-03).

Johanes, Jaromír (b. Aug. 21, 1933, Dobrá nad Sázavou, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), foreign minister of Czechoslovakia (1988-89). He was also ambassador to Canada (1974-76), the United States (1976-82), and Turkey (1993-94).

A.V. Johannesen

K.L. Johannesen
Johannesen, Aksel V(ilhelmson) (b. Nov. 8, 1972, Klaksvík, Faeroe Islands), prime minister of the Faeroe Islands (2015-19, 2022- ). He was also minister of health affairs (2009-11) and finance (2011).

Johannesen, Ernst Andreas (b. Feb. 4, 1870, Bergen, Norway - d. June 11, 1957), governor of Hordaland (1929-33) and Østfold (1933-40).

Johannesen, Kaj Leo (Holm) (b. Aug. 28, 1964, Tórshavn, Faeroe Islands), prime minister (2008-15) and foreign minister (2011-15) of the Faeroe Islands. Earlier he was a goalkeeper in the national football team.

Jóhannesson, Benedikt (b. May 4, 1955, Reykjavík, Iceland), finance and economic affairs minister of Iceland (2017). He was also chairman of the Reform Party (2016-17).

G. Jóhannesson

Ó. Jóhannesson

Jóhannesson, Gudni (Thorlacius) (b. June 26, 1968, Reykjavík, Iceland), president of Iceland (2016- ).

Jóhannesson, Ólafur (Davíds) (b. March 1, 1913, Stórholt, Iceland - d. May 20, 1984), prime minister (1971-74, 1978-79) and foreign minister (1980-83) of Iceland. He was also minister of justice (1971-78) and commerce (1974-78).

Johannis, Klaus (Werner), also spelled Iohannis (b. June 13, 1959, Sibiu, Romania), president of Romania (2014- ). He was mayor of Sibiu in 2000-14. Formerly leader of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (2002-13), then of the National Liberal Party (2014), he became the first ethnic German president of Romania.

Johanns, Mike, byname of Michael Owen Johanns (b. June 18, 1950, Osage, Iowa), governor of Nebraska (1999-2005) and U.S. agriculture secretary (2005-07). In 1986, he chose to not seek reelection as a county commissioner because of his impending marriage. But friends urged him to run for Lincoln City Council in 1989 and he stepped on the political fast track. He became mayor of Nebraska's second-largest city in 1991 and ran unopposed for a second term. In 1998, the Republican beat Democrat Bill Hoppner, 54% to 46%, to become Nebraska's next governor. Johanns had earned a reputation as an understated, moderate politician - the qualities that endeared outgoing Democratic governor Ben Nelson to Nebraskans. In 2002 he became the first Republican governor of Nebraska to win reelection in more than four decades. He later served a term in the U.S. Senate (2009-15).

Jóhannsson, Kjartan (b. Dec. 19, 1939, Reykjavík, Iceland - d. Nov. 13, 2020), secretary-general of the European Free Trade Association (1994-2000). He was also Icelandic minister of fisheries (1978-80) and commerce (1979-80) and ambassador to the EU (2002-05) and to Belgium and Luxembourg (2003-06).

S.I. Jóhannsson
Jóhannsson, Sigurdur Ingi (b. April 20, 1962, Selfoss, Iceland), prime minister (2016-17), interior minister (2021-24), and finance minister (2024- ) of Iceland. He was also minister of agriculture and fisheries (2013-16), environment and natural resources (2013-14), and transport and local government (2017-21).

Johansen, Lars Emil (b. Sept. 24, 1946, Illorsuit, Uummannaq, Greenland), prime minister (1991-97) and finance and foreign minister (2007) of Greenland. He was also chairman of Inatsisartut (parliament) (2013-18).

Johansson, Bengt K(arl) Å(ke) (b. Jan. 4, 1937, Sandhult, Sweden - d. Sept. 27, 2021, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Älvsborg (1991-97). He was also Swedish minister of civil affairs (1988-91).

Johansson, (John Per) Kenneth (b. May 2, 1956, Folkärna [now part of Avesta municipality], Kopparberg [now Dalarna], Sweden - d. July 31, 2021, Falun, Dalarna), governor of Värmland (2012-18).

Johansson, (Tomas) Morgan (b. May 14, 1970, Höganäs, Malmöhus [now in Skåne], Sweden), justice minister (2014-22) and interior minister (2017-19, 2021-22) of Sweden. He was also minister of public health and social services (2002-06) and migration (2014-17, 2019-21).

Johansson, Reimer (Napoleon) (b. Nov. 17, 1893, Norrby, Västmanland, Sweden - d. Feb. 4, 1967, Sala, Västmanland), governor of Halland (1943-59).

Johansson, Rune (Bernhard) (b. Feb. 12, 1915, Växjö, Kronoberg, Sweden - d. March 18, 1982), interior minister of Sweden (1957-69). He was also minister of industry (1971-76).

Johansson, Sven (b. Dec. 25, 1928, Malmö, Sweden - d. Jan. 15, 2023, Stockholm, Sweden), governor of Västerbotten (1978-91).

Johansson, Ylva (Julia Margareta) (b. Feb. 13, 1964, Huddinge, Stockholm county, Sweden), Swedish politician. She has been minister of schools (1994-98), welfare and elderly healthcare (2004-06), and employment (2014-19) and EU commissioner for home affairs (2019- ).

Johari (bin) Abdul, Tan Sri (b. May 1955), Malaysian politician. He has been speaker of the Dewan Rakyat (2022- ). He was awarded the titles Dato' in 2009 and Tan Sri in 2023.

Johari (bin) Abdul Ghani, Datuk Seri (b. March 6, 1964, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), second finance minister of Malaysia (2016-18). He has also been minister of plantations and commodities (2023- ). He was awarded the titles Dato' (2003), Datuk (2005), and Datuk Seri (2017).

John, Russian Ioann, secular name Stefan Mitropolsky (b. Oct. 9 [Sept. 27, O.S.], 1836, Kaluga, Russia - d. May 15 [May 2, O.S.], 1914, near Astrakhan, Russia), Russian Orthodox bishop of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska (1870-77). He was also bishop of Aksay (1889-1910).

John, Anapparambul Joseph (b. July 18, 1893, Thalayolaparambu, Travancore [now in Kerala], India - d. Oct. 1, 1957, Madras [now Chennai], India), chief minister of Travancore-Cochin (1952-54) and governor of Madras (1956-57).

John, Eustace (Llewellyn) (b. 1939, Rose Hill, Gingerland, Nevis - d. July 27, 2017, Basseterre, St. Kitts), deputy governor-general for Nevis (1994-2017).

P.R. John
John, Patrick R(oland) (b. Jan. 7, 1938, Roseau, Dominica - d. July 6, 2021, Roseau), premier (1974-78) and prime minister (1978-79) of Dominica. In 1960 he became involved in trade unionism. He attended courses on industrial relations and trade unionism in Jamaica and Canada and became general secretary of Dominica's Waterfront and Allied Worker Union, which he had helped to found. In 1965 he was elected to the influential post of mayor of the island's capital, Roseau. Entering the legislature in 1970 as a member of E.O. LeBlanc's ruling Dominica Labour Party, he subsequently held several ministerial posts. When LeBlanc resigned in 1974, John succeeded him as premier. Following the murder of a number of tourists in the mid-1970s and the emergence of a black power movement, he introduced legislation so broadly drawn that it even regulated acceptable modes of dress. Later, he indicated that revolutionary groups would not be tolerated. Personally charming and witty, though with an aggressive streak that some related to his diminutive stature, John was an animated, unpompous, and incisive speaker who obviously enjoyed playing to the gallery. He became the first prime minister of independent Dominica on Nov. 3, 1978. As was the case with many Caribbean politicians, John, who was also honorary commander of Dominica's 80-strong defense force, eluded political labels. In Caribbean terms he was a socialist but not a revolutionary. After some dalliance with Cuban and Guyanese models of development, he appeared to have rejected them in favour of a mixed economy. Internationally, he made it clear that, in development terms, he saw the island's future bound up with the West. To the surprise of many, one of his first acts after independence was to establish diplomatic relations with South Korea. In 1981 he unsuccessfully attempted to overthrow the government of Prime Minister Eugenia Charles with the aid of white supremacists; he was sentenced to 12 years in prison in 1985 but was released after serving 4½ years in 1990.

Radek John

John, Radek (b. Dec. 6, 1954, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), deputy prime minister (2010-11) and interior minister (2010-11) of the Czech Republic.

John, Sir Rupert (Godfrey) (b. May 19, 1916, Evesham village, Saint Vincent - d. Dec. 25, 1996, Saint Vincent), governor of Saint Vincent (1970-77). He was a senior human rights officer at the UN in New York from 1962 to 1970. In October 1970, a year after Saint Vincent became a British Associated State with complete internal self-government, he was appointed its first native-born governor. He was knighted in 1971.

John, Velon (Leo) (b. April 19, 1942, Laborie, Saint Lucia), Saint Lucia politician. He was leader of the opposition (1996-97) and minister of legal affairs, home affairs, and labour (1997-2001) and labour relations, public service, and cooperatives (2001-06).

Johns, Sir Adrian (James) (b. Sept. 1, 1951, Redruth, Cornwall, England), governor of Gibraltar (2009-13); knighted 2008.

Johns, Charley E(ugene) (b. Feb. 27, 1905, Starke, Fla. - d. Jan. 23, 1990, Gainesville, Fla.), acting governor of Florida (1953-55).

Johnsen, Sigbjørn (b. Oct. 1, 1950, Lillehammer, Oppland [now in Innlandet], Norway), finance minister of Norway (1990-96, 2009-13) and governor of Hedmark (1996-2018).

Johnson, Alan (Arthur) (b. May 17, 1950, London, England), British home secretary (2009-10). He was also minister for higher education (2003-04) and secretary of state for work and pensions (2004-05), trade and industry (2005-06), education and skills (2006-07), and health (2007-09).

Andrew Johnson
Johnson, Andrew (b. Dec. 29, 1808, Raleigh, N.C. - d. July 31, 1875, near Carter Station, Tenn.), president of the United States (1865-69). He was alderman and then mayor of Greeneville, Tennessee. He served in the state legislature, went to Congress (1843-53), then was governor of Tennessee (1853-57). Elected a U.S. senator in 1856, he broke with the Democratic Party in 1860 when he vehemently opposed Southern secession. When Tennessee seceded in 1861, he alone among the Southern senators remained at his post and refused to join the Confederacy. In recognition of this unwavering support, Pres. Abraham Lincoln appointed him (1862) military governor of Tennessee, by then under Federal control. To broaden the base of the Republican Party to include loyal "war" Democrats, he was selected to run for vice president on Lincoln's successful reelection ticket of 1864. He was thrust unexpectedly into the presidency upon Lincoln's assassination (1865). His lenient Reconstruction policies toward the South embittered the Radical Republicans in Congress and led to his political downfall. He dismissed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton - the Radicals' ally within his cabinet - to provide a court test of the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act, which forbade the president to remove certain federal officers without the Senate's concurrence. In response, the House of Representatives voted articles of impeachment against Johnson - the first such occurrence in U.S. history. In a theatrical trial before the Senate, the charges proved weak, however, and the key votes (May 16 and 26, 1868) fell one short of the necessary two-thirds for conviction. After returning to Tennessee he finally won reelection as a senator (1875) shortly before he died.

Johnson, Anthony Smith Rowe (b. June 14, 1938, St. Andrew, Jamaica - d. April 28, 2021), Jamaican diplomat. He was ambassador to the United States (2008-10) and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2010-12).

B. Johnson
Johnson, (Alexander) Boris (de Pfeffel) (b. June 19, 1964, New York City), British foreign secretary (2016-18) and prime minister (2019-22); great-grandson of Ali Kemal Bey. He was a Conservative member of Parliament (2001-08, 2015-23) and mayor of London (2008-16). In 2016 he was the leading figure of the successful Leave campaign in the European Union membership ("Brexit") referendum. When this led to Prime Minister David Cameron announcing his resignation, Johnson was widely expected to succeed him but then backed out from the contest after apparently being betrayed by his former ally Michael Gove, who declared his own candidacy. Ultimately Theresa May became prime minister, and she appointed Johnson foreign secretary. In 2018 he resigned over his opposition to May's plans for a "soft Brexit." After May's resignation in 2019, he was elected Conservative Party leader in July, defeating Jeremy Hunt in a vote by party members, 66%-34%. He took a firm position of leaving the EU on October 31, "with or without a deal." Though possessing a distinctly greater intellect, the new prime minister was compared to U.S. president Donald Trump - both reckless populists whose success was a combination of immense privilege, unscrupulous opportunism, and relentless self-promotion, and with a litany of offensive statements, which in Johnson's case included referring to burqa-wearing Muslim women as "letter boxes" and to Africans as "piccaninnies" with "watermelon smiles," holding that the problem of Africa "is not that we were once in charge, but that we are not in charge any more," and saying that Islamophobia is a "natural reaction" to Islam and that "Islam is the problem." As Parliament forced another delay of Brexit, he called new elections and succeeded with his message to "get Brexit done," even though it would already have happened if the group of hardline Brexiteers to which he belonged had not opposed May's deal. Johnson's renegotiated deal, while nominally removing the "backstop," still required some sort of customs border in the Irish Sea to prevent one between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. During the 2020 coronavirus pandemic, which he initially made light of, he himself was infected and had to spend three days in intensive care in April. After a scandal about coronavirus lockdown-breaking parties attended by government members, including himself, and later his promoting of a sexually abusive MP as deputy chief whip, he lost support in his party, and when more than 50 MPs resigned from government roles, he was himself forced to resign in July 2022. When the Privileges Committee of the House of Commons in 2023 found he had misled Parliament in "Partygate" and recommended a suspension of more than 10 days, he reacted by immediately resigning as MP, protesting at being "forced out."

Johnson, Cavalier (b. November 1986), mayor of Milwaukee (2021- ).

Johnson, Charles Walter Trevor (b. 1893, Suffolk, England - d. ...), British consul in Tonga (1943-49).

D. Johnson

D. Johnson, Jr.
Johnson, Daniel (b. April 9, 1915, Danville, Que. - d. Sept. 26, 1968, Barrage [dam] Manic 5 [now Barrage Daniel Johnson], Que.), premier of Quebec (1966-68).

Johnson, Daniel, Jr. (b. Dec. 24, 1944, Montreal, Que.), premier of Quebec (1994); son of Daniel Johnson; brother of Pierre-Marc Johnson.

Johnson, David (b. Oct. 3, 1782, Louisa county, Va. - d. Jan. 7, 1855, Limestone Springs, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1846-48).

Johnson, David Moffat (b. April 30, 1902, Lachine, Que. - d. Dec. 11, 1972, Montreux, Switzerland), Canadian diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Ireland (1949), high commissioner to Pakistan (1950-51), permanent representative to the United Nations (1951-55), and ambassador to the Soviet Union (1956-60).

Johnson, Edwin C(arl) (b. Jan. 1, 1884, Scandia, Kan. - d. May 30, 1970, Denver, Colo.), governor of Colorado (1933-37, 1955-57).

Johnson, Frederick (William) (b. Feb. 13, 1917, Sedgley, Staffordshire, England - d. June 20, 1993, Pasqua Lake, Sask.), lieutenant governor of Saskatchewan (1983-88).

Johnson, Frederick E(ugene) R(ichelieu) (b. 1862 - d. 1945?), secretary of state of Liberia (1908-12); son of Hilary Richard Wright Johnson. He was also chief justice (1924-33).

G.E. Johnson
Johnson, Gary E(arl) (b. Jan. 1, 1953, Minot, N.D.), governor of New Mexico (1995-2003). He won the Republican primary in 1994 with 34% to 33% for Dick Cheney (not the former defense secretary), 19% for John Dendahl, and 13% for former (1967-71) governor David Cargo. He ran on vague slogans - "people before politics," "citizen service" - and promised to hold the line on government growth, to give teachers more power to set priorities, and to roll back a six-cent gas tax increase. He won the general election over a grizzled veteran of state politics, Bruce King. Johnson was widely criticized in April 1995 for meeting with representatives of a New Mexico militia just nine days after the Oklahoma City bombing, characterizing them as "responsible, reasonable, lawful," and saying, "they're here to help in time of emergency." In 1998 he was reelected over former Albuquerque mayor Martin Chavez. In 2012 he was presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party after an unsuccessful bid for the Republican nomination. In 2016 he was again chosen as the Libertarian nominee; he won 3% of the vote, the best showing for the party so far, though this was less his own doing - in fact he was noticed mainly for gaffes such as being asked (amid the Syrian civil war) what he would do about Aleppo and responding "What is Aleppo?" - than the result of the exceptional unpopularity of both main-party candidates. In 2018 he ran for the U.S. Senate as a Libertarian.

Johnson, George (b. Nov. 18, 1920, Winnipeg, Man. - d. July 8, 1995, Gimli, Man.), lieutenant governor of Manitoba (1986-93).

Johnson, George W(ashington) (b. May 27, 1811, near Georgetown, Ky. - d. [in civil war] April 9, 1862, Shiloh, Tenn.), Confederate provisional governor of Kentucky (1861-62).

Johnson, Sir (John Nesbitt) Gordon (b. Feb. 25, 1885 - d. June 9, 1955), chief commissioner of Delhi (1928 [acting], 1932-37); knighted 1937.

Johnson, Henry (S.) (b. Sept. 14, 1783, Davidson county, Tenn. - d. Sept. 4, 1864, Pointe Coupee parish, La.), governor of Louisiana (1824-28).

Johnson, Herschel V(espasian) (b. Sept. 18, 1812, Burke county, Ga. - d. Aug. 16, 1880, "Shady Grove" plantation, near Louisville, Ga.), governor of Georgia (1853-57). He was also a U.S. senator from Georgia (1848-49) and vice presidential candidate on the Stephen A. Douglas Democratic ticket (1860).

Johnson, Herschel V(espasian) (b. May 3, 1894, Atlanta, Ga. - d. April 16, 1966, Charlotte, N.C.), acting U.S. ambassador to the United Nations (1946-47); great-grandson of the above. He was also minister to Sweden (1941-46) and ambassador to Brazil (1948-53).

Johnson, Hilary Richard Wright (b. June 1, 1837, Monrovia, Liberia - d. Feb. 28, 1901, Monrovia), secretary of state (1871-74) and president (1884-92) of Liberia.

Johnson, Hiram W(arren) (b. Sept. 2, 1866, Sacramento, Calif. - d. Aug. 6, 1945, Bethesda, Md.), governor of California (1911-17).

Johnson, Isaac (b. Nov. 1, 1803, "Troy" plantation, West Feliciana parish, La. - d. March 15, 1853, New Orleans, La.), governor of Louisiana (1846-50).

J.R. Johnson
Johnson, J(oseph) Rudolph (Kaifa) (b. 1938, Kolahun, Lofa county, Liberia), foreign minister of Liberia (1987-90). He was also ambassador to the EEC and Benelux states (1982-86) and planning and economic affairs minister (1987).

Johnson, James (b. Feb. 12, 1811, Robinson county, N.C. - d. Nov. 20, 1891, Chattahoochee county, Ga.), provisional governor of Georgia (1865).

Johnson, John A(lbert) (b. July 28, 1861, near St. Peter, Minn. - d. Sept. 21, 1909, Rochester, Minn.), governor of Minnesota (1905-09).

Johnson, John W(illiam) Fordham (b. Nov. 28, 1866, Spalding, Lincolnshire, England - d. Nov. 28, 1938, Vancouver, B.C.), lieutenant governor of British Columbia (1931-36).

Johnson, Joseph (b. Dec. 19, 1785, Orange county, N.Y. - d. Feb. 27, 1877, Bridgeport, W.Va.), governor of Virginia (1852-55).

Johnson, Joseph B(laine) (b. Aug. 29, 1893, Helsingborg, Sweden - d. Oct. 25, 1986, Springfield, Vt.), governor of Vermont (1955-59).

Johnson, Keen (b. Jan. 12, 1896, Branson's Chapel, Lyon county, Ky. - d. Feb. 7, 1970, Richmond, Ky.), governor of Kentucky (1939-43).

Johnson, Keith (Meredith) (b. July 29, 1921, Spanish Town, Jamaica - d. Oct. 1, 2009, New York City), Jamaican diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1967-73) and ambassador to Argentina (1969-73), West Germany, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Israel (1973-81), the Vatican (1980-85), and the United States (1981-91).

Johnson, Sir Leslie Wilson, byname Les Johnson (b. April 2, 1916, Western Australia - d. Aug. 31, 2000, Sydney, N.S.W.), administrator (1970-73) and high commissioner (1973-74) of Papua New Guinea (PNG). In 1962 he secured his initial PNG appointment as deputy director of education, being promoted to director within a few months. He put the education system and teacher training on sure foundations. As well as arguing strongly for the creation of the University of PNG, he steered the legislation establishing it through the House of Assembly. He became assistant administrator of PNG in 1966 and administrator in 1970. He brought fine judgment to the job in winding down his position from chief executive of the Australian administration to constitutional head of a PNG government. But his old offering of advice and counsel did not work on the Gazelle Peninsula, on the north-east island of New Britain. He tried to achieve a settlement of the trouble stirred up there by the rebellious Mataungan Association but the Mataungans remained at loggerheads with the administration until after the 1972 House of Assembly elections. He eschewed the "big stick," which had been the hallmark of George Warwick Smith's term as secretary of the Department of Territories in seeking to control every aspect of PNG affairs. Working in cordial tandem with Sir David Hay, his predecessor as administrator, who had replaced Smith at Territories, much was done to restore Port Moresby-Canberra relations. He was made high commissioner when PNG became self-governing. He was director-general of the Australian Development Assistance Agency (now AusAid), 1974-76, and Australian ambassador to Greece and high commissioner to Cyprus, 1976-80. In the 2000 PNG birthday honours, he was made KBE, having been made CBE in 1976.

Johnson, Livingston B(asil) (b. June 20, 1923, Exuma, Bahamas - d. March 5, 2009, Nassau, The Bahamas), Bahamian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1973-78) and ambassador to the United States (1973-79).

Johnson, Louis A(rthur) (b. Jan. 10, 1891, Roanoke, Va. - d. April 24, 1966, Washington, D.C.), U.S. defense secretary (1949-50).

Lyndon Johnson
Johnson, Lyndon B(aines) (b. Aug. 27, 1908, near Stonewall, Gillespie county, Texas - d. Jan. 22, 1973, San Antonio, Texas), president of the United States (1963-69). Following two years as director of the National Youth Administration in Texas (1935-37), he ran successfully for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1941 he failed in a bid for elevation to the U.S. Senate in a special election. But in 1948 he tried again, and, in a vicious campaign that included vote fraud on both sides in the deciding Democratic primary, he narrowly won his seat in the Senate, where he remained for 12 years, becoming Democratic whip in 1951. As majority leader (1955-61), his skilled leadership was largely responsible for passage of the civil-rights bills of 1957 and 1960. He accepted John F. Kennedy's invitation to join the national Democratic ticket as a vice presidential candidate (1960). He acceded to the presidency upon Kennedy's assassination (Nov. 22, 1963). In November 1964 he won reelection with an unprecedented popular majority of more than 15,000,000 votes, which he interpreted as an extraordinary mandate to pursue his domestic reform program aimed at creating what he called the "Great Society." He signed into law the most comprehensive civil-rights legislation since Reconstruction, initiated major social service programs, and bore the brunt of national opposition to U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War, which had begun under the previous administration but which he dramatically escalated in 1965. On March 31, 1968, he startled television viewers with a national address that included three announcements: that he had just ordered major reductions in the bombing of North Vietnam, that he was requesting peace talks, and that he would neither seek nor accept his party's renomination to the presidency.

Johnson, Mike, byname of James Michael Johnson (b. Jan. 30, 1972, Shreveport, La.), speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (2023- ).

Johnson, Mobolaji (Olufunso) (b. Feb. 9, 1936, Lagos, Nigeria - d. Oct. 30, 2019, Lagos), governor of Lagos (1968-75).

Johnson, (John) Neely (b. Aug. 2, 1825, Johnson Township, Gibson county, Ind. - d. Aug. 31, 1872, Salt Lake City, Utah), governor of California (1856-58); cousin of Alvin Hawkins.

Johnson, Paul B(urney) (b. March 23, 1880, Hillsboro, Scott county, Miss. - d. Dec. 26, 1943, Hattiesburg, Miss.), governor of Mississippi (1940-43).

Johnson, Paul B(urney), Jr. (b. Jan. 23, 1916, Hattiesburg, Miss. - d. Oct. 14, 1985, Hattiesburg), governor of Mississippi (1964-68); son of Paul B. Johnson.

P.-M. Johnson
Johnson, Pierre-Marc (b. July 5, 1946, Montreal, Que.), premier of Quebec (1985); son of Daniel Johnson; brother of Daniel Johnson, Jr. He was first elected to the National Assembly of Quebec in 1976 to represent the Montreal riding of Anjou. He joined René Lévesque's cabinet in 1977 as minister of labour and manpower. A man who liked to delegate authority, he relied upon experienced government conciliators to solve labour conflicts. Late in 1980 he became minister of consumer affairs, cooperatives, and financial institutions. Less than half a year later he was made minister of social affairs. In the latter office he had the unpleasant task of cutting the amount the government spent for social services. In 1984 he was appointed minister of justice and minister responsible for Canadian intergovernmental affairs. In the first party leadership election in Canadian history in which all party members could vote directly for the candidates, he was chosen leader of the Parti Québécois (PQ) on Sept. 29, 1985. He replaced Lévesque, one of the founders of the party, who was retiring from politics after nine years as premier. Johnson, who always described himself as a bleu (conservative), was able to transform the PQ platform of separatism from a direct, immediate goal to a long-term ideal. Described as having a perfect political image - charming, intelligent, pragmatic - he was sworn in as Quebec's 24th premier on Oct. 3, 1985. Three weeks after assuming office, he called a general election. His campaign was based on realism and frankness, with no expensive promises. On Dec. 2, 1985, the Liberal Party, led by former premier Robert Bourassa, won a landslide victory, taking 99 of the 122 seats in the National Assembly. Johnson was reduced to the position of leader of the small opposition.

Johnson, Prince (Yormie), also appearing as Prince Yedou Johnson (b. July 6, 1952, Nimba county, Liberia), Liberian rebel leader. Along with his fellow rebel leader Charles Taylor, Johnson ended the rule of Samuel Doe in 1990 - but then the two men fell out, plunging the country into a civil war that claimed 200,000 lives and made Liberia synonymous with blood and brutality. Johnson had accused Doe of human rights abuses and persecution of the Gio ethnic group, to which he belongs. He ordered his men to cut off Doe's ears and to produce and distribute a video of Doe's death. "His ears were cut off because apparently he could not hear the cries of the 300 Gio children he threw down a well," he said. He surrendered to ECOMOG in 1992 and was given asylum in Nigeria, where he lived as the guest of the government in a villa in Lagos. He came back to Liberia on March 28, 2004, aspiring to be a senator, but returned to Lagos on April 7 after receiving death threats. However, he did successfully run for senator in Nimba county in the October 2005 election. Among the Gio tribe, Johnson (whose first name is common in Liberia and does not connote royalty) remained immensely popular. He was a presidential candidate in 2011 and 2017.

Johnson, Prince Charles, III (b. July 12, 1976, Monrovia, Liberia), defense minister of Liberia (2024). He was also chief of staff of the armed forces (2018-24).

Johnson, Reverdy (b. May 21, 1796, Annapolis, Md. - d. Feb. 10, 1876, Annapolis), U.S. attorney general (1849-50). He was also minister to the United Kingdom (1868-69).

Johnson, Sahn (b. May 28, 1924, Mokil, Ponape, Micronesia [now Mwoakilloa, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia] - d. Oct. 14, 1990, Kolonia, Pohnpei), Nahnmwarki of Mokil/Mwoakilloa (1984-90).

Johnson, Susan R(ockwell), international supervisor of Brcko (2004-06).

Johnson, Thomas (b. Nov. 4, 1732, Calvert county, Maryland - d. Oct. 26, 1819, Rose Hill, near Fredericktown, Md.), governor of Maryland (1777-79).

Johnson, Walter W(alfred) (b. April 16, 1904, Pueblo, Colo. - d. March 23, 1987, Tempe, Ariz.), governor of Colorado (1950-51).

Johnson-Sirleaf, Ellen, née Johnson (b. Oct. 29, 1938, Monrovia, Liberia), president of Liberia (2006-18). She served as assistant minister of finance (1972-73) and as finance minister (1979-80) under Pres. William Tolbert. After the 1980 coup she went on to work for the World Bank and in commercial banking. She returned to Liberia in 1985 to help set up the Liberian Action Party to oppose Pres. Samuel Doe in the presidential elections that October, in which she was elected to the Senate. She was among those who alleged the poll had been rigged and was detained after the coup attempt led by Gen. Thomas Quiwonkpa the following month. She received a 10-year prison sentence, but was released into house arrest in June 1986 and went into exile four months later, being granted political asylum in the U.S. In August 1990 she joined the interim government formed in exile under the leadership of Amos Sawyer. In 1992-97 she was the director of the Regional Bureau for Africa of the United Nations Development Programme. She ran for president in the 1997 election, representing the Unity Party. She finished second to Charles Taylor and was forced back into exile when his government charged her with treason. By 1999 Liberia had collapsed into civil war. After Taylor went into exile in 2003, Johnson-Sirleaf returned to Liberia to chair the Commission on Good Governance, which oversaw preparations for democratic elections. In 2005 she again ran for president, vowing to end civil strife and corruption, establish unity, and rebuild the country's devastated infrastructure. Known as the "Iron Lady," she placed second in the first round of voting, and on Nov. 8, 2005, she won the runoff election, defeating football (soccer) legend George Weah. She was the first woman to be elected head of state of an African country. With more than 15,000 UN peacekeepers in the country and unemployment running at 80%, she immediately sought debt amelioration and aid from the international community. She also established a Truth and Reconciliation Committee to probe corruption and heal ethnic tensions. In 2011 she was elected to a second six-year term. She was awarded the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize together with activists Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkul Karman "for their nonviolent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work." In 2016-17 she was chairperson of the Economic Community of West African States.

Johnson Smith
Johnson Smith, Kamina (b. 1973?, St. Andrew, Jamaica), foreign minister of Jamaica (2016- ); daughter of Anthony Smith Rowe Johnson.

Johnston, Sir Charles (Hepburn) (b. March 11, 1912, London, England - d. April 23, 1986, London), governor of Aden (1960-63) and high commissioner of the Federation of South Arabia (1963); knighted 1959. He was also British ambassador to Jordan (1956-60) and high commissioner to Australia (1965-71).

Johnston, David (Albert Lloyd) (b. Feb. 14, 1956, Perth, W.Aus.), defence minister of Australia (2013-14). He was also minister of justice and customs (2007).

D.(L.) Johnston

D.J. Johnston
Johnston, David (Lloyd) (b. June 28, 1941, Sudbury, Ont.), governor general of Canada (2010-17).

Johnston, Donald J(ames) (b. June 26, 1936, Cumberland, Ont. - d. Feb. 4, 2022, Cowansville, Que.), justice minister of Canada (1984) and secretary-general of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1996-2006).

Ed.E. Johnston
Johnston, Edward Elliott (b. Jan. 3, 1918, Jacksonville, Ill. - d. Feb. 18, 2011), high commissioner of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (1969-76).

Johnston, Eric Eugene (b. July 29, 1933, Shanghai, China - d. Feb. 26, 1997, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia), administrator of the Northern Territory (1981-89).

Johnston, Sir Frederick William (b. Nov. 2, 1872 - d. May 1, 1947), chief commissioner of Baluchistan (1922-26) and political resident in the Persian Gulf (1928-29); knighted 1927.

Johnston, Gabriel (b. 1699, Southdean, Scotland - d. July 17, 1752, Chowan county, North Carolina), governor of North Carolina (1734-52).

Johnston, George Jameson (b. Oct. 24, 1869, East Melbourne, Victoria - d. May 23, 1949, Melbourne, Vic.), administrator of New Guinea (1918-20).

Johnston, Sir Harry, byname of Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston (b. June 12, 1858, London, England - d. July 31, 1927, near Worksop, Nottinghamshire, England), commissioner of the Nyasaland Districts Protectorate/British Central Africa Protectorate (1891-96) and Uganda (1899-1901); knighted 1896.

Johnston, Henry S(impson) (b. Dec. 30, 1867, near Evansville, Ind. - d. Jan. 7, 1965, Perry, Okla.), governor of Oklahoma (1927-29).

Johnston, Joseph F(orney) (b. March 23, 1843, Lincoln county, N.C. - d. Aug. 8, 1913, Washington, D.C.), governor of Alabama (1896-1900). He was also a U.S. senator from Alabama (1907-13).

Johnston, Olin D(eWitt Talmadge) (b. Nov. 18, 1896, near Honea Path, S.C. - d. April 18, 1965, Columbia, S.C.), governor of South Carolina (1935-39, 1943-45). He was also a U.S. senator from South Carolina (1945-65).

Johnston, Sir Reginald Fleming (b. Oct. 31, 1874, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. March 6, 1938, Edinburgh), commissioner of Weihaiwei (1927-30); knighted 1930. He was tutor to Puyi, the last emperor of China.

R. Johnston
Johnston, Rita (Margaret), née Leichert (b. April 22, 1935, Melville, Sask.), premier of British Columbia (1991). She was elected to the city council of Surrey in 1969 and served as a loyal alderman under Mayor Bill Vander Zalm. After she was defeated in an attempt to succeed Vander Zalm as mayor, she decided to run for a seat in the provincial legislature. In 1983 she was elected as a Social Credit MLA representing Surrey, vowing to continue to work for the city that she had devoted most of her political life to. Ironically, she once again found herself serving under Vander Zalm, who was elected premier in 1986. Remembering her loyalty during his term as mayor, Vander Zalm appointed her minister of municipal affairs (1986-89), minister of transportation and highways (1989-91), and deputy premier (1990-91). When Vander Zalm resigned in 1991 amid allegations of illegal activities, Johnston succeeded him as premier (the first female premier in Canadian history) and became interim leader of the Social Credit party. In a surprising turn of events, she was narrowly reelected leader by the Socred party at their annual convention, beating fellow cabinet minister Grace McCarthy, who had been expected to coast to an easy victory. As premier, Johnston was forced to call the unpleasant election that Vander Zalm had narrowly avoided. Her close connections to the corrupt former premier were not ignored by the public, and her government faced a massive electoral defeat after only seven months in power. She lost her own seat and retired from politics.

Johnston, Samuel (b. Dec. 15, 1733, Dundee, Scotland - d. Aug. 17, 1816, Hayes, Chowan county, N.C.), governor of North Carolina (1787-89); nephew of Gabriel Johnston.

Johnston, William Bennett Morison (b. Oct. 22, 1922 - d. Oct. 27, 2001, London, England), British political officer (1953-54) and political agent (1954-55) in Qatar.

Johnston, William F(reame) (b. Nov. 29, 1808, Greensburg, Pa. - d. Oct. 25, 1872, Pittsburgh, Pa.), governor of Pennsylvania (1848-52).

P. Johnstone
Johnstone, Peter (b. July 30, 1944), governor of Anguilla (2000-04). He entered the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1962, and his career before becoming governor included posts in Bern, Benin, Budapest, Maseru, Dhaka, Dublin, Harare, Edmonton, and Jakarta.

Johnstone, Robert (b. 1861 - d. Aug. 21, 1944), acting governor of Jamaica (1918).

Jois, M(anadagadde) Rama (b. July 27, 1931, Araga village, Shimoga district, Mysore province [now Karnataka state], India - d. Feb. 16, 2021, Bengaluru, Karnataka), governor of Jharkhand (2002-03) and Bihar (2003-04). He was also chief justice of the Punjab and Haryana High Court (1992).

Joja, Athanase (b. June 3, 1904, Bucharest, Romania - d. Nov. 8, 1972, Bucharest), Romanian politician. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1956-57), minister of education and culture (1957-60), a deputy premier (1958-60), and president of the Romanian Academy (1959-63).

Jojima, Koriki (b. Jan. 1, 1947, Fukuoka prefecture, Japan), finance minister of Japan (2012).

Jokanovic, Vukasin (b. Nov. 18, 1939, Gornja Slatina, Yugoslavia [now in Kosovo] - d. July 27, 2022), interior minister of Yugoslavia (1994-97). He was also president of the Assembly of Kosovo (1988-89) and state prosecutor of Yugoslavia (1997-2001).

Jokic, Miodrag (b. Feb. 25, 1935, Gornji Music, near Mionica, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Oct. 22, 2022), defense minister of Serbia (1991).

Jokonya, Tichaona (Joseph Benjamin) (b. Dec. 27, 1938, Chikomba district, Southern Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe] - d. June 24, 2006, Harare, Zimbabwe), Zimbabwean politician. He was ambassador to Ethiopia (1983-88), permanent representative to the United Nations (1999-2003), and minister of information and publicity (2005-06).

Joliet, (Jean Auguste) Gaston (b. Sept. 2, 1842, Dijon, France - d. Dec. 1, 1921, Dijon), governor of Mayotte (1905-06). He was also prefect of the French départements of Ain (1886-90), Haute-Marne (1890-93), Charente (1893), and Vienne (1898-1905).

Jolles, Jolle Albertus (b. Dec. 28, 1814, Amsterdam, Netherlands - d. Dec. 23, 1882, The Hague, Netherlands), justice minister of the Netherlands (1871-72). He was also minister of affairs of Reformed and other worship, except Roman Catholic (1861-62).

Jolly, André Édouard, baron (b. April 13, 1799, Brussels, France [now in Belgium] - d. Dec. 3, 1883, Brussels), member of the Provisional Government of Belgium (1830-31).

Joly, Mélanie (b. Jan. 16, 1979, Montreal, Que.), foreign minister of Canada (2021- ). She was also minister of Canadian heritage (2015-18), tourism, official languages, and La Francophonie (2018-19), and economic development and official languages (2019-21).

Joly de Lotbinière, Sir Henri Gustave, surname until 1888 Joly (b. Dec. 5, 1829, Épernay, Marne, France - d. Nov. 16, 1908, Québec, Que.), premier of Quebec (1878-79) and lieutenant governor of British Columbia (1900-06); knighted 1895. He was also Canadian minister of inland revenue (1897-1900).

Jomaa, Ghazi (b. Feb. 22, 1957, Mahdia, Tunisia), Tunisian diplomat. He was ambassador to Argentina (2000-03), Chile and Uruguay (2001-03), Turkey (2006-09), Moldova (2007-09), Austria (2014-18), Slovenia and Slovakia (2015-18), and Croatia (2016-18) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2009-11).

M. Jomaa
Jomaa, Mehdi, Arabic Mihdi Juma`a (b. April 21, 1962, Mahdia, Tunisia), prime minister of Tunisia (2014-15). He was also minister of industry (2013-14).

Jonah, secular name James Paffhausen (b. Oct. 20, 1959, Chicago, Ill.), metropolitan of All America and Canada (2008-12). He was also bishop of Fort Worth (2008).

Jonah, James (Omotayo Christian) (b. Jan. 27, 1934, Freetown, Sierra Leone), Sierra Leonean politician. A former permanent representative to the United Nations (1996-97) and organizer of the 1996 multiparty elections, he was finance minister in 1998-2001.

Jonas, Franz (Josef) (b. Sept. 29, 18991, Floridsdorf [now part of Vienna], Austria - d. April 24, 1974, Vienna), mayor of Vienna (1951-65) and president of Austria (1965-74). He became an official in the Socialist youth movement and, during the 1930s, an official in the Socialist Party and, for a short time, was imprisoned for his activities. In 1945, he entered the provisional municipal government of Floridsdorf, a suburb of Vienna. In 1948, he was made a city councillor of Vienna and, as such, was responsible for food. The following year, he was put in charge of housing, in which capacity he carried out a large building program. From 1949 he was head of the Vienna branch of the Socialist Party. He was elected mayor of Vienna on June 22, 1951, succeeding Theodor Körner, who had been elected president of Austria. He was also member of the upper house (1952-53) and the lower house (1953-65) of the Austrian parliament. In 1965 he was himself elected president, narrowly defeating former chancellor Alfons Gorbach. In April 1971 he defeated Kurt Waldheim for a second term as president. He died in office.
1 His official birth date was Oct. 4, 1899, apparently so registered by the midwife to have the birthday match the name day.

Jonassaint, (Joseph) Émile (b. May 20, 1913, Port-de-Paix, Haiti - d. Oct. 24, 1995, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), interim president of Haiti (1994). His career in politics began in the 1950s when he was a senator in Gen. Paul Magloire's dictatorship. During the years of the Duvalier family's rule, however, he withdrew from political life. He was picked (1986) to be president of a constituent assembly organized to draft a new constitution after the ouster of Jean-Claude Duvalier. He served on the Supreme Court until Pres. Jean-Bertrand Aristide ordered him to retire in 1991 because of his age, but he was placed back on the court later that year when the military took over. He became interim president as the puppet of the military regime that had overthrown Aristide. He oversaw some of the regime's harshest human rights abuses. He agreed to step down when a U.S. peace mission negotiated a compromise that averted an imminent invasion by U.S. forces. Instead, a peaceful occupation began the next morning, and Aristide was restored to office the next month. Jonassaint was a firm believer in voodoo, sprinkled his speeches with spiritual references, and often invoked the name of Agaou, a voodoo god.

Jonassen, Jon (Tikivanotau Michael) (b. July 24, 1949, Rarotonga, Cook Islands), acting secretary-general of the South Pacific Commission (1989). He was also Cook Islands high commissioner to New Zealand, Australia, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea (1997-99).

Jónasson, Hermann (b. Dec. 25, 1896, Sydri-Brekkur, Iceland - d. Jan. 22, 1976), prime minister of Iceland (1934-42, 1956-58). He was also minister of justice (1934-42, 1956-58) and agriculture (1934-42, 1950-53, 1956-58) and chairman of the Progressive Party (1944-62).

Jónasson, Ögmundur (b. July 17, 1948, Reykjavík, Iceland), justice and human rights minister (2010) and interior minister (2011-13) of Iceland. He was also minister of health (2009) and transport and local government (2010).

G. Jonathan
Jonathan, Goodluck (Ebele Azikiwe) (b. Nov. 20, 1957, Otuoke [now in Bayelsa state], Nigeria), governor of Bayelsa (2005-07) and vice president (2007-10) and president (2010-15) of Nigeria. In 2010-12 he was chairman of the Economic Community of West African States.

H. Jonathan
Jonathan, Hervé (Jean Albert) (b. May 6, 1961, Marseille, France), administrator-superior of Wallis and Futuna (2021-23). He has also been prefect of Eure-et-Loir département (2023- ).

Jonathan, (Joseph) Leabua (b. Oct. 30, 1914, Leribe, Basutoland [now Lesotho] - d. April 5, 1987, Pretoria, South Africa), prime minister of Lesotho (1965-86). He was a great-grandson of the Basuto king Moshoeshoe I. From 1937 he worked in local government in Basutoland and was a member of delegations to London (1959, 1964) that sought self-government for Basutoland. A convert to Catholicism, he was founder (1959) and leader of the church-supported Basutoland National Party, which won a slim majority in elections held in April 1965; Jonathan himself failed to win a seat, but he entered the National Assembly in a by-election in July 1965 - by getting Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd of South Africa to announce a gift of 100,000 sacks of grain to be administered not by the government but by Chief Jonathan. After Lesotho gained independence in 1966, Jonathan established full diplomatic relations with South Africa in 1967. Following the apparent victory in the January 1970 general elections of the opposition Basutoland Congress Party, Jonathan suspended the constitution, thereafter ruling by decree; he even briefly superseded the monarchy by installing himself as head of state with the style Tona-Kholo. Gradually his subservience to South Africa diminished, and he began to shelter black dissident refugees, notably members of the African National Congress. In retaliation South Africa raided Lesotho's capital, Maseru (1982), blockaded the kingdom (December 1985), and supported (perhaps engineered) the coup in which he fell.

Jonckheer (Yrausquin), Efraïn (b. Oct. 20, 1917, Curaçao - d. March 30, 1987, Amsterdam, Netherlands), prime minister of the Netherlands Antilles (1954-68). He was also minister of transport and communications (1954-56) and social affairs (1956-57) and Dutch ambassador to Venezuela (1971-76) and Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama (1976-80).

Jones, (Hannah) Abeodu Bowen (b. March 23, 1934, Robertsport, Liberia - d. July 9, 2023), Liberian politician. She was minister of postal affairs (1976-77) and health and social welfare (1977-78) and permanent representative to the United Nations (1981-84).

Jones, Alfred Gilpin (b. Sept. 24, 1824, Weymouth, Nova Scotia - d. March 15, 1906, Halifax, N.S.), defence minister of Canada (1878) and lieutenant governor of Nova Scotia (1900-06).

Jones, Anson (b. Jan. 20, 1798, Great Barrington, Mass. - d. [suicide] Jan. 9, 1858, Houston, Texas), president of Texas (1844-46).

B. Jones
Jones, Ben (Joseph) (b. Aug. 5, 1924, Moyah, St. Andrew's parish, near Grenville, Grenada - d. Feb. 10, 2005, Carriere, St. Andrew's parish), foreign minister (1984-90, 1990-91) and prime minister (1989-90) of Grenada. He served as an opposition senator from 1967 to 1979. In 1984 he was elected to the House of Representatives. Known as "Uncle Ben," he served in several portfolios, including legal affairs, attorney general, external affairs, agriculture, and tourism, and in 1989 was made deputy prime minister. A member of the National Party of Prime Minister Herbert A. Blaize, he became prime minister after Blaize died in December 1989 (holding at the same time the portfolios of external affairs, finance, trade, industry, planning, and national security), but the party lost the March 1990 elections to the National Democratic Congress. The latter did not win an outright majority, however, and Jones served as minister (holding especially the portfolio of agriculture, forestry, lands and fisheries) for some time after the election until leaving politics in 1991.

B.C. Jones
Jones, Brereton C(handler) (b. June 27, 1939, Gallipolis, Ohio - d. Sept. 18?, 2023), governor of Kentucky (1991-95). He was a Republican legislator in West Virginia in the 1960s, moved to Kentucky in 1972, and was elected lieutenant governor as a Democrat in 1987. His most publicized opponent in 1991, the wife of then-incumbent Wallace Wilkinson, withdrew just before the primary; Jones got 38%, enough to beat Lexington mayor Scotty Baesler (30%) and Dr. Floyd Poore (27%). Jones won against Republican Larry Hopkins 65%-35%. He acted in the tradition of his predecessors. He increased the generous tax incentives pioneered by Martha Layne Collins, elected in 1983, which brought the Toyota plant to the antique county seat of Georgetown, just north of Lexington. Jones also continued the school reform program enacted under Wilkinson, elected in 1987, which, in response to a state Supreme Court decision, raised the dropout age to 18, added family resource centers in needy areas and computer-ready phone lines in each classroom, and increased aid to poorer districts with bonuses to those whose schools improve and penalties on those whose schools don't. Jones's great initiative was healthcare reform. With Howard Dean of Vermont, he was the governor most supportive of the Clinton healthcare plan, and he wanted to expand Medicaid to provide universal coverage in Kentucky, with a health commission to set rates if costs exceed state-set limits. But no plan passed in the 1993 special legislative session, and in 1994, after Jones extended Medicaid coverage, he got through a bill to make insurance more portable from job to job and to make CommonHealth insurance available to the public on the same terms as state employees.

C. Jones
Jones, Carwyn (Howell) (b. March 21, 1967, Swansea, Wales), first minister of Wales (2009-18).

Jones, Daniel W(ebster) (b. Dec. 15, 1839, Bowie county, Texas - d. Dec. 25, 1918, Little Rock, Ark.), governor of Arkansas (1897-1901).

Jones, Sir Edward Gordon (b. Aug. 31, 1914 - d. Feb. 20, 2007), administrator of the British Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (1966-69); knighted 1967.

Jones, Ernest Cyril Briely (b. July 3, 1896, Robertsport, Liberia - d. Oct. 11, 1971), defense minister of Liberia (1949-60). He was also ambassador to Ivory Coast (1960-68).

Jones, Frederick, byname Fred Jones, original name Charles Frederick Benney Dunshea (b. Nov. 16, 1884, Dunedin, N.Z. - d. May 25, 1966, Dunedin), defence minister of New Zealand (1935-49). He was also postmaster-general (1935-40) and high commissioner to Australia (1958-61).

Jones, Sir Glyn (Smallwood) (b. Jan. 9, 1908 - d. June 10, 1992), governor of Nyasaland (1961-64) and governor-general of Malawi (1964-66); knighted 1960.

Jones, J(ames) Weldon (b. Feb. 28, 1896, Copeville, Texas - d. Nov. 24, 1982, Houston, Texas), acting U.S. high commissioner to the Philippines (1937, 1939).

Jones, James C(hamberlain) (b. June 7, 1809, Wilson county, Tenn. - d. Oct. 29, 1859, near Memphis, Tenn.), governor of Tennessee (1841-45).

Jones, James L(ogan) (b. Dec. 19, 1943, Kansas City, Mo.), Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO (2003-06). He was Pres. Barack Obama's national security advisor in 2009-10.

Jones, Jesse H(olman) (b. April 5, 1874, Robertson county, Tenn. - d. June 1, 1956, Houston, Texas), U.S. secretary of commerce (1940-45). He was also chairman of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1933-39).

Jones, John Ashley (b. Aug. 30, 1921, Croydon, Surrey [now part of London], England - d. Dec. 28, 2016), acting governor of the Falkland Islands (1970-71). He was colonial secretary in 1969-72.

Jones, John E(dward) (b. Dec. 5, 1840, Montgomeryshire, Wales - d. April 10, 1896, San Francisco, Calif.), governor of Nevada (1895-96).

Jones, John Penry (b. Feb. 19, 1887 - d. April 1974, Devon, England), commissioner of the Cayman Islands (1941-46).

Jones, Sir Laurence (Alfred) (b. Jan. 18, 1933 - d. Sept. 23, 1995), lieutenant governor of the Isle of Man (1990-95); knighted 1987.

Jones, Mervyn (Thomas) (b. Nov. 23, 1942, Swansea, south Wales), governor of the Turks and Caicos Islands (2000-02). He entered the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1964 and held various posts in Calcutta (1966-67), Bonn (1967-70), Warsaw (1970-73), Oslo (1977-80), Bangkok (1981-84), Los Angeles (1990-94), and Brussels (1996-99) before becoming governor.

Jones, Robert T(aylor) (b. Feb. 8, 1884, Rutledge, Tenn. - d. June 11, 1958, Phoenix, Ariz.), governor of Arizona (1939-41).

Jones, Sam H(ouston) (b. July 15, 1897, near Merryville, La. - d. Feb. 8, 1978, Lake Charles, La.), governor of Louisiana (1940-44).

Jones, Thomas G(oode) (b. Nov. 26, 1844, Macon, Ga. - d. April 28, 1914, Montgomery, Ala.), governor of Alabama (1890-94).

Jones, William (b. Oct. 8, 1753, Newport, Rhode Island - d. April 9, 1822, Providence, R.I.), governor of Rhode Island (1811-17).

Jones, William (b. 1760, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - d. Sept. 6, 1831, Bethlehem, Pa.), U.S. secretary of the navy (1813-14).

Jones, William Brittain (b. 1834 - d. Nov. 4, 1912), chief commissioner of the Central Provinces (1883-84).

Jones, Sir William Hollingworth Quayle (b. Feb. 6, 1854 - d. Jan. 6, 1925), acting governor of Sierra Leone (1892, 1894); knighted 1892.

Jones, Willie (b. Dec. 24, 1740, Northampton county, North Carolina - d. June 18, 1801, Raleigh, N.C.), president of the Council of Safety of North Carolina (1776).

Jones, (Gwilym) Wyn (b. July 12, 1926 - d. Oct. 23, 1993), governor of Montserrat (1977-80).

Jones Parry, Sir Emyr (b. Sept. 21, 1947, Carmarthen, Wales), British diplomat; knighted 2002. He was permanent representative to NATO (2001-03) and the United Nations (2003-07).

de Jong
Jong, Piet de, byname of Petrus Josef Sietse de Jong (b. April 3, 1915, Apeldoorn, Gelderland, Netherlands - d. July 27, 2016, The Hague, Netherlands), defense minister (1963-67) and prime minister (1967-71) of the Netherlands.

Jonge, Jonkheer Bonifacius Cornelis de (b. Jan. 22, 1875, The Hague, Netherlands - d. June 24, 1958, Zeist, Utrecht, Netherlands), war minister of the Netherlands (1917-18) and governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies (1931-36). He was also acting navy minister (1918).

Jonge, Hugo (Mattheüs) de (b. Sept. 26, 1977, Bruinisse, Zeeland, Netherlands), interior minister of the Netherlands (2023- ). He has also been a deputy prime minister and minister of health, welfare, and sports (2017-22), leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal (2020), and minister without portfolio (housing and regional planning) (2022- ).

Jonge van Campensnieuwland, Marinus Willem de (b. March 29, 1786, Zierikzee, Zeeland, Netherlands - d. Sept. 11, 1858, Veur [now part of Leidschendam-Voorburg], Zuid-Holland, Netherlands), justice minister of the Netherlands (1844-48). He was also chairman of the Second Chamber (1838-39).

Jonguitud Barrios, Carlos (b. Nov. 4, 1923, Coxcatlán, San Luis Potosí, Mexico - d. Nov. 22, 2011, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of San Luis Potosí (1979-85).

Jonkman, Jan Anne (b. Sept. 13, 1891, Utrecht, Netherlands - d. June 27, 1976, The Hague, Netherlands), Dutch politician. He was minister of overseas territories (1946-48) and chairman of the First Chamber (1951-66).

Jonnart, Charles (Célestin Auguste) (b. Dec. 27, 1857, Fléchin, Pas-de-Calais, France - d. Sept. 30, 1927, Paris, France), acting governor-general of Algeria (1900-01, 1903-11, 1918-19) and minister of public works (1893-94), foreign affairs (1913), and liberated regions and blockade (1917) of France.

Jonson, Pål (Henning) (b. May 30, 1972, Älgå, Värmland, Sweden), defense minister of Sweden (2022- ).

Jónsson, Björn (b. Oct. 8, 1846, Djúpadal, Iceland - d. Nov. 24, 1912, Reykjavík, Iceland), minister of Iceland (1909-11). He was also president of the Althing (1909).

Jonsson, (Per) Conrad, byname Conke Jonsson (b. Dec. 19, 1886, Eskilstuna, Södermanland, Sweden - d. May 16, 1964, Eskilstuna), governor of Västmanland (1943-52).

Emil Jónsson
Jónsson, (Gudmundur) Emil (b. Oct. 27, 1902, Hafnarfjördur, Iceland - d. Nov. 30, 1986, Reykjavík, Iceland), foreign minister (1956, 1965-71) and prime minister (1958-59) of Iceland. He was also minister of transport (1944-49, 1958-59), commerce (1947-49), fisheries (1958-65), and social affairs (1959-65) and president of the Althing (1956-58).

Jónsson, Eysteinn (b. Nov. 13, 1906, Djúpivogur, Iceland - d. Aug. 11, 1993), finance minister of Iceland (1934-39, 1950-54, 1954-58). He was also minister of commerce (1939-42) and education (1947-49) and president of the Althing (1971-74).

Jónsson, Finnur (b. Sept. 28, 1894, Hardbakur, Iceland - d. Dec. 30, 1951, Reykjavík, Iceland), justice and social affairs minister of Iceland (1944-47).

Jonsson, (Maria) Helena (b. Aug. 18, 1965, Eksjö, Jönköping, Sweden), governor of Jönköping (2018- ).

Jónsson (frá Hriflu), Jónas (b. May 1, 1885, Hrifla, Iceland - d. July 19, 1968), justice minister of Iceland (1927-31, 1931-32). He was also chairman of the Progressive Party (1934-44).

Jónsson, Klemens (b. Aug. 27, 1862, Akureyri, Iceland - d. July 20, 1930, Reykjavík, Iceland), finance minister of Iceland (1923-24). He was also minister of industry (1922-24).

Jónsson, Kristján (b. March 4, 1852, Gautlönd, Iceland - d. July 2, 1926), minister of Iceland (1911-12).

Jónsson, Magnús (b. July 17, 1878, Úlfljótsvatn, Iceland - d. Oct. 2, 1934), finance minister of Iceland (1922-23).

Jónsson, Magnús (b. Sept. 7, 1919, Torfmýri, Iceland - d. Jan. 13, 1984), finance minister of Iceland (1965-71).

Jónsson, Pétur (b. Aug. 28, 1858, Gautlönd, Iceland - d. Jan. 20, 1922), Icelandic politician; brother of Kristján Jónsson. He was minister of industry (1920-22).

Joof, Badara (Alieu) (b. 1957? - d. Jan. 17?, 2023, India), vice president of The Gambia (2022-23). He was also minister of higher education, research, science, and technology (2017-22).

Jooste, Gerhardus Petrus (b. May 5, 1904, Winburg, Orange River Colony [now Free State, South Africa] - d. June 1990), South African diplomat. He was chargé d'affaires in Belgium (1937-41), permanent representative to the United Nations and ambassador to the United States (1949-54), and high commissioner to the United Kingdom (1954-56).

Jopling, Mike, byname of Michael Roy Jopling (b. July 8, 1945 - d. May 16, 2016), acting administrator of the Cocos Islands (1988).

Jopp, John (b. March 13, 1840 - d. June 16, 1923), political resident of Aden (1890-95).

Jorbenadze, Avtandil (b. Feb. 23, 1951, Chibati village, Lanchkhuti region, Georgian S.S.R.), minister of state of Georgia (2001-03). He was also minister of health (1993-2001).

B.C. Jordan
Jordan, Barbara C(harline) (b. Feb. 21, 1936, Houston, Texas - d. Jan. 17, 1996, Austin, Texas), U.S. politician. In 1966 she won a seat in the Texas Senate, where she served until 1972, the year she was elected to represent Texas' 18th District in the U.S. House of Representatives. She was the first black congresswoman to come from the Deep South. Although she acquired a reputation as an effective legislator, Jordan did not become a national figure until 1974, when her participation in the hearings held by the House Judiciary Committee on the impeachment of Pres. Richard M. Nixon was televised nationwide. Her keynote address at the 1976 Democratic National Convention confirmed her reputation as one of the most commanding and articulate public speakers of her era. In 1977 Jordan unexpectedly announced that she would not run for a fourth term.

Jordan, Chester B(radley) (b. Oct. 15, 1839, Colebrook, N.H. - d. Aug. 24, 1914, Lancaster, N.H.), governor of New Hampshire (1901-03).

H. Jordan
Jordan, (William) Hamilton (McWhorter) (b. Sept. 21, 1944, Charlotte, N.C. - d. May 20, 2008, Atlanta, Ga.), White House chief of staff (1979-80). He went to work in Jimmy Carter's first gubernatorial campaign and he conceived and engineered the plan that eventually led to Carter's presidential nomination. Aside from his immediate family, no one was closer to the president. Unlike his predecessors, Carter preferred not to have a designated chief of staff. The White House - as organized by Jordan - was compared to a wheel with spokes radiating out from the Oval Office, though Jordan's spoke seemed heavier and stronger than the others. His casual dress of boots and jeans, a freewheeling life-style, and alleged incidents of boorish social behaviour quickly made Jordan an ongoing item for Washington gossip columns. The Justice Department investigated unproven charges that he had used cocaine in a New York disco club. Fairly or unfairly, much of the blame for the legendary inefficiency of the Carter White House was placed on Jordan's young shoulders. In August 1979, during the cabinet shake-up that followed Carter's energy crisis meetings at Camp David, Md., Carter finally named Jordan to be his chief of staff, with all of the power and authority that had gone with the post in the past. Jordan quickly stepped into his new role. He started wearing business suits, lowered his profile as a man-about-town, and began returning phone calls. Older, experienced assistants and advisers were brought into the administration, including some Washington "insiders." While some loose ends remained to be tied up, there was general agreement in Washington that the White House was better coordinated and more efficient after Jordan was put in charge. Whether he liked it or not, he had become part of the governmental and political establishment.

Jordan, Len, byname of Leonard Beck Jordan (b. May 15, 1899, Mount Pleasant, Utah - d. June 30, 1983, Boise, Idaho), governor of Idaho (1951-55). He was also a U.S. senator from Idaho (1962-73).

Jordán Pando, Roberto (b. Feb. 21, 1930 - d. August 2004), Bolivian politician. He was minister of rural and farming affairs (1960-63) and planning (1963-64, 1983-84), a minor presidential candidate (1980, 1985), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2001).

Jordanovski, Ljupco (R.) (b. Feb. 13, 1953, Stip, Macedonia [now North Macedonia] - d. Oct. 7, 2010, Skopje, Macedonia), acting president of Macedonia (2004). He was president of the Sobranie (parliament) in 2003-06. In 2006 he was ambassador to the United States.

Jordão, José Elias Pacheco (b. May 15, 1817, Itu, São Paulo, Brazil - d. Aug. 24, 1888, Itu), acting president of São Paulo (1868, 1869).


P.T. Jorge

Jorge Blanco
Jore, Léonce (Alphonse Noël Henri) (b. May 21, 1882, Helville [now Andoany], Nossi-Bé island, Madagascar - d. Sept. 29, 1975, Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland), acting lieutenant governor of Niger (1923-25) and governor of Senegal (1926-29), the French Settlements in Oceania (1930-32), and New Caledonia (1932-33, 1938-39); grandson of Alphonse Seignac-Lesseps.

Jorge, Marcelino José (b. 1860 - d. Aug. 16?, 1942, Sergipe state, Brazil), member of the Governing Junta (1891-92) and acting president (1930) of Sergipe.

Jorge, Oscar Mario (b. July 14, 1936, Caleufú, La Pampa, Argentina), governor of La Pampa (2007-15). He was also mayor of Santa Rosa (1991-2003).

Jorge, Paulo Teixeira (b. May 15, 1929, southern Benguela province, Angola - d. June 26, 2010, Luanda, Angola), foreign minister of Angola (1976-84). He was also provincial commissioner/governor of Cuanza Norte (1986-89) and Benguela (1989-95).

Jorge Blanco, (José) Salvador (Omar) (b. July 5, 1926, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic - d. Dec. 26, 2010, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), president of the Dominican Republic (1982-86). He was sentenced along with three other men to 20 years in prison in 1991 for misusing government funds, but the conviction was overturned in 2001 by an appeals court that ruled that he was never given the right to defend himself during the trial.

Jorge Mera, Orlando (b. Nov. 22, 1966, Santiago de los Caballeros, Dominican Republic - d. [assassinated] June 6, 2022, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic), Dominican Republic politician; son of Salvador Jorge Blanco. He was environment minister (2020-22).

A. Jørgensen
Jørgensen, Anker (Henrik) (b. July 13, 1922, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. March 20, 2016, Copenhagen), prime minister of Denmark (1972-73, 1975-82). He was president of the Warehouse Workers' Union, 1956-62, and then rose to become president in 1968 of Denmark's largest labour union, that of the unskilled workers. He was elected to parliament in 1964 from a Copenhagen working-class constituency. When the Danish people in October 1972 "chose Europe," voting in a referendum for Denmark to seek admission into the European Economic Community, Prime Minister Jens Otto Krag resigned in his hour of triumph. Jørgensen succeeded him on October 4, to the surprise of most Danes, for he had held no ministerial post; it continued to be a widespread opinion that he was Krag's "personal invention." The Social Democrats lost the 1973 election, but Jørgensen returned to office in 1975. He headed minority Social Democrat governments except in 1978-79, when he formed a coalition with the Liberal (Venstre) Party.

Jørgensen, Jørgen (Peder Laurids) (b. May 19, 1888, Kornerup, near Roskilde, Denmark - d. Dec. 15, 1974, Roskilde), interior minister of Denmark (1942-45). He was also minister of education (1935-42, 1957-61).

Jorio, Maati (b. Dec. 6, 1934, Rabat, Morocco - d. Jan. 4, 2022, Rabat), Moroccan official. He was agriculture minister (1971-72) and ambassador to Romania (1973-77), the Soviet Union (1977-78), Spain (1978-81), Libya (1981-82), Canada (1982-84), and the United States (1984-86).

Jorritsma, John, byname of Johannes Arnoldus Jorritsma (b. Sept. 16, 1956, Bolsward, Netherlands), queen's/king's commissioner of Friesland (2008-16). He was also mayor of Eindhoven (2016-22).

Jorritsma-Lebbink, Annemarie, née Lebbink (b. June 1, 1950, Hengelo, Gelderland, Netherlands), a deputy prime minister of the Netherlands (1998-2002). She was also minister of transport and water management (1994-98) and economic affairs (1998-2002) and mayor of Almere (2003-15).

José I, in full José Francisco António Inácio Norberto Agostinho (b. June 6, 1714, Lisbon - d. Feb. 24, 1777, Lisbon), king of Portugal (1750-77). His father, João V, enriched by the gold and diamonds of Brazil, had enjoyed unchallenged authority and gave José no responsibility. Thus, after his accession, José was content to leave decisions to his ministers, devoting himself to his pleasures, the opera and the chase. He appointed Sebastião de Carvalho, who soon gained an ascendancy over him and became all-powerful after the Lisbon earthquake of Nov. 1, 1755. Carvalho's regalistic policies were intended to assert the power of the crown and to create a mercantile class; this brought him into conflict with the nobility and the church. An attempt on José's life on Sept. 3, 1758, gave Carvalho the opportunity to persecute influential noble families, and in 1759 the Jesuits were expelled. José unquestioningly accepted Carvalho's version of these events. In 1775 the quarter-centenary of the reign was celebrated by the inauguration of the equestrian statue of José, which still adorns the Terreiro do Paço. Carvalho, now marquês de Pombal, seized the opportunity to advertise the reign's achievements, but when José fell ill in February 1777 it was already evident that his death would end the minister's power. José's daughter, Maria I, at once dismissed him.

José I Napoleón (Spanish), Italian Giuseppe Napoleone, originally Giuseppe Buonaparte, French Joseph Napoléon Bonaparte (b. Jan. 7, 1768, Corte, Corsica [now in France] - d. July 28, 1844, Florence, Tuscany [now in Italy]), king of the Two Sicilies (Naples) (1806-08) and Spain (1808-13). Elder brother of Napoléon I, he was also French ambassador to the Papal State (1797).

Jósefsson, Jóhann Th(orkell) (b. June 17, 1886, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland - d. May 15, 1961), finance minister of Iceland (1947-49). He was also minister of fisheries (1947-50) and transport and industry (1949-50).

Joseph I, in full Joseph Jakob Ignaz Johann Anton Eustach, Hungarian József Jakab Ignác János Antal Eustach (b. July 26, 1678, Vienna, Austria - d. April 17, 1711, Vienna), archduke of Austria, king of Hungary, and Holy Roman emperor (1705-11); son of Leopold I (1640-1705).

Joseph II, in full Joseph Benedikt August Johann Anton Michael Adam, Hungarian József Benedek Ágost János Antal Mihály Ádám (b. March 13, 1741, Vienna, Austria - d. Feb. 20, 1790, Vienna), Holy Roman emperor (1765-90) and archduke of Austria and king of Hungary (1780-90). The eldest son of Maria Theresia (future archduchess of Austria) and Franz Stephan of Lorraine (the future emperor Franz I), he was appointed to the Council of State and he exhibited unusual intelligence and an intense interest in politics. After his father died, in 1765, he became emperor, but Maria Theresia made most important decisions. After her death in 1780, he tried to finish her work of reform. The archetypal "enlightened despot," he tried to find the best scholars and scientists for the University of Vienna; extended the separation of the judiciary and the executive to the lower administrative levels; issued the Universal Code of Civil Law (1786); balanced the monarchy's finances; reorganized the army; ordered the abolition of serfdom; established religious equality before the law; granted freedom of the press; and emancipated the Jews. He conflicted with the Roman Catholic Church when he deprived the bishops of their authority and limited their communications with the pope and dissolved more than 700 monasteries not engaged in such useful activities as teaching or hospital work. His progressive zeal met with embittered resistance, chiefly in such strongly traditional countries as the Austrian Netherlands and Hungary. When a civil war occurred in Poland, Joseph met with King Friedrich II of Prussia to plan the first partition of Poland (1772), with each neighbour taking a part of the country (Austria taking Galicia) and the remaining part to be given a last chance at independence. In a later treaty with Turkey, Joseph annexed Bukovina to his country. He pursued an unusual plan of exchanging the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria, but left Prussia out of his calculations; Friedrich had formed the Fürstenbund (Princes' League) against Joseph to prevent the exchange. Joseph now saw his only hope in Yekaterina of Russia. He signed an alliance giving her a free hand for the conquest of Constantinople and the Dardanelles and assuring Austria of substantial territorial gains. Revolutionary unrest in the Austrian Netherlands and Hungary grew in the belief that preoccupation with the Turkish war would prevent the emperor from taking on the revolutionaries as well. The Austrian Netherlands finally declared its independence.

Joseph, Billy (Mathew) (b. Sept. 24, 1984), defense minister of Papua New Guinea (2024- ).

Joseph, Carl (b. 1948? - d. July 4, 2016, Gomea, St. Vincent), attorney-general (1986-87, 1996-2001) and justice minister (1998-2001) of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.

Claude Joseph
Joseph, Claude (b. 1978?), foreign minister (2020-21), acting prime minister (2021), and acting president (2021) of Haiti. He was also chargé d'affaires in Spain (2019-20).

Joseph, Cuthbert (b. Dec. 15, 1927, Siparia, Trinidad and Tobago - d. Nov. 29, 2011, Cascade, Trinidad and Tobago), foreign minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1975-76). He was also minister of education and culture (1976-81), community development and local government (1981-85), and public utilities and national transportation (1985-86).

Joseph, Dov, originally Bernard Joseph (b. April 27, 1899, Montreal, Que. - d. Jan. 5, 1980, Beersheba, Israel), justice minister of Israel (1951-52, 1961-66). He was also minister of rationing and supply (1949-50), agriculture (1949-50), transportation (1950-51), trade and industry (1951-52), development (1953-55), and health (1955).

Joseph, Martin (b. 1949? - d. [swimming accident] Jan. 5, 2015, off Tobago), national security minister of Trinidad and Tobago (2003-10). He was also minister of public utilities and the environment (2001-02) and housing (2002-03).

Joseph, Molwyn (Morgorson) (b. 1951?, Jennings, Antigua), finance minister of Antigua and Barbuda (1991-96). He has also been a minister without portfolio (1984-91) and minister of social security (1994-96), planning and implementation (1997-99), tourism and environment (1999-2004), transportation (2003-04), health and environment (2014-18), and health, wellness, and environment (2018- ).

Joseph, Oladeinde (Olusoga) (b. May 9, 1948, Aramoko-Ekiti [now in Ekiti state], Nigeria), governor of Ogun (1990-92).

Joseph, Oliver (Thomas) (b. 19..., Grenada), foreign minister of Grenada (2020-22). He was also minister of economic development, trade, planning, and cooperatives (2013-18), trade, industry, cooperatives, and CARICOM affairs (2018-20), and international business and CARICOM affairs (2020-22).

Joseph, Stevenson A(lek), governor of Pohnpei (2024- ).

Joseph Pairin (bin) Kitingan, Datuk Seri Panglima (b. Aug. 17, 1940, Papar, North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), chief minister of Sabah (1985-94). He received the titles Datuk (1978), Datuk Seri Panglima (1986), and Dato' Seri (1988).

Josèphe, Noël (Francis) (b. May 25, 1920, Lille, France - d. March 23, 2006, Bruay-la-Buissière, Pas-de-Calais, France), president of the Regional Council of Nord-Pas-de-Calais (1981-92).

B.L. Joshi
Joshi, B(anwari) L(al) (b. April 1, 1934, Choti Khatu village [now in Nagaur district, Rajasthan], India - d. Dec. 22, 2017, New Delhi, India), lieutenant governor of Delhi (2004-07) and governor of Meghalaya (2007), Uttarakhand (2007-09), and Uttar Pradesh (2009-14).

D.K. Joshi
Joshi, Devendra Kumar (b. July 4, 1954, Laxmipur, Almora district, Uttar Pradesh [now in Uttarakhand], India), lieutenant governor of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (2017- ). Admiral Joshi was also Indian chief of naval staff (2012-14).

Joshi, Govinda Raj (b. Aug. 12, 1949, Khalte, Tanahun district, Nepal), home affairs minister of Nepal (1998-99, 2000). He was also minister of education (1991-94, 1995-96), culture (1991-94, 2001), social welfare (1991-94), general administration (1998-99), water resources (1999-2000), local development (2001), and tourism and civil aviation (2001).

Joshi, Harideo (b. Dec. 17, 1921, Banswara state [now in Rajasthan], India - d. March 28, 1995, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), chief minister of Rajasthan (1973-77, 1985-88, 1989-90) and governor of Assam and Meghalaya (1989).

Joshi, Kailash (Chandra) (b. July 14, 1929, Hatpipaliya village [now in Dewas district, Madhya Pradesh], India - d. Nov. 24, 2019, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India), chief minister of Madhya Pradesh (1977-78).

Joshi, Kumudben (Manishankar) (b. Jan. 31, 1934 - d. March 14, 2022, Changa Dhanori village, Navsari district, Gujarat, India), governor of Andhra Pradesh (1985-90).

M. Joshi
Joshi, Manohar (Gajanan) (b. Dec. 2, 1937, Nandvi, Raigad district, Bombay province [now in Maharashtra state], India - d. Feb. 23, 2024, Mumbai, India), chief minister of Maharashtra (1995-99). He was also mayor of Bombay (1976-77). Representing the Shiv Sena party, he took power as the state's chief after provincial elections in 1995, and shot into international prominence when he first threatened to cancel and later renegotiated a power project contract awarded to a unit of U.S.-based Enron Corp. by the previous Congress party government. The project was a pioneering benchmark for India's economic reform programme launched in 1991 to woo foreign investors. Later he was Indian minister of heavy industries and public enterprises (1999-2002) and speaker of the Lok Sabha (2002-04).

Joshi, Murli Manohar (b. Jan. 5, 1934, Delhi, India), home affairs minister of India (1996). He was also minister of human resource development and science and technology (1998-2004) and ocean development (1999, 1999-2004).

Joshua, Ebenezer (Theodore) (b. May 23, 1908, Kingstown, Saint Vincent island - d. March 14, 1991, Kingstown), chief minister of Saint Vincent (1956-67). He was also minister of finance (1961, 1972-74), information (1972-74), and trade and agriculture (1974-78), leader of the opposition (1967-72), and deputy premier (1972-74).


Josie, Peter (b. Sept. 26, 1941), foreign minister of Saint Lucia (1981-82). He was also minister of agriculture, lands, and fisheries (1979-81) and trade, industry, and tourism (1981-82).

Jósika de Branyicska, Sámuel báró (b. Aug. 23, 1848, Salzburg, Austria - d. June 3, 1923, Cluj [now Cluj-Napoca], Romania), Hungarian politician. He was minister a latere (1895-98) and president of the House of Magnates (1912-17).

Josipovic, Ivo (b. Aug. 28, 1957, Zagreb, Croatia), president of Croatia (2010-15).

Jospin, Lionel (Robert) (b. July 12, 1937, Meudon, Seine-et-Oise [now in Hauts-de-Seine], France), prime minister of France (1997-2002). He joined the Socialist Party (PS) in 1971. He lost his first bid for a parliamentary seat in 1978, but was elected in 1981. He soon became a favourite of party leader François Mitterrand, who became president in 1981, and Jospin was promoted to succeed him as first secretary of the PS. After Mitterrand's reelection in May 1988, Jospin joined the cabinet and yielded the party leadership to Pierre Mauroy. He was minister of research and technologies (1988), sports (1988-91), and national education (1988-92). In 1989 he made the decision to allow Muslim female students to wear the veil in public schools, a violation of the principle of separation of church and state in the view of many French people. In the early 1990s his political career was in severe decline. He lost his cabinet post on April 2, 1992, and his parliamentary seat in the election of March 18, 1993. The party nominated Jospin as its candidate for president (Feb. 3, 1995) and although he ran with no platform and little fanfare, he won the first round of the vote, getting 23.3% of the vote, compared to 20.7% for Jacques Chirac and 18.5% for Édouard Balladur. In the runoff he earned an impressive 47.4% of the vote but came in second to Chirac (52.6%). On Oct. 14, 1995, he was again elected PS first secretary. When scandal again haunted the PS leaders in 1997, Jospin was asked to be the party's candidate for prime minister. The left won the parliamentary elections on June 1, and Jospin became prime minister at the head of a coalition of Socialists, Communists, and Greens. In 2002 he ran again for president but only finished third, as the left vote was divided among many candidates; he then resigned as prime minister.

Jouahri, Abdellatif (b. May 10, 1939, Fès, Morocco), finance minister of Morocco (1981-86). He has also been governor of the Bank Al-Maghrib (2003- ).

Jouandet, Jean (Joseph Auguste) (b. Jan. 28, 1938, Lourdes, Hautes-Pyrénées, France - d. Nov. 15, 2016), prefect of Martinique (1987-89). He was also prefect of the French départements of Orne (1984-86) and Haute-Savoie (1986-87).

Joubert, Charles Henri Alfred (b. June 10, 1831, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe - d. ...), commandant of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1873-76).

Jouhaux, Léon (b. July 1, 1879, Paris, France - d. April 28, 1954, Paris), French labour leader; general secretary (1909-40, 1945) and member of the collective secretaryship (1945-47) of the General Confederation of Labour and leader of the Workers' Force (1948-54). A founder of the International Labour Organization, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1951.

Joukahainen, Vilkku, original name Vilhelm Seppä (b. April 19, 1879, Vehkalahti [now part of Hamina], Finland - d. March 27, 1929, Hamina), interior minister of Finland (1922-24). He was also minister of social affairs (1920-22, 1925).

Joulia, Joseph Marie Eugène (b. March 31, 1863, Carcassonne, Aude, France - d. af. 1932), acting governor of New Caledonia (1919-21).

Jourová, Vera (b. Aug. 18, 1964, Trebíc, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), Czech politician. She has been minister of regional development (2014), EU commissioner for justice, consumers, and gender equality (2014-19), and a vice president of the European Commission (2019- ).

Jouslard, Michel Louis Isidore de (b. June 30, 1814, Ardin, Deux-Sèvres, France - d. Nov. 15, 1872, Maisons-Neuves), commandant of the French Settlements in Oceania (1869-71).

Jouthe, Joseph (b. Oct. 17, 1961, Thomonde, Haiti), prime minister of Haiti (2020-21). He was also environment minister (2018-20) and acting finance minister (2019-20).

Jouvenel (des Ursins), (Bertrand) Henry (Léon Robert) de (b. April 2, 1876, Paris, France - d. Oct. 5, 1935, Paris), French minister of public instruction, fine arts, and technical education (1924), high commissioner of Syria and Lebanon (1925-26), and minister of overseas France (1934).

Jovanovic, Aleksa (S.) (b. Aug. 19, 1846, Negotin, Serbia - d. May 6, 1920, Belgrade, Serbia), prime minister (1900-01) and foreign minister (1900-01) of Serbia. He was also justice minister (1901).

Jovanovic, Milos (b. Aug. 19, 1976, Belgrade, Serbia), Serbian politician. He has been president of the Democratic Party of Serbia (2016- ; from 2022 New Democratic Party of Serbia) and a presidential candidate (2022).

Jovanovic, Slobodan (b. Nov. 26, 1869, Novi Sad, Hungary [now in Serbia] - d. Dec. 12, 1958, London, England), prime minister and interior minister (1942-43) and foreign minister (1943) of Yugoslavia in exile. He was also a deputy prime minister (1941-42, 1943).

Jovanovic, Vladislav (b. June 9, 1933, Zitni Potok, near Prokuplje, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia]), foreign minister of Serbia (1991-92, 1992-93) and Yugoslavia (1992, 1993-95). He was also Yugoslav ambassador to Turkey (1985-89) and chargé d'affaires at the United Nations (1995-2000).

Z. Jovanovic
Jovanovic, Zivadin (b. Nov. 14, 1938, Oparic, Rekovac municipality, Serbia), foreign minister of Yugoslavia (1998-2000). He was also ambassador to Angola (1988-93).

Jovanovic-Pizon, Jovan (b. Sept. 3, 1869, Belgrade, Serbia - d. June 20, 1939, Ohrid, Yugoslavia [now in North Macedonia]), foreign minister of Serbia (1912). He was also Serbian chargé d'affaires in Montenegro (1907-09) and Serbian/Yugoslav minister to Austria-Hungary (1912-14), the United Kingdom (1916-19), and the United States (1920).

Jovel (Polanco), Sandra (Érica) (b. Feb. 24, 1978, Guatemala City, Guatemala), foreign minister of Guatemala (2017-20). She was also ambassador to Colombia (2017).

Jovellar y Soler, Joaquín (b. Dec. 28, 1819, Palma de Mallorca, Spain - d. April 16, 1892, Madrid, Spain), governor of Cuba (1873-74, 1876-78), war minister (1874-75) and prime minister (1875) of Spain, and governor-general of the Philippines (1883-85).

Jover (Comas), Eric (b. November 1977, Escaldes-Engordany, Andorra), finance minister of Andorra (2019-23).

Jovic, Borisav (b. Feb. 19, 1928, Niksic, near Batocina, Yugoslavia [now in Serbia] - d. Sept. 13, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia), president of the Collective Presidency of Yugoslavia (1990-91). He was also ambassador to Italy (1975-80) and president of the Socialist Party of Serbia (1991-95).

Jovic, Ivo Miro (b. July 15, 1950, Trebizat, Capljina municipality, Bosnia and Herzegovina), chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2005-06).

Jowitt, William (Allen) Jowitt, (1st) Earl (b. April 15, 1885, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, England - d. Aug. 16, 1957, Bradfield St. George, Suffolk, England), British lord chancellor (1945-51). He was also attorney general (1929-32), solicitor general (1940-42), paymaster general (1942), a minister without portfolio (1942-44), and minister of national insurance (1944-45). He was knighted in 1929 and created Baron Jowitt in 1945, Viscount Jowitt in 1947, and Earl Jowitt and Viscount Stevenage in 1951.

Joxe, Louis (b. Sept. 16, 1901, Bourg-la-Reine, Seine [now in Hauts-de-Seine], France - d. April 6, 1991, Paris, France), justice minister of France (1967-68). He was also ambassador to the Soviet Union (1952-55) and West Germany (1955-56) and minister of national education (1960 and [interim] 1962), Algerian affairs (1960-62), and administrative reform (1962-67).

Joxe, Pierre (Daniel) (b. Nov. 28, 1934, Paris, France), French interior minister (1984-86, 1988-91) and defense minister (1991-93); son of Louis Joxe. He was also minister of industry (1981) and decentralization (1984-86) and first president of the Court of Accounts (1993-2001).

Joy, Sir George Andrew (b. Feb. 20, 1896 - d. April 25, 1974), British resident commissioner of the New Hebrides (1927-40) and governor of Saint Helena (1947-53); knighted 1949.

Joy Way
Joy Way (Rojas), Víctor (Dionicio) (b. 1947, Huánuco, Peru), prime minister and finance minister of Peru (1999). Earlier he was minister of industry, external commerce, tourism, and integration (1991-92) and president of the Congress (1996-97, 1998-99). Joy Way, who was jailed and had his assets seized in 2001, was found guilty in February 2005 of illicit enrichment and tax fraud and sentenced to eight years in prison and a 10 million soles ($3 million) fine.

Joyce, Kenyon A(she) (b. Nov. 3, 1879, New York City - d. Jan. 11, 1960, San Francisco, Calif.), chief commissioner of the Allied Control Commission for Italy (1943-44).

Joyce, Steven (Leonard) (b. April 7, 1963, New Plymouth, N.Z.), finance minister of New Zealand (2016-17). He was also minister of transport, communications, and information technology (2008-11), tertiary education (2010-16), economic development, science and innovation, and skills and employment (2011-16), small business (2013-14), regulatory reform (2014-16), and infrastructure (2016-17).

Joyini, Mathu (b. 1968), South African diplomat. She has been high commissioner to Jamaica (2010-15) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2021- ).

Jozeau-Marigné, Léon (Jean Louis) (b. July 21, 1909, Angers, France - d. July 18, 2003), president of the Regional Council of Basse-Normandie (1974-78, 1982-83).

Józewski, Henryk (Jan) (b. Aug. 6, 1892, Kiev, Russia [now in Ukraine] - d. April 23, 1981, Warsaw, Poland), interior minister of Poland (1929-30). He was also governor of Wolynskie (1928-29, 1930-38) and Lódzkie (1938-39) województwa.

Józwiak, Franciszek, pseudonym Witold (b. Oct. 20, 1895, Huta Baranowska, Poland - d. Oct. 23, 1966, Warsaw, Poland), a deputy premier of Poland (1955-56). He was also minister of state control (1952-55).

Jreissati, Salim (b. April 4, 1952, Zahle, Lebanon), justice minister of Lebanon (2016-19). He was also labour minister (2012-14).

Juan Carlos
Juan Carlos I, in full Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón (b. Jan. 5, 1938, Rome, Italy), king of Spain (1975-2014). He was the grandson of the last king, Alfonso XIII, who left Spain in 1931 and renounced his rights in favour of his third son, Juan Carlos Teresa Silverio Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg, conde de Barcelona (1913-1993), popularly known as Don Juan. Don Juan married María de las Mercedes de Borbón y Orleans (1910-2000), and their elder son was Juan Carlos. Juan Carlos spent his early years in Italy and first came to Spain in 1947. After his father suggested in 1945 that Francisco Franco should step down as leader of the country, Franco grew resentful and turned with increasing interest to Juan Carlos. A 1947 law established Spain as a "representative monarchy," but the country remained, throughout Franco's lifetime, without a monarch. Finally, on July 22, 1969, Franco presented to the Cortes (parliament) a law designating Juan Carlos the future king of Spain. Two events facilitated the move: in December 1968 the Carlist pretender, Carlos Hugo de Borbón-Parma, had been expelled from the country; and on Jan. 7, 1969, Juan Carlos said for the first time that he would accept the throne if offered (previously he had maintained that his father's claim preceded his own). After his accession to the throne in 1975, he encouraged the revival of political parties and amnesty for political prisoners. In 1981 he took swift action to deflate a military coup that threatened to topple the nascent democracy and return the government to Franconian reactionary lines. Juan Carlos was married in Athens on May 14, 1962, to Princess Sophia of Greece, daughter of King Pavlos. They had two daughters, Elena and Cristina, and a son, Felipe, who succeeded him on his abdication in 2014. In 2020 he left the country for an unknown destination (Abu Dhabi, as it turned out) after being linked to a corruption inquiry.

B. Juárez
Juárez (García), Benito (Pablo) (b. March 21, 1806, San Pablo Guelatao, Oaxaca, Mexico - d. July 18, 1872, Mexico City, Mexico), president of Mexico (1858-72). In 1831 he won his first public office, a seat on the municipal council. He became governor of Oaxaca (1847-52, 1856-57), a post that brought him into national prominence. The return of the conservatives to power in 1853 elections doomed imminent reform in Mexico, and many prominent liberals, including Juárez, were exiled. From December 1853 to June 1855 he lived in New Orleans in the United States. In 1855 the liberals took control of the national government, and Juárez left the U.S. to join the new administration as minister of justice and public instruction. In 1857, Ignacio Comonfort was elected president, and Juárez first became interior minister, then was chosen by the new Congress to preside over the Supreme Court and therefore, according to the constitution, also to serve as the effective vice president of Mexico. When the conservatives revolted and ousted Comonfort in January 1858, Juárez had a legal claim to the presidency. Lacking troops to control the area around Mexico City, however, he retired to the eastern port city of Veracruz. By late 1860 the conservatives were faltering, and in January 1861 Juárez was able to return to Mexico City and was constitutionally elected president. The French occupied Mexico City in June 1863. Forced to leave the capital again, Juárez kept himself and his government alive by a long series of retreats that ended only at Villa Paso del Norte (later renamed Ciudad Juárez) at the Mexican-U.S. border. Early in 1867, Napoléon III decided to withdraw his troops. Juárez was reelected in 1867 and 1871, but after the latter campaign many of his countrymen took up arms against him. He spent the last few months of his life trying to restore peace. He died of a heart attack.

Juárez, Carlos (Arturo) (b. Feb. 8, 1917, La Banda, Santiago del Estero province, Argentina - d. July 2, 2010, Santiago del Estero city), governor of Santiago del Estero (1949-52, 1973-76, 1983-87, 1995-98, 1999-2001). His wife Mercedes Marina Aragonés de Juárez became governor in 2002 and promptly appointed him as economy minister; he was removed along with his wife in 2004 when the federal government took over the province.

Juárez, Gregorio (b. May 9, 1800, León, Nicaragua - d. Sept. 21, 1879, León), member of the Government Junta of Nicaragua (1857).

Juárez, Mercedes Marina Aragonés de, byname Nina Aragonés de Juárez (b. 1926 - d. July 25, 2023, Santiago del Estero, Santiago del Estero, Argentina), governor of Santiago del Estero (2002-04); wife of Carlos Juárez. She was removed from office after a year of charges that the provincial government was corrupt and mismanaged. The crisis was sparked by the murder of two young women in 2003. The opposition and several journalistic investigative reports said that they were killed after a sex and drugs party with sons of top officials. No arrests were ever made in the case. The governor was also accused of stealing from the state pension fund, and the opposition said her officials kept files on thousands of people in the province.

Juárez Celman, Miguel (Jerónimo del Corazón de Jesús) (b. Sept. 29, 1844, Córdoba, Argentina - d. April 14, 1909, Arrecifes, Buenos Aires province, Argentina), governor of Córdoba (1880-83) and president of Argentina (1886-90); brother-in-law of Julio A. Roca.

Juárez Cisneros, René (b. June 8, 1956, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico - d. July 26, 2021, Mexico City, Mexico), governor of Guerrero (1999-2005). He was also mayor of Acapulco (1990-93) and president of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (2018).

Juba, Stephen (b. July 1, 1914, Winnipeg, Man. - d. May 2, 1993, Petersfield, Man.), mayor of Winnipeg (1957-77).

Jubé, Joaquim Rufino Ramos (b. Aug. 6, 1859, Ouro Fino, Goiás, Brazil - d. Sept. 12, 1933), acting president of Goiás (1913, 1929).

Jubeir, Adel (bin Ahmed) al- (b. Feb. 1, 1962, Majmaah, Riyadh province, Saudi Arabia), foreign minister of Saudi Arabia (2015-18). He was ambassador to the United States in 2007-15.

Jubelin, Jean-Guillaume (b. Nov. 24, 1787, Saint-Pierre, Martinique - d. 18...), governor of Senegal (1828-29), French Guiana (1829-36), and Guadeloupe (1837-41).

Jucá, Romero, Filho (b. Nov. 30, 1954, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), governor of Roraima (1988-91). He was also Brazilian minister of social security (2005) and planning, budget, and management (2016).

Judd, Gerrit Parmele (b. April 23, 1803, Paris, N.Y. - d. July 12, 1873, Honolulu, Hawaii), finance minister (1842-49, 1850-53), foreign minister (1843-45), and interior minister (1845-46) of Hawaii.

L.M. Judd
Judd, Lawrence M(cCully) (b. March 20, 1887, Honolulu, Hawaii - d. Oct. 4, 1968, Honolulu), governor of Hawaii (1929-34) and American Samoa (1953); grandson of Gerrit Parmele Judd.

N. Judeh
Judeh, Nasser (Sami) (b. 1961, Amman, Jordan), foreign minister (2009-17) and a deputy prime minister (2015-17) of Jordan; son of Sami Judeh; son-in-law of Hassan (ibn Talal); nephew of Zaid al-Rifai. He was also minister of state for media affairs and communications (1998-99, 2007-09).

Judeh, Sami (Hassan) (b. 1925, Ramallah, Palestine - d. Sept. 30, 2020), Jordanian politician. He was minister of communications (1958-59) and national economy (1969-70), governor of Ma`an (1966-67), and minister of state for parliamentary affairs (1985-88).

Judge, Thomas (Lee) (b. Oct. 12, 1934, Helena, Mont. - d. Sept. 8, 2006, Chandler, Ariz.), governor of Montana (1973-81). A Democrat, he became lieutenant governor in 1969. In 1972, at age 38, he became the youngest man ever elected governor in Montana. Voters simultaneously approved a new state constitution that included a provision that residents have a right to a "clean and healthful environment." With that mandate, he oversaw creation of laws governing such areas as strip mine reclamation, air and water pollution controls, and a coal severance tax that finances a state trust fund. He said one of his proudest achievements was that he "brought government to the people" with 150 public forums around the state. His inaugural ball was the first that was open to all Montanans. But Judge also had a series of missteps, notably when he illegally shot an elk during the 1974 hunting season. Even though he turned himself in, a Republican justice of the peace fined him $300 and suspended his hunting privileges. He lost the Democratic primary in 1980 when he sought a third term. Trying again in 1988, he won the nomination, but lost the election.

A. Jugnauth
Jugnauth, Sir Anerood ("SAJ") (b. March 29, 1930, Palma, Mauritius - d. June 3, 2021, Curepipe, Mauritius), prime minister (1982-95, 2000-03, 2014-17), president (2003-12), home affairs minister (2014-17), and defense minister (2014-19) of Mauritius. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1963 as a member of the Independent Forward Bloc. He served as minister of state for development (1965-67) and minister of labour (1967), then became a district magistrate. He was a founder of the Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM) in 1971 and served as leader of the opposition from 1976. In the elections of 1982, his party defeated the ruling coalition led by Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, and Jugnauth became prime minister. The MMM split in March 1983 following a government crisis that resulted in the resignation of 12 members of the cabinet. Jugnauth formed the Mauritian Socialist Movement (MSM) and joined forces with Ramgoolam's Mauritius Labour Party. The coalition retained power following elections in August 1987. He reformed the cabinet the following month, and the MMM joined the government. He was knighted in 1988. The coalition won an overwhelming majority in the September 1991 elections. A government-sponsored movement to transform Mauritius into a republic was approved in December 1991 (effective March 1992). Defeated in the 1995 elections, he was returned to office in 2000. In 2003 he resigned as prime minister to become president; he was reelected in 2008 but resigned the post in 2012 to join the opposition. In 2014 the MSM-led Lepep alliance won the elections and he became prime minister again. In 2017 he resigned in favour of his son Pravind, but remained defense minister as well as minister mentor until 2019.

P. Jugnauth
Jugnauth, Pravind (Kumar) (b. Dec. 25, 1961), deputy prime minister (2003-05, 2010-11), finance minister (2003-05, 2010-11, 2016-19), prime minister and home affairs minister (2017- ), and defense minister (2019- ) of Mauritius; son of Sir Anerood Jugnauth. He was also minister of agriculture (2000-03) and technology, communication, and innovation (2014-15). He took over the leadership of the Mauritian Socialist Movement (also called Militant Socialist Movement) from his father in April 2003.

Juhar (Haji) Mahiruddin, Tun (Datuk Seri Panglima Haji) (b. Nov. 5, 1953, Kampung Tambisan, Sandakan, British North Borneo [now Sabah, Malaysia]), head of state of Sabah (2011- ).

Juhas, Balint, Hungarian Bálint Juhász (b. Nov. 7, 1982, Subotica, Vojvodina, Serbia), president of the Assembly of Vojvodina (2024- ).

Juhász, Ferenc (b. Jan. 6, 1960, Nyíregyháza, Hungary), defense minister of Hungary (2002-06).

Juhász Nagy, Sándor (b. Oct. 13, 1883, Kaba, Hungary - d. May 10, 1946, Debrecen, Hungary), justice minister of Hungary (1919). He was also acting minister of worship and education (1918-19).

Juhkam, Mihkel (b. Aug. 3, 1884, Küti manor, Viru county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. Jan. 28, 1942, Sosva camp, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), war/defense minister of Estonia (1928-29).

Juillard, Hippolyte (b. April 10, 1871, Vic-sur-Cère, Cantal, France - d. March 19, 1926, Luxembourg), prefect of Seine département (1922-24). He was also prefect of Corse (1911-12), Nièvre (1912-15), Ille-et-Vilaine (1915-19), Bas-Rhin (1919-20), and Seine-et-Oise (1920-22) and French minister to Luxembourg (1924-26).

Juin, Alphonse (Pierre) (b. Dec. 16, 1888, Bône [now Annaba], Algeria - d. Jan. 27, 1967, Paris, France), French resident-general of Morocco (1947-51). He was made a maréchal de France on May 8, 1952, and was the last surviving officer of that rank.

Jukneviciene, Rasa (b. Jan. 26, 1958, Tiltagaliai village, Panevezys region, Lithuanian S.S.R.), defense minister of Lithuania (2008-12).

Juknevicius, Zenonas (b. June 10, 1949, Valdeikiai, Lithuanian S.S.R.), acting justice minister of Lithuania (1992).

Julia, Marcel (Lucien Paul) (b. March 29, 1930, Mostaganem, Algeria - d. Sept. 2, 2023, Paris, France), prefect of Martinique (1979-81). He was also prefect of the départements of Haute-Corse (1976-77), Mayenne (1977-79), and Var (1981-85).

Julia Freyre, Julián (b. Sept. 25, 1926, Lima, Peru - d. Oct. 28, 2016), war minister of Peru (1984-85). He was also general commander of the army (1984).

Juliana (Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina) (b. April 30, 1909, The Hague, Netherlands - d. March 20, 2004, Soestdijk palace, Baarn, Utrecht province, Netherlands), queen of the Netherlands (1948-80). The only child of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Hendrik, Juliana in 1931 helped form the Nationaal Crisis Comité to foster measures by private enterprise to alleviate the economic depression. She married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld on Jan. 7, 1937, and gave birth to four daughters: Beatrix (Jan. 31, 1938), Irene (Aug. 5, 1939), Margriet (Jan. 19, 1943), and Marijke (Feb. 18, 1947; later known by her second name Christina). During World War II she took refuge in Ottawa, while her husband remained with Queen Wilhelmina's London government. After returning to the Netherlands in 1945, she acted as regent (October-December 1947 and May-August 1948) during Wilhelmina's illness and became queen on Sept. 6, 1948, following her mother's abdication. The "bicycling monarch" shopped at her local supermarket and sent her children to state school. Her popularity prompted the Labour Party to drop its demand to turn the country into a republic. The first major crisis early in her reign was triggered by her desperation to find a cure for her youngest daughter who was born almost totally blind; her employment of a faith healer caused public concern. The marriages of Princess Irene to a Spanish Carlist prince (1964) and Princess Beatrix to a German diplomat (1966) aroused political controversy stemming from Dutch memories of World War II. Another crisis involved Prince Bernhard's acceptance of huge sums of money from the U.S. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in 1976. Juliana withstood these dissensions, however. On her 71st birthday she abdicated, by her own wish, in favour of Beatrix, and reverted to the title of princess.

Julien, Gustave (Henri Jacques) (b. March 15, 1870, Toulouse, France - d. Aug. 2, 1936, Paris, France), governor of the French Settlements in Oceania (1915-19).

Juliet Gómez, Raúl (b. Dec. 29, 1910, Santiago, Chile - d. 1985, Santiago), foreign minister of Chile (1946-47). He was also president of the Chamber of Deputies (1958-61).

Julis, Karel (b. Nov. 10, 1929, Prague, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic] - d. July 22, 2019), a deputy premier of Czechoslovakia (1988-89). He was also minister of education of the Czech Socialist Republic (1987-88) and minister of metallurgy, engineering, and electrical engineering (1988-89) and chairman of the State Commission for Scientific-Technical and Investment Development (1989) of Czechoslovakia.

Júlíusdóttir, Katrín (b. Nov. 23, 1974, Reykjavík, Iceland), finance and economic affairs minister of Iceland (2012-13). She was also minister of industry (2009-12).

Jullien, Philippe Émile (b. July 10, 1845, Mer, Loir-et-Cher, France - d. July 24, 1912, Paris, France), governor of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1901-04), of the French Settlements in Oceania (1905-07), and of Réunion (1910).

M. Juma
Juma, Monica (Kathina) (b. 1954, Kitui county, Kenya), foreign minister (2018-20) and defense minister (2020-21) of Kenya. She has also been ambassador to Ethiopia and Djibouti (2010-13), energy minister (2021-22), and national security advisor (2022- ).

O.A. Juma
Juma, Omar Ali (b. June 26, 1941, Chake Chake, Pemba, Zanzibar [now in Tanzania] - d. July 4, 2001, Dar es Salaam), chief minister of Zanzibar (1988-95) and vice president of Tanzania (1995-2001).

Jumaa (ibn Muhammad), Saad (b. March 21, 1916, Tafila, Ottoman Empire [now in Jordan] - d. Aug. 19, 1979, London, England), prime minister and defense minister of Jordan (1967). He was also governor of Amman (1954-58), ambassador to Iran (1959-62), Syria (1962), the United States (1962-65), and the United Kingdom (1969-70), and minister of the royal court (1965-67).

Jumagulov, Apas (Jumagulovich) (b. Sept. 19, 1934, Arashan village, Kirgiz A.S.S.R.), premier of the Kirgiz S.S.R. (1986-91) and prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1993-98). He was also first secretary of the party committee of Issyk-Kul oblast (1985-86), head of administration of Chuy oblast (1991-93), and ambassador to Germany (1998-2003, also accredited to the Vatican and from 1999 to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) and Russia (2005-07, also accredited to Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and Finland).

Jumaliyev, Kubanychbek (Myrzabekovich) (b. April 26, 1956, Aksy rayon, Dzhalal-Abad oblast, Kirgiz S.S.R.), prime minister of Kyrgyzstan (1998). He served as chairman of the State Committee of Science and New Technology from 1992 to 1994 and was first deputy minister of education and science from 1994 to 1995. Thereafter, he was appointed as the first deputy state secretary under the president, where he served until 1996. In 1996 he became the head of the presidential administration, while also acting as a chairman of the administration reform commission and other commissions. He became prime minister following the resignation of Apas Jumagulov in March 1998. Pres. Askar Akayev dismissed his government in December on the grounds that it had undermined the Kyrgyz economy by failing to coordinate properly with the National Bank and that this had led to a serious depreciation of the national currency and a worsening of the balance of payments. He then served as governor of Jalal-Abad oblast (1998-2001), minister of transport and communications (2001-05), deputy prime minister (2002-04), and first deputy prime minister (2004-05).

Jumbe, Sheikh Mwinyi Aboud (b. June 14, 1920, Ngambe, Zanzibar [now in Tanzania] - d. Aug. 14, 2016, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania), president of Zanzibar and (until 1977, first) vice president of Tanzania (1972-84). He was also minister of health and social insurance of Zanzibar (1964).

Jumblatt, Kamal (b. 1917, Mukhtara, Lebanon - d. [assassinated] March 16, 1977, near Baaklin, Lebanon), interior minister of Lebanon (1961-64, 1969-70). He was also minister of economy, agriculture, and social affairs (1946-47), education (1960-61), public works and planning (1961), and public works, transport, and posts and telegraphs (1966).

W. Jumblatt
Jumblatt, Walid (Kamal), Arabic Walid (Kamal) Janbulat (b. Aug. 7, 1949, Mukhtara, Lebanon), Lebanese politician. He inherited the leadership of the Druze people in Lebanon's Shuf Mountains when his father, Kamal Jumblatt, was assassinated in 1977. He also inherited his father's position as head of the Progressive Socialist Party (PSP), a mildly left-wing party founded by Kamal in the late 1940s. The Jumblatt residence was at Mukhtara, where "Walid Bey" held court in traditional fashion. Before his father's death his interest in politics was marginal. He afterward developed into a rather remote political leader who was uneasily in alliance with the Syrians. His own political beliefs were moderately reformist. He favoured, as did his father, greater secularization of Lebanon. But he was also conscious of his duty to the Druze, whose control over the Shuf, once uncontested, came under increasing pressure from Maronite Christian immigrants in the 19th century. He was also one of the leaders of the National Salvation Front, which included his PSP along with Muslim and Christian anti-government groups in northern Lebanon. During the Lebanese peace talks in Geneva in the fall of 1983, he achieved a degree of reconciliation with Pres. Amin Gemayel, but continued shelling between Druze and Lebanese Army and rightist forces after the peace conference indicated that there had been no real rapprochement. His power base among his own people was strengthened immeasurably in September 1983 when his forces asserted their mastery over almost all the Shuf Mountains, mainly at the expense of their arch-rivals, the predominantly Maronite and right-wing Phalange. He was minister of public works and transport and minister of tourism (1984), minister of public works (1989-90), minister of state (1991-92), and minister of displaced persons (1992-98; as such he was responsible for returning the very people he had driven from their homes). He was nominated as MP representing the Shuf district in 1991 and reelected in 1992, 1996, 2000, 2005, and 2009. In 2017 he confirmed his son Taymour as his political heir.

Jumeau, Ronald (b. Jan. 24, 1957), Seychellois politician. He was minister of agriculture and marine resources (1998-99), culture and education (2000-01), environment (2001-03), and environment and natural resources (2004-07), permanent representative to the United Nations (2007-12, 2017-21), and roving ambassador for climate change and small island developing state issues (2012-17).

Junaid, Muhammad Ahmad al- (b. 1934, Hodeida, Yemen), finance minister of Yemen (Sana) (1973-74, 1975-78, 1979-80) and Yemen (1994-97). He was also minister of agriculture (1968-71), development (1971-72, 1983-85), electricity, water, and sewerage (1980-83), and civil service and administrative reform (1997-2001) and governor of the central bank (1985-94).

Juncker, Jean-Claude (b. Dec. 9, 1954, Rédange-sur-Attert, Luxembourg), finance minister (1989-2009) and prime minister (1995-2013) of Luxembourg and president of the European Commission (2014-19). He joined the Christian Social People's Party in 1974. In 1979 he became president of its youth organization. He was then promoted to parliamentary secretary to gain greater exposure to the inner machinations of national politics. In 1982 he was named secretary of state for employment and social security. In 1984 he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time, and became minister of labour (1984-99). He acquired a reputation as a far-sighted economic analyst and in 1989 added the finance portfolio. In 1990 he was elected head of his party. Throughout 1991-92 he served as one of the chief architects and proponents of the Maastricht Treaty, the foundational document for the European Union. When Jacques Santer became president of the European Commission in January 1995, Juncker succeeded him as prime minister, becoming the youngest head of government within the EU. As president of the Eurogroup (2005-13), he helped shape the response to the sovereign debt crisis that crippled economies within the euro zone beginning in 2009. His government collapsed in 2013 when it was revealed that Luxembourg's intelligence service had engaged in widespread abuses, including bribery and the unauthorized surveillance of political figures. In March 2014 he was selected by the centre-right European People's Party (EPP) to become president of the European Commission. An ardent proponent of greater European integration, his nomination was championed by German chancellor Angela Merkel, but British prime minister David Cameron led a concerted effort to oppose his candidacy. Over the objections of Cameron and Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán, Juncker was approved for the post on June 27, and he was officially elected to the position by the European Parliament on July 15 and took office on November 1.

Jundzis, Talavs (b. Oct. 4, 1951, Gulbene, Latvian S.S.R.), defense minister (1991-93, 1997-98) and acting interior minister (1998) of Latvia.

Juneau, (Laurent) Solomon (b. Aug. 9, 1793, L'Assumption parish, near Montreal, Quebec - d. Nov. 14, 1856, Shawano, Wis.), mayor of Milwaukee (1846-47).

Junejo, Mohammad Khan (b. Aug. 18, 1932, Sindhri, Sanghar district, northeast of Karachi, India [now in Pakistan] - d. March 16, 1993, Baltimore, Md.), prime minister (1985-88), interior minister (1985), and defense minister (1985-86) of Pakistan. He was also minister of railways (1978-79) and ambassador to Bahrain (1989-91).

Jung (Bahadur), (Nawab) Ali Yavar (b. Feb. 16, 1905 - d. Dec. 11, 1976, Bombay [now Mumbai], India), governor of Maharashtra (1970-76). He was also Indian ambassador to Argentina (1952-54, also minister to Chile), Egypt (1954-58, also minister to Lebanon and Libya), Yugoslavia and Greece (1958-61, also minister to Bulgaria), France (1961-65), and the United States (1968-70).

Jung, Franz Josef (b. March 5, 1949, Erbach [now part of Eltville], Hessen, West Germany), defense minister of Germany (2005-09). He was also minister of labour and social affairs (2009).

Jung, Mehdi Nawaz (b. May 23, 1894, Hyderabad, India - d. June 27, 1967), governor of Gujarat (1960-65).

N. Jung
Jung, Najeeb (b. Jan. 18, 1951, Delhi, India), lieutenant governor of Delhi (2013-16).

Jungers, Eugène (Jacques Pierre Louis) (b. July 19, 1888, Messancy, Luxembourg province, Belgium - d. Sept. 17, 1958, Brussels), governor of Ruanda-Urundi (1932-46) and governor-general of Belgian Congo (1946-52).

Jungmann (Pinto), Raul (Belens) (b. April 3, 1952, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil), defense minister of Brazil (2016-18). He was also minister of agrarian development (1996-2002) and public security (2018-19).

Junguito Bonnet, Roberto (b. March 5, 1943, Bogotá, Colombia - d. Dec. 27, 2020, Bogotá), finance minister of Colombia (1984-85, 2002-03). He was also agriculture minister (1982-83) and ambassador to France (1986-87).

Junnila, Tuure (Jaakko Kalervo) (b. July 24, 1910, Kiikka [now part of Sastamala], Finland - d. June 21, 1999, Helsinki, Finland), finance minister of Finland (1953-54).

Junosza-Galecki, Kazimierz (Bartlomiej Ludwik), German Kasimir Ritter von Galecki (b. July 10, 1863, Czarny Dunajec, Austria [now in Poland] - d. July 10, 1941, Kraków, Poland), governor of Krakowskie województwo (1921-23). He was also Austro-Hungarian minister without portfolio (Galicia) (1918) and Polish general government delegate in Galicia (1919-21).

Junqueira, João José de Oliveira (b. March 10, 1832, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil - d. Nov. 9, 1887, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), war minister of Brazil (1872-75, 1885-86). He was also president of Piauí (1857-58), Rio Grande do Norte (1859-60), and Pernambuco (1871-72) and justice minister (1874).

Juppé, Alain (Marie) (b. Aug. 15, 1945, Mont-de-Marsan, Landes, France), prime minister of France (1995-97). His early career was as a "fast-track" civil servant. In 1976, as a close lieutenant of Jacques Chirac, he helped to found the right-of-centre Rally for the Republic (RPR) party, of which he later became secretary-general (1988-95). He was first elected to the National Assembly in 1986 (first for Paris, from 1997 for Gironde). Nicknamed "Amstrad" for his lightning intellect, he became a delegate minister of budget in the 1986-88 Chirac administration and was an outstanding foreign minister in the Édouard Balladur government of 1993-95. A pro-European technocrat, he became prime minister when Chirac was elected president in May 1995. Juppé also became mayor of Bordeaux in June 1995. He resigned as prime minister in May 1997 after the conservative coalition lost the first round of parliamentary elections. In 2002 he became head of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), a new centre-right party that replaced the RPR. In 2003 he went on trial in a scandal dating back to the time Chirac was mayor of Paris. Investigators suspected that city funds were used to pay members of the RPR. The prosecutor alleged that Juppé, as secretary-general of the party, knew of the payments. On Jan. 30, 2004, Juppé was found guilty and given a suspended 18-month prison sentence, which also barred him from holding public office for 10 years. He resigned from the presidency of the UMP in July and as member of the National Assembly on September 30. On December 1, an appeals court reduced the prison sentence to 14 months and the politics ban to one year. On December 2 he announced his resignation as mayor, but he was reelected to that post in 2006. In 2007 he became minister of ecology, but resigned a month later after failing to win a seat in parliament. In 2010-11 he was defense minister and in 2011-12 again foreign minister. In 2016 he sought the presidential nomination of the Republicans (as the UMP had become), but lost to François Fillon. In 2019 he resigned as Bordeaux mayor, being widely credited with having transformed the city in a positive way, and became a member of the Constitutional Council.

Jurado (E.), Gerardo A., Colombian politician. He was president of the Senate (1959-60).

Juránek, Stanislav (b. Jan. 24, 1956, Brno, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), governor of Jihomoravský kraj (2000-08).

Jurasevskis, Peteris (b. April 4, 1872, Sesava, Russia [now in Latvia] - d. Jan. 10, 1945, Latvian S.S.R.), justice minister (1918-19, 1925), interior minister (1924), prime minister (1928), and finance minister (1928) of Latvia.

Jurdzs, Roberts (b. April 11, 1963, Ludza, Latvian S.S.R. - d. Dec. 9, 2002, Riga, Latvia), interior minister of Latvia (1998-99). He was also minister of welfare (1999-2000).

Jurecka, Marian (b. March 15, 1981, Prerov, Czechoslovakia [now in Czech Republic]), a deputy prime minister of the Czech Republic (2021- ). He has also been minister of agriculture (2014-17 and [acting] 2021-22) and labour and social affairs (2021- ) and chairman of the Christian and Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party (2020- ).

Jurek, Marek (b. June 28, 1960, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland), Polish politician. He was marshal of the Sejm (2005-07) and a minor presidential candidate (2010).

Jurema, Abelardo de Araújo (b. Feb. 15, 1914, Itabaiana, Paraíba, Brazil - d. Feb. 9, 1999, João Pessoa, Paraíba), justice and interior minister of Brazil (1963-64). He was also mayor of João Pessoa (1946-47).

Jürgensen, Jürgen, also known as Jörundur "Hundadagarkonungur" ("the Dog Days' King") (b. April 7, 1780, Copenhagen, Denmark - d. Jan. 20, 1841, Hobart, Van Diemen's Land [now Tasmania]), "protector" of Iceland (1809). In 1766 his father, while touring through Switzerland and Germany, took the opportunity of changing his name from Jørgen Jørgensen to the more Germanic Jürgen Jürgensen. Jürgen junior served on various vessels and took command of the privateer Admiral Juul during the Anglo-Danish War. He took three "prizes" before surrendering to HMS Sappho in March 1808. After 10 months restriction in London he made his way to Iceland, returning again to England in June 1809. Aided and abetted by an English merchant and some seamen, he then went back to Iceland, arrested the Danish governor, proclaimed Iceland independent of Denmark (June 26), and awarded himself the title of Protector (July 12). He later commented in a rare moment of objective candour, "I... fully determined to seize the first opportunity to strike some blow to be spoken of... It was not love of Liberty... which influenced me on this occasion... I have in the course of my life been under the malignant influences of other passions besides play." This situation came to an abrupt end after nine weeks when HMS Talbot arrived on the scene. He returned "voluntarily" to England in August 1810, but in September he was placed in the prison hulk Bahama at Chatham. He was frequently in prison and on Dec. 4, 1822, being tried at Middlesex after admitting he had stolen 15 shillings and with his previous disregard of the law being taken into consideration, he was sentenced to death - but like many other criminals of the time, his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and transportation to Van Diemen's Land, where he spent the rest of his life.

Jürgenson, Sven (b. April 2, 1962, Tartu, Estonian S.S.R.), Estonian diplomat. He has been chargé d'affaires in Finland (1991-93) and Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Slovenia (1993-95) and ambassador to Turkey (non-resident, 1996-98), the United States, Canada, and Mexico (2000-03), and France and Monaco (2010-15), and permanent representative to the United Nations (1998-2000, 2015- ).

Jurgutis, Vladas (Rafaelis) (b. Nov. 5, 1885, Joskaudai, near Palanga, Russia [now in Lithuania] - d. Jan. 9, 1966, Vilnius, Lithuanian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Lithuania (1922). He was also governor of the Bank of Lithuania (1922-29).

Juri (Fernández), Hugo (Oscar) (b. Oct. 2, 1948, Córdoba, Argentina), education minister of Argentina (2000-01).

Jurica, Neven (b. April 4, 1952, Dubrovnik, Croatia), Croatian diplomat. He was ambassador to Australia (1992-95), Bulgaria (1996-97), Norway (1998-2000), and the United States (2004-08) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2008-09).

Jürima, August, surname until 1937 Jürman or Jürmann (b. Aug. 22, 1887, Koigi parish, Järva county, Russia [now in Estonia] - d. June 15, 1942, Kirov oblast, Russian S.F.S.R.), interior minister (1939-40) and acting prime minister in exile (1940-42) of Estonia. He was also minister of transport (1929-31), agriculture (1931), and economic affairs (1931-32, 1932-33).

Jurion, (Benoît Thérèse) Vendelin (b. June 4, 1806, Bitbourg, Forêts département, France [now Bitburg, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany] - d. Feb. 10, 1892, Luxembourg, Luxembourg), interior minister of Luxembourg (1848, 1853-56). He was also president of the Council of State (1871-72).

Jurisic, Zvonko (b. Oct. 15, 1961), premier of West Herzegovina (2006-10, 2010).

Jurkans, Janis (b. Aug. 31, 1946, Riga, Latvian S.S.R.), foreign minister of Latvia (1990-92).

Jusserand, Jean (Adrien Antoine) Jules (b. Feb. 18, 1855, Lyon, France - d. July 18, 1932, Paris, France), French diplomat. He was minister to Denmark (1898-1902), ambassador to the United States (1903-25), and president of the American Historical Association (1921).

Jussila, Mauno (Nikolai) (b. Aug. 15, 1908, Vahto [now part of Rusko], Finland - d. Nov. 3, 1988, Turku, Finland), finance minister of Finland (1963). He was also minister of agriculture (1964-66).

Justice, Jim, byname of James Conley Justice II (b. April 27, 1951, Charleston, W.Va.), governor of West Virginia (2017- ).

Justice, William Clive (b. April 16, 1835 - d. Nov. 19, 1908), acting governor of Jamaica (1889).

Justo (Rolón), Agustín P(edro) (b. Feb. 26, 1876, Concepción del Uruguay, Argentina - d. Jan. 10, 1943, Buenos Aires, Argentina), president of Argentina (1932-38). He rose to the rank of general, was minister of war (1922-28), and for a brief period after the revolution of 1930 served as commander in chief of the army. He climaxed his political career with election to the presidency in November 1931 on a conservative coalition ticket. During the early years of his administration, he was faced with the political and economic reconstruction of his country, weakened by revolution and the world economic depression. He inaugurated what amounted to a police state, though his presidential acts were considered more moderate than those of his predecessor, José Félix Uriburu. During World War II, Justo opposed Pres. Ramón Castillo's policy of neutrality, urging Argentina to declare war on the Axis powers. After Brazil declared war on Germany and Italy (August 1942), Justo accepted a commission as a general in the Brazilian army. His death removed Castillo's most formidable foe from the Argentine political arena.

Jusuf (Amir), (Andi) Muhammad (b. June 23, 1928, Kayuara, Netherlands East Indies [now in Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia] - d. Sept. 8, 2004, Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia), Indonesian politician. He joined local revolutionary forces in their struggle against the Dutch. Later, while serving as the panglima (military commander) in his home province, he moved with skill and subtlety in crushing a rebellion in which the forces of Kahar Muzakar, an Islamic firebrand and onetime Jusuf benefactor, had teamed up with dissident army officers. Jusuf remained in the region for eight years and was, by any yardstick, unusually successful. He not only put down an insurrection but also laid the basis for the future industrial development of the province. Most important of all, he provided an alternative focus of loyalty at a time when Kahar Muzakar was enjoying great popular support. Jusuf was a putra daerah (son of the region) who was establishing himself as a national figure. In 1965 he was appointed minister of light industry in the cabinet of President Sukarno. He was the first man from his province ever to hold cabinet rank. Three months after his return to the capital, a group of leftist junior officers spearheaded a coup in which six senior army generals were killed. In the wake of that event, Jusuf was instrumental in persuading Sukarno to transfer his executive authority to General Suharto and thus helped lay the basis for the New Order government. After serving as minister for basic and light industries and power (1966-67), commerce (1967-68), and industry (1968-78), he took over as defense minister (1978-83). He wasted no time in bringing the nation's defense establishment under his command and was for a time considered the second most powerful figure in Indonesia. In 1983-93 he was chairman of the audits agency.

Jusys, Oskaras (b. Jan. 13, 1954, Anyksciai, Lithuanian S.S.R.), Lithuanian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (1994-2000) and ambassador to the United Kingdom (2009-12) and Oman (2012).

Juta, (Bafte) Wilberforce (b. May 3, 1944, Pakka [now in Adamawa state], Nigeria - d. Aug. 15, 2020), governor of Gongola (1983). He was also Nigerian high commissioner/ambassador to Zimbabwe (2000-04).

Juul, Mona (b. April 10, 1959), Norwegian diplomat. She was ambassador to Israel and Cyprus (2001-04) and the United Kingdom (2014-19) and permanent representative to the United Nations (2019-23).

Juvanon, (François) Adrien (b. Aug. 13, 1875, La Balme [now La Balme-les-Grottes], Isère, France - d. Feb. 9, 1950), governor of French Guiana (1927), Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (1928-29), and French India (1931-34).

Juwayeyi, Yusuf M(cDadlly) (b. July 30, 1950), Malawian diplomat. He was permanent representative to the United Nations (2000-01).

Juxon-Smith, Andrew Terence (b. 1933, Freetown, Sierra Leone - d. 1996, Stapleton, N.Y.), chairman of the National Reformation Council of Sierra Leone (1967-68). He was sentenced to death on July 30, 1970, for overthrowing the government in 1967, but the sentence was quashed on appeal on Oct. 1, 1971.